Science.gov

Sample records for implementing virtual reality

  1. Implementing virtual reality interfaces for the geosciences

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Jacobsen, J.; Austin, A.; Lederer, M.; Little, T.

    1996-06-01

    For the past few years, a multidisciplinary team of computer and earth scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been exploring the use of advanced user interfaces, commonly called {open_quotes}Virtual Reality{close_quotes} (VR), coupled with visualization and scientific computing software. Working closely with industry, these efforts have resulted in an environment in which VR technology is coupled with existing visualization and computational tools. VR technology may be thought of as a user interface. It is useful to think of a spectrum, ranging the gamut from command-line interfaces to completely immersive environments. In the former, one uses the keyboard to enter three or six-dimensional parameters. In the latter, three or six-dimensional information is provided by trackers contained either in hand-held devices or attached to the user in some fashion, e.g. attached to a head-mounted display. Rich, extensible and often complex languages are a vehicle whereby the user controls parameters to manipulate object position and location in a virtual world, but the keyboard is the obstacle in that typing is cumbersome, error-prone and typically slow. In the latter, the user can interact with these parameters by means of motor skills which are highly developed. Two specific geoscience application areas will be highlighted. In the first, we have used VR technology to manipulate three-dimensional input parameters, such as the spatial location of injection or production wells in a reservoir simulator. In the second, we demonstrate how VR technology has been used to manipulate visualization tools, such as a tool for computing streamlines via manipulation of a {open_quotes}rake.{close_quotes} The rake is presented to the user in the form of a {open_quotes}virtual well{close_quotes} icon, and provides parameters used by the streamlines algorithm.

  2. Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  3. Constructing Meaning with Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaonnou-Georgiou, Sophie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a constructivist rationale for introducing virtual reality in language learning and teaching and describes various virtual reality environments that are available. Ways of implementing constuctivist learning through virtual reality are suggested as well as basic guidelines for successful implementation in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  4. Implementing the virtual reality learning environment: Second Life.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bonnie; Stewart, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Today, faculty members are challenged to find meaningful learning activities that enhance online nursing education. Second Life is an innovative Internet-based strategy that may be used to engage students in active learning. The authors discuss how this technology was implemented into an accelerated online nursing program.

  5. Virtual Reality: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchi, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  6. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. ||; Papp, A.L. III |

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one`s application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  7. Virtual sound for virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Cancer Center, Houston, TX . Dept. of Biomathematics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA California Univ., Davis, CA ); Papp, A.L. III Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1993-02-01

    The computational limitations of real-time interactive computing do not meet our requirements for producing realistic images for virtual reality in a convincing manner. Regardless of the real-time restrictions on virtual reality interfaces, the representations can be no better than the graphics. Computer graphics is still limited in its ability to generate complex objects such as landscapes and humans. Nevertheless, useful and convincing visualizations are made through a variety of techniques. The central theme of this article is that a similar situation is true with sound for virtual reality. It is beyond our abilityto create interactive soundscapes that create a faithful reproduction of real world sounds, however, by choosing one's application carefully and using sound to enhance a display rather than only mimic real-world scenes, a very effective use of sound can be made.

  8. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  9. Learning in Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricken, William

    The essence of the computer revolution is yet to come, for computers are essentially generators of realities. Virtual reality (VR) is the next step in the evolutionary path; the user is placed inside the image and becomes a participant within the computational space. A VR computer generates a direct experience of the computational environment. The…

  10. Virtual reality and virtual bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Catherine; Korba, Larry W.; Shaw, Christopher D.; Green, Mark

    1994-04-01

    There are many ways to produce the sense of `presence' or telepresence in the user of virtual reality. For example attempting to increase the realism of the visual environment is a commonly accepted strategy. In contrast, this paper explores a way for the user to feel present in an unrealistic virtual body. It investigates an unusual approach, proprioceptive illusions. Proprioceptive or body illusions are used to generate and explore the experience of virtuality and presence outside of the normal body limits. These projects are realized in art installations.

  11. Implementing a virtual reality paradigm in human anatomy/physiology college curricula.

    PubMed

    St Aubin, H

    2001-01-01

    Modes of instruction in the college course called Human Anatomy/Physiology are changing. Due to ethical concerns and the ever-increasing source of new physiological data, there is a need for enhancements to assist the instructor and student. The computer science of virtual reality (VR) provides a method to electronically educate, train, prototype, test and evaluate new enhancements to the college curricula. This study detailed the modeling and simulation of a skeletal human hand with degrees of freedom of movement, which provided the students with a physiological representation of some of the movements of the hand. The primary objectives of the study were to assess the use of the VR simulation by college students and to assess the potential learning outcomes of students in their use of the VR simulation. The simulation was implemented into classes of Human Anatomy/Physiology as an adjunct enhancement for the students' use. The expectation centered on the constructivist theory that students develop an analytic outlook to the various articulations of the human skeleton. Positive results were shown based on the answers to the questionnaire, summary and post-test taken by the students, after their use of the VR simulation. The results supported the constructivist theory that critical thinking took place. The results showed that the virtual reality simulation enhanced the learning ability of the students. The recommendations of the study include future experimentation to be done on increasing the number of VR simulations, incorporating the VR simulations into undergraduate courses, testing the outcomes, and following the progression of students into graduate programs that are using VR simulations. Faculty and administration are advised to consider implementing the paradigm of VR simulations in undergraduate courses of Human Anatomy/Physiology.

  12. The Application of Virtual Reality on Distance Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zehui

    The features and classifications of Virtual Reality Techniques have been summarized and recommendation of applying Virtual Reality on distance education has been made. Future research is needed on the design and implementation of virtual classroom and courseware.

  13. Embedding speech into virtual realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, Christian-Arved; Krueger, Wolfgang

    1993-01-01

    In this work a speaker-independent speech recognition system is presented, which is suitable for implementation in Virtual Reality applications. The use of an artificial neural network in connection with a special compression of the acoustic input leads to a system, which is robust, fast, easy to use and needs no additional hardware, beside a common VR-equipment.

  14. Virtual Reality and the Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…

  15. Virtual reality welder training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Steven A.; Reiners, Dirk; Prachyabrued, Mores; Borst, Christoph W.; Chambers, Terrence L.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the Virtual Reality Simulated MIG Lab (sMIG), a system for Virtual Reality welder training. It is designed to reproduce the experience of metal inert gas (MIG) welding faithfully enough to be used as a teaching tool for beginning welding students. To make the experience as realistic as possible it employs physically accurate and tracked input devices, a real-time welding simulation, real-time sound generation and a 3D display for output. Thanks to being a fully digital system it can go beyond providing just a realistic welding experience by giving interactive and immediate feedback to the student to avoid learning wrong movements from day 1.

  16. Virtual reality for emergency training

    SciTech Connect

    Altinkemer, K.

    1995-12-31

    Virtual reality is a sequence of scenes generated by a computer as a response to the five different senses. These senses are sight, sound, taste, touch, smell. Other senses that can be used in virtual reality include balance, pheromonal, and immunological senses. Many application areas include: leisure and entertainment, medicine, architecture, engineering, manufacturing, and training. Virtual reality is especially important when it is used for emergency training and management of natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, tornados and other situations which are hard to emulate. Classical training methods for these extraordinary environments lack the realistic surroundings that virtual reality can provide. In order for virtual reality to be a successful training tool the design needs to include certain aspects; such as how real virtual reality should be and how much fixed cost is entailed in setting up the virtual reality trainer. There are also pricing questions regarding the price per training session on virtual reality trainer, and the appropriate training time length(s).

  17. Virtual reality systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtual realities are a type of human-computer interface (HCI) and as such may be understood from a historical perspective. In the earliest era, the computer was a very simple, straightforward machine. Interaction was human manipulation of an inanimate object, little more than the provision of an explicit instruction set to be carried out without deviation. In short, control resided with the user. In the second era of HCI, some level of intelligence and control was imparted to the system to enable a dialogue with the user. Simple context sensitive help systems are early examples, while more sophisticated expert system designs typify this era. Control was shared more equally. In this, the third era of the HCI, the constructed system emulates a particular environment, constructed with rules and knowledge about 'reality'. Control is, in part, outside the realm of the human-computer dialogue. Virtual reality systems are discussed.

  18. Virtual Reality in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantelidis, Veronica S.

    1993-01-01

    Considers the concept of virtual reality; reviews its history; describes general uses of virtual reality, including entertainment, medicine, and design applications; discusses classroom uses of virtual reality, including a software program called Virtus WalkThrough for use with a computer monitor; and suggests future possibilities. (34 references)…

  19. An exploratory fNIRS study with immersive virtual reality: a new method for technical implementation.

    PubMed

    Seraglia, Bruno; Gamberini, Luciano; Priftis, Konstantinos; Scatturin, Pietro; Martinelli, Massimiliano; Cutini, Simone

    2011-01-01

    For over two decades Virtual Reality (VR) has been used as a useful tool in several fields, from medical and psychological treatments, to industrial and military applications. Only in recent years researchers have begun to study the neural correlates that subtend VR experiences. Even if the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is the most common and used technique, it suffers several limitations and problems. Here we present a methodology that involves the use of a new and growing brain imaging technique, functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), while participants experience immersive VR. In order to allow a proper fNIRS probe application, a custom-made VR helmet was created. To test the adapted helmet, a virtual version of the line bisection task was used. Participants could bisect the lines in a virtual peripersonal or extrapersonal space, through the manipulation of a Nintendo Wiimote ® controller in order for the participants to move a virtual laser pointer. Although no neural correlates of the dissociation between peripersonal and extrapersonal space were found, a significant hemodynamic activity with respect to the baseline was present in the right parietal and occipital areas. Both advantages and disadvantages of the presented methodology are discussed.

  20. Virtual reality at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Frederick P., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of virtual reality computer graphics in telepresence applications is not hard to grasp and promises to be great. When the virtual world is entirely synthetic, as opposed to real but remote, the utility is harder to establish. Vehicle simulators for aircraft, vessels, and motor vehicles are proving their worth every day. Entertainment applications such as Disney World's StarTours are technologically elegant, good fun, and economically viable. Nevertheless, some of us have no real desire to spend our lifework serving the entertainment craze of our sick culture; we want to see this exciting technology put to work in medicine and science. The topics covered include the following: testing a force display for scientific visualization -- molecular docking; and testing a head-mounted display for scientific and medical visualization.

  1. When Rural Reality Goes Virtual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Dilshad D.

    1998-01-01

    In rural towns where sparse population and few business are barriers, virtual reality may be the only way to bring work-based learning to students. A partnership between a small-town high school, the Ohio Supercomputer Center, and a high-tech business will enable students to explore the workplace using virtual reality. (JOW)

  2. Design and implementation of a 3D ocean virtual reality and visualization engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge; Li, Bo; Tian, Fenglin; Ji, Pengbo; Li, Wenqing

    2012-12-01

    In this study, a 3D virtual reality and visualization engine for rendering the ocean, named VV-Ocean, is designed for marine applications. The design goals of VV-Ocean aim at high fidelity simulation of ocean environment, visualization of massive and multidimensional marine data, and imitation of marine lives. VV-Ocean is composed of five modules, i.e. memory management module, resources management module, scene management module, rendering process management module and interaction management module. There are three core functions in VV-Ocean: reconstructing vivid virtual ocean scenes, visualizing real data dynamically in real time, imitating and simulating marine lives intuitively. Based on VV-Ocean, we establish a sea-land integration platform which can reproduce drifting and diffusion processes of oil spilling from sea bottom to surface. Environment factors such as ocean current and wind field have been considered in this simulation. On this platform oil spilling process can be abstracted as movements of abundant oil particles. The result shows that oil particles blend with water well and the platform meets the requirement for real-time and interactive rendering. VV-Ocean can be widely used in ocean applications such as demonstrating marine operations, facilitating maritime communications, developing ocean games, reducing marine hazards, forecasting the weather over oceans, serving marine tourism, and so on. Finally, further technological improvements of VV-Ocean are discussed.

  3. Rats in Virtual Space: The development and implementation of a multimodal virtual reality system for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharoni, Daniel Benjamin

    The integration of multimodal sensory information into a common neural code is a critical function of all complex nervous systems. This process is required for adaptive responding to incoming stimuli as well as the formation of a cognitive map of the external sensory environment. The underlying neural mechanisms of multimodal integration are poorly understood due, in part, to the technical difficulties of manipulating multimodal sensory information in combination with simultaneous in-vivo electrophysiological recording in awake behaving animals. We therefore developed a non-invasive multimodal virtual reality system that is conducive to wired electrophysiological recording techniques. This system allows for the dynamic presentation of highly immersive audiovisual virtual environments to rats maintained in a body fixed position on top of a quiet spherical treadmill. Notably, this allows the rats to remain at the same spatial location in the real world without the need for head fixation. This method opens the door for a wide array of future studies aimed at elucidating the underlying neural mechanisms of multimodal integration.

  4. Surgery applications of virtual reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer-generated technology which allows information to be displayed in a simulated, bus lifelike, environment. In this simulated 'world', users can move and interact as if they were actually a part of that world. This new technology will be useful in many different fields, including the field of surgery. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations, simulate and perform surgical procedures (telesurgery), and predict the outcomes of surgery. The authors of this paper describe the basic components of a virtual reality surgical system. These components include: the virtual world, the virtual tools, the anatomical model, the software platform, the host computer, the interface, and the head-coupled display. In the chapter they also review the progress towards using virtual reality for surgical training, planning, telesurgery, and predicting outcomes. Finally, the authors present a training system being developed for the practice of new procedures in abdominal surgery.

  5. Magical Stories: Blending Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and virtual reality (VR) make possible powerful interactive stories, and this paper focuses on examples of virtual characters in three dimensional (3-D) worlds. Waldern, a virtual reality game designer, has theorized about and implemented software design of virtual teammates and opponents that incorporate AI…

  6. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  7. Virtual reality via photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahrt, John D.; Papcun, George; Childers, Randy A.; Rubin, Naama

    1996-03-01

    We wish to walk into a photograph just as Alice walked into the looking glass. From a mathematical perspective, this problem is exceedingly ill-posed (e.g. Is that a large, distant object or a small, nearby object?). A human expert can supply a large amount of a priori information that can function as mathematical constraints. The constrained problem can then be attacked with photogrammetry to obtain a great deal of quantitative information which is otherwise only qualitatively apparent. The user determines whether the object to be analyzed contains two or three vanishing points, then selects an appropriate number of points from the photon to enable the code to compute the locations of the vanishing points. Using this information and the standard photogrammetric geometric algorithms, the location of the camera, relative to the structure, is determined. The user must also enter information regarding an absolute sense of scale. As the vectors from the camera to the various points chosen from the photograph are determined, the vector components (coordinates) are handed to a virtual reality software package. Once the objects are entered, the appropriate surfaces of the 3D object are `wallpapered' with the surface from the photograph. The user is then able to move through the virtual scene. A video will demonstrate our work.

  8. Virtual reality and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Botella, Cristina; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa M; Perpiñá, Conxa; García Palacios, Azucena; Riva, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a new technology consisting on a graphic environment in which the user, not only has the feeling of being physically present in a virtual world, but he/she can interact with it. The first VR workstations were designed for big companies in order to create environments that simulate certain situations to train professionals. However, at this moment a great expansion of this technology is taking place in several fields, including the area of health. Especially interesting for us is the use of VR as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of psychological disorders. Compared to the traditional treatments, VR has many advantages (e.g., it is a protected environment for the patient, he/she can re-experience many times the feared situation, etc.). There are already data on the effectiveness of this technology in the treatment of different psychological disorders; here anxiety disorders, eating disorders and sexual disorders are reviewed. Finally, this chapter ends with some words about the limitations of VR and future perspectives.

  9. Virtual manufacturing in reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

    2000-10-01

    SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

  10. Virtual Reality: The Promise of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Jaron

    1992-01-01

    Defines virtual reality and describes the equipment or clothing necessary to achieve the illusion of being in a virtual world. Recent developments with this technology and current virtual reality applications are discussed, including experiential prototyping, telepresence, and educational applications. (MES)

  11. Virtual Realities and the Future of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding virtual reality and "virtual books." Suggests that those who are exploring the territory of virtual realities are already helping to expand and enrich expectations and visions for integrating technology into reading and writing. (RS)

  12. Intelligent virtual reality in the setting of fuzzy sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dockery, John; Littman, David

    1992-01-01

    The authors have previously introduced the concept of virtual reality worlds governed by artificial intelligence. Creation of an intelligent virtual reality was further proposed as a universal interface for the handicapped. This paper extends consideration of intelligent virtual realty to a context in which fuzzy set principles are explored as a major tool for implementing theory in the domain of applications to the disabled.

  13. Telemedicine, virtual reality, and surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percival D.; Charles, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Two types of synthetic experience are covered: virtual reality (VR) and surgery, and telemedicine. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: geometric models; physiological sensors; surgical applications; virtual cadaver; VR surgical simulation; telesurgery; VR Surgical Trainer; abdominal surgery pilot study; advanced abdominal simulator; examples of telemedicine; and telemedicine spacebridge.

  14. Virtual annotation: Verbal communication in virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinden, Jouke C.; Bolter, Jay David; Vandermast, Charles

    A system that was developed to explore communication in virtual reality and which offers a simple and powerful method to embed verbal communication in simulations and visualizers by means of voice annotation is described. The prototype demonstrates that the addition of verbal communication opens up a range of new uses for virtual environments. A similar voice annotation facility is easily added to existing visualizers and simulations, and it enables reading, writing and communicating.

  15. Transforming Clinical Imaging and 3D Data for Virtual Reality Learning Objects: HTML5 and Mobile Devices Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trelease, Robert B.; Nieder, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Web deployable anatomical simulations or "virtual reality learning objects" can easily be produced with QuickTime VR software, but their use for online and mobile learning is being limited by the declining support for web browser plug-ins for personal computers and unavailability on popular mobile devices like Apple iPad and Android…

  16. Implementing Virtual Reality Technology as an Effective WEB Based KIOSK: Darulaman's Teacher Training College Tour (IPDA VR Tour)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azman, Fadzil

    2004-01-01

    At present the development of Virtual Reality (VR) technology is expanding due to the importance and needs to use the 3D elements and 360 degrees panorama. In expressing a clearer picture to consumers in various fields such as education, military, medicine, entertainment and so on. In live with the development the web based VR kiosk project in…

  17. Implementing Virtual Reality Technology as an Effective Web Based Kiosk: Darulaman's Teacher Training College Tour (Ipda Vr Tour)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadzil, Azman

    2006-01-01

    At present, the development of Virtual Reality (VR) technology is expanding due to the importance and needs to use the 3D elements and 360 degrees panorama in expressing a clearer picture to consumers in various fields such as education, military, medicine, entertainment and so on. The web based VR kiosk project in Darulaman's Teacher Training…

  18. Virtual Reality Enhanced Instructional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachimuthu, K.; Vijayakumari, G.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a creation of virtual 3D world in which one can feel and sense the world as if it is real. It is allowing engineers to design machines and Educationists to design AV [audiovisual] equipment in real time but in 3-dimensional hologram as if the actual material is being made and worked upon. VR allows a least-cost (energy…

  19. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  20. Virtual reality and stereoscopic telepresence

    SciTech Connect

    Mertens, E.P.

    1994-12-01

    Virtual reality technology is commonly thought to have few, if any, applications beyond the national research laboratories, the aerospace industry, and the entertainment world. A team at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is developing applications for virtual reality technology that make it a practical, viable, portable, and cost-effective business and training tool. The technology transfer is particularly applicable to the waste management industry and has become a tool that can serve the entire work force spectrum, from industrial sites to business offices. For three and a half years, a small team of WHC personnel has been developing an effective and practical method of bringing virtual reality technology to the job site. The applications are practical, the results are repeatable, and the equipment costs are within the range of present-day office machines. That combination can evolve into a competitive advantage for commercial business interests. The WHC team has contained system costs by using commercially available equipment and personal computers to create effective virtual reality work stations for less than $20,000.

  1. Virtual Reality and Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantelidis, Veronica S.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) offers benefits to engineering education. This article defines VR and describes types; outlines reasons for using VR in engineering education; provides guidelines for using VR; presents a model for determining when to use VR; discusses VR applications; and describes hardware and software needed for a low-budget VR and…

  2. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  3. Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur

    2010-01-01

    This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed. PMID:21086871

  4. A Desktop Virtual Reality Earth Motion System in Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih Hung; Yang, Jie Chi; Shen, Sarah; Jeng, Ming Chang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a desktop virtual reality earth motion system (DVREMS) is designed and developed to be applied in the classroom. The system is implemented to assist elementary school students to clarify earth motion concepts using virtual reality principles. A study was conducted to observe the influences of the proposed system in learning.…

  5. Simulated maintenance a virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Lirvall, P.

    1995-10-01

    The article describes potential applications of personal computer-based virtual reality software. The applications are being investigated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited`s (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories for the Canadian deuterium-uranium (Candu) reactor. Objectives include: (1) reduction of outage duration and improved safety, (2) cost-effective and safe maintenance of equipment, (3) reduction of exposure times and identification of overexposure situations, (4) cost-effective training in a virtual control room simulator, (5) human factors evaluation of design interface, and (6) visualization of conceptual and detailed designs of critical nuclear field environments. A demonstration model of a typical reactor control room, the use of virtual reality in outage planning, and safety issues are outlined.

  6. Virtual Reality: You Are There

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Telepresence or "virtual reality," allows a person, with assistance from advanced technology devices, to figuratively project himself into another environment. This technology is marketed by several companies, among them Fakespace, Inc., a former Ames Research Center contractor. Fakespace developed a teleoperational motion platform for transmitting sounds and images from remote locations. The "Molly" matches the user's head motion and, when coupled with a stereo viewing device and appropriate software, creates the telepresence experience. Its companion piece is the BOOM-the user's viewing device that provides the sense of involvement in the virtual environment. Either system may be used alone. Because suits, gloves, headphones, etc. are not needed, a whole range of commercial applications is possible, including computer-aided design techniques and virtual reality visualizations. Customers include Sandia National Laboratories, Stanford Research Institute and Mattel Toys.

  7. Marshall Engineers Use Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. Marshall Spce Flight Center (MSFC) is begirning to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models are used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup is to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provides general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC).

  8. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Jan

    This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…

  9. Virtual Reality--Learning by Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of virtual reality in educational software. Topics include CAVE (Computer-Assisted Virtual Environments); cost-effective virtual environment tools including QTVR (Quick Time Virtual Reality); interactive exercises; educational criteria for technology-based educational tools; and examples of screen displays. (LRW)

  10. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  11. Virtual reality and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Recheis, W; Weber, G W; Schäfer, K; Knapp, R; Seidler, H; zur Nedden, D

    1999-08-01

    Since the discovery of the Tyrolean Iceman in 1991 advanced imaging and post processing techniques were successfully applied in anthropology. Specific techniques include spiral computed tomography and 3-dimensional reconstructions including stereolithographic and fused deposition modeling of volume data sets. The Iceman's skull was the first to be reproduced using stereolithography, before this method was successfully applied in preoperative planning. With the advent of high-end graphics workstations and biomedical image processing software packages, 3-dimensional reconstructions were established as a routine tool for analyzing volume data sets. These techniques opened totally new insights in the field of physical anthropology. Computed tomography became the ideal research tool to access the internal structures of various precious fossils without damaging or even touching them. Many of the most precious specimens from the species Autralopithecus (1.8-3.5 Myears), Homo heidelbergensis (200-600 kyears) or Homo neanderthalensis (40-100 kyears) were scanned during the last 5 years. Often the fossils are filled with a stone matrix or other materials. During the postprocessing routines highly advanced algorithms were used to remove virtually these incrustations. Thus it was possible to visualize the morphological structures that lie beneath the matrix. Some specimen were partially destroyed, so the missing parts were reconstructed on computer screen in order to get estimations of the brain volume and endocranial morphology, both major fields of interest in physical anthropology. Moreover the computerized form of the data allows new descriptions of morphologic structures by the means of 'geometric morphometrics'. Some of the results may change aspects and interpretations in human evolution. The introduction of new imaging and post processing techniques created a new field of research: Virtual Anthropology.

  12. Virtual Learning Is Becoming Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancek, Richard L.

    Once a school district decides to offer students virtual classes, it has to recognize the costs associated with the implementation, the logistical needs, the staff that will be needed to assist students, and the maintenance of the technology. Adapting the philosophy of virtual education is only the beginning. The role of the traditional teacher…

  13. Virtual reality in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, Selman; Yanik, Mustafa; Bretthauer, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Although the many advantages of laparoscopic surgery have made it an established technique, training in laparoscopic surgery posed problems not encountered in conventional surgical training. Virtual reality simulators open up new perspectives for training in laparoscopic surgery. Under realistic conditions in real time, trainees can tailor their sessions with the VR simulator to suit their needs and goals, and can repeat exercises as often as they wish. VR simulators reduce the number of experimental animals needed for training purposes and are suited to the pursuit of research in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:15747974

  14. Virtual reality in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, Selman; Yanik, Mustafa; Bretthauer, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Although the many advantages of laparoscopic surgery have made it an established technique, training in laparoscopic surgery posed problems not encountered in conventional surgical training. Virtual reality simulators open up new perspectives for training in laparoscopic surgery. Under realistic conditions in real time, trainees can tailor their sessions with the VR simulator to suit their needs and goals, and can repeat exercises as often as they wish. VR simulators reduce the number of experimental animals needed for training purposes and are suited to the pursuit of research in laparoscopic surgery.

  15. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Ames is intensively developing virtual-reality (VR) capabilities that can extend and augment computer-generated and remote spatial environments. VR is envisioned not only as a basis for improving human/machine interactions involved in planetary exploration, but also as a medium for the more widespread sharing of the experience of exploration, thereby broadening the support-base for the lunar and planetary-exploration endeavors. Imagery representative of Mars are being gathered for VR presentation at such terrestrial sites as Antarctica and Death Valley.

  16. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  17. Medical applications of virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Satava, R M

    1995-06-01

    Medical applications for virtual reality (VR) are just beginning to emerge. These include VR surgical simulators, telepresence surgery, complex medical database visualization, and rehabilitation. These applications are mediated through the computer interface and as such are the embodiment of VR as an integral part of the paradigm shift in the field of medicine. The Green Telepresence Surgery System consists of two components, the surgical workstation and remote worksite. At the remote site there is a 3-D camera system and responsive manipulators with sensory input. At the workstation there is a 3-D monitor and dexterous handles with force feedback. The VR surgical simulator is a stylized recreation of the human abdomen with several essential organs. Using a helmet mounted display and DataGlove, a person can learn anatomy from a new perspective by 'flying' inside and around the organs, or can practice surgical procedures with a scalpel and clamps. Database visualization creates 3-D images of complex medical data for new perspectives in analysis. Rehabilitation medicine permits impaired individuals to explore worlds not otherwise available to them, allows accurate assessment and therapy for their disabilities, and helps architects understand their critical needs in public or personal space. And to support these advanced technologies, the operating room and hospital of the future will be first designed and tested in virtual reality, bringing together the full power of the digital physician.

  18. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  19. Engineering applications of virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James R.; Grimes, Robert V.; Plant, Tony A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper addresses some of the practical applications, advantages and difficulties associated with the engineering applications of virtual reality. The paper tracks actual investigative work in progress on this subject at the BNR research lab in RTP, NC. This work attempts to demonstrate the actual value added to the engineering process by using existing 3D CAD data for interactive information navigation and evaluation of design concepts and products. Specifically, the work includes translation of Parametric Technology's Pro/ENGINEER models into a virtual world to evaluate potential attributes such as multiple concept exploration and product installation assessment. Other work discussed in this paper includes extensive evaluation of two new tools, VRML and SGI's/Template Graphics' WebSpace for navigation through Pro/ENGINEER models with links to supporting technical documentation and data. The benefits of using these tolls for 3D interactive navigation and exploration throughout three key phases of the physical design process is discussed in depth. The three phases are Design Concept Development, Product Design Evaluation and Product Design Networking. The predicted values added include reduced time to `concept ready', reduced prototype iterations, increased `design readiness' and shorter manufacturing introduction cycles.

  20. Transforming clinical imaging and 3D data for virtual reality learning objects: HTML5 and mobile devices implementation.

    PubMed

    Trelease, Robert B; Nieder, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Web deployable anatomical simulations or "virtual reality learning objects" can easily be produced with QuickTime VR software, but their use for online and mobile learning is being limited by the declining support for web browser plug-ins for personal computers and unavailability on popular mobile devices like Apple iPad and Android tablets. This article describes complementary methods for creating comparable, multiplatform VR learning objects in the new HTML5 standard format, circumventing platform-specific limitations imposed by the QuickTime VR multimedia file format. Multiple types or "dimensions" of anatomical information can be embedded in such learning objects, supporting different kinds of online learning applications, including interactive atlases, examination questions, and complex, multi-structure presentations. Such HTML5 VR learning objects are usable on new mobile devices that do not support QuickTime VR, as well as on personal computers. Furthermore, HTML5 VR learning objects can be embedded in "ebook" document files, supporting the development of new types of electronic textbooks on mobile devices that are increasingly popular and self-adopted for mobile learning.

  1. Transforming clinical imaging and 3D data for virtual reality learning objects: HTML5 and mobile devices implementation.

    PubMed

    Trelease, Robert B; Nieder, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Web deployable anatomical simulations or "virtual reality learning objects" can easily be produced with QuickTime VR software, but their use for online and mobile learning is being limited by the declining support for web browser plug-ins for personal computers and unavailability on popular mobile devices like Apple iPad and Android tablets. This article describes complementary methods for creating comparable, multiplatform VR learning objects in the new HTML5 standard format, circumventing platform-specific limitations imposed by the QuickTime VR multimedia file format. Multiple types or "dimensions" of anatomical information can be embedded in such learning objects, supporting different kinds of online learning applications, including interactive atlases, examination questions, and complex, multi-structure presentations. Such HTML5 VR learning objects are usable on new mobile devices that do not support QuickTime VR, as well as on personal computers. Furthermore, HTML5 VR learning objects can be embedded in "ebook" document files, supporting the development of new types of electronic textbooks on mobile devices that are increasingly popular and self-adopted for mobile learning. PMID:23212750

  2. Transportation planning: A virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.; Hefele, J.; Dolin, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    An important factor in the development of any base technology is generating it in such a way that these technologies will continue to be useful through systems upgrades and implementation philosophy metamorphoses. Base technologies of traffic engineering including transportation modeling, traffic impact forecasting, traffic operation management, emergency situation routing and re-routing, and signal systems optimization should all be designed with the future in mind. Advanced Traffic Engineering topics, such as Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, are designed with advanced engineering concepts such as rules-based design and artificial intelligence. All aspects of development of base technologies must include Total Quality Engineering as the primary factor in order to succeed. This philosophy for development of base technologies for the County of Los Alamos is being developed leveraging the resources of the Center for Advanced Engineering Technology (CAET) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The mission of the CAET is to develop next-generation engineering technology that supports the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s mission and to transfer that technology to industry and academia. The CAET`s goal is to promote industrial, academic, and government interactions in diverse areas of engineering technology, such as, design, analysis, manufacturing, virtual enterprise, robotics, telepresence, rapid prototyping, and virtual environment technology. The Center is expanding, enhancing, and increasing core competencies at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The CAET has three major thrust areas: development of base technologies, virtual environment technology applications, and educational outreach and training. Virtual environment technology immerses a user in a nonexistent or augmented environment for research or training purposes. Virtual environment technology illustrates the axiom, ``The best way to learn is by doing.``

  3. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  4. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

  5. Virtual reality in surgery and medicine.

    PubMed

    Chinnock, C

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the state of development of enhanced and virtual reality-based systems in medicine. Virtual reality systems seek to simulate a surgical procedure in a computer-generated world in order to improve training. Enhanced reality systems seek to augment or enhance reality by providing improved imaging alternatives for specific patient data. Virtual reality represents a paradigm shift in the way we teach and evaluate the skills of medical personnel. Driving the development of virtual reality-based simulators is laparoscopic abdominal surgery, where there is a perceived need for better training techniques; within a year, systems will be fielded for second-year residency students. Further refinements over perhaps the next five years should allow surgeons to evaluate and practice new techniques in a simulator before using them on patients. Technical developments are rapidly improving the realism of these machines to an amazing degree, as well as bringing the price down to affordable levels. In the next five years, many new anatomical models, procedures, and skills are likely to become available on simulators. Enhanced reality systems are generally being developed to improve visualization of specific patient data. Three-dimensional (3-D) stereovision systems for endoscopic applications, head-mounted displays, and stereotactic image navigation systems are being fielded now, with neurosurgery and laparoscopic surgery being major driving influences. Over perhaps the next five years, enhanced and virtual reality systems are likely to merge. This will permit patient-specific images to be used on virtual reality simulators or computer-generated landscapes to be input into surgical visualization instruments. Percolating all around these activities are developments in robotics and telesurgery. An advanced information infrastructure eventually will permit remote physicians to share video, audio, medical records, and imaging data with local physicians in real time

  6. STS-133 Crew Trains in Virtual Reality

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA "Behind the Scenes," STS-133 Pilot Eric Boe and space station Flight Director Royce Renfrew discuss how the virtual reality laboratory at the Johnson Space Center is helping...

  7. Virtual Reality in Education: Defining Researchable Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedburg, John; Alexander, Shirley

    1994-01-01

    Discusses situated learning and virtual reality, focusing on the pedagogical aspects of the technology and its importance in achieving a learning environment which challenges and supports effective learning. (AEF)

  8. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  9. Virtual Reality Calibration for Telerobotic Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1994-01-01

    A virtual reality calibration technique of matching a virtual environment of simulated graphics models in 3-D geometry and perspective with actual camera views of the remote site task environment has been developed to enable high-fidelity preview/predictive displays with calibrated graphics overlay on live video.

  10. Virtual Reality: A New Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrington, Gary; Loge, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Discusses virtual reality (VR) technology and its possible uses in military training, medical education, industrial design and development, the media industry, and education. Three primary applications of VR in the learning process--visualization, simulation, and construction of virtual worlds--are described, and pedagogical and moral issues are…

  11. Virtual reality and hallucination: a technoetic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slattery, Diana R.

    2008-02-01

    Virtual Reality (VR), especially in a technologically focused discourse, is defined by a class of hardware and software, among them head-mounted displays (HMDs), navigation and pointing devices; and stereoscopic imaging. This presentation examines the experiential aspect of VR. Putting "virtual" in front of "reality" modifies the ontological status of a class of experience-that of "reality." Reality has also been modified [by artists, new media theorists, technologists and philosophers] as augmented, mixed, simulated, artificial, layered, and enhanced. Modifications of reality are closely tied to modifications of perception. Media theorist Roy Ascott creates a model of three "VR's": Verifiable Reality, Virtual Reality, and Vegetal (entheogenically induced) Reality. The ways in which we shift our perceptual assumptions, create and verify illusions, and enter "the willing suspension of disbelief" that allows us entry into imaginal worlds is central to the experience of VR worlds, whether those worlds are explicitly representational (robotic manipulations by VR) or explicitly imaginal (VR artistic creations). The early rhetoric surrounding VR was interwoven with psychedelics, a perception amplified by Timothy Leary's presence on the historic SIGGRAPH panel, and the Wall Street Journal's tag of VR as "electronic LSD." This paper discusses the connections-philosophical, social-historical, and psychological-perceptual between these two domains.

  12. Virtual reality: Avatars in human spaceflight training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterlund, Jeffrey; Lawrence, Brad

    2012-02-01

    With the advancements in high spatial and temporal resolution graphics, along with advancements in 3D display capabilities to model, simulate, and analyze human-to-machine interfaces and interactions, the world of virtual environments is being used to develop everything from gaming, movie special affects and animations to the design of automobiles. The use of multiple object motion capture technology and digital human tools in aerospace has demonstrated to be a more cost effective alternative to the cost of physical prototypes, provides a more efficient, flexible and responsive environment to changes in the design and training, and provides early human factors considerations concerning the operation of a complex launch vehicle or spacecraft. United Space Alliance (USA) has deployed this technique and tool under Research and Development (R&D) activities on both spacecraft assembly and ground processing operations design and training on the Orion Crew Module. USA utilizes specialized products that were chosen based on functionality, including software and fixed based hardware (e.g., infrared and visible red cameras), along with cyber gloves to ensure fine motor dexterity of the hands. The key findings of the R&D were: mock-ups should be built to not obstruct cameras from markers being tracked; a mock-up toolkit be assembled to facilitate dynamic design changes; markers should be placed in accurate positions on humans and flight hardware to help with tracking; 3D models used in the virtual environment be striped of non-essential data; high computational capable workstations are required to handle the large model data sets; and Technology Interchange Meetings with vendors and other industries also utilizing virtual reality applications need to occur on a continual basis enabling USA to maintain its leading edge within this technology. Parameters of interest and benefit in human spaceflight simulation training that utilizes virtual reality technologies are to

  13. Virtual reality in a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Nihei, K; Shirakawa, K; Isshiki, N; Hirose, M; Iwata, H; Kobayashi, N

    1999-01-01

    We used virtual reality technology to improve the quality of life and amenity of in-patients in a children's hospital. Children in the hospital could enjoy a zoo, amusement park, and aquarium, in virtual. They played soccer, skiing and horse riding in virtual. They could communicate with persons who were out of the hospital and attend the school which they had gone to before entering hospital. They played music with children who had been admitted to other children's hospitals. By using this virtual technology, the quality of life of children who suffered from psychological and physiological stress in the hospital greatly improved. It is not only useful for their QOL but also for the healing of illness. However, these methods are very rare. Our systemic in our children's hospital is the first to be reported in Japan both software and hardware of virtual reality technology to increase the QOL of sick children need further development.

  14. Virtual Reality: Teaching Tool of the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Helene; Vu, Dzung

    1997-01-01

    Virtual reality-based procedural and surgical simulations promise to revolutionize medical training. A wide range of simulations representing diverse content areas and varied implementation strategies are under development or in early use. The new systems will make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels without risks…

  15. Issues Surrounding the Use of Virtual Reality in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisichenko, Richard

    2015-01-01

    As with all classroom innovations intended to improve geographic education, the adoption of virtual reality (VR) poses issues for consideration prior to endorsing its use. Of these, effectiveness, implementation, and safe use need to be addressed. Traditionally, sense of place, geographic knowledge, and firsthand experiences provided by field…

  16. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  17. Virtual Reality: A Distraction Intervention for Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susan M.; Hood, Linda E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore virtual reality (VR) as a distraction intervention to relieve symptom distress in adults receiving chemotherapy treatments for breast, colon, and lung cancer. Design Crossover design in which participants served as their own control. Setting Outpatient clinic at a comprehensive cancer center in the southeastern United States. Sample 123 adults receiving initial chemotherapy treatments. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to receive the VR distraction intervention during one chemotherapy treatment and then received no intervention (control) during an alternate matched chemotherapy treatment. The Adapted Symptom Distress Scale–2, Revised Piper Fatigue Scale, and State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure symptom distress. The Presence Questionnaire and an open-ended questionnaire were used to evaluate the subjects’ VR experience. The influence of type of cancer, age, and gender on symptom outcomes was explored. Mixed models were used to test for differences in levels of symptom distress. Main Research Variables Virtual reality and symptom distress. Findings Patients had an altered perception of time (p < 0.001) when using VR, which validates the distracting capacity of the intervention. Evaluation of the intervention indicated that patients believed the head-mounted device was easy to use, they experienced no cybersickness, and 82% would use VR again. However, analysis demonstrated no significant differences in symptom distress immediately or two days following chemotherapy treatments. Conclusions Patients stated that using VR made the treatment seem shorter and that chemotherapy treatments with VR were better than treatments without the distraction intervention. However, positive experiences did not result in a decrease in symptom distress. The findings support the idea that using VR can help to make chemotherapy treatments more tolerable, but clinicians should not assume that use of VR will improve chemotherapy

  18. Advanced Virtual Reality Simulations in Aerospace Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, L.; Trivailo, P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent research developments at Aerospace Engineering, RMIT University have demonstrated great potential for using Virtual Reality simulations as a very effective tool in advanced structures and dynamics applications. They have also been extremely successful in teaching of various undergraduate and postgraduate courses for presenting complex concepts in structural and dynamics designs. Characteristic examples are related to the classical orbital mechanics, spacecraft attitude and structural dynamics. Advanced simulations, reflecting current research by the authors, are mainly related to the implementation of various non-linear dynamic techniques, including using Kane's equations to study dynamics of space tethered satellite systems and the Co-rotational Finite Element method to study reconfigurable robotic systems undergoing large rotations and large translations. The current article will describe the numerical implementation of the modern methods of dynamics, and will concentrate on the post-processing stage of the dynamic simulations. Numerous examples of building Virtual Reality stand-alone animations, designed by the authors, will be discussed in detail. These virtual reality examples will include: The striking feature of the developed technology is the use of the standard mathematical packages, like MATLAB, as a post-processing tool to generate Virtual Reality Modelling Language files with brilliant interactive, graphics and audio effects. These stand-alone demonstration files can be run under Netscape or Microsoft Explorer and do not require MATLAB. Use of this technology enables scientists to easily share their results with colleagues using the Internet, contributing to the flexible learning development at schools and Universities.

  19. Applications of Virtual Reality to Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.

    1998-11-03

    This paper explores two potential applications of Virtual Reality (VR) to international nuclear safeguards: training and information organization and navigation. The applications are represented by two existing prototype systems, one for training nuclear weapons dismantlement and one utilizing a VR model to facilitate intuitive access to related sets of information.

  20. NASA employee utilizes Virtual Reality (VR) equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Bebe Ly of the Information Systems Directorate's Software Technology Branch at JSC gives virtual reality a try. The stero video goggles and headphones allow her to see and hear in a computer-generated world and the gloves allow her to move around and grasp objects.

  1. Surgery, virtual reality, and the future.

    PubMed

    Vosburgh, Kirby G; Golby, Alexandra; Pieper, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    MMVR has provided the leading forum for the multidisciplinary interaction and development of the use of Virtual Reality (VR) techniques in medicine, particularly in surgical practice. Here we look back at the foundations of our field, focusing on the use of VR in Surgery and similar interventional procedures, sum up the current status, and describe the challenges and opportunities going forward.

  2. Virtual Reality Training Environments: Contexts and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Stephen W.; Kenney, Patrick J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the contexts where virtual reality (VR) training environments might be appropriate; examines the advantages and disadvantages of VR as a training technology; and presents a case study of a VR training environment used at the NASA Johnson Space Center in preparation for the repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. (AEF)

  3. Evaluation of Virtual Reality Training Using Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Training designed to support and strengthen higher-order mental abilities now often involves immersion in Virtual Reality (VR) where dangerous real world scenarios can be safely replicated. However, despite the growing popularity of VR to train cognitive skills such as decision-making and situation awareness, methods for evaluating their use rely…

  4. Virtual Reality: Visualization in Three Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    Virtual reality is a newly emerging tool for scientific visualization that makes possible multisensory, three-dimensional modeling of scientific data. While the emphasis is on visualization, the other senses are added to enhance what the scientist can visualize. Researchers are working to extend the sensory range of what can be perceived in…

  5. Virtual Reality: Is It for Real?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowding, Tim J.

    1994-01-01

    Defines virtual reality and describes its application to psychomotor skills training. A description of a system that could be used to teach a college course in physical therapy, including the use of miniature computer workstation, sensory gloves, a programmable mannequin, and other existing technology, is provided. (Contains 10 references.) (KRN)

  6. Integrated Data Visualization and Virtual Reality Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Data Visualization and Virtual Reality Tool (IDVVRT) Phase II effort was for the design and development of an innovative Data Visualization Environment Tool (DVET) for NASA engineers and scientists, enabling them to visualize complex multidimensional and multivariate data in a virtual environment. The objectives of the project were to: (1) demonstrate the transfer and manipulation of standard engineering data in a virtual world; (2) demonstrate the effects of design and changes using finite element analysis tools; and (3) determine the training and engineering design and analysis effectiveness of the visualization system.

  7. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G M; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Controlling Social Stress in Virtual Reality Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006

  9. Web Reference: A Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Presents ideas and strategies to enhance digital reference services available via the Internet in public libraries. Describes print publications which include Web reference columns; subject guides, both print and online; and the resources of the Internet Public Library and other virtual reference desks. (LRW)

  10. Virtual Reality Simulation of the International Space Welding Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) It involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) It includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) It must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, and we have therefore implemented a VR trainer for the International Space Welding Experiment. My role in the development of the ISWE trainer consisted of the following: (1) created texture-mapped models of the ISWE's rotating sample drum, technology block, tool stowage assembly, sliding foot restraint, and control panel; (2) developed C code for control panel button selection and rotation of the sample drum; (3) In collaboration with Tim Clark (Antares Virtual Reality Systems), developed a serial interface box for the PC and the SGI Indigo so that external control devices, similar to ones actually used on the ISWE, could be used to control virtual objects in the ISWE simulation; (4) In collaboration with Peter Wang (SFFP) and Mark Blasingame (Boeing), established the interference characteristics of the VIM 1000 head-mounted-display and tested software filters to correct the problem; (5) In collaboration with Peter Wang and Mark Blasingame, established software and procedures for interfacing the VPL DataGlove and the Polhemus 6DOF position sensors to the SGI Indigo serial ports. The majority of the ISWE modeling effort was conducted on a PC-based VR Workstation, described below.

  11. Molecular Rift: Virtual Reality for Drug Designers.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub.

  12. Molecular Rift: Virtual Reality for Drug Designers.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Magnus; Grebner, Christoph; Eriksson, Joakim; Boström, Jonas

    2015-11-23

    Recent advances in interaction design have created new ways to use computers. One example is the ability to create enhanced 3D environments that simulate physical presence in the real world--a virtual reality. This is relevant to drug discovery since molecular models are frequently used to obtain deeper understandings of, say, ligand-protein complexes. We have developed a tool (Molecular Rift), which creates a virtual reality environment steered with hand movements. Oculus Rift, a head-mounted display, is used to create the virtual settings. The program is controlled by gesture-recognition, using the gaming sensor MS Kinect v2, eliminating the need for standard input devices. The Open Babel toolkit was integrated to provide access to powerful cheminformatics functions. Molecular Rift was developed with a focus on usability, including iterative test-group evaluations. We conclude with reflections on virtual reality's future capabilities in chemistry and education. Molecular Rift is open source and can be downloaded from GitHub. PMID:26558887

  13. Efficacy of Individualized Clinical Coaching in a Virtual Reality Classroom for Increasing Teachers' Fidelity of Implementation of Discrete Trial Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Krista Vince; Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Pearl, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Discrete-trials teaching (DTT) is an evidence-based practice used in educational programs for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although there is strong demand for preparing teachers to effectively implement DTT, there is a scarcity of published research on such studies. A multiple baseline across participants design was utilized to…

  14. Virtual hospitalization: reality or utopia?

    PubMed

    Maceratini, R; Rafanelli, M; Ricci, F L

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the problem regarding the way in which the increasing capacity and facilities of the telemedicine to link points of care, supporting services and health care sectors, is described. The virtual hospitalization is discussed, as well as its insertion in a new health care system, whose services will provide everyone with effective health care in their homes or in isolated places or in their working places or in emergencies, and which will permit remote consultations between professionals in specialized centers, hospitals and other peripheral points of care.

  15. Fully Three-Dimensional Virtual-Reality System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed virtual-reality system presents visual displays to simulate free flight in three-dimensional space. System, virtual space pod, is testbed for control and navigation schemes. Unlike most virtual-reality systems, virtual space pod would not depend for orientation on ground plane, which hinders free flight in three dimensions. Space pod provides comfortable seating, convenient controls, and dynamic virtual-space images for virtual traveler. Controls include buttons plus joysticks with six degrees of freedom.

  16. The Virtual Tablet: Virtual Reality as a Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronister, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the field of human-computer interaction, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) have been rapidly growing areas of interest and concerted development effort thanks to both private and public research. At NASA, a number of groups have explored the possibilities afforded by AR and VR technology, among which is the IT Advanced Concepts Lab (ITACL). Within ITACL, the AVR (Augmented/Virtual Reality) Lab focuses on VR technology specifically for its use in command and control. Previous work in the AVR lab includes the Natural User Interface (NUI) project and the Virtual Control Panel (VCP) project, which created virtual three-dimensional interfaces that users could interact with while wearing a VR headset thanks to body- and hand-tracking technology. The Virtual Tablet (VT) project attempts to improve on these previous efforts by incorporating a physical surrogate which is mirrored in the virtual environment, mitigating issues with difficulty of visually determining the interface location and lack of tactile feedback discovered in the development of previous efforts. The physical surrogate takes the form of a handheld sheet of acrylic glass with several infrared-range reflective markers and a sensor package attached. Using the sensor package to track orientation and a motion-capture system to track the marker positions, a model of the surrogate is placed in the virtual environment at a position which corresponds with the real-world location relative to the user's VR Head Mounted Display (HMD). A set of control mechanisms is then projected onto the surface of the surrogate such that to the user, immersed in VR, the control interface appears to be attached to the object they are holding. The VT project was taken from an early stage where the sensor package, motion-capture system, and physical surrogate had been constructed or tested individually but not yet combined or incorporated into the virtual environment. My contribution was to combine the pieces of

  17. Applying Virtual Reality to commercial Edutainment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, F.; Goza, Sharon P.; Goza, S. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) when defined as a computer generated, immersive, three dimensional graphics environment which provides varying degrees of interactivity, remains an expensive, highly specialized application, yet to find its way into the school, home, or business. As a novel approach to a theme park-type attraction, though, its use can be justified. This paper describes how a virtual reality 'tour of the human digestive system' was created for the Omniplex Science Museum of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The customers main objectives were: (1) to educate; (2) to entertain; (3) to draw visitors; and (4) to generate revenue. The 'Edutainment' system ultimately delivered met these goals. As more such systems come into existence the resulting library of licensable programs will greatly reduce development costs to individual institutions.

  18. Feedback from video for virtual reality Navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsap, L V

    2000-10-27

    Important preconditions for wide acceptance of virtual reality (VR) systems include their comfort, ease and naturalness to use. Most existing trackers super from discomfort-related issues. For example, body-based trackers (hand controllers, joysticks, helmet attachments, etc.) restrict spontaneity and naturalness of motion, while ground-based devices (e.g., hand controllers) limit the workspace by literally binding an operator to the ground. There are similar problems with controls. This paper describes using real-time video with registered depth information (from a commercially available camera) for virtual reality navigation. Camera-based setup can replace cumbersome trackers. The method includes selective depth processing for increased speed, and a robust skin-color segmentation for accounting illumination variations.

  19. Sound For Animation And Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, James K.; Docter, Pete; Foster, Scott H.; Mangini, Mark; Myers, Tom; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Null, Cynthia (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sound is an integral part of the experience in computer animation and virtual reality. In this course, we will present some of the important technical issues in sound modeling, rendering, and synchronization as well as the "art" and business of sound that are being applied in animations, feature films, and virtual reality. The central theme is to bring leading researchers and practitioners from various disciplines to share their experiences in this interdisciplinary field. The course will give the participants an understanding of the problems and techniques involved in producing and synchronizing sounds, sound effects, dialogue, and music. The problem spans a number of domains including computer animation and virtual reality. Since sound has been an integral part of animations and films much longer than for computer-related domains, we have much to learn from traditional animation and film production. By bringing leading researchers and practitioners from a wide variety of disciplines, the course seeks to give the audience a rich mixture of experiences. It is expected that the audience will be able to apply what they have learned from this course in their research or production.

  20. Virtual reality simulators and training in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training.

  1. Selected Applications of Virtual Reality in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak-Marcincin, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become an important and useful tool in science and engineering. VR applications cover a wide range of industrial areas from product design to analysis, from product prototyping to manufacturing. The design and manufacturing of a product can be viewed, evaluated and improved in a virtual environment before its prototype is made, which is an enormous cost saving. Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the use of computer models and simulations of manufacturing processes to aid in the design and production of manufactured products. VM is the use of manufacturing-based simulations to optimize the design of product and processes for a specific manufacturing goal such as: design for assembly; quality; lean operations; and/or flexibility.

  2. Virtual reality simulation in neurosurgery: technologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sonny; Conti, François; Salisbury, Kenneth; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2013-01-01

    Neurosurgeons are faced with the challenge of learning, planning, and performing increasingly complex surgical procedures in which there is little room for error. With improvements in computational power and advances in visual and haptic display technologies, virtual surgical environments can now offer potential benefits for surgical training, planning, and rehearsal in a safe, simulated setting. This article introduces the various classes of surgical simulators and their respective purposes through a brief survey of representative simulation systems in the context of neurosurgery. Many technical challenges currently limit the application of virtual surgical environments. Although we cannot yet expect a digital patient to be indistinguishable from reality, new developments in computational methods and related technology bring us closer every day. We recognize that the design and implementation of an immersive virtual reality surgical simulator require expert knowledge from many disciplines. This article highlights a selection of recent developments in research areas related to virtual reality simulation, including anatomic modeling, computer graphics and visualization, haptics, and physics simulation, and discusses their implication for the simulation of neurosurgery. PMID:23254804

  3. Simulation Of Assembly Processes With Technical Of Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García García, Manuel; Arenas Reina, José Manuel; Lite, Alberto Sánchez; Sebastián Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality techniques use at industrial processes provides a real approach to product life cycle. For components manual assembly, the use of virtual surroundings facilitates a simultaneous engineering in which variables such as human factors and productivity take a real act. On the other hand, in the actual phase of industrial competition it is required a rapid adjustment to client needs and to market situation. In this work it is analyzed the assembly of the front components of a vehicle using virtual reality tools and following up a product-process design methodology which includes every life service stage. This study is based on workstations design, taking into account productive and human factors from the ergonomic point of view implementing a postural study of every assembly operation, leaving the rest of stages for a later study. Design is optimized applying this methodology together with the use of virtual reality tools. It is also achieved a 15% reduction on time assembly and of 90% reduction in muscle—skeletal diseases at every assembly operation.

  4. Virtual Reality: A Dream Come True or a Nightmare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Richard; Bailey, Dan

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a new medium which allows total stimulation of one's senses through human/computer interfaces. VR has applications in training simulators, nano-science, medicine, entertainment, electronic technology, and manufacturing. This paper focuses on some current and potential problems of virtual reality and virtual environments…

  5. Virtual reality and telepresence for military medicine.

    PubMed

    Satava, R M

    1997-01-01

    For decades, warfighters have been putting in place a sophisticated "digital battlefield", an electronic communication and information system to support advanced technology. Medicine is now in a position to leverage these technologies to produce a fundamental revolution, and the keystone is the digital physician. Today nearly all information about a patient can be acquired electronically, and with the new technologies of teleoperation and telesurgery we can provide remote treatment and even surgery through telemedicine. The following framework for military medicine will leverage upon the current electronic battlefield. A personnel status monitor (PSM) will have a global positioning locator to tell the position of each soldier and a suite of vital signs sensors. When a soldier is wounded, the medic will instantly know the location of the soldier, and how serious is the casualty. This will permit the medic to locate the most critically wounded soldier. Once stabilised, he will be placed in a critical care pod, a fully automated intensive care unit in a stretcher, which will monitor his vital signs, administer fluids and medications and provide environmental protection. If immediate surgery is needed, a remote telepresence surgery vehicle will come to the wounded soldier, the medic will place him in the vehicle, and a surgeon will operate remotely using telepresence surgery from a distant Mobile Advance Surgical Hospital (MASH) to the combat zone. Also, the expertise from any specialist will be available from the rear echelons as far back as the home country. For education and training in combat casualty care, virtual reality simulators are being implemented. This same scenario can be utilised in civilian health care, especially in providing care to patients in remote areas who do not currently have access to simple, let alone sophisticated, health care. PMID:9140589

  6. Importance of Virtual Reality to Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy, Study Design of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    McLay, Robert N; Baird, Alicia; Murphy, Jennifer; Deal, William; Tran, Lily; Anson, Heather; Klam, Warren; Johnston, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can be a debilitating problem in service members who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is one of the few interventions demonstrated in randomized controlled trials to be effective for PTSD in this population. There are theoretical reasons to expect that Virtual Reality (VR) adds to the effectiveness of exposure therapy, but there is also added expense and difficulty in using VR. Described is a trial comparing outcomes from VRET and a control exposure therapy (CET) protocol in service members with PTSD. PMID:26799904

  7. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  8. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, J. Allan; Hong, Charles C.-H.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity – becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain’s generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  9. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research. PMID:25346710

  10. Image-based panoramic virtual reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Kurtis J.

    1992-06-01

    An extensive family of advanced virtual reality-telepresence systems and components have been developed. The purpose of these systems and components is to facilitate recording, processing, display, and interaction with audio and video signal(s) representing a scene or subject of three-dimensions (3-D). An overview of the systems currently available for license includes: a color video camera with real-time simultaneous spherical FOV coverage; a similar camera for recording various sides of a 3-D subject; an image based system for real-time processing and distribution of said camera based images onto 3-D wireframes; resultant camcorders are generally referred to as virtual reality/telepresence 'VRT camcorders'TM; a 'VIDEOROOM'TM large theater display system in which the floor, walls, and ceiling form a continuous display about the viewer for display of said images; 'INaVISION'TM a HMD system for viewing the same said images; and interactive control devices for manipulating said 3-D image and audio signal(s). Applications, to include visual and auditory simulation, host vehicle control, remote vehicle control, video teleconferencing, and so on, are feasible applications for the above technology. Rough costs of systems and components, photographs of a prototype system, and component illustrations are provided. Future directions of R&D are presented (i.e., Project HEAVEN: Humankind Eternal-Life Artificial-Intelligence Virtual Environment Network).

  11. Sensorimotor Training in Virtual Reality: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Adamovich, Sergei V.; Fluet, Gerard G.; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that rapid advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies has great potential for the development of novel strategies for sensorimotor training in neurorehabilitation. We discuss what the adaptive and engaging virtual environments can provide for massive and intensive sensorimotor stimulation needed to induce brain reorganization. Second, discrepancies between the veridical and virtual feedback can be introduced in VR to facilitate activation of targeted brain networks, which in turn can potentially speed up the recovery process. Here we review the existing experimental evidence regarding the beneficial effects of training in virtual environments on the recovery of function in the areas of gait, upper extremity function and balance, in various patient populations. We also discuss possible mechanisms underlying these effects. We feel that future research in the area of virtual rehabilitation should follow several important paths. Imaging studies to evaluate the effects of sensory manipulation on brain activation patterns and the effect of various training parameters on long term changes in brain function are needed to guide future clinical inquiry. Larger clinical studies are also needed to establish the efficacy of sensorimotor rehabilitation using VR approaches in various clinical populations and most importantly, to identify VR training parameters that are associated with optimal transfer into real-world functional improvements. PMID:19713617

  12. Introduction to augmented and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudell, Thomas P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper introduces the field of augmented reality as a prolog to the body of papers in the remainder of this session. I describe the use of head-mounted display technologies to improve the efficiency and quality of human workers in their performance of engineering design, manufacturing, construction, testing, and maintenance activities. This technology is used to `augment' the visual field of the wearer with information necessary in the performance of the current task. The enabling technology is head-up (see-through) display head sets (HUDsets) combined with head position sensing, real world registration systems, and database access software. A primary difference between virtual reality (VR) and `augmented reality' (AR) is in the complexity of the perceived graphical objects. In AR systems, only simple wire frames, template outlines, designators, and text is displayed. An immediate result of this difference is that augmented reality systems can be driven by standard and inexpensive microprocessors. Many research issues must be addressed before this technology can be widely used, including tracking and registration, human 3D perception and reasoning, and human task performance issues.

  13. Using virtual reality to analyze sports performance.

    PubMed

    Bideau, Benoit; Kulpa, Richard; Vignais, Nicolas; Brault, Sébastien; Multon, Franck; Craig, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Improving performance in sports can be difficult because many biomechanical, physiological, and psychological factors come into play during competition. A better understanding of the perception-action loop employed by athletes is necessary. This requires isolating contributing factors to determine their role in player performance. Because of its inherent limitations, video playback doesn't permit such in-depth analysis. Interactive, immersive virtual reality (VR) can overcome these limitations and foster a better understanding of sports performance from a behavioral-neuroscience perspective. Two case studies using VR technology and a sophisticated animation engine demonstrate how to use information from visual displays to inform a player's future course of action. PMID:20650707

  14. Summer Students in Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study on Educational Applications of Virtual Reality Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricken, Meredith; Byrne, Chris M.

    The goal of this study was to take a first step in evaluating the potential of virtual reality (VR) as a learning environment. The context of the study was The Technology Academy, a technology-oriented summer day camp for students ages 5-18, where student activities center around hands-on exploration of new technology (e.g., robotics, MIDI digital…

  15. Virtual reality for automotive design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, George G.

    1995-01-01

    A general description of Virtual Reality technology and possible applications was given from publicly available material. A video tape was shown demonstrating the use of multiple large-screen stereoscopic displays, configured in a 10' x 10' x 10' room, to allow a person to evaluate and interact with a vehicle which exists only as mathematical data, and is made only of light. The correct viewpoint of the vehicle is maintained by tracking special glasses worn by the subject. Interior illumination was changed by moving a virtual light around by hand; interior colors are changed by pointing at a color on a color palette, then pointing at the desired surface to change. We concluded by discussing research needed to move this technology forward.

  16. Virtual reality for the treatment of autism.

    PubMed

    Strickland, D

    1997-01-01

    Autism is a mental disorder which has received attention in several unrelated studies using virtual reality. One of the first attempts was to diagnose children with special needs at Tokyo University using a sandbox playing technique. Although operating the computer controls proved to be too difficult for the individuals with autism in the Tokyo study, research at the University of Nottingham, UK, is successful in using VR as a learning aid for children with a variety of disorders including autism. Both centers used flat screen computer systems with virtual scenes. Another study which concentrated on using VR as a learning aid with an immersive headset system is described in detail in this chapter. Perhaps because of the seriousness of the disorder and the lack of effective treatments, autism has received more study than attention deficit disorders, although both would appear to benefit from many of the same technology features. PMID:10184809

  17. Virtual reality for the treatment of autism.

    PubMed

    Strickland, D

    1997-01-01

    Autism is a mental disorder which has received attention in several unrelated studies using virtual reality. One of the first attempts was to diagnose children with special needs at Tokyo University using a sandbox playing technique. Although operating the computer controls proved to be too difficult for the individuals with autism in the Tokyo study, research at the University of Nottingham, UK, is successful in using VR as a learning aid for children with a variety of disorders including autism. Both centers used flat screen computer systems with virtual scenes. Another study which concentrated on using VR as a learning aid with an immersive headset system is described in detail in this chapter. Perhaps because of the seriousness of the disorder and the lack of effective treatments, autism has received more study than attention deficit disorders, although both would appear to benefit from many of the same technology features.

  18. Virtual reality applications in robotic simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, David J.; Gott, Charles J.; Goza, S. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) provides a means to practice integrated extravehicular activities (EVA)/remote manipulator system (RMS) operations in the on-orbit configuration with no discomfort or risk to crewmembers. VR afforded the STS-61 crew the luxury of practicing the integrated EVA/RMS operations in an on-orbit configuration prior to the actual flight. The VR simulation was developed by the Automation and Robotics Division's Telepresence/Virtual Reality Lab and Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Lab (IGOAL) at JSC. The RMS Part Task Trainer (PTT) was developed by the IGOAL for RMS training in 1988 as a fully functional, kinematic simulation of the shuttle RMS and served as the RMS portion of the integrated VR simulation. Because the EVA crewmember could get a realistic view of the shuttle and payload bay in the VR simulation, he/she could explore different positions and views to determine the best method for performing a specific task, thus greatly increasing the efficiency of use of the neutral buoyancy facilities.

  19. Virtual Reality Simulation for the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Anthony G.; Ritter, E Matt; Champion, Howard; Higgins, Gerald; Fried, Marvin P.; Moses, Gerald; Smith, C Daniel; Satava, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Background Data: To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision Methods: A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program. Results: VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well-thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations. Conclusions: VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills. PMID:15650649

  20. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Using a Virtual Iraq: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Ressler, Kerry; Heekin, Mary; Rizzo, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been estimated to affect up to 18% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. Soldiers need to maintain constant vigilance to deal with unpredictable threats, and an unprecedented number of soldiers are surviving serious wounds. These risk factors are significant for development of PTSD; therefore, early and efficient intervention options must be identified and presented in a form acceptable to military personnel. This case report presents the results of treatment utilizing virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy (virtual Iraq) to treat an OIF veteran with PTSD. Following brief VRE treatment, the veteran demonstrated improvement in PTSD symptoms as indicated by clinically and statistically significant changes in scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1990) and the PTSD Symptom Scale Self-Report (PSS-SR; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993). These results indicate preliminary promise for this treatment. PMID:18404648

  1. Virtual reality exposure therapy using a virtual Iraq: case report.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Ressler, Kerry; Heekin, Mary; Rizzo, Albert

    2008-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been estimated to affect up to 18% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. Soldiers need to maintain constant vigilance to deal with unpredictable threats, and an unprecedented number of soldiers are surviving serious wounds. These risk factors are significant for development of PTSD; therefore, early and efficient intervention options must be identified and presented in a form acceptable to military personnel. This case report presents the results of treatment utilizing virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy (virtual Iraq) to treat an OIF veteran with PTSD. Following brief VRE treatment, the veteran demonstrated improvement in PTSD symptoms as indicated by clinically and statistically significant changes in scores on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1990) and the PTSD Symptom Scale Self-Report (PSS-SR; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993). These results indicate preliminary promise for this treatment. PMID:18404648

  2. The virtual reality arthroscopy training simulator.

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Bockholt, U

    1998-01-01

    Arthroscopy has already become an irreplaceable method in diagnostics. The arthroscope, with optics and light source, and the exploratory probe are inserted into the knee joint through two small incisions underneath the patella. Currently, the skills required for arthroscopy are taught through hands-on clinical experience. As arthroscopies became a more common procedure even in smaller hospitals, it became obvious that special training was necessary to guarantee qualification of the surgeons. On-the-job training proved to be insufficient. Therefore, research groups from the Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Frankfurt am Main approached the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics to develop a training system for arthroscopy based on virtual reality (VR) techniques. Two main issues are addressed: the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction process and the 3-D interaction. To provide the virtual environment a realistic representation of the region of interest with all relevant anatomical structures is required. Based on a magnetic resonance image sequence a realistic representation of the knee joint was obtained suitable for computer simulation. Two main components of the VR interface can be distinguished: the 3-D interaction to guide the surgical instruments and the 2-D graphical user interface for visual feedback and control of the session. Moreover, the 3-D interaction has to be realized by means of Virtual Reality techniques providing a simulation of an arthroscope and an intuitive handling of other surgical instruments. Currently, the main drawback of the developed simulator is the missing of haptic perception, especially of force feedback. In cooperation with the Department of Electro-Mechanical Construction at the Technical University Darmstadt a haptic display is designed and built for the VR arthroscopy training simulator. In parallel we developed a concept for the integration of the haptic display in a configurable way. PMID:10180528

  3. Treatment of Complicated Grief Using Virtual Reality: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, C.; Osma, J.; Palacios, A. Garcia; Guillen, V.; Banos, R.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first work exploring the application of new technologies, concretely virtual reality, to facilitate emotional processing in the treatment of Complicated Grief. Our research team has designed a virtual reality environment (EMMA's World) to foster the expression and processing of emotions. In this study the authors present a description…

  4. Designing a Virtual-Reality-Based, Gamelike Math Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xinhao; Ke, Fengfeng

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the design issues related to a virtual-reality-based, gamelike learning environment (VRGLE) developed via OpenSimulator, an open-source virtual reality server. The researchers collected qualitative data to examine the VRGLE's usability, playability, and content integration for math learning. They found it important…

  5. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training.

    PubMed

    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen

    2015-12-10

    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed.

  6. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  7. Mobile Virtual Reality : A Solution for Big Data Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, E.; Seichter, N. D.; D'sa, A.; Werner, L. A.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Pursuits in geological sciences and other branches of quantitative sciences often require data visualization frameworks that are in continual need of improvement and new ideas. Virtual reality is a medium of visualization that has large audiences originally designed for gaming purposes; Virtual reality can be captured in Cave-like environment but they are unwieldy and expensive to maintain. Recent efforts by major companies such as Facebook have focussed more on a large market , The Oculus is the first of such kind of mobile devices The operating system Unity makes it possible for us to convert the data files into a mesh of isosurfaces and be rendered into 3D. A user is immersed inside of the virtual reality and is able to move within and around the data using arrow keys and other steering devices, similar to those employed in XBox.. With introductions of products like the Oculus Rift and Holo Lens combined with ever increasing mobile computing strength, mobile virtual reality data visualization can be implemented for better analysis of 3D geological and mineralogical data sets. As more new products like the Surface Pro 4 and other high power yet very mobile computers are introduced to the market, the RAM and graphics card capacity necessary to run these models is more available, opening doors to this new reality. The computing requirements needed to run these models are a mere 8 GB of RAM and 2 GHz of CPU speed, which many mobile computers are starting to exceed. Using Unity 3D software to create a virtual environment containing a visual representation of the data, any data set converted into FBX or OBJ format which can be traversed by wearing the Oculus Rift device. This new method for analysis in conjunction with 3D scanning has potential applications in many fields, including the analysis of precious stones or jewelry. Using hologram technology to capture in high-resolution the 3D shape, color, and imperfections of minerals and stones, detailed review and

  8. A virtual reality browser for Space Station models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Michael; Pandya, Abhilash; Aldridge, Ann; Maida, James

    1993-01-01

    The Graphics Analysis Facility at NASA/JSC has created a visualization and learning tool by merging its database of detailed geometric models with a virtual reality system. The system allows an interactive walk-through of models of the Space Station and other structures, providing detailed realistic stereo images. The user can activate audio messages describing the function and connectivity of selected components within his field of view. This paper presents the issues and trade-offs involved in the implementation of the VR system and discusses its suitability for its intended purposes.

  9. Applied virtual reality in aerospace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, mission operations training and science training. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, VR must be validated for that class of applications. For that reason, specific validation studies for selected classes of applications have been proposed and are currently underway. These include macro-ergonomic 'control room class' design analysis, Spacelab stowage reconfiguration training, a full-body microgravity functional reach simulator, a gross anatomy teaching simulator, and micro-ergonomic design analysis. This paper describes the MSFC VR Applications Program and the validation studies.

  10. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  11. Virtual reality treatment of flying phobia.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Perpiñá, Concepción; Alcañiz, Mariano; Lozano, Jose Antonio; Osma, Jorge; Gallardo, Myriam

    2002-09-01

    Flying phobia (FP) might become a very incapacitating and disturbing problem in a person's social, working, and private areas. Psychological interventions based on exposure therapy have proved to be effective, but given the particular nature of this disorder they bear important limitations. Exposure therapy for FP might be excessively costly in terms of time, money, and efforts. Virtual reality (VR) overcomes these difficulties as different significant environments might be created, where the patient can interact with what he or she fears while in a totally safe and protected environment-the therapist's consulting room. This paper intends, on one hand, to show the different scenarios designed by our team for the VR treatment of FP, and on the other, to present the first results supporting the effectiveness of this new tool for the treatment of FP in a multiple baseline study. PMID:12381036

  12. Virtual reality treatment of flying phobia.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Perpiñá, Concepción; Alcañiz, Mariano; Lozano, Jose Antonio; Osma, Jorge; Gallardo, Myriam

    2002-09-01

    Flying phobia (FP) might become a very incapacitating and disturbing problem in a person's social, working, and private areas. Psychological interventions based on exposure therapy have proved to be effective, but given the particular nature of this disorder they bear important limitations. Exposure therapy for FP might be excessively costly in terms of time, money, and efforts. Virtual reality (VR) overcomes these difficulties as different significant environments might be created, where the patient can interact with what he or she fears while in a totally safe and protected environment-the therapist's consulting room. This paper intends, on one hand, to show the different scenarios designed by our team for the VR treatment of FP, and on the other, to present the first results supporting the effectiveness of this new tool for the treatment of FP in a multiple baseline study.

  13. Virtual Presence: One Step Beyond Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann

    1997-01-01

    Our primary objective was to team up a group consisting of scientists and engineers from two different NASA cultures, and simulate an interactive teleoperated robot conducting geologic field work on the Moon or Mars. The information derived from the experiment will benefit both the robotics team and the planetary exploration team in the areas of robot design and development, and mission planning and analysis. The Earth Sciences and Space and Life Sciences Division combines the past with the future contributing experience from Apollo crews exploring the lunar surface, knowledge of reduced gravity environments, the performance limits of EVA suits, and future goals for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Automation, Robotics. and Simulation Division brings to the table the technical expertise of robotic systems, the future goals of highly interactive robotic capabilities, treading on the edge of technology by joining for the first time a unique combination of telepresence with virtual reality.

  14. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the station to perform these repairs. After the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for the ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained or for contingency operations has become a very critical subject. In many situations, the time between the last session of Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) task might be 6 to 8 months. In order to help with training for contingency repairs and to maintain EVA proficiency while on flight, the Johnson Space Center Virtual Reality Lab (VRLab) designed an onboard immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT), incorporating a unique optical system and making use of the already successful Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphical (DOUG) graphics software, to assist crew members with current procedures and contingency EVAs while on flight. The VRT provides an immersive environment similar to the one experienced at the VRLab crew training facility at NASA Johnson Space Center. EVA tasks are critical for a mission since as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the ISS ages. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before.

  15. Fire training in a virtual-reality environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Jurgen; Bucken, Arno

    2005-03-01

    Although fire is very common in our daily environment - as a source of energy at home or as a tool in industry - most people cannot estimate the danger of a conflagration. Therefore it is important to train people in combating fire. Beneath training with propane simulators or real fires and real extinguishers, fire training can be performed in virtual reality, which means a pollution-free and fast way of training. In this paper we describe how to enhance a virtual-reality environment with a real-time fire simulation and visualisation in order to establish a realistic emergency-training system. The presented approach supports extinguishing of the virtual fire including recordable performance data as needed in teletraining environments. We will show how to get realistic impressions of fire using advanced particle-simulation and how to use the advantages of particles to trigger states in a modified cellular automata used for the simulation of fire-behaviour. Using particle systems that interact with cellular automata it is possible to simulate a developing, spreading fire and its reaction on different extinguishing agents like water, CO2 or oxygen. The methods proposed in this paper have been implemented and successfully tested on Cosimir, a commercial robot-and VR-simulation-system.

  16. Virtual reality in medical education and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Laurie A.; Bell, Brad; Sullivan, Tim; Voss, Mark; Payer, Andrew F.; Goza, Stewart Michael

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)/LinCom Corporation, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), and the Galveston Independent School District (GISD) have teamed up to develop a virtual visual environment display (VIVED) that provides a unique educational experience using virtual reality (VR) technologies. The VIVED end product will be a self-contained educational experience allowing students a new method of learning as they interact with the subject matter through VR. This type of interface is intuitive and utilizes spatial and psychomotor abilities which are now constrained or reduced by the current two dimensional terminals and keyboards. The perpetual challenge to educators remains the identification and development of methodologies which conform the learners abilities and preferences. The unique aspects of VR provide an opportunity to explore a new educational experience. Endowing medical students with an understanding of the human body poses some difficulty challenges. One of the most difficult is to convey the three dimensional nature of anatomical structures. The ideal environment for addressing this problem would be one that allows students to become small enough to enter the body and travel through it - much like a person walks through a building. By using VR technology, this effect can be achieved; when VR is combined with multimedia technologies, the effect can be spectacular.

  17. Use of Virtual Reality for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah; Taylor, L. C.; Reschke, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity. Our research examining the effects of repeated exposures to a full field of view dome VR system showed that motion sickness and initial decrements in eye movement and postural control were greatly diminished following three exposures. These results suggest that repeated transitions between VR and the normal environment preflight might be a useful countermeasure for neurosensory and sensorimotor effects of space flight. The range of VR applications is enormous, extending from ground-based VR training for extravehicular activities at NASA, to medical and educational uses. It seems reasonable to suggest that other space related uses of VR should be investigated. For example, 1) use of head-mounted VR on orbit to rehearse/practice upcoming operational activities, and 2) ground-based VR training for emergency egress procedures. We propose that by combining VR designed for operational activities preflight, along with an appropriate schedule to facilitate sensorimotor adaptation and improve spatial orientation would potentially accomplish two important goals for astronauts and cosmonauts, preflight sensorimotor adaption and enhanced operational

  18. Retinal imaging with virtual reality stimulus for studying Salticidae retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiesser, Eric; Canavesi, Cristina; Long, Skye; Jakob, Elizabeth; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-path optical system for studying the retinal movement of jumping spiders: a visible OLED virtual reality system presents stimulus, while NIR illumination and imaging systems observe retinal movement.

  19. Virtual reality in radiation therapy training.

    PubMed

    Boejen, Annette; Grau, Cai

    2011-09-01

    Integration of virtual reality (VR) in clinical training programs is a novel tool in radiotherapy. This paper presents a review of the experience with VR and Immersive visualization in 3D perspective for planning and delivery of external radiotherapy. Planning and delivering radiation therapy is a complex process involving physicians, physicists, radiographers and radiation therapists/nurses (RTT's). The specialists must be able to understand spatial relationships in the patient anatomy. Although still in its infancy, VR tools have become available for radiotherapy training, enabling students to simulate and train clinical situations without interfering with the clinical workflow, and without the risk of making errors. Immersive tools like a 3D linear accelerator and 3D display of dose distributions have been integrated into training, together with IT-labs with clinical software. Training in a VR environment seems to be cost-effective for the clinic. Initial reports suggest that 3D display of dose distributions may improve treatment planning and decision making. Whether VR training qualifies the students better than conventional training is still unsettled, but the first results are encouraging. PMID:20724144

  20. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  1. Data Visualization Using Immersive Virtual Reality Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioc, Alexandru; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Lawler, E.; Sauer, F.; Longo, G.

    2013-01-01

    The growing complexity of scientific data poses serious challenges for an effective visualization. Data sets, e.g., catalogs of objects detected in sky surveys, can have a very high dimensionality, ~ 100 - 1000. Visualizing such hyper-dimensional data parameter spaces is essentially impossible, but there are ways of visualizing up to ~ 10 dimensions in a pseudo-3D display. We have been experimenting with the emerging technologies of immersive virtual reality (VR) as a platform for a scientific, interactive, collaborative data visualization. Our initial experiments used the virtual world of Second Life, and more recently VR worlds based on its open source code, OpenSimulator. There we can visualize up to ~ 100,000 data points in ~ 7 - 8 dimensions (3 spatial and others encoded as shapes, colors, sizes, etc.), in an immersive virtual space where scientists can interact with their data and with each other. We are now developing a more scalable visualization environment using the popular (practically an emerging standard) Unity 3D Game Engine, coded using C#, JavaScript, and the Unity Scripting Language. This visualization tool can be used through a standard web browser, or a standalone browser of its own. Rather than merely plotting data points, the application creates interactive three-dimensional objects of various shapes, colors, and sizes, and of course the XYZ positions, encoding various dimensions of the parameter space, that can be associated interactively. Multiple users can navigate through this data space simultaneously, either with their own, independent vantage points, or with a shared view. At this stage ~ 100,000 data points can be easily visualized within seconds on a simple laptop. The displayed data points can contain linked information; e.g., upon a clicking on a data point, a webpage with additional information can be rendered within the 3D world. A range of functionalities has been already deployed, and more are being added. We expect to make this

  2. STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams Trains Using Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, uses Virtual Reality Hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at the Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties for the upcoming mission. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear special gloves and other gear while looking at a computer that displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware which with they will be working.

  3. Over-generation-10 size FPD photomasks for virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiojiri, Kazuya

    2012-06-01

    With the advent of the large-sized and high-precision flat panel display, enjoying Virtual reality is getting more familiar. SK-Electronics CO., LTD. is only the mask maker that can produce the Over-Generation 10- sized LCD photomasks in the world. We, SK-Electronics CO., LTD. believe that we can provide the pleasure of virtual reality with higher realistic sensation through the super large-sized and high-precision photomasks .

  4. Low-Cost, Portable, Multi-Wall Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Samuel A.; Misch, Noah J.; Dalton, Aaron J.

    2005-01-01

    Virtual reality systems make compelling outreach displays, but some such systems, like the CAVE, have design features that make their use for that purpose inconvenient. In the case of the CAVE, the equipment is difficult to disassemble, transport, and reassemble, and typically CAVEs can only be afforded by large-budget research facilities. We implemented a system like the CAVE that costs less than $30,000, weighs about 500 pounds, and fits into a fifteen-passenger van. A team of six people have unpacked, assembled, and calibrated the system in less than two hours. This cost reduction versus similar virtual-reality systems stems from the unique approach we took to stereoscopic projection. We used an assembly of optical chopper wheels and commodity LCD projectors to create true active stereo at less than a fifth of the cost of comparable active-stereo technologies. The screen and frame design also optimized portability; the frame assembles in minutes with only two fasteners, and both it and the screen pack into small bundles for easy and secure shipment.

  5. Role of virtual reality for cerebral palsy management.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Tirosh, Emanuel; Fehlings, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Virtual reality is the use of interactive simulations to present users with opportunities to perform in virtual environments that appear, sound, and less frequently, feel similar to real-world objects and events. Interactive computer play refers to the use of a game where a child interacts and plays with virtual objects in a computer-generated environment. Because of their distinctive attributes that provide ecologically realistic and motivating opportunities for active learning, these technologies have been used in pediatric rehabilitation over the past 15 years. The ability of virtual reality to create opportunities for active repetitive motor/sensory practice adds to their potential for neuroplasticity and learning in individuals with neurologic disorders. The objectives of this article is to provide an overview of how virtual reality and gaming are used clinically, to present the results of several example studies that demonstrate their use in research, and to briefly remark on future developments.

  6. 3D Virtual Reality Check: Learner Engagement and Constructivist Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools has created a need to communicate the engagement of 3D tools and specify learning gains that educators and the institutions, which are funding 3D tools, can expect. A review of literature demonstrates that specific models and theories for 3D Virtual Reality (VR) learning do not exist "per…

  7. Using Immersive Virtual Reality for Electrical Substation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Eduardo H.; Paludo, Juliana A.; Cordeiro, Carlúcio S.; Domingues, Leonardo R.; Gadbem, Edgar V.; Euflausino, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Usually, distribution electricians are called upon to solve technical problems found in electrical substations. In this project, we apply problem-based learning to a training program for electricians, with the help of a virtual reality environment that simulates a real substation. Using this virtual substation, users may safely practice maneuvers…

  8. Virtual Reality as a Tool in the Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Pereira, Adriana Soares

    2012-01-01

    The virtual reality is being more and more used in the education, enabling the student to find out, to explore and to build his own knowledge. This paper presents an Educational Software for presence or distance education, for subjects of Formal Language, where the student can manipulate virtually the target that must be explored, analyzed and…

  9. Soldier evaluation of the virtual reality Iraq.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A; Rizzo, Albert A; Swanson, Robert; Duma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Repeated combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan are resulting in increased rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel. Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for this disorder, some personnel do not significantly respond to treatment, possibly due to poor activation of the trauma memory or a lack of emotional engagement during therapy. In addition, some service members do not seek mental healthcare due to treatment stigma. Researchers recently developed a virtual reality (VR) Iraq to attempt to improve activation of the traumatic memory during exposure therapy and to provide a treatment approach that may be more appealing to some service members, relative to traditional face-to-face talk therapy. Initial validation of the application requires an assessment of how well it represents the experiences of previously deployed service members. This study evaluated the realism of the VR Iraq application according to the subjective evaluation of 93 U.S. Army soldiers who returned from Iraq in the last year. Those screening negative for PTSD used and evaluated a VR tactical convoy and a VR dismounted patrol in a simulated Middle Eastern city. Results indicated that 86% of soldiers rated the overall realism of the VR convoy as ranging from adequate to excellent. Eighty-two percent of soldiers reported adequate-to-excellent overall realism of the city environment. Results provide evidence that the VR Iraq presents a realistic context in which VR exposure therapy can be conducted. However, clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of VR exposure therapy for Iraq veterans with PTSD. PMID:19199854

  10. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  11. Virtual reality applied to hepatic surgery simulation: the next revolution.

    PubMed Central

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Tassetti, V; Koehl, C; Cotin, S; Russier, Y; Mutter, D; Delingette, H; Ayache, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a preliminary work on virtual reality applied to liver surgery and discusses the repercussions of assisted surgical strategy and surgical simulation on tomorrow's surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver surgery is considered difficult because of the complexity and variability of the organ. Common generic tools for presurgical medical image visualization do not fulfill the requirements for the liver, restricting comprehension of a patient's specific liver anatomy. METHODS: Using data from the National Library of Medicine, a realistic three-dimensional image was created, including the envelope and the four internal arborescences. A computer interface was developed to manipulate the organ and to define surgical resection planes according to internal anatomy. The first step of surgical simulation was implemented, providing the organ with real-time deformation computation. RESULTS: The three-dimensional anatomy of the liver could be clearly visualized. The virtual organ could be manipulated and a resection defined depending on the anatomic relations between the arborescences, the tumor, and the external envelope. The resulting parts could also be visualized and manipulated. The simulation allowed the deformation of a liver model in real time by means of a realistic laparoscopic tool. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional visualization of the organ in relation to the pathology is of great help to appreciate the complex anatomy of the liver. Using virtual reality concepts (navigation, interaction, and immersion), surgical planning, training, and teaching for this complex surgical procedure may be possible. The ability to practice a given gesture repeatedly will revolutionize surgical training, and the combination of surgical planning and simulation will improve the efficiency of intervention, leading to optimal care delivery. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9833800

  12. Evaluating Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Training for Industrial Maintenance and Assembly Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavish, Nirit; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Webel, Sabine; Rodríguez, Jorge; Peveri, Matteo; Bockholt, Uli; Tecchia, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the use of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) platforms, developed within the scope of the SKILLS Integrated Project, for industrial maintenance and assembly (IMA) tasks training. VR and AR systems are now widely regarded as promising training platforms for complex and highly demanding IMA tasks. However,…

  13. Multi-degree of freedom joystick for virtual reality simulation.

    PubMed

    Head, M J; Nelson, C A; Siu, K C

    2013-11-01

    A modular control interface and simulated virtual reality environment were designed and created in order to determine how the kinematic architecture of a control interface affects minimally invasive surgery training. A user is able to selectively determine the kinematic configuration of an input device (number, type and location of degrees of freedom) for a specific surgical simulation through the use of modular joints and constraint components. Furthermore, passive locking was designed and implemented through the use of inflated latex tubing around rotational joints in order to allow a user to step away from a simulation without unwanted tool motion. It is believed that these features will facilitate improved simulation of a variety of surgical procedures and, thus, improve surgical skills training. PMID:24079814

  14. Two implementations of shared virtual space environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T. L.

    1998-01-13

    While many issues in the area of virtual reality (VR) research have been addressed in recent years, the constant leaps forward in technology continue to push the field forward. VR research no longer is focused only on computer graphics, but instead has become even more interdisciplinary, combining the fields of networking, distributed computing, and even artificial intelligence. In this article we discuss some of the issues associated with distributed, collaborative virtual reality, as well as lessons learned during the development of two distributed virtual reality applications.

  15. Alleviating travel anxiety through virtual reality and narrated video technology.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J C; Lee, O

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an empirical evidence of benefit of narrative video clips in embedded virtual reality websites of hotels for relieving travel anxiety. Even though it was proven that virtual reality functions do provide some relief in travel anxiety, a stronger virtual reality website can be built when narrative video clips that show video clips with narration about important aspects of the hotel. We posit that these important aspects are 1. Escape route and 2. Surrounding neighborhood information, which are derived from the existing research on anxiety disorder as well as travel anxiety. Thus we created a video clip that showed and narrated about the escape route from the hotel room, another video clip that showed and narrated about surrounding neighborhood. We then conducted experiments with this enhanced virtual reality website of a hotel by having human subjects play with the website and fill out a questionnaire. The result confirms our hypothesis that there is a statistically significant relationship between the degree of travel anxiety and psychological relief caused by the use of embedded virtual reality functions with narrative video clips of a hotel website (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26).

  16. Virtual-Reality-Based Social Interaction Training for Children with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Im, Tami

    2013-01-01

    Employing the multiple-baseline across-subjects design, the authors examined the implementation and potential effect of a virtual-reality-based social interaction program on the interaction and communication performance of children with high functioning autism. The data were collected via behavior observation and analysis, questionnaires, and…

  17. Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of social phobia.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Evelyne; Légeron, Patrick; Roy, Stéphane; Chemin, Isabelle; Lauer, Françoise; Nugues, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders and is accessible to two forms of scientifically validated treatments: anti-depressant drugs and cognitive-behavioral therapies. Graded exposure to feared social situations (either in vivo or by imagining the situations) is fundamental to obtain an improvement of the anxious symptoms. Virtual reality (VR) may be an alternative to these standard exposure techniques and seems to bring significant advantages by allowing exposures to numerous and varied situations. Moreover studies have shown that human subjects are appropriately sensitive to virtual environments. This chapter reports the definition of a VR-based clinical protocol and a study to treat social phobia using virtual reality techniques. The virtual environments used in the treatment reproduce four situations that social phobics feel the most threatening: performance, intimacy, scrutiny and assertiveness. With the help of the therapist, the patient learns adapted cognitions and behaviors when coping with social situations, with the aim of reducing her or his anxiety in the corresponding real life situations. Some studies have been carried out using virtual reality in the treatment of fear of public speaking, which is only a small part of the symptomatology of most of social phobic patients. The novelty of our work is to address a larger group of situations that the phobic patients experience with high anxiety. In our protocol, the efficacy of the virtual reality treatment is compared to well established and well validated group cognitive-behavioral treatment. PMID:15295148

  18. Virtual reality goes to war: a brief review of the future of military behavioral healthcare.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Parsons, Thomas D; Lange, Belinda; Kenny, Patrick; Buckwalter, John G; Rothbaum, Barbara; Difede, JoAnn; Frazier, John; Newman, Brad; Williams, Josh; Reger, Greg

    2011-06-01

    Numerous reports indicate that the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. These findings have served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. Virtual Reality delivered exposure therapy for PTSD has been previously used with reports of positive outcomes. This article details how virtual reality applications are being designed and implemented across various points in the military deployment cycle to prevent, identify and treat combat-related PTSD in OIF/OEF Service Members and Veterans. The summarized projects in these areas have been developed at the University of Southern California Institute for Creative Technologies, a U.S. Army University Affiliated Research Center, and this paper will detail efforts to use virtual reality to deliver exposure therapy, assess PTSD and cognitive function and provide stress resilience training prior to deployment. PMID:21553133

  19. [Parallel virtual reality visualization of extreme large medical datasets].

    PubMed

    Tang, Min

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of a brief description of grid computing, the essence and critical techniques of parallel visualization of extreme large medical datasets are discussed in connection with Intranet and common-configuration computers of hospitals. In this paper are introduced several kernel techniques, including the hardware structure, software framework, load balance and virtual reality visualization. The Maximum Intensity Projection algorithm is realized in parallel using common PC cluster. In virtual reality world, three-dimensional models can be rotated, zoomed, translated and cut interactively and conveniently through the control panel built on virtual reality modeling language (VRML). Experimental results demonstrate that this method provides promising and real-time results for playing the role in of a good assistant in making clinical diagnosis. PMID:20481303

  20. Safety in Construction Using Virtual Reality (SAVR): A Model for Labor Safety. Working Paper Series WP-022.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; And Others

    An interactive training model called SAVR (Safety in Construction Using Virtual Reality) was developed to train construction students, novice engineers, and construction workers to prevent falls from scaffolding. The model was implemented in a graphics supercomputer, the ONYX Reality Engine2. The SAVR model provides trainees with an immersive,…

  1. A priori molecular virtual reality on EGEE grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laganà, Antonio; Gervasi, Osvaldo

    Computer simulations of the properties of processes and materials are becoming increasingly necessary in several technological and environmental studies. This implies a growing demand of computing resources that severely exploits Grid environments in terms of sustainability and reliability of the infrastructure. For this purpose, we have established a Virtual Organization, called CompChem, committed to deploy on the EGEE production Grid applications relevant to the activities of the Molecular and Matter Sciences and Technologies Community. These applications are based on a distributed usage of distributed suites of programs. CompChem has started its Grid activities with the assemblage of an atom diatom reactive scattering prototype simulator for molecular beam apparatuses. At present, the simulator is being extended to deal with large systems. This has prompted a dramatic change in the used theoretical approaches and computational algorithms as well as a development of new paradigms to describe and represent molecular and matter structures and properties. Furthermore, we have implemented a Web Service aimed at interfacing the simulation environment running on the Grid with a Virtual Reality client environment, in which the user can set up the operating conditions of the simulation and exploit its outcomes.

  2. Exploring Learning through Audience Interaction in Virtual Reality Dome Theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolellis, Panagiotis; Daradoumis, Thanasis

    Informal learning in public spaces like museums, science centers and planetariums is increasingly popular during the last years. Recent advancements in large-scale displays allowed contemporary technology-enhanced museums to get equipped with digital domes, some with real-time capabilities like Virtual Reality systems. By conducting extensive literature review we have come to the conclusion that little to no research has been carried out on the leaning outcomes that the combination of VR and audience interaction can provide in the immersive environments of dome theaters. Thus, we propose that audience collaboration in immersive virtual reality environments presents a promising approach to support effective learning in groups of school aged children.

  3. Application of virtual reality GIS in urban planning: an example in Huangdao district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Weichen; Zhang, Litao

    2007-06-01

    As an important development direction of GIS, Virtual Reality GIS was founded in 1950s. After 1990s, due to the fast development of its theory and the computer technology, Virtual Reality has been applied to many fields: military, aerospace, design, manufactory, information management, business, construction, city management, medical, education, etc.. The most famous project is the Virtual Los Angeles implemented by the Urban Simulation Team (UST) of UCLA. The main focus of the UST is a long-term effort to build a real-time Virtual Reality model of the entire Los Angeles basin for use by architects, urban planners, emergency response teams, and the government entities. When completed, the entire Virtual L.A. model will cover an area well in excess of 10000 square miles and will elegantly scale from satellite images to street level views accurate enough to allow the signs in the window of the shops and the graffiti on the walls to be legible. Till now, the virtual L.A. has been applied to urban environments and design analysis, transportation studies, historic reconstruction and education, etc. Compared to the early development abroad, the development of Virtual Reality GIS in China is relatively late. It is researched in some universities in early years. But recently, it has been attended by the populace and been used in many social fields: urban planning, environmental protection, historic protection and recovery, real estate, tourism, education etc.. The application of Virtual Reality in urban planning of Huangdao District, Qingdao City is introduced in this paper.

  4. Thermal feedback in virtual reality and telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerkus, Mike; Becker, Bill; Ward, Jon; Halvorsen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    A new concept has been developed that allows temperature to be part of the virtual world. The Displaced Temperature Sensing System (DTSS) can 'display' temperature in a virtual reality system.The DTSS can also serve as a feedback device for telerobotics. For virtual reality applications the virtual world software would be required to have a temperature map of its world. By whatever means (magnetic tracker, ultrasound tracker, etc.) the hand and fingers, which have been instrumented with thermodes, would be tracked. The temperature associated with the current position would be transmitted to the DRSS via a serial data link. The DTSS would provide that temperature to the fingers. For telerobotic operation the function of the DTSS is to transmit a temperature from a remote location to the fingers where the temperature can be felt.

  5. Comparing two types of navigational interfaces for Virtual Reality.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís; Vilar, Elisângela; Duarte, Emília; Rebelo, Francisco; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest significant differences between navigating virtual environments in a life-like walking manner (i.e., using treadmills or walk-in-place techniques) and virtual navigation (i.e., flying while really standing). The latter option, which usually involves hand-centric devices (e.g., joysticks), is the most common in Virtual Reality-based studies, mostly due to low costs, less space and technology demands. However, recently, new interaction devices, originally conceived for videogames have become available offering interesting potentialities for research. This study aimed to explore the potentialities of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board as a navigation interface in a Virtual Environment presented in an immersive Virtual Reality system. Comparing participants' performance while engaged in a simulated emergency egress allows determining the adequacy of such alternative navigation interface on the basis of empirical results. Forty university students participated in this study. Results show that participants were more efficient when performing navigation tasks using the Joystick than with the Balance Board. However there were no significantly differences in the behavioral compliance with exit signs. Therefore, this study suggests that, at least for tasks similar to the studied, the Balance Board have good potentiality to be used as a navigation interface for Virtual Reality systems.

  6. Ambient Intelligence in Multimeda and Virtual Reality Environments for the rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benko, Attila; Cecilia, Sik Lanyi

    This chapter presents a general overview about the use of multimedia and virtual reality in rehabilitation and assistive and preventive healthcare. This chapter deals with multimedia, virtual reality applications based AI intended for use by medical doctors, nurses, special teachers and further interested persons. It describes methods how multimedia and virtual reality is able to assist their work. These include the areas how multimedia and virtual reality can help the patients everyday life and their rehabilitation. In the second part of the chapter we present the Virtual Therapy Room (VTR) a realized application for aphasic patients that was created for practicing communication and expressing emotions in a group therapy setting. The VTR shows a room that contains a virtual therapist and four virtual patients (avatars). The avatars are utilizing their knowledge base in order to answer the questions of the user providing an AI environment for the rehabilitation. The user of the VTR is the aphasic patient who has to solve the exercises. The picture that is relevant for the actual task appears on the virtual blackboard. Patient answers questions of the virtual therapist. Questions are about pictures describing an activity or an object in different levels. Patient can ask an avatar for answer. If the avatar knows the answer the avatars emotion changes to happy instead of sad. The avatar expresses its emotions in different dimensions. Its behavior, face-mimic, voice-tone and response also changes. The emotion system can be described as a deterministic finite automaton where places are emotion-states and the transition function of the automaton is derived from the input-response reaction of an avatar. Natural language processing techniques were also implemented in order to establish highquality human-computer interface windows for each of the avatars. Aphasic patients are able to interact with avatars via these interfaces. At the end of the chapter we visualize the

  7. Virtual Reality and Cyberspace: From Science Fiction to Science Fact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of virtual reality (VR), or cyberspace, and describes some of the research and development efforts currently being carried out in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States. Applications of VR in interactive computer-aided design (CAD), the military, leisure activities, spaceflight, teleconferencing, and medicine are…

  8. Transforming Clinical Imaging Data for Virtual Reality Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trelease, Robert B.; Rosset, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in anatomical informatics, three-dimensional (3D) modeling, and virtual reality (VR) methods have made computer-based structural visualization a practical tool for education. In this article, the authors describe streamlined methods for producing VR "learning objects," standardized interactive software modules for anatomical sciences…

  9. 2010 and Beyond: Virtual Reality and the Communication Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddens, Paul J., III

    The use of virtual reality technology in the Communication discipline is a challenge that educators in the field should investigate thoroughly and begin to embrace as they move into the 21st century. Classrooms with access to the Internet allow students to move outside the physical boundaries of the classroom and suggest a significant change in…

  10. Virtual Reality Augmentation for Functional Assessment and Treatment of Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Shelley B.

    2007-01-01

    Stuttering characteristics, assessment, and treatment principles present challenges to assessment and treatment that can be addressed with virtual reality (VR) technology. This article describes how VR can be used to assist clinicians in meeting some of these challenges with adults who stutter. A review of current VR research at the Stuttering…

  11. Virtual Reality for Life Skills Education: Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Jennifer; Bowers, Clint; Meehan, Cricket; Hoeft, Raegan; Bradley, Kristy

    2004-01-01

    A program evaluation was completed for a Virtual Reality (VR) pilot project intended to aid deaf children in learning various life skills which they may be at risk of not adequately learning. Such skills include crossing the street safely, exiting a building during a fire drill, and avoiding situations in which strangers may harm them. The VR was…

  12. PC-Based Virtual Reality for CAD Model Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seth, Abhishek; Smith, Shana S.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR), as an emerging visualization technology, has introduced an unprecedented communication method for collaborative design. VR refers to an immersive, interactive, multisensory, viewer-centered, 3D computer-generated environment and the combination of technologies required to build such an environment. This article introduces the…

  13. Virtual Reality in the Teaching of the Technical Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Luis Alberto; Lemos, David; Carlos de Souza, Antonio; Speck, Henderson Jose

    This paper proposes the use of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) language for teaching technical drawing projections. Three dimensional models and exercises are left to students over the Internet substituting the old wood models in the classroom. An introduction to the VRML language is presented. A detailed description on how models are…

  14. Virtual Reality in Psychological, Medical and Pedagogical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichenberg, Christiane, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book has an aim to present latest applications, trends and developments of virtual reality technologies in three humanities disciplines: in medicine, psychology and pedagogy. Studies show that people in both educational as well as in the medical therapeutic range expect more and more that modern media are included in the corresponding demand…

  15. Immersive Training Systems: Virtual Reality and Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psotka, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Describes virtual reality (VR) technology and VR research on education and training. Focuses on immersion as the key added value of VR, analyzes cognitive variables connected to immersion, how it is generated in synthetic environments and its benefits. Discusses value of tracked, immersive visual displays over nonimmersive simulations. Contains 78…

  16. Virtual Reality Hypermedia Design Frameworks for Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William; Oh, Byron; Check, Rosa

    This paper reports on a study that conceptualizes a research framework to aid software design and development for virtual reality (VR) computer applications for instruction in the sciences. The framework provides methodologies for the processing, collection, examination, classification, and presentation of multimedia information within hyperlinked…

  17. Using Virtual Reality To Bring Your Instruction to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddis, Tony

    Prepared by the manager of a virtual reality (VR) laboratory at North Carolina's Haywood Community College, the three papers collected in this document are designed to help instructors incorporate VR into their classes. The first paper reviews the characteristics of VR, defining it as a computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional…

  18. Feasibility of Virtual Reality Environments for Adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.; Duron, Jacuelynn F.; Swank, Paul; Bordnick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) exposure as an assessment and treatment modality for youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-one adolescents, 20 of which were identified as having SAD, were recruited from a community sample. Youth with and without SAD were exposed to two social virtual…

  19. The Future of Virtual Reality in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    As state boards of education and other state policymakers consider the future of schools, sorting fad technology from technology that accelerates learning is key. Virtual reality (VR) is one such technology with promise that seems unlikely to fizzle. Hailed as potentially transformative for education and still in the early stages of application,…

  20. Exploration through Virtual Reality: Encounters with the Target Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham; Levy, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the use of a virtual reality (VR) world in a German language classroom. After participating in a lesson on the use of commands, students experienced the language and culture through navigation in a VR world. It is argued that this new medium allows for students to be immersed in the target culture and…

  1. Teaching Marketing through a Micro-Economy in Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    Teaching retailing principles to students is a challenge because although real-world wholesale and retail decision making very heavily depends on dynamic conditions, classroom exercises are limited to abstract discussions and role-playing. This article describes two interlocking class projects taught using the virtual reality of secondlife.com,…

  2. New Desktop Virtual Reality Technology in Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ausburn, Floyd B.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) that immerses users in a 3D environment through use of headwear, body suits, and data gloves has demonstrated effectiveness in technical and professional education. Immersive VR is highly engaging and appealing to technically skilled young Net Generation learners. However, technical difficulty and very high costs have kept…

  3. Improving Weight Maintenance Using Virtual Reality (Second Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra K.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Lee, Jaehoon; Gerald, Stephanie; Fincham, Tennille; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Compare weight loss and maintenance between a face-to-face (FTF) weight management clinic and a clinic delivered via virtual reality (VR). Methods: Participants were randomized to 3 months of weight loss with a weekly clinic delivered via FTF or VR and then 6 months' weight maintenance delivered with VR. Data were collected at baseline…

  4. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  5. A Constructivist Approach to Virtual Reality for Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, P.; D'Elia, F.; Di Tore, S.; Sibilio, M.

    2012-01-01

    Consideration of a possible use of virtual reality technologies in school contexts requires gathering together the suggestions of many scientific domains aimed at "understanding" the features of these same tools that let them offer valid support to the teaching-learning processes in educational settings. Specifically, the present study is aimed at…

  6. Virtual reality and haptic interface for cellular injection simulation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P Pat; Rizzi, Silvio; Luciano, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the application of virtual reality and haptics to the simulation of cellular micromanipulation for research, training and automation purposes. A collocated graphic/haptic working volume provides a realistic visual and force feedback to guide the user in performing a cell injection procedure. A preliminary experiment shows promising results.

  7. Virtual Reality: An Experiential Tool for Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Several Virtual Reality (VR) applications for the understanding, assessment and treatment of mental health problems have been developed in the last 15 years. Typically, in VR the patient learns to manipulate problematic situations related to his/her problem. In fact, VR can be described as an advanced form of human-computer interface that is able…

  8. State of Virtual Reality Based Disaster Preparedness and Response Training

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Edbert B.; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D.; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform. PMID:23653102

  9. State of virtual reality based disaster preparedness and response training.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Edbert B; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen

    2013-04-24

    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform.

  10. Integrating virtual reality video games into practice: clinicians' experiences.

    PubMed

    Levac, Danielle E; Miller, Patricia A

    2013-10-01

    The Nintendo Wii is a popular virtual reality (VR) video gaming system in rehabilitation practice and research. As evidence emerges related to its effectiveness as a physical therapy training method, clinicians require information about the pragmatics of its use in practice. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study is to explore observations and insights from a sample of physical therapists (PTs) working with children with acquired brain injury regarding practical implications of using the Wii as a physical therapy intervention. Six PTs employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Two themes summarize the practical implications of Wii use: 1) technology meets clinical practice; and 2) onus is on the therapist. Therapists described both beneficial and challenging implications arising from the intersection of technology and practice, and reported the personal commitment required to orient oneself to the gaming system and capably implement this intervention. Findings include issues that may be relevant to professional development in a broader rehabilitation context, including suggestions for the content of educational initiatives and the need for institutional support from managers in the form of physical resources for VR implementation.

  11. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures.

  12. Learning Science in a Virtual Reality Application: The Impacts of Animated-Virtual Actors' Visual Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartiko, Iwan; Kavakli, Manolya; Cheng, Ken

    2010-01-01

    As the technology in computer graphics advances, Animated-Virtual Actors (AVAs) in Virtual Reality (VR) applications become increasingly rich and complex. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) suggests that complex visual materials could hinder novice learners from attending to the lesson properly. On the other hand, previous studies have…

  13. Learning and Teaching in Virtual Worlds: Implications of Virtual Reality for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Surveys the research into virtual reality (VR) and focuses on the implications of immersive virtual worlds for learning and teaching. Topics include how VR differs from other forms of interactive multimedia, VR and the development of educational theory and methodology, and case studies in educational VR research. (Author/LRW)

  14. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  15. Applications of virtual reality to nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents several applications of virtual reality relevant to the areas of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation. Each of these applications was developed to the prototype stage at Sandia National Laboratories` Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation laboratory. These applications include the use of virtual reality for facility visualization, training of inspection personnel, and security and monitoring of nuclear facilities.

  16. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  17. The Potential of Using Virtual Reality Technology in Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, virtual reality technology has been successfully used for learning purposes. The purposes of the article are to examine current research on the role of virtual reality in physical activity settings and discuss potential application of using virtual reality technology to enhance learning in physical education. The article starts…

  18. Education about Hallucinations Using an Internet Virtual Reality System: A Qualitative Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellowlees, Peter M.; Cook, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluate an Internet virtual reality technology as an education tool about the hallucinations of psychosis. Method: This is a pilot project using Second Life, an Internet-based virtual reality system, in which a virtual reality environment was constructed to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations of two patients…

  19. Using Virtual Reality For Outreach Purposes in Planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civet, François; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Le Menn, Erwan; Beaunay, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    2016 has been a year marked by a technological breakthrough : the availability for the first time to the general public of technologically mature virtual reality devices. Virtual Reality consists in visually immerging a user in a 3D environment reproduced either from real and/or imaginary data, with the possibility to move and eventually interact with the different elements. In planetology, most of the places will remain inaccessible to the public for a while, but a fleet of dedicated spacecraft's such as orbiters, landers and rovers allow the possibility to virtually reconstruct the environments, using image processing, cartography and photogrammetry. Virtual reality can then bridge the gap to virtually "send" any user into the place and enjoy the exploration.We are investigating several type of devices to render orbital or ground based data of planetological interest, mostly from Mars. The most simple system consists of a "cardboard" headset, on which the user can simply use his cellphone as the screen. A more comfortable experience is obtained with more complex systems such as the HTC vive or Oculus Rift headsets, which include a tracking system important to minimize motion sickness. The third environment that we have developed is based on the CAVE concept, were four 3D video projectors are used to project on three 2x3m walls plus the ground. These systems can be used for scientific data analysis, but also prove to be perfectly suited for outreach and education purposes.

  20. The role of presence in virtual reality exposure therapy

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that virtual reality is a successful tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Virtual reality (VR) researchers posit the construct of presence, defined as the interpretation of an artificial stimulus as if it were real, to be a presumed factor that enables anxiety to be felt during virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE). However, a handful of empirical studies on the relation between presence and anxiety in VRE have yielded mixed findings. The current study tested the following hypotheses about the relation between presence and anxiety in VRE with a clinical sample of fearful flyers: (1) presence is related to in-session anxiety; (2) presence mediates the extent that pre-existing (pre-treatment) anxiety is experienced during exposure with VR; (3) presence is positively related to the amount of phobic elements included within the virtual environment; (4) presence is related to treatment outcome. Results supported presence as a factor that contributes to the experience of anxiety in the virtual environment as well as a relation between presence and the phobic elements, but did not support a relation between presence and treatment outcome. The study suggests that presence may be a necessary but insufficient requirement for successful VRE. PMID:17145164

  1. Water-friendly virtual reality pain control during wound care.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hunter G; Patterson, David R; Magula, Jeff; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Zeltzer, Karen; Dagadakis, Stephen; Sharar, Sam R

    2004-02-01

    Recent research suggests that entering an immersive virtual environment can serve as a powerful nonpharmacologic analgesic for severe burn pain. The present case study describes an attempt to use water-friendly virtual reality (VR) technology with a burn patient undergoing wound care in a hydrotherapy tub. The patient was a 40-year-old male with 19% total body surface area deep flame/flash burns to his legs, neck, back, and buttocks. The virtual reality treatment decreased the patient's sensory and affective pain ratings and decreased the amount of time spent thinking about his pain during wound care. We believe that VR analgesia works by drawing attention away from the wound care, leaving less attention available to process incoming pain signals. The water-friendly VR helmet dramatically increases the number of patients with severe burns that could potentially be treated with VR (see http://www.vrpain.com).

  2. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  3. The use of virtual reality in acrophobia research and treatment.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carlos M; Waters, Allison M; Hine, Trevor J; Wallis, Guy

    2009-06-01

    Acrophobia, or fear of heights, is a widespread and debilitating anxiety disorder affecting perhaps 1 in 20 adults. Virtual reality (VR) technology has been used in the psychological treatment of acrophobia since 1995, and has come to dominate the treatment of numerous anxiety disorders. It is now known that virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) regimens are highly effective for acrophobia treatment. This paper reviews current theoretical understanding of acrophobia as well as the evolution of its common treatments from the traditional exposure therapies to the most recent virtually guided ones. In particular, the review focuses on recent innovations in the use of VR technology and discusses the benefits it may offer for examining the underlying causes of the disorder, allowing for the systematic assessment of interrelated factors such as the visual, vestibular and postural control systems.

  4. Computer Based Training: Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut training has traditionally been conducted at specific sites with specialized facilities. Because of its size and nature the training equipment is generally not portable. Efforts are now under way to develop training tools that can be taken to remote locations, including into orbit. Two of these efforts are the Field Deployable Trainer and Shared Virtual Reality projects. Field Deployable Trainer NASA has used the recent shuttle mission by astronaut Shannon Lucid to the Russian space station, Mir, as an opportunity to develop and test a prototype of an on-orbit computer training system. A laptop computer with a customized user interface, a set of specially prepared CD's, and video tapes were taken to the Mir by Ms. Lucid. Based upon the feedback following the launch of the Lucid flight, our team prepared materials for the next Mir visitor. Astronaut John Blaha will fly on NASA/MIR Long Duration Mission 3, set to launch in mid September. He will take with him a customized hard disk drive and a package of compact disks containing training videos, references and maps. The FDT team continues to explore and develop new and innovative ways to conduct offsite astronaut training using personal computers. Shared Virtual Reality Training NASA's Space Flight Training Division has been investigating the use of virtual reality environments for astronaut training. Recent efforts have focused on activities requiring interaction by two or more people, called shared VR. Dr. Bowen Loftin, from the University of Houston, directs a virtual reality laboratory that conducts much of the NASA sponsored research. I worked on a project involving the development of a virtual environment that can be used to train astronauts and others to operate a science unit called a Biological Technology Facility (BTF). Facilities like this will be used to house and control microgravity experiments on the space station. It is hoped that astronauts and instructors will ultimately be able to share

  5. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle's static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist.

  6. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle’s static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist. PMID:26644652

  7. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle's static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist. PMID:26644652

  8. Astronauts Prepare for Mission With Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronauts John M. Grunsfeld (left), STS-109 payload commander, and Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist, use the virtual reality lab at Johnson Space Center to train for upcoming duties aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. This type of computer interface paired with virtual reality training hardware and software helps to prepare the entire team to perform its duties for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope Servicing mission. The most familiar form of virtual reality technology is some form of headpiece, which fits over your eyes and displays a three dimensional computerized image of another place. Turn your head left and right, and you see what would be to your sides; turn around, and you see what might be sneaking up on you. An important part of the technology is some type of data glove that you use to propel yourself through the virtual world. Currently, the medical community is using the new technologies in four major ways: To see parts of the body more accurately, for study, to make better diagnosis of disease and to plan surgery in more detail; to obtain a more accurate picture of a procedure during surgery; to perform more types of surgery with the most noninvasive, accurate methods possible; and to model interactions among molecules at a molecular level.

  9. INTERACTIVITY INFLUENCES THE MAGNITUDE OF VIRTUAL REALITY ANALGESIA

    PubMed Central

    Wender, Regina; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Hunner, Harley H.; Seibel, Eric J.; Patterson, David R.; Sharar, Sam R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite medication with opioids and other powerful pharmacologic pain medications, most patients rate their pain during severe burn wound care as severe to excruciating. Excessive pain is a widespread medical problem in a wide range of patient populations. Immersive virtual reality (VR) distraction may help reduce pain associated with medical procedures. Recent research manipulating immersiveness has shown that a high tech VR helmet reduces pain more effectively than a low tech VR helmet. The present study explores the effect of interactivity on the analgesic effectiveness of virtual reality. Using a double blind design, in the present study, twenty-one volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and received a thermal pain stimulus during either interactive VR, or during non-interactive VR. Subjects in both groups individually glided through the virtual world, but one group could look around and interact with the environment using the trackball, whereas participants in the other group had no trackball. Afterwards, each participant provided subjective 0–10 ratings of cognitive, sensory and affective components of pain, and the amount of fun during the pain stimulus. Compared to the non-interactive VR group, participants in the interactive VR group showed 75% more reduction in pain unpleasantness (p < .005) and 74% more reduction in worst pain (p < .005). Interactivity increased the analgesic effectiveness of immersive virtual reality. PMID:20390047

  10. INTERACTIVITY INFLUENCES THE MAGNITUDE OF VIRTUAL REALITY ANALGESIA.

    PubMed

    Wender, Regina; Hoffman, Hunter G; Hunner, Harley H; Seibel, Eric J; Patterson, David R; Sharar, Sam R

    2009-01-01

    Despite medication with opioids and other powerful pharmacologic pain medications, most patients rate their pain during severe burn wound care as severe to excruciating. Excessive pain is a widespread medical problem in a wide range of patient populations. Immersive virtual reality (VR) distraction may help reduce pain associated with medical procedures. Recent research manipulating immersiveness has shown that a high tech VR helmet reduces pain more effectively than a low tech VR helmet. The present study explores the effect of interactivity on the analgesic effectiveness of virtual reality. Using a double blind design, in the present study, twenty-one volunteers were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and received a thermal pain stimulus during either interactive VR, or during non-interactive VR. Subjects in both groups individually glided through the virtual world, but one group could look around and interact with the environment using the trackball, whereas participants in the other group had no trackball. Afterwards, each participant provided subjective 0-10 ratings of cognitive, sensory and affective components of pain, and the amount of fun during the pain stimulus. Compared to the non-interactive VR group, participants in the interactive VR group showed 75% more reduction in pain unpleasantness (p < .005) and 74% more reduction in worst pain (p < .005). Interactivity increased the analgesic effectiveness of immersive virtual reality.

  11. Designing 3 Dimensional Virtual Reality Using Panoramic Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Abd Arif, Wan Norazlinawati; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Abdullah, Azrai; Sivapalan, Subarna

    The high demand to improve the quality of the presentation in the knowledge sharing field is to compete with rapidly growing technology. The needs for development of technology based learning and training lead to an idea to develop an Oil and Gas Plant Virtual Environment (OGPVE) for the benefit of our future. Panoramic Virtual Reality learning based environment is essential in order to help educators overcome the limitations in traditional technical writing lesson. Virtual reality will help users to understand better by providing the simulations of real-world and hard to reach environment with high degree of realistic experience and interactivity. Thus, in order to create a courseware which will achieve the objective, accurate images of intended scenarios must be acquired. The panorama shows the OGPVE and helps to generate ideas to users on what they have learnt. This paper discusses part of the development in panoramic virtual reality. The important phases for developing successful panoramic image are image acquisition and image stitching or mosaicing. In this paper, the combination of wide field-of-view (FOV) and close up image used in this panoramic development are also discussed.

  12. Factory of Realities: On the Emergence of Virtual Spatiotemporal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapatrin, Romàn R.

    The ubiquitous nature of modern Information Retrieval (IR) and Virtual World give rise to new realities. To what extent are these `realities' real? Which `physics' should be applied to quantitatively describe them? In this chapter, I dwell on few examples. The first is adaptive neural networks, which are not networks and not neural, but still provide service similar to classical artificial neural networks (ANNs) in extended fashion. The second is the emergence of objects looking like Einsteinian space-time, which describe the behavior of an Internet surfer like geodesic motion. The third is the demonstration of nonclassical and even stronger-than-quantum probabilities in IR, their use...

  13. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain.

  14. Virtual reality and telerobotics applications of an Address Recalculation Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Matthew; Pose, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    The technology described in this paper was designed to reduce latency to user interactions in immersive virtual reality environments. It is also ideally suited to telerobotic applications such as interaction with remote robotic manipulators in space or in deep sea operations. in such circumstances the significant latency is observed response to user stimulus which is due to communications delays, and the disturbing jerkiness due to low and unpredictable frame rates on compressed video user feedback or computationally limited virtual worlds, can be masked by our techniques. The user is provided with highly responsive visual feedback independent of communication or computational delays in providing physical video feedback or in rendering virtual world images. Virtual and physical environments can be combined seamlessly using these techniques.

  15. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain. PMID:26334275

  16. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  17. Virtual Reality Simulation of Gynecologic Laparoscopy

    PubMed

    Bernstein

    1996-08-01

    Realistic virtual simulation of gynecologic laparoscopy would permit the surgeon to practice any procedure, with any degree of pathology, at any time and as many times as necessary to achieve proficiency before attempting it in the operating room. Effective computer simulation requires accurate anatomy, realistic three-dimensional computer graphics, the ability to cut and deform tissue in response to instruments, and an appropriate hardware interface. The Visible Human Project from the National Library of Medicine has made available extremely accurate, three-dimensional, digital data that computer animation companies have begun to transform to three-dimensional graphic images. The problem of tissue deformation and movement is approached by a software package called TELEOS. Hardware consisting of two scissor-grip laparoscopic handles mounted on a sensor can interface with any simulation program to simulate a multiplicity of laparoscopic instruments. The next step will be to combine TELEOS with the three-dimensional anatomy data and configure it for gynecologic surgery.

  18. Virtual reality applications in T and D engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, P.T. Jr.; Scott, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    Visualization Technology (VT)--the author`s more meaningful definition of Virtual Reality is a commercial reality. Visualization technology can provide a realistic model of the real world, place a user within the synthetic space and allow him or her to interact within that space through head mounted displays, CRTs, data gloves, and 3D mice. Existing commercial applications of VT include the emulation of power plant control room panels, 3D models of commercial and industrial buildings and virtual models of transportation systems to train the handicapped. The authors believe that VT can greatly reduce the costs and increase the productivity of training T and D personnel, especially for hazardous assignments such as live-line maintenance. VT can also reduce the costs of design, construction and maintenance of major facilities such as power plants, substations, vaults, transmission lines and underground facilities.

  19. Treatment of complicated grief using virtual reality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Botella, C; Osma, J; Palacios, A García; Guillén, V; Baños, R

    2008-01-01

    This is the first work exploring the application of new technologies, concretely virtual reality, to facilitate emotional processing in the treatment of Complicated Grief. Our research team has designed a virtual reality environment (EMMA's World) to foster the expression and processing of emotions. In this study the authors present a description of EMMA's World, the clinical protocol, and a case report. The treatment program was applied in eight sessions. We present a brief description of the session agendas including the techniques used. We offer short-term (from pre-test to post-test) and long-term (2-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups) efficacy data. Our results offer preliminary support of the use of EMMA's World for the treatment of Complicated Grief. PMID:18924294

  20. Application of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality to Urology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected. PMID:27706017

  1. Location and Longing: The Nicotine Craving Experience in Virtual Reality

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Brian L.; Bordnick, Patrick; Traylor, Amy; Day, Susan X.; Paris, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research suggests that cigarette craving is complex, with psychological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral aspects that are inadequately captured by typical craving assessments that focus on level of severity. That is, the experience of craving, for cigarette smokers, remains poorly understood. This study immersed smokers in different virtual reality (VR) scenarios (with and without cigarette cues present), collected detailed craving assessments, and analyzed the data using a multidimensional analytic approach. Non-treatment-seeking, nicotine dependent smokers (N = 22) experienced two different virtual reality scenarios, one with cigarette cues and one without, and rated 24 descriptors related to craving. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) models demonstrate that smokers’ experience of craving is qualitatively, structurally different under VR smoking cue conditions versus neutral conditions. This finding sheds new light on the complexity of craving as well as implications for its measurement. PMID:18243586

  2. Polymer-based actuators for virtual reality devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzmacher, Christian; Hafez, Moustapha; Benali Khoudja, Mohamed; Bernardoni, Paul; Dubowsky, Steven

    2004-07-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is gaining more importance in our society. For many years, VR has been limited to the entertainment applications. Today, practical applications such as training and prototyping find a promising future in VR. Therefore there is an increasing demand for low-cost, lightweight haptic devices in virtual reality (VR) environment. Electroactive polymers seem to be a potential actuation technology that could satisfy these requirements. Dielectric polymers developed the past few years have shown large displacements (more than 300%). This feature makes them quite interesting for integration in haptic devices due to their muscle-like behaviour. Polymer actuators are flexible and lightweight as compared to traditional actuators. Using stacks with several layers of elatomeric film increase the force without limiting the output displacement. The paper discusses some design methods for a linear dielectric polymer actuator for VR devices. Experimental results of the actuator performance is presented.

  3. Collaborative virtual reality environments for computational science and design.

    SciTech Connect

    Papka, M. E.

    1998-02-17

    The authors are developing a networked, multi-user, virtual-reality-based collaborative environment coupled to one or more petaFLOPs computers, enabling the interactive simulation of 10{sup 9} atom systems. The purpose of this work is to explore the requirements for this coupling. Through the design, development, and testing of such systems, they hope to gain knowledge that allows computational scientists to discover and analyze their results more quickly and in a more intuitive manner.

  4. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality. PMID:24650979

  5. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.

  6. Role of computer vision in augmented virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rajeev; Molineros, Jose

    1995-03-01

    An important issue in augmented virtual reality is making the virtual world sensitive to the current state of the surrounding real world as the user interacts with it--changing gaze, manipulating an object, etc. For providing the right virtual stimulus at the right position and time, the system needs some sensor to interpret the surrounding scene. Computer vision holds great potential in providing the necessary interpretation of the scene. We present the preliminary design of a computer vision-based augmented reality system for helping a human in assembling an industrial part from its components. The context of assembly helps in keeping the computer vision task simple by exploiting the geometric model of the assembly components for recognition and pose estimation. The augmentation stimuli include labeling of objects in the scene, helping with sequencing using an assembly planner, visualization of assembly at different stages, handling errors by the human operator, etc. Such a system would have potential applications in assembling complex parts, maintenance, and education. We will present an overview of the design of the system and discuss some of the issues involved in computer vision-based augmented reality.

  7. Virtual reality training for health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Fabrizia; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2003-08-01

    Emerging changes in health-care delivery are having a significant impact on the structure of health-care professionals' education. Today it is recognized that medical knowledge doubles every 6-8 years, with new medical procedures emerging everyday. While the half-life of medical information is so short, the average physician practices 30 years and the average nurse 40 years. Continuing education thus represents an important challenge to face. Recent advances in educational technology are offering an increasing number of innovative learning tools. Among these, Virtual Reality represents a promising area with high potential of enhancing the training of health-care professionals. Virtual Reality Training can provide a rich, interactive, engaging educational context, thus supporting experiential learning-by-doing; it can, in fact, contribute to raise interest and motivation in trainees and to effectively support skills acquisition and transfer, since the learning process can be settled within an experiential framework. Current virtual training applications for health-care differ a lot as to both their technological/multimedia sophistication and to the types of skills trained, varying for example from telesurgical applications to interactive simulations of human body and brain, to virtual worlds for emergency training. Other interesting applications include the development of immersive 3D environments for training psychiatrists and psychologists in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper has the main aim of discussing the rationale and main benefits for the use of virtual reality in health-care education and training. Significant research and projects carried out in this field will also be presented, followed by discussion on key issues concerning current limitations and future development directions. PMID:14511451

  8. Virtual reality training for health-care professionals.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Fabrizia; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2003-08-01

    Emerging changes in health-care delivery are having a significant impact on the structure of health-care professionals' education. Today it is recognized that medical knowledge doubles every 6-8 years, with new medical procedures emerging everyday. While the half-life of medical information is so short, the average physician practices 30 years and the average nurse 40 years. Continuing education thus represents an important challenge to face. Recent advances in educational technology are offering an increasing number of innovative learning tools. Among these, Virtual Reality represents a promising area with high potential of enhancing the training of health-care professionals. Virtual Reality Training can provide a rich, interactive, engaging educational context, thus supporting experiential learning-by-doing; it can, in fact, contribute to raise interest and motivation in trainees and to effectively support skills acquisition and transfer, since the learning process can be settled within an experiential framework. Current virtual training applications for health-care differ a lot as to both their technological/multimedia sophistication and to the types of skills trained, varying for example from telesurgical applications to interactive simulations of human body and brain, to virtual worlds for emergency training. Other interesting applications include the development of immersive 3D environments for training psychiatrists and psychologists in the treatment of mental disorders. This paper has the main aim of discussing the rationale and main benefits for the use of virtual reality in health-care education and training. Significant research and projects carried out in this field will also be presented, followed by discussion on key issues concerning current limitations and future development directions.

  9. Applied virtual reality at the Research Triangle Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a way for humans to use computers in visualizing, manipulating and interacting with large geometric data bases. This paper describes a VR infrastructure and its application to marketing, modeling, architectural walk through, and training problems. VR integration techniques used in these applications are based on a uniform approach which promotes portability and reusability of developed modules. For each problem, a 3D object data base is created using data captured by hand or electronically. The object's realism is enhanced through either procedural or photo textures. The virtual environment is created and populated with the data base using software tools which also support interactions with and immersivity in the environment. These capabilities are augmented by other sensory channels such as voice recognition, 3D sound, and tracking. Four applications are presented: a virtual furniture showroom, virtual reality models of the North Carolina Global TransPark, a walk through the Dresden Fraunenkirche, and the maintenance training simulator for the National Guard.

  10. Three-dimensional virtual reality surgical planning and simulation workbench for orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Samman, N; Yeung, R W; Shen, S G; Wang, D; Ip, H H; Tideman, H

    2000-01-01

    A new integrated computer system, the 3-dimensional (3D) virtual reality surgical planning and simulation workbench for orthognathic surgery (VRSP), is presented. Five major functions are implemented in this system: post-processing and reconstruction of computed tomographic (CT) data, transformation of 3D unique coordinate system geometry, generation of 3D color facial soft tissue models, virtual surgical planning and simulation, and presurgical prediction of soft tissue changes. The basic mensuration functions, such as linear and spatial measurements, are also included. The surgical planning and simulation are based on 3D CT reconstructions, whereas soft tissue prediction is based on an individualized, texture-mapped, color facial soft tissue model. The surgeon "enters" the virtual operatory with virtual reality equipment, "holds" a virtual scalpel, and "operates" on a virtual patient to accomplish actual surgical planning, simulation of the surgical procedure, and prediction of soft tissue changes before surgery. As a final result, a quantitative osteotomy-simulated bone model and predicted color facial model with photorealistic quality can be visualized from any arbitrary viewing point in a personal computer system. This system can be installed in any hospital for daily use.

  11. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research. PMID:26164106

  12. Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Glyn; Salanitri, Davide; Waterfield, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can reduce time and costs, and lead to increases in quality, in the development of a product. Given the pressure on car companies to reduce time-to-market and to continually improve quality, the automotive industry has championed the use of VR across a number of applications, including design, manufacturing, and training. This paper describes interviews with 11 engineers and employees of allied disciplines from an automotive manufacturer about their current physical and virtual properties and processes. The results guided a review of research findings and scientific advances from the academic literature, which formed the basis of recommendations for future developments of VR technologies and applications. These include: develop a greater range of virtual contexts; use multi-sensory simulation; address perceived differences between virtual and real cars; improve motion capture capabilities; implement networked 3D technology; and use VR for market research.

  13. Virtual Reality: The Future of Animated Virtual Instructor, the Technology and Its Emergence to a Productive E-Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiman, Juhanita

    This paper discusses the use of Virtual Reality (VR) in e-learning environments where an intelligent three-dimensional (3D) virtual person plays the role of an instructor. With the existence of this virtual instructor, it is hoped that the teaching and learning in the e-environment will be more effective and productive. This virtual 3D animated…

  14. Virtual Reality for the Psychophysiological Assessment of Phobic Fear: Responses during Virtual Tunnel Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlberger, Andreas; Bulthoff, Heinrich H.; Wiedemann, Georg; Pauli, Paul

    2007-01-01

    An overall assessment of phobic fear requires not only a verbal self-report of fear but also an assessment of behavioral and physiological responses. Virtual reality can be used to simulate realistic (phobic) situations and therefore should be useful for inducing emotions in a controlled, standardized way. Verbal and physiological fear reactions…

  15. Design Virtual Reality Scene Roam for Tour Animations Base on VRML and Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zaihui; hu, Zhongyan

    Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. Implementing a virtual tour through a model of a tourist area on the web has become fashionable. In this paper, we present a web-based application that allows a user to, walk through, see, and interact with a fully three-dimensional model of the tourist area. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation areaddressed and we suggest a combination of the metro map and an intuitive navigation system. Finally we present a prototype which implements our ideas. The application of VR techniques integrates the visualization and animation of the three dimensional modelling to landscape analysis. The use of the VRML format produces the possibility to obtain some views of the 3D model and to explore it in real time. It is an important goal for the spatial information sciences.

  16. Building virtual reality fMRI paradigms: a framework for presenting immersive virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Charles; Luehrs, Michael; Baecke, Sebastian; Adolf, Daniela; Luetzkendorf, Ralf; Luchtmann, Michael; Bernarding, Johannes

    2012-08-15

    The advantage of using a virtual reality (VR) paradigm in fMRI is the possibility to interact with highly realistic environments. This extends the functions of standard fMRI paradigms, where the volunteer usually has a passive role, for example, watching a simple movie paradigm without any stimulus interactions. From that point of view the combined usage of VR and real-time fMRI offers great potential to identify underlying cognitive mechanisms such as spatial navigation, attention, semantic and episodic memory, as well as neurofeedback paradigms. However, the design and the implementation of a VR stimulus paradigm as well as the integration into an existing MR scanner framework are very complex processes. To support the modeling and usage of VR stimuli we developed and implemented a VR stimulus application based on C++. This software allows the fast and easy presentation of VR environments for fMRI studies without any additional expert knowledge. Furthermore, it provides for the reception of real-time data analysis values a bidirectional communication interface. In addition, the internal plugin interface enables users to extend the functionality of the software with custom programmed C++ plugins. The VR stimulus framework was tested in several performance tests and a spatial navigation study. According to the post-experimental interview, all subjects described immersive experiences and a high attentional load inside the artifical environment. Results from other VR spatial memory studies confirm the neuronal activation that was detected in parahippocampal areas, cuneus, and occipital regions.

  17. Surgical virtual reality - highlights in developing a high performance surgical haptic device.

    PubMed

    Custură-Crăciun, D; Cochior, D; Constantinoiu, S; Neagu, C

    2013-01-01

    Just like simulators are a standard in aviation and aerospace sciences, we expect for surgical simulators to soon become a standard in medical applications. These will correctly instruct future doctors in surgical techniques without there being a need for hands on patient instruction. Using virtual reality by digitally transposing surgical procedures changes surgery in are volutionary manner by offering possibilities for implementing new, much more efficient, learning methods, by allowing the practice of new surgical techniques and by improving surgeon abilities and skills. Perfecting haptic devices has opened the door to a series of opportunities in the fields of research,industry, nuclear science and medicine. Concepts purely theoretical at first, such as telerobotics, telepresence or telerepresentation,have become a practical reality as calculus techniques, telecommunications and haptic devices evolved,virtual reality taking a new leap. In the field of surgery barrier sand controversies still remain, regarding implementation and generalization of surgical virtual simulators. These obstacles remain connected to the high costs of this yet fully sufficiently developed technology, especially in the domain of haptic devices.

  18. Surgical virtual reality - highlights in developing a high performance surgical haptic device.

    PubMed

    Custură-Crăciun, D; Cochior, D; Constantinoiu, S; Neagu, C

    2013-01-01

    Just like simulators are a standard in aviation and aerospace sciences, we expect for surgical simulators to soon become a standard in medical applications. These will correctly instruct future doctors in surgical techniques without there being a need for hands on patient instruction. Using virtual reality by digitally transposing surgical procedures changes surgery in are volutionary manner by offering possibilities for implementing new, much more efficient, learning methods, by allowing the practice of new surgical techniques and by improving surgeon abilities and skills. Perfecting haptic devices has opened the door to a series of opportunities in the fields of research,industry, nuclear science and medicine. Concepts purely theoretical at first, such as telerobotics, telepresence or telerepresentation,have become a practical reality as calculus techniques, telecommunications and haptic devices evolved,virtual reality taking a new leap. In the field of surgery barrier sand controversies still remain, regarding implementation and generalization of surgical virtual simulators. These obstacles remain connected to the high costs of this yet fully sufficiently developed technology, especially in the domain of haptic devices. PMID:24331310

  19. Astronaut Prepares for Mission With Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld, STS-109 payload commander, uses virtual reality hardware at Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties prior to the STS-109 mission. The most familiar form of virtual reality technology is some form of headpiece, which fits over your eyes and displays a three dimensional computerized image of another place. Turn your head left and right, and you see what would be to your sides; turn around, and you see what might be sneaking up on you. An important part of the technology is some type of data glove that you use to propel yourself through the virtual world. This technology allows NASA astronauts to practice International Space Station work missions in advance. Currently, the medical community is using the new technologies in four major ways: To see parts of the body more accurately, for study, to make better diagnosis of disease and to plan surgery in more detail; to obtain a more accurate picture of a procedure during surgery; to perform more types of surgery with the most noninvasive, accurate methods possible; and to model interactions among molecules at a molecular level.

  20. Virtual reality 3D headset based on DMD light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Evans, Allan; Tang, Edward

    2014-06-01

    We present the design of an immersion-type 3D headset suitable for virtual reality applications based upon digital micromirror devices (DMD). Current methods for presenting information for virtual reality are focused on either polarizationbased modulators such as liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices, or miniature LCD or LED displays often using lenses to place the image at infinity. LCoS modulators are an area of active research and development, and reduce the amount of viewing light by 50% due to the use of polarization. Viewable LCD or LED screens may suffer low resolution, cause eye fatigue, and exhibit a "screen door" or pixelation effect due to the low pixel fill factor. Our approach leverages a mature technology based on silicon micro mirrors delivering 720p resolution displays in a small form-factor with high fill factor. Supporting chip sets allow rapid integration of these devices into wearable displays with high-definition resolution and low power consumption, and many of the design methods developed for DMD projector applications can be adapted to display use. Potential applications include night driving with natural depth perception, piloting of UAVs, fusion of multiple sensors for pilots, training, vision diagnostics and consumer gaming. Our design concept is described in which light from the DMD is imaged to infinity and the user's own eye lens forms a real image on the user's retina resulting in a virtual retinal display.

  1. Visual landmarks facilitate rodent spatial navigation in virtual reality environments

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Isaac A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2012-01-01

    Because many different sensory modalities contribute to spatial learning in rodents, it has been difficult to determine whether spatial navigation can be guided solely by visual cues. Rodents moving within physical environments with visual cues engage a variety of nonvisual sensory systems that cannot be easily inhibited without lesioning brain areas. Virtual reality offers a unique approach to ask whether visual landmark cues alone are sufficient to improve performance in a spatial task. We found that mice could learn to navigate between two water reward locations along a virtual bidirectional linear track using a spherical treadmill. Mice exposed to a virtual environment with vivid visual cues rendered on a single monitor increased their performance over a 3-d training regimen. Training significantly increased the percentage of time avatars controlled by the mice spent near reward locations in probe trials without water rewards. Neither improvement during training or spatial learning for reward locations occurred with mice operating a virtual environment without vivid landmarks or with mice deprived of all visual feedback. Mice operating the vivid environment developed stereotyped avatar turning behaviors when alternating between reward zones that were positively correlated with their performance on the probe trial. These results suggest that mice are able to learn to navigate to specific locations using only visual cues presented within a virtual environment rendered on a single computer monitor. PMID:22345484

  2. Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy: Virtual Reality Training and Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Ni, Yuhua; Jin, Xunbo; Xia, Qinghua; Wang, Hanbo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the role that virtual reality training might play in the learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy. Methods: A total of 1326 laparoscopic varicocelectomy cases performed by 16 participants from July 2005 to June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The participants were divided into 2 groups: group A was trained by laparoscopic trainer boxes; group B was trained by a virtual reality training course preoperatively. The operation time curves were drafted, and the learning, improving, and platform stages were divided and statistically confirmed. The operation time and number of cases in the learning and improving stages of both groups were compared. Testicular artery sparing failure and postoperative hydroceles rate were statistically analyzed for the confirmation of the learning curve. Results: The learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy was 15 cases, and with 14 cases more, it came into the platform stage. The number of cases for the learning stages of both groups showed no statistical difference (P = .49), but the operation time of group B for the learning stage was less than that of group A (P < .00001). The number of cases of group B for the improving stage was significantly less than that of group A (P = .005), but the operation time of both groups in the improving stage showed no difference (P = .30). The difference of testicular artery sparing failure rates among these 3 stages was proved significant (P < .0001), the postoperative hydroceles rate showed no statistical difference (P = .60). Conclusions: The virtual reality training shortened the operation time in the learning stage and hastened the trainees' steps in the improving stage, but did not shorten the learning curve as expected to. PMID:25392625

  3. Virtual reality applications in improving postural control and minimizing falls.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sumandeep; McConville, Kristiina M Valter

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining balance under all conditions is an absolute requirement for humans. Orientation in space and balance maintenance requires inputs from the vestibular, the visual, the proprioceptive and the somatosensory systems. All the cues coming from these systems are integrated by the central nervous system (CNS) to employ different strategies for orientation and balance. How the CNS integrates all the inputs and makes cognitive decisions about balance strategies has been an area of interest for biomedical engineers for a long time. More interesting is the fact that in the absence of one or more cues, or when the input from one of the sensors is skewed, the CNS "adapts" to the new environment and gives less weight to the conflicting inputs [1]. The focus of this paper is a review of different strategies and models put forward by researchers to explain the integration of these sensory cues. Also, the paper compares the different approaches used by young and old adults in maintaining balance. Since with age the musculoskeletal, visual and vestibular system deteriorates, the older subjects have to compensate for these impaired sensory cues for postural stability. The paper also discusses the applications of virtual reality in rehabilitation programs not only for balance in the elderly but also in occupational falls. Virtual reality has profound applications in the field of balance rehabilitation and training because of its relatively low cost. Studies will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality training in modifying the head and eye movement strategies, and determine the role of these responses in the maintenance of balance. PMID:17946975

  4. Initial validation of a virtual-reality robotic simulator.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas S; Casale, Pasquale; Sweet, Robert; Peters, Craig

    2008-09-01

    Robotic surgery is an accepted adjunct to minimally invasive surgery, but training is restricted to console time. Virtual-reality (VR) simulation has been shown to be effective for laparoscopic training and so we seek to validate a novel VR robotic simulator. The American Urological Association (AUA) Office of Education approved this study. Subjects enrolled in a robotics training course at the 2007 AUA annual meeting underwent skills training in a da Vinci dry-lab module and a virtual-reality robotics module which included a three-dimensional (3D) VR robotic simulator. Demographic and acceptability data were obtained, and performance metrics from the simulator were compared between experienced and nonexperienced roboticists for a ring transfer task. Fifteen subjects-four with previous robotic surgery experience and 11 without-participated. Nine subjects were still in urology training and nearly half of the group had reported playing video games. Overall performance of the da Vinci system and the simulator were deemed acceptable by a Likert scale (0-6) rating of 5.23 versus 4.69, respectively. Experienced subjects outperformed nonexperienced subjects on the simulator on three metrics: total task time (96 s versus 159 s, P < 0.02), economy of motion (1,301 mm versus 2,095 mm, P < 0.04), and time the telemanipulators spent outside of the center of the platform's workspace (4 s versus 35 s, P < 0.02). This is the first demonstration of face and construct validity of a virtual-reality robotic simulator. Further studies assessing predictive validity are ultimately required to support incorporation of VR robotic simulation into training curricula. PMID:27628251

  5. One's Colonies: a virtual reality environment of oriental residences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    This paper is a statement about my virtual reality environment project, One's Colonies, and a description of the creative process of the project. I was inspired by the buildings in my hometown-Taiwan, which is really different from the architectural style in the United States. By analyzing the unique style of dwellings in Taiwan, I want to demonstrate how the difference between geography, weather and culture change the appearance of the living space. Through this project I want to express the relationship between architectural style and cultural difference, and how the emotional condition or characteristics of the residents are affected by their residencies.

  6. Three-Dimensional User Interfaces for Immersive Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, Andries

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this grant was to experiment with novel user interfaces for immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems, and thus to advance the state of the art of user interface technology for this domain. Our primary test application was a scientific visualization application for viewing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) datasets. This technology has been transferred to NASA via periodic status reports and papers relating to this grant that have been published in conference proceedings. This final report summarizes the research completed over the past year, and extends last year's final report of the first three years of the grant.

  7. Virtual reality applications to automated rendezvous and capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph; Oneil, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a rapidly developing Human/Computer Interface (HCI) technology. The evolution of high-speed graphics processors and development of specialized anthropomorphic user interface devices, that more fully involve the human senses, have enabled VR technology. Recently, the maturity of this technology has reached a level where it can be used as a tool in a variety of applications. This paper provides an overview of: VR technology, VR activities at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), applications of VR to Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C), and identifies areas of VR technology that requires further development.

  8. Research on distributed virtual reality system in electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qiang; Wang, Jiening; Sun, Jizhou

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, Distributed Virtual Reality (DVR) technology applied in Electronical Commerce (EC) is discussed. DVR has the capability of providing a new means for human being to recognize, analyze and resolve the large scale, complex problems, which makes it develop quickly in EC fields. The technology of CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) and middleware is introduced into the development of EC-DVR system to meet the need of a platform which can provide the necessary cooperation and communication services to avoid developing the basic module repeatedly. Finally, the paper gives a platform structure of EC-DVR system.

  9. Virtual reality 3D headset based on DMD light modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Evans, Allan; Tang, Edward

    2014-06-13

    We present the design of an immersion-type 3D headset suitable for virtual reality applications based upon digital micro-mirror devices (DMD). Our approach leverages silicon micro mirrors offering 720p resolution displays in a small form-factor. Supporting chip sets allow rapid integration of these devices into wearable displays with high resolution and low power consumption. Applications include night driving, piloting of UAVs, fusion of multiple sensors for pilots, training, vision diagnostics and consumer gaming. Our design is described in which light from the DMD is imaged to infinity and the user’s own eye lens forms a real image on the user’s retina.

  10. Transforming Experience: The Potential of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for Enhancing Personal and Clinical Change

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies – augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) – exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual’s worldview. PMID:27746747

  11. Chavir: Virtual reality simulation for interventions in nuclear installations

    SciTech Connect

    Thevenon, J. B.; Tirel, O.; Lopez, L.; Chodorge, L.; Desbats, P.

    2006-07-01

    Companies involved in the nuclear industry have to prepare for interventions by precisely analyzing the radiological risks and rapidly evaluating the consequences of their operational choices. They also need to consolidate the experiences gained in the field with greater responsiveness and lower costs. This paper brings out the advantages of using virtual reality technology to meet the demands in the industry. The CHAVIR software allows the operators to prepare (and repeat) all the operations they would have to do in a safe virtual world, before performing the actual work inside the facilities. Since the decommissioning or maintenance work is carried out in an environment where there is radiation, the amount of radiation that the operator would be exposed to is calculated and integrated into the simulator. (authors)

  12. Virtual reality robotic telesurgery simulations using MEMICA haptic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Bouzit, Mourad; Dolgin, Benjamin; Harm, Deborah L.; Kopchok, George E.; White, Rodney

    2001-01-01

    The authors conceived a haptic mechanism called MEMICA (Remote Mechanical Mirroring using Controlled stiffness and Actuators) that can enable the design of high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace haptic system. The development of a novel MEMICA gloves and virtual reality models are being explored to allow simulation of telesurgery and other applications. The MEMICA gloves are being designed to provide intuitive mirroring of the conditions at a virtual site where a robot simulates the presence of a human operator. The key components of MEMICA are miniature electrically controlled stiffness (ECS) elements and electrically controlled force and stiffness (ECFS) actuators that are based on the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERF. In this paper the design of the MEMICA system and initial experimental results are presented.

  13. Virtual Reality of Sound Generated from Vibrating Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, S. J.; SONG, J. Y.

    2002-11-01

    The advancement of virtual reality (VR) technology in cyberspace is amazing, but its development is mainly concentrated on the visual part. In this paper, the development of VR technology to produce sound based on the exact physics is studied. Our main concern is on the sound generated from vibrating structures. This may be useful, for example, in apprehending sound field characteristics of an aircraft cabin in design stage. To calculate sound pressure from curved surface of a structure, a new integration scheme is developed in boundary element method. Several example problems are solved to confirm our integration scheme. The pressure distributions on a uniformly driven sphere and cylinders are computed and compared with analytic solutions, and radiation efficiency of a vibrating plate under one-dimensional flow is also calculated. Also, to realize sound through computer simulation, two concepts, "structure-oriented analysis" and "human-oriented analysis", are proposed. Using these concepts, virtual sound field of an aircraft cabin is created.

  14. Dots and dashes: art, virtual reality, and the telegraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Chang, Ben

    2009-02-01

    Dots and Dashes is a virtual reality artwork that explores online romance over the telegraph, based on Ella Cheever Thayer's novel Wired Love - a Romance in Dots and Dashes (an Old Story Told in a New Way)1. The uncanny similarities between this story and the world of today's virtual environments provides the springboard for an exploration of a wealth of anxieties and dreams, including the construction of identities in an electronically mediated environment, the shifting boundaries between the natural and machine worlds, and the spiritual dimensions of science and technology. In this paper we examine the parallels between the telegraph networks and our current conceptions of cyberspace, as well as unique social and cultural impacts specific to the telegraph. These include the new opportunities and roles available to women in the telegraph industry and the connection between the telegraph and the Spiritualist movement. We discuss the development of the artwork, its structure and aesthetics, and the technical development of the work.

  15. DJ Sim: a virtual reality DJ simulation game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ka Yin; Loke, Mei Hwan; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Chong, Jyh Herng; Manders, Corey; Khan, Ishtiaq Rasool; Yuan, Miaolong; Farbiz, Farzam

    2009-02-01

    This work describes the process of developing a 3D Virtual Reality (VR) DJ simulation game intended to be displayed on a stereoscopic display. Using a DLP projector and shutter glasses, the user of the system plays a game in which he or she is a DJ in a night club. The night club's music is playing, and the DJ is "scratching" in correspondence to this music. Much in the flavor of Guitar Hero or Dance Dance Revolution, a virtual turntable is manipulated to project information about how the user should perform. The user only needs a small set of hand gestures, corresponding to the turntable scratch movements to play the game. As the music plays, a series of moving arrows approaching the DJ's turntable instruct the user as to when and how to perform the scratches.

  16. Auditory cues increase the hippocampal response to unimodal virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Andreano, Joseph; Liang, Kevin; Kong, Lingjun; Hubbard, David; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2009-06-01

    Previous research suggests that the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy should increase as the experience becomes more immersive. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of immersion are not yet well understood. To address this question, neural activity during exposure to two virtual worlds was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two levels of immersion were used: unimodal (video only) and multimodal (video plus audio). The results indicated increased activity in both auditory and visual sensory cortices during multimodal presentation. Additionally, multimodal presentation elicited increased activity in the hippocampus, a region well known to be involved in learning and memory. The implications of this finding for exposure therapy are discussed. PMID:19500000

  17. Virtual Reality as Means to Improve Physical Fitness of Individuals at a Severe Level of Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective and motivating physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with severe IDD when implemented by on-site caregivers. A research group (N…

  18. Development and Evaluation of Senior High School Courses on Emerging Technology: A Case Study of a Course on Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-Tung

    2012-01-01

    In Taiwan, the National Science Council has implemented the High Scope Program (HSP) since 2006. The purpose of this study was to analyze the development and effectiveness of senior high school HSP courses on emerging technology. This study used a course on virtual reality as an example, to investigate the influence of emerging technology courses…

  19. On the usefulness of the concept of presence in virtual reality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre, Daniel R.

    2015-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) leads to realistic experimental situations, while enabling researchers to have deterministic control on these situations, and to precisely measure participants' behavior. However, because more realistic and complex situations can be implemented, important questions arise, concerning the validity and representativeness of the observed behavior, with reference to a real situation. One example is the investigation of a critical (virtually dangerous) situation, in which the participant knows that no actual threat is present in the simulated situation, and might thus exhibit a behavioral response that is far from reality. This poses serious problems, for instance in training situations, in terms of transfer of learning to a real situation. Facing this difficult question, it seems necessary to study the relationships between three factors: immersion (physical realism), presence (psychological realism) and behavior. We propose a conceptual framework, in which presence is a necessary condition for the emergence of a behavior that is representative of what is observed in real conditions. Presence itself depends not only on physical immersive characteristics of the Virtual Reality setup, but also on contextual and psychological factors.

  20. Finite element visualization in the cave virtual reality environment

    SciTech Connect

    Plaskacz, E.J.; Kuhn, M.A.

    1996-03-01

    Through the use of the post-processing software, Virtual Reality visualization (VRviz), and the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), finite element representations can be viewed as they would be in real life. VRviz is a program written in ANSI C to translate the mathematical results generated by finite element analysis programs into a virtual representation. This virtual representation is projected into the CAVE environment and the results are animated. The animation is fully controllable. A user is able to translate the image, rotate about any axis and scale the image at any time. The user is also able to freeze the animation at any time step and control the image update rate. This allows the user to navigate around, or even inside, the image in order to effectively analyze possible failure points and redesign as necessary. Through the use of the CAVE and the real life image that is being produced by VRviz, engineers are able to save considerable time, money, and effort in the design process.

  1. Cue reactivity in virtual reality: the role of context.

    PubMed

    Paris, Megan M; Carter, Brian L; Traylor, Amy C; Bordnick, Patrick S; Day, Susan X; Armsworth, Mary W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    Cigarette smokers in laboratory experiments readily respond to smoking stimuli with increased craving. An alternative to traditional cue-reactivity methods (e.g., exposure to cigarette photos), virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be a viable cue presentation method to elicit and assess cigarette craving within complex virtual environments. However, it remains poorly understood whether contextual cues from the environment contribute to craving increases in addition to specific cues, like cigarettes. This study examined the role of contextual cues in a VR environment to evoke craving. Smokers were exposed to a virtual convenience store devoid of any specific cigarette cues followed by exposure to the same convenience store with specific cigarette cues added. Smokers reported increased craving following exposure to the virtual convenience store without specific cues, and significantly greater craving following the convenience store with cigarette cues added. However, increased craving recorded after the second convenience store may have been due to the pre-exposure to the first convenience store. This study offers evidence that an environmental context where cigarette cues are normally present (but are not), elicits significant craving in the absence of specific cigarette cues. This finding suggests that VR may have stronger ecological validity over traditional cue reactivity exposure methods by exposing smokers to the full range of cigarette-related environmental stimuli, in addition to specific cigarette cues, that smokers typically experience in their daily lives. PMID:21349649

  2. Virtual Reality: Developing a VR space for Academic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaimaris, D.; Stylianidis, E.; Karanikolas, N.

    2014-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is extensively used in various applications; in industry, in academia, in business, and is becoming more and more affordable for end users from the financial point of view. At the same time, in academia and higher education more and more applications are developed, like in medicine, engineering, etc. and students are inquiring to be well-prepared for their professional life after their educational life cycle. Moreover, VR is providing the benefits having the possibility to improve skills but also to understand space as well. This paper presents the methodology used during a course, namely "Geoinformatics applications" at the School of Spatial Planning and Development (Eng.), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, to create a virtual School space. The course design focuses on the methods and techniques to be used in order to develop the virtual environment. In addition the project aspires to become more and more effective for the students and provide a real virtual environment with useful information not only for the students but also for any citizen interested in the academic life at the School.

  3. Hybrid virtual reality and telepresence utilizing mobile phone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, Gordon M.; Clark, J.; Fryer, R.; Hardiman, R.; MacGregor, D.; Retik, A.; Retik, N.; Revie, Kenneth

    1998-12-01

    An overview of the design and application of a unique mobile hybrid telepresence and virtual reality system is first provided. This is followed by a description of each of the integrated sub-systems. These include the telepresence and teleoperation sub-system comprising display, control, and communication elements together with camera platforms and a mobile vehicle, a virtual reality module capable of modeling capable of modeling a 4D civil engineering environment, in this case a construction site, and the image compression and decompression techniques which allow the video from the remote site to be transmitted across a very low bandwidth mobile phone network. The mobile telepresence system can be located on a real world construction site to observe work in progress. This video information can be accessed by a user from any remote location and compared with the VR model of planned progress. The user can then guide the vehicle and camera system to any desired viewpoint. Illustrations of the first trials of the full system, comments on problems experienced, and suggestions for further work are provided.

  4. Validation of a Novel Virtual Reality Simulator for Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Persson, Jan E. U.; Wolswijk, Richard G. H.; Ihse, Ingmar; Schijven, Marlies P.; Verheijen, René H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. With the increase in robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery there is a concomitant rising demand for training methods. The objective was to establish face and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator (dV-Trainer, Mimic Technologies, Seattle, WA) for the use in training of robot-assisted surgery. Methods. A comparative cohort study was performed. Participants (n = 42) were divided into three groups according to their robotic experience. To determine construct validity, participants performed three different exercises twice. Performance parameters were measured. To determine face validity, participants filled in a questionnaire after completion of the exercises. Results. Experts outperformed novices in most of the measured parameters. The most discriminative parameters were “time to complete” and “economy of motion” (P < 0.001). The training capacity of the simulator was rated 4.6 ± 0.5 SD on a 5-point Likert scale. The realism of the simulator in general, visual graphics, movements of instruments, interaction with objects, and the depth perception were all rated as being realistic. The simulator is considered to be a very useful training tool for residents and medical specialist starting with robotic surgery. Conclusions. Face and construct validity for the dV-Trainer could be established. The virtual reality simulator is a useful tool for training robotic surgery. PMID:24600328

  5. Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Robin S.; Baughman, Shawnee L.; Bailenson, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that playing prosocial video games leads to greater subsequent prosocial behavior in the real world. However, immersive virtual reality allows people to occupy avatars that are different from them in a perceptually realistic manner. We examine how occupying an avatar with the superhero ability to fly increases helping behavior. Principal Findings Using a two-by-two design, participants were either given the power of flight (their arm movements were tracked to control their flight akin to Superman’s flying ability) or rode as a passenger in a helicopter, and were assigned one of two tasks, either to help find a missing diabetic child in need of insulin or to tour a virtual city. Participants in the “super-flight” conditions helped the experimenter pick up spilled pens after their virtual experience significantly more than those who were virtual passengers in a helicopter. Conclusion The results indicate that having the “superpower” of flight leads to greater helping behavior in the real world, regardless of how participants used that power. A possible mechanism for this result is that having the power of flight primed concepts and prototypes associated with superheroes (e.g., Superman). This research illustrates the potential of using experiences in virtual reality technology to increase prosocial behavior in the physical world. PMID:23383029

  6. Virtual reality in rhinology-a new dimension of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Klapan, Ivica; Raos, Pero; Galeta, Tomislav; Kubat, Goranka

    2016-07-01

    There is often a need to more precisely identify the extent of pathology and the fine elements of intracranial anatomic features during the diagnostic process and during many operations in the nose, sinus, orbit, and skull base region. In two case reports, we describe the methods used in the diagnostic workup and surgical therapy in the nose and paranasal sinus region. Besides baseline x-ray, multislice computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, operative field imaging was performed via a rapid prototyping model, virtual endoscopy, and 3-D imaging. Different head tissues were visualized in different colors, showing their anatomic interrelations and the extent of pathologic tissue within the operative field. This approach has not yet been used as a standard preoperative or intraoperative procedure in otorhinolaryngology. In this way, we tried to understand the new, visualized "world of anatomic relations within the patient's head" by creating an impression of perception (virtual perception) of the given position of all elements in a particular anatomic region of the head, which does not exist in the real world (virtual world). This approach was aimed at upgrading the diagnostic workup and surgical therapy by ensuring a faster, safer and, above all, simpler operative procedure. In conclusion, any ENT specialist can provide virtual reality support in implementing surgical procedures, with additional control of risks and within the limits of normal tissue, without additional trauma to the surrounding tissue in the anatomic region. At the same time, the virtual reality support provides an impression of the virtual world as the specialist navigates through it and manipulates virtual objects. PMID:27434481

  7. Virtual reality in rhinology-a new dimension of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Klapan, Ivica; Raos, Pero; Galeta, Tomislav; Kubat, Goranka

    2016-07-01

    There is often a need to more precisely identify the extent of pathology and the fine elements of intracranial anatomic features during the diagnostic process and during many operations in the nose, sinus, orbit, and skull base region. In two case reports, we describe the methods used in the diagnostic workup and surgical therapy in the nose and paranasal sinus region. Besides baseline x-ray, multislice computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, operative field imaging was performed via a rapid prototyping model, virtual endoscopy, and 3-D imaging. Different head tissues were visualized in different colors, showing their anatomic interrelations and the extent of pathologic tissue within the operative field. This approach has not yet been used as a standard preoperative or intraoperative procedure in otorhinolaryngology. In this way, we tried to understand the new, visualized "world of anatomic relations within the patient's head" by creating an impression of perception (virtual perception) of the given position of all elements in a particular anatomic region of the head, which does not exist in the real world (virtual world). This approach was aimed at upgrading the diagnostic workup and surgical therapy by ensuring a faster, safer and, above all, simpler operative procedure. In conclusion, any ENT specialist can provide virtual reality support in implementing surgical procedures, with additional control of risks and within the limits of normal tissue, without additional trauma to the surrounding tissue in the anatomic region. At the same time, the virtual reality support provides an impression of the virtual world as the specialist navigates through it and manipulates virtual objects.

  8. Virtual Learning Environments: Three Implementation Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Universities worldwide offer web-based courses distributed by virtual learning environments (VLEs). A common theoretical framework for implementing VLEs is the pedagogical perspective of instructional design. In this paper, three perspectives of implementation from information systems implementation research and organization theory are presented:…

  9. Developing a Novel Measure of Body Satisfaction Using Virtual Reality.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Clare K; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki O; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C Barr

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance (BID), considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR) to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38) and a non-weight and shape concerned control group (n = 40) were randomly exposed to four distinct virtual environments with high or low levels of body salience and social presence (i.e., presence of virtual others). Participants interacted with avatars of thin, normal weight, and overweight body size (BMI of approximately 18, 22, and 27 respectively) in virtual social settings (i.e., beach, party). We measured state-level body satisfaction (state BD) immediately after exposure to each environment. In addition, we measured participants' minimum interpersonal distance, visual attention, and approach preference toward avatars of each size. Women with higher baseline BID reported significantly higher state BD in all settings compared to controls. Both groups reported significantly higher state BD in a beach with avatars as compared to other environments. In addition, women with elevated BID approached closer to normal weight avatars and looked longer at thin avatars compared to women in the control group. Our findings indicate that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring state-level BID, with applications for measuring treatment outcomes. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:26469860

  10. Developing a Novel Measure of Body Satisfaction Using Virtual Reality.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Clare K; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki O; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C Barr

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance (BID), considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR) to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38) and a non-weight and shape concerned control group (n = 40) were randomly exposed to four distinct virtual environments with high or low levels of body salience and social presence (i.e., presence of virtual others). Participants interacted with avatars of thin, normal weight, and overweight body size (BMI of approximately 18, 22, and 27 respectively) in virtual social settings (i.e., beach, party). We measured state-level body satisfaction (state BD) immediately after exposure to each environment. In addition, we measured participants' minimum interpersonal distance, visual attention, and approach preference toward avatars of each size. Women with higher baseline BID reported significantly higher state BD in all settings compared to controls. Both groups reported significantly higher state BD in a beach with avatars as compared to other environments. In addition, women with elevated BID approached closer to normal weight avatars and looked longer at thin avatars compared to women in the control group. Our findings indicate that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring state-level BID, with applications for measuring treatment outcomes. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are discussed.

  11. Developing a Novel Measure of Body Satisfaction Using Virtual Reality

    PubMed Central

    Purvis, Clare K.; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki O.; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C. Barr

    2015-01-01

    Body image disturbance (BID), considered a key feature in eating disorders, is a pervasive issue among young women. Accurate assessment of BID is critical, but the field is currently limited to self-report assessment methods. In the present study, we build upon existing research, and explore the utility of virtual reality (VR) to elicit and detect changes in BID across various immersive virtual environments. College-aged women with elevated weight and shape concerns (n = 38) and a non-weight and shape concerned control group (n = 40) were randomly exposed to four distinct virtual environments with high or low levels of body salience and social presence (i.e., presence of virtual others). Participants interacted with avatars of thin, normal weight, and overweight body size (BMI of approximately 18, 22, and 27 respectively) in virtual social settings (i.e., beach, party). We measured state-level body satisfaction (state BD) immediately after exposure to each environment. In addition, we measured participants’ minimum interpersonal distance, visual attention, and approach preference toward avatars of each size. Women with higher baseline BID reported significantly higher state BD in all settings compared to controls. Both groups reported significantly higher state BD in a beach with avatars as compared to other environments. In addition, women with elevated BID approached closer to normal weight avatars and looked longer at thin avatars compared to women in the control group. Our findings indicate that VR may serve as a novel tool for measuring state-level BID, with applications for measuring treatment outcomes. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:26469860

  12. Virtual reality in the operating room of the future.

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Grosskopf, S; Hildebrand, A; Malkewitz, R; Ziegler, R

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with the Max-Delbrück-Centrum/Robert-Rössle-Klinik (MDC/RRK) in Berlin, the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics is currently designing and developing a scenario for the operating room of the future. The goal of this project is to integrate new analysis, visualization and interaction tools in order to optimize and refine tumor diagnostics and therapy in combination with laser technology and remote stereoscopic video transfer. Hence, a human 3-D reference model is reconstructed using CT, MR, and anatomical cryosection images from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project. Applying segmentation algorithms and surface-polygonization methods a 3-D representation is obtained. In addition, a "fly-through" the virtual patient is realized using 3-D input devices (data glove, tracking system, 6-DOF mouse). In this way, the surgeon can experience really new perspectives of the human anatomy. Moreover, using a virtual cutting plane any cut of the CT volume can be interactively placed and visualized in realtime. In conclusion, this project delivers visions for the application of effective visualization and VR systems. Commonly known as Virtual Prototyping and applied by the automotive industry long ago, this project shows, that the use of VR techniques can also prototype an operating room. After evaluating design and functionality of the virtual operating room, MDC plans to build real ORs in the near future. The use of VR techniques provides a more natural interface for the surgeon in the OR (e.g., controlling interactions by voice input). Besides preoperative planning future work will focus on supporting the surgeon in performing surgical interventions. An optimal synthesis of real and synthetic data, and the inclusion of visual, aural, and tactile senses in virtual environments can meet these requirements. This Augmented Reality could represent the environment for the surgeons of tomorrow. PMID:10173059

  13. Use of Virtual Reality Tools for Vestibular Disorders Rehabilitation: A Comprehensive Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Lortie, Catherine L; Guitton, Matthieu J

    2015-01-01

    Classical peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation is a long and costly process. While virtual reality settings have been repeatedly suggested to represent possible tools to help the rehabilitation process, no systematic study had been conducted so far. We systematically reviewed the current literature to analyze the published protocols documenting the use of virtual reality settings for peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation. There is an important diversity of settings and protocols involving virtual reality settings for the treatment of this pathology. Evaluation of the symptoms is often not standardized. However, our results unveil a clear effect of virtual reality settings-based rehabilitation of the patients' symptoms, assessed by objectives tools such as the DHI (mean decrease of 27 points), changing symptoms handicap perception from moderate to mild impact on life. Furthermore, we detected a relationship between the duration of the exposure to virtual reality environments and the magnitude of the therapeutic effects, suggesting that virtual reality treatments should last at least 150 minutes of cumulated exposure to ensure positive outcomes. Virtual reality offers a pleasant and safe environment for the patient. Future studies should standardize evaluation tools, document putative side effects further, compare virtual reality to conventional physical therapy, and evaluate economical costs/benefits of such strategies.

  14. Psychology Student Opinion of Virtual Reality as a Tool to Educate about Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichon, Jennifer; Loh, Jennifer; King, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) techniques are increasingly being used in e-health education, training and in trial clinical programs in the treatment of certain types of mental illness. Undergraduate psychology student opinion of the use of Virtual Reality (VR) to teach them about schizophrenia at the University of Queensland, was determined with reference…

  15. Exploring "Magic Cottage": A Virtual Reality Environment for Stimulating Children's Imaginative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patera, Marianne; Draper, Steve; Naef, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study that created a virtual reality environment (VRE) to stimulate motivation and creativity in imaginative writing at primary school level. The main aim of the study was to investigate if an interactive, semi-immersive virtual reality world could increase motivation and stimulate pupils' imagination in the…

  16. Assessing Learning in VR: Towards Developing a Paradigm. Virtual Reality Roving Vehicles (VRRV) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Howard

    Preliminary research on virtual reality (VR) suggests that this technology could be a powerful tool for education based on its immersive and dynamic attributes. The Virtual Reality Roving Vehicles (VRRV) Project at the University of Washington is exploring these possibilities by taking VR equipment into elementary and secondary schools for…

  17. The Impact of Virtual Reality Programs in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterson, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructional technology has evolved from blackboards with chalk to in some cases three-dimensional virtual reality environments in which students are interacting and engaging with other students worldwide. The use of this new instructional methodology, known as "virtual reality," has experienced substantial growth in higher education…

  18. Virtual Reality as Treatment for Fear of Flying: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page; Rothbaum, Barbara O.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure has recently emerged as an important tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of fear of flying. There have been numerous empirical studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure as compared to other treatments including in vivo exposure, progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive therapy,…

  19. Use of Virtual Reality Tools for Vestibular Disorders Rehabilitation: A Comprehensive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Mathieu; Lortie, Catherine L.; Guitton, Matthieu J.

    2015-01-01

    Classical peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation is a long and costly process. While virtual reality settings have been repeatedly suggested to represent possible tools to help the rehabilitation process, no systematic study had been conducted so far. We systematically reviewed the current literature to analyze the published protocols documenting the use of virtual reality settings for peripheral vestibular disorders rehabilitation. There is an important diversity of settings and protocols involving virtual reality settings for the treatment of this pathology. Evaluation of the symptoms is often not standardized. However, our results unveil a clear effect of virtual reality settings-based rehabilitation of the patients' symptoms, assessed by objectives tools such as the DHI (mean decrease of 27 points), changing symptoms handicap perception from moderate to mild impact on life. Furthermore, we detected a relationship between the duration of the exposure to virtual reality environments and the magnitude of the therapeutic effects, suggesting that virtual reality treatments should last at least 150 minutes of cumulated exposure to ensure positive outcomes. Virtual reality offers a pleasant and safe environment for the patient. Future studies should standardize evaluation tools, document putative side effects further, compare virtual reality to conventional physical therapy, and evaluate economical costs/benefits of such strategies. PMID:26556560

  20. Virtual-reality-based educational laboratories in fiber optic engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Dana; Turczynski, Craig; Rice, Jonny; Kozhevnikov, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Researchers and educators have observed great potential in virtual reality (VR) technology as an educational tool due to its ability to engage and spark interest in students, thus providing them with a deeper form of knowledge about a subject. The focus of this project is to develop an interactive VR educational module, Laser Diode Characteristics and Coupling to Fibers, to integrate into a fiber optics laboratory course. The developed module features a virtual laboratory populated with realistic models of optical devices in which students can set up and perform an optical experiment dealing with laser diode characteristics and fiber coupling. The module contains three increasingly complex levels for students to navigate through, with a short built-in quiz after each level to measure the student's understanding of the subject. Seventeen undergraduate students learned fiber coupling concepts using the designed computer simulation in a non-immersive desktop virtual environment (VE) condition. The analysis of students' responses on the updated pre- and post tests show statistically significant improvement of the scores for the post-test as compared to the pre-test. In addition, the students' survey responses suggest that they found the module very useful and engaging. The conducted study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed instructional technology for engineering education, where both the model of instruction and the enabling technology are equally important, in providing a better learning environment to improve students' conceptual understanding as compared to other instructional approaches.

  1. Studying and Treating Schizophrenia Using Virtual Reality: A New Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Understanding schizophrenia requires consideration of patients’ interactions in the social world. Misinterpretation of other peoples’ behavior is a key feature of persecutory ideation. The occurrence and intensity of hallucinations is affected by the social context. Negative symptoms such as anhedonia, asociality, and blunted affect reflect difficulties in social interactions. Withdrawal and avoidance of other people is frequent in schizophrenia, leading to isolation and rumination. The use of virtual reality (VR)—interactive immersive computer environments—allows one of the key variables in understanding psychosis, social environments, to be controlled, providing exciting applications to research and treatment. Seven applications of virtual social environments to schizophrenia are set out: symptom assessment, identification of symptom markers, establishment of predictive factors, tests of putative causal factors, investigation of the differential prediction of symptoms, determination of toxic elements in the environment, and development of treatment. The initial VR studies of persecutory ideation, which illustrate the ascription of personalities and mental states to virtual people, are highlighted. VR, suitably applied, holds great promise in furthering the understanding and treatment of psychosis. PMID:18375568

  2. A virtual reality platform for assessment and rehabilitation of neglect using a kinect.

    PubMed

    Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Pedroli, Elisa; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral Spatial Neglect (USN) is normally assessed with paper-and-pencil tests. Virtual reality can be an effective neuropsychological tool for a more ecological and functional assessment and rehabilitation of neglect. We developed a 3D Virtual Reality platform - NeuroVirtual 3D - for the assessment and rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, in particular for USN. Within the virtual environments it is possible to interact with virtual objects and execute specific exercises using a Microsoft Kinect. Through the analysis of different grasping tasks it is possible to evaluate in an ecological way the patients' ability to find and handle objects in both sides of the virtual space.

  3. Virtual reality treatment in acrophobia: a comparison with exposure in vivo.

    PubMed

    Emmelkamp, P M; Bruynzeel, M; Drost, L; van der Mast, C A

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-budget virtual reality exposure versus exposure in vivo in a within-group design in 10 individuals suffering from acrophobia. Virtual reality exposure was found to be at least as effective as exposure in vivo on anxiety and avoidance as measured with the Acrophobia Questionnaire (AQ), and even more effective on the Attitude towards Heights Questionnaire (AHQ). The present study shows that virtual reality exposure can be effective with relatively cheap hardware and software on stand-alone computers currently on the market. Further studies are recommended, in which virtual reality exposure is compared with in vivo exposure in a between-group design, thus enabling investigation of the long-term effects of virtual reality treatment.

  4. Augmenting breath regulation using a mobile driven virtual reality therapy framework.

    PubMed

    Abushakra, Ahmad; Faezipour, Miad

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework of a virtual reality therapy to assist individuals, especially lung cancer patients or those with breathing disorders to regulate their breath through real-time analysis of respiration movements using a smartphone. Virtual reality technology is an attractive means for medical simulations and treatment, particularly for patients with cancer. The theories, methodologies and approaches, and real-world dynamic contents for all the components of this virtual reality therapy (VRT) via a conceptual framework using the smartphone will be discussed. The architecture and technical aspects of the offshore platform of the virtual environment will also be presented. PMID:24043409

  5. From planes to brains: parallels between military development of virtual reality environments and virtual neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Paul J; Agarwal, Nitin; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Military explorations of the practical role of simulators have served as a driving force for much of the virtual reality technology that we have today. The evolution of 3-dimensional and virtual environments from the early flight simulators used during World War II to the sophisticated training simulators in the modern military followed a path that virtual surgical and neurosurgical devices have already begun to parallel. By understanding the evolution of military simulators as well as comparing and contrasting that evolution with current and future surgical simulators, it may be possible to expedite the development of appropriate devices and establish their validity as effective training tools. As such, this article presents a historical perspective examining the progression of neurosurgical simulators, the establishment of effective and appropriate curricula for using them, and the contributions that the military has made during the ongoing maturation of this exciting treatment and training modality.

  6. A virtual reality catchment for data assimilation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalge, Bernd; Rihani, Jehan; Haese, Barbara; Baroni, Gabriele; Erdal, Daniel; Neuweiler, Insa; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Geppert, Gernot; Ament, Felix; Kollet, Stefan; Cirpka, Olaf; Saavedra, Pablo; Han, Xujun; Attinger, Sabine; Kunstmann, Harald; Vereecken, Harry; Simmer, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Current data assimilation (DA) systems often lack the possibility to assimilate measurements across compartments to accurately estimate states and fluxes in subsurface-land surface-atmosphere systems (SLAS). In order to develop a new DA framework that is able to realize this cross-compartmental assimilation a comprehensive testing environment is needed. Therefore a virtual reality (VR) catchment is constructed with the Terrestrial System Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP). This catchment mimics the Neckar catchment in Germany. TerrSysMP employs the atmospheric model COSMO, the land surface model CLM and the hydrological model ParFlow coupled with the external coupler OASIS. We will show statistical tests to prove the plausibility of the VR. The VR is running in a fully-coupled mode (subsurface - land surface - atmosphere) which includes the interactions of subsurface dynamics with the atmosphere, such as the effects of soil moisture, which can influence near-surface temperatures, convection patterns or the surface heat fluxes. A reference high resolution run serves as the "truth" from which virtual observations are extracted with observation operators like virtual rain gauges, synoptic stations and satellite observations (amongst others). This effectively solves the otherwise often encountered data scarcity issues with respect to DA. Furthermore an ensemble of model runs at a reduced resolution is performed. This ensemble serves also for open loop runs to be compared with data assimilation experiments. The model runs with this ensemble served to identify sets of parameters that are especially sensitive to changes and have the largest impact on the system. These parameters were the focus of subsequent ensemble simulations and DA experiments. We will show to what extend the VR states can be re-constructed using data assimilation methods with only a limited number of virtual observations available.

  7. Virtual Reality Used to Serve the Glenn Engineering Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Dorothy V.

    2001-01-01

    There are a variety of innovative new visualization tools available to scientists and engineers for the display and analysis of their models. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have an ImmersaDesk, a large, single-panel, semi-immersive display device. This versatile unit can interactively display three-dimensional images in visual stereo. Our challenge is to make this virtual reality platform accessible and useful to researchers. An example of a successful application of this computer technology is the display of blade out simulations. NASA Glenn structural dynamicists, Dr. Kelly Carney and Dr. Charles Lawrence, funded by the Ultra Safe Propulsion Project under Base R&T, are researching blade outs, when turbine engines lose a fan blade during operation. Key objectives of this research include minimizing danger to the aircraft via effective blade containment, predicting destructive loads due to the imbalance following a blade loss, and identifying safe, cost-effective designs and materials for future engines.

  8. Reordering virtual reality: recording and recreating real-time experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Sherman, William; Wernert, Eric; Chi, Yichen Catherine

    2012-03-01

    The proliferation of technological devices and artistic strategies has brought about an urgent and justifiable need to capture site-specific time-based virtual reality experiences. Interactive art experiences are specifically dependent on the orchestration of multiple sources including hardware, software, site-specific location, visitor inputs and 3D stereo and sensory interactions. Although a photograph or video may illustrate a particular component of the work, such as an illustration of the artwork or a sample of the sound, these only represent a fraction of the overall experience. This paper seeks to discuss documentation strategies that combine multiple approaches and capture the interactions between art projection, acting, stage design, sight movement, dialogue and audio design.

  9. A virtual reality system for arm and hand rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian; Chen, I.-Ming; Yeo, Song Huat

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality (VR) system for upper limb rehabilitation. The system incorporates two motion track components, the Arm Suit and the Smart Glove which are composed of a range of the optical linear encoders (OLE) and the inertial measurement units (IMU), and two interactive practice applications designed for driving users to perform the required functional and non-functional motor recovery tasks. We describe the technique details about the two motion track components and the rational to design two practice applications. The experiment results show that, compared with the marker-based tracking system, the Arm Suit can accurately track the elbow and wrist positions. The repeatability of the Smart Glove on measuring the five fingers' movement can be satisfied. Given the low cost, high accuracy and easy installation, the system thus promises to be a valuable complement to conventional therapeutic programs offered in rehabilitation clinics and at home.

  10. The use of virtual reality tools in surgical education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Advances in computing, specifically those used for simulation and games technology has allowed for exciting developments in dental and surgical education. At the same time concerns are being raised that students with relatively little training, practise to improve their skill on patients with all of the inherent risks that may occur. Simulation in dentistry has been practised for many years and so the concept is not new to the profession. New tools have been developed that both enhance teaching and learning and are also useful for assessment of students and trainees. The challenge of virtual and simulated reality tools is to have the required fidelity to improve teaching and learning outcomes over the currently utilized methodology.

  11. Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A

    2008-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a promising treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders and has recently been extended to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, the authors briefly review the rationale for VRE and its key processes. They illustrate the treatment with an active-duty Army soldier diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. Six sessions of VRE were provided using an immersive simulation of a military convoy in Iraq. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were reduced at posttreatment relative to pretreatment reports, as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24. The case outcomes parallel those reported in the research with other disorders and suggest the applicability of VRE in treating active duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD. PMID:18612993

  12. Using Virtual Reality to Dynamically Setting an Electrical Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dir, S.; Habert, O.; Pruski, A.

    2008-06-01

    This work uses virtual reality to find or refine in a recurring way the best adequacy between a person with physically disability and his electrical wheelchair. A system architecture based on "Experiment→Analyze and decision-making→Modification of the wheelchair" cycles is proposed. This architecture uses a decision-making module based on a fuzzy inference system which has to be parameterized so that the system converges quickly towards the optimal solution. The first challenge consists in computing criteria which must represent as well as possible particular situations that the user meets during each navigation experiment. The second challenge consists in transforming these criteria into relevant modifications about the active or non active functionalities or into adjustment of intrinsic setting of the wheelchair. These modifications must remain most stable as possible during the successive experiments. Objectives are to find the best wheelchair to give a beginning of mobility to a given person with physically disability.

  13. Virtual reality thread simulation for laparoscopic suturing training.

    PubMed

    Figueras Sola, Pablo J; Rodriguez Bescós, Samuel; Lamata, Pablo; Pagador, J Blas; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2006-01-01

    The level of realism in virtual reality trainers might not be proportional to its didactic value. As an example, three exercises to train suturing skills are proposed in this article. They use a discrete thread model with a simple but good enough behaviour, and constitute a training means for three laparoscopic skills: (1) Accurate grasping, which trains grasping a precise point in the thread. (2) Coordinated Pulling, which trains tightening the thread co-ordinately and in different space orientations; and (3) Knotting, which allow the surgeon to practice this manoeuvre. These three exercises, found interesting among experts in surgical training, are now being validated in MIS workshops at the Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre of Cáceres (Spain).

  14. Towards Robot teaching based on Virtual and Augmented Reality Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennakr, Said; Domingues, Christophe; Benchikh, Laredj; Otmane, Samir; Mallem, Malik

    2009-03-01

    A complex system is a system made up of a great number of entities in local and simultaneous interaction. Its design requires the collaboration of engineers of various complementary specialties, so that it is necessary to invent new design methods. Indeed, currently the industry loses much time between the moment when the product model is designed and when the latter is serially produced on the lines of factories. This production is generally ensured by automated and more often robotized means. A deadline is thus necessary for the development of the automatisms and the robots work on a new product model. In this context we launched a study based on the principle of the mechatronics design in Augmented Reality-Virtual Reality. This new approach will bring solutions to problems encountered in many application scopes, but also to problems involved in the distance which separates the offices from design of vehicles and their production sites. This new approach will minimize the differences of errors between the design model and real prototype.

  15. History Educators and the Challenge of Immersive Pasts: A Critical Review of Virtual Reality "Tools" and History Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper will undertake a critical review of the impact of virtual reality tools on the teaching of history. Virtual reality is useful in several different ways. History educators, elementary and secondary school teachers and professors, can all profit from the digital environment. Challenges arise quickly however. Virtual reality technologies…

  16. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  17. A virtual reality based simulator for learning nasogastric tube placement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xuejian; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Deng, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a common clinical procedure where a plastic tube is inserted into the stomach through the nostril for feeding or drainage. However, the placement is a blind process in which the tube may be mistakenly inserted into other locations, leading to unexpected complications or fatal incidents. The placement techniques are conventionally acquired by practising on unrealistic rubber mannequins or on humans. In this paper, a virtual reality based training simulation system is proposed to facilitate the training of NGT placement. It focuses on the simulation of tube insertion and the rendering of the feedback forces with a haptic device. A hybrid force model is developed to compute the forces analytically or numerically under different conditions, including the situations when the patient is swallowing or when the tube is buckled at the nostril. To ensure real-time interactive simulations, an offline simulation approach is adopted to obtain the relationship between the insertion depth and insertion force using a non-linear finite element method. The offline dataset is then used to generate real-time feedback forces by interpolation. The virtual training process is logged quantitatively with metrics that can be used for assessing objective performance and tracking progress. The system has been evaluated by nursing professionals. They found that the haptic feeling produced by the simulated forces is similar to their experience during real NGT insertion. The proposed system provides a new educational tool to enhance conventional training in NGT placement.

  18. Virtual reality job interview training for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Ginger, Emily J; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Boteler Humm, Laura; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D; Fleming, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    Services are available to help support existing employment for individuals with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n = 25) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. The participants attended 95% of laboratory-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy to use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (p ≤ 0.05) and self-confidence (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and follow-up as compared with the TAU group. VR-JIT performance scores increased over time (R = 0.65). VR-JIT demonstrated initial feasibility and efficacy at improving job interview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings.

  19. Virtual-reality-based system for controlled study of cataplexy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Camp, Jon J.; Krahn, Lois E.; Robb, Richard A.

    2002-05-01

    Cataplexy is a sudden loss of voluntary muscle control experienced by narcolepsy patients. It is usually triggered by strong, spontaneous emotions and is more common in times of stress. The Sleep Disorders Unit and the Biomedical Imaging Resource at Mayo Clinic are developing interactive display technology for reliably inducing cataplexy during clinical monitoring. The project is referred to as the Cataplexy/Narcolepsy Activation Program, or CatNAP. We have developed an automobile driving simulation that introduces humorous, surprising, and stress-inducing events and objects as the patient attempts to navigate a vehicle through a virtual town. The patient wears a head-mounted display and controls the vehicle via a driving simulator steering wheel and pedal cluster. As the patient attempts to drive through the town, various objects, sounds or conditions occur that distract, startle, frustrate or amuse. These responses may trigger a cataplectic episode, which can then be clinically evaluated. We believe CatNAP is a novel and innovative example of the effective application of virtual reality technology to study an important clinical problem that has resisted previous approaches. An evaluation phase with volunteer patients previously diagnosed with cataplexy has been completed. The prototype system is being prepared for a full clinical study.

  20. Virtual reality and brain computer interface in neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Dahdah, Marie; Driver, Simon; Parsons, Thomas D.; Richter, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefit of technology to enhance recovery after central nervous system injuries is an area of increasing interest and exploration. The primary emphasis to date has been motor recovery/augmentation and communication. This paper introduces two original studies to demonstrate how advanced technology may be integrated into subacute rehabilitation. The first study addresses the feasibility of brain computer interface with patients on an inpatient spinal cord injury unit. The second study explores the validity of two virtual environments with acquired brain injury as part of an intensive outpatient neurorehabilitation program. These preliminary studies support the feasibility of advanced technologies in the subacute stage of neurorehabilitation. These modalities were well tolerated by participants and could be incorporated into patients' inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation regimens without schedule disruptions. This paper expands the limited literature base regarding the use of advanced technologies in the early stages of recovery for neurorehabilitation populations and speaks favorably to the potential integration of brain computer interface and virtual reality technologies as part of a multidisciplinary treatment program. PMID:27034541

  1. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training for Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Ginger, Emily J.; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Services are available to help support existing employment for individual with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n=25) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n=12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. Participants attended 95% of lab-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy-to-use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (p<0.05) and self-confidence (p<0.05) between baseline and follow-up as compared to the TAU group. VR-JIT performance scores increased over time (R-Squared=0.65). VR-JIT demonstrated initial feasibility and efficacy at improving job interview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings. PMID:25099298

  2. Virtual reality in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Alessandra; Pallavicini, Federica; Algeri, Davide; Repetto, Claudia; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder characterized by 6 months of "excessive anxiety and worry" about a variety of events and situations. Anxiety and worry are often accompanied by additional symptoms like restlessness, being easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension and disturbed sleep. GAD is usually treated with medications and/or psychotherapy. In particular, the two most promising treatments seem to be cognitive therapy and applied relaxation. In this study we integrated these approaches through the use of a biofeedback enhanced virtual reality (VR) system used both for relaxation and controlled exposure. Moreover, this experience is strengthened by the use of a mobile phone that allows patients to perform the virtual experience even in an outpatient setting. This paper describe the results of a controlled trial (NCT00602212) involving 20 GAD patients randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) the VR and Mobile group (VRMB) including biofeedback; (2) the VR and Mobile group (VRM) without biofeedback; (3) the waiting list (WL) group. The clinical data underlined that (a) VR can be used also in the treatment of GAD; (b) in a VR treatment, patients take advantage of a mobile device that delivers in an outpatient setting guided experiences, similar to the one experienced in VR. PMID:20543266

  3. Virtual reality job interview training for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Ginger, Emily J; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Boteler Humm, Laura; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D; Fleming, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    Services are available to help support existing employment for individuals with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n = 25) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. The participants attended 95% of laboratory-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy to use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (p ≤ 0.05) and self-confidence (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and follow-up as compared with the TAU group. VR-JIT performance scores increased over time (R = 0.65). VR-JIT demonstrated initial feasibility and efficacy at improving job interview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings. PMID:25099298

  4. Virtual reality exposure therapy for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, Barbara O; Rizzo, Albert Skip; Difede, JoAnn

    2010-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, debilitating, psychological condition that occurs in a subset of individuals who experience or witness life-threatening traumatic events. PTSD is highly prevalent in those who served in the military. In this paper, we present the underlying theoretical foundations and existing research on virtual reality exposure therapy, a recently emerging treatment for PTSD. Three virtual reality scenarios used to treat PTSD in active duty military and combat veterans and survivors of terrorism are presented: Virtual Vietnam, Virtual Iraq, and Virtual World Trade Center. Preliminary results of ongoing trials are presented. PMID:20955334

  5. Auditory-visual virtual reality as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cynophobia.

    PubMed

    Suied, Clara; Drettakis, George; Warusfel, Olivier; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally, virtual reality (VR) exposure-based treatment concentrates primarily on the presentation of a high-fidelity visual experience. However, adequately combining the visual and the auditory experience provides a powerful tool to enhance sensory processing and modulate attention. We present the design and usability testing of an auditory-visual interactive environment for investigating VR exposure-based treatment for cynophobia. The specificity of our application involves 3D sound, allowing the presentation and spatial manipulations of a fearful stimulus in the auditory modality and in the visual modality. We conducted an evaluation test with 10 participants who fear dogs to assess the capacity of our auditory-visual virtual environment (VE) to generate fear reactions. The specific perceptual characteristics of the dog model that were implemented in the VE were highly arousing, suggesting that VR is a promising tool to treat cynophobia. PMID:23425570

  6. Spatial orientation and dynamics in virtual reality systems - Lessons from flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Michael E.; Sharkey, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial representations of virtual worlds are becoming more common due to advances in the technology of image generation and display systems. Application areas include flight simulation, mission rehearsal, teleoperator systems, and virtual reality systems. System developers should be forewarned that some proportion of users will experience perceptual anomalies and symptoms of motion sickness as a result of travel through virtual space.

  7. Virtual Reality Training: "Cybersickness" and Effects on Sensorimotor Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to examine the extent to which exposure to virtual reality (VR) systems produces motion sickness and disrupts sensorimotor functions. Two of the major problems in using VRs are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor coordination following virtual environment (VE) training. It is likely that users will eventually adapt to any unpleasant perceptual experiences in a virtual environment. However the most critical problem for training applications is that sensorimotor coordination strategies learned in the VE may not be similar to the responses required in the real environment. This study will evaluate and compare responses to the two types of VR delivery systems (head-mounted display [HMD] and a dome-projection system [DOME]), two exposure duration periods (30 minutes or 60 minutes), and repeated exposures (3 sessions). Specific responses that we will examine include cybersickness severity and symptom patterns, and several sensorimotor functions (eye-hea.d and eye-head-hand coordination, and postural equilibrium). To date, all hardware and software acquisition, development, integration and testing has been completed. A database has been developed and tested for the input, management and storage of all questionnaire data. All data analysis scripts have been developed and tested. Data was collected from 20 subjects in a pilot study that was conducted to determine the amount of training necessary to achieve a stable performance level. Seven subjects are currently enrolled in the study designed to examine the effects of exposure to VE systems on postural control. Data has been collected from two subjects, and it is expected that the results from ten subjects will be presented.

  8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Analgesia during Physical Therapy for Pediatric Burn Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Yuko S.; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Blough, David K.; Patterson, David R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Soltani, Maryam; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Nakamura, Dana; Sharar, Sam R.

    2010-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, within-subjects (crossover design) study examined the effects of immersive virtual reality as an adjunctive analgesic technique for hospitalized pediatric burn inpatients undergoing painful physical therapy. Fifty-four subjects (6–19 years old) performed range-of-motion exercises under a therapist’s direction for one to five days. During each session, subjects spent equivalent time in both the virtual reality and the control conditions (treatment order randomized and counterbalanced). Graphic rating scale scores assessing the sensory, affective, and cognitive components of pain were obtained for each treatment condition. Secondary outcomes assessed subjects’ perception of the virtual reality experience and maximum range-of-motion. Results showed that on study day one, subjects reported significant decreases (27–44%) in pain ratings during virtual reality. They also reported improved affect (“fun”) during virtual reality. The analgesia and affect improvements were maintained with repeated virtual reality use over multiple therapy sessions. Maximum range-of-motion was not different between treatment conditions, but was significantly greater after the second treatment condition (regardless of treatment order). These results suggest that immersive virtual reality is an effective nonpharmacologic, adjunctive pain reduction technique in the pediatric burn population undergoing painful rehabilitation therapy. The magnitude of the analgesic effect is clinically meaningful and is maintained with repeated use. PMID:20692769

  9. Virtual Reality for Pediatric Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Aisha B; O'Connell, Karen J; Willner, Emily; Aronson Schinasi, Dana A; Ottolini, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Team training for procedural sedation for pediatric residents has traditionally consisted of didactic presentations and simulated scenarios using high-fidelity mannequins. We assessed the effectiveness of a virtual reality module in teaching preparation for and management of sedation for procedures. Methods: After developing a virtual reality environment in Second Life® (Linden Lab, San Francisco, CA) where providers perform and recover patients from procedural sedation, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the virtual reality module versus a traditional web-based educational module. A 20 question pre- and post-test was administered to assess knowledge change. All subjects participated in a simulated pediatric procedural sedation scenario that was video recorded for review and assessed using a 32-point checklist. A brief survey elicited feedback on the virtual reality module and the simulation scenario. Results: The median score on the assessment checklist was 75% for the intervention group and 70% for the control group (P = 0.32). For the knowledge tests, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.14). Users had excellent reviews of the virtual reality module and reported that the module added to their education. Conclusions: Pediatric residents performed similarly in simulation and on a knowledge test after a virtual reality module compared with a traditional web-based module on procedural sedation. Although users enjoyed the virtual reality experience, these results question the value virtual reality adds in improving the performance of trainees. Further inquiry is needed into how virtual reality provides true value in simulation-based education. PMID:27014520

  10. ISMCR 1994: Topical Workshop on Virtual Reality. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Measurement and Control in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This symposium on measurement and control in robotics included sessions on: (1) rendering, including tactile perception and applied virtual reality; (2) applications in simulated medical procedures and telerobotics; (3) tracking sensors in a virtual environment; (4) displays for virtual reality applications; (5) sensory feedback including a virtual environment application with partial gravity simulation; and (6) applications in education, entertainment, technical writing, and animation.

  11. Virtual Reality and Computer-Enhanced Training Applied to Wheeled Mobility: An Overview of Work in Pittsburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Rory A.; Ding, Dan; Simpson, Richard; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Spaeth, Donald M.; Guo, Songfeng; Koontz, Alicia M.; Cooper, Rosemarie; Kim, Jongbae; Boninger, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Some aspects of assistive technology can be enhanced by the application of virtual reality. Although virtual simulation offers a range of new possibilities, learning to navigate in a virtual environment is not equivalent to learning to navigate in the real world. Therefore, virtual reality simulation is advocated as a useful preparation for…

  12. New perspectives and limitations in the use of virtual reality in the rehabilitation of motor disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Mauro, Alessandro; Ardanza, Aitor; Monge, Esther; Molina Rueda, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have shown that both virtual and augmented reality are technologies suitable for rehabilitation therapy due to the inherent ability of simulating real daily life activities while improving patient motivation. In this paper we will first present the state of the art in the use of virtual and augmented reality applications for rehabilitation of motor disorders and second we will focus on the analysis of the results of our project. In particular, requirements of patients with cerebrovascular accidents, spinal cord injuries and cerebral palsy to the use of virtual and augmented reality systems will be detailed.

  13. VEVI: A Virtual Reality Tool For Robotic Planetary Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piguet, Laurent; Fong, Terry; Hine, Butler; Hontalas, Phil; Nygren, Erik

    1994-01-01

    The Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI), developed by the NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Mechanisms Group, is a modular operator interface for direct teleoperation and supervisory control of robotic vehicles. Virtual environments enable the efficient display and visualization of complex data. This characteristic allows operators to perceive and control complex systems in a natural fashion, utilizing the highly-evolved human sensory system. VEVI utilizes real-time, interactive, 3D graphics and position / orientation sensors to produce a range of interface modalities from the flat panel (windowed or stereoscopic) screen displays to head mounted/head-tracking stereo displays. The interface provides generic video control capability and has been used to control wheeled, legged, air bearing, and underwater vehicles in a variety of different environments. VEVI was designed and implemented to be modular, distributed and easily operated through long-distance communication links, using a communication paradigm called SYNERGY.

  14. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale--psychometric construction for virtual reality applications with virtual humans.

    PubMed

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Virtual training applications with high levels of immersion or fidelity (for example for social phobia treatment) produce high levels of presence and therefore belong to the most successful Virtual Reality developments. Whereas display and interaction fidelity (as sub-dimensions of immersion) and their influence on presence are well researched, realism of the displayed simulation depends on the specific application and is therefore difficult to measure. We propose to measure simulation realism by using a self-report questionnaire. The German VR Simulation Realism Scale for VR training applications was developed based on a translation of scene realism items from the Witmer-Singer-Presence Questionnaire. Items for realism of virtual humans (for example for social phobia training applications) were supplemented. A sample of N = 151 students rated simulation realism of a Fear of Public Speaking application. Four factors were derived by item- and principle component analysis (Varimax rotation), representing Scene Realism, Audience Behavior, Audience Appearance and Sound Realism. The scale developed can be used as a starting point for future research and measurement of simulation realism for applications including virtual humans.

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center's Virtual Reality Applications Program 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1993-01-01

    A Virtual Reality (VR) applications program has been under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) since 1989. Other NASA Centers, most notably Ames Research Center (ARC), have contributed to the development of the VR enabling technologies and VR systems. This VR technology development has now reached a level of maturity where specific applications of VR as a tool can be considered. The objectives of the MSFC VR Applications Program are to develop, validate, and utilize VR as a Human Factors design and operations analysis tool and to assess and evaluate VR as a tool in other applications (e.g., training, operations development, mission support, teleoperations planning, etc.). The long-term goals of this technology program is to enable specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process and develop more effective training and mission support systems. The capability to perform specialized Human Factors analyses earlier in the hardware and operations development process is required to better refine and validate requirements during the requirements definition phase. This leads to a more efficient design process where perturbations caused by late-occurring requirements changes are minimized. A validated set of VR analytical tools must be developed to enable a more efficient process for the design and development of space systems and operations. Similarly, training and mission support systems must exploit state-of-the-art computer-based technologies to maximize training effectiveness and enhance mission support. The approach of the VR Applications Program is to develop and validate appropriate virtual environments and associated object kinematic and behavior attributes for specific classes of applications. These application-specific environments and associated simulations will be validated, where possible, through empirical comparisons with existing, accepted tools and methodologies. These validated VR analytical

  16. Virtual Reality Robotic Operation Simulations Using MEMICA Haptic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mavroidis, C.; Bouzit, M.; Dolgin, B.; Harm, D. L.; Kopchok, G. E.; White, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that some tasks can be performed significantly better by humans than robots but, due to associated hazards, distance, etc., only a robot can be employed. Telemedicine is one area where remotely controlled robots can have a major impact by providing urgent care at remote sites. In recent years, remotely controlled robotics has been greatly advanced. The robotic astronaut, "Robonaut," at NASA Johnson Space Center is one such example. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of force and tactile feedback capability the operator must determine the required action using only visual feedback from the remote site, which limits the tasks that Robonaut can perform. There is a great need for dexterous, fast, accurate teleoperated robots with the operator?s ability to "feel" the environment at the robot's field. Recently, we conceived a haptic mechanism called MEMICA (Remote MEchanical MIrroring using Controlled stiffness and Actuators) that can enable the design of high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace system. Our team is developing novel MEMICA gloves and virtual reality models to allow the simulation of telesurgery and other applications. The MEMICA gloves are designed to have a high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace and intuitively mirror the conditions at a virtual site where a robot is simulating the presence of the human operator. The key components of MEMICA are miniature electrically controlled stiffness (ECS) elements and Electrically Controlled Force and Stiffness (ECFS) actuators that are based on the sue of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERF). In this paper the design of the MEMICA system and initial experimental results are presented.

  17. The effects of virtual reality game exercise on balance and gait of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Cho; Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ball exercise as a general exercise on the balance abilities of elderly individuals by comparing ball exercise with virtual reality exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly individuals residing in communities were randomly divided into a virtual reality game group and a ball exercise group and conducted exercise for 30 min 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] Step length increased significantly, and the average sway speed and Timed Up and Go time significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway length after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the virtual reality game exercise resulted in a reduction than the ball exercise. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that the virtual reality game exercise may improve balance and gait of elderly individuals in communities.

  18. Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight Central simulator tower L-R: Dr Geoffrey Briggs; Jen Jasper (seated); Dr Jan Akins and Mr. Tony Gross, Ames

  19. The effects of virtual reality game exercise on balance and gait of the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Cho; Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ball exercise as a general exercise on the balance abilities of elderly individuals by comparing ball exercise with virtual reality exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly individuals residing in communities were randomly divided into a virtual reality game group and a ball exercise group and conducted exercise for 30 min 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] Step length increased significantly, and the average sway speed and Timed Up and Go time significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway length after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the virtual reality game exercise resulted in a reduction than the ball exercise. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that the virtual reality game exercise may improve balance and gait of elderly individuals in communities. PMID:25995578

  20. Performance on a virtual reality angled laparoscope task correlates with spatial ability of trainees.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Rachel; Hamel, Christian; Oertli, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Gantert, Walter A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether trainees' performance on a virtual reality angled laparoscope navigation task correlates with scores obtained on a validated conventional test of spatial ability. 56 participants of a surgery workshop performed an angled laparoscope navigation task on the Xitact LS 500 virtual reality Simulator. Performance parameters were correlated with the score of a validated paper-and-pencil test of spatial ability. Performance at the conventional spatial ability test significantly correlated with performance at the virtual reality task for overall task score (p < 0.001), task completion time (p < 0.001) and economy of movement (p = 0.035), not for endoscope travel speed (p = 0.947). In conclusion, trainees' performance in a standardized virtual reality camera navigation task correlates with their innate spatial ability. This VR session holds potential to serve as an assessment tool for trainees.

  1. Assessment method of digital Chinese dance movements based on virtual reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Shao, Shuyuan; Wang, Shumin

    2008-03-01

    Virtual reality has played an increasing role in such areas as medicine, architecture, aviation, engineering science and advertising. However, in the art fields, virtual reality is still in its infancy in the representation of human movements. Based on the techniques of motion capture and reuse of motion capture data in virtual reality environment, this paper presents an assessment method in order to evaluate the quantification of dancers' basic Arm Position movements in Chinese traditional dance. In this paper, the data for quantifying traits of dance motions are defined and measured on dancing which performed by an expert and two beginners, with results indicating that they are beneficial for evaluating dance skills and distinctiveness, and the assessment method of digital Chinese dance movements based on virtual reality technology is validity and feasibility.

  2. Development of a virtual reality assessment of everyday living skills.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Stacy A; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Krishnan, K Ranga R; Fox, Kolleen H; Harvey, Philip D; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-04-23

    Cognitive impairments affect the majority of patients with schizophrenia and these impairments predict poor long term psychosocial outcomes.  Treatment studies aimed at cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia not only require demonstration of improvements on cognitive tests, but also evidence that any cognitive changes lead to clinically meaningful improvements.  Measures of "functional capacity" index the extent to which individuals have the potential to perform skills required for real world functioning.  Current data do not support the recommendation of any single instrument for measurement of functional capacity.  The Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is a novel, interactive gaming based measure of functional capacity that uses a realistic simulated environment to recreate routine activities of daily living. Studies are currently underway to evaluate and establish the VRFCAT's sensitivity, reliability, validity, and practicality. This new measure of functional capacity is practical, relevant, easy to use, and has several features that improve validity and sensitivity of measurement of function in clinical trials of patients with CNS disorders.

  3. Conditioned place preferences in humans using virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Astur, Robert S; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E

    2014-07-01

    To extend a standard paradigm of conditioning in nonhumans to humans, we created a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference task, with real-life food rewards. Undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of 2 visually distinct rooms. On Day 1, participants underwent 6 pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored the VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for 3 sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for 3 sessions. Day 2 was the test day, administered the next day, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5min. In experiment 1, participants were food restricted, and we observed that on the test day, participants display a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food (p<0.001). Additionally, they display a significant explicit preference for the M&M-paired room in a forced-choice of "Which room do you like best?". In experiment 2, when participants were not food restricted, there was no evidence of a place preference, either implicitly (e.g. dwell time) or explicitly. Hence, we show that we can reliably establish a place preference in humans, but that the preference is contingent on the participants' hunger state. Future research will examine the extent to which these preferences can be blocked or extinguished as well as whether these preferences are evident using other reinforcers.

  4. Exploring children's movement characteristics during virtual reality video game play.

    PubMed

    Levac, Danielle; Pierrynowski, Michael R; Canestraro, Melissa; Gurr, Lindsay; Leonard, Laurean; Neeley, Christyann

    2010-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of commercially-available virtual reality video gaming systems within pediatric rehabilitation, yet little is known about the movement characteristics of game play. This study describes quantity and quality of movement during Nintendo Wii and Wii Fit game play, explores differences in these movement characteristics between games and between novice and experienced players, and investigates whether motivation to succeed at the game impacts movement characteristics. Thirty-eight children (aged 7-12) with and without previous game experience played Wii (boxing and tennis) and Wii Fit (ski slalom and soccer heading) games. Force plate data provided center of pressure displacement (quantity) and processed pelvis motion indicated smoothness of pelvic movement (quality). Children rated their motivation to succeed at each game. Movement quantity and quality differed between games (p<.001). Children with previous experience playing Wii Fit games demonstrated greater movement quantity during Wii Fit game play (p<.001); quality of movement did not differ between groups. Motivation to succeed did not influence the relationship between experience and outcomes. Findings enhance clinical understanding of this technology and inform the development of research questions to explore its potential to improve movement skills in children with motor impairments.

  5. EAP application to artificial tactile feel display of virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyo, Masashi; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Takamori, Toshi; Oguro, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    A tactile feel display device for virtual reality was developed using Nafion-Platinum composite type EAP actuator (known as IPMC or ICPF). Conventional tactile displays can hardly express tactile human feeling of the fine touch of the surface of a cloth, because their mechanisms cannot excite minute distributed stimuli on human skin. We propose a new ciliary device using ICPF actuators. The ICPF has sufficient softness, utilizing the passive material property, that complex control is not required. The low drive voltage is safe enough for the touch of fingers. Its simple operation mechanism allows miniaturization for practical equipments. The developed device was designed with a number of cilia consisting of ICPF actuators, where a cilium is 2 mm wide and 5 mm long. An ICPF membrane is cut into pectination, and only the cilium part is plated and has a function of an actuator. An inclined configuration of the cilia produces variety of stimuli to human skin controlling frequencies. We tried to display both pressure and vibration at the same time using modulated low and high frequencies. The result clearly shows that over 80% of the subjects sensed some special tactile feeling. A comparison with real material samples shows that this display can present a subtle distinction of tactile feeling of cloth, especially like a towel and denim.

  6. Progress in virtual reality simulators for surgical training and certification.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Hans; Watson, Marcus O; Salvado, Olivier; Passenger, Joshua D

    2011-02-21

    There is increasing evidence that educating trainee surgeons by simulation is preferable to traditional operating-room training methods with actual patients. Apart from reducing costs and risks to patients, training by simulation can provide some unique benefits, such as greater control over the training procedure and more easily defined metrics for assessing proficiency. Virtual reality (VR) simulators are now playing an increasing role in surgical training. However, currently available VR simulators lack the fidelity to teach trainees past the novice-to-intermediate skills level. Recent technological developments in other industries using simulation, such as the games and entertainment and aviation industries, suggest that the next generation of VR simulators should be suitable for training, maintenance and certification of advanced surgical skills. To be effective as an advanced surgical training and assessment tool, VR simulation needs to provide adequate and relevant levels of physical realism, case complexity and performance assessment. Proper validation of VR simulators and an increased appreciation of their value by the medical profession are crucial for them to be accepted into surgical training curricula. PMID:21401487

  7. Virtual Reality for Pain Management in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mosso-Vázquez, José Luis; Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Surgical anxiety creates psychological and physiological stress, causes complications in surgical procedures, and prolongs recovery. Relaxation of patients in postoperative intensive care units can moderate patient vital signs and reduce discomfort. This experiment explores the use of virtual reality (VR) cybertherapy to reduce postoperative distress in patients that have recently undergone cardiac surgery. Sixty-seven patients were monitored at IMSS La Raza National Medical Center within 24 hours of cardiac surgery. Patients navigated through a 30 minute VR simulation designed for pain management. Results were analyzed through comparison of pre- and postoperative vital signs and Likert scale survey data. A connection was found in several physiological factors with subjective responses from the Likert scale survey. Heavy positive correlation existed between breathing rate and Likert ratings, and a moderate correlation was found between mean arterial pressure and Likert ratings and heart rate and Likert ratings, all of which indicated lower pain and stress within patients. Further study of these factors resulted in the categorization of patients based upon their vital signs and subjective response, providing a context for the effectiveness of the therapy to specific groups of patients. PMID:24892200

  8. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed. PMID:23256049

  9. Interactive graphical model building using telepresence and virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, C.; Stansfield, S.

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a prototype system developed at Sandia National Laboratories to create and verify computer-generated graphical models of remote physical environments. The goal of the system is to create an interface between an operator and a computer vision system so that graphical models can be created interactively. Virtual reality and telepresence are used to allow interaction between the operator, computer, and remote environment. A stereo view of the remote environment is produced by two CCD cameras. The cameras are mounted on a three degree-of-freedom platform which is slaved to a mechanically-tracked, stereoscopic viewing device. This gives the operator a sense of immersion in the physical environment. The stereo video is enhanced by overlaying the graphical model onto it. Overlay of the graphical model onto the stereo video allows visual verification of graphical models. Creation of a graphical model is accomplished by allowing the operator to assist the computer in modeling. The operator controls a 3-D cursor to mark objects to be modeled. The computer then automatically extracts positional and geometric information about the object and creates the graphical model.

  10. Decontamination training: with and without virtual reality simulation.

    PubMed

    Farra, Sharon Lee; Smith, Sherrill; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Nicely, Stephanie; Ulrich, Deborah L; Hodgson, Eric; French, DeAnne

    2015-01-01

    Nurses must be prepared to care for patients following a disaster, including patients exposed to hazardous contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of virtual reality simulation (VRS) to teach the disaster-specific skill of decontamination. A quasi-experimental design was used to assign nursing students from 2 baccalaureate nursing programs to 1 of 2 groups to learn the disaster skill of decontamination-printed written directions or VRS. Performance, knowledge, and self-efficacy were outcome measures. Although students in the treatment group had significantly lower performance scores than the control group (p = 0.004), students taking part in VRS completed the skill in a significantly shorter amount of time (p = 0.008). No significant group differences were found for self-efficacy (p = 0.172) or knowledge (p = 0.631). However, students in the VRS treatment group reported high levels of satisfaction with VRS as a training method. The disaster-specific skill of decontamination is a low-volume, high-risk skill that must be performed with accuracy to protect both exposed patients and providers performing decontamination. As frontline providers for casualties following a disaster event, emergency nurses must be prepared to perform this skill when needed. Preparation requires cost-effective, timely, and evidence-based educational opportunities that promote positive outcomes. Further investigation is needed to determine the benefits and long-term effects of VRS for disaster education. PMID:25929223

  11. Impact of tasks and users' characteristics on virtual reality performance.

    PubMed

    Tyndiuk, F; Lespinet-Najib, V; Thomas, G; Schlick, C

    2007-06-01

    A better understanding of how users perform virtual reality (VR) tasks may help build better VR interfaces. In this study, we concentrated on the compensatory behavior in VR depending on the tasks and users' characteristics. The tasks characteristics considered were display size (large display vs. desktop monitor) and tasks types (manipulation and travel). The users' characteristics studied were the visual attention abilities and users' satisfaction. Ninety-five subjects participated in the experimentation composed of two parts: the first one consisted in cognitive tests used to evaluate visual attention abilities, and the second one was based on a set of VR tasks. Our result showed that large displays positively affect on performance for some kinds of VR tasks. Moreover, this impact was linked to users' satisfaction and visual attention abilities. Indeed, users with low-level attention abilities and users who preferred the large display took more advantage of large displays. We concluded that large displays can be considered cognitive aids depending on the tasks and users' characteristics.

  12. Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology may serve as an effective non-pharmacological analgesic to aid pain management. During VR distraction, the individual is immersed in a game presented through a head-mounted display (HMD). The technological level of the HMD can vary, as can the use of different input devices and the inclusion of sound. While more technologically advanced designs may lead to more effective pain management the specific roles of individual components within such systems are not yet fully understood. Here, the role of supplementary auditory information was explored owing to its particular ecological relevance. Healthy adult participants took part in a series of cold-pressor trials submerging their hand in cold water for as long as possible. Individual pain tolerances were measured according to the time (in seconds) before the participant withdrew their hand. The concurrent use of a VR game and the inclusion of sound was varied systematically within participants. In keeping with previous literature, the use of a VR game increased pain tolerance across conditions. Highest pain tolerance was recorded when participants were simultaneously exposed to both the VR game and supplementary sound. The simultaneous inclusion of sound may therefore play an important role when designing VR to manage pain. PMID:27069646

  13. Development of a virtual reality assessment of everyday living skills.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Stacy A; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Krishnan, K Ranga R; Fox, Kolleen H; Harvey, Philip D; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairments affect the majority of patients with schizophrenia and these impairments predict poor long term psychosocial outcomes.  Treatment studies aimed at cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia not only require demonstration of improvements on cognitive tests, but also evidence that any cognitive changes lead to clinically meaningful improvements.  Measures of "functional capacity" index the extent to which individuals have the potential to perform skills required for real world functioning.  Current data do not support the recommendation of any single instrument for measurement of functional capacity.  The Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is a novel, interactive gaming based measure of functional capacity that uses a realistic simulated environment to recreate routine activities of daily living. Studies are currently underway to evaluate and establish the VRFCAT's sensitivity, reliability, validity, and practicality. This new measure of functional capacity is practical, relevant, easy to use, and has several features that improve validity and sensitivity of measurement of function in clinical trials of patients with CNS disorders. PMID:24798174

  14. Visualization of High-Dimensionality Data Using Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Davidoff, S.; Lombeyda, S.

    2015-12-01

    An effective visualization of complex and high-dimensionality data sets is now a critical bottleneck on the path from data to discovery in all fields. Visual pattern recognition is the bridge between human intuition and understanding, and the quantitative content of the data and the relationships present there (correlations, outliers, clustering, etc.). We are developing a novel platform for visualization of complex, multi-dimensional data, using immersive virtual reality (VR), that leverages the recent rapid developments in the availability of commodity hardware and development software. VR immersion has been shown to significantly increase the effective visual perception and intuition, compared to the traditional flat-screen tools. This allows to more easily perceive higher dimensional spaces, with an advantage for a visual exploration of complex data compared to the traditional visualization methods. Immersive VR also offers a natural way for a collaborative visual exploration of data, with multiple users interacting with each other and with their data in the same perceptive data space.

  15. Virtual reality techniques for the visualization of biomedical imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Maurice A.; Spillman, William B., Jr.; Meissner, Ken E.; Gabbard, Joseph

    2001-07-01

    The Optical Sciences & Engineering Research Center (OSER) at Virginia Polytechnic and State University investigates advanced laser surgery optics, biocompatible material for implants, and diagnostic patches and other diagnostic and drug delivery tools. The Center employs optics to provide new biological research tools for visualization, measurement, analysis and manipulation. The Center's Research into Multispectral Medical Analysis and Visualization techniques will allow human and veterinary medical professionals to diagnose various conditions of the body in much the same way that satellite information is used to study earth resources. Each pixel in the image has an associated spectra. Advanced image analysis techniques are combined with cross-correlation of the spectra with signatures of known conditions, allowing automated diagnostic assistance to physicians. The analysis and visualization system consists of five components: data acquisition, data storage, data standardization, data analysis, and data visualization. OSER research efforts will be directed toward investigations of these system components as an integrated tool for next generation medical diagnostics. OSER will research critical data quality and data storage issues, mult-spectral sensor technologies, data analysis techniques, and diagnostic visualization systems including the VT-CAVE, (www.cave.vt.edu). The VT-CAVE is Virginia Tech's configuration of Fakespace Systems, Inc Virtual Reality system.

  16. Virtual reality based support system for layout planning and programming of an industrial robotic work cell.

    PubMed

    Yap, Hwa Jen; Taha, Zahari; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Chang, Siow-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional robotic work cell design and programming are considered inefficient and outdated in current industrial and market demands. In this research, virtual reality (VR) technology is used to improve human-robot interface, whereby complicated commands or programming knowledge is not required. The proposed solution, known as VR-based Programming of a Robotic Work Cell (VR-Rocell), consists of two sub-programmes, which are VR-Robotic Work Cell Layout (VR-RoWL) and VR-based Robot Teaching System (VR-RoT). VR-RoWL is developed to assign the layout design for an industrial robotic work cell, whereby VR-RoT is developed to overcome safety issues and lack of trained personnel in robot programming. Simple and user-friendly interfaces are designed for inexperienced users to generate robot commands without damaging the robot or interrupting the production line. The user is able to attempt numerous times to attain an optimum solution. A case study is conducted in the Robotics Laboratory to assemble an electronics casing and it is found that the output models are compatible with commercial software without loss of information. Furthermore, the generated KUKA commands are workable when loaded into a commercial simulator. The operation of the actual robotic work cell shows that the errors may be due to the dynamics of the KUKA robot rather than the accuracy of the generated programme. Therefore, it is concluded that the virtual reality based solution approach can be implemented in an industrial robotic work cell.

  17. E-virtual reality exposure therapy in acrophobia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Virtual reality therapy is already used for anxiety disorders as an alternative to in vivo and in imagino exposure. To our knowledge, however, no one has yet proposed using remote virtual reality (e-virtual reality). The aim of the present study was to assess e-virtual reality in an acrophobic population. Six individuals with acrophobia each underwent six sessions (two sessions per week) of virtual reality exposure therapy. The first three were remote sessions, while the last three were traditional sessions in the physical presence of the therapist. Anxiety (STAI form Y-A, visual analog scale, heart rate), presence, technical difficulties and therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) were measured. In order to control the conditions in which these measures were made, all the sessions were conducted in hospital. None of the participants dropped out. The remote sessions were well accepted. None of the participants verbalized reluctance. No major technical problems were reported. None of the sessions were cancelled or interrupted because of software incidents. Measures (anxiety, presence, therapeutic alliance) were comparable across the two conditions. e-Virtual reality can therefore be used to treat acrophobic disorders. However, control studies are needed to assess online feasibility, therapeutic effects and the mechanisms behind online presence.

  18. Development of a low-cost virtual reality workstation for training and education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a set of breakthrough technologies that allow a human being to enter and fully experience a 3-dimensional, computer simulated environment. A true virtual reality experience meets three criteria: (1) it involves 3-dimensional computer graphics; (2) it includes real-time feedback and response to user actions; and (3) it must provide a sense of immersion. Good examples of a virtual reality simulator are the flight simulators used by all branches of the military to train pilots for combat in high performance jet fighters. The fidelity of such simulators is extremely high -- but so is the price tag, typically millions of dollars. Virtual reality teaching and training methods are manifestly effective, but the high cost of VR technology has limited its practical application to fields with big budgets, such as military combat simulation, commercial pilot training, and certain projects within the space program. However, in the last year there has been a revolution in the cost of VR technology. The speed of inexpensive personal computers has increased dramatically, especially with the introduction of the Pentium processor and the PCI bus for IBM-compatibles, and the cost of high-quality virtual reality peripherals has plummeted. The result is that many public schools, colleges, and universities can afford a PC-based workstation capable of running immersive virtual reality applications. My goal this summer was to assemble and evaluate such a system.

  19. Virtual reality as a tool for cross-cultural communication: an example from military team training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes-Martin, Stephen; Long, Mark; Alexander, Joanna R.

    1992-06-01

    A major problem with communication across cultures, whether professional or national, is that simple language translation if often insufficient to communicate the concepts. This is especially true when the communicators come from highly specialized fields of knowledge or from national cultures with long histories of divergence. This problem becomes critical when the goal of the communication is national negotiation dealing with such high risk items as arms negotiation or trade wars. Virtual Reality technology has considerable potential for facilitating communication across cultures, by immersing the communicators within multiple visual representations of the concepts, and providing control over those representations. Military distributed team training provides a model for virtual reality suitable for cross cultural communication such as negotiation. In both team training and negotiation, the participants must cooperate, agree on a set of goals, and achieve mastery over the concepts being negotiated. Team training technologies suitable for supporting cross cultural negotiation exist (branch wargaming, computer image generation and visualization, distributed simulation), and have developed along different lines than traditional virtual reality technology. Team training de-emphasizes the realism of physiological interfaces between the human and the virtual reality, and emphasizes the interaction of humans with each other and with intelligent simulated agents within the virtual reality. This approach to virtual reality is suggested as being more fruitful for future work.

  20. Development of and feedback on a fully automated virtual reality system for online training in weight management skills.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Graham; Spitalnick, Josh S; Hadley, Wendy; Bond, Dale S; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology can provide a safe environment for observing, learning, and practicing use of behavioral weight management skills, which could be particularly useful in enhancing minimal contact online weight management programs. The Experience Success (ES) project developed a system for creating and deploying VR scenarios for online weight management skills training. Virtual environments populated with virtual actors allow users to experiment with implementing behavioral skills via a PC-based point and click interface. A culturally sensitive virtual coach guides the experience, including planning for real-world skill use. Thirty-seven overweight/obese women provided feedback on a test scenario focused on social eating situations. They reported that the scenario gave them greater skills, confidence, and commitment for controlling eating in social situations.

  1. Development of and Feedback on a Fully Automated Virtual Reality System for Online Training in Weight Management Skills

    PubMed Central

    Spitalnick, Josh S.; Hadley, Wendy; Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology can provide a safe environment for observing, learning, and practicing use of behavioral weight management skills, which could be particularly useful in enhancing minimal contact online weight management programs. The Experience Success (ES) project developed a system for creating and deploying VR scenarios for online weight management skills training. Virtual environments populated with virtual actors allow users to experiment with implementing behavioral skills via a PC-based point and click interface. A culturally sensitive virtual coach guides the experience, including planning for real-world skill use. Thirty-seven overweight/obese women provided feedback on a test scenario focused on social eating situations. They reported that the scenario gave them greater skills, confidence, and commitment for controlling eating in social situations. PMID:25367014

  2. Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed "safely" to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user's experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia.

  3. Moving from Virtual Reality Exposure-Based Therapy to Augmented Reality Exposure-Based Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Baus, Oliver; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the move from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy (ARET). Unlike virtual reality (VR), which entails a complete virtual environment (VE), augmented reality (AR) limits itself to producing certain virtual elements to then merge them into the view of the physical world. Although, the general public may only have become aware of AR in the last few years, AR type applications have been around since beginning of the twentieth century. Since, then, technological developments have enabled an ever increasing level of seamless integration of virtual and physical elements into one view. Like VR, AR allows the exposure to stimuli which, due to various reasons, may not be suitable for real-life scenarios. As such, AR has proven itself to be a medium through which individuals suffering from specific phobia can be exposed “safely” to the object(s) of their fear, without the costs associated with programing complete VEs. Thus, ARET can offer an efficacious alternative to some less advantageous exposure-based therapies. Above and beyond presenting what has been accomplished in ARET, this paper covers some less well-known aspects of the history of AR, raises some ARET related issues, and proposes potential avenues to be followed. These include the type of measures to be used to qualify the user’s experience in an augmented reality environment, the exclusion of certain AR-type functionalities from the definition of AR, as well as the potential use of ARET to treat non-small animal phobias, such as social phobia. PMID:24624073

  4. [Virtual reality and rehabilitation: why or why not? A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Dores, Artemisa R; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques, António; Carvalho, Irene P; De Sousa, Liliana; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of the health domain involved, the process of rehabilitation remains a challenge for professionals, patients and their families. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of traditional interventions, the technology of Virtual Reality (VR) has been increasingly applied to rehabilitation and begins to provide important tools which, however, generate debate and divergent positions. In order to examine VR's contributions to the field of rehabilitation in terms of its advantages and limitations, this study presents a systematic review of scientific literature in this area and provides a hierarchical model describing and systematizing the nature of the studies reviewed and their main subjects. The literature review focused on scientific papers indexed, until November 2010, in the ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Two independent researchers analyzed the included papers in NVivo 9 and the developed model was applied to the recoding of the material. A total of 963 articles were identified, of which 288 titles and abstracts were reviewed, after application of the exclusion criteria. The model indicates, as central categories in the literature: Type of Article (Empirical, Theoretical); Project Background; Type of Approach (Assistive Technology; Augmented Reality; Traditional Approaches; Virtual Reality). This last category (VR) was exhaustively decomposed so that its applicability, effects and future trends could be documented. Results suggest that VR's advantages include: its possible application to a variety of fields, cognitive functions, behaviors, neurological disorders and physical disabilities; its characteristics and respective consequences; and its potential to overcome limitations of traditional interventions. On the side of the limitations, papers address: VR's side effects, causes for the limitations, and suggested precautions. The results show promising trends in the use of VR technology in the field of rehabilitation, with implications for its future

  5. 3D Visualization of Cultural Heritage Artefacts with Virtual Reality devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Caruso, G.; Micoli, L. L.; Covarrubias Rodriguez, M.; Guidi, G.

    2015-08-01

    Although 3D models are useful to preserve the information about historical artefacts, the potential of these digital contents are not fully accomplished until they are not used to interactively communicate their significance to non-specialists. Starting from this consideration, a new way to provide museum visitors with more information was investigated. The research is aimed at valorising and making more accessible the Egyptian funeral objects exhibited in the Sforza Castle in Milan. The results of the research will be used for the renewal of the current exhibition, at the Archaeological Museum in Milan, by making it more attractive. A 3D virtual interactive scenario regarding the "path of the dead", an important ritual in ancient Egypt, was realized to augment the experience and the comprehension of the public through interactivity. Four important artefacts were considered for this scope: two ushabty, a wooden sarcophagus and a heart scarab. The scenario was realized by integrating low-cost Virtual Reality technologies, as the Oculus Rift DK2 and the Leap Motion controller, and implementing a specific software by using Unity. The 3D models were implemented by adding responsive points of interest in relation to important symbols or features of the artefact. This allows highlighting single parts of the artefact in order to better identify the hieroglyphs and provide their translation. The paper describes the process for optimizing the 3D models, the implementation of the interactive scenario and the results of some test that have been carried out in the lab.

  6. Male sexual dysfunctions: immersive virtual reality and multimedia therapy.

    PubMed

    Optale, Gabriele; Pastore, Massimiliano; Marin, Silvia; Bordin, Diego; Nasta, Alberto; Pianon, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    The study describes a therapeutic approach using psycho-dynamic psychotherapy integrating virtual environment (VE) for resolving impotence or better erectile dysfunction (ED) of presumably psychological or mixed origin and premature ejaculation (PE). The plan for therapy consists of 12 sessions (15 if a sexual partner was involved) over a 25-week period on the ontogenetic development of male sexual identity, and the methods involved the use of a laptop PC, joystick, Virtual Reality (VR) helmet with miniature television screen showing a new specially-designed CD-ROM programs using Virtools with Windows 2000 and an audio CD. This study was composed of 30 patients, 15 (10 suffering from ED and 5 PE) plus 15 control patients (10 ED and 5 PE), that underwent the same therapeutic protocol but used an old VR helmet to interact with the old VE using a PC Pentium 133 16 Mb RAM. We also compared this study with another study we carried out on 160 men affected by sexual disorders, underwent the same therapeutic protocol, but treated using a VE created (in Superscape VRT 5.6) using always Windows 2000 with portable tools. Comparing the groups of patients affected by ED and PE, there emerged a significant positive results value without any important differences among the different VE used. However, we had a % increase of undesirable physical reactions during the more realistic 15-minute VR experience using Virtools development kit. Psychotherapy alone normally requires long periods of treatment in order to resolve sexual dysfunctions. Considering the particular way in which full-immersion VR involves the subject who experiences it (he is totally unobserved and in complete privacy), we hypothesise that this methodological approach might speed up the therapeutic psycho-dynamic process, which eludes cognitive defences and directly stimulates the subconscious, and that better results could be obtained in the treatment of these sexual disorders. This method can be used by any

  7. Vicher: A Virtual Reality Based Educational Module for Chemical Reaction Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, John T.; Fogler, H. Scott

    1996-01-01

    A virtual reality application for undergraduate chemical kinetics and reactor design education, Vicher (Virtual Chemical Reaction Model) was originally designed to simulate a portion of a modern chemical plant. Vicher now consists of two programs: Vicher I that models catalyst deactivation and Vicher II that models nonisothermal effects in…

  8. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew J.; Ginger, Emily J.; Wright, Katherine; Wright, Michael A.; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale E.; Bell, Morris D.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility and efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) was assessed in a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Adults with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to VR-JIT (n = 16) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 10) groups. VR-JIT consisted of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic…

  9. Acceptability of Virtual Reality Interoceptive Exposure for the Treatment of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quero, Soledad; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Interoceptive exposure (IE) is a standard component of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia. The virtual reality (VR) program "Panic-Agoraphobia" has several virtual scenarios designed for applying exposure to agoraphobic situations; it can also simulate physical sensations. This work examines…

  10. Teachers' Conceptions and Their Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Reality and Simulation-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki

    2011-01-01

    This research article focuses on virtual reality (VR) and simulation-based training, with a special focus on the pedagogical use of the Virtual Centre of Wellness Campus known as ENVI (Rovaniemi, Finland). In order to clearly understand how teachers perceive teaching and learning in such environments, this research examines the concepts of…

  11. Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) for Remote Wiring and Measurement of Electronic Circuits on Breadboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawfik, M.; Sancristobal, E.; Martin, S.; Gil, R.; Diaz, G.; Colmenar, A.; Peire, J.; Castro, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zackrisson, J.; Hakansson, L.; Gustavsson, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a state-of-the-art remote laboratory project called Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR). VISIR allows wiring and measuring of electronic circuits remotely on a virtual workbench that replicates physical circuit breadboards. The wiring mechanism is developed by means of a relay switching matrix connected to a PCI…

  12. Virtual Reality Training Versus Blended Learning of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia A.; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette M.; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Linke, Georg R.; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost-blended learning (BL) in a structured training program. Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks. Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in 2 groups stratified for sex. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trained basic skills and LC on the LAP Mentor II (Simbionix, Cleveland, OH). Each group trained 3 × 4 hours followed by a knowledge test concerning LC. Blinded raters assessed the operative performance of cadaveric porcine LC using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The LC was discontinued when it was not completed within 80 min. Students evaluated their training modality with questionnaires. The VR group completed the LC significantly faster and more often within 80 min than BL (45% v 21%, P = .02). The BL group scored higher than the VR group in the knowledge test (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 11.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). Both groups showed equal operative performance of LC in the OSATS score (49.4 ± 10.5 vs 49.7 ± 12.0, P = 0.90). Students generally liked training and felt well prepared for assisting in laparoscopic surgery. The efficiency of the training was judged higher by the VR group than by the BL group. VR and BL can both be applied for training the basics of LC. Multimodality training programs should be developed that combine the advantages of both approaches. PMID:25997044

  13. The Usability of Online Geographic Virtual Reality for Urban Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Moore, A. B.

    2013-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is starting to become widely and freely available (for example the online OpenSimulator tool), with potential for use in 3D urban planning and design tasks but still needing rigorous assessment to establish this. A previous study consulted with a small group of urban professionals, who concluded in a satisfaction usability test that online VR had potential value as a usable 3D communication and remote marketing tool but acknowledged that visual quality and geographic accuracy were obstacles to overcome. This research takes the investigation a significant step further to also examine the usability aspects of efficiency (how quickly tasks are completed) and effectiveness (how successfully tasks are completed), relating to OpenSimulator in an urban planning situation. The comparative study pits a three-dimensional VR model (with increased graphic fidelity and geographic content to address the feedback of the previous study) of a subdivision design (in a Dunedin suburb) against 3D models built with GIS (ArcGIS) and CAD (BricsCAD) tools, two types of software environment well established in urban professional practice. Urban professionals participated in the study by attempting to perform timed tasks correctly in each of the environments before being asked questions about the technologies involved and their perceived importance to their professional work. The results reinforce the positive feedback for VR of the previous study, with the graphical and geographic data issues being somewhat addressed (though participants stressed the need for accurate and precise object and terrain modification capabilities in VR). Ease-ofuse and associated fastest task completion speed were significant positive outcomes to emerge from the comparison with GIS and CAD, pointing to a strong future for VR in an urban planning context.

  14. Dynamic Eye gaze and its Potential in Virtual Reality Based Applications for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Uttama; Trewyn, Adam; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often characterized by deficits in social communication skills. While evidence suggests that intensive individualized interventions can improve aspects of core deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder, at present numerous potent barriers exist related to accessing and implementing such interventions. Researchers are increasingly employing technology to develop more accessible, quantifiable, and individualized intervention tools to address core vulnerabilities related to autism. The present study describes the development and preliminary application of a Virtual Reality technology aimed at facilitating improvements in social communication skills for adolescents with autism. We present preliminary data from the usability study of this technological application for six adolescents with autism and discuss potential future development and application of adaptive Virtual Reality technology within an intervention framework.

  15. Incidental memory and navigation in panoramic virtual reality for electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Howes, A; Miles, G E; Payne, S J; Mitchell, C D; Davies, A J

    2001-01-01

    Recently much effort has been dedicated to designing and implementing World Wide Web sites for virtual shopping and e-commerce. Despite this effort, relatively little empirical work has been done to determine the effectiveness with which different site designs sell products. We report three experiments in which participants were asked to search for products in various experimental e-commerce sites. Across the experiments participants were asked to search in either QTVR (QuickTime Virtual Reality), hypertext, or pictorially rich hypertext environments; they were then tested for their ability to recall the products seen and to recognize product locations. The experiments demonstrated that when using QTVR (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or pictorial environments (Experiment 2), participants retained more information about products that were incidental to their goals. In two of the experiments it was shown that participants navigated more efficiently when using a QTVR environment. The costs and benefits of using 3D virtual environments for on-line shops are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include support for the development of e-commerce design guidelines. PMID:11592665

  16. Incidental memory and navigation in panoramic virtual reality for electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Howes, A; Miles, G E; Payne, S J; Mitchell, C D; Davies, A J

    2001-01-01

    Recently much effort has been dedicated to designing and implementing World Wide Web sites for virtual shopping and e-commerce. Despite this effort, relatively little empirical work has been done to determine the effectiveness with which different site designs sell products. We report three experiments in which participants were asked to search for products in various experimental e-commerce sites. Across the experiments participants were asked to search in either QTVR (QuickTime Virtual Reality), hypertext, or pictorially rich hypertext environments; they were then tested for their ability to recall the products seen and to recognize product locations. The experiments demonstrated that when using QTVR (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or pictorial environments (Experiment 2), participants retained more information about products that were incidental to their goals. In two of the experiments it was shown that participants navigated more efficiently when using a QTVR environment. The costs and benefits of using 3D virtual environments for on-line shops are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include support for the development of e-commerce design guidelines.

  17. UbiWorld: An environment integrating virtual reality, supercomputing, and design

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.; Papka, M.E.; Stevens, R.

    1997-07-01

    UbiWorld is a concept being developed by the Futures Laboratory group at Argonne National Laboratory that ties together the notion of ubiquitous computing (Ubicomp) with that of using virtual reality for rapid prototyping. The goal is to develop an environment where one can explore Ubicomp-type concepts without having to build real Ubicomp hardware. The basic notion is to extend object models in a virtual world by using distributed wide area heterogeneous computing technology to provide complex networking and processing capabilities to virtual reality objects.

  18. Embodying compassion: a virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive self-criticism.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Caroline J; Slater, Mel; Rovira, Aitor; King, John A; Gilbert, Paul; Antley, Angus; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality has been successfully used to study and treat psychological disorders such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder but has rarely been applied to clinically-relevant emotions other than fear and anxiety. Self-criticism is a ubiquitous feature of psychopathology and can be treated by increasing levels of self-compassion. We exploited the known effects of identification with a virtual body to arrange for healthy female volunteers high in self-criticism to experience self-compassion from an embodied first-person perspective within immersive virtual reality. Whereas observation and practice of compassionate responses reduced self-criticism, the additional experience of embodiment also increased self-compassion and feelings of being safe. The results suggest potential new uses for immersive virtual reality in a range of clinical conditions. PMID:25389766

  19. Path branching in simulation of an intelligent object behavior in a virtual reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey F.

    2001-02-01

    Virtual reality systems gained a wide expansion nowadays. They appear as three-dimensional trainers and simulators, video games, various visualization systems, virtual www-spaces and so on. The area of applications for such systems is rapidly expanding that is supported first of all by a quick development of appropriate hardware and software tools. The main problem in the virtual reality systems is allowing a user to be effectively present in the space, navigate through it, and also to interact with the space, objects and characters (intelligent agents) embedded in the created synthetic space. One of the tasks raising on building the virtual reality system is creation of behavioral animation (or simply behavior) of intellectual agents. The behavior represents actions that are usually described with terms of natural speech, having social, psychological or physiological meanings that are not necessarily trivial in reducing to actual animation, i.e. to movement of effectors, skeleton etc.

  20. Path branching in simulation of an intelligent object behavior in a virtual reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Sergey F.

    2000-02-01

    Virtual reality systems gained a wide expansion nowadays. They appear as three-dimensional trainers and simulators, video games, various visualization systems, virtual www-spaces and so on. The area of applications for such systems is rapidly expanding that is supported first of all by a quick development of appropriate hardware and software tools. The main problem in the virtual reality systems is allowing a user to be effectively present in the space, navigate through it, and also to interact with the space, objects and characters (intelligent agents) embedded in the created synthetic space. One of the tasks raising on building the virtual reality system is creation of behavioral animation (or simply behavior) of intellectual agents. The behavior represents actions that are usually described with terms of natural speech, having social, psychological or physiological meanings that are not necessarily trivial in reducing to actual animation, i.e. to movement of effectors, skeleton etc.

  1. Heart rate response to fear conditioning and virtual reality in subthreshold PTSD.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Jovanovic, Tanja; Leaman, Suzanne; Taylor, Patricia; Norrholm, Seth D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern for U.S. military service members (SMs) returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Early intervention to prevent chronic disability requires greater understanding of subthreshold PTSD symptoms, which are associated with impaired physical health, mental health, and risk for delayed onset PTSD. We report a comparison of physiologic responses for recently deployed SMs with high and low subthreshold PTSD symptoms, respectively, to a fear conditioning task and novel virtual reality paradigm (Virtual Iraq). The high symptom group demonstrated elevated heart rate (HR) response during fear conditioning. Virtual reality sequences evoked significant HR responses which predicted variance of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version self-report. Our results support the value of physiologic assessment during fear conditioning and combat-related virtual reality exposure as complementary tools in detecting subthreshold PTSD symptoms in Veterans. PMID:23792855

  2. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted.

  3. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted. PMID:27046620

  4. Veteran perceptions of virtual reality to assess and treat posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Teresa L; Savary, Patricia E; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Kimbrell, Timothy A; Jegley, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Implementation of evidence-based treatments (EBT) is necessary to address posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) military service personnel. Because virtual reality (VR) offers a promising tool for delivery of one type of EBT--exposure therapy--this study explored veterans' perceptions of VR as an assessment tool and treatment adjunct. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 OEF/OIF veterans being treated for PTSD after viewing two 3 minute VR scenarios as part of a larger research study. Veterans reported a capacity for immersion in VR in both combat and civilian environments, characterized by self-reported physiological reactivity, thoughts/behaviors similar to those experienced in Iraq, and triggered memories. Although participants were generally positive about VR, they expressed concerns about the possibility of negative reactions after viewing VR. Findings are discussed in the context of further development of VR aided interventions in veteran healthcare systems. PMID:23574368

  5. Factors influencing therapists' adoption of virtual reality for brain injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Glegg, Stephanie M N; Holsti, Liisa; Velikonja, Diana; Ansley, Barbara; Brum, Christine; Sartor, Denise

    2013-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is an important emerging technology that is increasingly being introduced in health centers as a rehabilitation intervention. Quantitative research is needed to identify the factors influencing therapists' adoption of VR for brain injury rehabilitation, including barriers and facilitators to VR use, in order to inform successful implementation strategies. A measure based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) was developed and administered to 42 therapists; early psychometric properties are reported. Mean or median composite scores and correlations were calculated for each DTPB construct. Overall, therapists had positive attitudes toward VR, perceived it as being useful, and had positive intentions to use it more in the future. The self-efficacy composite yielded the lowest scores. The most significant barrier to adoption was time, while social influences and knowledge were the primary facilitators. Future research will explore the impact of knowledge translation interventions on these mediators of VR adoption. PMID:23713844

  6. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  7. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269607

  8. Ecological assessment of divided attention: What about the current tools and the relevancy of virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Lopez Maïté, C; Gaétane, D; Axel, C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform two tasks simultaneously has become increasingly important as attention-demanding technologies have become more common in daily life. This type of attentional resources allocation is commonly called "divided attention". Because of the importance of divided attention in natural world settings, substantial efforts have been made recently so as to promote an integrated, realistic assessment of functional abilities in dual-task paradigms. In this context, virtual reality methods appear to be a good solution. However to date, there has been little discussion on validity of such methods. Here, we offer a comparative review of conventional tools used to assess divided attention and of the first virtual reality studies (mostly from the field of road and pedestrian safety). The ecological character of virtual environments leads to a better understanding of the influence of dual-task settings and also makes it possible to clarify issues such as the utility of hands-free phones. After discussing the theoretical and clinical contributions of these studies, we discuss the limits of virtual reality assessment, focusing in particular: (i) on the challenges associated with lack of familiarity with new technological devices; (ii) on the validity of the ecological character of virtual environments; and (iii) on the question of whether the results obtained in a specific context can be generalized to all dual-task situations typical of daily life. To overcome the limitations associated with virtual reality, we propose: (i) to include a standardized familiarization phase in assessment protocols so as to limit the interference caused by the use of new technologies; (ii) to systematically compare virtual reality performance with conventional tests or real-life tests; and (iii) to design dual-task scenarios that are independent from the patient's expertise on one of the two tasks. We conclude that virtual reality appears to constitute a useful tool when used in

  9. The Reality of Virtual Schools: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Michael K.; Reeves, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual schooling was first employed in the mid-1990s and has become a common method of distance education used in K-12 jurisdictions. The most accepted definition of a virtual school is an entity approved by a state or governing body that offers courses through distance delivery--most commonly using the Internet. While virtual schools can be…

  10. Virtual reality in the treatment of persecutory delusions: randomised controlled experimental study testing how to reduce delusional conviction

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Bradley, Jonathan; Antley, Angus; Bourke, Emilie; DeWeever, Natalie; Evans, Nicole; Černis, Emma; Sheaves, Bryony; Waite, Felicity; Dunn, Graham; Slater, Mel; Clark, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Persecutory delusions may be unfounded threat beliefs maintained by safety-seeking behaviours that prevent disconfirmatory evidence being successfully processed. Use of virtual reality could facilitate new learning. Aims To test the hypothesis that enabling patients to test the threat predictions of persecutory delusions in virtual reality social environments with the dropping of safety-seeking behaviours (virtual reality cognitive therapy) would lead to greater delusion reduction than exposure alone (virtual reality exposure). Method Conviction in delusions and distress in a real-world situation were assessed in 30 patients with persecutory delusions. Patients were then randomised to virtual reality cognitive therapy or virtual reality exposure, both with 30 min in graded virtual reality social environments. Delusion conviction and real-world distress were then reassessed. Results In comparison with exposure, virtual reality cognitive therapy led to large reductions in delusional conviction (reduction 22.0%, P = 0.024, Cohen's d = 1.3) and real-world distress (reduction 19.6%, P = 0.020, Cohen's d = 0.8). Conclusion Cognitive therapy using virtual reality could prove highly effective in treating delusions. PMID:27151071

  11. Interactive stereo electron microscopy enhanced with virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E.Wes; Bastacky, S.Jacob; Schwartz, Kenneth S.

    2001-12-17

    An analytical system is presented that is used to take measurements of objects perceived in stereo image pairs obtained from a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Our system operates by presenting a single stereo view that contains stereo image data obtained from the SEM, along with geometric representations of two types of virtual measurement instruments, a ''protractor'' and a ''caliper''. The measurements obtained from this system are an integral part of a medical study evaluating surfactant, a liquid coating the inner surface of the lung which makes possible the process of breathing. Measurements of the curvature and contact angle of submicron diameter droplets of a fluorocarbon deposited on the surface of airways are performed in order to determine surface tension of the air/liquid interface. This approach has been extended to a microscopic level from the techniques of traditional surface science by measuring submicrometer rather than millimeter diameter droplets, as well as the lengths and curvature of cilia responsible for movement of the surfactant, the airway's protective liquid blanket. An earlier implementation of this approach for taking angle measurements from objects perceived in stereo image pairs using a virtual protractor is extended in this paper to include distance measurements and to use a unified view model. The system is built around a unified view model that is derived from microscope-specific parameters, such as focal length, visible area and magnification. The unified view model ensures that the underlying view models and resultant binocular parallax cues are consistent between synthetic and acquired imagery. When the view models are consistent, it is possible to take measurements of features that are not constrained to lie within the projection plane. The system is first calibrated using non-clinical data of known size and resolution. Using the SEM, stereo image pairs of grids and spheres of known resolution are created to calibrate the

  12. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  13. Analyzing Pathfinder data using virtual reality and superresolved imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Zbinden, Eric; Blackmon, Theodore T.; Kanefsky, Bob; Hagen, Joel; Neveu, Charles; Rasmussen, Daryl; Schwehr, Kurt; Sims, Michael

    1999-04-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission used a unique capability to rapidly generate and interactively display three-dimensional (3-D) photorealistic virtual reality (VR) models of the Martian surface. An interactive terrain visualization system creates and renders digital terrain models produced from stereo images taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) camera. The stereo pipeline, an automated machine vision algorithm, correlates features between the left and right images to determine their disparity and computes the corresponding positions using the known camera geometry. These positions are connected to form a polygonal mesh upon which IMP images are overlaid as textures. During the Pathfinder mission, VR models were produced and displayed almost as fast as images were received. The VR models were viewed using MarsMap, an interface that allows the model to be viewed from any perspective driven by a standard three-button computer mouse. MarsMap incorporates graphical representations of the lander and rover and the sequence and spatial locations at which rover data were taken. Graphical models of the rover were placed in the model to indicate the rover position at the end of each day of the mission. Images taken by Sojourner cameras are projected into the model as 2-D ``billboards'' to show their proper perspective. Distance and angle measurements can be made on features viewed in the model using a mouse-driven 3-D cursor and a point-and-click interface. MarsMap was used to assist with archiving and planning Sojourner activities and to make detailed measurements of surface features such as wind streaks and rock size and orientation that are difficult to perform using 2-D images. Superresolution image processing is a computational method for improving image resolution by a factor of n1/2 by combining n independent images. This technique was used on Pathfinder to obtain better resolved images of Martian surface features. We show results from superresolving IMP camera

  14. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  15. The Use of Virtual Reality in the Study of People's Responses to Violent Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Aitor; Swapp, David; Spanlang, Bernhard; Slater, Mel

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews experimental methods for the study of the responses of people to violence in digital media, and in particular considers the issues of internal validity and ecological validity or generalisability of results to events in the real world. Experimental methods typically involve a significant level of abstraction from reality, with participants required to carry out tasks that are far removed from violence in real life, and hence their ecological validity is questionable. On the other hand studies based on field data, while having ecological validity, cannot control multiple confounding variables that may have an impact on observed results, so that their internal validity is questionable. It is argued that immersive virtual reality may provide a unification of these two approaches. Since people tend to respond realistically to situations and events that occur in virtual reality, and since virtual reality simulations can be completely controlled for experimental purposes, studies of responses to violence within virtual reality are likely to have both ecological and internal validity. This depends on a property that we call ‘plausibility’ – including the fidelity of the depicted situation with prior knowledge and expectations. We illustrate this with data from a previously published experiment, a virtual reprise of Stanley Milgram's 1960s obedience experiment, and also with pilot data from a new study being developed that looks at bystander responses to violent incidents. PMID:20076762

  16. Virtual reality, augmented reality, and robotics applied to digestive operative procedures: from in vivo animal preclinical studies to clinical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Technological innovations of the 20 th century provided medicine and surgery with new tools, among which virtual reality and robotics belong to the most revolutionary ones. Our work aims at setting up new techniques for detection, 3D delineation and 4D time follow-up of small abdominal lesions from standard mecial images (CT scsan, MRI). It also aims at developing innovative systems making tumor resection or treatment easier with the use of augmented reality and robotized systems, increasing gesture precision. It also permits a realtime great distance connection between practitioners so they can share a same 3D reconstructed patient and interact on a same patient, virtually before the intervention and for real during the surgical procedure thanks to a telesurgical robot. In preclinical studies, our first results obtained from a micro-CT scanner show that these technologies provide an efficient and precise 3D modeling of anatomical and pathological structures of rats and mice. In clinical studies, our first results show the possibility to improve the therapeutic choice thanks to a better detection and and representation of the patient before performing the surgical gesture. They also show the efficiency of augmented reality that provides virtual transparency of the patient in real time during the operative procedure. In the near future, through the exploitation of these systems, surgeons will program and check on the virtual patient clone an optimal procedure without errors, which will be replayed on the real patient by the robot under surgeon control. This medical dream is today about to become reality.

  17. Using voice input and audio feedback to enhance the reality of a virtual experience

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a rapidly emerging technology which allows participants to experience a virtual environment through stimulation of the participant`s senses. Intuitive and natural interactions with the virtual world help to create a realistic experience. Typically, a participant is immersed in a virtual environment through the use of a 3-D viewer. Realistic, computer-generated environment models and accurate tracking of a participant`s view are important factors for adding realism to a virtual experience. Stimulating a participant`s sense of sound and providing a natural form of communication for interacting with the virtual world are equally important. This paper discusses the advantages and importance of incorporating voice recognition and audio feedback capabilities into a virtual world experience. Various approaches and levels of complexity are discussed. Examples of the use of voice and sound are presented through the description of a research application developed in the VR laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Toward real-time interactive virtual prototyping of mechanical systems: Experiences coupling virtual reality with finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, T.; Disz, T.; Papka, M.; Stevens, R.

    1996-11-01

    Virtual prototyping involves a synthesis of engineering methodology and immersive, three-dimensional visualization technology. Ideally, this is a process in which computational models are used in place of physical models in the development of a new product or design concept. If used successfully, virtual prototyping can lead to more rapid product design and development. Software is currently being developed that will enable virtual prototyping of mechanical systems in the CAVE (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) at Argonne National Laboratory. This software has two principal components: (1) fast simulation software, FIFEA (Fast Implicit Finite Element Analysis), for analyzing mechanical systems and (2) virtual reality display software for visualizing results and allowing user interaction. This paper discusses various issues related to the coupling of finite element software to the CAVE display system.

  19. VIRTUAL REALITY HYPNOSIS FOR PAIN CONTROL IN A PATIENT WITH GLUTEAL HIDRADENITIS:A CASE REPORT().

    PubMed

    Soltani, Maryam; Teeley, Aubriana M; Wiechman, Shelley A; Jensen, Mark P; Sharar, Sam R; Patterson, David R

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of hypnotic analgesia induced through immersive three-dimensional computer-generated virtual reality, better known as virtual reality hypnosis (VRH), in the treatment of a patient with ongoing pain associated with gluteal hidradenitis, The patient participated in the study for two consecutive days white hospitalized at a regional trauma centre. At pretreatment, she reported severe pain intensity and unpleasantness as well as high levels of anxiety and nervousness. She was then administered two sessions of virtual reality hypnotic treatment for decreased pain and anxiety. The patient's ratings of 'time spent thinking about pain', pain intensity, 'unpleasantness of pain', and anxiety decreased from before to after each daily VRH session, as well as from Day One to Day Two. The findings indicate that VRH may benefit individuals with severe, ongoing pain from a chronic condition, and that a controlled clinical trial examining its efficacy is warranted. PMID:23205274

  20. Virtual Reality Based Support System for Layout Planning and Programming of an Industrial Robotic Work Cell

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Hwa Jen; Taha, Zahari; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Chang, Siow-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional robotic work cell design and programming are considered inefficient and outdated in current industrial and market demands. In this research, virtual reality (VR) technology is used to improve human-robot interface, whereby complicated commands or programming knowledge is not required. The proposed solution, known as VR-based Programming of a Robotic Work Cell (VR-Rocell), consists of two sub-programmes, which are VR-Robotic Work Cell Layout (VR-RoWL) and VR-based Robot Teaching System (VR-RoT). VR-RoWL is developed to assign the layout design for an industrial robotic work cell, whereby VR-RoT is developed to overcome safety issues and lack of trained personnel in robot programming. Simple and user-friendly interfaces are designed for inexperienced users to generate robot commands without damaging the robot or interrupting the production line. The user is able to attempt numerous times to attain an optimum solution. A case study is conducted in the Robotics Laboratory to assemble an electronics casing and it is found that the output models are compatible with commercial software without loss of information. Furthermore, the generated KUKA commands are workable when loaded into a commercial simulator. The operation of the actual robotic work cell shows that the errors may be due to the dynamics of the KUKA robot rather than the accuracy of the generated programme. Therefore, it is concluded that the virtual reality based solution approach can be implemented in an industrial robotic work cell. PMID:25360663

  1. Virtual reality based support system for layout planning and programming of an industrial robotic work cell.

    PubMed

    Yap, Hwa Jen; Taha, Zahari; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Chang, Siow-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional robotic work cell design and programming are considered inefficient and outdated in current industrial and market demands. In this research, virtual reality (VR) technology is used to improve human-robot interface, whereby complicated commands or programming knowledge is not required. The proposed solution, known as VR-based Programming of a Robotic Work Cell (VR-Rocell), consists of two sub-programmes, which are VR-Robotic Work Cell Layout (VR-RoWL) and VR-based Robot Teaching System (VR-RoT). VR-RoWL is developed to assign the layout design for an industrial robotic work cell, whereby VR-RoT is developed to overcome safety issues and lack of trained personnel in robot programming. Simple and user-friendly interfaces are designed for inexperienced users to generate robot commands without damaging the robot or interrupting the production line. The user is able to attempt numerous times to attain an optimum solution. A case study is conducted in the Robotics Laboratory to assemble an electronics casing and it is found that the output models are compatible with commercial software without loss of information. Furthermore, the generated KUKA commands are workable when loaded into a commercial simulator. The operation of the actual robotic work cell shows that the errors may be due to the dynamics of the KUKA robot rather than the accuracy of the generated programme. Therefore, it is concluded that the virtual reality based solution approach can be implemented in an industrial robotic work cell. PMID:25360663

  2. Open multi-agent control architecture to support virtual-reality-based man-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen; Brasch, Marcel

    2001-10-01

    Projective Virtual Reality is a new and promising approach to intuitively operable man machine interfaces for the commanding and supervision of complex automation systems. The user interface part of Projective Virtual Reality heavily builds on latest Virtual Reality techniques, a task deduction component and automatic action planning capabilities. In order to realize man machine interfaces for complex applications, not only the Virtual Reality part has to be considered but also the capabilities of the underlying robot and automation controller are of great importance. This paper presents a control architecture that has proved to be an ideal basis for the realization of complex robotic and automation systems that are controlled by Virtual Reality based man machine interfaces. The architecture does not just provide a well suited framework for the real-time control of a multi robot system but also supports Virtual Reality metaphors and augmentations which facilitate the user's job to command and supervise a complex system. The developed control architecture has already been used for a number of applications. Its capability to integrate sensor information from sensors of different levels of abstraction in real-time helps to make the realized automation system very responsive to real world changes. In this paper, the architecture will be described comprehensively, its main building blocks will be discussed and one realization that is built based on an open source real-time operating system will be presented. The software design and the features of the architecture which make it generally applicable to the distributed control of automation agents in real world applications will be explained. Furthermore its application to the commanding and control of experiments in the Columbus space laboratory, the European contribution to the International Space Station (ISS), is only one example which will be described.

  3. Use of virtual reality gaming systems for children who are critically ill.

    PubMed

    Salem, Yasser; Elokda, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Children who are critically ill are frequently viewed as "too sick" to tolerate physical activity. As a result, these children often fail to develop strength or cardiovascular endurance as compared to typically developing children. Previous reports have shown that early participation in physical activity in is safe and feasible for patients who are critically ill and may result in a shorter length of stay and improved functional outcomes. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems has become a popular form of therapy for children with disabilities and has been supported by a growing body of evidence substantiating its effectiveness with this population. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems in pediatric rehabilitation provides the children with opportunity to participate in an exercise program that is fun, enjoyable, playful, and at the same time beneficial. The integration of those systems in rehabilitation of children who are critically ill is appealing and has the potential to offer the possibility of enhancing physical activities. The lack of training studies involving children who are critically ill makes it difficult to set guidelines on the recommended physical activities and virtual reality gaming systems that is needed to confer health benefits. Several considerations should be taken into account before recommended virtual reality gaming systems as a training program for children who are critically ill. This article highlighted guidelines, limitations and challenges that need to be considered when designing exercise program using virtual reality gaming systems for critically ill children. This information is helpful given the popular use of virtual reality gaming systems in rehabilitation, particularly in children who are critically ill.

  4. Use of virtual reality gaming systems for children who are critically ill.

    PubMed

    Salem, Yasser; Elokda, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Children who are critically ill are frequently viewed as "too sick" to tolerate physical activity. As a result, these children often fail to develop strength or cardiovascular endurance as compared to typically developing children. Previous reports have shown that early participation in physical activity in is safe and feasible for patients who are critically ill and may result in a shorter length of stay and improved functional outcomes. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems has become a popular form of therapy for children with disabilities and has been supported by a growing body of evidence substantiating its effectiveness with this population. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems in pediatric rehabilitation provides the children with opportunity to participate in an exercise program that is fun, enjoyable, playful, and at the same time beneficial. The integration of those systems in rehabilitation of children who are critically ill is appealing and has the potential to offer the possibility of enhancing physical activities. The lack of training studies involving children who are critically ill makes it difficult to set guidelines on the recommended physical activities and virtual reality gaming systems that is needed to confer health benefits. Several considerations should be taken into account before recommended virtual reality gaming systems as a training program for children who are critically ill. This article highlighted guidelines, limitations and challenges that need to be considered when designing exercise program using virtual reality gaming systems for critically ill children. This information is helpful given the popular use of virtual reality gaming systems in rehabilitation, particularly in children who are critically ill. PMID:25260510

  5. Load Assembly of the Ignitor Machine with 3D Interactive Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, S.; Pierattini, S.

    2003-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to assist the Ignitor team in every phase of the project using the new Virtual Reality Technology (VR). Through the VR it is possible to see, plan and test the machine assembly sequence and the total layout. We are also planning to simulate in VR the remote handling systems. The complexity of the system requires a large and powerful graphical device. The ENEA?s "Advanced Visualization Technology" team has implemented a repository file data structure integrated with the CATIA drawing cams from the designer of Ignitor. The 3D virtual mockup software is used to view and analyze all objects that compose the mockup and also to analyze the correct assembly sequences. The ENEA?s 3D immersive system and software are fully integrated in the ENEA?s supercomputing GRID infrastructure. At any time all members of the Ignitor Project can view the status of the mockup in 3D (draft and/or final objects) through the net. During the conference examples of the assembly sequence and load assembly structure will be presented.

  6. Learning to Drive a Wheelchair in Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Dean P.; Loge, Ken; Cram, Aaron; Peterson, Missy

    2011-01-01

    This research project studied the effect that a technology-based training program, WheelchairNet, could contribute to the education of children with physical disabilities by providing a chance to practice driving virtual motorized wheelchairs safely within a computer-generated world. Programmers created three virtual worlds for training. Scenarios…

  7. Gesture therapy: an upper limb virtual reality-based motor rehabilitation platform.

    PubMed

    Sucar, Luis Enrique; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Velazquez, Roger Luis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Leder, Ronald; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Virtual reality platforms capable of assisting rehabilitation must provide support for rehabilitation principles: promote repetition, task oriented training, appropriate feedback, and a motivating environment. As such, development of these platforms is a complex process which has not yet reached maturity. This paper presents our efforts to contribute to this field, presenting Gesture Therapy, a virtual reality-based platform for rehabilitation of the upper limb. We describe the system architecture and main features of the platform and provide preliminary evidence of the feasibility of the platform in its current status. PMID:24760913

  8. Virtual reality in the psychological treatment for mental health problems: An systematic review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Valmaggia, Lucia R; Latif, Leila; Kempton, Matthew J; Rus-Calafell, Maria

    2016-02-28

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of controlled studies of the use of Virtual Reality in psychological treatment (VRT). Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Only studies comparing immersive virtual reality to a control condition were included. The search resulted in 1180 articles published between 2012 and 2015, of these, 24 were controlled studies. The reviewed studies confirm the effectiveness of VRT compared to treatment as usual, and show similar effectiveness when VRT is compared to conventional treatments. Current developments and future research are discussed.

  9. An interactive Virtual Reality simulation system for robot control and operator training

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, N.E.; Stansfield, S.A.

    1993-11-01

    Robotic systems are often very complex and difficult to operate, especially as multiple robots are integrated to accomplish difficult tasks. In addition, training the operators of these complex robotic systems is time-consuming and costly. In this paper, a virtual reality based robotic control system is presented. The virtual reality system provides a means by which operators can operate, and be trained to operate, complex robotic systems in an intuitive, cost-effective way. Operator interaction with the robotic system is at a high, task-oriented, level. Continuous state monitoring prevents illegal robot actions and provides interactive feedback to the operator and real-time training for novice users.

  10. Gesture therapy: an upper limb virtual reality-based motor rehabilitation platform.

    PubMed

    Sucar, Luis Enrique; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Velazquez, Roger Luis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Leder, Ronald; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Virtual reality platforms capable of assisting rehabilitation must provide support for rehabilitation principles: promote repetition, task oriented training, appropriate feedback, and a motivating environment. As such, development of these platforms is a complex process which has not yet reached maturity. This paper presents our efforts to contribute to this field, presenting Gesture Therapy, a virtual reality-based platform for rehabilitation of the upper limb. We describe the system architecture and main features of the platform and provide preliminary evidence of the feasibility of the platform in its current status.

  11. Virtual reality aided visualization of fluid flow simulations with application in medical education and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Tijana; Mandic, Vesna; Filipovic, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    Medical education, training and preoperative diagnostics can be drastically improved with advanced technologies, such as virtual reality. The method proposed in this paper enables medical doctors and students to visualize and manipulate three-dimensional models created from CT or MRI scans, and also to analyze the results of fluid flow simulations. Simulation of fluid flow using the finite element method is performed, in order to compute the shear stress on the artery walls. The simulation of motion through the artery is also enabled. The virtual reality system proposed here could shorten the length of training programs and make the education process more effective. PMID:24290920

  12. Computational Virtual Reality (VR) as a human-computer interface in the operation of telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.

  13. Virtual reality and computer-enhanced training applied to wheeled mobility: an overview of work in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan; Simpson, Richard; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Spaeth, Donald M; Guo, Songfeng; Koontz, Alicia M; Cooper, Rosemarie; Kim, Jongbae; Boninger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Some aspects of assistive technology can be enhanced by the application of virtual reality. Although virtual simulation offers a range of new possibilities, learning to navigate in a virtual environment is not equivalent to learning to navigate in the real world. Therefore, virtual reality simulation is advocated as a useful preparation for assessment and training within the physical environment. We are engaged in several efforts to develop virtual environments and devices for mobility skills assessment and training, exercise training, and environment assessment. Virtual reality offers wheelchair users a training tool in different risk-free environments without any indoor (e.g., walls, furniture, and stairs) and outdoor (e.g., curb cuts, uneven terrain, and street traffic) physical constraints. Virtual reality technology will probably become more common in the field of assistive technology, especially given the rapid expansion of gaming technology and the continued exponential growth of computing power.

  14. Commercial building energy standards implementation: Myth vs reality

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Shankle, D.

    1992-08-01

    Since the advent of building energy standards almost 20 years ago there have been numerous codes, standards, and regulations (herein after referred to as standards) developed, adopted, and applied to new commercial building design and construction. The development of these standards occurs primarily at the national level, while adoption and implementation occurs at the state and local levels of government. Many assume that the mere adoption of a standard ensures that compliance is achieved and energy conserving buildings automatically result from the process. This assumption accounts for the myth that all buildings are constructed in compliance with the adopted standard and in reality many are not. There are many different processes by which standards are adopted and actually implemented, and they directly affect how close reality is to the myth. The paper presents the different processes used throughout the US to adopt and implement building energy standards for new commercial buildings, reviews available studies on compliance, discusses the reasons for reduced compliance, and suggests programs to improve today`s realities.

  15. Commercial building energy standards implementation: Myth vs reality

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Shankle, D.

    1992-08-01

    Since the advent of building energy standards almost 20 years ago there have been numerous codes, standards, and regulations (herein after referred to as standards) developed, adopted, and applied to new commercial building design and construction. The development of these standards occurs primarily at the national level, while adoption and implementation occurs at the state and local levels of government. Many assume that the mere adoption of a standard ensures that compliance is achieved and energy conserving buildings automatically result from the process. This assumption accounts for the myth that all buildings are constructed in compliance with the adopted standard and in reality many are not. There are many different processes by which standards are adopted and actually implemented, and they directly affect how close reality is to the myth. The paper presents the different processes used throughout the US to adopt and implement building energy standards for new commercial buildings, reviews available studies on compliance, discusses the reasons for reduced compliance, and suggests programs to improve today's realities.

  16. A computer-based training system combining virtual reality and multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansfield, Sharon A.

    1993-01-01

    Training new users of complex machines is often an expensive and time-consuming process. This is particularly true for special purpose systems, such as those frequently encountered in DOE applications. This paper presents a computer-based training system intended as a partial solution to this problem. The system extends the basic virtual reality (VR) training paradigm by adding a multimedia component which may be accessed during interaction with the virtual environment. The 3D model used to create the virtual reality is also used as the primary navigation tool through the associated multimedia. This method exploits the natural mapping between a virtual world and the real world that it represents to provide a more intuitive way for the student to interact with all forms of information about the system.

  17. Can we use virtual reality tools in the planning of an experiment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucaba-Pietal, Anna; Szumski, Marek; Szczerba, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has proved to be a particularly useful tool in engineering and design. A related area of aviation in which VR is particularly significant is a flight training, as it requires many hours of practice and using real planes for all training is both expensive and more dangerous. Research conducted at the Rzeszow University of Technology (RUT) showed that virtual reality can be successfully used for planning experiment during a flight tests. Motivation to the study were a wing deformation measurements of PW-6 glider in flight by use Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT) planned within the frame of AIM2 project. The tool VirlIPCT was constructed, which permits to perform virtual IPCT setup on an airplane. Using it, we can test a camera position, camera resolution, pattern application. Moreover performed tests on RUT indicate, that VirlIPCT can be used as a virtual IPCT image generator. This paper presents results of the research on VirlIPCT.

  18. A computer-based training system combining virtual reality and multimedia

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1993-04-28

    Training new users of complex machines is often an expensive and time-consuming process. This is particularly true for special purpose systems, such as those frequently encountered in DOE applications. This paper presents a computer-based training system intended as a partial solution to this problem. The system extends the basic virtual reality (VR) training paradigm by adding a multimedia component which may be accessed during interaction with the virtual environment: The 3D model used to create the virtual reality is also used as the primary navigation tool through the associated multimedia. This method exploits the natural mapping between a virtual world and the real world that it represents to provide a more intuitive way for the student to interact with all forms of information about the system.

  19. Virtual Reality and Its Potential Use in Special Education. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, John

    As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the possible contributions of virtual reality technology to educational services for students with disabilities. An example of the use of virtual reality in medical imaging introduces the paper and leads to a brief review of…

  20. Study of Co-Located and Distant Collaboration with Symbolic Support via a Haptics-Enhanced Virtual Reality Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wang, Jin-Liang; Zhan, Shi-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate how multi-symbolic representations (text, digits, and colors) could effectively enhance the completion of co-located/distant collaborative work in a virtual reality context. Participants' perceptions and behaviors were also studied. A haptics-enhanced virtual reality task was developed to conduct…

  1. The Learner Characteristics, Features of Desktop 3D Virtual Reality Environments, and College Chemistry Instruction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Zahira; Goetz, Ernest T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Kwok, Oi-man; Cifuentes, Lauren; Davis, Trina J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined a model of the impact of a 3D desktop virtual reality environment on the learner characteristics (i.e. perceptual and psychological variables) that can enhance chemistry-related learning achievements in an introductory college chemistry class. The relationships between the 3D virtual reality features and the chemistry learning test as…

  2. Combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report using virtual reality exposure therapy with physiological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Murphy, Jennifer; Center, Kristy; McLay, Robert; Reeves, Dennis; Pyne, Jeff; Shilling, Russell; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2007-04-01

    The current report summarizes a case study from an Office of Naval Research (ONR) funded project to compare the effects of virtual reality graded exposure therapy (VRGET) with cognitive behavioral group therapy in active-duty corpsmen. Details of the collaborative program between the Virtual Reality Medical Center (VRMC) and Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) will be discussed.

  3. Virtual reality assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of Panic Disorders with Agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Vincelli, F; Choi, H; Molinari, E; Wiederhold, B K; Bouchard, S; Riva, G

    2002-01-01

    The chapter describes the characteristics of the Experiential-Cognitive Therapy (ECT) protocol for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. The goal of ECT is to decondition fear reactions, to modify misinterpretational cognition related to panic symptoms and to reduce anxiety symptoms. This is possible in an average of eight sessions of treatment plus an assessment phase and booster sessions, through the integration of Virtual Experience and traditional cognitive-behavioral techniques. We decided to employ the techniques included in the cognitive-behavioral approach because they showed high levels of efficacy. Through virtual environments we can gradually expose the patient to feared situation: virtual reality consent to re-create in our clinical office a real experiential world. The patient faces the feared stimuli in a context that is nearer to reality than imagination. For ECT we developed the Virtual Environments for Panic Disorders--VEPD--virtual reality system. VEPD is a 4-zone virtual environment developed using the Superscape VRT 5.6 toolkit. The four zones reproduce different potentially fearful situations--an elevator, a supermarket, a subway ride, and large square. In each zone the characteristics of the anxiety-related experience are defined by the therapist through a setup menu.

  4. ASTRONOMY: The Virtual Observatory Moves Closer to Reality.

    PubMed

    Schilling, G

    2000-07-14

    Data from decades of observations by dozens of instruments may soon be accessible over the Internet, changing the way that astronomy is done around the world. The National Virtual Observatory will be an electronic web that gives astronomers access to terabytes of celestial data with the click of a mouse. The virtual observatory promises to make possible new analyses of the heavens by weaving together information from facilities around the world--and in space. PMID:17750399

  5. Developing safer systems in a NPP environment using the operator`s comfort parameters and virtual reality

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The contents of this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays from the operator`s point of view, and the utilization of virtual reality for operations, training and maintenance repairs. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its use in strengthening design choices from the user`s perspective model of the environment. The contents of this paper focuses on the results which may be implemented in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing systems which are less inherently error prone.

  6. A New Roman World: Using Virtual Reality Technology as a Critical Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Elaine W.; Levis, Marc R.

    The purpose of this study is to examine how technology, namely virtual reality (VR), can be developed as a critical pedagogical tool. More specifically, the study explores whether the use of VR can challenge the traditional lecture format and make the classroom a more student-centered environment. In this instance, VR is defined as a set of…

  7. Use of Virtual Reality Technology to Enhance Undergraduate Learning in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the fear…

  8. Enhancing Time-Connectives with 3D Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Eden, Sigal

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to test the most efficient representation mode with which children with hearing impairment could express a story while producing connectives indicating relations of time and of cause and effect. Using Bruner's (1973, 1986, 1990) representation stages, we tested the comparative effectiveness of Virtual Reality (VR) as a mode of…

  9. The Effects of Virtual Reality-based Balance Training on Balance of the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gyeong Hee; Hwangbo, Gak; Shin, Hyung Soo

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effects of virtual reality-based balance training on balance of the elderly. [Methods] The subjects were 32 healthy elderly people aged between 65 and 80, who were divided into a VR (virtual reality) training group (n=17) and a control group (n=15). The VR training group engaged in a 30-minute exercise session using Wii Fit three times a week for eight weeks, while the control group received no intervention. The balance of the two groups was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] According to the Romberg Test conducted to examine the effects of the training on balance, both the area covered by the body's center of pressure movement, and movement distances per unit area of the body's center of pressure envelope significantly decreased in the VR training group. Moreover, the two groups showed significant differences in balance. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training is effective at improving the balance of the healthy elderly. Thus, virtual reality training can be proposed as a form of fall prevention exercise for the elderly.

  10. A rapid algorithm for realistic human reaching and its use in a virtual reality system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Ann; Pandya, Abhilash; Goldsby, Michael; Maida, James

    1994-01-01

    The Graphics Analysis Facility (GRAF) at JSC has developed a rapid algorithm for computing realistic human reaching. The algorithm was applied to GRAF's anthropometrically correct human model and used in a 3D computer graphics system and a virtual reality system. The nature of the algorithm and its uses are discussed.

  11. Improving Physical Fitness of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disability through a Virtual Reality Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with IDD. A research group (N = 30; mean age = 52.3 plus or minus 5.8 years; moderate IDD…

  12. Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Using Wii Gaming Technology in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chiang, Ching-Sui; Su, Chwen-Yng; Wang, Chih-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effect of standard occupational therapy (SOT) and virtual reality using Wii gaming technology (VRWii) on children with Down syndrome (DS). Children (n=105) were randomly assigned to intervention with either SOT or VRWii, while another 50 served as controls. All children were assessed with measures of…

  13. Virtual Reality Exposure in the Treatment of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helena Villa; Botella, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Osma, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present a case example of the use of virtual reality exposure for the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. The assessment protocol and procedure (including a baseline period) and the cognitive-behavioral treatment program are described. The clinical measures were categorized into target behaviors, panic and agoraphobia…

  14. From Vesalius to Virtual Reality: How Embodied Cognition Facilitates the Visualization of Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the facilitative effects of embodiment of a complex internal anatomical structure through three-dimensional ("3-D") interactivity in a virtual reality ("VR") program. Since Shepard and Metzler's influential 1971 study, it has been known that 3-D objects (e.g., multiple-armed cube or external body parts) are visually and…

  15. Brief Report: Two Case Studies Using Virtual Reality as a Learning Tool for Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Dorothy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of two children (ages 7 and 9) with autism investigated whether they would tolerate virtual reality (VR) equipment and respond to the computer-generated world in a meaningful way. The children accepted the VR helmet, identified objects and their qualities, and located and moved toward objects. (CR)

  16. The Potential of Virtual Reality to Assess Functional Communication in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Linda J.; Rebolledo, Mercedes; Metthe, Lynn; Lefebvre, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with adults with cognitive-linguistic impairments, including aphasia, have long needed an assessment tool that predicts ability to function in the real world. In this article, it is argued that virtual reality (VR)-supported approaches can address this need. Using models of disability such as the…

  17. Three Primary School Students' Cognition about 3D Rotation in a Virtual Reality Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Andy

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on three primary school students' explorations of 3D rotation in a virtual reality learning environment (VRLE) named VRMath. When asked to investigate if you would face the same direction when you turn right 45 degrees first then roll up 45 degrees, or when you roll up 45 degrees first then turn right 45 degrees, the students…

  18. Investigating Learners' Attitudes toward Virtual Reality Learning Environments: Based on a Constructivist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Rauch, Ulrich; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The use of animation and multimedia for learning is now further extended by the provision of entire Virtual Reality Learning Environments (VRLE). This highlights a shift in Web-based learning from a conventional multimedia to a more immersive, interactive, intuitive and exciting VR learning environment. VRLEs simulate the real world through the…

  19. Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience Research Biocomputation. To study human disorders of balance and space motion sickness. Shown here is a 3D reconstruction of a nerve ending in inner ear, nature's wiring of balance organs.

  20. Virtual Reality as a Leisure Activity for Young Adults with Physical and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2008-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is a fundamental human right and an important factor of quality of life. Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and physical disabilities often experience limited opportunities to participate in leisure activities, virtual reality (VR) technologies may serve to broaden their repertoire of accessible leisure…

  1. Fear of falling: efficacy of virtual reality associated with serious games in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Komano, Odile; Millet, Bruno; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fear of falling is defined as an ongoing concern about falling that is not explained by physical examination. Focusing on the psychological dimension of this pathology (phobic reaction to walking), we looked at how virtual reality associated with serious games can be used to treat this pathology. Methods Participants with fear of falling were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a waiting list. The therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games. Results Sixteen participants were included. The mean age of the treatment group was 72 years and that of the control group was 69 years. Participants’ scores on the fear of falling measure improved after treatment with virtual reality associated with serious games, leading to a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion Virtual reality exposure therapy associated with serious games can be used in the treatment of fear of falling. The two techniques are complementary (top-down and bottom-up processes). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a combination of the two has been assessed. There was a specific effect of this therapy on the phobic reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and identify its underlying mechanism. PMID:27143889

  2. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  3. Documenting the efficacy of virtual reality exposure with psychophysiological and information processing measures.

    PubMed

    Côté, Sophie; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2005-09-01

    Many outcome studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of virtual reality in the treatment of specific phobias. However, most studies used self-report data. The addition of objective measures of arousal and information processing mechanisms would be a valuable contribution in order to validate the usefulness of virtual reality in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The goal of this study was to document the impact of virtual reality exposure (VRE) on cardiac response and automatic processing of threatening stimuli. Twenty-eight adults suffering from arachnophobia were assessed and received an exposure-based treatment using virtual reality. General outcome and specific processes measures included a battery of standardized questionnaires, a pictorial emotional Stroop task, a behavioral avoidance test and a measure of participants' inter-beat intervals (IBI) while they were looking at a live tarantula. Assessment was conducted before and after treatment. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that therapy had a positive impact on questionnaire data, as well as on the behavioral avoidance test. Analyses made on the pictorial Stroop task showed that information processing of spider-related stimuli changed after treatment, which also indicates therapeutic success. Psychophysiological data also showed a positive change after treatment, suggesting a decrease in anxiety. In sum, VRE led to significant therapeutic improvements on objective measures as well as on self-report instruments. PMID:16167187

  4. Linking Audio and Visual Information while Navigating in a Virtual Reality Kiosk Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Briana; Ware, Colin; Plumlee, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    3D interactive virtual reality museum exhibits should be easy to use, entertaining, and informative. If the interface is intuitive, it will allow the user more time to learn the educational content of the exhibit. This research deals with interface issues concerning activating audio descriptions of images in such exhibits while the user is…

  5. Design and Development of Virtual Reality: Analysis of Challenges Faced by Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Kami; Shelton, Brett E.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an increasingly attractive lure of using virtual reality applications for teaching in all areas of education, but perhaps the largest detriment to its use is the intimidating nature of VR technology for non-technical instructors. What are the challenges to using VR technology for the design and development of VR-based instructional…

  6. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Virtual Reality in Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the full text of the following full and short papers on virtual reality in education from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A CAL System for Appreciation of 3D Shapes by Surface Development (C3D-SD)" (Stephen C. F. Chan, Andy…

  7. Construction of a Virtual Reality Learning Environment for Teaching Structural Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien; Hsu, Hsieh-Lung; Yao, Yu-Seng

    1997-01-01

    Although structural analysis is a fundamental subject in civil engineering, its abstract concepts and the difficulty in visualizing them pose problems for students. This article examines the application of virtual reality (VR) to civil engineering. Describes the design, development, and evaluation of a VR-based learning center for a structural…

  8. Integrating Video-Capture Virtual Reality Technology into a Physically Interactive Learning Environment for English Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Chih Hung; Jeng, Ming Chang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design and develop a Physically Interactive Learning Environment, the PILE system, by integrating video-capture virtual reality technology into a classroom. The system is designed for elementary school level English classes where students can interact with the system through physical movements. The system is designed to…

  9. Usability evaluation of low-cost virtual reality hand and arm rehabilitation games.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Arun Kumar, Jayashree; Hur, Pilwon; Crocher, Vincent; Motawar, Binal; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of lower-cost motion tracking devices enables home-based virtual reality rehabilitation activities and increased accessibility to patients. Currently, little documentation on patients' expectations for virtual reality rehabilitation is available. This study surveyed 10 people with stroke for their expectations of virtual reality rehabilitation games. This study also evaluated the usability of three lower-cost virtual reality rehabilitation games using a survey and House of Quality analysis. The games (kitchen, archery, and puzzle) were developed in the laboratory to encourage coordinated finger and arm movements. Lower-cost motion tracking devices, the P5 Glove and Microsoft Kinect, were used to record the movements. People with stroke were found to desire motivating and easy-to-use games with clinical insights and encouragement from therapists. The House of Quality analysis revealed that the games should be improved by obtaining evidence for clinical effectiveness, including clinical feedback regarding improving functional abilities, adapting the games to the user's changing functional ability, and improving usability of the motion-tracking devices. This study reports the expectations of people with stroke for rehabilitation games and usability analysis that can help guide development of future games. PMID:27271199

  10. Desktop Virtual Reality: A Powerful New Technology for Teaching and Research in Industrial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ausburn, Floyd B.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual Reality has been defined in many different ways and now means different things in various contexts. VR can range from simple environments presented on a desktop computer to fully immersive multisensory environments experienced through complex headgear and bodysuits. In all of its manifestations, VR is basically a way of simulating or…

  11. The Design, Development and Evaluation of a Virtual Reality Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers and instructional designers increasingly recognise the benefits of utilising three dimensional virtual reality (VR) technology in instruction. In general, there are two types of VR system, the immersive system and the non-immersive system. This article focuses on the latter system that merely uses the conventional personal…

  12. Pedagogical Agents in Virtual Reality Environments: Do Multimedia Principles Still Apply?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Roxana

    This paper reviews a set of studies that examined what students learn in various virtual reality environments (VREs) designed to promote an understanding of environmental science. The goal of the reported studies was to provide an update to the classic distinction between the role of media versus method in promoting learning (Clark, 1999). Media…

  13. Is Virtual Reality a Useful Tool in the Teaching of Physiology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This opinion statement points out some of the considerations and pitfalls in using virtual reality computer programs in the teaching of life sciences. Emphasis is placed on the possibility of such programs leading to reductionist thinking including how reductionist thinking could foster the formation of misconceptions. Negative feedback is used as…

  14. Effects of Virtual Reality on the Cognitive Memory and Handgun Accuracy Development of Law Enforcement Neophytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training on the development of cognitive memory and handgun accuracy by law enforcement neophytes. One hundred and six academy students from 6 different academy classes were divided into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group was exposed to virtual…

  15. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  16. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  17. Students' Expectations of the Learning Process in Virtual Reality and Simulation-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki

    2012-01-01

    Expectations for simulations in healthcare education are high; however, little is known about healthcare students' expectations of the learning process in virtual reality (VR) and simulation-based learning environments (SBLEs). This research aims to describe first-year healthcare students' (N=97) expectations regarding teaching, studying, and…

  18. Use of Signaling to Integrate Desktop Virtual Reality and Online Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Bucky J.; Antonenko, Pavlo D.

    2012-01-01

    Desktop virtual reality is an emerging educational technology that offers many potential benefits for learners in online learning contexts; however, a limited body of research is available that connects current multimedia learning techniques with these new forms of media. Because most formal online learning is delivered using learning management…

  19. A Feasibility Study of Virtual Reality-Based Coping Skills Training for Nicotine Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Traylor, Amy C.; Carter, Brian L.; Graap, Ken M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Virtual reality (VR)-based cue reactivity has been successfully used for the assessment of drug craving. Going beyond assessment of cue reactivity, a novel VR-based treatment approach for smoking cessation was developed and tested for feasibility. Method: In a randomized experiment, 10-week treatment feasibility trial, 46…

  20. Enhancing an Instructional Design Model for Virtual Reality-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Teh, Chee Siong

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively utilize the capabilities of virtual reality (VR) in supporting the desired learning outcomes, careful consideration in the design of instruction for VR learning is crucial. In line with this concern, previous work proposed an instructional design model that prescribes instructional methods to guide the design of VR-based…

  1. Virtual Reality Exposure and Imaginal Exposure in the Treatment of Fear of Flying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rus-Calafell, Mar; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Jose; Botella, Cristina; Banos, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Fear of flying (FF) is an impairing psychological disorder that is extremely common in developed countries. The most effective treatment for this particular type of phobia is exposure therapy. However, there are few studies comparing imaginal exposure (IE) and virtual reality (VR) exposure for the treatment of FF. The present study compared the…

  2. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  3. Brief Report: A Pilot Study of the Use of a Virtual Reality Headset in Autism Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbutt, Nigel; Sung, Connie; Kuo, Hung-Jen; Leahy, Michael J.; Lin, Chien-Chun; Tong, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    The application of virtual reality technologies (VRTs) for users with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied for decades. However, a gap remains in our understanding surrounding VRT head-mounted displays (HMDs). As newly designed HMDs have become commercially available (in this study the Oculus Rift[superscript TM]) the need to…

  4. Immersive Virtual Reality in the Psychology Classroom: What Purpose Could it Serve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxon, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality is by no means a new technology, yet it is increasingly being used, to different degrees, in education, training, rehabilitation, therapy, and home entertainment. Although the exact reasons for this shift are not the subject of this short opinion piece, it is possible to speculate that decreased costs, and increased performance, of…

  5. Improving the Efficiency of Virtual Reality Training by Integrating Partly Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuviler-Gavish, Nirit; Rodríguez, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Sánchez, Emilio; Casado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The current study hypothesized that integrating partly observational learning into virtual reality training systems (VRTS) can enhance training efficiency for procedural tasks. A common approach in designing VRTS is the enactive approach, which stresses the importance of physical actions within the environment to enhance perception and improve…

  6. A Physiologically Informed Virtual Reality Based Social Communication System for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Uttama; Bekele, Esubalew; Dohrmann, Elizabeth; Warren, Zachary; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This project evaluated the application of a novel physiologically responsive virtual reality based technological system for conversation skills in a group of adolescents with ASD. The system altered components…

  7. Feasibility of Using Virtual Reality to Assess Nicotine Cue Reactivity during Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganoff, Eili; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Cue reactivity assessments have been widely used to assess craving and attention to cues among cigarette smokers. Cue reactivity has the potential to offer insights into treatment decisions; however, the use of cue reactivity in treatment studies has been limited. This study assessed the feasibility of using a virtual reality-based cue reactivity…

  8. Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: One-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safir, Marilyn P.; Wallach, Helene S.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2012-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common social phobia. Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice, difficulties arise with both in vivo and in vitro exposure (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, and a lack of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT…

  9. An Evolution of Virtual Reality Training Designs for Children with Autism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Dorothy C.; McAllister, David; Coles, Claire D.; Osborne, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an evolution of training programs to use first-person interaction in virtual reality (VR) situations to teach safety skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Multiple VR programs for children aged 2 to 9 were built and tested between 1992 and 2007. Based on these…

  10. Virtual Reality Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Helene S.; Safir, Marilyn P.; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2009-01-01

    Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is a common phobia. Although cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is preferred, difficulties arise with the exposure component (lack of therapist control, patient's inability to imagine, self-flooding, loss of confidentiality resulting from public exposure). Virtual reality CBT (VRCBT) enables a high degree of therapist…

  11. Does Handedness Influence the Strength of Phantom Limb Illusions in the Virtual Reality Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett-Cowan, M.; Peters, M.

    2004-01-01

    Subjects had to judge the size of a tactile stimulus held in the unseen hand, while a visible phantom hand representing that unseen hand held a tactile stimulus of same or different size. No asymmetries in interference effects were found that could be related to hand or handedness. The method lends itself to quantification of virtual reality box…

  12. Road-Crossing Safety in Virtual Reality: A Comparison of Adolescents With and Without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Tamera A.; Rucklidge, Julia J.; Owen, Dean

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the potential accident-proneness of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a hazardous road-crossing environment. An immersive virtual reality traffic gap-choice task was used to determine whether ADHD adolescents show more unsafe road-crossing behavior than controls. Participants (ages 13 to…

  13. An Exploration of Desktop Virtual Reality and Visual Processing Skills in a Technical Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Ausburn, Floyd B.; Kroutter, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has demonstrated effectiveness in a variety of technical learning situations, yet little is known about its differential effects on learners with different levels of visual processing skill. This small-scale exploratory study tested VR through quasi-experimental methodology and a theoretical/conceptual framework…

  14. Virtual Reality on a Desktop Hailed as New Tool in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes college and university educational applications of desktop virtual reality to provide a more human touch to interactive distance education programs and impress the brain with more vivid images. Critics suggest the technology is too costly and time consuming and may even distract students from the content of an online course. (DB)

  15. The Input-Interface of Webcam Applied in 3D Virtual Reality Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Huey-Min; Cheng, Wen-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Our research explores a virtual reality application based on Web camera (Webcam) input-interface. The interface can replace with the mouse to control direction intention of a user by the method of frame difference. We divide a frame into nine grids from Webcam and make use of the background registration to compute the moving object. In order to…

  16. Usability evaluation of low-cost virtual reality hand and arm rehabilitation games.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Arun Kumar, Jayashree; Hur, Pilwon; Crocher, Vincent; Motawar, Binal; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of lower-cost motion tracking devices enables home-based virtual reality rehabilitation activities and increased accessibility to patients. Currently, little documentation on patients' expectations for virtual reality rehabilitation is available. This study surveyed 10 people with stroke for their expectations of virtual reality rehabilitation games. This study also evaluated the usability of three lower-cost virtual reality rehabilitation games using a survey and House of Quality analysis. The games (kitchen, archery, and puzzle) were developed in the laboratory to encourage coordinated finger and arm movements. Lower-cost motion tracking devices, the P5 Glove and Microsoft Kinect, were used to record the movements. People with stroke were found to desire motivating and easy-to-use games with clinical insights and encouragement from therapists. The House of Quality analysis revealed that the games should be improved by obtaining evidence for clinical effectiveness, including clinical feedback regarding improving functional abilities, adapting the games to the user's changing functional ability, and improving usability of the motion-tracking devices. This study reports the expectations of people with stroke for rehabilitation games and usability analysis that can help guide development of future games.

  17. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

  18. Using Virtual Reality Computer Models to Support Student Understanding of Astronomical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa; Keating, Tom; Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how 3-dimensional (3-D) models of the Solar System supported student development of conceptual understandings of various astronomical phenomena that required a change in frame of reference. In the course described in this study, students worked in teams to design and construct 3-D virtual reality computer…

  19. Networked virtual reality for real-time 4D navigation of astrophysical turbulence data

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.; Malagoli, A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a prototype distributed virtual reality system for real-time spatial and temporal navigation of volumetric data generated by simulations of hydrodynamic turbulence on high-performance computers. This system makes use of a virtual environment connected to a scalably parallel computer via a scalably high-speed network. The data are either computed in real-time or precomputed on the parallel computer, then are transferred to the virtual environment where fast volume visualization is accomplished by using sophisticated three-dimensional texture-mapping hardware.

  20. Integration of Virtual Reality with Computational Fluid Dynamics for Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Chen, G. H.; Fu, D.; Moreland, John; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2010-03-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become a powerful simulation technology used in many industrial applications for process design and optimization to save energy, improve environment, and reduce costs. In order to better understand CFD results and more easily communicate with non-CFD experts, advanced virtual reality (VR) visualization is desired for CFD post-processing. Efforts have recently been made at Purdue University Calumet to integrate VR with CFD to visualize complex data in three dimensions in an interactive, virtual environment. The virtual engineering environment greatly enhances the value of CFD simulations and allows engineers to gain much needed process insights for the design and optimization of industrial processes.

  1. Cue-elicited anxiety and craving for food using virtual reality scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla, Joana

    2013-01-01

    Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical sample. The results show that exposure to virtual environments provokes changes in reported craving for food. High-calorie food cues are the ones that elicit the highest increases in craving. PMID:23792853

  2. Social facilitation in virtual reality-enhanced exercise: competitiveness moderates exercise effort of older adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Snyder, Amanda L; Nimon, Joseph P; Arciero, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of virtual social facilitation and competitiveness on exercise effort in exergaming older adults. Fourteen exergaming older adults participated. Competitiveness was assessed prior to the start of exercise. Participants were trained to ride a "cybercycle;" a virtual reality-enhanced stationary bike with interactive competition. After establishing a cybercycling baseline, competitive avatars were introduced. Pedaling effort (watts) was assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant group (high vs low competitiveness) × time (pre- to post-avatar) interaction (F[1,12] = 13.1, P = 0.003). Virtual social facilitation increased exercise effort among more competitive exercisers. Exercise programs that match competitiveness may maximize exercise effort.

  3. Virtual Environment User Interfaces to Support RLV and Space Station Simulations in the ANVIL Virtual Reality Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, Joseph D., II

    1998-01-01

    Several virtual reality I/O peripherals were successfully configured and integrated as part of the author's 1997 Summer Faculty Fellowship work. These devices, which were not supported by the developers of VR software packages, use new software drivers and configuration files developed by the author to allow them to be used with simulations developed using those software packages. The successful integration of these devices has added significant capability to the ANVIL lab at MSFC. In addition, the author was able to complete the integration of a networked virtual reality simulation of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System docking Space Station modules which was begun as part of his 1996 Fellowship. The successful integration of this simulation demonstrates the feasibility of using VR technology for ground-based training as well as on-orbit operations.

  4. Towards Determination of Visual Requirements for Augmented Reality Displays and Virtual Environments for the Airport Tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    The visual requirements for augmented reality or virtual environments displays that might be used in real or virtual towers are reviewed wi th respect to similar displays already used in aircraft. As an example of the type of human performance studies needed to determine the use ful specifications of augmented reality displays, an optical see-thro ugh display was used in an ATC Tower simulation. Three different binocular fields of view (14 deg, 28 deg, and 47 deg) were examined to det ermine their effect on subjects# ability to detect aircraft maneuveri ng and landing. The results suggest that binocular fields of view much greater than 47 deg are unlikely to dramatically improve search perf ormance and that partial binocular overlap is a feasible display tech nique for augmented reality Tower applications.

  5. Towards Determination of Visual Requirements for Augmented Reality Displays and Virtual Environments for the Airport Tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    The visual requirements for augmented reality or virtual environments displays that might be used in real or virtual towers are reviewed with respect to similar displays already used in aircraft. As an example of the type of human performance studies needed to determine the useful specifications of augmented reality displays, an optical see-through display was used in an ATC Tower simulation. Three different binocular fields of view (14deg, 28deg, and 47deg) were examined to determine their effect on subjects ability to detect aircraft maneuvering and landing. The results suggest that binocular fields of view much greater than 47deg are unlikely to dramatically improve search performance and that partial binocular overlap is a feasible display technique for augmented reality Tower applications.

  6. Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation: an abridged version of a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Laver, K; George, S; Thomas, S; Deutsch, J E; Crotty, M

    2015-08-01

    Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as new treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation settings over the last ten years. The primary objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality on upper limb function and activity after stroke. The impact on secondary outcomes including gait, cognitive function and activities of daily living was also assessed. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing virtual reality with an alternative intervention or no intervention were eligible to be included in the review. The authors searched a number of electronic databases including: the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, clinical trial registers, reference lists, Dissertation Abstracts and contacted key researchers in the field. Search results were independently examined by two review authors to identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 randomized or quasi randomized controlled trials with a total of 1019 participants were included in the review. Virtual reality was found to be significantly more effective than conventional therapy in improving upper limb function (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.28, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.08 to 0.49) based on 12 studies and significantly more effective than no therapy in improving upper limber function (SMD 0.44 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.73]) based on nine studies. The use of virtual reality also significantly improved activities of daily living function when compared to more conventional therapy approaches (SMD 0.43 [95% CI 0.18 to 0.69]) based on eight studies. While there are a large number of studies assessing the efficacy of virtual reality they tend to be small and many are at risk of bias. While there is evidence to support the use of virtual reality intervention as part of upper limb training programs, more research is required to determine whether it

  7. Comparing "pick and place" task in spatial Augmented Reality versus non-immersive Virtual Reality for rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Maryam; Hondori, Hossein Mousavi; Dodakian, Lucy; Cramer, Steve; Lopes, Cristina V

    2013-01-01

    Introducing computer games to the rehabilitation market led to development of numerous Virtual Reality (VR) training applications. Although VR has provided tremendous benefit to the patients and caregivers, it has inherent limitations, some of which might be solved by replacing it with Augmented Reality (AR). The task of pick-and-place, which is part of many activities of daily living (ADL's), is one of the major affected functions stroke patients mainly expect to recover. We developed an exercise consisting of moving an object between various points, following a flash light that indicates the next target. The results show superior performance of subjects in spatial AR versus non-immersive VR setting. This could be due to the extraneous hand-eye coordination which exists in VR whereas it is eliminated in spatial AR. PMID:24110762

  8. Comparing "pick and place" task in spatial Augmented Reality versus non-immersive Virtual Reality for rehabilitation setting.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Maryam; Hondori, Hossein Mousavi; Dodakian, Lucy; Cramer, Steve; Lopes, Cristina V

    2013-01-01

    Introducing computer games to the rehabilitation market led to development of numerous Virtual Reality (VR) training applications. Although VR has provided tremendous benefit to the patients and caregivers, it has inherent limitations, some of which might be solved by replacing it with Augmented Reality (AR). The task of pick-and-place, which is part of many activities of daily living (ADL's), is one of the major affected functions stroke patients mainly expect to recover. We developed an exercise consisting of moving an object between various points, following a flash light that indicates the next target. The results show superior performance of subjects in spatial AR versus non-immersive VR setting. This could be due to the extraneous hand-eye coordination which exists in VR whereas it is eliminated in spatial AR.

  9. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs.

  10. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs. PMID:26985781

  11. Immersive virtual reality for visualization of abdominal CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiufeng; Xu, Zhoubing; Li, Bo; Baucom, Rebeccah; Poulose, Benjamin; Landman, Bennett A.; Bodenheimer, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Immersive virtual environments use a stereoscopic head-mounted display and data glove to create high fidelity virtual experiences in which users can interact with three-dimensional models and perceive relationships at their true scale. This stands in stark contrast to traditional PACS-based infrastructure in which images are viewed as stacks of two dimensional slices, or, at best, disembodied renderings. Although there has substantial innovation in immersive virtual environments for entertainment and consumer media, these technologies have not been widely applied in clinical applications. Here, we consider potential applications of immersive virtual environments for ventral hernia patients with abdominal computed tomography imaging data. Nearly a half million ventral hernias occur in the United States each year, and hernia repair is the most commonly performed general surgery operation worldwide. A significant problem in these conditions is communicating the urgency, degree of severity, and impact of a hernia (and potential repair) on patient quality of life. Hernias are defined by ruptures in the abdominal wall (i.e., the absence of healthy tissues) rather than a growth (e.g., cancer); therefore, understanding a hernia necessitates understanding the entire abdomen. Our environment allows surgeons and patients to view body scans at scale and interact with these virtual models using a data glove. This visualization and interaction allows users to perceive the relationship between physical structures and medical imaging data. The system provides close integration of PACS-based CT data with immersive virtual environments and creates opportunities to study and optimize interfaces for patient communication, operative planning, and medical education.

  12. Virtual reality environment for simulating tasks with a myoelectric prosthesis: an assessment and training tool

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Joris M.; Pulliam, Christopher L.; Kirsch, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Intuitively and efficiently controlling multiple degrees of freedom is a major hurdle in the field of upper limb prosthetics. A virtual reality myoelectric transhumeral prosthesis simulator has been developed for cost-effectively testing novel control algorithms and devices. The system acquires EMG commands and residual limb kinematics, simulates the prosthesis dynamics, and displays the combined residual limb and prosthesis movements in a virtual reality environment that includes force-based interactions with virtual objects. A virtual Box and Block Test is demonstrated. Three normally-limbed subjects performed the simulated test using a sequential and a synchronous control method. With the sequential method, subjects moved on average 6.7±1.9 blocks in 120 seconds, similar to the number of blocks transhumeral amputees are able to move with their physical prostheses during clinical evaluation. With the synchronous method, subjects moved 6.7±2.2 blocks. The virtual reality prosthesis simulator is thus a promising tool for developing and evaluating control methods, prototyping novel prostheses, and training amputees. PMID:23476108

  13. UbiWorld: An environment integrating virtual reality, supercomputing and design

    SciTech Connect

    Papka, M.E.; Stevens, R.

    1996-12-31

    UbiWorld is a concept being developed by the Futures Lab Group at Argonne that ties together the notion of Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) with that of using virtual reality for rapid prototyping. The goal is to develop an environment where one can explore Ubicomp type concepts without having to build real Ubicomp hardware. The basic notion is to extend object models in a virtual world using distributed wide area heterogeneous computing technology to provide complex networking and processing capabilities to virtual reality objects. It is relatively easy to imagine elements of Ubicomp systems (tables, curtains, wallpaper cups) but when Mark Weiser`s group at Xerox set out to work in this area they had to build experimental hardware and software systems to test the concepts. Building hardware is expensive and hard and in the end is always problematic because it has to build around the limitations of current computing technology. We imagine a different approach, and call it UbiWorld.

  14. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions. PMID:27633192

  15. Serious games for screening pre-dementia conditions: from virtuality to reality? A pilot project.

    PubMed

    Zucchella, Chiara; Sinforiani, Elena; Tassorelli, Cristina; Cavallini, Elena; Tost-Pardell, Daniela; Grau, Sergi; Pazzi, Stefania; Puricelli, Stefano; Bernini, Sara; Bottiroli, Sara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Sandrini, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Conventional cognitive assessment is based on a pencil-and-paper neuropsychological evaluation, which is time consuming, expensive and requires the involvement of several professionals. Information and communication technology could be exploited to allow the development of tools that are easy to use, reduce the amount of data processing, and provide controllable test conditions. Serious games (SGs) have the potential to be new and effective tools in the management and treatment of cognitive impairments Serious games for screening pre-dementia conditions: from virtuality to reality? A pilot project in the elderly. Moreover, by adopting SGs in 3D virtual reality settings, cognitive functions might be evaluated using tasks that simulate daily activities, increasing the "ecological validity" of the assessment. In this commentary we report our experience in the creation of the Smart Aging platform, a 3D SGand virtual environment-based platform for the early identification and characterization of mild cognitive impairment.

  16. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions.

  17. New directions in the use of virtual reality for food shopping: marketing and education perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. PMID:21527099

  18. Serious games for screening pre-dementia conditions: from virtuality to reality? A pilot project.

    PubMed

    Zucchella, Chiara; Sinforiani, Elena; Tassorelli, Cristina; Cavallini, Elena; Tost-Pardell, Daniela; Grau, Sergi; Pazzi, Stefania; Puricelli, Stefano; Bernini, Sara; Bottiroli, Sara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Sandrini, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Conventional cognitive assessment is based on a pencil-and-paper neuropsychological evaluation, which is time consuming, expensive and requires the involvement of several professionals. Information and communication technology could be exploited to allow the development of tools that are easy to use, reduce the amount of data processing, and provide controllable test conditions. Serious games (SGs) have the potential to be new and effective tools in the management and treatment of cognitive impairments Serious games for screening pre-dementia conditions: from virtuality to reality? A pilot project in the elderly. Moreover, by adopting SGs in 3D virtual reality settings, cognitive functions might be evaluated using tasks that simulate daily activities, increasing the "ecological validity" of the assessment. In this commentary we report our experience in the creation of the Smart Aging platform, a 3D SGand virtual environment-based platform for the early identification and characterization of mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25473734

  19. Virtual Reality and Learning: Where Is the Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to build upon Dalgarno and Lee's model or framework of learning in three-dimensional (3-D) virtual learning environments (VLEs) and to extend their road map for further research in this area. The enhanced model shares the common goal with Dalgarno and Lee of identifying the learning benefits from using 3-D VLEs. The…

  20. EXPLORING ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN A HIGHLY IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geography inherently fills a 3D space and yet we struggle with displaying geography using, primaarily, 2D display devices. Virtual environments offer a more realistically-dimensioned display space and this is being realized in the expanding area of research on 3D Geographic Infor...

  1. Virtual Conferencing in Global Design Education: Dreams and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    The concept and use of the synchronous and asynchronous forms of virtual conferencing is central to the experience of global design education. Easy and ready access to people and information worldwide is at the heart of a paradigm shift in design practice and education, defined by collaboration and digital technology. The dream of smooth, global…

  2. Virtual Labs vs. Remote Labs: Between Myth & Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhalabi, Bassem; Hamza, M. Khalid; Hsu, Sam; Romance, Nancy

    Many United States institutions of higher education have established Web-based educational environments that provide higher education curricula via the Internet and diverse modalities. Success has been limited primarily to virtual classrooms (real audio/video transmission) and/or test taking (online form filing). An extensive survey was carried…

  3. Open Source Meets Virtual Reality--An Instructor's Journey Unearths New Opportunities for Learning, Community, and Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Eileen A.

    2015-01-01

    Opening with the history, recent advances, and emerging ways to use avatar-based virtual reality, an instructor who has used virtual environments since 2007 shares how these environments bring more options to community building, teaching, and education. With the open-source movement, where the source code for virtual environments was made…

  4. But Why Is Everything so Hard to Do? Exploring Learning and the Complexity Factor in Social Virtual Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honebein, Peter C.; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Virtual classrooms and virtual activities have waxed and waned, with most focusing on fostering learning in the cognitive domain and, realistically, most becoming rapidly discontinued. But social virtual realities (SVR) are uniquely "social," so what about interpersonal skills? This article describes the authors' experiences exploring SVR as a…

  5. Effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group (n = 10) and the bilateral upper-limb training group (n = 8). The virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group performed bilateral upper-extremity exercises in a virtual reality environment, while the bilateral upper-limb training group performed only bilateral upper-extremity exercise. All training was conducted 30 minutes per day, three times per week for six weeks, followed by brain activity evaluation. [Results] Electroencephalography showed significant increases in concentration in the frontopolar 2 and frontal 4 areas, and significant increases in brain activity in the frontopolar 1 and frontal 3 areas in the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training can improve the brain activity of stroke patients. Thus, virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training is feasible and beneficial for improving brain activation in stroke patients.

  6. 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Trejo, Leonard J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Technology and applications for the rendering of virtual acoustic spaces are reviewed. Chapter 1 deals with acoustics and psychoacoustics. Chapters 2 and 3 cover cues to spatial hearing and review psychoacoustic literature. Chapter 4 covers signal processing and systems overviews of 3-D sound systems. Chapter 5 covers applications to computer workstations, communication systems, aeronautics and space, and sonic arts. Chapter 6 lists resources. This TM is a reprint of the 1994 book from Academic Press.

  7. The use of biofeedback in clinical virtual reality: the INTREPID project.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Claudia; Gorini, Alessandra; Vigna, Cinzia; Algeri, Davide; Pallavicini, Federica; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-11-12

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a constant and unspecific anxiety that interferes with daily-life activities. Its high prevalence in general population and the severe limitations it causes, point out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Together with the cognitive-behavioral treatments, relaxation represents a useful approach for the treatment of GAD, but it has the limitation that it is hard to be learned. The INTREPID project is aimed to implement a new instrument to treat anxiety-related disorders and to test its clinical efficacy in reducing anxiety-related symptoms. The innovation of this approach is the combination of virtual reality and biofeedback, so that the first one is directly modified by the output of the second one. In this way, the patient is made aware of his or her reactions through the modification of some features of the VR environment in real time. Using mental exercises the patient learns to control these physiological parameters and using the feedback provided by the virtual environment is able to gauge his or her success. The supplemental use of portable devices, such as PDA or smart-phones, allows the patient to perform at home, individually and autonomously, the same exercises experienced in therapist's office. The goal is to anchor the learned protocol in a real life context, so enhancing the patients' ability to deal with their symptoms. The expected result is a better and faster learning of relaxation techniques, and thus an increased effectiveness of the treatment if compared with traditional clinical protocols.

  8. The use of biofeedback in clinical virtual reality: the INTREPID project.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Claudia; Gorini, Alessandra; Vigna, Cinzia; Algeri, Davide; Pallavicini, Federica; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a constant and unspecific anxiety that interferes with daily-life activities. Its high prevalence in general population and the severe limitations it causes, point out the necessity to find new efficient strategies to treat it. Together with the cognitive-behavioral treatments, relaxation represents a useful approach for the treatment of GAD, but it has the limitation that it is hard to be learned. The INTREPID project is aimed to implement a new instrument to treat anxiety-related disorders and to test its clinical efficacy in reducing anxiety-related symptoms. The innovation of this approach is the combination of virtual reality and biofeedback, so that the first one is directly modified by the output of the second one. In this way, the patient is made aware of his or her reactions through the modification of some features of the VR environment in real time. Using mental exercises the patient learns to control these physiological parameters and using the feedback provided by the virtual environment is able to gauge his or her success. The supplemental use of portable devices, such as PDA or smart-phones, allows the patient to perform at home, individually and autonomously, the same exercises experienced in therapist's office. The goal is to anchor the learned protocol in a real life context, so enhancing the patients' ability to deal with their symptoms. The expected result is a better and faster learning of relaxation techniques, and thus an increased effectiveness of the treatment if compared with traditional clinical protocols. PMID:19915521

  9. Spatial interpretation of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Payload Operations Control Center using virtual reality technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1993-01-01

    In its search for higher level computer interfaces and more realistic electronic simulations for measurement and spatial analysis in human factors design, NASA at MSFC is evaluating the functionality of virtual reality (VR) technology. Virtual reality simulation generates a three dimensional environment in which the participant appears to be enveloped. It is a type of interactive simulation in which humans are not only involved, but included. Virtual reality technology is still in the experimental phase, but it appears to be the next logical step after computer aided three-dimensional animation in transferring the viewer from a passive to an active role in experiencing and evaluating an environment. There is great potential for using this new technology when designing environments for more successful interaction, both with the environment and with another participant in a remote location. At the University of North Carolina, a VR simulation of a the planned Sitterson Hall, revealed a flaw in the building's design that had not been observed during examination of the more traditional building plan simulation methods on paper and on computer aided design (CAD) work station. The virtual environment enables multiple participants in remote locations to come together and interact with one another and with the environment. Each participant is capable of seeing herself and the other participants and of interacting with them within the simulated environment.

  10. A review of virtual reality based training simulators for orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N; Wainwright, Thomas W; Middleton, Robert G

    2016-02-01

    This review presents current virtual reality based training simulators for hip, knee and other orthopaedic surgery, including elective and trauma surgical procedures. There have not been any reviews focussing on hip and knee orthopaedic simulators. A comparison of existing simulator features is provided to identify what is missing and what is required to improve upon current simulators. In total 11 hip replacements pre-operative planning tools were analysed, plus 9 hip trauma fracture training simulators. Additionally 9 knee arthroscopy simulators and 8 other orthopaedic simulators were included for comparison. The findings are that for orthopaedic surgery simulators in general, there is increasing use of patient-specific virtual models which reduce the learning curve. Modelling is also being used for patient-specific implant design and manufacture. Simulators are being increasingly validated for assessment as well as training. There are very few training simulators available for hip replacement, yet more advanced virtual reality is being used for other procedures such as hip trauma and drilling. Training simulators for hip replacement and orthopaedic surgery in general lag behind other surgical procedures for which virtual reality has become more common. Further developments are required to bring hip replacement training simulation up to date with other procedures. This suggests there is a gap in the market for a new high fidelity hip replacement and resurfacing training simulator. PMID:26751581

  11. The importance of postural cues for determining eye height in immersive virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Leyrer, Markus; Linkenauger, Sally A; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2015-01-01

    In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height. PMID:25993274

  12. The Importance of Postural Cues for Determining Eye Height in Immersive Virtual Reality

    PubMed Central

    Leyrer, Markus; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Mohler, Betty J.

    2015-01-01

    In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height. PMID:25993274

  13. [A new concept in digestive surgery: the computer assisted surgical procedure, from virtual reality to telemanipulation].

    PubMed

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Nord, M; Russier, Y; Tassetti, V; Mutter, D; Cotin, S; Ayache, N

    1997-11-01

    Surgical simulation increasingly appears to be an essential aspect of tomorrow's surgery. The development of a hepatic surgery simulator is an advanced concept calling for a new writing system which will transform the medical world: virtual reality. Virtual reality extends the perception of our five senses by representing more than the real state of things by the means of computer sciences and robotics. It consists of three concepts: immersion, navigation and interaction. Three reasons have led us to develop this simulator: the first is to provide the surgeon with a comprehensive visualisation of the organ. The second reason is to allow for planning and surgical simulation that could be compared with the detailed flight-plan for a commercial jet pilot. The third lies in the fact that virtual reality is an integrated part of the concept of computer assisted surgical procedure. The project consists of a sophisticated simulator which has to include five requirements: visual fidelity, interactivity, physical properties, physiological properties, sensory input and output. In this report we will describe how to get a realistic 3D model of the liver from bi-dimensional 2D medical images for anatomical and surgical training. The introduction of a tumor and the consequent planning and virtual resection is also described, as are force feedback and real-time interaction. PMID:9554121

  14. [A new concept in digestive surgery: the computer assisted surgical procedure, from virtual reality to telemanipulation].

    PubMed

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Nord, M; Russier, Y; Tassetti, V; Mutter, D; Cotin, S; Ayache, N

    1997-11-01

    Surgical simulation increasingly appears to be an essential aspect of tomorrow's surgery. The development of a hepatic surgery simulator is an advanced concept calling for a new writing system which will transform the medical world: virtual reality. Virtual reality extends the perception of our five senses by representing more than the real state of things by the means of computer sciences and robotics. It consists of three concepts: immersion, navigation and interaction. Three reasons have led us to develop this simulator: the first is to provide the surgeon with a comprehensive visualisation of the organ. The second reason is to allow for planning and surgical simulation that could be compared with the detailed flight-plan for a commercial jet pilot. The third lies in the fact that virtual reality is an integrated part of the concept of computer assisted surgical procedure. The project consists of a sophisticated simulator which has to include five requirements: visual fidelity, interactivity, physical properties, physiological properties, sensory input and output. In this report we will describe how to get a realistic 3D model of the liver from bi-dimensional 2D medical images for anatomical and surgical training. The introduction of a tumor and the consequent planning and virtual resection is also described, as are force feedback and real-time interaction.

  15. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  16. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  17. Using virtual reality for science mission planning: A Mars Pathfinder case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jacqueline H.; Weidner, Richard J.; Sacks, Allan L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder Project requires a Ground Data System (GDS) that supports both engineering and scientific payloads with reduced mission operations staffing, and short planning schedules. Also, successful surface operation of the lander camera requires efficient mission planning and accurate pointing of the camera. To meet these challenges, a new software strategy that integrates virtual reality technology with existing navigational ancillary information and image processing capabilities. The result is an interactive workstation based applications software that provides a high resolution, 3-dimensial, stereo display of Mars as if it were viewed through the lander camera. The design, implementation strategy and parametric specification phases for the development of this software were completed, and the prototype tested. When completed, the software will allow scientists and mission planners to access simulated and actual scenes of Mars' surface. The perspective from the lander camera will enable scientists to plan activities more accurately and completely. The application will also support the sequence and command generation process and will allow testing and verification of camera pointing commands via simulation.

  18. Upper Limb Posture Estimation in Robotic and Virtual Reality-Based Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F.; Cuesta-Gómez, A.; Ruiz, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation. PMID:25110698

  19. Upper limb posture estimation in robotic and virtual reality-based rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F; Cuesta-Gómez, A; Unzueta, Luis; Epelde, Gorka; Ruiz, Oscar E; De Mauro, Alessandro; Florez, Julian

    2014-01-01

    New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation.

  20. Veteran Perceptions of Virtual Reality to Assess and Treat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Savary, Patricia E.; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Kimbrell, Timothy A.; Jegley, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Implementation of evidence-based treatments (EBT) is necessary to address posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) military service personnel. Because virtual reality (VR) offers a promising tool for delivery of one type of EBT—exposure therapy—this study explored veterans' perceptions of VR as an assessment tool and treatment adjunct. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 OEF/OIF veterans being treated for PTSD after viewing two 3 minute VR scenarios as part of a larger research study. Veterans reported a capacity for immersion in VR in both combat and civilian environments, characterized by self-reported physiological reactivity, thoughts/behaviors similar to those experienced in Iraq, and triggered memories. Although participants were generally positive about VR, they expressed concerns about the possibility of negative reactions after viewing VR. Findings are discussed in the context of further development of VR aided interventions in veteran healthcare systems. PMID:23574368