Science.gov

Sample records for implementing nuclear non-proliferation

  1. The nuclear non-proliferation treaty regime

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) regime, including national safeguards agreements and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Statute, embodies the international effort to ban illicit transfers of nuclear material and acquisition or transfer of nuclear weaponry. Included are objectives and primary obligations, legal bases, institutional oversight, trade restrictions, protection of information, penal consequences, and role of the United Nations. Regional agreements supplement the NPT.

  2. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  3. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  4. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations.

  5. Summary of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty rests on a basic bargain between the five declared nuclear-weapon states-the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China and 167 states that do not possess nuclear weapons. In addition, to the arms control and disarmaments commitments in Article VI, the parties pledge in the treaty`s pramble their determination to seek a comprehensive test ban (CTB) and express the understanding that in connection with the treaty on general and complete disarmament the parties should seek the cessation of manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation of all their existing stock piles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and means of their delivery. The author summaries key elements of these agreements.

  6. Non-proliferation aspects of commercial nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.

    1992-03-01

    In the international non-proliferation regime of concern, the denatured uranium fuel cycles should be assessed in terms of proliferation criteria. The study attempts to establish a technical basis for a comparative assessment of the proliferation potential among the denatured uranium, the plutonium-uranium, and the breeder fuel cycles. The international commercial fuel cycles were analyzed within the context of current technology for the potential to: divert and upgrade the quality of nuclear material via the construction and operation of clandestine-scale reprocessing facilities and low-technology electromagnetic enrichment facilities, such as calutrons. Eleven fuel cycles were analyzed to determine the number of calutron base-feed units (kg of heavy metal) contained in typical fuel assemblies for each of the cycles to produce a significant quantity of high enriched uranium (HEU) material within limited time periods. The study indicates that, for calutron specifications within current technology, the level of effort to enrich 3% {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U fuel is a factor of 20 lower than the two-stage process with natural uranium feed; 16 to 20 calutrons and 6 to 8 fuel assemblies are required to produce a significant quantity of HEU in one year of operation. Consequently, non-proliferation concerns should be emphasized at the front-end of the fuel cycles involving uranium as well as at the back-end involving plutonium.

  7. The Future of Nuclear Weapons and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    Keating, and Joseph Rotblat . Nuclear Non-Proliferation and the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990. Golblat, Jozef (ed.). Non... Joseph Kruzel, May 17, 1991. Dunn, Lewis A. "Building on Success: the NPT at Fifteen" in Survival, May/June 1986, Vol. XXVIII, No. 3. Dunn, Lewis A

  8. Applications of virtual reality to nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents several applications of virtual reality relevant to the areas of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation. Each of these applications was developed to the prototype stage at Sandia National Laboratories` Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation laboratory. These applications include the use of virtual reality for facility visualization, training of inspection personnel, and security and monitoring of nuclear facilities.

  9. China's Case Against the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Rationality and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    China and other major Third World nations have refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). While this position appears morally unjustified and even irrational, their claim that the treaty is discriminatory merits serious attention. Only if certain aspects of this claim are accepted by the nuclear weapons signatories, does a moral…

  10. China's Case Against the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Rationality and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    China and other major Third World nations have refused to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). While this position appears morally unjustified and even irrational, their claim that the treaty is discriminatory merits serious attention. Only if certain aspects of this claim are accepted by the nuclear weapons signatories, does a moral…

  11. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  12. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Thomas Jr.

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  13. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1993-05-07

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation.

  14. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RELIABLE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICE APPROACHES: ECONOMIC AND NON-PROLIFERATION MERITS OF NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING

    SciTech Connect

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Brothers, Alan J.; Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-08-11

    The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.

  15. Development of uranium reference particles for nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kips, Ruth

    In the oversight of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and as part of the Additional Protocol of the International Atomic Energy Agency, environmental sampling has become an important tool for the detection of non-declared nuclear activities. One extensively developed technique in environmental sampling (ES) makes use of pieces of cotton cloth called swipes to wipe surfaces in and around a nuclear facility. The dust collected on these swipes typically contains micrometer-sized uranium particles with an isotopic composition characteristic for the processes at the inspected facility. Since its implementation in the 1990s, ES has proven to be a very effective tool in the detection of clandestine activities owing to a number of highly sensitive and selective techniques, including secondary ion mass spectrometry and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. However, considering the potential consequences of the analyses, these measurements need to be subjected to a rigorous quality management system. In a continuous effort to improve the accuracy and detection efficiency of the uranium isotope ratio measurements, uranium particle reference materials are being developed by different research groups. It was concluded however, that the existing methods for the production of particulate reference materials generally do not reproduce the particles recovered from swipe samples. For this reason, we developed the aerosol deposition chamber at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements for the production of reference uranium particles that are representative of the particles collected at enrichment facilities. This method is based on the controlled hydrolysis of milligram amounts of uranium hexafluoride with a certified uranium isotopic composition. After optimization of the experimental set-up, the particles produced by the aerosol deposition chamber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and

  16. Improving the nuclear data base for non-proliferation and homeland security

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert C; Bitteker, Leo J; Couture, Aaron J; Devlin, Matthew J; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Gavron, Avigdor; Hill, Tony S; Laptev, Alexander B; Nelson, Ronald O; O'donnell, John M; Taddeucci, Terry N; Tovesson, Fredrik K; Ulmann, John L; Wender, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    Many of the technical advances in non-proliferation and homeland security require calculations of transport of neutrons and gamma-rays through materials. The nuclear data base on which these calculations are made must be of high quality in order for the calculated responses to be credible. At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, three spallation neutron sources are being used to provide high-quality cross section and structure data with reactions induced by neutrons. Neutron transmission, neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections, neutron emission in fission, and gamma-ray production by neutrons are principal areas of research. Furthermore, these sources are also being used to validate calculations of the characterization and response of new detectors and detection techniques. Current research activities are summarized here.

  17. Comparison of chemical and nuclear explosions: Numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, J.R.; Bos, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper the authors discuss numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), which was an underground explosion conducted in September 1993 in the volcanic tuff of the Nevada Test Site. The NPE source consisted of 1.29 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of ANFO-emulsion blasting agent, with the approximate energy of 1.1 kt, emplaced 389 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa. The authors compare detailed numerical simulations of the NPE with data collected from that experiment, and with calculations of an equally energetic nuclear explosion in identical geology. Calculated waveforms, at ranges out to approximately 1 km, agree moderately well in the time domain with free-field data, and are in qualitative agreement with free-surface records. Comparison of computed waveforms for equally energetic chemical and nuclear sources reveals relatively minor differences beyond the immediate near-source region, with the chemical source having an {approximately}25% greater seismic moment but otherwise indistinguishable (close-in) seismic source properties. 41 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Preliminary Results from an Investigation into Nanostructured Nuclear Radiation Detectors for Non-Proliferation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the concept of embedding composite scintillators consisting of nanosized inorganic crystals in an organic matrix has been actively pursued. Nanocomposite detectors have the potential to meet many of the homeland security, non-proliferation, and border and cargo-screening needs of the nation and, by virtue of their superior nuclear identification capability over plastic, at roughly the same cost as plastic, have the potential to replace all plastic detectors. Nanocomposites clearly have the potential of being a gamma ray detection material that would be sensitive yet less expensive and easier to produce on a large scale than growing large, whole crystals of similar sensitivity. These detectors would have a broad energy range and a sufficient energy resolution to perform isotopic identification. The material can also be fabricated on an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This investigation focused on designing and fabricating prototype core/shell and quantum dot (QD) detectors. Fourteen core/shell and four QD detectors, all with the basic consistency of a mixture of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix with different densities of nanoparticles, were prepared. Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated, embedded in a polystyrene matrix, and the resultant scintillators’ radiation detector properties were characterized. This work also attempted to extend the gamma energy response on both low- and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy and high-energy gamma rays. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with a significant response of these materials to nuclear radiation.

  19. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  20. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  1. Denuclearization for a Just World: The Failure of Non Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for World Order, New York, NY.

    The document discusses the non proliferation policies of nuclear power nations. It specifically focuses on the credibility gap which exists between the actual statements of peaceful intentions made by these nations which express the need for non proliferation of nuclear weapons and their actual conduct with regards to nuclear-related issues in…

  2. Denuclearization for a Just World: The Failure of Non Proliferation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for World Order, New York, NY.

    The document discusses the non proliferation policies of nuclear power nations. It specifically focuses on the credibility gap which exists between the actual statements of peaceful intentions made by these nations which express the need for non proliferation of nuclear weapons and their actual conduct with regards to nuclear-related issues in…

  3. The non-proliferation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hannon, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    On September 22, 1993, the Department of Energy detonated more than 1.2 million kg of blasting agent in a tunnel in Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. The resulting explosion generated seismic, electromagnetic, and air pressure signals that were recorded on instruments deployed at distances ranging from a few meters to hundreds and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers. More than 12 organizations made measurements before, during, and after the explosions. The explosion and its associated experiments are known as the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). Analyses of the measurements made during the NPE and comparisons with similar measurements made on previous nearly nuclear explosions and on a co-located smaller explosion detonated at the same site are providing basic phenomenological insights into what is potentially one of the comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)-distinguishing between nuclear explosions and some of the many conventional explosions that occur each year. The NPE is also providing information on the use of chemical explosions to develop empirical discriminants in regions where no nuclear explosions have been recorded. In another verification application, several NPE projects are examining the utility of on-site, pre-shot, shot-time, and post-shot measurements of gas seepage, seismic activity, and other observables as a means of identifying the source of signals that appear like nuclear explosions at regional distances. Two related activities are being considered. First, challenge on-site inspections, conducted after an event has occurred, may be able to use the characteristics of phenomena that persist after the explosion to detect and identify the source of the signals that appeared ambiguous or explosion-like to remote sensors. Second, cooperative, on-site measurements made at the time of a pre-nounced conventional explosion may provide assurance that a nuclear explosion did not occur as part of or in place of the pre-announced explosion.

  4. Counter-proliferation and Non-proliferation: Both Needed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Preventing further proliferation of nuclear weapon and nuclear weapons usable materials, and securing the weapons and materials that exist, have increased in importance with the increased urgency of the fight against international terrorism. This problem is likely to continue to increase in importance with the anticipated growth of nuclear civilian applications around the world. Recent experience in North Korea, Iraq and Iran tends to show that some combination of counterproliferation and better use of traditional, multilateral non-proliferation methods provides the best way to address this problem. Governments seeking nuclear civilian applications, particularly those that are suspicious of Western motives, must be offered in parallel an attractive way into the system should they follow its rules and an unacceptable alternative should they not. Such a combination should aim at implementing specific measures to (1) secure nuclear materials, (2) monitor dual-use facilities, (3) improve international governance of treaties and other agreements, and (4) reduce the demand for nuclear weapons. For some of the measures implementation has begun, although with less money and priority than is needed. Other measures would constitute a major departure from the way civilian nuclear activities are now carried out and remain controversial. The established nuclear powers must agree on implementation and funding of the measures suggested before there can be much progress elsewhere.

  5. Infrasonic measurements of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.W.; Noel, S.; Meadows, W.

    1994-12-31

    Two infrasonic arrays were operated for the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). The arrays were located at the Nevada Test Site and at St. George, UT. The results were consistent with experience on underground tests, and therefore close to underground nuclear tests of similar size.

  6. The Non-Proliferation Treaty has just been extended. Do you know where your shelter is?

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.

    1995-09-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the Non-Proliferation Treaty - from the `small` bomb, needing only plutonium or highly enriched uranium to convert a conventional weapon into a nuclear bomb to the most urgent and immediate threat of nuclear proliferation from scores of poorly secured and unregulated nuclear facilities and research labs spread across the former Soviet Union. The global politics of non-proliferation are described.

  7. EMP at the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.

    1994-12-31

    This experiment presented an opportunity to field customized equipment designed to detect and record electromagnetic pulse (EMP) emanations from an explosion over a wide frequency range. Any data recorded could be used in conjunction with the seismic methods to further non-proliferation studies. No EMP emanations were detectable from the four sensors deployed outside the tunnel confines.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety department training implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-09-06

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The NCSD Qualification Program is described in Y/DD-694, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSD personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This document supersedes Y/DD-696, Revision 2, dated 3/27/96, Training Implementation, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department. There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document.

  9. Lessons learned from the non-proliferation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliam, C.; Curtis, S.

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy sponsored Non-Proliferation Experiment (formerly known as the Chemical Kiloton) involved the detonation of blasting agent approximately equivalent to one kiloton of energy release on the Nevada Test Site in an effort to determine if (and if so, which) discriminators exist between conventional and nuclear detonations of similar yield. Coordination among hundreds of scientists from at least fifteen different organizations were required to design the experiments necessary to collect and interpret data from this unique and complex event. Stakeholders and members of the Group of Scientific Experts of the Conference on Disarmament observed the progress of the experiment first hand. The experiment was a success in that a vast majority of the expected data was collected and shared quickly and efficiently throughout the international scientific community. The management of the project was discussed among the major co-sponsoring organizations and the significant {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} are presented.

  10. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: Science Matters - Technical Dimensions of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Agreements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbie, James

    2017-01-01

    Agreements to reduce nuclear arms and prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons are technical as well as political documents. They must be both technically sound and politically acceptable. This presentation illustrates technical aspects of arms control and non-proliferation agreements, with examples from SALT I, INF, the HEU Agreement, START, and the Iran nuclear negotiations, drawing on 44 years of personal experience in the negotiation of these agreements. The lecture is designed to convey an appreciation of the role that individuals with technical training can play in diplomatic efforts to reduce nuclear forces and prevent nuclear proliferation.

  11. Non-Proliferation and Reactor Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeongduk

    2017-09-01

    Neutrinos are the most elusive particles in the standard model particle physics and their oscillation phenomena is a key to understand the nature of the neutrinos. On the other hand, the neutrinos are second most abundant particles in the universe and the nuclear reactors are the intense source of artificial anti-neutrinos. We will overview the status of the projects trying to monitor or safeguard the nuclear reactors by detecting the reactor neutrinos.

  12. New concept of small power reactor without on-site refueling for non-proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W., LLNL

    1998-07-13

    more pre-conceptual designs. The pre-conceptual designs will be used to confirm the adequacy of the requirements through iteration and trade studies. A down selection to a preferred and backup concept would be made following a 12-18 month design effort. The selected designs, system design specifications, and the necessary R&D programs would be developed in greater detail over the next three and one-half years. A reactor in the 50 to 150 MWe class, nominally 100 MWe, shows the best potential for meeting these challenges. The system will have unique characteristics to achieve proliferation resistance, and will maximize the reliance on passive safety features to reduce the risk of serious accidents and their consequences, simplify operations and maintenance, and reduce the need for the developing country to establish a sophisticated and expensive nuclear infrastructure. In particular, to eliminate all on- site refueling, the reactor will be equipped with a long-life core that will be returned to the supplier when spent. This process will be managed under international control to further both overall non- proliferation objectives and to reduce the infrastructure burden on the developing country. It will also reduce the anticipated burden and expense to the International Atomic Energy Agency for assuring security associated with expanded international use of nuclear energy. An integral part of the program will be the development of new approaches for implementing international safeguards applicable to the entire fuel cycle including recycling and waste disposal. The report discusses the preliminary requirements and the rationale for selecting them. It then discusses the four nuclear system technologies and how they might proceed to meet the requirements. Brief discussions are provided on the approaches to stimulating the appropriate international and industrial participation necessary to finance development of a design with improved proliferation resistance that is useful

  13. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Ionospheric measurements for the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    The detection of explosions using ionospheric techniques relies on measuring perturbations induced in radio propagation by acoustics waves which disturb the electron density of the ionosphere. Such techniques have been applied to the detection of atmospheric explosions, underground nuclear tests, earthquakes, and surface mining explosions. The nighttime ionosphere presents a difficulty for the detection of explosions because in the absence of solar ionization radiation the electron density in the altitude range of 90 to 200 km decays after sunset and perturbation effects are correspondingly reduced. On the other hand, acoustic waves produced by weak sources reach a maximum amplitude in the altitude range of 100 to 150 km and are highly attenuated at altitudes above 200 km. For safety reasons, most planned explosions are conducted during daylight which has limited the experimental measurements during nighttime. However a recent opportunity for a nighttime measurement occurred in connection with the Non-Proliferation Experiment which consisted of the detonation of a large chemical charge underground at the Nevada Test Site near midnight local time. the results, based on a new technique of using medium frequency radio transmissions provided by commercial broadcasts to detect explosion effects, were negative. The most likely explanation for the negative result is that the radio transmissions did not reflect at a low enough altitude to sense the perturbations produced by the acoustic waves.

  15. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California.

  16. Collaborative human-machine nuclear non-proliferation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, F.L.; Badalamente, R.V.; Stewart, T.S.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a project investigating support concepts for the information treatment needs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, also referred to as the Agency) and its attempts to strengthen international safeguards. The aim of the research was to define user/computer interface concepts and intelligent support features that will enhance the analyst`s access to voluminous and diverse information, the ability to recognize and evaluate uncertain data, and the capability to make decisions and recommendations. The objective was to explore techniques for enhancing safeguards analysis through application of (1) more effective user-computer interface designs and (2) advanced concepts involving human/system collaboration. The approach was to identify opportunities for human/system collaboration that would capitalize on human strengths and still accommodate human limitations. This paper documents the findings and describes a concept prototype, Proliferation Analysis Support System (PASS), developed for demonstration purposes. The research complements current and future efforts to enhance the information systems used by the IAEA, but has application elsewhere, as well.

  17. Geology, geophysics, and physical properties of the U12n.25 non-proliferation experiment site

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.J.; Bradford, R.P.; Hopkins, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Experiment was conducted in the U12n.25 drift in N-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site. The geologic characterization of the site was performed by Raytheon Services Nevada geologists in the standard manner used for all underground nuclear weapons-effects tests executed by the Defense Nuclear Agency. The U12n.25 test bed was constructed in zeolitized ash-fall tuff of the Tunnel Beds Tuff, Subunit 4K, 389.0 m below the surface of Rainier Mesa. The structural geology of the site was simple, with the nearest fault plane projected to be 12 m below the mined cavity at closest approach, and an average bedding dip of seven degrees to the northwest. The cavity excavation revealed several small fractures, including one which produced minor amounts of free water during construction. The physical properties of the site were well within the range of experience for the zeolitized tuff of N-Tunnel and no geology-related problems were encountered during construction. The zeolitized tuff of N-Tunnel has been the site of twenty nuclear tests conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency. The similarities of geologic setting, site geometry, and physical properties allow many comparisons of Non-Proliferation Experiment results with the large nuclear-test data base.

  18. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  19. Improving the Nuclear Reform Implementation for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    focused environment. The nuclear enterprise was focused on perfect test scores, inspection preparation, metrics, and quick fixes rather than mission...eroded. The mission focus shifted to perfecting tactical conventional operations, while limited attention was paid to merely passing nuclear inspections...and testing, although perfect results were still expected. The USAF failed to keep the nuclear mission ‘operationally current,’ thus forcing it into

  20. Stabilization and immobilization of military plutonium: A non-proliferation perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhal, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Nuclear Control Institute welcomes this DOE-sponsored technical workshop on stabilization and immobilization of weapons plutonium (W Pu) because of the significant contribution it can make toward the ultimate non-proliferation objective of eliminating weapons-usable nuclear material, plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU), from world commerce. The risk of theft or diversion of these materials warrants concern, as only a few kilograms in the hands of terrorists or threshold states would give them the capability to build nuclear weapons. Military plutonium disposition questions cannot be addressed in isolation from civilian plutonium issues. The National Academy of Sciences has urged that {open_quotes}further steps should be taken to reduce the proliferation risks posed by all of the world`s plutonium stocks, military and civilian, separated and unseparated...{close_quotes}. This report discusses vitrification and a mixed oxide fuels option, and the effects of disposition choices on civilian plutonium fuel cycles.

  1. Detection of Materials of Interest to Non-Proliferation: A Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ze, F; Tittmann, B R; Lehahan, P M

    2002-04-11

    We propose the development of a novel detector that can locate and identify materials of interest to Nuclear Arms Non Proliferation. The device will combine nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) widely used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), geophysics, nondestructive evaluations, and biomagnetism, to name only few. NAR works like NMR. Thus resonant absorption (of applied ultrasonic energy) by a nuclear spin system occurs when the ultrasonic frequency is equal to the appropriate frequency separations between the magnetic nuclear energy levels. Ultrasonic energy couples to the nuclear spin system via spin-phonon interaction. The resulting nuclear acoustic resonance can be detected via the changes in (a) ultrasonic attenuation, (b) ultrasonic velocity, (c) material magnetization, (d) or nuclear magnetic susceptibility, all of which carries ''intrinsic and unique signatures'' of the material under investigation. The device's sensitivity and penetration depth (into metals) will be enhanced by incorporating SQUID technology into the design. We will present the details of interaction physics and outline a plan of action needed to successfully transform the concepts into a practical detector.

  2. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broadway, J.A.

    1998-03-31

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development.

  3. Regional seismic observations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment at the Livermore NTS Network

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.; Patton, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a 1-kiloton chemical explosion in N-tunnel at Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), was recorded by the four station, regional seismic Livermore NTS Network, (LNN). In this study we compare the NPE`s seismic yield, frequency content, and discrimination performance with other NTS events recorded at LNN. Preliminary findings include: The NPE LNN average magnitudes are 4.16 for m{sub b}(P{sub n}) and 4.59 for m{sub b}(L{sub g}). Using published magnitude-yield relations gives nuclear equivalent yields of 2.3 and 2.2 kilotons respectively, implying enhanced coupling of chemical relative to nuclear explosions. A comparison of the NPE seismograms with those with similar magnitude N-tunnel nuclear explosions shows remarkable similarity over the frequency band 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Outside this band the explosions show more variability, with the NPE having the least relative energy below 0.5 Hz and the most energy above 5 Hz when scaled by magnitude. Considering the variability within the N-tunnel nuclear explosions, these low- and high-frequency NPE-nuclear differences may not reflect chemical-nuclear source differences. The NPE was compared to a large number of NTS nuclear explosions and earthquakes as part of an ongoing short-period discrimination study of P{sub N}/L{sub g},P{sub g}/L{sub g}, and spectral ratios in the P{sub n}, P{sub g},L{sub g}, and coda phases. For these discriminants, the NPE looks very similar to N-tunnel nuclear explosions and other NTS nuclear explosions, implying seismic identification of contained, non-ripple-fired, chemical explosions as non-nuclear may not be possible. However, such blasts might serve as surrogate nuclear explosions when calibrating seismic discriminants in regions where nuclear testing has not occurred.

  4. The Non-Proliferation Experiment recorded at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment was recorded by five different seismic stations operated by Sandia National Laboratories at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility, approximately 7.6{degrees} from the Nevada Test Site. Two stations are different versions of the Deployable Seismic Verification System developed by the Department of Energy to provide seismic data to verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Vault and borehole versions of the Designated Seismic Stations also recorded the event. The final station is test instrumentation located at depths of 10, 40 and 1200 feet. Although the event is seen clearly at all the stations, there are variations in the raw data due to the different bandwidths and depths of deployment. One Deployable Seismic Verification System has been operating at Pinedale for over three years and in that time recorded 14 nuclear explosions and 4 earthquakes from the Nevada Test Site, along with numerous other western U.S. earthquakes. Several discriminants based on the work by Taylor et al. (1989) have been applied to this data. First the discriminants were tested by comparing the explosions only to the 4 earthquakes located on the Test Site. Only one discriminant, log(L{sub g}/P{sub g}), did not show clear separation between the earthquakes and nuclear explosions. When other western U.S. events are included, only the M{sub b} vs. M{sub s} discriminant separated the event. In all cases where discrimination was possible, the Non-Proliferation Experiment was indistinguishable from a nuclear explosion.

  5. A Non-Proliferating Fuel Cycle: No Enrichment, Reprocessing or Accessible Spent Fuel - 12375

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Frank L.

    2012-07-01

    Current fuel cycles offer a number of opportunities for access to plutonium, opportunities to create highly enriched uranium and access highly radioactive wastes to create nuclear weapons and 'dirty' bombs. The non-proliferating fuel cycle however eliminates or reduces such opportunities and access by eliminating the mining, milling and enrichment of uranium. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces the production of plutonium per unit of energy created, eliminates reprocessing and the separation of plutonium from the spent fuel and the creation of a stream of high-level waste. It further simplifies the search for land based deep geologic repositories and interim storage sites for spent fuel in the USA by disposing of the spent fuel in deep sub-seabed sediments after storing the spent fuel at U.S. Navy Nuclear Shipyards that have the space and all of the necessary equipment and security already in place. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces transportation risks by utilizing barges for the collection of spent fuel and transport to the Navy shipyards and specially designed ships to take the spent fuel to designated disposal sites at sea and to dispose of them there in deep sub-seabed sediments. Disposal in the sub-seabed sediments practically eliminates human intrusion. Potential disposal sites include Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain. Such sites then could easily become international disposal sites since they occur in the open ocean. It also reduces the level of human exposure in case of failure because of the large physical and chemical dilution and the elimination of a major pathway to man-seawater is not potable. Of course, the recovery of uranium from sea water and the disposal of spent fuel in sub-seabed sediments must be proven on an industrial scale. All other technologies are already operating on an industrial scale. If externalities, such as reduced terrorist threats, environmental damage (including embedded emissions), long

  6. Explosive performance on the non-proliferation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McKown, T.O.

    1994-12-31

    The Explosive Effects Physics Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory planned and conducted experiments on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) as part of its effort to define source functions for seismic waves. Since all investigations were contingent on the performance of the emplaced chemical explosive, an array of diagnostic measurements was fielded in the emplaced explosive. The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs Time EXperiment) system was used to investigate the explosive initiation and to determine the detonation velocities on three levels and in a number of radial directions. The CORRTEX experiments fielded in the explosive chamber will be described, including a description of the explosive emplacement from the perspective of its impact on the CORRTEX results. The data obtained are reviewed and the resulting detonation velocities are reported. A variation of detonation velocity with depth in the explosive and the apparent underdetonation and overdetonation of the explosive in different radial directions is reported.

  7. University-level Non-proliferation and Safeguards Education and Human Capital Development Activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner K. M.; Pepper, S.; Gomera, J.; Einwechter, M.; Toler, L. T.

    2016-07-24

    BNL has offered Nuclear Nonproliferation, Safeguards and Security in the 21st Century,? referred to as NNSS, every year since 2009 for graduate students in technical and policy fields related to nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. The course focuses on relevant policy issues, in addition to technical components, and is part of a larger NGSI short course initiative that includes separate courses that are delivered at three other national laboratories and NNSA headquarters. [SCHOLZ and ROSENTHAL] The course includes lectures from esteemed nonproliferation experts, tours of various BNL facilities and laboratories, and in-field and table-top exercises on both technical and policy subjects. Topics include the history of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other relevant treaties, the history of and advances in international nuclear safeguards, current relevant political situations in countries such as Iran, Iraq, and the Democratic Peoples? Republic of Korea (DPRK), nuclear science and technology, instrumentation and techniques used for verification activities, and associated research and development. The students conduct a mock Design Information Verification (DIV) at BNL?s decommissioned Medical Research Reactor. The capstone of the course includes a series of student presentations in which students act as policy advisors and provide recommendations in response to scenarios involving a current nonproliferation related event that are prepared by the course organizers. ?The course is open to domestic and foreign students, and caters to students in, entering, or recently having completed graduate school. Interested students must complete an application and provide a resume and a statement describing their interest in the course. Eighteen to 22 students attend annually; 165 students have completed the course to date. A stipend helps to defray students? travel and subsistence expenses. In 2015, the course was shortened from three weeks to

  8. Enhancing remote surveillance and assessment capabilities in support of non-proliferation using agricultural targets. Annual progress report, September 14, 1995--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, E.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the Department of Energy`s Airborne Multisensor Pod System (ANIPS) missions which include agricultural targets to improve which include agricultural targets. The emphasis is on the use of these agricultural targets to improve nuclear non-proliferation assessment capability. Three areas of application of agricultural targets to non-proliferation is introduced: extending vegetation monitoring capability with radar, assessment of soil and crop damage using data fusion, and the use of data fusion for improved plant stress monitoring using hyperspectral data. Also, new algorithm development and future AMPS mission needs are discussed.

  9. Preshot predictions for the near-source region in the non-proliferation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, D.F.; Welch, J.E.; Zerkle, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of one and two-dimensional, ground motion calculations made in support of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), a 1KT high explosive shot fired on 22 September 1993 at the Nevada Test Site. These calculations were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency`s late-time containment program, and were completed well before the test was executed. They addressed a variety of test design, analysis and construction issues, and sought to identify any potential safety concerns. The test site model used in these calculations was based in large part on earlier work performed at SAIC and by other Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) contractors for the nearby underground nuclear test, code named MISTY ECHO. In particular, to obtain physical property and quasi-static material response data for the site, a number of core samples recovered near the MISTY ECHO working point (WP) were tested by TerraTek. We then used these data to develop a numerical response model for the site.

  10. Proceedings of the symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE): Results and implications for test ban treaties

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, M.D.; Stull, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    The large amounts of chemical explosives used worldwide in mining, quarrying, and civil engineering projects presents a challenge for policy makers molding a test ban, since their use could provide the necessary cover for a clandestine nuclear test. The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) seeks to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical explosion in the same geology. Two chemical explosions were detonated at the Nevada Test Site to compare their signatures with previous nuclear tests. This conference presents results of these tests and discusses implications for test ban treaties. Conference papers are divided into the following sections: Background; Test preparations; EOS and code simulations; Rainier Mesa structure; Ground motion measurements; Non-seismic technologies; On-site inspection technologies; and a panel discussion. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Quantum Calorimeter Gamma-ray Detectors: New Tools for Non-proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Barry

    2007-03-01

    High resolution γ-ray spectroscopy is an important tool for non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials and is often used by safeguards inspectors to help verify the inventories of nuclear materials held around the world. The energy spectrum of photons emitted from isotopes of uranium or plutonium in the 40-1000 keV energy range give unique signatures that, if accurately measured, give inspectors important information about the age and enrichment of the material and therefore its intended purpose. In this talk I will describe recent work by a team of researchers from the Unversity of Denver, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Los Alamos National Laboratory on γ-ray spectrometers with more than an order of magnitude improvement in energy resolution over standard techniques. The heart of this improved tool for non-proliferation is a microcalorimeter γ-ray detector that combines a micromachined thermal isolation structure with a bulk absorber and a highly sensitive superconducting transition-edge thermometer optimized for operation well below 1 K. In the last several months, we have assembled and tested arrays of these microcalorimeters, with many detector pixels on a single chip. When read out with SQUID multiplexers, these arrays dramatically increase the speed of data collection, allowing ultra-high resolution γ-ray spectra to be acquired in roughly the same time needed for traditional detector technologies. In addition to presenting high-resolution γ-ray spectra of nuclear materials such as plutonium, I will describe the physics of the microcalorimeter, which ranges from the lifetime of quasiparticles in bulk superconductors to the thermal properties of glue.

  12. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conference’s failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  13. Post-test geologic observations made at the non-proliferation experiment site, N-tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, D.R.; Bradford, R.P.; Hopkins, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Qualitative evaluations of damage resulting from an underground explosion can provide valuable information concerning the size of the charge, as well as the location of a clandestine detonation. However, caution must be exercised during the appraisal because the effects of an explosion are a function of many factors in addition to yield. Construction techniques, the physical properties of the surrounding rock, and the depth of burial are all important considerations when evaluating the effects of an underground detonation. Raytheon Services Nevada geologists documented underground and surface effects of the Non-Proliferation Experiment, as they have for all recent underground weapons-effects tests conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency. Underground, the extent of the visible damage decreased rapidly from severe at the closest inspection point 100 m from the Working Point, to insignificant 300 m from the Working Point. The severity of damage correlates in some instances with the orientation of the drift with respect to the shock-wave propagation direction. No evidence of the Non-Proliferation explosion was visible on the mesa surface 389 m above the Working Point the day after the explosion.

  14. Defense Nuclear Agency Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation plan. Quality management (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The report is the TQM Implementation Plan adopted by the Defense Nuclear Agency. It is based on the DoD Total Quality Management Master Plan, and lists short-, mid-, and long-range goals. A hard copy of slides on the topic of TQM implementation at the Defense Nuclear Agency is attached.

  15. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  16. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  17. Subsets of human origin recognition complex (ORC) subunits are expressed in non-proliferating cells and associate with non-ORC proteins.

    PubMed

    Thome, K C; Dhar, S K; Quintana, D G; Delmolino, L; Shahsafaei, A; Dutta, A

    2000-11-10

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) in yeast is a complex of six tightly associated subunits essential for the initiation of DNA replication. Human ORC subunits are nuclear in proliferating cells and in proliferative tissues like the testis, consistent with a role of human ORC in DNA replication. Orc2, Orc3, and Orc5 also are detected in non-proliferating cells like cardiac myocytes, adrenal cortical cells, and neurons, suggesting an additional role of these proteins in non-proliferating cells. Although Orc2-5 co-immunoprecipitate with each other under mild extraction conditions, a holo complex of the subunits is difficult to detect. When extracted under more stringent extraction conditions, several of the subunits co-immunoprecipitate with stoichiometric amounts of other unidentified proteins but not with any of the known ORC subunits. The variation in abundance of individual ORC subunits (relative to each other) in several tissues, expression of some subunits in non-proliferating tissues, and the absence of a stoichiometric complex of all the subunits in cell extracts indicate that subunits of human ORC in somatic cells might have activities independent of their role as a six subunit complex involved in replication initiation. Finally, all ORC subunits remain consistently nuclear, and Orc2 is consistently phosphorylated through all stages of the cell cycle, whereas Orc1 is selectively phosphorylated in mitosis.

  18. An overview of the on-site inspection measurements from the non-proliferation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    An on-site inspection (OSI) is an in-person visit to site to collect data and examine evidence in order to determine the source of an ambiguous event detected via remote monitoring systems or other measures. Its purpose is to determine whether the treaty has been violated, to deter violations, and to build confidence. At the time of this writing, it is anticipated that the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) being developed in the Conference on Disarmament will contain OSI provisions. In an era of testing moratoria, the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) provided a unique opportunity to investigate candidate OSI techniques. On site inspections could occur in three different contexts: after-the-fact inspections based on information from remote monitoring systems; inspections prior to, during, and after large declared chemical explosions (e.g., a large mining explosion); continuous monitoring inspections with unattended sensors at certain agreed-upon sites (e.g., previous test sites). OSI monitoring techniques need to be designed to detect the phenomena and residual effects of nuclear explosions. In the underground case, the primary effects of interest for OSI are the electromagnetic pulse, shock waves, aftershocks, radioactive gas, rubble zone, and apical void. These effects are well known and the basic techniques for their detection well established. We designed our measurement program for the NPE to answer specific issues about these detection technologies. Our measurement program includes the following: zerotime electromagnetic measurements; seismic aftershock survey; before and after electrical soundings; gas tracers introduced into the explosive; before and after multispectral overhead imagery from low-flying aircraft; before and after geological surveys.

  19. International academic program in technologies of light-water nuclear reactors. Phases of development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Glebov, V. B.

    2017-01-01

    The results of implementation of European educational projects CORONA and CORONA II dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of technologies of light-water nuclear reactors are analyzed. Present article addresses issues of design and implementation of the program for specialized training in the branch of technologies of light-water nuclear reactors. The systematic approach has been used to construct the program for students of nuclear specialties, which corresponding to IAEA standards and commonly accepted nuclear principles recognized in the European Union. Possibilities of further development of the international cooperation between countries and educational institutions are analyzed. Special attention is paid to e-learning/distance training, nuclear knowledge preservation and interaction with European Nuclear Education Network.

  20. Implementing total quality control in the nuclear utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Heising, C.D. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Sciences); Luciani, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in the United States depends on the maintenance of an excellent safety record for U.S. plants. Proper management of electric utilities is therefore crucial to ensure such a safety record. This paper investigates the application of the total Quality Control (TQC) management method, developed in Japan, to nuclear electric utilities. It is concluded that TQC can result in significant safety improvements at the plant level.

  1. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals.

  2. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  3. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  4. Briefing Book. Volume 1: The Evolution of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime (Fourth Edition).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    100 million degrees centigrade are normally required for this to occur. The most frequently used materials to generate fusion reactions are tritium ...H-3), deuterium (H-2) and the solid Lithium-6 Deuteride, which when heated to the temperature of the fusion reaction, breaks down into tritium and...ordinary water as both a moderator and coolant. There are two variants of this reactor, Pressurized Water Reactors ( PWRs ) and Boiling Water Reactors

  5. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  6. Challenge inspections in Arms Control treaties: Any lessons for strengthening NPT verification. [Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent revelations of an ongoing and sophisticated nuclear weapons development program in Iraq have lead to suggestions for strengthening International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Especially troubling was the realization that safeguards, as presently applied, could not possibly have detected such a program. It is clear that the inspections which have taken place in Iraq since the Gulf War could only have been imposed on a nation which had suffered a severe military defeat. It has, however, been argued that challenge or challenge like'' inspections already incorporated in or proposed for the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (the CFE Treaty) the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic offensive Arms (START) might serve as models for enhanced special inspections in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the NPT). The expectation that none of the challenge or challenge like inspections in the above treaties would provide a model for the NPT was confirmed although certain characteristics of these inspections do provide useful points of departure. Although the context of challenge inspections in CWC bears substantial similarity to the NPT, it is from the provisions for suspect-site'' and formerly declared site'', challenge like inspections in START that innovative ideas for strengthening special inspections in NPT may be derived.

  7. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  8. Neutron beams implemented at nuclear research reactors for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavarnegin, E.; Kasesaz, Y.; Wagner, F. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a survey of neutron beams which were or are in use at 56 Nuclear Research Reactors (NRRs) in order to be used for BNCT, either for treatment or research purposes in aspects of various combinations of materials that were used in their Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design, use of fission converters and optimized beam parameters. All our knowledge about BNCT is indebted to researches that have been done in NRRs. The results of about 60 years research in BNCT and also the successes of this method in medical treatment of tumors show that, for the development of BNCT as a routine cancer therapy method, hospital-based neutron sources are needed. Achieving a physical data collection on BNCT neutron beams based on NRRs will be helpful for beam designers in developing a non-reactor based neutron beam.

  9. Morphology of proliferating and non-proliferating tumor cell nuclei in glioblastomas correlates with preoperative data from proton-MR-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Reinhold; Herminghaus, Sebastian; Pilatus, Ulrich; Hattingen, Elke; Marquardt, Gerhard; Schlote, Wolfgang; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Zanella, Friedhelm

    2004-09-01

    In contrast to the growing interest in proton-MR-spectroscopy (1HMRS) for preoperative examination of patients with brain tumors, there is nearly no knowledge about a correlation between data from 1HMRS and histomorphology as confirmed by quantitative morphological methods. Whether a correlation can be confirmed between data from 1HMRS and quantitative histomorphology of glioblastomas representing the most frequent type of brain tumors was investigated in the present study. Furthermore, it was of interest, whether correlations between spectroscopic data and histomorphology can be confirmed for proliferating and non-proliferating tumor cell nuclei independently. Using stringent inclusion criteria for this study, 24 patients were investigated by means of preoperative 1HMRS and by means of digital image analysis of paraffin sections from the surgical specimen. Proliferating and non-proliferating tumor cell nuclei were investigated separately in the region with the highest proliferative activity in each tumor using immunohistological staining for the proliferation marker Ki67. Main results showed highly significant correlations between total creatine and variables of nuclear size, as well as correlations between choline and variables of nuclear shape. These results were confirmed for both proliferating and non-proliferating tumor cell nuclei. A significant correlation between N-acetyl-aspartate level and topometric variables (number of neighbors per nucleus, variables describing distances between tumor cell nuclei) was confirmed for proliferating tumor cell nuclei. Discriminant analysis provided a good separation of cases with high and with low values for these spectroscopic variables based on histomorphometric data. In conclusion, the results confirm a direct correlation between data from preoperative 1HMRS and histomorphological characteristics of glioblastomas supporting the biological relevance of spectroscopic data for the examination of brain tumor patients.

  10. Implementation process and deployment initiatives for the regionalized storage of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Smith, N.E.L.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes how DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be stored in the interim 40-year period from 1996 to 2035, by which time it is expected to be in a National Nuclear Repository. The process is described in terms of its primary components: fuel inventory, facilities where it is stored, how the fuel will be moved, and legal issues associated with the process. Tools developed to deploy and fulfill the implementation needs of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program are also discussed.

  11. Investigations of the low frequency seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances from the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic waves recorded at near-regional distances are used to characterize the source of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) and three selected nuclear explosions detonated in N-tunnel on Rainier Mesa. For periods longer than 5 sec, the signal-to-noise ratio is poor on most recordings of the NPE. A seismogram-stacking method is used in order to reduce background noise in coherent arrivals of Rayleigh waves. This method requires equalization of path dispersion and attenuation, which is accomplished in this study with empirical Green`s functions. The stacked, equalized Rayleigh-wave spectra are inverted, along with the spectral amplitudes of Lg waves with periods of 2-5 sec, for estimates of the seismic moment tensor. The NPE isotropic moment is 1.6 x 10{sup 14} Nt-m. The inferred static level of the reduced displacement potential is 825 m{sup 3}, which is about two times smaller than the estimate from free-field data recorded within 1 km of the NPE. Moment tensors of the NPE and nuclear explosions are asymmetric, describing prolate ellipsoids of rotation with the long axis in the vertical direction. The asymmetries are among the largest for explosions on Pahute and Rainier Mesa. The non-isotropic component is a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), which may represent driven block motions occurring within a conical volume of material extending from the shot point (apex) to the free surface. The CLVD source can help explain some observations of scalloping in the spectra of Lg waves and Lg spectral ratios. Seismic radiation from the NPE is virtually indistinguishable from that of nearby nuclear explosions for frequencies below 1 Hz.

  12. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Pla; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-14

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project 'Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds' in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  13. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Plá; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project "Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds" in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  14. Implementation Plan for the Office of Nuclear Energy Knowledge Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-12-01

    The primary purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Knowledge Management (KM) Program is to capture, share, disseminate, and ensure the ability to apply the knowledge created by the major nuclear energy Research and Development (R&D) programs. In support of the KM program, the Implementation Plan for the Office of NE KM Program outlines the knowledge management and distributed data environment that is required for its success. In addition to enumerating some strategic goals and objectives, this document characterizes the initial program and identifies computer-based areas of investment required for increased knowledge sharing and collaboration. It identifies and addresses investments already in existence and describes how these investments can be further enhanced and implemented to support a distributed KM program. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is leading the effort to identify and address these investments through the implementation of a distributed KM program that includes participants from ten of the major DOE national laboratories.

  15. The non-proliferation experiment and gas sampling as an on-site inspection activity: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Non-proliferation Experiment (NPE) is contributing to the development of gas sampling methods and models that may be incorporated into future on-site inspection (OSI) activities. Surface gas sampling and analysis, motivated by nuclear test containment studies, have already demonstrated the tendency for the gaseous products of an underground nuclear test to flow hundreds of meters to the surface over periods ranging from days to months. Even in the presence of a uniform sinusoidal pressure variation, there will be a net flow of cavity gas toward the surface. To test this barometric pumping effect at Rainier Mesa, gas bottles containing sulfur hexaflouride and {sup 3}He were added to the pre-detonation cavity for the 1 kt chemical explosives test. Pre-detonation measurements of the background levels of both gases were obtained at selected sites on top of the mesa. The background levels of both tracers were found to be at or below mass spectrographic/gas chromatographic sensitivity thresholds in the parts-per-trillion range. Post-detonation, gas chromatographic analyses of samples taken during barometric pressure lows from the sampling sites on the mesa indicate the presence of significant levels (300--600 ppt) of sulfur hexaflouride. However, mass spectrographic analyses of gas samples taken to date do not show the presence of {sup 3}He. To explain these observations, several possibilities are being explored through additional sampling/analysis and numerical modeling. For the NPE, the detonation point was approximately 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa and the event did not produce significant fracturing or subsidence on the surface of the mesa. Thus, the NPE may ultimately represent an extreme, but useful example for the application and tuning of cavity gas detection techniques.

  16. Cavity pressure/residual stress measurements from the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinle, R.A.; Hudson, B.C.; Hatch, M.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory planned and conducted experiments on the Non-Proliferation Experiment to determine post-detonation gas pressure inside the explosive cavity and the residual rock stress in the region immediately outside the cavity. Before detonation there was significant concern that steam and detonation products would create very high temperatures and pressure in the blast cavity that would exist for weeks and months after firing. This could constitute a safety hazard to personnel re-entering the tunnel. Consequently the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was asked to field its Cavity Pressure/Residual stress monitor system on the Non-Proliferation Experiment. We obtained experimental data for the first 600 ms after the explosion and again several weeks after detonation upon tunnel re-entry. We recorded early-time cavity pressure of about 8.3 MPa. In addition we believe that the ends of our sensor hoses were subjected to an ambient driving pressure of about 0.5 MPa (absolute) that persisted until at least three weeks after zero time.

  17. Myeloid Dendritic Cells Induce HIV-1 Latency in Non-proliferating CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Vanessa A.; Kumar, Nitasha; Filali, Ali; Procopio, Francesco A.; Yegorov, Oleg; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Saleh, Suha; Haddad, Elias K.; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Ellenberg, Paula C.; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Cameron, Paul U.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2013-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4+ T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4+ T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4+ T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4+ T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4+ T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact. PMID:24339779

  18. Myeloid dendritic cells induce HIV-1 latency in non-proliferating CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vanessa A; Kumar, Nitasha; Filali, Ali; Procopio, Francesco A; Yegorov, Oleg; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Saleh, Suha; Haddad, Elias K; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Ellenberg, Paula C; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Cameron, Paul U; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4(+) T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4(+) T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact.

  19. Implementation of an on-line monitoring system for transmitters in a CANDU nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbe, A.; Abdul-Nour, G.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.

    2012-05-01

    Many transmitters (pressure, level and flow) are used in a nuclear power plant. It is necessary to calibrate them periodically to ensure that their measurements are accurate. These calibration tasks are time consuming and often contribute to worker radiation exposure. Human errors can also sometimes degrade their performance since the calibration involves intrusive techniques. More importantly, experience has shown that the majority of current calibration efforts are not necessary. These facts motivated the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments. These technologies, well known as on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques, are non-intrusive and allow focusing the maintenance efforts on the instruments that really need a calibration. Although few OLM systems have been implemented in some PWR and BWR plants, these technologies are not commonly used and have not been permanently implemented in a CANDU plant. This paper presents the results of a research project that has been performed in a CANDU plant in order to validate the implementation of an OLM system. An application project, based on the ICMP algorithm developed by EPRI, has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of an OLM system. The results demonstrated that the OLM system was able to detect the drift of an instrument in the majority of the studied cases. A feasibility study has also been completed and has demonstrated that the implementation of an OLM system at a CANDU nuclear power plant could be advantageous under certain conditions.

  20. Discrimination between NTS explosions, earthquakes and the non-proliferation experiment at the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.

    1994-09-01

    As the United States moves into an atmosphere of concern about the spread of nuclear weapons to non-nuclear countries, the focus on monitoring nuclear explosions is changing from looking at specific test sites and yields to looking for tests of large and small yields from anywhere in the world. Discrimination of small events then becomes important and regional seismic monitoring the best method to detect and identify suspicious events. At the Pinedale Seismic Research Facility (PSRF) in Wyoming we have the opportunity to try different regional discriminants with nuclear tests from NTS, western US (W-US) earthquakes and the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). Four discriminants that gave the best results in a study by Taylor et al. were tried: m{sub b}:M{sub s}, M{sub b}:M{sub s}{sup h}, log(L{sub g}/P{sub g}) and spectral ratios. The different discriminants were applied to the data (14 NTS explosions, the NPE, one Department of Defense (DOB) explosion and 34 NWS earthquakes) regardless of signal-to-noise. When the NTS explosions and NPE were only compared to four earthquakes located on or near the Test Site, all the discriminants except log(L{sub g}/P{sub g}) worked fairly well at PSRF. When the other WUS earthquakes and DOD explosion are included, only m{sub b}:M{sub s} shows any promise. Because of frequent physical variations in the earth`s crust, regional signals are complex and easily influenced by site and path characteristics. Looking at events from one specific area reduces the effects of the path, which is why three discriminants work well when the data set is restricted to events on or near NTS. The only discriminant not adversely affected from variations in path is m{sub b}:M{sub s}. This is probably because it is believed that source dimension, source time function and/or source mechanism is the cause for the differences between earthquakes and explosions with this discriminant, rather than any path effects.

  1. Integration of Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Development with UNSCR 1540 Implementation - Context and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M; Essner, J

    2008-11-03

    On 28 April 2004, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1540 (2004), obliging States, inter alia, to refrain from supporting by any means non-State actors from developing, acquiring, manufacturing, possessing, transporting, transferring or using nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their delivery systems. It imposes binding obligations on all States to establish domestic controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, and their means of delivery, including by establishing appropriate controls over related materials. This mandate was extended an additional two years with the adoption of Resolution 1673 (2006) and an additional three years with the adoption of Resolution 1810 (2008). UNSCR 1540 is a key nonproliferation and counterterrorism tool that needs to be implemented well. Its obligations are a core part of nuclear infrastructure development.

  2. Preservation and Implementation of Decommissioning Lessons Learned in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Rafael L.

    2008-01-15

    Over the past several years, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has actively worked to capture and preserve lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. More recently, NRC has involved industry groups, the Organization of Agreement States (OAS), and the Department of Energy (DOE) in the effort to develop approaches to capture, preserve and disseminate decommissioning lessons learned. This paper discusses the accomplishments of the working group, some lessons learned by the NRC in the recent past, and how NRC will incorporate these lessons learned into its regulatory framework. This should help ensure that the design and operation of current and future nuclear facilities will result in less environmental impact and more efficient decommissioning. In summary, the NRC will continue capturing today's experience in decommissioning so that future facilities can take advantage of lessons learned from today's decommissioning projects. NRC, both individually and collectively with industry groups, OAS, and DOE, is aggressively working on the preservation and implementation of decommissioning lessons learned. The joint effort has helped to ensure the lessons from the whole spectrum of decommissioning facilities (i.e., reactor, fuel cycle, and material facilities) are better understood, thus maximizing the amount of knowledge and best practices obtained from decommissioning activities. Anticipated regulatory activities at the NRC will make sure that the knowledge gained from today's decommissioning projects is preserved and implemented to benefit the nuclear facilities that will decommission in the future.

  3. Project Hanford management contract quality assurance program implementation plan for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, E.K.

    1997-10-15

    During transition from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Management and Operations (M and O) contract to the Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) Management and Integration (M and I) contract, existing WHC policies, procedures, and manuals were reviewed to determine which to adopt on an interim basis. Both WHC-SP-1131,Hanford Quality Assurance Program and Implementation Plan, and WHC-CM-4-2, Quality Assurance Manual, were adopted; however, it was recognized that revisions were required to address the functions and responsibilities of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC). This Quality Assurance Program Implementation Plan for Nuclear Facilities (HNF-SP-1228) supersedes the implementation portion of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. The revised Quality Assurance (QA) Program is documented in the Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD), HNF-MP-599. That document replaces the QA Program in WHC-SP-1131, Rev. 1. The scope of this document is limited to documenting the nuclear facilities managed by FDH and its Major Subcontractors (MSCS) and the status of the implementation of 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance Requirements, at those facilities. Since the QA Program for the nuclear facilities is now documented in the QAPD, future updates of the information provided in this plan will be by letter. The layout of this plan is similar to that of WHC-SP-1 13 1, Rev. 1. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 provide an overview of the Project Hanford QA Program. A list of Project Hanford nuclear facilities is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides the status of facility compliance to 10 CFR 830.120. Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 provide requested exemptions, status of open items, and references, respectively. The four appendices correspond to the four projects that comprise Project Hanford.

  4. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M.; Moore, L.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  5. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  6. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  7. Spectral implementation of some quantum algorithms by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranabir; Kumar, Anil

    2004-10-01

    Quantum information processing has been effectively demonstrated on a small number of qubits by nuclear magnetic resonance. An important subroutine in any computing is the readout of the output. "Spectral implementation" originally suggested by Z. L. Madi, R. Bruschweiler, and R. R. Ernst [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 10603 (1999)], provides an elegant method of readout with the use of an extra "observer" qubit. At the end of computation, detection of the observer qubit provides the output via the multiplet structure of its spectrum. In spectral implementation by two-dimensional experiment the observer qubit retains the memory of input state during computation, thereby providing correlated information on input and output, in the same spectrum. Spectral implementation of Grover's search algorithm, approximate quantum counting, a modified version of Berstein-Vazirani problem, and Hogg's algorithm are demonstrated here in three- and four-qubit systems.

  8. Compounding & dispensing errors before and after implementing barcode technology in a nuclear pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Wendy; Shadid, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the incidence of compounding and dispensing errors changed significantly in a nuclear pharmacy after the pharmacy adopted a barcode assistance system. Nuclear pharmacy dispensing errors are extremely low compared to that of busy traditional pharmacies, but there is no data available describing the use of bar-coding assistance on the rate of dispensing errors in nuclear pharmacy. A retrospective review of dispensing errors pre-barcode assistance system implementation (2001 through 2004) and post-barcode assistance system implementation (February 2005 through 2009) was conducted using data from a nuclear pharmacy that dispenses approximately 500 prescriptions per day to nuclear medicine clinics and hospitals. Data was obtained from pharmacy error logs filed by the pharmacy as reported by an end user receiving the compounded preparation or the pharmacist having recognized the error before it reached the end user. Dispensing errors were defined as any deviation in the dispensed preparation from the prescribed order. Categories identified as incorrect were: dosage, drug, volume, procedure, patient, and delivery destination. Implementation of the barcode assistance system included installation of computers, software, barcoding devices, and training of personnel. The barcode assistance system provided barcodes for each compounding component, final preparation, syringe label, prescription, and shipping material. The barcode assistant system communicated directly with the dose calibrator, enabling the dose calibrator settings to automatically change according to time of administration and isotope required. The average error rate pre- and post-barcode assistance system was 0.012% and 0.002%, respectively (P<0.0001). Pre-barcode assistance system, two major categories represented 88% of all dispensing errors: wrong dosage (60%) and wrong drug (28%). Post-barcode assistance system, the major category was delivery destination

  9. Experimental implementation of quantum information processing by Zeeman-perturbed nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, João; Rivera-Ascona, Christian; Polli, Roberson S.; Oliveira-Silva, Rodrigo; Vidoto, Edson L. G.; Andreeta, José P.; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in the context of quantum information processing (QIP). However, despite the great similarities between NMR and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), no experimental implementation for QIP using NQR has been reported. We describe the implementation of basic quantum gates and their applications on the creation and manipulation of pseudopure states using linearly polarized radiofrequency pulses under static magnetic field perturbation. The NQR quantum operations were implemented using a single-crystal sample of and observing nuclei, which possess spin 3/2 and give rise to a two-qubit system. The results are very promising and indicate that NQR can be successfully used for performing fundamental experiments in QIP. One advantage of NQR in comparison with NMR is that the main interaction is internal to the sample, which makes the system more compact, lowering its cost and making it easier to be miniaturized to solid-state devices. Furthermore, as an example, the study of squeezed spin states could receive relevant contributions from NQR.

  10. Implementation plan for the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Borsheim, G.L.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.

    1992-12-01

    This document revises the original plan submitted in March 1991 for implementing the recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board in their Recommendation 90-7 to the US Department of Energy. Recommendation 90-7 addresses safety issues of concern for 24 single-shell, high-level radioactive waste tanks containing ferrocyanide compounds at the Hanford Site. The waste in these tanks is a potential safety concern because, under certain conditions involving elevated temperatures and low concentrations of nonparticipating diluents, ferrocyanide compounds in the presence of oxidizing materials can undergo a runaway (propagating) chemical reaction. This document describes those activities underway by the Hanford Site contractor responsible for waste tank safety that address each of the six parts of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7. This document also identifies the progress made on these activities since the beginning of the ferrocyanide safety program in September 1990. Revised schedules for planned activities are also included.

  11. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  12. Technology diffusion of a different nature: Applications of nuclear safeguards technology to the chemical weapons verification regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kadner, S.P.; Reisman, A.; Turpen, E.

    1996-10-01

    The following discussion focuses on the issue of arms control implementation from the standpoint of technology and technical assistance. Not only are the procedures and techniques for safeguarding nuclear materials undergoing substantial changes, but the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) will give rise to technical difficulties unprecedented in the implementation of arms control verification. Although these regimes present new challenges, an analysis of the similarities between the nuclear and chemical weapons non-proliferation verification regimes illustrates the overlap in technological solutions. Just as cost-effective and efficient technologies can solve the problems faced by the nuclear safeguards community, these same technologies offer solutions for the CWC safeguards regime. With this in mind, experts at the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), who are responsible for verification implementation, need to devise a CWC verification protocol that considers the technology already available. The functional similarity of IAEA and the OPCW, in conjunction with the technical necessities of both verification regimes, should receive attention with respect to the establishment of a technical assistance program. Lastly, the advanced status of the nuclear and chemical regime vis-a-vis the biological non-proliferation regime can inform our approach to implementation of confidence building measures for biological weapons.

  13. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on the implementation of ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the papers presented and the discussions that took place at the Third International Workshop on ALARA Implementation at Nuclear Power Plants, held in Hauppauge, Long Island, New York from May 8--11, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together scientists, engineers, health physicists, regulators, managers and other persons who are involved with occupational dose control and ALARA issues. The countries represented were: Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The workshop was organized into twelve sessions and three panel discussions. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. A practical approach for implementing risk-based inservice testing of pumps at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Maret, D.; Seniuk, P.; Smith, L.

    1996-12-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development`s (CRTD) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing has developed guidelines for risk-based inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves. These guidelines are intended to help the ASME Operation and Maintenance (OM) Committee to enhance plant safety while focussing appropriate testing resources on critical components. This paper describes a practical approach for implementing those guidelines for pumps at nuclear power plants. The approach, as described in this paper, relies on input, direction, and assistance from several entities such as the ASME Code Committees, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the National Laboratories, as well as industry groups and personnel with applicable expertise. Key parts of the risk-based IST process that are addressed here include: identification of important failure modes, identification of significant failure causes, assessing the effectiveness of testing and maintenance activities, development of alternative testing and maintenance strategies, and assessing the effectiveness of alternative testing strategies with present ASME Code requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a method of implementing this process into the ASME OM Code for pump testing.

  15. Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Program to Deal with Canada's Nuclear Legacy Liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter; Metcalfe, Douglas; Blanchette, Marcia; Dolinar, George; Halpenny, Steven; Purdy, Chris; Smith, David; Kupferschmidt, William

    2008-01-15

    The Government of Canada nuclear legacy liabilities have resulted from 60 years of nuclear research and development (R and D) carried out on behalf of Canada by the National Research Council (1944 to 1952) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, 1952 to present). These liabilities are largely located at AECL research sites, and consist of shutdown research buildings (including several prototype and research reactors), a wide variety of buried and stored wastes, and contaminated lands. The shutdown buildings and contaminated lands need to be safely decommissioned to meet federal regulatory requirements, and long-term solutions need to be developed and implemented for management of the wastes. More than half of the liabilities are the result of Cold War activities during the 1940's, 50's and early 60's. The remaining liabilities stem from R and D for medical isotopes and nuclear reactor technology, as well as national science programs. About 70 percent of the liabilities are located at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) in Ontario, and a further 20 percent are located at AECL's shutdown Whiteshell Laboratories in Manitoba. The remaining 10 percent relate largely to three shutdown prototype reactors in Ontario and Quebec, which were key to the developmental stage of Canada's CANDU reactor technology. The inventory of legacy waste includes spent fuel, high-level, intermediate-level and low-level solid and liquid radioactive waste, and wastes (largely contaminated soils) from site clean-up work across Canada. Most of the wastes are in raw, unconditioned form, and limited characterization information is available for the wastes generated in past decades. In many cases unique and potentially costly solutions will be required to recover, handle and process the wastes. In conclusion: the Government of Canada has initiated a program to deal with nuclear legacy liabilities dating back to the Cold War and the birth of nuclear technologies and medicine in Canada. The 5

  16. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3 Nuclear nonproliferation. (a) License requirements. Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 requires BIS to identify items subject to the EAR that could be of...

  17. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3 Nuclear nonproliferation. (a) License requirements. Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 requires BIS to identify items subject to the EAR that could be of...

  18. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3 Nuclear nonproliferation. (a) License requirements. Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 requires BIS to identify items subject to the EAR that could be of...

  19. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3 Nuclear nonproliferation. (a) License requirements. Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 requires BIS to identify items subject to the EAR that could be...

  20. Nuclear deterrence: New risks, new opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, C.M.; Kerr, F.J.; Quester, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons strategy. Topics considered include new technologies, arms control, risk assessment, nuclear winter, nuclear deterrence, military strategy, ballistic missile defense, proliferation, global military balance, West European politics, the Chinese view, non-proliferation policy, and first-use.

  1. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3 Nuclear nonproliferation. (a) License requirements. Section 309(c) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 requires BIS to identify items subject to the EAR that could be...

  2. [Implementing new technology in radiation oncology: The French agency for nuclear safety (ASN) report].

    PubMed

    Lartigau, É-F; Lisbona, A; Isambert, A; Cadot, P; Derreumaux, S; Dupuis, O; Gérard, J-P; Ledu, D; Mahé, M-A; Marchesi, V; Mazurier, J; De Oliveira, A; Phare, O; Aubert, B

    2015-10-01

    In August 2013, the French nuclear safety agency (ASN) requested the permanent group of experts in radiation protection in medicine (GPMED) to propose recommendations on the implementation of new technology and techniques in radiation oncology. These recommendations were finalized in February 2015 by the GPMED. In April 2015, the ASN sent a letter to the French ministry of health (DGS/DGOS), and its national health agencies (ANSM, INCa, HAS). In these letters, ASN proposed that, from the 12 recommendations made by the GPMED, an action plan should be established, whose control could be assigned to the French national cancer institute (INCa), as a pilot of the national committee for radiotherapy and that this proposal has to be considered at the next meeting of the national committee of radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Digital implementation of filters for nuclear applications using the discrete wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Belmonte, G.; Perez, J. M.; Fernandez-Marron, J. L.; Bisquert, J.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a novel digital pulse processing technique based on fast implementations of a modern signal analysis method known as the wavelet transform (WT). From the point of view of standard nuclear filtering, the whole analysis may be understood as the action of a bank of gaussian shapers. The algorithm permits the evaluation of relevant parameters on each pulse and, making use of this information, a spectral improvement is achieved in the response of HgI 2 detectors constructed in our laboratories. As the performance of these detectors is mainly limited by the hole trapping phenomenon, the introduction of a charge loss correction making use of the WT has been considered. In this work, the pulse processing has been carried out by transferring the digital recorded pulses to a computer where a software version of the algorithm is performed.

  4. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... of America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy'' (the Agreement). The Agreement prohibits the... United States of America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, dated 2010, Australian-obligated... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  5. Unified description of structure and reactions: implementing the nuclear field theory program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broglia, R. A.; Bortignon, P. F.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Idini, A.; Potel, G.

    2016-06-01

    The modern theory of the atomic nucleus results from the merging of the liquid drop model of Niels Bohr and Fritz Kalckar, and of the shell model of Marie Goeppert Meyer and Hans Jensen. The first model contributed the concepts of collective excitations. The second, those of independent-particle motion. The unification of these apparently contradictory views in terms of the particle-vibration and particle-rotation couplings carried out by Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson has allowed for an ever more complete, accurate and detailed description of nuclear structure. Nuclear field theory (NFT), developed by the Copenhagen-Buenos Aires collaboration, provided a powerful quantal embodiment of this unification. Reactions are not only at the basis of quantum mechanics (statistical interpretation, Max Born), but also the specific tools to probe the atomic nucleus. It is then natural that NFT is being extended to deal with processes which involve the continuum in an intrinsic fashion, so as to be able to treat them on an equal footing with those associated with bound states (structure). As a result, spectroscopic studies of transfer to continuum states could eventually make use of the NFT rules, properly extended to take care of recoil effects. In the present contribution we review the implementation of the NFT program of structure and reactions, setting special emphasis on open problems and outstanding predictions.

  6. Experimental implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Baugh, J; Moussa, O; Ryan, C A; Nayak, A; Laflamme, R

    2005-11-24

    The counter-intuitive properties of quantum mechanics have the potential to revolutionize information processing by enabling the development of efficient algorithms with no known classical counterparts. Harnessing this power requires the development of a set of building blocks, one of which is a method to initialize the set of quantum bits (qubits) to a known state. Additionally, fresh ancillary qubits must be available during the course of computation to achieve fault tolerance. In any physical system used to implement quantum computation, one must therefore be able to selectively and dynamically remove entropy from the part of the system that is to be mapped to qubits. One such method is an 'open-system' cooling protocol in which a subset of qubits can be brought into contact with an external system of large heat capacity. Theoretical efforts have led to an implementation-independent cooling procedure, namely heat-bath algorithmic cooling. These efforts have culminated with the proposal of an optimal algorithm, the partner-pairing algorithm, which was used to compute the physical limits of heat-bath algorithmic cooling. Here we report the experimental realization of multi-step cooling of a quantum system via heat-bath algorithmic cooling. The experiment was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance of a solid-state ensemble three-qubit system. We demonstrate the repeated repolarization of a particular qubit to an effective spin-bath temperature, and alternating logical operations within the three-qubit subspace to ultimately cool a second qubit below this temperature. Demonstration of the control necessary for these operations represents an important step forward in the manipulation of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance qubits.

  7. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  8. NON-PROLIFERATION IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR GNEP: ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    Radel, Ross; Rochau, Gary E

    2008-03-01

    This report evaluates transportation issues for nuclear material in the proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) fuel cycle. Since many details of the GNEP program are yet to be determined, this document is intended only to identify general issues. The existing regulatory environment is determined to be largely prepared to incorporate the changes that the GNEP program will introduce. Nuclear material vulnerability and attractiveness are considered with respect to the various transport stages within the GNEP fuel cycle. Physical protection options are then outlined for the transportation of this nuclear material. It is determined that increased transportation security will be required for the GNEP fuel cycle, particularly for international transport. Finally, transportation considerations for several fuel cycle scenarios are discussed. These scenarios compare the current "once-through" fuel cycle with various aspects of the proposed GNEP fuel cycle. 3

  9. DICOM image quantification secondary capture (DICOM IQSC) integrated with numeric results, regions, and curves: implementation and applications in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoyin; Voss, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we describe an enhanced DICOM Secondary Capture (SC) that integrates Image Quantification (IQ) results, Regions of Interest (ROIs), and Time Activity Curves (TACs) with screen shots by embedding extra medical imaging information into a standard DICOM header. A software toolkit of DICOM IQSC has been developed to implement the SC-centered information integration of quantitative analysis for routine practice of nuclear medicine. Primary experiments show that the DICOM IQSC method is simple and easy to implement seamlessly integrating post-processing workstations with PACS for archiving and retrieving IQ information. Additional DICOM IQSC applications in routine nuclear medicine and clinic research are also discussed.

  10. 76 FR 78805 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... America Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.'' The present NRC action is necessary to relocate a... / Tuesday, December 20, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 40... Nuclear Cooperation; Corrections AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule;...

  11. A resolution commemorating the 40th anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2010-03-08

    Senate - 04/13/2010 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 345. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Deployable Plume and Aerosol Release Prediction and Tracking System. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Task 1. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppe, John; Norris, William; Etezadi, Mehdi

    2006-07-19

    This contract was awarded in response to a proposal in which a deployable plume and aerosol release prediction and tracking system would be designed, fabricated, and tested. The system would gather real time atmospheric data and input it into a real time atmospheric model that could be used for plume predition and tracking. The system would be able to be quickly deployed by aircraft to points of interest or positioned for deployment by vehicles. The system would provide three dimensional (u, v, and w) wind vector data, inversion height measurements, surface wind information, classical weather station data, and solar radiation. The on-board real time computer model would provide the prediction of the behavior of plumes and released aerosols.

  13. Defense Nuclear Enterprise: DOD Has Established Processes for Implementing and Tracking Recommendations to Improve Leadership, Morale, and Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    guidance (including the Secretary of Defense memo Nuclear Enterprise Review Corrective Action Implementation), and documents from the Office of Cost ...the recommendations. The tracking tool currently contains hundreds of unique milestones and metrics, and additional milestones and metrics are still...holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately. The Government Accountability Office, the audit

  14. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman

    2013-04-01

    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  15. Experience in implementation of «Nuclear Knowledge Management» course at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Kosilov, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of teaching «Nuclear Knowledge Management» course at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). Currently, the course is implemented both in engineer and master degree programs and is attended by over 50 students. Goal, objectives and syllabus of the course are discussed in detail. A special attention is paid to practical exercises and final examination options in the case of small and large student groups. The course is supported by the Cyber Learning Platform for Nuclear Education and Training (CLP4NET), developed by the IAEA. The experience of NRNU MEPhI lecturers assisting in conducting the International School of Nuclear Knowledge Management, held annually in Trieste (Italy), is described with a special attention to the fact, that the course has passed the certification process at Academic Council of NRNU MEPhI. In 2014 and 2015 the course has been recognized as one of the best ones in NRNU MEPhI. Finally, perspectives of «Nuclear Knowledge Management» course are considered. They include increase of the course duration, introduction of the course into the learning process of other departments and institutions of the university, and transferring the course to other members of the Association «Consortium of ROSATOM supporting universities».

  16. Comparison of the non-proliferation event aftershocks with other Nevada Test Site events

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.; Goldstein, P.; Zucca, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    As part of a larger effort to develop technology for on-site inspection of ambiguous underground seismic events, we have been working to identify phenomenology of aftershock seismicity which would be useful for discriminating between nuclear explosions, chemical explosions, earthquakes or other seismic events. Phenomenology we have investigated includes; the spatial distribution of aftershocks, the number of aftershocks as a function of time after the main event, the size of the aftershocks, and waveform frequency content. Our major conclusions are: (1) Depending on local geologic conditions, aftershock production rate two weeks after zero time ranges from 1 to 100 per day. (2) Aftershocks of concentrated chemical explosions such as the NPE are indistinguishable from aftershocks of nuclear explosions. (3) Earthquake and explosion aftershock sequences may be differentiated on the basis of depth, magnitude, and in some cases, frequency content of seismic signals.

  17. Applications of nuclear physics

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-10

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applicationsmore » of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.« less

  18. Applications of nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  19. Applications of nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  20. Post-Cold War Effects on the Non-proliferation Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Carol E.

    2006-03-31

    This journal article analyzes nuclear and security related events of the past 15 years to illustrate the changes in geopolitics and the shifting balance of power following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Reflection upon these events establishes the context for strengthening the nonproliferation regime. The author concludes that post Soviet communism hastened the movement towards a unipolar system with hegemonic power vested in the United States, and this geopolitical imbalance fostered insecurities and greater threats. Multilateral cooperation and commitment from the US would help this leader achieve its goal of security through increased global confidence in the international system.

  1. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  2. Implementation of a new energy-angular distribution of particles emitted by deuteron induced nuclear reaction in transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvan, Patrick; Koning, Arjan; Ogando, Francisco; Sanz, Javier

    2017-09-01

    MCUNED code is an MCNPX extension able to handle evaluated nuclear data library for light ion transport simulations. In this work the MCUNED code is improved to describe more accurately the neutron emission during deuteron induced nuclear reaction. This code update consists in introducing a new methodology to take into account the angular distribution of neutron produced by deuteron breakup reaction. To carry out this work a new formulation for the angular distribution of neutrons produced by breakup reaction has been proposed. The implementation of this new methodology requires the use of extra parameters which are provided by the nuclear code TALYS and stored in the ENDF file. This new methodology shows significant improvement in comparison with the former treatment of neutron emission kinematics, these results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. Radiation doses of employees of a Nuclear Medicine Department after implementation of more rigorous radiation protection methods.

    PubMed

    Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Supinska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H; Zorga, Piotr; Birkenfeld, Bozena

    2013-11-01

    The appropriate radiation protection measures applied in departments of nuclear medicine should lead to a reduction in doses received by the employees. During 1991-2007, at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Pomeranian Medical University (Szczecin, Poland), nurses received on average two-times higher (4.6 mSv) annual doses to the whole body than those received by radiopharmacy technicians. The purpose of this work was to examine whether implementation of changes in the radiation protection protocol will considerably influence the reduction in whole-body doses received by the staff that are the most exposed. A reduction in nurses' exposure by ~63 % took place in 2008-11, whereas the exposure of radiopharmacy technicians grew by no more than 22 % in comparison with that in the period 1991-2007. Proper reorganisation of the work in departments of nuclear medicine can considerably affect dose reduction and bring about equal distribution of the exposure.

  4. What's There to Debate about Nuclear Energy? Promoting Multidimensional Science Literacy by Implementing STS Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Elise; Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.; Stumpe, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this lesson, the teacher begins by reviewing some key energy topics with the students. Next, students are asked to focus closely on nuclear energy as a viable resource by closely reading, highlighting, and annotating an article regarding the future of nuclear energy. The culminating activity and evaluation of students understanding of energy…

  5. What's There to Debate about Nuclear Energy? Promoting Multidimensional Science Literacy by Implementing STS Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley, Elise; Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.; Stumpe, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this lesson, the teacher begins by reviewing some key energy topics with the students. Next, students are asked to focus closely on nuclear energy as a viable resource by closely reading, highlighting, and annotating an article regarding the future of nuclear energy. The culminating activity and evaluation of students understanding of energy…

  6. The nuclear dilemma and the just war tradition

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.V.; Langan, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the concept of a ''just'' war, national defense, political aspects, religion and politics, the failure of deterrence, conventional warfare, nuclear deterrence and democratic politics, the future of the nuclear debate, non-proliferation policy, arms control, national security, and government policies.

  7. Nuclear Weapons: DOD’s Plan for Implementing Nuclear Reductions Generally Addresses Statutory Requirements but Lacks Some Detail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-11

    on February 5, 2011.2 Section 1042 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 required the Department of Defense (DOD) to...on its plan to implement New START. Section 1042 also mandates that we submit a review of DOD’s plan.4...the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, U.S.-Russ., Apr. 8, 2010, T.I.A.S. No. 11-205. 3 Pub. L. No. 112-81, § 1042 (a

  8. Strengthening IAEA safeguards in an era of nuclear cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.

    1995-11-01

    Since the end of the Cold War the world has witnessed a remarkable series of events demonstrating that universal adherence to the principles of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament are no longer utopian dreams. The author reviews the actions of various countries to terminate or reduce nuclear weapons programs and those that are resisting the non-proliferation efforts. The author addresses efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to safeguard declared nuclear material more cost-effectively and deal with the possibility of undeclared nuclear activities.

  9. Status of the DOE`s foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel acceptance program

    SciTech Connect

    Chacey, K.; Saris, E.C.

    1997-12-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the U.S. Department of State (DOS), adopted a policy to accept and manage in the United States {approximately}20 tonnes of spent nuclear fuel from research reactors in up to 41 countries. This spent fuel is being accepted under the nuclear weapons non-proliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Only spent fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States is covered under this policy. Implementing this policy is a top priority of the DOE. The purpose of this paper is to provide the current status of the foreign research reactor acceptance program, including achievements to date and future challenges.

  10. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

    2012-10-01

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 ± 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 ± 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 ± 1.53 and 4.18 ± 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to

  11. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E

    2012-10-23

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the

  12. Programs that support non-proliferation and defense conversion funded by the US Government

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.

    1994-08-01

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons is a serious problem for international security. Consequently the U.S. government has established an array of programs to fund activities that will inhibit this activity. The problem of proliferation and defense conversion, in general, is quite complicated. The most immediate concern is the actual diversion of weapons materials. In the long term; however, weapons of mass destruction must be destroyed in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Ultimately the solution of the proliferation problem lies in the redirection of the intellectual skills of weapons scientists and engineers to peaceful commercial activities. At the present time the economic conditions in the New Independent States create severe pressure on people with critical weapons knowledge to sell their skills to political entities that are dangerous. There are four programs to be discussed in this paper. The first is the {open_quotes}Nunn-Lugar{close_quotes} program which is the largest and is administered by the Department of Defense. Between FY92 and FY94 Congress authorized $1.2B for this activity which is aimed at weapons destruction, storage, and safeguards. The second is the International Science and Technology Center in Moscow and the Science Center about to open in Ukraine. These are joint efforts involving the U.S., the European Community, and Japan to fund projects to prevent proliferation and foster commercial technological activity in Russia, Georgia, and Ukraine. The New Independent States - Industrial Partnering Program is a $35M (FY94) program jointly administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of State.

  13. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  14. Overview of implementing a project control system in the nuclear utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooprider, D.H. )

    1994-03-01

    During the late 1980s, a metamorphosis began at Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). A strategic step in nuclear engineering's efforts to become more cost effective began in January 1990. A project control department was formed. The initial mission was to provide support for nuclear engineering design activities associated with FPL's two twin-unit nuclear power generation facilities - Turkey Point and St. Lucie. Later, the goal expanded to include the division's materials management, nuclear licensing, and information management departments. The project control group was organized along the lines of the organizations served. Separate dedicated groups were established for each plant. Since most engineering activity was based at the Juno Beach headquarters, the project control staff also was based there.

  15. Implementation of a tree algorithm in MCNP code for nuclear well logging applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Fusheng; Han, Xiaogang

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop some modeling capabilities that are missing in the current MCNP code. Those missing capabilities can greatly help for some certain nuclear tools designs, such as a nuclear lithology/mineralogy spectroscopy tool. The new capabilities to be developed in this paper include the following: zone tally, neutron interaction tally, gamma rays index tally and enhanced pulse-height tally. The patched MCNP code also can be used to compute neutron slowing-down length and thermal neutron diffusion length.

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFETY BOARD RECOMMENDATION 2000-2 AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Wu, C.

    2002-02-26

    The Defense Nuclear Safeties Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 2000-2 on March 8, 2000, concerning the degrading conditions of vital safety systems, or systems important to nuclear safety, at DOE sites across the nation. The Board recommended that the DOE take action to assess the condition of its nuclear systems to ensure continued operational readiness of vital safety systems that are important for safely accomplishing the DOE's mission. To verify the readiness of vital safety systems, a two-phased approach was established. Phase I consisted of a qualitative assessment to approved criteria of the defined vital safety systems by operating contractor personnel, overseen by Federal field office personnel. Based on Phase I Assessment results, vital safety systems with significant deficiencies would be further assessed in Phase II, a more extensive quantitative assessment, by a contractor and Federal team, using a second set of criteria. In addition, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 2000-2 concluded that the degradation of confinement ventilation systems was of major concern, and issued a separate set of criteria to perform a Phase II Assessment on confinement ventilation systems.

  17. Experimental implementation of a three qubit quantum game with corrupt source using nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Avik; Sivapriya, K; Kumar, Anil

    2007-08-01

    In a three player quantum 'Dilemma' game each player takes independent decisions to maximize his/her individual gain. The optimal strategy in the quantum version of this game has a higher payoff compared to its classical counterpart. However, this advantage is lost if the initial qubits provided to the players are from a noisy source. We have experimentally implemented the three player quantum version of the 'Dilemma' game as described by Johnson, [N.F. Johnson, Phys. Rev. A 63 (2001) 020302(R)] using nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor and have experimentally verified that the payoff of the quantum game for various levels of corruption matches the theoretical payoff.

  18. Implementation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes elements for the set of activities to ensure that control strategies are put into effect and that air quality goals and standards are fulfilled, permitting programs, and additional resources related to implementation under the Clean Air Act.

  19. 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech

    DOE PAGES

    Goldston, R. J.

    2016-12-19

    This is the 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech of R.J. Goldston: It is a great pleasure to receive the 2015 Nuclear Fusion award for my work developing a heuristic drift-based model for the power scrape-off width in tokamaks. I was particularly pleased to receive the award from IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, whose thoughtful leadership has advanced the cause of nuclear non-proliferation mightily.

  20. Experience and advantages in implementation of educational program in network form at Department «Closed nuclear fuel cycle Technologies» of National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI»

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beygel‧, A. G.; Kutsenko, K. V.; Lavrukhin, A. A.; Magomedbekov, E. P.; Pershukov, V. A.; Sofronov, V. L.; Tyupina, E. A.; Zhiganov, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The experience of implementation of the basic educational program of magistracy on direction «Nuclear Physics and Technologies» in a network form is presented. Examples of joint implementation of the educational process with employers organizations, other universities and intranet mobility of students are given.

  1. Implementation of focused ion beam (FIB) system in characterization of nuclear fuels and materials.

    PubMed

    Aitkaliyeva, A; Madden, J W; Miller, B D; Cole, J I

    2014-12-01

    Beginning in 2007, a program was established at the Idaho National Laboratory to update key capabilities enabling microstructural and micro-chemical characterization of highly irradiated and/or radiologically contaminated nuclear fuels and materials at scales that previously had not been achieved for these types of materials. Such materials typically cannot be contact handled and pose unique hazards to instrument operators, facilities, and associated personnel. Over the ensuing years, techniques have been developed and operational experience gained that has enabled significant advancement in the ability to characterize a variety of fuel types including metallic, ceramic, and coated particle fuels, obtaining insights into in-reactor degradation phenomena not achievable by any other means. The following article describes insights gained, challenges encountered, and provides examples of unique results obtained in adapting dual beam FIB technology to nuclear fuels characterization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Implementing Stakeholders' Access to Expertise: Experimenting on Nuclear Installations' Safety Cases - 12160

    SciTech Connect

    Gilli, Ludivine; Charron, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    In 2009 and 2010, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (IRSN) led two pilot actions dealing with nuclear installations' safety cases. One concerned the periodical review of the French 900 MWe nuclear reactors, the other concerned the decommissioning of a workshop located on the site of Areva's La Hague fuel-reprocessing plant site in Northwestern France. The purpose of both these programs was to test ways for IRSN and a small number of stakeholders (Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) members, local elected officials, etc.) to engage in technical discussions. The discussions were intended to enable the stakeholders to review future applications and provide valuable input. The test cases confirmed there is a definite challenge in successfully opening a meaningful dialogue to discuss technical issues, in particular the fact that most expertise reports were not public and the conflict that exists between the contrary demands of transparency and confidentiality of information. The test case also confirmed there are ways to further improvement of stakeholders' involvement. (authors)

  3. Development of undergraduate nuclear security curriculum at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Nasri A.; Mujaini, Madihah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    The Center for Nuclear Energy (CNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) has a great responsibility to undertake educational activities that promote developing human capital in the area of nuclear engineering and technology. Developing human capital in nuclear through education programs is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in Malaysia in the near future. In addition, the educational program must also meet the nuclear power industry needs and requirements. In developing a certain curriculum, the contents must comply with the university's Outcomes Based Education (OBE) philosophy. One of the important courses in the nuclear curriculum is in the area of nuclear security. Basically the nuclear security course covers the current issues of law, politics, military strategy, and technology with regard to weapons of mass destruction and related topics in international security, and review legal regulations and political relationship that determine the state of nuclear security at the moment. In addition, the course looks into all aspects of the nuclear safeguards, builds basic knowledge and understanding of nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear forensics and nuclear safeguards in general. The course also discusses tools used to combat nuclear proliferation such as treaties, institutions, multilateral arrangements and technology controls. In this paper, we elaborate the development of undergraduate nuclear security course at the College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Since the course is categorized as mechanical engineering subject, it must be developed in tandem with the program educational objectives (PEO) of the Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering program. The course outcomes (CO) and transferrable skills are also identified. Furthermore, in aligning the CO with program outcomes (PO), the PO elements need to be emphasized through the CO-PO mapping. As such, all assessments and distribution of Bloom Taxonomy

  4. [Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year.

  5. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  6. The nuclear debate: Issues and politics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the political aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include arms control, decision making, foreign policy, cruise missiles, non-proliferation policy, international cooperation, forecasting, NATO, military strategy, politics and the peace movement in the United Kingdom, and continental European peace movements.

  7. Strategic nuclear policy and non-preliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Warnke, P.C.

    1994-05-01

    A year from now, in April of 1995, a conference will be convened to consider the extension of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This is mandated by the treaty itself, which provides that 25 years after its effective date, March 5, 1970, the parties are to meet to determine the length of any extension.

  8. Nuclear proliferation-resistance and safeguards for future nuclear fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuno, Y.; Inoue, N.; Senzaki, M.

    2009-03-01

    Corresponding to the world nuclear security concerns, future nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) should have high proliferation-resistance (PR) and physical protection (PP), while promotion of the peaceful use of the nuclear energy must not be inhibited. In order to accomplish nuclear non-proliferation from NFC, a few models of the well-PR systems should be developed so that international community can recognize them as worldwide norms. To find a good balance of 'safeguard-ability (so-called extrinsic measure or institutional barrier)' and 'impede-ability (intrinsic feature or technical barrier)' will come to be essential for NFC designers to optimize civilian nuclear technology with nuclear non-proliferation, although the advanced safeguards with high detectability can still play a dominant role for PR in the states complying with full institutional controls. Accomplishment of such goal in a good economic efficiency is a future key challenge.

  9. Implementation of ALARA at the design stage of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brissaud, A.; Ridoux, P.

    1995-03-01

    In the 1970s, Electricite de France (EdF) had limited knowledge and experience of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Electricity generation by nuclear units was oriented towards gas-graphite reactors, even though EdF had a share in the PWR unit of CHOOZ A-1 (250 MWe, later upgraded to 320 MWe). Some facts about the origin of doses in that king of reactor were known to the research and development (R&D) support staff of EdF, which mainly comprises the French Atomic Commission (CEA), but only a few of EdF`s engineers were aware of these facts. One has to bear in mind that CHOOZ A-1 only went critical in April 1967 and was officially connected to the grid in May 1970 after some important problems had been solved. Meanwhile, the nuclear program was launched at full speed, beginning with the order for FESSENHEIM 1 in 1970, FESSENHEIM 2 and BUGEY 2 and 3 in 1971. TIHANGE 1, in which EdF had a share, went on-line in September 1975. Also, supposing that EdF had had such knowledge and experience, it is quite evident that it would have been very difficult to modify the lay-out inside the reactor building.

  10. Barriers and solutions in implementing occupational health and safety services at a large nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Takaro, T K; Ertell, K; Salazar, M K; Beaudet, N; Stover, B; Hagopian, A; Omenn, G; Barnhart, S

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's largest nuclear weapons sites. The enormous changes experienced by Hanford over the last several years, as its mission has shifted from weapons production to cleanup, has profoundly affected its occupational health and safety services. Innovative programs and new initiatives hold promise for a safer workplace for the thousands of workers at Hanford and other DOE sites. However, occupational health and safety professionals continue to face multiple organizational, economic, and cultural challenges. A major problem identified during this review was the lack of coordination of onsite services. Because each health and safety program operates independently (albeit with the guidance of the Richland field operations office), many services are duplicative and the health and safety system is fragmented. The fragmentation is compounded by the lack of centralized data repositories for demographic and exposure data. Innovative measures such as a questionnaire-driven Employee Job Task Analysis linked to medical examinations has allowed the site to move from the inefficient and potentially dangerous administrative medical monitoring assignment to defensible risk-based assignments and could serve as a framework for improving centralized data management and service delivery.

  11. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  12. A Novel Fuel/Reactor Cycle to Implement the 300 Years Nuclear Waste Policy Approach - 12377

    SciTech Connect

    Carelli, M.D.; Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Petrovic, B.

    2012-07-01

    A thorium-based fuel cycle system can effectively burn the currently accumulated commercial used nuclear fuel and move to a sustainable equilibrium where the actinide levels in the high level waste are low enough to yield a radiotoxicity after 300 years lower than that of the equivalent uranium ore. The second step of the Westinghouse approach to solving the waste 'problem' has been completed. The thorium fuel cycle has indeed the potential of burning the legacy TRU and achieve the waste objective proposed. Initial evaluations have been started for the third step, development and selection of appropriate reactors. Indications are that the probability of show-stoppers is rather remote. It is, therefore, believed that development of the thorium cycle and associated technologies will provide a permanent solution to the waste management. Westinghouse is open to the widest collaboration to make this a reality. (authors)

  13. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    SciTech Connect

    Gales, S. Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-02-24

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  14. Verification of screening level for decontamination implemented after Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The screening level for decontamination that has been applied for the surface of the human body and contaminated handled objects after the Fukushima nuclear accident was verified by assessing the doses that arise from external irradiation, ingestion, inhalation and skin contamination. The result shows that the annual effective dose that arises from handled objects contaminated with the screening level for decontamination (i.e. 100 000 counts per minute) is <1 mSv y−1, which can be considered as the intervention exemption level in accordance with the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. Furthermore, the screening level is also found to protect the skin from the incidence of a deterministic effect because the absorbed dose of the skin that arises from direct deposition on the surface of the human body is calculated to be lower than the threshold of the deterministic effect assuming a practical exposure duration. PMID:22228683

  15. Implementing a Nuclear Power Plant Model for Evaluating Load-Following Capability on a Small Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arda, Samet Egemen

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) model is introduced into Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) software by General Electric in order to evaluate the load-following capability of NPPs. The nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) consists of a reactor core, hot and cold legs, plenums, and a U-tube steam generator. The physical systems listed above are represented by mathematical models utilizing a state variable lumped parameter approach. A steady-state control program for the reactor, and simple turbine and governor models are also developed. Adequacy of the isolated reactor core, the isolated steam generator, and the complete PWR models are tested in Matlab/Simulink and dynamic responses are compared with the test results obtained from the H. B. Robinson NPP. Test results illustrate that the developed models represents the dynamic features of real-physical systems and are capable of predicting responses due to small perturbations of external reactivity and steam valve opening. Subsequently, the NSSS representation is incorporated into PSLF and coupled with built-in excitation system and generator models. Different simulation cases are run when sudden loss of generation occurs in a small power system which includes hydroelectric and natural gas power plants besides the developed PWR NPP. The conclusion is that the NPP can respond to a disturbance in the power system without exceeding any design and safety limits if appropriate operational conditions, such as achieving the NPP turbine control by adjusting the speed of the steam valve, are met. In other words, the NPP can participate in the control of system frequency and improve the overall power system performance.

  16. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, C.L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W.J.

    2014-06-15

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  17. The Science of Nuclear Materials: A Modular, Laboratory-based Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. L.; Feldman, G.; Briscoe, W. J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of a curriculum for nuclear materials courses targeting students pursuing Master of Arts degrees at The George Washington University is described. The courses include basic concepts such as radiation and radioactivity as well as more complex topics such the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons, radiation detection and technological aspects of non-proliferation.

  18. Development and implementation of an automatic control algorithm for the University of Utah nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Kevan C.; Sandquist, Gary M.

    1990-07-01

    The emphasis of this work is the development and implementation of an automatic control philosophy which uses the classical operational philosophies as a foundation. Three control algorithms were derived based on various simplifying assumptions. Two of the algorithms were tested in computer simulations. After realizing the insensitivity of the system to the simplifications, the most reduced form of the algorithms was implemented on the computer control system at the University of Utah (UNEL). Since the operational philosophies have a higher priority than automatic control, they determine when automatic control may be utilized. Unlike the operational philosophies, automatic control is not concerned with component failures. The object of this philosophy is the movement of absorber rods to produce a requested power. When the current power level is compared to the requested power level, an error may be detected which will require the movement of a control rod to correct the error. The automatic control philosophy adds another dimension to the classical operational philosophies. Using this philosophy, normal operator interactions with the computer would be limited only to run parameters such as power, period, and run time. This eliminates subjective judgements, objective judgements under pressure, and distractions to the operator and insures the reactor will be operated in a safe and controlled manner as well as providing reproducible operations.

  19. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  20. Pipeline Implementation of Real Time Event Cross Correlation for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junek, W. N.; Wehlen, J. A., III

    2014-12-01

    The United States National Data Center (US NDC) is responsible for monitoring international compliance to nuclear test ban treaties. This mission is performed through real time acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data acquired by a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic sensors. Automatic and human reviewed event solutions are stored in a data warehouse which contains over 15 years of alphanumeric information and waveform data. A significant effort is underway to employ the data warehouse in real time processing to improve the quality of automatic event solutions, reduce analyst burden, and supply decision makers with information regarding relevant historic events. To this end, the US NDC processing pipeline has been modified to automatically recognize events built in the past. Event similarity information and the most relevant historic solution are passed to the human analyst to assist their evaluation of automatically formed events. This is achieved through real time cross correlation of selected seismograms from automatically formed events against those stored in the data warehouse. Historic events used in correlation analysis are selected based on a set of user defined parameters, which are tuned to maintain pipeline timeliness requirements. Software architecture and database infrastructure were modified using a multithreaded design for increased processing speed, database connection pools for parallel queries, and Oracle spatial indexing to enhance query efficiency. This functionality allows the human analyst to spend more time studying anomalous events and less time rebuilding routine events.

  1. Safety regulations of food and water implemented in the first year following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    An earthquake and tsunami of historic proportions caused massive damage across the northeastern coast of Japan on the afternoon of 11 March 2011, and the release of radionuclides from the stricken reactors of the Fukushima nuclear power plant 1 was detected early on the next morning. High levels of radioiodines and radiocesiums were detected in the topsoil and plants on 15 March 2011, so sampling of food and water for monitoring surveys began on 16 March 2011. On 17 March 2011, provisional regulation values for radioiodine, radiocesiums, uranium, plutonium and other transuranic α emitters were set to regulate the safety of radioactively contaminated food and water. On 21 March 2011, the first restrictions on distribution and consumption of contaminated items were ordered. So far, tap water, raw milk, vegetables, mushrooms, fruit, nut, seaweeds, marine invertebrates, coastal fish, freshwater fish, beef, wild animal meat, brown rice, wheat, tea leaves and other foodstuffs had been contaminated above the provisional regulation values. The provisional regulation values for radioiodine were exceeded in samples taken from 16 March 2011 to 21 May 2011, and those for radiocesiums from 18 March 2011 to date. All restrictions were imposed within 318 days after the provisional regulation values were first exceeded for each item. This paper summarizes the policy for the execution of monitoring surveys and restrictions, and the outlines of the monitoring results of 220 411 samples and the enforced restrictions predicated on the information available as of 31 March 2012. PMID:22843368

  2. Implementation of a new model for gravitational collision cross sections in nuclear aerosol codes

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.L.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1995-03-01

    Models currently used in aerosol source codes for the gravitational collision efficiency are deficient in not accounting fully for two particle hydrodynamics (interception and inertia), which becomes important for larger particles. A computer code that accounts for these effects in calculating particle trajectories is used to find values of efficiency for a range of particle sizes. Simple fits to these data as a function of large particle diameter for a given particle diameter ratio are then obtained using standard linear regression, and a new model is constructed. This model is then implemented into two computer codes. AEROMECH and CONTAIN, Version 1.2 For a test problem, concentration distributions obtained with the new model and the standard model for efficiency are found to be markedly different.

  3. A nuclear training simulator implementing a capability for multiple, concurrent-training sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneveld, B.J.; Nannister, D.G.; Estes, K.R.; Johnsen, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Simulator at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently been upgraded to reflect plant installation of a distributed control system (DCS). The ATR Simulator re-design implements traditional needs for software extensibility and plant installation prototyping, but the driving force behind its new design was an instruction requirement for multiple, concurrent-training sessions. Support is provided for up to three concurrent, independent or interacting, training sessions of reactor, balance of plant, and experiment loop operators. This capability has been achieved by modifying the existing design to consistently apply client-server, parent-child, and peer-to-peer processing technologies, and then to encapsulate concurrency software into all interfaces. When the resulting component-oriented design is linked with build and runtime flexibility in a distributed computing environment, traditional needs for extensibility and parallel software and scenario development are satisfied with minimal additional effort. Sensible configuration management practices coupled with the ability to perform piecewise system builds also greatly facilitate prototyping of plant changes prior to installation.

  4. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  5. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  6. Results and experience of 10 years of US-Ukraine cooperation in the MPC&A field at the Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, V. I.; Vishnevski, I. N.; Kirischuk, V. I.; Romanova, O. P.; Robinson, P.; Dickerson, S.; Kuzmycz, G.; Sheppard, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was the first Ukrainian organization to begin the implementation of Agreements of October 25 and December 18, 1993 between Ukraine and the US. Over a relatively short period of time and with the financial, technical and methodological assistance of the US DOE, the Institute for Nuclear Research was able to develop a modern system of physical protection of nuclear materials and its Research Reactor. The rapid progress of this work was aided by the diligence of the US-Ukraine group (Argonne and Sandia National Labs and the Institute for Nuclear Research) under the supervision of George Kuzmycz, a US DOE employee, and prompt resolution of numerous issues by the government authorities of the USA and Ukraine. The fresh fuel and nuclear materials storage were established in full compliance with international requirements. A modern MC&A system was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research with the US assistance as well. The experience gained during the work with the Institute for Nuclear Research was used successfully by the US and Ukrainian parties at other nuclear facilities of Ukraine. The advanced training of Ukrainian specialists organized by the US DOE has played a very important role in the efficient use of the US Government assistance. Later on the Training Center for Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material, named in honor of the late George Kuzmycz, was established at the Institute for Nuclear Research with the US assistance as well. The example of KINR allows us to say that US-Ukrainian cooperation and US MPC&A assistance to Ukraine has been implemented successfully and significant contributions have been made to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Along with this, we, at the KINR and its GKTC realize, that there is great deal of work ahead of us that we need to do in order to make our modest contribution into the implementation of the nuclear weapons non-proliferation

  7. Soviet Union and nuclear proliferation: policy at a crossroads. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, R.L.

    1988-04-02

    The Soviet Union has been a major participant of the regime of nations dedicated to limiting the spread of nuclear weapons. Since the early 1960's the Soviet Union has worked closely with the United States to limit nuclear proliferation. In no other area of international relations have the stated goals of the two superpowers been more closely aligned. Recent events indicate that the Soviet Union has parted from the original intent of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and of the International Atomic Energy Association nuclear safeguards and has begun assisting nations that are not participants of the non-proliferation regime. While not specifically calling for a revision of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, the Soviet Union has unilaterally assisted in the spread of nuclear technology to nations that have refused to become members of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This assistance is examined in the context of the overall Soviet nuclear nonproliferation policy or simply placing political goals above that of international agreements is examined. The paper concludes that the Soviet Union will use nuclear technology as a tool to further its strategic goals.

  8. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  9. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  10. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  11. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 5: Nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study is presented. The evolution of the NEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines, and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  12. Science and National and International Security: the role of Physics in Non-proliferation and counter-terroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartouni, Edward P.

    2006-04-01

    Compliance with international agreements as well as detecting clandestine activities are often limited by the technical capabilities of those enforcing the agreements and national and international law. Further, some technological solutions may violate personal liberties, offend local cultural sensibilities or fail to have the desired detection specificity. Many of these solutions exploit fundamental physical properties to provide specific ``signatures.'' The ability to implement these ``signatures'' into effective monitoring schemes is one role science plays on the scene of national and international security.

  13. Vertical nuclear proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2007-01-01

    All the nuclear-weapon states are working to develop new nuclear-weapon systems and upgrade their existing ones. Although the US Congress has recently blocked further development of small nuclear weapons and earth-penetrating nuclear weapons, the United States is planning a range of new warheads under the Reliable Replacement Warhead programme, and renewing its nuclear weapons infrastructure. The United Kingdom is spending 1 billion pounds sterling on updating the Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston, and about 20 billion pounds sterling on replacing its Vanguard submarines and maintaining its Trident warhead stockpile. The US has withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and plans to install missile defence systems in Poland and the Czech Republic; Russia threatens to upgrade its nuclear countermeasures. The nuclear-weapon states should comply with their obligations under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, as summarised in the 13-point plan agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference, and they should negotiate a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  14. Management and non-supervisory perceptions surrounding the implementation and significance of high-performance work practices in a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbridge, Gayle Ann

    Change management has become an imperative for organizations as they move into the 21st century; up to 75 percent of change initiatives fail. Nuclear power plants face the same challenges as industrial firms with the added challenge of deregulation. Faced with this challenge, restructuring the electric utility has raised a number of complex issues. Under traditional cost-of-service regulation, electric utilities were able to pass on their costs to consumers who absorbed them. In the new competitive environment, customers will now choose their suppliers based on the most competitive price. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of congruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel regarding the perceived implementation of high performance workplace practices at a nuclear power plant. This study used as its foundation the practices identified in the Road to High Performance Workplaces: A Guide to Better Jobs and Better Business Results by the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of the American Workplace (1994). The population for this study consisted of organizational members at one nuclear power plant. Over 300 individuals completed surveys on high performance workplace practices. Two surveys were administered, one to non-supervisory personnel and one to first line supervisors and above. The determination of implementation levels was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis. Results of the study revealed 32 areas of noncongruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel in regard to the perceived implementation level of the high performance workplace practices. Factor analysis further revealed that the order in which the respondents place emphasis on the variables varies between the two groups. This study provides recommendations that may improve the nuclear power plants alignment of activities. Recommendations are also provided for additional research on high-performance work practices.

  15. ``Spectral implementation'' for creating a labeled pseudo-pure state and the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm in a four-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinhua; Zhu, Xiwen; Fang, Ximing; Feng, Mang; Liu, Maili; Gao, Kelin

    2004-02-01

    A quantum circuit is introduced to describe the preparation of a labeled pseudo-pure state by multiplet-component excitation scheme which has been experimentally implemented on a 4-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Meanwhile, we theoretically analyze and numerically investigate the low-power selective single-pulse implementation of a controlled-rotation gate, which manifests its validity in our experiment. Based on the labeled pseudo-pure state prepared, a 3-qubit Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm has been experimentally demonstrated by spectral implementation. The "answers" of the computations are identified from the split peak positions in the spectra of the observer spin, which are equivalent to projective measurements required by the algorithms.

  16. A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  17. What North Korea wants. [North Korean nuclear policy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P. )

    1993-12-01

    In this article the author draws upon his experiences from his four trips to North Korea, during which he discussed nuclear issues with North Korean leaders, to help explain part of the North Korean reasoning behind its threats to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its gyrating nuclear policies. In essence, the author believes that North Korean nuclear policy is a result of Kim Jong Il's attempt to maintain the loyalty and obeisance of the elite. The article describes the political and economic factors which lead to North Korea's confrontation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and then discusses North Korea's immediate nuclear strategy.

  18. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  19. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  20. Implementing 10 CFR 830 at the FEMP Silos: Nuclear Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Patricia; Rutherford, Lavon

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the Silos Project at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) is to safely remediate high-grade uranium ore residues (Silos 1 and 2) and metal oxide residues (Silo 3). The evolution of Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities has reflected the changes in remediation processes. The final stage in silos DSAs is an interpretation of 10 CFR 830 Safe Harbor Requirements that combines a Health and Safety Plan with nuclear safety requirements. This paper will address the development of a Nuclear Health and Safety Plan, or N-HASP.

  1. Implementing New Methods of Laser Marking of Items in the Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System at SSC RF-IPPE: An Automated Laser Marking System

    SciTech Connect

    Regoushevsky, V I; Tambovtsev, S D; Dvukhsherstnov, V G; Efimenko, V F; Ilyantsev, A I; Russ III, G P

    2009-05-18

    For over ten years SSC RF-IPPE, together with the US DOE National Laboratories, has been working on implementing automated control and accountability methods for nuclear materials and other items. Initial efforts to use adhesive bar codes or ones printed (painted) onto metal revealed that these methods were inconvenient and lacked durability under operational conditions. For NM disk applications in critical stands, there is the additional requirement that labels not affect the neutron characteristics of the critical assembly. This is particularly true for the many stainless-steel clad disks containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium that are used at SSC RF-IPPE for modeling nuclear power reactors. In search of an alternate method for labeling these disks, we tested several technological options, including laser marking and two-dimensional codes. As a result, the method of laser coloring was chosen in combination with Data Matrix ECC200 symbology. To implement laser marking procedures for the HEU disks and meet all the nuclear material (NM) handling standards and rules, IPPE staff, with U.S. technical and financial support, implemented an automated laser marking system; there are also specially developed procedures for NM movements during laser marking. For the laser marking station, a Zenith 10F system by Telesis Technologies (10 watt Ytterbium Fiber Laser and Merlin software) is used. The presentation includes a flowchart for the automated system and a list of specially developed procedures with comments. Among other things, approaches are discussed for human-factor considerations. To date, markings have been applied to numerous steel-clad HEU disks, and the work continues. In the future this method is expected to be applied to other MC&A items.

  2. Implementation of the MPC and A Operations Monitoring (MOM) System at IRT-T FSRE Nuclear Power Institute (NPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sitdikov,I.; Zenkov, A.; Tsibulnikov, Y.; Duncan, C.; Brownell, L.; Pratt, W.T.; Carbonaro, J.; White, R.M.; Coffing, J.A.

    2008-07-13

    The Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program has been working since 1994 with nuclear sites in Russia to upgrade the physical protection (PP) and material control and accounting (MC&A) functions at facilities containing weapons usable nuclear material. In early 2001, the MPC&A program initiated the MPC&A Operations Monitoring (MOM) Project to monitor facilities where MPC&A upgrades have been installed to provide increased confidence that personnel are present and vigilant, provide confidence that security procedures are being properly performed and provide additional assurance that nuclear materials have not been stolen. The MOM project began as a pilot project at the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and a MOM system was successfully installed in October 2001. Following the success of the MEPhI pilot project, the MPC&A Program expanded the installation of MOM systems to several other Russian facilities, including the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) in Tomsk. The MOM system was made operational at NPI in October 2004. This paper is focused on the experience gained from operation of this system and the objectives of the MOM system. The paper also describes how the MOM system is used at NPI and, in particular, how the data is analyzed. Finally, potential expansion of the MOM system at NPI is described.

  3. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 3: Nuclear thermal rocket vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document presents the nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the NTR concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  4. CMBE v05-Implementation of a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at the present BNL energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossu, I. V.; Felea, D.; Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Stan, E.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, C.; Calin, M.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C.; Tuturas, N.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a new version of Chaos Many-Body Engine (CMBE) Grossu et al. (2014) [1]. Inspired by the Mean Free Path concept, we implemented a new parameter, namely the “Mean Free Time”, which is defined as the mean time between one particle’s creation and its stimulated decay. This new parameter should be understood as an effect of the nuclear environment and, as opposed to the particle lifetime, it has the advantage of not being affected by the relativistic dilation. In [2] we presented a toy-model for chaos analysis of relativistic nuclear collisions at 4.5 A GeV/c (the SKM 200 collaboration). In this work, we extended our model to 200 A GeV (the maximum BNL energy). Catalogue identifier: AEGH_v5_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGH_v5_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Microsoft Public License (Ms-PL) No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 638984 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15918340 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Visual C# .Net 2010 Computer: PC Operating system: .Net Framework 4.0 running on MS Windows RAM: 128 MB Classification: 24.60.Lz, 05.45.a Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGH_v4_0 Journal reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 185 (2014) 1339 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Toy-model for relativistic nuclear collisions at present BNL energies. Solution method: Relativistic many-body OOP engine, including a reactions module. Implementation of the “Mean Free Time” parameter; Implementation of a new example of use for relativistic nuclear collisions at present BNL energies. Implementation of a new parameter, namely the “Mean Free Time”, defined as the mean time between one particle’s creation and its stimulated decay. The Mean Free Time should be understood as an

  5. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    enterprises in the scientific and educational projects implemented through the Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation Center. This paper describes the development of the MPC&A engineering degree program and future goals of TPU in the field of nonproliferation education.

  6. Nuclear obligations: Nuremberg law, nuclear weapons, and protest

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear weapons use and deployment and nonviolent anti-nuclear protests are evaluated. Use of nuclear weapons would constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity as defined in both the Nuremberg Charter and Allied Control Council Law No. 10 and applied by the International Military Tribunal and other Nuremberg courts. Strategic and atomic bombing during World War 2 did not set a precedent for use of nuclear weapons. The consequentialist argument for World War 2 bombing fails and the bombing has also been repudiated by codification of the law of war in Protocol 1 to the 1949 Geneva Conventions. The legality of deploying nuclear weapons as instruments of geopolitical policy is questionable when measured against the Nuremberg proscription of planning and preparation of aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity and the United Nations Charter's proscription of aggressive threat of force. While states' practice of deploying the weapons and the arms-control treaties that regulate but do not prohibit mere possession provide some support for legality, those treaties recognize the imperative of preventing nuclear war, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits nuclear-armed states to good-faith negotiation of nuclear disarmament.

  7. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  8. Implementation of neutron counting techniques at US facilities for IAEA verification of excess materials from nuclear weapons production

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Reilly, T.D.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy, announced by President Clinton before the United Nations General Assembly on September 27, 1993, commits the U.S. to placing under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards excess nuclear materials no longer needed for the U.S. nuclear deterrent. As of July 1, 1995, the IAEA had completed Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) at two facilities: a storage vault in the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant containing highly enriched uranium (HOW) metal and another storage vault in the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) containing plutonium oxide and plutonium-bearing residues. Another plutonium- storage vault, located at Rocky Flats, is scheduled for the IPIV in the fall of 1995. Conventional neutron coincidence counting is one of the routinely applied IAEA nondestructive assay (ND) methods for verification of uranium and plutonium. However, at all three facilities mentioned above, neutron ND equipment had to be modified or developed for specific facility needs such as the type and configuration of material placed under safeguards. This document describes those modifications and developments.

  9. Design and implementation of remote robotic control system for nuclear power plant application achieved through kinesthetic force feedback model

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.

    1995-12-31

    The technology of telerobotic control through a universal and transparent Man-Machine Interface is a growing field of robotics research in today`s industrial scenario because of its promising application in hazardous and unstructured environments. The joystick, a sophisticated information receiver-translator-transmitter device, serves as a Man-Machine Interface for telerobots. The present paper describes the development paradigms of a remote control system for a planar four degrees-of-freedom joystick following position feed-forward force/torque feedback strategy in a bi-lateral mode. This joystick based control technology is designed to actuate an industrial robot working in nuclear power plant. The remote control system has been illustrated with model, algorithm, electronic hardware and software routines along with experimental results in order to have effective telemanipulation.

  10. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  11. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B process

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-15

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from {sup 11}B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+{sup 11}B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+{sup 11}B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+{sup 11}B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  12. Joint statement on strategic stability and nuclear security by the presidents of the United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin underscored that, with the end of the Cold War, major progress has been achieved with regard to strengthening global strategic stability and nuclear security. Both the United States and Russia are significantly reducing their nuclear forces. Important steps have been taken to detarget strategic missiles. Multilateral negotiations on a comprehensive nuclear test ban have begun. The Presidents noted the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in ensuring global stability.

  13. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  14. Management of Legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel Wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: The Challenges and Innovative Solutions Implemented - 13301

    SciTech Connect

    Schruder, Kristan; Goodwin, Derek

    2013-07-01

    AECL's Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) Project was initiated in 2004 to retrieve, transfer, and stabilize an identified inventory of degraded research reactor fuel that had been emplaced within in-ground 'Tile Hole' structures in Chalk River Laboratories' Waste Management Area in the 1950's and 60's. Ongoing monitoring of the legacy fuel storage conditions had identified that moisture present in the storage structures had contributed to corrosion of both the fuel and the storage containers. This prompted the initiation of the FPS Project which has as its objective to design, construct, and commission equipment and systems that would allow for the ongoing safe storage of this fuel until a final long-term management, or disposition, pathway was available. The FPS Project provides systems and technologies to retrieve and transfer the fuel from the Waste Management Area to a new facility that will repackage, dry, safely store and monitor the fuel for a period of 50 years. All equipment and the new storage facility are designed and constructed to meet the requirements for Class 1 Nuclear Facilities in Canada. (authors)

  15. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2–36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10–11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1–1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  16. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 1, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  17. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress. Volume 1, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  18. Nuclear Regulatory legislation: 103d Congress. Volume 2, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 103d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  19. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress. Volume 2, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection.

  20. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V.; Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  1. Implementation of On-the-Fly Doppler Broadening in MCNP5 for Multiphysics Simulation of Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    William Martin

    2012-11-16

    A new method to obtain Doppler broadened cross sections has been implemented into MCNP, removing the need to generate cross sections for isotopes at problem temperatures. Previous work had established the scientific feasibility of obtaining Doppler-broadened cross sections "on-the-fly" (OTF) during the random walk of the neutron. Thus, when a neutron of energy E enters a material region that is at some temperature T, the cross sections for that material at the exact temperature T are immediately obtained by interpolation using a high order functional expansion for the temperature dependence of the Doppler-broadened cross section for that isotope at the neutron energy E. A standalone Fortran code has been developed that generates the OTF library for any isotope that can be processed by NJOY. The OTF cross sections agree with the NJOY-based cross sections for all neutron energies and all temperatures in the range specified by the user, e.g., 250K - 3200K. The OTF methodology has been successfully implemented into the MCNP Monte Carlo code and has been tested on several test problems by comparing MCNP with conventional ACE cross sections versus MCNP with OTF cross sections. The test problems include the Doppler defect reactivity benchmark suite and two full-core VHTR configurations, including one with multiphysics coupling using RELAP5-3D/ATHENA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis. The comparison has been excellent, verifying that the OTF libraries can be used in place of the conventional ACE libraries generated at problem temperatures. In addition, it has been found that using OTF cross sections greatly reduces the complexity of the input for MCNP, especially for full-core temperature feedback calculations with many temperature regions. This results in an order of magnitude decrease in the number of input lines for full-core configurations, thus simplifying input preparation and reducing the potential for input errors. Finally, for full-core problems with multiphysics

  2. The Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. program to support disposition of enriched uranium-bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schutt, Stephen M.; Jacob, Norman P.

    2007-07-01

    The disposition of surplus nuclear materials has become one of the most pressing issues of our time. Numerous agencies have invoked programs with the purpose of removing such materials from various international venues and disposing these materials in a manner that achieves non-proliferability. This paper describes the Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc (NFS) Nuclear Material Disposition Program, which to date has focused on a variety of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), in particular uranium of various enrichments. The major components of this program are discussed, with emphasis on recycle and return of material to the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  3. Modernization of physical protection educational laboratories in the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Krasnoborodko, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-proliferation of nuclear materials includes, in addition to accounting and control, the Physical Protection (PP) of one. The paper considers the experience by MEPhI in application the practical educational in the area of PP technical systems. The following aspects are discussed in the paper: specific features graduate program in nuclear security area; overview of the practical course curricula in the special laboratory.

  4. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  5. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  6. Applications of Nuclear Science for Stewardship Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizewski, Jolie A.

    2013-03-01

    Stewardship science is research important to national security interests that include stockpile stewardship science, homeland security, nuclear forensics, and non-proliferation. To help address challenges in stewardship science and workforce development, the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) was inaugurated ten years ago by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The goal was to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper presents an overview of recent research in low-energy nuclear science supported by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances and the applications of this research to stewardship science.

  7. Nuclear Waste--Physics and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahearne, John H.

    1996-03-01

    Managing and disposing of radioactive waste are major policy and financial issues in the United States and many other countries. Low-level waste sites, once thought to be possible in many states, remain fixed at the few sites that have been operating for decades. High-level waste remains at former nuclear weapons facilities and at nuclear power plants, and the DOE estimates a repository is unlikely before 2010, at the earliest. Physics and chemistry issues relate to criticality, plutonium loading in glass, leach rates, and diffusion. The public policy issues concern non-proliferation, states' rights, stakeholder participation, and nuclear power. Cleaning up the legacy of cold war driven nuclear weapons production is estimated to cost at least $250 billion and take three-quarters of a century. Some possible steps towards resolution of these issues will be described.

  8. New approaches to nuclear proliferation policy.

    PubMed

    Nye, J S

    1992-05-29

    Nuclear proliferation is not one but a complex of problems. One relates to the collapse of the Soviet Union and its effect on the spread of nuclear weapons and knowledge. Second, Iraq's violation of its Non-Proliferation Treaty obligation has exposed certain weaknesses in the traditional regime of multilateral nonproliferation institutions and treaties. Third, Pakistan's achievement of a nuclear weapons capability in the late 1980s brings the postproliferation question to the forefront in South Asia. There is no single solution to this complex set of problems, but the beginning of wisdom is to build upon the successes of the past, add new policy procedures, and, above all, increase the priority given to the issue. Otherwise, we may be faced with the ironic outcome that the widely welcomed end of the Cold War may increase the prospect of nuclear use.

  9. The continuing risk of nuclear war.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC.

  10. Argentine nuclear development: capabilities and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Complacency was shattered in 1974 by the Indian explosion of a nuclear device developed from a civil nuclear program. The fear of nuclear weapon spread led the international system to consider the other states that could develop devices from what were assumed to be peaceful nuclear programs. Many states of the non-nuclear ranks, often the more developed states of the Third World, resented the nuclear suppliers weapon holders dictating to the developing states the types of technology that these states could handle. Some of these developing states had highly sophisticated nuclear programs that no longer rely on the suppliers for assistance. These states are using the options that their nuclear developments present in an attempt to alter the international system, or the balance of power, that has existed since the end of World War II. Argentina's nuclear program has become one of the most-sophisticated in the Third World. This work discusses the implications of the country's present capabilities as they affect Argentine actions in the foreign policy areas of nuclear commerce and the international nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime.

  11. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  12. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON NUCLEAR FACILITY DESIGN INFORMATION EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION FOR SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-10-01

    Executive Summary The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements nuclear safeguards and verifies countries are compliant with their international nuclear safeguards agreements. One of the key provisions in the safeguards agreement is the requirement that the country provide nuclear facility design and operating information to the IAEA relevant to safeguarding the facility, and at a very early stage. , This provides the opportunity for the IAEA to verify the safeguards-relevant features of the facility and to periodically ensure that those features have not changed. The national authorities (State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material - SSAC) provide the design information for all facilities within a country to the IAEA. The design information is conveyed using the IAEA’s Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) and specifies: (1) Identification of the facility’s general character, purpose, capacity, and location; (2) Description of the facility’s layout and nuclear material form, location, and flow; (3) Description of the features relating to nuclear material accounting, containment, and surveillance; and (4) Description of existing and proposed procedures for nuclear material accounting and control, with identification of nuclear material balance areas. The DIQ is updated as required by written addendum. IAEA safeguards inspectors examine and verify this information in design information examination (DIE) and design information verification (DIV) activities to confirm that the facility has been constructed or is being operated as declared by the facility operator and national authorities, and to develop a suitable safeguards approach. Under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security identified the need for more effective and efficient verification of design information by the IAEA for improving international safeguards

  13. Alternative dispositioning methods for HEU spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, J.F.; McKibben, J.M.; Parks, P.B.; DuPont, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    The United States has a strong policy on prevention of the international spread of nuclear weapons. This policy was announced in Presidential Directive PDD-13 and summarized in a White House press release September 27, 1993. Two cornerstones of this policy are: seek to eliminate where possible the accumulation of stockpiles of highly- enriched uranium or plutonium; propose{hor_ellipsis}prohibiting the production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside international safeguards. The Department of Energy is currently struggling to devise techniques that safely and efficiently dispose of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while satisfying national non-proliferation policies. SRS plans and proposals for disposing of their SNF are safe and cost effective, and fully satisfy non-proliferation objectives.

  14. Safeguards and Non-proliferation Issues as Related to Advanced Fuel Cycle and Advanced Fast Reactor Development with Processing of Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerry D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; Dee E. Vaden

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this work is to establish basic data and techniques to enable safeguards appropriate to a new generation of nuclear power systems that will be based on fast spectrum reactors and mixed actinide fuels containing significant quantities of "minor" actinides, possibly due to reprocessing, and determination of what new radiation signatures and parameters need to be considered. The research effort focuses on several problems associated with the use of fuel having significantly different actinide inventories that current practice and on the development of innovative techniques using new radiation signatures and other parameters useful for safeguards and monitoring. In addition, the development of new distinctive radiation signatures as an aid in controlling proliferation of nuclear materials has parallel applications to support Gen-IV and current advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) goals as well as the anticipated Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP).

  15. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  16. Environmental monitoring for nuclear safeguards. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    To assure that states are not violating their Non-Proliferation Treaty commitments, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must verify that states do not possess convert nuclear facilities-a mission that prior to the 1991 Gulf War, it had neither the political backing nor the resources to conduct. The IAEA recognizes the importance of this new mission and is in the process of assuming it. One of the tools it is exploring to provide some indication of the presence of secret, or undeclared, nuclear activities and facilities is environmental monitoring. Modern sampling and analysis technologies provide powerful tools to detect the presence of characteristic substances that are likely to be emitted by such illicit activities. This background paper examines the prospects for such technologies to improve nuclear safeguards. It concludes that environmental monitoring can greatly increase the ability to detect undeclared activity at declared, or known, sites, and it can significantly increase the chances of detecting and locating undeclared sites.

  17. [Implementation of a quality management system according to the UNE-UN-ISO 9001:2008 standard in a nuclear medicine department].

    PubMed

    Poblete García, V M; Talavera Rubio, M P; Palomar Muñoz, A; Pilkington Woll, J P; Cordero García, J M; García Vicente, A M; Bellón Guardia, M; González García, B; Cañuelo Merino, T; Núñez García, A; Peiró Valgañón, V; Soriano Castrejón, A M

    2013-01-01

    To describe the process of implementing a quality management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 9001:2008 standard in a Nuclear Medicine Department. In February 2008, the committee on internal quality of the Department was established, naming a responsible physician. The general operating plan was drawn up, following the requirements established by the ISO 9001:2008 standard. It defined the scope of the standard, defining, preparing and transcribing the various activities of our Department. Four training sessions were carried out. A total of nine general and two specific procedures were documented in which all the activities performed in our Department were included. Personnel records of each worker were created, including their profiles and training plan. A record of the equipment and service providers was created, as well as issues with the latter. Satisfaction surveys were obtained from external (patients) and internal customers (faculty applicants). Targets for improvement and activity markers were established. Two audits were performed to complete the process, one internal and one external. The Department was accredited in April 2010. The quality accreditation process is a tool that requires reflection on how we do things and how they can be improved. It makes it possible to measure what we do, to analyze and introduce improvement measures, and therefore, to achieve a higher level of quality in the service we provide our customers. The involvement of the Department workers with a commitment to team performance was essential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to γ-rays or iron ions.

    PubMed

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V; Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Mary; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2011-07-01

    To investigate γ-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionising radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced γ-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after γ-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. The disappearance of radiation-induced γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC has different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent γ-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodelling.

  19. U.S. Proliferation Policy and the Campaign Against Transnational Terror: Linking the U.S. Non-Proliferation Regime to Homeland Security Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    supported, pushed, and guided this academic endeavor with just the right balance . And who reminded me countless times that the secret to finishing was...Nunn_Lugar scorecard can be accessed at http://www.dtra.mil/Missions/Nunn Lugar/scorecards.aspx 8 Comments by Rolf Mowatt-Larssen, First Joint U.S...862–864. 86 Ibid., 862. 87 Scott Sagan and Kenneth Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate (London: Norton and Co., 1995), 1–45. 32

  20. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    This paper discusses how, as part of the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, DOE is required to investigate a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and, if it determines that the site is suitable, recommend to the President its selection for a nuclear waste repository. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in considering development of the plan, issued five objections, one of which is DOE's failure to recognize the range of alternative conceptual models of the Yucca Mountain site that can be supported by the limited existing technical data. At the end of the quarter DOE directed its project offices in Washington and Texas to begin orderly phase-out of all site-specific repository activities. Costs for this phase-out are $53 million for the Deaf Smith site and $85 million for the Hanford site.

  1. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  3. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  4. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  5. On-site inspection: A brief overview and bibliography of techniques pertinent to assessing suspected nuclear test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a brief overview and bibliography of those techniques that may have application for the evaluation of a site to determine if a high energy release event is nuclear in nature. This effort is motivated by recognition of the changing world political climate and the perception that low yield and non-proliferation issues will grow in importance as countries become increasingly involved as signators to treaties that are intended to limit the development and testing of nuclear weapons. Along with an increasing interest in such issues is the awareness of the need to implement improved capabilities for treaty monitoring programs that must deal with assessing suspicious occurrences of high energy release events. In preparing this report, it is recognized that monitoring can take two main forms. The first involves the resolution of unidentified events detected by seismic and satellite National Technical Means. Events of an indeterminate nature could occur world-wide and could induce tension in neighboring countries. If an on-site measurement capability were available, a monitoring team could be sent to the suspected site of an event to take measurements that could confirm or disprove the occurrence of a clandestine nuclear test. The second monitoring form is the confirmation that a clandestine event is not masked by a declared event. For example, a large mining explosion could mask a decoupled nuclear explosion. On-site measurements before and during the test could confirm that a clandestine event did not occur and could provide assurance that the party carrying out the explosion is not taking advantage of clandestine testing opportunities. 48 refs.

  6. Security or armageddon: Israel's nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book closely examines Israel's strategic choices and the probable impact of those choices on American and Soviet foreign policy. The contributors of this debate both Israeli and American, represent a very distinguished group of scholars, all well-known specialists on international security affairs. The author addresses such critical issues as Israel's dilemma of either continuing with its ''bomb in the basement'' policy or disclosing its nuclear capabilities; the long-term prospects for security through conventional deterrence; the probability of nuclear and other highly destructive forms of terrorism; the creation of a regional non-proliferation treaty for the Middle East; the role of international law; the effect of superpower relations on regional stability; the relevance of Jewish history; and the problem of regional proliferation.

  7. International Nuclear Safeguards Inspection Support Tool (INSIST)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Pierre, D.E.; Steinmaus, K.L.; Moon, B.D.

    1994-07-01

    DOE is committed to providing technologies to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to meet escalating monitoring and inspection requirements associated with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). One example of technology provided to the IAEA is the information management and remote monitoring capabilities being customized for the IAEA by the International Safeguards Division of the Office of Non-Proliferation and National Security. The ongoing Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS) program is an interlaboratory effort providing the IAEA with a range of information management capabilities designed to enhance the effectiveness of their nuclear inspection activities. The initial commitment involved the customization of computer capabilities to provide IAEA with the basic capability to geographically organize, store, and retrieve the large quantity of information involved in their nuclear on site inspection activities in Iraq. This initial system, the International Nuclear Safeguards Inspection Support Tool (INSIST), was developed by DOE`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). To date, two INSIST workstations have been deployed at the IAEA. The first has been used to support the IAEA Action Team in the inspection of Iraqi nuclear facilities since August 1993. A second, and similar, workstation has been deployed to support environmental monitoring under the IAEA 93+2 Programme. Both INSIST workstations geographically integrate analog (video) and digital data to provide an easy to use and effective tool for storing retrieving and displaying multimedia site and facility information including world-wide maps, satellite and aerial imagery, on site photography, live inspection videos, and treaty and inspection textual information. The interactive, UNIX-based workstations have a variety of peripheral devices for information input and output. INSIST software includes commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) modules and application-specific code developed at PNL.

  8. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  9. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear Naval Propulsion: A Feasible Proliferation Pathway?

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Alicia L.

    2014-01-31

    There is no better time than now to close the loophole in Article IV of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) that excludes military uses of fissile material from nuclear safeguards. Several countries have declared their intention to pursue and develop naval reactor technology, including Argentina, Brazil, Iran, and Pakistan, while other countries such as China, India, Russia, and the United States are expanding their capabilities. With only a minority of countries using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in their naval reactors, it is possible that a state could produce highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the guise of a nuclear navy while actually stockpiling the material for a nuclear weapon program. This paper examines the likelihood that non-nuclear weapon states exploit the loophole to break out from the NPT and also the regional ramifications of deterrence and regional stability of expanding naval forces. Possible solutions to close the loophole are discussed, including expanding the scope of the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, employing LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in naval reactors, amending the NPT, creating an export control regime for naval nuclear reactors, and forming individual naval reactor safeguards agreements.

  11. Extra-Territorial Siting of Nuclear Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Thomas E.; Morris, Frederic A.

    2009-10-07

    Arrangements might be created for siting nuclear installations on land ceded by a host State for administration by an international or multinational organization. Such arrangements might prove useful in terms of resolving suspicions of proliferation in troubled areas of the world, or as a means to introduce nuclear activities into areas where political, financial or technical capabilities might otherwise make such activities unsound, or as a means to enable global solutions to be instituted for major nuclear concerns (e.g., spent fuel management). The paper examines practical matters associated with the legal and programmatic aspects of siting nuclear installations, including diplomatic/political frameworks, engaging competent industrial bodies, protection against seizure, regulation to ensure safety and security, waste management, and conditions related to the dissolution of the extra-territorial provisions as may be agreed as the host State(s) achieve the capabilities to own and operate the installations. The paper considers the potential for using such a mechanism across the spectrum of nuclear power activities, from mining to geological repositories for nuclear waste. The paper considers the non-proliferation dimensions associated with such arrangements, and the pros and cons affecting potential host States, technology vendor States, regional neighbors and the international community. It considers in brief potential applications in several locations today.

  12. Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

  13. U.S.-Russian cooperation in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    The United States and Russia, the two largest nuclear powers, have a special obligation to provide leadership in nuclear disarmament and in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime. In the past year the two countries made an effort to restart the arms control process by concluding a new treaty that would bring their legal disarmament obligations in line with the realities of their post-cold war relationships. The process of negotiating deeper nuclear reductions in the new environment turned out to be rather difficult, since the approaches that the countries used in the past are not well suited to dealing with issues like conversion of strategic nuclear delivery systems to conventional missions, tactical nuclear weapons, or dismantlement of nuclear warheads. This presentation considers the recent progress in U.S.-Russian arms control process and outlines the key issues at the negotiations. It also considers prospects for further progress in bilateral nuclear disarmament and issues that will be encountered at later stages of the process. The author argues that success of the arms reductions will depend on whether the United States and Russia will be able to build an institutional framework for cooperation on a range of issues - from traditional arms control to securing nuclear materials and from missile defense to strengthening the international nuclear safeguards. )

  14. Strategic Nuclear Research Collaboration - FY99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Leahy

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has created the Strategic Nuclear Research Collaboration. The SNRC brings together some of America's finest laboratory and university nuclear researchers in a carefully focused research program intended to produce ''breakthrough'' solutions to the difficult issues of nuclear economics, safety, non-proliferation, and nuclear waste. This integrated program aims to address obstacles that stand in the way of nuclear power development in the US These include fuel cycle concerns related to waste and proliferation, the need for more efficient regulatory practices, and the high cost of constructing and operating nuclear power plants. Funded at an FY99 level of $2.58M, the SNRC is focusing the efforts of scientists and engineers from the INEEL and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to solve complex nuclear energy challenges in a carefully chosen, integrated portfolio of research topics. The result of this collaboration will be research that serves as a catalyst for future direct-funded nuclear research and technology development and which preserves and enhances the INEEL's role as America's leading national laboratory for nuclear power research. In its first year, the SNRC has focused on four research projects each of which address one or more of the four issues facing further nuclear power development (economics, safety, waste disposition and proliferation-resistance). This Annual Report describes technical work and accomplishments during the first year of the SNRC's existence.

  15. Nuclear Technology: Making Informed Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a unit on nuclear technology which is taught in a physics class. Explains the unit design, implementation process, demonstrations used, and topics of discussion that include light and optics, naturally and artificially produced sources of radioactivity, nuclear equations, isotopes and half-lives, and power-generating nuclear reactors.…

  16. Nuclear Technology: Making Informed Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altshuler, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a unit on nuclear technology which is taught in a physics class. Explains the unit design, implementation process, demonstrations used, and topics of discussion that include light and optics, naturally and artificially produced sources of radioactivity, nuclear equations, isotopes and half-lives, and power-generating nuclear reactors.…

  17. Aum Shinrikyo, Al Qaeda, and the Kinshasa Reactor: Implications of Three Case Studies for Combating Nuclear Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    enforcement agents who ensnared the smugglers in what became known as Operation Gamma . However, many questions about the nuclear rods remain unanswered...enlightenment through yoga and meditation . He altered these views following Aum’s poor showing in the 1990 Japanese general election. Shortly after this...Managing the Atom, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Carnegie Non-Proliferation Project, The Next Wave : Urgently Needed New Steps

  18. Nuclear threat on the Korean peninsula: The present and the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.

    1994-04-01

    Forty years after they were divided by the Cold War, South and North Korea are closer to reunification than ever before. However, North Korea's nuclear weapons program might cause South Koreans to be much less sure about reunification. Today the Cold War is over, but the Korean peninsula is still divided into two Koreas despite the new era of reconciliation. Since December 1991 when a non-aggression pact was signed barring nuclear weapons, North Korea has pursued its nuclear weapon development. In March 1993, North Korea declared its intention to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and has been refusing a full inspection of its nuclear program. North Korea's nuclear issue is an international issue today. This paper discusses 'what threat we have today' and 'what should be done in the future.'.

  19. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Jerome, S M; Venchiarutti, C

    2014-07-01

    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent-daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined.

  20. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  1. Panel session on "safety, health and the environment: implications of nuclear power growth".

    PubMed

    Bilbao y León, Sama

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and the insights offered by panelists John P. Winston, Robert Bernero, and Stephen LaMontagne during the Panel on Safety, Health and the Environment: Implications of Nuclear Power Growth that took place during the NCRP 2009 Annual Meeting. The paper describes the opportunities and the challenges faced in the areas of infrastructure development, radiation control, licensing and regulatory issues, and non-proliferation as a consequence of the forecasted growth in nuclear power capacity worldwide. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  2. Comparative Analysis on Nuclear Fuel Sustainability Aspect of FBR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik; Irwanto, Dwi; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Recycle program of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will have some challanges in term of fuel cycle capability and its facilities as well as nuclear non-proliferation concern of special nuclear materials. A different analysis approach as a comparative study have been analyzed based on breeding ratio and heavy metal inventory ratio concepts in fast breeder reactor (FBR) type. Breeding ratio and heavy metal inventory obtain higher than unity which shows breeding gain or surplus inventory of heavy metals are obtained. Breeding ratio indicates the fuel conversion capability from conversion process of fertile materials into fissile material such as fertile materials of U-238, Pu-238, Pu-240 and fissile materials of Pu-239 and Pu-241. Inventory ratio approaches are appropriate to estimate some selected actinide as a mass inventory production such as plutonium inventory ratio which estimate the surplus mass inventory from the ratio of produced plutonium at the net of operation to the initial inventory ratio.

  3. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties.

  4. Considerations regarding the implementation of EPR dosimetry for the population in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site based on experience from other radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Tikunov, Dimitri; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Borysheva, Natalie; Orlenko, Sergey; Nalapko, Mikhail; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-02-01

    General aspects of applying the method of retrospective dose estimation by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of human tooth enamel (EPR dosimetry) to the population residing in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site are analyzed and summarized. The analysis is based on the results obtained during 20 years of investigations conducted in the Medical Radiological Research Center regarding the development and practical application of this method for wide-scale dosimetrical investigation of populations exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents.

  5. Chinese perspectives on nuclear arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, B.N.; Glaser, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    China`s nuclear weapons and Beijing`s arms control policies have become increasingly important factors in the post-Cold War era of U.S.-Russian strategic arms reductions and growing concern about proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Unlike Russia and the United States, China is not constrained by any international arms control regime from modernizing and expanding its nuclear forces. In addition, the Chinese nuclear arsenal, the quality of which is likely to be significantly enhanced over the coming decade, will be an increasingly important strategic factor in regional and global security as China`s nuclear weapons more closely match the capabilities of U.S. and Russian nuclear forces. Concern about Beijing`s nuclear capability has also been heightened by China`s rapid emergence as a major power with a huge economy, able to underwrite an extensive nuclear arms buildup in the next century should Chinese leaders choose to do so. Uncertainty about China`s nuclear weapons capabilities, it strategic intentions, and the long-run goals of its nuclear modernization program is exacerbated by China`s lack of transparency in the military sphere. In addition, unofficial contacts between scientists, arms and control experts, and foreign policy institute researchers can be encouraged. The concrete impact on Chinese thinking of past arms control discussions between Chinese and Americans is evidenced by Beijing`s decision to join the NPT and by Beijing`s support for permanent extension of the NPT. The strengthening of a Western-influenced arms control community in China could affect thinking in Beijing on a broad range of international arms control issues, from non-proliferation to confidence-building measures and greater military transparency in Asia, and foster movement in China toward taking more responsibility for maintaining international peace and stability. 43 refs.

  6. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  7. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Drame, B.; Toler, L.; Bachner, Katherine

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  8. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future.

  9. Nuclear nonproliferation policy issues in the 103rd Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Z.; Donnelly, W.H.

    1994-08-31

    Preventing the further proliferation of nuclear weapons has been a major goal of U.S. policy ever since the United States developed and used the atomic bomb against Japan in 1945. This goal has taken on new importance for U.S. national security in light of several post-Cold War events. One is the breakup of the Soviet Union; some of the new republics were reluctant to give up nuclear weapons stationed on their territory, and disorder in Russia raised questions about the safety and security of the former Soviet arsenal. The United States is providing assistance to prevent former Soviet nuclear weapons or the materials used to make them from falling into the wrong hands. Another post-Cold War nonproliferation event was Iraq`s success in clandestinely developing nuclear weapons despite being a member of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Third, North Korea apparently diverted plutonium to a secret bomb program, threatened to withdraw from the Treaty, and continues to block inspections. Other events tend to strengthen nonproliferation efforts. These include the agreement by Argentina and Brazil to allow inspection of their nuclear activities; South Africa`s joining the NPT after dismantling six nuclear weapons and agreeing to international inspection of all of its nuclear activities; France`s and China`s joining the Treaty as nuclear weapons states; and successful enforcement of nonproliferation commitments in Iraq.

  10. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  11. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  12. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  13. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, S; Murari, A; Vagliasindi, G; Arena, P; Mazon, D; De Maack, A

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN-unlike software CNN implementations.

  14. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, S.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Mazon, D.; de Maack, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496×560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN—unlike software CNN implementations.

  15. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-04

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  16. Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  18. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

  19. Implementation and verification of nuclear interactions in a Monte-Carlo code for the Procom-ProGam proton therapy planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuchenko, V. I.; Makarova, A. S.; Ryazantsev, O. B.; Samarin, S. I.; Uglov, A. S.

    2014-06-01

    A great breakthrough in proton therapy has happened in the new century: several tens of dedicated centers are now operated throughout the world and their number increases every year. An important component of proton therapy is a treatment planning system. To make calculations faster, these systems usually use analytical methods whose reliability and accuracy do not allow the advantages of this method of treatment to implement to the full extent. Predictions by the Monte Carlo (MC) method are a "gold" standard for the verification of calculations with these systems. At the Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (ITEP) which is one of the eldest proton therapy centers in the world, an MC code is an integral part of their treatment planning system. This code which is called IThMC was developed by scientists from RFNC-VNIITF (Snezhinsk) under ISTC Project 3563.

  20. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Stephen

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  1. Security culture for nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Bajramovic, Edita

    2017-01-01

    Natural radioactive elements are part of our environment and radioactivity is a natural phenomenon. There are numerous beneficial applications of radioactive elements (radioisotopes) and radiation, starting from power generation to usages in medical, industrial and agriculture applications. But the risk of radiation exposure is always attached to operational workers, the public and the environment. Hence, this risk has to be assessed and controlled. The main goal of safety and security measures is to protect human life, health, and the environment. Currently, nuclear security considerations became essential along with nuclear safety as nuclear facilities are facing rapidly increase in cybersecurity risks. Therefore, prevention and adequate protection of nuclear facilities from cyberattacks is the major task. Historically, nuclear safety is well defined by IAEA guidelines while nuclear security is just gradually being addressed by some new guidance, especially the IAEA Nuclear Security Series (NSS), IEC 62645 and some national regulations. At the overall level, IAEA NSS 7 describes nuclear security as deterrence and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear, other radioactive substances and their associated facilities. Nuclear security should be included throughout nuclear facilities. Proper implementation of a nuclear security culture leads to staff vigilance and a high level of security posture. Nuclear security also depends on policy makers, regulators, managers, individual employees and members of public. Therefore, proper education and security awareness are essential in keeping nuclear facilities safe and secure.

  2. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  3. International Nuclear Safeguards at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Sternat, Matthew R.

    2015-02-01

    As global nuclear energy expands, assuring peaceful uses of nuclear technology becomes increasingly important. In addition to complying with international nuclear safeguards, a responsible nuclear energy program promotes a corresponding safeguards culture. Establishment of transparent peaceful uses of nuclear technologies starts with cooperative international engagements and safeguards systems. Developing states investing in nuclear energy must assure the international community of their longterm commitment to safeguards, safety, and security (3S) of nuclear materials and technologies. Cultivating a safeguards culture starts in the initial phases of infrastructure planning and must be integrated into the process of developing a responsible nuclear energy program. Sandia National Laboratories supports the implementation of safeguards culture through a variety of activities, including infrastructure development.

  4. The Gravest Danger:. Nuclear Weapons and Their Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drell, S.

    2005-02-01

    Nuclear weapons are unique in their terrifying potential. With an energy release a million times larger than that of previous explosives, mass destruction is inevitable. The prospect of the spread of nuclear weapons and other dangerous technologies into the hands of suicidal terrorists and rogue nations unrestrained by the norms of civilized behavior has led President Bush to remark that "the gravest danger our nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology." This talk will address what can and should be done, in the face of new challenges in times punctuated by terrorist threats, to sustain and strengthen the non-proliferation regime, taking into consideration technical realities, and the roles and limits of diplomatic initiatives and of military force.

  5. A parallel implementation of the analytic nuclear gradient for time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fenglai; Gan, Zhengting; Shao, Yihan; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Dreuw, Andreas; Head-Gordon, Martin; Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Yu, Jian-Guo; Furlani, Thomas R.; Kong, Jing

    2010-10-01

    We derived the analytic gradient for the excitation energies from a time-dependent density functional theory calculation within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDDFT/TDA) using Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets, and introduced an efficient serial and parallel implementation. Some timing results are shown from a B3LYP/6-31G**/SG-1-grid calculation on zincporphyrin. We also performed TDDFT/TDA geometry optimizations for low-lying excited states of 20 small molecules, and compared adiabatic excitation energies and optimized geometry parameters to experimental values using the B3LYP and ωB97 functionals. There are only minor differences between TDDFT and TDA optimized excited state geometries and adiabatic excitation energies. Optimized bond lengths are in better agreement with experiment for both functionals than either CC2 or SOS-CIS(D0), while adiabatic excitation energies are in similar or slightly poorer agreement. Optimized bond angles with both functionals are more accurate than CIS values, but less accurate than either CC2 or SOS-CIS(D0) ones.

  6. Use of open source information and commercial satellite imagery for nuclear nonproliferation regime compliance verification by a community of academics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, Alexander

    non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). This community analyzes all types of unclassified publicly and commercially available information to aid in detection of violations of the non-proliferation regime. INMAC shares all of this information with the IAEA and the public. Since INMAC is composed solely by members of the academic community, this organization would not demonstrate any biases in its investigations or reporting.

  7. Relative source comparison of the NPE to underground nuclear explosions at local distances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) provides an opportunity to compare broadband characteristics of chemical to nuclear explosions at a group of local stations (4 to 40 km distant). The locations for these stations were established on bedrock to record a small partially decoupled nuclear explosion and two nearby nuclear experiments, all shots within {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} Tunnel on Rainier Mesa, Area 12. These sites were also occupied to record aftershocks from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and chemical explosions from the USGS Sierra Experiment. To minimize calibration errors during this period, redundant instrumentation were used for each event. THe analysis emphasizes the source characteristics of the different explosions. The 300-lb chemical calibration explosion allows removal of path effects from each explosion. The NPE and nearby experiments produce very similar waveforms. The decoupled nuclear explosion and the 300-lb chemical calibration explosion show higher frequency content consistent with a higher corner frequency for the sources.

  8. The nuclear-weapon states and article VI of the NPT

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.; Lockwood, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty rests on a basic bargain between the five declared nuclear-weapon states - the United States, Russia, Britain, France and China and 167 states that do not possess nuclear weapons. In addition, to the arms control and disarmaments commitments in Article VI, the parties pledge in the treaty`s pramble their determination to seek a comprehensive test ban (CTB) and express the understanding that in connection with the treaty on general and complete disarmament the parties should seek the cessation of manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation of all their existing stock piles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and means of their delivery. The author discusses the status of these agreements and the extent to which they have been fulfilled.

  9. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  10. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  11. Selected topics in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2013-06-10

    In this lectures after a brief introduction to stellar reaction rates and its implementation in nuclear networks, I discuss the nuclear physics aspects of core collapse supernova and explosive nucleosynthesis and their significance for the production of heavy elements by the rapid neutron capture process and potentially also by the recently discovered {nu}p process.

  12. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  13. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  14. Technocrats and nuclear politics

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, A.

    1988-01-01

    This book arrives in an age of growing unease and dissatisfaction with the reassurances, by the nuclear power industry, of the safety of its power stations. The book's central purpose is to examine the motivations and varied perceptions which have laid the foundation for Britain's contemporary civil nuclear industry. The author pays particular attention to the role and influence of technical experts in the shaping of decisions within their own industry and the implementation of those decisions at the government level. The author shows how, in the British model, ministers and civil servants tend to serve as policy arbiters who set the parameters within which the dynamics of special interest groups provide policy options. This book combines several current themes; the politics of nuclear energy; the role of professional experts; and the impact of and drive for privitization. It examines the process of modern British policy-making and nuclear power politics, and holds implications that reach far beyond Britain.

  15. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: IMPACTS OF FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS ON SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These “123 agreements” are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

  16. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  17. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  18. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  19. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Nuclear Medicine SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Related Documents: Nuclear Medicine Fact Sheet.pdf SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  20. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  1. Nuclear Winter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Anne

    1984-01-01

    "Nuclear Winter" was recently coined to describe the climatic and biological effects of a nuclear war. These effects are discussed based on models, simulations, scenarios, and projections. Effects on human populations are also considered. (JN)

  2. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  3. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  4. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  5. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  6. Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Schneider, Andre; Horowitz, Charles; Berry, Don; Briggs, Christian

    2014-03-01

    For decades it has been theorized that just below nuclear saturation density matter undergoes a series of phase transitions. These phases, which are expected to exist in core-collapse supernovae and neutron stars, involve a range of exotic nuclear shapes collectively known as nuclear pasta. Recently, Jose Pons and collaborators suggested that ``the maximum period of isolated X-ray pulsars may be the first observational evidence for an amorphous inner crust, ..., possibly owing to the existence of a nuclear pasta phase.'' In this talk we present results of semi-classical molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta and discuss how each phase might contribute to neutron star crust properties.

  7. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Historical civilian nuclear accident based Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Kaylyn Marie

    There are significant challenges to successfully monitoring multiple processes within a nuclear reactor facility. The evidence for this observation can be seen in the historical civilian nuclear incidents that have occurred with similar initiating conditions and sequences of events. Because there is a current lack within the nuclear industry, with regards to the monitoring of internal sensors across multiple processes for patterns of failure, this study has developed a program that is directed at accomplishing that charge through an innovation that monitors these systems simultaneously. The inclusion of digital sensor technology within the nuclear industry has appreciably increased computer systems' capabilities to manipulate sensor signals, thus making the satisfaction of these monitoring challenges possible. One such manipulation to signal data has been explored in this study. The Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer (NRCA) program that has been developed for this research, with the assistance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Graduate Fellowship, utilizes one-norm distance and kernel weighting equations to normalize all nuclear reactor parameters under the program's analysis. This normalization allows the program to set more consistent parameter value thresholds for a more simplified approach to analyzing the condition of the nuclear reactor under its scrutiny. The product of this research provides a means for the nuclear industry to implement a safety and monitoring program that can oversee the system parameters of a nuclear power reactor facility, like that of a nuclear power plant.

  9. Nuclear networking.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  10. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura Schmidt

    2014-05-04

    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  11. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  12. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  13. Nuclear Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Erich

    2010-07-27

    We show that extreme nuclear halos are caused only by pairs of s-wave neutrons (or single s-wave neutrons) and that such states occur much more frequently in the periodic table than previously believed. Besides lingering long near zero neutron separation energy such extreme halos have very remarkable properties: they can contribute significantly to the nuclear density at more than twice the normal nuclear radius and their spreading width can be very narrow. The properties of these states are primarily determined by the ''thickness'' of the nuclear surface in the mean-free nuclear potential and thus their importance increases greatly as we approach the neutron drip line. We discuss what such extreme halos are, where they occur, what their properties are and some of their impact on nuclear observations.

  14. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  15. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  16. Creating an educational consortium to support the recruitment and retention of expertise for the nuclear weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Frank; Wells, Douglas P.; Hunt, Alan; Beller, Denis

    2006-12-13

    From FY 02-05 IAC has been a part of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and its predecessor organization Advanced Accelerator Applications. In the IAC program effort has been divided into three parts; Student Research, Accelerator Driven Nuclear Research and Materials Science. Within the three parts specific research and development activities have been undertaken in Student Research, which supported undergraduate and graduate students, post-docs, engineering staff, program administration, project infrastructure, visiting and summer faculty appointments, visiting scientists, and support of students and faculty at the University of Michigan, Texas A&M University, University of Texas and UNLV; Accelerator Driven Nuclear Research included the use of electron accelerators to study driven sub-critical nuclear systems (ADS) and to provide practical methods of monitoring and assaying nuclear materials for accountancy in non proliferation applications (Materials Accountability and Control, MA&C); and Materials Science research at IAC supported all AFC national technical areas.

  17. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  18. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  19. A Specific Long-Term Plan for Management of U.S. Nuclear Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Salomon

    2006-07-01

    A specific plan consisting of six different steps is proposed to accelerate and improve the long-term management of U.S. Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. The first step is to construct additional, centralized, engineered (dry cask) spent fuel facilities to have a backup solution to Yucca Mountain (YM) delays or lack of capacity. The second step is to restart the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), in a burner mode, because of its inherent safety characteristics and its extensive past development in contrast to Acceleration Driven Systems (ADS). The IFR and an improved non-proliferation version of its pyro-processing technology can burn the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides (MA) obtained by reprocessing LWR spent fuel. The remaining IFR and LWR fission products will be treated for storage at YM. The radiotoxicity of that high level waste (HLW) will fall below that of natural uranium in less than one thousand years. Due to anticipated increased capital, maintenance, and research costs for IFR, the third step is to reduce the required number of IFRs and their potential delays by implementing multiple recycles of Pu and Neptunium (Np) MA in LWR. That strategy is to use an advanced separation process, UREX+, and the MIX Pu option where the role and degradation of Pu is limited by uranium enrichment. UREX+ will decrease proliferation risks by avoiding Pu separation while the MIX fuel will lead to an equilibrium fuel recycle mode in LWR which will reduce U. S. Pu inventory and deliver much smaller volumes of less radioactive HLW to YM. In both steps two and three, Research and Development (R and D) is to emphasize the demonstration of multiple fuel reprocessing and fabrication, while improving HLW treatment, increasing proliferation resistance, and reducing losses of fissile material. The fourth step is to license and construct YM because it is needed for the disposal of defense wastes and the HLW to be generated under the proposed plan. The

  20. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  1. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  2. Nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) processes plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. This fact sheet responds to your September 6, 1991, request, that we describe the methods and facilities for DOE's plutonium processing. Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear weapons, does not exist in nature and has to be produced. However, DOE no longer produces plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Instead, DOE processes and recycles the plutonium from retired nuclear weapons and the plutonium that remains as scrap or residue from plutonium processing. This paper reports that DOE recovers plutonium through two basic processes-aqueous and pyrochemical-at four processing sites-Rocky Flats, Savannah River, Hanford, and Los Alamos. However, because of environmental and safety concerns and reductions in nuclear weapons, DOE has closed or may close most of the processing facilities. Only Los Alamos' processing facilities are currently operating.

  3. A GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM IN NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS TECHNOLOGY.

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE, L.; SISKIND, B.; PEPPER, S.

    2005-07-10

    While there are a number of university graduate-education programs that address non-proliferation and safeguards policy issues; there are none in the United States that train students in the specific technical aspects of nuclear safeguards. Formal education of this kind is necessary to sustain the flow of technically trained individuals to diverse programs in safeguards, nonproliferation, and national security. In response to this need, the University of Missouri-Columbia, with assistance from Brookhaven National Laboratory, is initiating a Graduate Certificate Program in Nuclear Safeguards Technology: Students seeking advanced degrees in a variety of technical areas will complete a required sequence of courses in order to receive the certification. Required course work covers topics such as Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A), Physical Protection (PP); nuclear measurements, and a variety of other relevant subjects. Laboratory-based instruction will be included which will utilize the University of Missouri Research Reactor(MURR). MURR is the largest university-based research reactor and has extensive laboratory resources including a Canberra Aquila MPC&A Operational Monitoring demonstration system.

  4. 10 CFR 820.65 - Implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation plan. 820.65 Section 820.65 Energy... plan. With respect to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement for which there is no regulatory provision for an implementation plan or schedule, an exemption may be granted to establish an implementation plan...

  5. 10 CFR 820.65 - Implementation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation plan. 820.65 Section 820.65 Energy... plan. With respect to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement for which there is no regulatory provision for an implementation plan or schedule, an exemption may be granted to establish an implementation...

  6. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance...

  7. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance program...

  8. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance program...

  9. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance program...

  10. 10 CFR 63.143 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation. 63.143 Section 63.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Quality Assurance § 63.143 Implementation. DOE shall implement a quality assurance program...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  16. Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Spector, David L.; Lamond, Angus I.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are nuclear domains enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, located in the interchromatin regions of the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells. When observed by immunofluorescence microscopy, they usually appear as 20–50 irregularly shaped structures that vary in size. Speckles are dynamic structures, and their constituents can exchange continuously with the nucleoplasm and other nuclear locations, including active transcription sites. Studies on the composition, structure, and dynamics of speckles have provided an important paradigm for understanding the functional organization of the nucleus and the dynamics of the gene expression machinery. PMID:20926517

  17. Nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Halley-Stott, Richard P; Pasque, Vincent; Gurdon, J B

    2013-06-01

    There is currently particular interest in the field of nuclear reprogramming, a process by which the identity of specialised cells may be changed, typically to an embryonic-like state. Reprogramming procedures provide insight into many mechanisms of fundamental cell biology and have several promising applications, most notably in healthcare through the development of human disease models and patient-specific tissue-replacement therapies. Here, we introduce the field of nuclear reprogramming and briefly discuss six of the procedures by which reprogramming may be experimentally performed: nuclear transfer to eggs or oocytes, cell fusion, extract treatment, direct reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation.

  18. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  19. Nuclear battlefields

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides complete data on the nuclear operations and research facilities in the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., France, China and the U.K. It describes detailed estimates on the U.S.S.R.'s nuclear stockpile for over 500 locations. It shows how non-nuclear countries cooperate with the world-wide war machine. And it maps the U.S. nuclear facilities from Little America, WY, and Charleston, SC, to the battleships patroling the world's oceans and subs stalking under the sea. The data were gathered from unclassified sources through the Freedom of Information Act, from data supplied to military installations, and from weapons source books. It provides guidance for policymakers, government and corporate officials.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  1. Nuclear Disarmament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  2. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  3. Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect

    White, Morgan C.

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  4. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  5. Nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, J.A.

    1982-05-01

    A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

  6. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  7. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi Nuclear Adenylate Kinase Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Cámara, María de los Milagros; Bouvier, León A.; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Miranda, Mariana R.; Pereira, Claudio A.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, is an early divergent eukaryote in which control of gene expression relies mainly in post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcription levels are globally up and down regulated during the transition between proliferating and non-proliferating life-cycle stages. In this work we characterized a nuclear adenylate kinase isoform (TcADKn) that is involved in ribosome biogenesis. Nuclear adenylate kinases have been recently described in a few organisms, being all related to RNA metabolism. Depending on active transcription and translation, TcADKn localizes in the nucleolus or the cytoplasm. A non-canonical nuclear localization signal was mapped towards the N-terminal of the protein, being the phosphate-binding loop essential for its localization. In addition, TcADKn nuclear exportation depends on the nuclear exportation adapter CRM1. TcADKn nuclear shuttling is governed by nutrient availability, oxidative stress and by the equivalent in T. cruzi of the mammalian TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway. One of the biological functions of TcADKn is ribosomal 18S RNA processing by direct interaction with ribosomal protein TcRps14. Finally, TcADKn expression is regulated by its 3′ UTR mRNA. Depending on extracellular conditions, cells modulate protein translation rates regulating ribosome biogenesis and nuclear adenylate kinases are probably key components in these processes. PMID:23409202

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi nuclear adenylate kinase isoform.

    PubMed

    Cámara, María de los Milagros; Bouvier, León A; Canepa, Gaspar E; Miranda, Mariana R; Pereira, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, is an early divergent eukaryote in which control of gene expression relies mainly in post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcription levels are globally up and down regulated during the transition between proliferating and non-proliferating life-cycle stages. In this work we characterized a nuclear adenylate kinase isoform (TcADKn) that is involved in ribosome biogenesis. Nuclear adenylate kinases have been recently described in a few organisms, being all related to RNA metabolism. Depending on active transcription and translation, TcADKn localizes in the nucleolus or the cytoplasm. A non-canonical nuclear localization signal was mapped towards the N-terminal of the protein, being the phosphate-binding loop essential for its localization. In addition, TcADKn nuclear exportation depends on the nuclear exportation adapter CRM1. TcADKn nuclear shuttling is governed by nutrient availability, oxidative stress and by the equivalent in T. cruzi of the mammalian TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway. One of the biological functions of TcADKn is ribosomal 18S RNA processing by direct interaction with ribosomal protein TcRps14. Finally, TcADKn expression is regulated by its 3' UTR mRNA. Depending on extracellular conditions, cells modulate protein translation rates regulating ribosome biogenesis and nuclear adenylate kinases are probably key components in these processes.

  9. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  10. S. 1601: This Act may be cited as the Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act of 1991, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this act is to strengthen both domestic and international controls over transfer of facilities, materials, equipment, and technology that may contribute to nuclear proliferation. Five guidelines are presented briefly. Chapter 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2151 and following) is amended by adding at the end the following: Section 134 - Further Restrictions on Exports; specific criteria are outlined. Also, the specifics of amending Section 203 of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (22 U.S.C. 3243) are presented.

  11. Report of a Workshop in Nuclear Forces and Nonproliferation held at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) Review and the 2010 Conference (RevCon) of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The issues discussed are at the heart of the debate on nuclear policy issues such asfuture nuclear weapons requirements and nonproliferation, but also the stockpile stewardship program and infrastructure modernization. The workshop discussions reflected the importance of the NPRfor defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21s1 century threats and providing guidance that will shape NNSA and DoD programs. They also highlighted its importancefor NPT diplomacy. The discussion noted the report of the bipartisan Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States, and the expectation that the NPR would likely reflect its consensus to a large degree (although the Administration was not bound by the report). There was widespread support for developing thefoundationsfor a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. The discussion also revealed a convergence of views, but no consensus, on a number of important issues, including the diminished role but continued importance of nuclear weapons; the need to take action to ensure the sustainability of the stockpile, and the recapitalization of the infrastructure and expertise; and the need to take action to promote nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament objectives.

  12. Nuclear risk

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public.

  13. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Voluem 5: Nuclear system safety guidelines. Part 2: Space shuttle/nuclear payloads safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and operations guidelines and requirements developed in the study of space shuttle nuclear system transportation are presented. Guidelines and requirements are presented for the shuttle, nuclear payloads (reactor, isotope-Brayton and small isotope sources), ground support systems and facilities. Cross indices and references are provided which relate guidelines to each other, and to substantiating data in other volumes. The guidelines are intended for the implementation of nuclear safety related design and operational considerations in future space programs.

  14. Coupled-Cluster Theory for Nuclear Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.

    2003-10-01

    I discuss an initial implementation of the coupled-cluster method for nuclear structure calculations and apply our method to 4He. In this procedings I will discuss the effect of center-of-mass removal on our results.

  15. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  16. Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-15

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  17. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  18. Nuclear Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fossion, Ruben

    2010-09-10

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  19. Nuclear pursuits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This table lists quantities of warheads (in stockpile, peak number per year, total number built, number of known test explosions), weapon development milestones (developers of the atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb, date of first operational ICBM, first nuclear-powered naval SSN in service, first MIRVed missile deployed), and testing milestones (first fission test, type of boosted fission weapon, multistage thermonuclear test, number of months from fission bomb to multistage thermonuclear bomb, etc.), and nuclear infrastructure (assembly plants, plutonium production reactors, uranium enrichment plants, etc.). Countries included in the tally are the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China.

  20. Downgrading Nuclear Facilities to Radiological Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Jeffrey F.; Farr, Jesse Oscar; Duran, Leroy

    2015-08-01

    Based on inventory reductions and the use of alternate storage facilities, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) downgraded 4 SNL Hazard Category 3 (HC-3) nuclear facilities to less-than-HC-3 radiological facilities. SNL’s Waste Management and Pollution Prevention Department (WMPPD) managed the HC-3 nuclear facilities and implemented the downgrade. This paper will examine the downgrade process,

  1. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

  2. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  3. 10 CFR 712.12 - HRP implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... instruction and education component described in § 712.17 of this part. (2) Approve the temporary removal and..., regarding policies, standards, and guidance for all nuclear explosive duty requirements; and (2) Be responsible for implementation of all nuclear explosive duty safety requirements. (d) The DOE Deputy...

  4. 10 CFR 712.12 - HRP implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... instruction and education component described in § 712.17 of this part. (2) Approve the temporary removal and..., regarding policies, standards, and guidance for all nuclear explosive duty requirements; and (2) Be responsible for implementation of all nuclear explosive duty safety requirements. (d) The DOE Under...

  5. Implementing NRF Physics in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Warren, Glen A.

    2006-07-01

    The Geant4 radiation transport Monte Carlo code toolkit currently does not support nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). After a brief review of NRF physics, plans for implementing this physics process in Geant4, and validating the output of the code, are described. The plans will be executed as Task 3 of project 50799, "Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Signatures (NuRFS)".

  6. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  7. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Controlling and eliminating nuclear-weapon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hippel, Frank

    2010-02-01

    Fissile material -- in practice plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) -- is the essential ingredient in nuclear weapons. Controlling and eliminating fissile material and the means of its production is therefore the common denominator for nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and the prevention of nuclear terrorism. From a fundamentalist anti-nuclear-weapon perspective, the less fissile material there is and the fewer locations where it can be found, the safer a world we will have. A comprehensive fissile-material policy therefore would have the following elements: *Consolidation of all nuclear-weapon-usable materials at a minimum number of high-security sites; *A verified ban on the production of HEU and plutonium for weapons; *Minimization of non-weapon uses of HEU and plutonium; and *Elimination of all excess stocks of plutonium and HEU. There is activity on all these fronts but it is not comprehensive and not all aspects are being pursued vigorously or competently. It is therefore worthwhile to review the situation. )

  8. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  9. Nuclear Terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2001-01-01

    As pointed out by several speakers, the level of violence and destruction in terrorist attacks has increased significantly during the past decade. Fortunately, few have involved weapons of mass destruction, and none have achieved mass casualties. The Aum Shinrikyo release of lethal nerve agent, sarin, in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 clearly broke new ground by crossing the threshold in attempting mass casualties with chemical weapons. However, of all weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons still represent the most frightening threat to humankind. Nuclear weapons possess an enormous destructive force. The immediacy and scale of destruction are unmatched. In addition to destruction, terrorism also aims to create fear among the public and governments. Here also, nuclear weapons are unmatched. The public's fear of nuclear weapons or, for that matter, of all radioactivity is intense. To some extent, this fear arises from a sense of unlimited vulnerability. That is, radioactivity is seen as unbounded in three dimensions - distance, it is viewed as having unlimited reach; quantity, it is viewed as having deadly consequences in the smallest doses (the public is often told - incorrectly, of course - that one atom of plutonium will kill); and time, if it does not kill you immediately, then it will cause cancer decades hence.

  10. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  11. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  12. Nuclear Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  13. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Nuclear Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Daniel F.; Kendall, Henry W.

    1975-01-01

    Many scientists feel that research into nuclear safety has been diverted or distorted, and the results of the research concealed or inaccurately reported on a large number of occasions. Of particular concern have been the emergency cooling systems which have not, as yet, been adequately tested. (Author/MA)

  15. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  17. Advanced safeguards for the nuclear renaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael C; Menlove, Howard O

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy provides not only the benefit of carbon-neutral electricity, but also the potential for proliferation concern as well. Nuclear safeguards implemented at the state level (domestic) and at the international level by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are essential for ensuring that nuclear materials are not misused and are thereby a critical component of the increased usage of nuclear energy. In the same way that the 1950's Atoms for Peace initiative provided the foundation for a robust research and development program in nuclear safeguards, the expansion of nuclear energy that is underway today provides the impetus to enter a new era of technical development in the safeguards community. In this paper, we will review the history of nuclear safeguards research and development as well future directions.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor

  19. Economic and Nonproliferation Analysis Framework for Assessing Reliable Nuclear Fuel Service Arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jon R.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Short, Steven M.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-04-14

    Nuclear power is now broadly recognized as an essential technology in national strategies to provide energy security while meeting carbon management goals. Yet a long standing conundrum remains: how to enable rapid growth in the global nuclear power infrastructure while controlling the spread of sensitive enrichment and reprocessing technologies that lie at the heart of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear weapons programs. Reducing the latent proliferation risk posed by a broader horizontal spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology has been a primary goal of national nuclear supplier policies since the beginning of the nuclear power age. Attempts to control the spread of sensitive nuclear technology have been the subject of numerous initiatives in the intervening decades sometimes taking the form of calls to develop fuel supply and service assurances to reduce market pull to increase the number of states with fuel cycle capabilities. A clear understanding of what characteristics of specific reliable nuclear fuel service (RNFS) and supply arrangements qualify them as 'attractive offers' is critical to the success of current and future efforts. At a minimum, RNFS arrangements should provide economic value to all participants and help reduce latent proliferation risks posed by the global expansion of nuclear power. In order to inform the technical debate and the development of policy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing an analytical framework to evaluate the economics and nonproliferation merits of alternative approaches to RNFS arrangements. This paper provides a brief overview of the economic analysis framework developed and applied to a model problem of current interest: full-service nuclear fuel leasing arrangements. Furthermore, this paper presents an extended outline of a proposed analysis approach to evaluate the non-proliferation merits of various RNFS alternatives.

  20. Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Streek, Penny Vande; Carretta, Robert; Weiland, Frederick L.

    1994-01-01

    The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following epitomes of progress in nuclear medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and clinical importance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of progress in medicine, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The epitomes included here were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Nuclear Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under the direction of Dr Lyons and the panel. PMID:7529452

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  2. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  4. Nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives.

  5. Multiphase, multicomponent flow and transport models for Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty monitoring and nuclear waste disposal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Amy

    opportunity for Xe-133 detection from a 1 kt UNE at Rainier Mesa, with and without matching the model to SF6 and He-3 data from the 1993 Non Proliferation Experiment. Results from the data-blind Monte Carlo simulations were similar, but were biased towards earlier arrival time and less likely to show detectable Xe-133. The second study, also related to nuclear nonproliferation compliance, considered the effect of barometric pumping on predicted Xe-133 breakthrough time in a Monte Carlo framework. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock was investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks for two rock types (granite and saturated tuff) and three depths of burial were integrated into a numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture had the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection. Differences in model sensitivity for granite and tuff simulations highlight the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. From Monte Carlo simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized probability of detection curves showed differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff. Granite breakthrough was earlier, as was breakthrough in realizations with greater variance of barometric pressure. Next, heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement was explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265°C released water in amounts greater than 20% by mass of hydrous minerals and clays. Experimental data for water loss at several temperatures were averaged to produce a water source model that was then implemented in FEHM. Simulations using this dehydration model were used to predict temperature

  6. Nuclear Technology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Technology Programs of the Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, in the period April--September 1988. These programs involve R D in three areas: applied physical chemistry, separation science and technology, and nuclear waste management. The work in applied physical chemistry includes investigations into the processes that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions, the thermophysical properties of selected materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. In the area of separation science and technology, the bulk of the effort is concerned with developing and implementing processes for the removal and concentration of actinides from waste streams contaminated by transuranic elements. Another effort is concerned with examining the feasibility of substituting low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in the production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. In the area of waste management, investigations are underway on the performance of materials in projected nuclear repository conditions to provide input to the licensing of the nation's high-level waste repositories.

  7. Nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  8. Nuclear photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  9. 10 CFR 55.40 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation. 55.40 Section 55.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Written Examinations and Operating Tests § 55.40 Implementation. (a) The Commission shall use the criteria in NUREG-1021, “Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors,” 1 in effect...

  10. Computer vision in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Gerald

    1990-11-01

    Computervision is used to overcome the mismatch between user models and implementation models of software systems for image analysis in nuclear medicine. Computer vision in nuclear medicine results in an active support of the user by the system. This is reached by modeling of imaging equipment and schedules scenes of interest and the process of visual image interpretation. Computer vision is demonstrated especially in the low level and medium level range. Special highlights are given for the estimation of image quality an uniform approach to enhancement and restoration of images and analysis of shape and dynamics of patterns. 1.

  11. Plasma core nuclear rocket technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, Thomas S.; Roman, Ward C.; Johnson, Bruce V.

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear lightbulb (NLB) rocket propulsion concept furnishes specific impulse above 2000 sec in conjunction with the greater-than-50,000 lb thrust levels required for rapid transit-time round-trip Mars missions requiring low initial mass in earth orbit. The NLB transfers energy from the gaseous nuclear fuel region to a hydrogen propellant via thermal radiation, thereby precluding material temperature constraints. An evaluation is presently made of technology and test method readiness for implementation and validation of this propulsion system concept.

  12. Plasma core nuclear rocket technology

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, T.S.; Roman, W.C.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-06-01

    The nuclear lightbulb (NLB) rocket propulsion concept furnishes specific impulse above 2000 sec in conjunction with the greater-than-50,000 lb thrust levels required for rapid transit-time round-trip Mars missions requiring low initial mass in earth orbit. The NLB transfers energy from the gaseous nuclear fuel region to a hydrogen propellant via thermal radiation, thereby precluding material temperature constraints. An evaluation is presently made of technology and test method readiness for implementation and validation of this propulsion system concept. 13 refs.

  13. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-09

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  14. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  15. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  16. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  17. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  18. Nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  19. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  20. Nuclear dualism.

    PubMed

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  2. Implementing TQM.

    PubMed

    Bull, G; Maffetone, M A; Miller, S K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is an organized, systematic approach to problem solving and continuous improvement. American corporations have found that TQM is an excellent way to improve competitiveness, lower operating costs, and improve productivity. Increasing numbers of laboratories are investigating the benefits of TQM. For this month's column, we asked our respondents: What steps has your laboratory taken to implement TQM?

  3. Implementation Reviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The point of the implementation review is to prevent problems from occurring later by trying to get our arms around the planning from the start. fmplementation reviews set the tone for management of the project. They establish a teaming relationship (if they are run properly), and they level the playing field instead of setting up turf wars.

  4. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  5. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  6. Distance effects on regional discriminants along a seismic profile in Northwest Nevada; NPE and nuclear results

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, D.A.; Priestley, K.F.; Patton, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    To address questions of discriminant transportability, it is important to understand how discriminants based on regional seismic phases are affected by regional variations in velocity structure. To examine this issue, we have recorded two explosions, the nuclear explosion Kinibito and the Non-Proliferation Experiment along a 300 km-long profile through western Nevada. We use these data to investigate the stability with distance of several proposed seismic discriminants. In this study we first estimate the apparent attenuation of the regional phases. We compare attenuation corrected amplitude ratios for P{sub n}/L{sub g} and P{sub g}/L{sub g}, and spectral ratios for P{sub n}, P{sub g}, and L{sub g}, as a function of distance along the profile. We make these comparisons for the vertical component and for the total vector resultant using all three components of motion.

  7. Implementation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Meeting the identified needs of Earth science requires approaching EOS as an information system and not simply as one or more satellites with instruments. Six elements of strategy are outlined as follows: implementation of the individual discipline missions as currently planned; use of sustained observational capabilities offered by operational satellites without waiting for the launch of new mission; put first priority on the data system; deploy an Advanced Data Collection and Location System; put a substantial new observing capability in a low Earth orbit in such a way as to provide for sustained measurements; and group instruments to exploit their capabilities for synergism; maximize the scientific utility of the mission; and minimize the costs of implementation where possible.

  8. Nuclear "waffles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  9. OCRWM International Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.; Levich, R.; Strahl, J.

    2002-02-27

    With the implementation of nuclear power as a major energy source, the United States is increasingly faced with the challenges of safely managing its inventory of spent nuclear materials. In 2002, with 438 nuclear power facilities generating electrical energy in 31 nations around the world, the management of radioactive material including spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, is an international concern. Most of the world's nuclear nations maintain radioactive waste management programs and have generally accepted deep geologic repositories as the long-term solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Similarly, the United States is evaluating the feasibility of deep geologic disposal at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which has responsibility for managing the disposition of spent nuclear fuel produced by commercial nuclear power facilities along with U.S. government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much of the world class science conducted through the OCRWM program was enhanced through collaboration with other nations and international organizations focused on resolving issues associated with the disposition of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  12. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  14. Nuclear exoticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  15. Nuclear exoticism

    SciTech Connect

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-15

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  16. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  17. Nuclear Education Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Metta L.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the controversial issue of nuclear education in public schools. Highlights include resolutions passed by the National Congress of Parent Teacher Associations, what nuclear education is, distinction between nuclear education and education in the nuclear age, educational materials, a review of teaching materials, nuclear literacy, and…

  18. Contributions to nuclear safety and radiation technologies in Ukraine by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, L.; Janouch, F.; Owsiacki, L.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) activities devoted to furthering nuclear and radiation safety, which is a prioritized STCU area. The STCU, an intergovernmental organization with the principle objective of non-proliferation, administers financial support from the USA, Canada, and the EU to Ukrainian projects in various scientific and technological areas; coordinates projects; and promotes the integration of Ukrainian scientists into the international scientific community, including involving western collaborators. The paper focuses on STCU's largest project to date "Program Supporting Y2K Readiness at Ukrainian NPPs" initiated in April 1999 and designed to address possible Y2K readiness problems at 14 Ukrainian nuclear reactors. Other presented projects demonstrate a wide diversity of supported directions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety, including reactor material improvement ("Improved Zirconium-Based Elements for Nuclear Reactors"), information technologies for nuclear industries ("Ukrainian Nuclear Data Bank in Slavutich"), and radiation health science ("Diagnostics and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Injuries of Human Biopolymers").

  19. Post-cold war nuclear dangers: Proliferation and terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1995-02-24

    This article discusses several aspects of post cold war nuclear problems facing both the world and the USA. Included are the following topics: four nuclear nightmare scenarios; availability of nuclear weapons, materials, and expertise; US programs to reduce smoggling of nuclear weapons and materials; US options in the future; Global options; and priority actions, including effective nuclear intelligence; read teams to find vulverablities and evaluate countermeasures to nuclear terrorism; accelerate development of advanced detection and disarmament technologies; implement urgent CISAC recommendation on management of nuclear materials and inherent security technologies; accelerate research and development of a globle space-based missile defence; ensure crediability of nuclear deterrent; accelerate development of conventional weapons that reduce the role of nuclear weapons. 9 refs.

  20. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  1. 75 FR 10444 - Nuclear Energy Institute; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 Nuclear Energy Institute; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is denying a petition for rulemaking (PRM) submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) (the... rulemaking. The petitioner states that the nuclear energy industry has fully implemented numerous...

  2. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  3. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  4. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  5. 75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... implement NRC-approved radiation safety procedures for storing and handling radioactive materials. Thus, the... Proposed Extension of Deadline for Inventory of Special Nuclear Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Safeguards, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop...

  6. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general design...

  7. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  8. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  9. Nuclear waste management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikalla, T. D.; Powell, J. A.

    1981-09-01

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  10. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site's environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  11. Environmental Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is to show the current and future (five years) environmental plans from individual site organizations and divisions, as well as site environmental programs and initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed changing environmental/regulatory requirements. Communicating with site organizations, departments, and committees is essential in making the site`s environmental-planning process work. The EIP gives the site the what, when, how, and why for environmental requirements. Through teamwork and proactive planning, a partnership for environmental excellence is formed to achieve the site vision for SRS to become the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  12. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  13. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  14. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  15. Nuclear thermal/nuclear electric hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the nuclear thermal and nuclear electric hybrid. The specifications are described along with its mission performance. Next, the technical status, development requirements, and some cost estimates are provided.

  16. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente JosÔe; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-05-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems.

  17. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  18. Optimized Sampling Strategies For Non-Proliferation Monitoring: Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.; Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.

    2015-10-20

    Concentration data collected from the 2013 H-Canyon effluent reprocessing experiment were reanalyzed to improve the source term estimate. When errors in the model-predicted wind speed and direction were removed, the source term uncertainty was reduced to 30% of the mean. This explained the factor of 30 difference between the source term size derived from data at 5 km and 10 km downwind in terms of the time history of dissolution. The results show a path forward to develop a sampling strategy for quantitative source term calculation.

  19. Assuring the Quality of Test Results in the Field of Nuclear Techniques and Ionizing Radiation. The Practical Implementation of Section 5.9 of the EN ISO/IEC 17025 Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucu, Daniela; Woods, Mike

    2008-08-01

    The paper aims to present a practical approach for testing laboratories to ensure the quality of their test results. It is based on the experience gained in assessing a large number of testing laboratories, discussing with management and staff, reviewing results obtained in national and international PTs and ILCs and exchanging information in the EA laboratory committee. According to EN ISO/IEC 17025, an accredited laboratory has to implement a programme to ensure the quality of its test results for each measurand. Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical measures shall be applied in a systematic manner. They shall include both quality control and quality assurance measures. When designing the quality assurance programme a laboratory should consider pre-analytical activities (like personnel training, selection and validation of test methods, qualifying equipment), analytical activities ranging from sampling, sample preparation, instrumental analysis and post-analytical activities (like decoding, calculation, use of statistical tests or packages, management of results). Designed on different levels (analyst, quality manager and technical manager), including a variety of measures, the programme shall ensure the validity and accuracy of test results, the adequacy of the management system, prove the laboratory's competence in performing tests under accreditation and last but not least show the comparability of test results. Laboratory management should establish performance targets and review periodically QC/QA results against them, implementing appropriate measures in case of non-compliance.

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Mirijanian, James; Pavell, James

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) is being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). Cold and hot atom interferometer based gyroscopes have suffered from Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) challenges and limits in bandwidth, scale factor stability, dead time, high rotation rate, vibration, and acceleration. NMRG utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as a reference for determining rotation, providing continuous measurement, high bandwidth, stable scale factor, high rotation rate measurement, and low sensitivity to vibration and acceleration in a low SWaP package. The sensitivity to vibration has been partially tested and demonstrates no measured sensitivity within error bars. Real time closed loop implementation of the sensor significantly decreases environmental and systematic sensitivities and supports a compact and low power digital signal processing and control system. Therefore, the NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost SWaP package. The poster will describe the history, operation, and design of the NMRG. General performance results will also be presented along with recent vibration test results.

  1. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  3. Nuclear South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    inseparable from the history of nuclear developments in both India and Pakistan. The timing of India’s tests was determined by the pronuclear stance of the...Rawalpindi, 2001), 17-18. 53 3Robert Boardman, The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear Exports and World Politics (New...disasters of nuclear arms race. 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Boardman, Robert. The Politics of Fading Dreams: Britain and the Nuclear Export Business, Nuclear

  4. Hollow nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Gao-Chan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally considered that an atomic nucleus is always compact. Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann nuclear transport model, here I show that large block nuclear matter or excited nuclear matter may both be hollow. The size of the inner bubble in these matter is affected by the charge number of nuclear matter. The existence of hollow nuclear matter may have many implications in nuclear or atomic physics or astrophysics as well as some practical applications.

  5. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-11-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

  6. Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    resolution February 4, 2006, that referred the matter to the Security Council. Two days later, Tehran announced that it would stop implementing its...35 Sylvia Westall, “Iran Wants New Nuclear Fuel Talks, Deepening Doubts,” Reuters, November 2, 2009; “Iran to Seek Fuel Supply Guarantees...180 days before introducing nuclear material into it.49 If Tehran does not alter this decision, the agency will receive considerably later notice about

  7. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  8. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 5: Nuclear System safety guidelines. Part 1: Space base nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and operations guidelines and requirements developed in the study of space base nuclear system safety are presented. Guidelines and requirements are presented for the space base subsystems, nuclear hardware (reactor, isotope sources, dynamic generator equipment), experiments, interfacing vehicles, ground support systems, range safety and facilities. Cross indices and references are provided which relate guidelines to each other, and to substantiating data in other volumes. The guidelines are intended for the implementation of nuclear safety related design and operational considerations in future space programs.

  9. Nuclear Proliferation: A Global Nuclear Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    thinking about nuclear weapons as a “ Wild Card ” in this case. Finally, just as North Korea is using nuclear weapons as a “bargaining chip,” we...definite disadvantage for non-nuclear nations not to have a nuclear” Wild Card ”. So some misguided Japanese politicians are attracted to the “ Wild Card ” advantage

  10. Cultural Awareness in Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link

    SciTech Connect

    Nasser, Al-Sharif Nasser bin; Auda, Jasmine; Bachner, Katherine

    2016-11-20

    Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. This article argues that this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Furthermore, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its applications in the Jordanian context will be presented.

  11. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Biopsies - Overview Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) Alzheimer's Disease X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  12. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Five viewgraphs are presented that outline the objectives and elements of the Nuclear Propulsion Program, mission considerations, propulsion technologies, and the logic flow path for nuclear propulsion development.

  13. Making space nuclear power a reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Our current space exploration missions are power limited. Space nuclear reactors could provide the power for both onboard electrical power and propulsion to enable a new generation of space science and exploration. Implementing a mission using a space nuclear reactor presents many technical challenges. However, nuclear technologies are safely and reliably used throughout U.S. industries and the Government. Well-defined processes and regulations currently exist for the use of nuclear technologies in space or any other application. These processes and regulations assure safe, reliable use of nuclear technology in a manner that protects the public and the environment. The question is not one of choosing between safety and space science, but of investing in a technology that includes rigorous processes and procedures to assure safe.

  14. Thermal hydraulics in undergraduate nuclear engineering education

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The intense safety-related research efforts of the seventies in reactor thermal hydraulics have brought about the recognition of the subject as one of the cornerstones of nuclear engineering. Many nuclear engineering departments responded by building up research programs in this area, and mostly as a consequence, educational programs, too. Whether thermal hydraulics has fully permeated the conscience of nuclear engineering, however, remains yet to be seen. The lean years that lie immediately ahead will provide the test. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the author's own educational activity in undergraduate nuclear engineering education over the past 10 yr or so. All this activity took place at Purdue's School of Nuclear Engineering. He was well satisfied with the results and expects to implement something similar at the University of California in Santa Barbara in the near future.

  15. Making space nuclear power a reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Our current space exploration missions are power limited. Space nuclear reactors could provide the power for both onboard electrical power and propulsion to enable a new generation of space science and exploration. Implementing a mission using a space nuclear reactor presents many technical challenges. However, nuclear technologies are safely and reliably used throughout U.S. industries and the Government. Well-defined processes and regulations currently exist for the use of nuclear technologies in space or any other application. These processes and regulations assure safe, reliable use of nuclear technology in a manner that protects the public and the environment. The question is not one of choosing between safety and space science, but of investing in a technology that includes rigorous processes and procedures to assure safe.

  16. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

  17. Nuclear Forensics for High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Catherine; Doss, Heide; Plisch, Monica; Isola, Drew; Mirakovitz, Kathy

    2011-04-01

    We developed an education module on nuclear forensics, designed for high school science classrooms. The lessons include a mix of hands-on activities, computer simulations, and written exercises. Students are presented with realistic scenarios designed to develop their knowledge of nuclear science and its application to nuclear forensics. A two-day teacher workshop offered at Hope College attracted 20 teachers. They were loaned kits to implement activities with their students, and each teacher spent 3--7 days on the lessons. All who reported back said they would do it again and would share the lessons with colleagues. Many said that access to equipment and ready-made lessons enabled them to expand what they taught about nuclear science and introduce nuclear forensics. A few teachers invited guest speakers to their classroom, which provided an excellent opportunity to share career information with students. We acknowledge generous support from the Department of Homeland Security and the AIP Meggars Award.

  18. The threat of nuclear war: Some responses

    PubMed Central

    Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Nevin, John A.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of nuclear holocaust threatens the very existence of the world community. Biologists, earth scientists, educators, lawyers, philosophers, physicists, physicians, and social scientists have addressed the problem from their special perspectives, and have had substantial impact on the public. Behavior analysts, however, have not as a whole contributed a great deal to the goal of preventing nuclear catastrophe. We argue that the threat of nuclear war is primarily a behavioral problem, and present an analysis of that problem. In addition, we address the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions that would contribute to the survival of the World. PMID:22478648

  19. Promoting Intercultural Competency in the Nuclear Workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner K. M.

    2015-07-12

    Intercultural preparedness training is a staple of many workplaces that require international competence, including government, business, and non-profits. Even highly experienced diplomats are often advised to attend training sessions on this topic. Intercultural preparedness training promises to be especially relevant and useful for professionals working in the field of nuclear nonproliferation, including in the application of international nuclear safeguards. This paper outlines the fundamental philosophies underlying a training program that will benefit professionals in the nuclear arena, whether practitioners of nonproliferation or other sub-fields relying on international cooperation and collaboration, and how such a training program might be implemented efficiently.

  20. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  1. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  2. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  3. A rapid isotope ratio analysis protocol for nuclear solid materials using nano-second laser-ablation time-of-flight ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Bürger, S; Riciputi, L R

    2009-11-01

    The analysis of the isotopic composition of nuclear or non-nuclear solid materials is performed in a variety of fields, e.g., for quality assurance in the production of nuclear fuels, as signatures in forensics, nuclear safeguards, and non-proliferation control, in material characterization, geology, and archeology. We have investigated the capability of laser ablation (New Wave Research, 213 nm) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) ICP-MS (GBC OptiMass 8000) as a rapid analytical protocol for multi-isotope screening of nuclear and non-nuclear solid samples. This includes natural and non-natural isotopic compositions for elements including Cu, Zr, Mo, Cd, In, Ba, Ta, W, Re, Pt, Pb, and U, in pure metals, alloys, and glasses. Without correcting for mass bias (mass fractionation), an overall precision and accuracy of about 4% (1 sigma) can be achieved by minimizing the deposited laser power and thus fractionation (mass removal based on thermal properties). The precision and accuracy in combination with literally no or minimized sample preparation enables a rapid isotope screening of solid samples that is of particular interest to support nuclear forensic and safeguard analysis.

  4. Overview of nuclear energy: Present and projected use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.

  5. Overview of nuclear energy: Present and projected use

    SciTech Connect

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2012-06-19

    Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.

  6. Overview of Nuclear Energy: Present and Projected Use

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Stanculescu

    2011-09-01

    Several factors will influence the contribution of nuclear energy to the future energy mix. Among them, the most important are the degree of global commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, continued vigilance in safety and safeguards, technological advances, economic competitiveness and innovative financing arrangements for new nuclear power plant constructions, the implementation of nuclear waste disposal, and, last but not least, public perception, information and education. The paper presents an overview of the current nuclear energy situation, possible development scenarios, of reactor technology, and of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.

  7. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  8. Terrorists and Nuclear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, David

    1975-01-01

    This essay explores the ways terrorist groups may gain possession of nuclear materials; the way in which they may use nuclear weapons and other nuclear technologies to their benefit; and various courses of action designed to minimize the possibilities of terrorists utilizing nuclear technology to their benefit and society's detriment. (BT)

  9. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  10. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    Current developments in nuclear structure at the `limits` are discussed. The studies of nuclear behavior at extreme conditions provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk frontiers of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  11. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  12. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  13. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  14. Detection for Nuclear Nonproliferation

    DOE PAGES

    Pozzi, Sara A.; Hamel, Michael C.; Polack, J. Kyle; ...

    2016-11-13

    The detection and characterization of special nuclear materials is a high priority area for applications in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. We are developing new instruments based on organic scintillators to detect and characterize the emissions from special nuclear materials. This paper describes some of the gaps and challenges in nuclear safeguards and proposed approaches.

  15. The New Nuclear Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Explores the issue of nuclear proliferation, noting that the countries with nuclear capability now include Israel, South Africa, India, and Pakistan. Describes the role and problems of the United States in halting nuclearization. Supplies charts, maps, and information concerning the state of nuclear capability in each country. (NL)

  16. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  17. The nuclear freeze controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.B.; Gray, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control. Topics considered include the background and rationale behind the nuclear freeze proposal, nuclear deterrence, national defense, arms races, arms buildup, warfare, the moral aspects of nuclear deterrence, treaty verification, the federal budget, the economy, a historical perspective on Soviet policy toward the freeze, the other side of the Soviet peace offensive, and making sense of the nuclear freeze debate.

  18. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

  19. Nuclear structure and depletion of nuclear isomers using electron linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. J.; Litz, M. S.; Henriquez, S. L.; Burns, D. A.; Netherton, K. A.; Pereira, N. R.; Karamian, S. A.

    2013-04-19

    Long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) have proven important to understanding nuclear structure. With some isomers having half-lives of decades or longer, and intrinsic energy densities reaching 10{sup 12} J/kg, they have also been suggested for a wide range of applications. The ability to effectively transfer a population of nuclei from an isomer to shorter-lived levels will determine the feasibility of any applications. Here is described a first demonstration of the induced depletion of a population of the 438 year isomer of {sup 108}Ag to its 2.38 min ground state, using 6 MeV bremsstrahlung from a modified medical electron linac. The experiment suggests refinements to be implemented in the future and how a similar approach might be applied to study induced depletion of the 1200 year isomer of {sup 166}Ho.

  20. Random matrices and chaos in nuclear physics: Nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G. E.; Richter, A.; Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2010-10-15

    The application of random-matrix theory (RMT) to compound-nucleus (CN) reactions is reviewed. An introduction into the basic concepts of nuclear scattering theory is followed by a survey of phenomenological approaches to CN scattering. The implementation of a random-matrix approach into scattering theory leads to a statistical theory of CN reactions. Since RMT applies generically to chaotic quantum systems, that theory is, at the same time, a generic theory of quantum chaotic scattering. It uses a minimum of input parameters (average S matrix and mean level spacing of the CN). Predictions of the theory are derived with the help of field-theoretical methods adapted from condensed-matter physics and compared with those of phenomenological approaches. Thorough tests of the theory are reviewed, as are applications in nuclear physics, with special attention given to violation of symmetries (isospin and parity) and time-reversal invariance.

  1. Cytoplasmic proliferating cell nuclear antigen connects glycolysis and cell survival in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Delphine; De Chiara, Alessia; Chapuis, Nicolas; Candalh, Céline; Mocek, Julie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Haddaoui, Lamya; Ifrah, Norbert; Hermine, Olivier; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Frachet, Philippe; Bouscary, Didier; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a scaffolding protein involved in DNA replication, has been described as a key element in survival of mature neutrophil granulocytes, which are non-proliferating cells. Herein, we demonstrated an active export of PCNA involved in cell survival and chemotherapy resistance. Notably, daunorubicin-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60R) have a prominent cytosolic PCNA localization due to increased nuclear export compared to daunorubicin-sensitive HL-60 cells (HL-60S). By interacting with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a protein involved in NAD biosynthesis, PCNA coordinates glycolysis and survival, especially in HL-60R cells. These cells showed a dramatic increase in intracellular NAD+ concentration as well as glycolysis including increased expression and activity of hexokinase 1 and increased lactate production. Furthermore, this functional activity of cytoplasmic PCNA was also demonstrated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our data uncover a novel pathway of nuclear export of PCNA that drives cell survival by increasing metabolism flux. PMID:27759041

  2. Securing Special Nuclear Material: Recent Advances in Neutron Detection and Their Role in Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Bernstein, A.; Vanier, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Neutron detection is an integral part of the global effort to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear material (SNM). Applications relying on neutron-detection technology range from traditional nuclear non-proliferation objectives, such as safeguarding nuclear material and verifying stockpile reductions, to the interdiction of SNM—a goal that has recently risen in priority to a level on par with traditional applications. Large multi-national programs targeting detection and safeguards have deployed radiation-detection assets across the globe. Alongside these deployments of commercially available technology, significant research and development efforts have been directed towards the creation of next-generation assets. While much of this development has focused on gamma-ray spectrometers, neutron-detection technology remains an important component of the global strategy because of the capability of neutrons to penetrate materials that readily absorb gamma rays and the unique multiplicity signatures offered by neutrons. One particularly acute technology-development challenge results from dwindling supplies of 3He, partially triggered by widespread deployment of high-efficiency systems for portal monitoring. Other emerging missions, such as the desire to detect SNM at greater standoff distances, have also stimulated neutron-detection technology development. In light of these needs for novel neutron-detection technologies, this manuscript reviews the signatures of neutrons emitted by SNM, the principles of neutron detection, and various strategies under investigation for detection in the context of nonproliferation.

  3. 75 FR 3497 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., ``Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, Entergy Nuclear...

  4. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  5. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5) nuclear infrastructure; (6) the

  6. 10 CFR 75.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure that the United States meets its nuclear non-proliferation obligations... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions... between the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These treaties include the...

  7. 10 CFR 75.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure that the United States meets its nuclear non-proliferation obligations... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions... between the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These treaties include the...

  8. 10 CFR 75.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contains requirements to ensure that the United States meets its nuclear non-proliferation obligations... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions... between the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These treaties include the...

  9. Nuclear Thermal Rocket by 2000: a DOE Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Stanley, Marland

    1992-01-01

    It is asserted that a Nuclear Propulsion Space Transportation System is required for the Manned Mars Mission. Additionally, it is felt that a Nuclear Propulsion Space Transportation System can support a wide variety of future space missions, including lunar base implementation and support. The Rover/NERVA program demonstrated that a safe, reliable Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) can be developed and operated for sufficient run times, at desirable temperatures, and with multiple restarts. The discussion is presented in viewgraph form.

  10. Architecture for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Arthu, E.D.; Cunningham, P.T.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1999-02-21

    Global and regional scenarios for future energy demand have been assessed from the perspectives of nuclear materials management. From these the authors propose creation of a nuclear fuel cycle architecture which maximizes inherent protection of plutonium and other nuclear materials. The concept also provides technical and institutional flexibility for transition into other fuel cycle systems, particularly those involving breeder reactors. The system, its implementation timeline, and overall impact are described in the paper.

  11. Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

  12. The Los Alamos nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation technology development program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Menlove, H.O.; Reilly, T.D.; Bosler, G.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Eccleston, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    For nearly three decades, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed and implemented nuclear measurement technology and training in support of national and international nuclear safeguards. This paper outlines the major elements of those technologies and highlights some of the latest developments.

  13. Why Nuclear Education? A Sourcebook for Educators and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Susan

    This guide is designed as a resource for individuals and groups who are considering why and how to implement teaching about nuclear issues in the classroom. Section I presents some questions frequently asked about nuclear education and responses based upon the experience and research of Educators for Social Responsibility. Section II highlights…

  14. Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

  15. Dialogue: A Teaching Guide to Nuclear Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educators for Social Responsibility, Cambridge, MA.

    Materials in this manual are designed to help educators raise the issue of nuclear war through a "day of dialog" on the subject. There are seven sections. Section 1 contains a project reationale; suggestions for implementation; methods for meeting resistance; tips for schoolwide, parent-teacher, and community discussion; uses of the media; and…

  16. NADS - Nuclear and Atomic Data System

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, Michael S.; Beck, Bret; McNabb, Dennis

    2005-05-24

    We have developed NADS (Nuclear and Atomic Data System), a web-based graphical interface for viewing pointwise and grouped cross sections and distributions. Our implementation is a client / server model. The client is a Java applet that displays the graphical interface, which has interactive 2-D, 3-D, and 4-D plots and tables. The server, which can serve and perform computations of the data, has been implemented in Python using the FUDGE package developed by Bret Beck at LLNL. Computational capabilities include algebraic manipulation of nuclear evaluated data in databases such as LLNL's ENDL-99, ENDF/B-V, and ENDF/B-VI, as well as user data. Processed data used in LLNL's transport codes are accessible as well. NADS is available from http://nuclear.llnl.gov/.

  17. NADS - Nuclear And Atomic Data System

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, M S; Beck, B; McNabb, D

    2004-09-17

    We have developed NADS (Nuclear and Atomic Data System), a web-based graphical interface for viewing pointwise and grouped cross-sections and distributions. Our implementation is a client / server model. The client is a Java applet that displays the graphical interface, which has interactive 2-D, 3-D, and 4-D plots and tables. The server, which can serve and perform computations the data, has been implemented in Python using the FUDGE package developed by Bret Beck at LLNL. Computational capabilities include algebraic manipulation of nuclear evaluated data in databases such as LLNL's ENDL-99, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI as well as user data. Processed data used in LLNL's transport codes are accessible as well. NADS is available from http://nuclear.llnl.gov/

  18. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  19. U.S. and Russian Cooperation Against Nuclear Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    over the Soviet Union. 99Bunn, 36. 100 Physicians for Social Responsibility , “A History of the...Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty,” Physicians for Social Responsibility , http://www.psr.org/home.cfm?id=non_proliferation12, (accessed 14 September 2004... Responsibility , “A History of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty,” Physicians for Social Responsibility , http://www.psr.org/home.cfm?id=non_proliferation12

  20. Some remarks on rockbursts and nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    McGarr, A.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes problems associated with non-proliferation verification. Issues are described which can arise in the course of monitoring test ban treaties, with an example of an occurrence in South Africa. A problem for most situations appears to be the seismic source.

  1. Let's Talk about Peace, Let's Talk about Nuclear War. A Peace Curriculum by Teaching in a Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoine, Julie; Farkas, Randi

    These learning activities will help children in grades 1-8 learn about issues concerning nuclear war and disarmament and help them develop their own framework for decision making in the nuclear age. The introduction discusses curriculum objectives and the procedures for implementing the curriculum. A sample letter to parents and instruments for…

  2. Let's Talk about Peace, Let's Talk about Nuclear War. A Peace Curriculum by Teaching in a Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoine, Julie; Farkas, Randi

    These learning activities will help children in grades 1-8 learn about issues concerning nuclear war and disarmament and help them develop their own framework for decision making in the nuclear age. The introduction discusses curriculum objectives and the procedures for implementing the curriculum. A sample letter to parents and instruments for…

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNF is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, John C.

    2016-05-22

    One interdisciplinary field devoted to achieving the end-state of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through reuse and/or permanent disposal. The reuse option aims to make use of the remaining energy content in UNF and reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive materials that require permanent disposal. The planned approach in the U.S., as well as in many other countries worldwide, is direct permanent disposal in a deep geologic repository. Used nuclear fuel is fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor to the point where it is no longer capable of sustaining operational objectives. The vast majority (by mass) of UNFmore » is from electricity generation in commercial nuclear power reactors. Furthermore, the other main source of UNF in the U.S. is the Department of Energy’s (DOE) and other federal agencies’ operation of reactors in support of federal government missions, such as materials production, nuclear propulsion, research, testing, and training. Upon discharge from a reactor, UNF emits considerable heat from radioactive decay. Some period of active on-site cooling (e.g., 2 or more years) is typically required to facilitate efficient packaging and transportation to a disposition facility. Hence, the field of UNF disposition broadly includes storage, transportation and ultimate disposition. See also: Nuclear Fission (content/nuclear-fission/458400), Nuclear Fuels (/content/nuclear-fuels/458600), Nuclear Fuel Cycle (/content/nuclear-fuel-cycle/458500), Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing (/content/nuclear-fuels-reprocessing/458700), Nuclear Power (/content/nuclear-power/459600), Nuclear Reactor (/content/nuclear-reactor/460100), Radiation (/content/radiation/566300), and Radioactive Waste Management (/content/radioactive-waste-management/568900).« less

  6. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John Bernard

    2010-12-13

    The decision to implement the Innovation in Nuclear Infrastructure and Engineering Program (INIE) was an important first step towards ensuring that the United States preserves its worldwide leadership role in the field of nuclear science and engineering. Prior to INIE, university nuclear science and engineering programs were waning, undergraduate student enrollment was down, university research reactors were being shut down, while others faced the real possibility of closure. For too long, cutting edge research in the areas of nuclear medicine, neutron scattering, radiochemistry, and advanced materials was undervalued and therefore underfunded. The INIE program corrected this lapse in focus and direction and started the process of drawing a new blueprint with positive goals and objectives that supports existing as well the next generation of educators, students and researchers.

  8. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  9. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W; Moody, K J; Bradley, K S; Lorenzana, H E

    2011-02-18

    we posit that the exploration, development, and implementation of intrinsic mechanisms such as discussed here are part of a balanced approach aimed at preventing the misuse of nuclear material for nuclear-energy applications.

  10. Implementers' Perspectives on Fidelity of Implementation.

    PubMed

    Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Krieger, Kathleen; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Miller, Shari

    2017-03-01

    Fidelity of implementation is an essential factor in realizing outcomes of evidence-based interventions. Yet perspectives vary on the degree to which fidelity is necessary or desirable, implementers may receive limited guidance on fidelity, and research on implementers' understanding and operationalization of fidelity is lacking. We conducted key informant interviews with 20 individuals who implemented an evidence-based teen dating violence prevention curriculum in seven sites. Interviews addressed how implementers defined fidelity and the adaptations they made in implementing the curriculum. Although all implementers reported delivering the curriculum with fidelity, their definitions of fidelity varied. Most defined fidelity in terms of adherence to the published curriculum, although definitions sometimes allowed modifications of pedagogy or adding or subtracting materials. A smaller group of implementers defined fidelity in terms of their perceptions of the curriculum's core messages. All implementers described variations from the published curriculum, which were frequently inconsistent with their own definitions of fidelity. Implementers committed to the value of implementation with fidelity may need support in its definition and application. Developers can support implementers by communicating program theory in terms that implementers will understand, clarifying expectations for fidelity and allowable adaptations, and codifying lessons learned from previous implementation.

  11. Unequal nuclear Sp1/GC box DNA binding activity distinguishes proliferating from differentiated senescent or apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Rieber, M; Strasberg Rieber, M

    1999-10-29

    Terminal differentiation can result in either viable, non-proliferating or apoptotic cells. In B16 melanoma, millimolar L-tyrosine induces tyrosinase, a key enzyme for terminal pigmentation concurrent with either irreversible growth arrest at low cell density, or apoptosis at high cell density. Since the promoter for melanocyte-specific tyrosinase expression contains sites for the Sp1 transcription factor, we have investigated the relationship of Sp1-mediated GC-box DNA binding activity to growth control in undifferentiated and in terminally differentiated viable or apoptotic cells. Nuclear extracts from viable, differentiated cells showed increased retardation of GC box DNA sequence compared with that seen in proliferating cells or those reversibly arrested in early G(1) or late G(1) / S. In contrast, nuclear proteins from dying, differentiated cells showed loss of nuclear GC box DNA binding activity without decrease in binding to TTTGCGCG sequences recognized by the E2F transcription factor, which is known to interact with Sp1. However, cyto-plasmic fractions from apoptotic cells revealed phos-phatase-activated retardation of GC box DNA, which was not evident in similarly treated fractions from undifferentiated cells or sparse differentiated cells. Terminal differentiation also correlated with increase in a slow-migrating phosphorylated Sp1 isoform. Our data suggests that lack of nuclear Sp1/GC box DNA binding activity, may promote apoptosis by diminishing expression of survival-associated genes regulated by GC box DNA promoter sequences in dense terminally differentiated melanoma cells. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  13. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  14. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  15. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  16. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  17. Teaching "The Nuclear Predicament."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Philip; Kneeshaw, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Contends that courses on nuclear war must help students examine the political, social, religious, philosophical, economic, and moral assumptions which characterized the dilemma of nuclear armament/disarmament. Describes the upper level undergraduate course taught by the authors. (JDH)

  18. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  19. Nuclear disarmament verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  20. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.