Science.gov

Sample records for implied related policies

  1. Stringent Mitigation Policy Implied By Temperature Impacts on Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change in order to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained GDP growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth-rates in the Dynamic Integrated Climate and Economy (DICE) model via two pathways, total factor productivity (TFP) growth and capital depreciation. Even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, this damage specification implies that optimal climate policy involves the elimination of emissions in the near future, the stabilization of global temperature change below 2°C, and a social cost of carbon (SCC) an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of growth effects, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages from warming and GDP are three critical uncertainties and an important focus for future research.

  2. Ward identity implies recursion relations in Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang

    2012-07-01

    The Ward identity in gauge theory constrains the behavior of the amplitudes. We discuss the Ward identity for amplitudes with a pair of shifted lines with complex momenta. This will induce a recursion relation identical to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion relations at the finite poles of the complexified amplitudes. Furthermore, according to the Ward identity, it is also possible to transform the boundary term into a simple form, which can be obtained by a new recursion relation. For the amplitude with one off-shell line in pure Yang-Mills theory, we find this technique is effective for obtaining the amplitude even when there are boundary contributions.

  3. On the relation between implied and realized volatility indices: Evidence from the BRIC countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentes, Sónia R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the relation between implied (IV) and realized volatility (RV). Using monthly data from the BRIC countries, we assess the informational content of IV in explaining future RV as well as its unbiasedness and efficiency. We employ an ADL (Autoregressive Distributed Lag) and the corresponding EC (Error Correction) model and compare the results with the ones obtained from the OLS regression. Our goal is to assess the fully dynamical relations between these variables and to separate the short from the long-run effects. We found different results for the informational content of IV according to the methodologies used. However, both methods show that IV is an unbiased estimate of RV for India and that IV was not found to be efficient in any of the BRIC countries. Further, EC results reveal the presence of short and long-run effects for India, whereas Russia exhibits only short-run adjustments.

  4. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  5. Implied-Consent Laws: A Review of the Literature and Examination of Current Problems and Related Statutes

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo; Vishnuvajjala, Radha

    2009-01-01

    Problem A substantial proportion of drivers arrested for DUI refuse the BAC test, thereby reducing the likelihood that they will be convicted and potentially increasing the number of highrisk multiple offenders contributing to alcohol-related crashes. Method This paper reviews the information on the current status of implied-consent laws (which impose a sanction on offenders who refuse the BAC test) in the 50 states and the other relevant traffic safety laws and policies that may influenced state refusal rates. Results Although there appears to be only a weak relationship between state refusal rates and crash rates, there is strong evidence that BAC test refusals significantly compromise the arrest, prosecution, and sentencing of DUI suspects and the overall enforcement of DUI laws in the United States. Discussion Laws and policies that may reduce the number of refusals are discussed. Impact on industry Alcohol-related crash injuries are an important cost problem for U.S. industry, because of property damage from crashes, crash injuries to employees that raise health costs, or through the reduction of time on the job resulting from a highway injury. PMID:19433199

  6. MASS-ANGULAR-MOMENTUM RELATIONS IMPLIED BY MODELS OF TWIN PEAK QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Toeroek, Gabriel; Bakala, Pavel; Sramkova, Eva; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Urbanec, Martin; Goluchova, Katerina E-mail: martin.urbanec@fpf.slu.cz E-mail: terek@volny.cz

    2012-12-01

    Twin peak quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in the X-ray power-density spectra of several accreting low-mass neutron star (NS) binaries. Observations of the peculiar Z-source Circinus X-1 display unusually low QPO frequencies. Using these observations, we have previously considered the relativistic precession (RP) twin peak QPO model to estimate the mass of the central NS in Circinus X-1. We have shown that such an estimate results in a specific mass-angular-momentum (M - j) relation rather than a single preferred combination of M and j. Here we confront our previous results with another binary, the atoll source 4U 1636-53 that displays the twin peak QPOs at very high frequencies, and extend the consideration to various twin peak QPO models. In analogy to the RP model, we find that these imply their own specific M - j relations. We explore these relations for both sources and note differences in the {chi}{sup 2} behavior that represent a dichotomy between high- and low-frequency sources. Based on the RP model, we demonstrate that this dichotomy is related to a strong variability of the model predictive power across the frequency plane. This variability naturally comes from the radial dependence of characteristic frequencies of orbital motion. As a consequence, the restrictions on the models resulting from observations of low-frequency sources are weaker than those in the case of high-frequency sources. Finally we also discuss the need for a correction to the RP model and consider the removing of M - j degeneracies, based on the twin peak QPO-independent angular momentum estimates.

  7. Suppressed MMP-9 Activity in Myocardial Infarction-Related Cardiogenic Shock Implies Diminished Rage Degradation.

    PubMed

    Selejan, Simina-Ramona; Hewera, Lisa; Hohl, Matthias; Kazakov, Andrey; Ewen, Sebastian; Kindermann, Ingrid; Böhm, Michael; Link, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its cleavage fragment soluble RAGE (sRAGE) are opposite players in inflammation. Enhanced monocytic RAGE expression and decreased plasma sRAGE levels are associated with higher mortality in infarction-related cardiogenic shock. Active matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been implied in RAGE ectodomain cleavage and subsequently sRAGE shedding in vitro. We investigated MMP-9 activity in myocardial infarction-induced cardiogenic shock with regard to RAGE/sRAGE regulation. We determined MMP-9 serum activity by zymography and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) expression by Western blot and correlated it to RAGE/sRAGE data in patients with cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction (CS, n = 30), in patients with acute myocardial infarction without shock (AMI, n = 20) and in healthy volunteers (n = 20).MMP-9 activity is increased in AMI (P = 0.02 versus controls), but significantly decreased in CS with lowest levels in non-survivors (n = 13, P = 0.02 versus AMI). In all patients, MMP-9 activity correlated inversely with RAGE expression on circulating monocytes (r = -0.57; P = 0.0001; n = 50).TIMP-1 levels showed an inverse regulation in comparison to active MMP-9 with significantly decreased levels in AMI as compared with controls (P = 0.02 versus controls) and highest levels in non-survivors of CS (P <0.001 versus AMI). Serum MMP-9 activity is increased in acute myocardial infarction, but markedly suppressed in cardiogenic shock. Maintaining MMP-9 activity could be a therapeutic target to limit RAGE-induced deleterious inflammation in cardiogenic shock.

  8. Preservation of a quantum Rényi relative entropy implies existence of a recovery map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenčová, Anna

    2017-02-01

    It is known that a necessary and sufficient condition for equality in the data processing inequality (DPI) for the quantum relative entropy is the existence of a recovery map. We show that equality in DPI for a sandwiched Rényi relative α-entropy with α >1 is also equivalent to this property. For the proof, we use an interpolating family of L p -norms with respect to a state.

  9. Kinetic transcriptomic approach revealed metabolic pathways and genotoxic-related changes implied in the Arabidopsis response to ionising radiations.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Morgane; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Esnault, Marie-Andrée; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    Plants exposed to ionising radiation (IR) have to face direct and indirect (oxidative stress) deleterious effects whose intensity depends on the dose applied and led to differential genome regulation. Transcriptomic analyses were conducted with CATMA microarray technology on Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets, 2 and 26h after exposure to the IR doses 10Gy and 40Gy. 10Gy treatment seemed to enhance antioxidative compound biosynthetic pathways whereas the 40Gy dose up-regulated ROS-scavenging enzyme genes. Transcriptomic data also highlighted a differential regulation of chloroplast constituent genes depending on the IR dose, 10Gy stimulating and 40Gy down-regulating. This probable 40Gy decrease of photosynthesis could help for the limitation of ROS production and may be coupled with programmed cell death (PCD)/senescence phenomena. Comparisons with previous transcriptomic studies on plants exposed to a 100Gy dose revealed 60 dose-dependent up-regulated genes, including notably cell cycle checkpoints to allow DNA repairing phenomena. Furthermore, the alteration of some cellular structure related gene expression corroborated a probable mitotic arrest after 40Gy. Finally, numerous heat-shock protein and chaperonin genes, known to protect proteins against stress-dependent dysfunction, were up-regulated after IR exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. China's Technology Policies Related to Sustainable Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunliang, Fan

    2009-07-01

    Environment development is a big challenge for China. This paper discusses the content and role of technology policies related to sustainable environment and makes some suggestions for their future development.

  11. Public support for poverty-related policies.

    PubMed

    Reutter, Linda I; Harrison, Margaret J; Neufeld, Anne

    2002-01-01

    This research examined how public perceptions of the relationship between poverty and health predict support for poverty-related policies. A random sample of 1,203 Albertans were interviewed by telephone to determine their perceptions of the relationship between poverty and health (myth, drift, behavioural, structural), and their support for government spending in six poverty-related policy areas: nutrition programs, housing, child care, increased welfare allowance, wage subsidies, and recreation programs. The greatest support was for child care programs, with the least support for increased welfare allowance. The degree of support for all policies except wage subsidies and recreation programs differed by the explanation chosen of the relationship between poverty and health. Those who chose a structural explanation were more likely to support government spending than those who chose a behavioural explanation. Beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health influence support for policies. Public health professionals have a role in increasing public awareness of the structural factors that influence health.

  12. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  13. 75 FR 55710 - Enhancing Policies Relating to Partnerships

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 200 RIN 0596-AC89 Enhancing Policies Relating to Partnerships AGENCY: Forest... would enhance policies related to partnerships. We invite public comment on assessing what changes or... institute needed modifications to Agency policy intended to reduce barriers to partnership arrangements. An...

  14. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Through Health Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related health policy research is responsible for guiding the implementation of laws and public health policies that have reduced alcohol-related highway injuries and deaths, as well as other alcohol-related problems over the last 40 years. This research, which tests theories about potential policy changes and responds to specific problems, has examined a vast array of prevention programs. This article briefly identifies 10 program categories and highlights four programs to illustrate the scope and complexity of the individual health policy areas within the categories. PMID:23579933

  15. Health Policy, Optometric Education and Interprofessional Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Henry B.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of health policy and its influence on patients and providers is explored with an emphasis on an interprofessional consortium, devoted to representing the consumer constituency. Expanded involvement and expenditures by the federal government in the health care field are discussed and the need for regulatory reform is described.…

  16. Coarse Clasts Imply Substantial Mid-Late Miocene Slip and Complex Kinematics on Miller Creek and Related Faults, East San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buising, A. V.; Walker, J. P.; Allen, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    of the Pinole fault/east trace of the Moraga fault at Point Pinole, ~30 km NW of USLR, post-9 Ma conglomerates in the lower Garrity Member of the CCG are dominated by Franciscan-derived clasts—including greywacke; vein quartz; blueschist; and red, green, brown, and black chert—with a lesser component of Great Valley Group sandstone, Tertiary volcanics, and Monterey porcellanite. Upper Garrity conglomerates, which at ~6 Ma are roughly coeval with CCG strata at Cull Canyon, are dominated by Monterey Group porcellanite and laminated chert. Based on similarity in clast compositions, we infer that the Garrity and USLR depocenters were proximal to one another during lower Garrity time (~9 Ma). The change to a Monterey-dominated clast assemblage differing markedly from that in coeval strata at USLR may imply that by upper Garrity time the two depocenters were no longer adjacent. If so, this suggests as much as ~30-35 km of dextral strike slip on the MCF-Moraga fault-Pinole fault trend between 6 and 9 Ma and further implies that the MCF may have been an important strand of the Neogene East Bay slip corridor. Contraction across the MCF thus may be a subordinate overprint on a history dominated by dextral strike slip.

  17. Representative and misrepresentative associations of birth defects in livebirths. Conditions under which relative risks greater than unity in livebirths necessarily imply relative risks greater than unity in all conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Hook, E B; Regal, R R

    1993-03-15

    One may express the relative risk of defect in all conceptuses, r(def), as a function of the relative risk of defect in livebirths, r(def,lb), and in embryonic and fetal deaths, r(def,efd), as r(def) = C(lb)r(def,lb) + C(efd)r(def,efd), where C(lb) and C(efd) are coefficients defined in terms of conceptus and defect viability and lethality. If the relative risk of birth defect in livebirths, r(def,lb), is greater than unity, but the relative risk of defect in all conceptuses, r(def), is equal to or less than unity (or the reverse pattern holds), then the relative risk of defects in livebirths may be said to be "distorting" or "misrepresentative" because it does not reflect the nature of the association in all conceptuses. The authors define and present an explicit expression for a boundary upon the relative risk of defect in livebirths. If the relative risk of defect in livebirths is (validly) greater than this boundary value, then the relative risk in all conceptuses must be greater than unity and the observed relative risk of defect in births is "representative" and not distorting. The authors show that the boundary value is equal to 1/C(lb), where C(lb) is a simple function of the lethality of all unexposed conceptuses, the lethality of unexposed conceptuses with defect, and the relative risk of any embryonic and fetal death. Tables of the boundary relative risk for various values of these variables are presented. Over a very wide range of reference variables, a (valid) relative risk of defect in livebirths of 3.5 or greater implies a positive association with defect in all (recognized) conceptuses in the population studied.

  18. Airline policy relating to passengers with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mumford, C J; Warlow, C P

    1995-12-01

    To identify the policy of international airlines for the carriage of passengers with epilepsy. Postal questionnaire asking about policy for epileptic passengers, training of cabin crew, onboard drugs suitable for the treatment of seizures, and details of any problems reported by crews as a result of in-flight passenger seizures. The questionnaire was addressed to the medical advisors of 42 international airlines. Thirty (71%) of 42 airlines responded. Eleven (37%) of the 30 airlines that responded had a stated policy or restriction on the carriage of passengers with epilepsy. Five of these airlines advised increasing the dose of anticonvulsant drugs before travel. One airline insisted that epileptic passengers travel with a companion. Twenty-five (83%) of 30 airlines dealt specifically with epilepsy in the training program of their cabin crews. Seventeen (57%) of 30 airlines carried diazepam onboard, mostly in injectable form. Most airlines reported no, or very few, incidents of in-flight passenger seizures annually. The advice offered to intending epileptic passengers differs greatly between airlines. Some airlines instruct intending passengers to increase their regular medication, probably without justification, since in-flight seizures are very infrequent. Training of cabin crew and the medical equipment carried onboard also vary and in some cases are inadequate.

  19. 77 FR 73456 - Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Update to the TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy (SDDC Fuel Surcharge Policy...: Reference: TR-12 Fuel Related Rate Adjustment Policy. Background: The following FRA policy applies to... increases in diesel fuel prices. Miscellaneous: A copy of the TR-12 FRA Policy can be accessed via the...

  20. Policy Decisions and Research in Economics and Industrial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, John T.

    1977-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the bulk of academic research in industrial relations and economics in recent years has had very little impact on either public or private policy decisions. The thesis is illustrated by examining several policy problems, e.g., manpower programs and the relationship between wages and variables such as unemployment…

  1. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. A Gender-Specific Retinoblastoma-Related Protein in Volvox carteri Implies a Role for the Retinoblastoma Protein Family in Sexual Development[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Nematollahi, Ghazaleh; Hallmann, Armin

    2008-01-01

    Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED PROTEIN1 (RBR1) from the green alga Volvox carteri. RBR1 expression increases substantially during embryogenesis and in response to the sex-inducer glycoprotein, but it decreases significantly under heat stress. While RBR1 is expressed in gonidia (asexual reproductive cells) and embryos, the largest proportion of RBR1 mRNA is found in parental somatic cells. The presence of 4 splice variants and 15 potential cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation sites suggests that RBR1 is subject to control at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Surprisingly, RBR1 is a gender-specific gene, mapping exclusively to the female mating-type locus. A procedure for stable nuclear transformation of males was established to generate RBR1-expressing males. These transformants exhibit enlarged reproductive cells, altered growth characteristics, and a prolonged embryogenesis. The results suggest that a functionally related analog of RBR1 exists in males. The reason for the divergent evolution of RBRs in females and males appears to be based on sexual development: males and females respond to the same sex-inducer with different cleavage programs and substantial differences in cellular differentiation. Thus, the gender-specific presence of RBR1 provides evidence for an additional, novel role for retinoblastoma family proteins in sexual development. PMID:18790828

  3. A gender-specific retinoblastoma-related protein in Volvox carteri implies a role for the retinoblastoma protein family in sexual development.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Nematollahi, Ghazaleh; Hallmann, Armin

    2008-09-01

    Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED PROTEIN1 (RBR1) from the green alga Volvox carteri. RBR1 expression increases substantially during embryogenesis and in response to the sex-inducer glycoprotein, but it decreases significantly under heat stress. While RBR1 is expressed in gonidia (asexual reproductive cells) and embryos, the largest proportion of RBR1 mRNA is found in parental somatic cells. The presence of 4 splice variants and 15 potential cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation sites suggests that RBR1 is subject to control at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Surprisingly, RBR1 is a gender-specific gene, mapping exclusively to the female mating-type locus. A procedure for stable nuclear transformation of males was established to generate RBR1-expressing males. These transformants exhibit enlarged reproductive cells, altered growth characteristics, and a prolonged embryogenesis. The results suggest that a functionally related analog of RBR1 exists in males. The reason for the divergent evolution of RBRs in females and males appears to be based on sexual development: males and females respond to the same sex-inducer with different cleavage programs and substantial differences in cellular differentiation. Thus, the gender-specific presence of RBR1 provides evidence for an additional, novel role for retinoblastoma family proteins in sexual development.

  4. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a wide range of risk and externalizing behavior. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a model in which differential activation of the dorsal and ventral striatum produces imbalance in the function of these brain regions. For youth high in sensation seeking, both regions were predicted to develop with age. However, for youth high in the tendency to act without thinking, the ventral striatum was expected to dominate. The model predicted that working memory ability would exhibit (1) early weakness in youth high in acting without thinking but (2) growing strength in those high in sensation seeking. In addition, it predicted that (3) acting without thinking would be more strongly related to risk and externalizing behavior than sensation seeking. Finally, it predicted that (4) controlling for acting without thinking, sensation seeking would predict later increases in risky and externalizing behavior. All four of these predictions were confirmed. The results indicate that the rise in sensation seeking that occurs during adolescence is not accompanied by a deficit in executive function and therefore requires different intervention strategies from those for youth whose impulsivity is characterized by early signs of acting without thinking. PMID:21884327

  5. Imprints from genetic drift and mutation imply relative divergence times across marine transition zones in a pan-European small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)

    PubMed Central

    Limborg, M T; Hanel, R; Debes, P V; Ring, A K; André, C; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Bekkevold, D

    2012-01-01

    Geographic distributions of most temperate marine fishes are affected by postglacial recolonisation events, which have left complex genetic imprints on populations of marine species. This study investigated population structure and demographic history of European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by combining inference from both mtDNA and microsatellite genetic markers throughout the species' distribution. We compared effects from genetic drift and mutation for both genetic markers in shaping genetic differentiation across four transition zones. Microsatellite markers revealed significant isolation by distance and a complex population structure across the species′ distribution (overall θST=0.038, P<0.01). Across transition zones markers indicated larger effects of genetic drift over mutations in the northern distribution of sprat contrasting a stronger relative impact of mutation in the species' southern distribution in the Mediterranean region. These results were interpreted to reflect more recent divergence times between northern populations in accordance with previous findings. This study demonstrates the usefulness of comparing inference from different markers and estimators of divergence for phylogeographic and population genetic studies in species with weak genetic structure, as is the case in many marine species. PMID:22549515

  6. ASTROPHYSICS: Neutron Stars Imply Relativity's a Drag.

    PubMed

    Schilling, G

    2000-09-01

    A new finding, based on x-rays from distant neutron stars, could be the first clear evidence of a weird relativistic effect called frame dragging, in which a heavy chunk of spinning matter wrenches the space-time around it like an eggbeater. Using data from NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, three astronomers in Amsterdam found circumstantial evidence for frame dragging in the flickering of three neutron stars in binary systems. They announced their results in the 1 September issue of The Astrophysical Journal.

  7. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    Two Chinese-born Americans, Xue Feng , a geologist, and Hu Zhicheng, an automotive engineer, remain under detention in China while facing criminal...raised the issue of Xue Feng to China’s leaders.15 U.S.-PRC Dialogues The Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) On April 1, 2009, on the sidelines of...former President Chen Shui -bian’s eight-year record of governance. President Ma moved quickly to implement improvements in cross-strait relations

  8. Belief in Food Addiction and Obesity-Related Policy Support

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines whether belief in the food addiction construct is associated with support for obesity-related policies (e.g., restrictions on foods served in schools and workplace cafeterias, subsidies on fruits and vegetables), while simultaneously examining other factors associated with policy support (e.g., political party affiliation). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Online Community. Participants 200 individuals were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Measurements Participants (n = 193) responded to three questions about belief in food addiction and a measure evaluating support for 13 obesity-related policy initiatives. Individuals also completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (mYFAS), self-reported height and weight, and provided demographic information (age, gender, race, political party affiliation). Results Belief in food addiction was significantly associated with greater support for obesity-related initiatives, even when accounting for the significant associations of age, gender, and political party. Belief in food addiction and political party both had moderate effect sizes for predicting support for obesity-related policy. There was an interaction between age and belief in food addiction, with significant associations with policy support for both younger and older individuals, though the effect was larger for younger participants. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that belief in food addiction is associated with increased obesity-related policy support, comparable to the influence of one’s political party. Growing evidence for the role of an addictive process in obesity may have important implications for public support of obesity-related policy initiatives. PMID:26808427

  9. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  10. A Context for Teaching Aging-Related Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two points of view regarding age-related public programs (Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security): that of devolutionists who would curtail them and safety netters who maintain the government's role is indispensable. Uses Relative Deprivation theory as a framework for teaching public policy about aging. (SK)

  11. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  12. Opioid-related Policies in New England Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Scott G; Raja, Ali S; Bittner, Jane C; Curtis, Kevin M; Weimersheimer, Peter; Hasegawa, Kohei; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    The opioid abuse and overdose epidemic in the United States has led to the need for new practice policies to guide clinicians. We describe implementation of opioid-related policies in emergency departments (EDs) in New England to gauge progress and determine where further work is needed. This study analyzed data from the 2015 National Emergency Department Inventory-New England survey. The survey queried directors of every ED (n = 195) in the six New England states to determine the implementation of five specific policies related to opioid management. ED characteristics (e.g., annual visits, location, and admission rates) were also obtained and a multivariable analysis was conducted to identify ED characteristics independently associated with the number of opioid-related policies implemented. Overall, 169 EDs (87%) responded, with a >80% response rate in each state. Implementation of opioid-related policies varied as follows: 1) use of a screening tool for patients with suspected prescription opioid abuse potential (n = 30, 18%), 2) access state prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) before prescribing opioids (n = 132, 78%), 3) notify the primary opioid prescriber when prescribing opioids for ED patients with chronic pain (n = 69, 41%), 4) refer patients with opioid abuse to recovery resources (n = 117, 70%), and 5) prescribe naloxone to patients at risk of opioid overdose after ED discharge (n = 19, 12%). EDs located in metropolitan areas and with at least one attending physician on duty 24/7 were less likely to implement opioid policies (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-0.89; and IRR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.6-1.0, respectively) while EDs with ≥15% hospitalization rate that used electronic computerized medication ordering and those in Rhode Island were more likely to implement opioid policies (IRR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.48; IRR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.19-3.22; and IRR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.56, respectively). The implementation

  13. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  14. 32 CFR 552.34 - Policies relative to new acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policies relative to new acquisition. 552.34 Section 552.34 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Acquisition of Real Estate...

  15. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  16. SURVEY OF PERSONNEL POLICIES IN RELATION TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WELLEMEYER, JOHN F.

    THE PRINCIPLE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AGENCIES THAT OPERATE IN FIELDS REQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES, THE U.S. MILITARY SERVICES AND SOME PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THEIR OPERATING POLICIES THAT RELATE TO PERSONNEL WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS. THE AGENCIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS…

  17. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  18. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  19. Predicting casualties implied by TIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Wyss, M.; Wyss, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    When an earthquake is predicted, forecast, or expected with a higher than normal probability, losses are implied. We estimated the casualties (fatalities plus injured) that should be expected if earthquakes in TIPs (locations of Temporarily Increased Probability of earthquakes) defined by Kossobokov et al. (2009) should occur. We classified the predictions of losses into the categories red (more than 400 fatalities or more than 1,000 injured), yellow (between 100 and 400 fatalities), green (fewer than 100 fatalities), and gray (undetermined). TIPs in Central Chile, the Philippines, Papua, and Taiwan are in the red class, TIPs in Southern Sumatra, Nicaragua, Vanatu, and Honshu in the yellow class, and TIPs in Tonga, Loyalty Islands, Vanatu, S. Sandwich Islands, Banda Sea, and the Kuriles, are classified as green. TIPs where the losses depend moderately on the assumed point of major energy release were classified as yellow; TIPs such as in the Talaud Islands and in Tonga, where the losses depend very strongly on the location of the epicenter, were classified as gray. The accuracy of loss estimates after earthquakes with known hypocenter and magnitude are affected by uncertainties in transmission and soil properties, the composition of the building stock, the population present, and the method by which the numbers of casualties are calculated. In the case of TIPs, uncertainties in magnitude and location are added, thus we calculate losses for a range of these two parameters. Therefore, our calculations can only be considered order of magnitude estimates. Nevertheless, our predictions can come to within a factor of two of the observed numbers, as in the case of the M7.6 earthquake of October 2005 in Pakistan that resulted in 85,000 fatalities (Wyss, 2005). In subduction zones, the geometrical relationship between the earthquake source capable of a great earthquake and the population is clear because there is only one major fault plane available, thus the epicentral

  20. Quantum Darwinian Evolution Implies Tumor Origination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. Grant

    2011-03-01

    Quantum uncertainty limits operating on metastable amino DNA protons drive the arrangement, keto-amino ? enol-imine, which contributes to time-dependent stochastic mutations. Product enol-imine protons participate in coupled quantum oscillations at frequencies of about 1013 s-1 until ``measured by'' an evolutionarily selected quantum reader, the transcriptase. This introduces entanglement states between coherent protons and transcriptase components, which ultimately yield an ensemble of decohered, non-reequilibrated enol and imine isomers that participate in ``molecular clock'' base substitutions at G'-C' and *G-*C sites. This introduces a quantum Darwinian evolution model which (a) simulates incidence of cancer data and (b) implies insight into quantum origins of evolutionary extinction. Data identify an inherited ``genetic space,'' s, which is initially mutation-free and satisfies the inequality, 1 = s = 0.97. When accumulated stochastic mutations cause s-values to approach their evolutionarily allowed threshold limit, s 0.97 + e, age-related degenerative disease is manifested. This implies a gain in evolutionary advantage which protects the gene pool against acquiring unsafe levels of mutation. Data requiring coherent states imply that classical duplex DNA contains an embedded microphysical subset of electron lone-pairs and hydrogen bonded protons that govern time-dependent genetic specificity in terms of quantum probability laws.

  1. Using a Policy Classification Model to Analyze Major Changes Regarding Control and Administration of Policies Relative to Professional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Ernest J.; Walker, John H.

    There has been a diversity of activity to change policies relating to the recruitment, admission, and preparation of new educational professionals in college and university settings. These policies, coupled with state mandated polices to upgrade the competence of current teachers and administrators, has resulted in a great amount of policy to…

  2. Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    introduced a modified version of S. 1645 for himself and Senator Kennedy . The revised bill, S. 2823, was very similar to S. 1645, but there were...by Senator Kennedy for himself and Senators Feingold and Clinton and by Representative Gutierrez for himself and a group of cosponsors. Known as the...Deferred . Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs Congressional Research Service 35 Mandatory Departure ( DMD ) status

  3. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    PubMed

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  4. Joint Use Policies: Are they related to adolescent behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Chriqui, Jamie; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Objective Joint use policies (JUP) encourage shared facility use, usually between schools and a city or private organization, for both physical activity-related and non-physical activity-related programs. Little is known about JUP’s impact on physical activity (PA). This study examined whether more specific JUPs were associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior (SB) in adolescents. Methods Data on PA, sports participation, and SB were taken from annual cross-sectional nationally representative samples of 51,269 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students nested in 461 school districts in the US from 2009–2011. JUP measures were constructed using information obtained from corresponding school district JU policies. Multivariable analyses were conducted, controlling for individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and clustering at the district level. Results Results showed small associations between more specific JUPs and increased PA (IRR 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.02). Closer examination of specific JUP provisions indicates that specifying what times facilities are available for use was associated with vigorous exercise and prioritizing school or affiliated organizations’ use and which spaces were available for use were associated with vigorous exercise and more frequent PA participation, which includes participation in sports or athletics. No associations were found between more specific JUPs and SB. Conclusions JUPS may have small influences on adolescent physical activity behavior. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to examine the impact of JUPs in conjunction with other physical activity-related policies and environmental changes to determine what impact they have on overall adolescent physical activity and sedentary behavior. PMID:25199731

  5. Health-related effects of welfare-to-work policies.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Luis; Rodríguez, Magdalena

    2013-09-01

    Non-health related policies may have consequences for health that are more important than the outcomes they were originally designed to produce. In this paper we evaluate the effects of welfare-to-work programs (WTW) on physical and mental health status and a variety of health behaviors. The paper is based on data from the minimum income program of Madrid's Government (IMI). We match the program's administrative records (39,200 households)--covering the whole history of the program from the second half of 1990 to 2001--with a specific survey of former recipients who took part in different work-related activities conducted in 2001 (2300 households). We perform propensity score matching to find that both health status--including physical and mental health problems--and behaviors outcomes were modestly better for those individuals who had taken part in work-related activities. These results offer support for the contention that welfare-to-work policies may have positive unintended health effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 34 CFR 303.520 - Policies related to payment for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Administration Policies and Procedures Related to Financial Matters § 303.520 Policies related to payment for services. (a) General. Each lead agency is responsible for establishing State policies related to how services to children eligible under this part and...

  7. 34 CFR 303.520 - Policies related to payment for services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Administration Policies and Procedures Related to Financial Matters § 303.520 Policies related to payment for services. (a) General. Each lead agency is responsible for establishing State policies related to how services to children eligible under this part and their...

  8. Inviting Policy Development: From Public Relations to Public Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Sheila J.; Novak, John M.

    Inviting policy development is an attempt to cordially summon those who are involved and affected by rules, codes, and procedures to understand and participate in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies. This paper first presents criteria for an invitational framework for policy development and then goes on to discuss the…

  9. Effective Policies in the Provision of Related Services. A Report of the Handicapped Public Policy Analysis Project. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Frank; Rogers, Cheryl

    The study documents effective state and local policies in providing related services to handicapped children as required by PL 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The areas reviewed include those state policies which clarify education agencies' responsibilities, and those which increase the resources available for related…

  10. Processing Implied Meaning through Contrastive Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Heeyeon Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Understanding implicature--something meant, implied, or suggested distinct from what is said--is paramount for successful human communication. Yet, it is unclear how our cognitive abilities fill in gaps of unspecified information. This study presents three distinct sets of experiments investigating how people understand implied contrasts conveyed…

  11. 78 FR 7282 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and... proposes these reforms to the guidance for Federal policies relating to grants in order to ensure that... of this proposal and a crosswalk of policy changes from the existing guidance are available on...

  12. Missing Links: The Relation of Research to Policy for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanton, Eleanor

    A sketch of some of the major advances in the field of infant development precedes a discussion which points out five policy implications of the research findings and explores the paradox that public policy lags far behind the current improved state of knowledge. Reasons for societal lack of attention to the needs of infants and for the worsening…

  13. Teacher Absenteeism and Related Policies for Supplemental Remuneration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Penn School Study Council.

    This study examines three areas of concern to school districts: a) the policies of supplemental remuneration for teachers currently maintained by the school districts, b) the extent of teacher absenteeism in the districts, and c) the possibility of relationships between policies for supplemental remuneration and teacher absenteeism. Five study…

  14. School-Home Connections: Political Relations in Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Stephen; Eltis, Ken

    This paper examines whether teachers and parents feel they influence school leaders' work in the policy field of community participation in government schools within the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. It reports on the implementation of recent policy initiatives designed to create school/family partnerships. In New South Wales, a move…

  15. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  16. State Law and Policy Related to Twice-Exceptional Learners: Implications for Practitioners and Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link; Pereira, Nielsen; Knotts, J. Dusteen

    2015-01-01

    Legislation and policy lead to action. In the absence of law or policy, situations are addressed on a case-by-case basis or they are sometimes ignored. Legislation and policy become extremely important when they relate to groups that have traditionally been marginalized, such as students with disabilities or students with gifts and talents, and…

  17. Recent Trends in Intergovernmental Relations: The Resurgence of Local Actors in Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the authors explore trends in intergovernmental relations (IGR) by analyzing recent education policies--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards, and local empowerment policies. Identifying a resurgent role for local actors in education policy, the authors argue that recent federal efforts to exert more control have in…

  18. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  19. Clean Energy-Related Economic Development Policy across the States: Establishing a 2016 Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    States implement clean energy-related economic development policy to spur innovation, manufacturing, and to address other priorities. This report focuses on those policies most directly related to expanding new and existing manufacturing. The extent to which states invest in this policymaking depends on political drivers and jurisdictional economic development priorities. To date, no one source has collected all of the clean energy-related economic development policies available across the 50 states. Thus, it is unclear how many policies exist within each state and how these policies, when implemented, can drive economic development. Establishing the baseline of existing policy is a critical first step in determining the potential holistic impact of these policies on driving economic growth in a state. The goal of this report is to document the clean energy-related economic development policy landscape across the 50 states with a focus on policy that seeks to expand new or existing manufacturing within a state. States interested in promoting clean energy manufacturing in their jurisdictions may be interested in reviewing this landscape to determine how they compare to peers and to adjust their policies as necessary. This report documents over 900 existing clean energy-related economic development laws, financial incentives (technology-agnostic and clean energy focused), and other policies such as agency-directed programs and initiatives across the states.

  20. United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT United States – Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework For Re-emergent Relations by Allen J. Jamerson United States Air...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States - Cuba Policy: Strategic Framework for Re-emergent Relations ... UNITED STATES – CUBA POLICY: STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR RE-EMERGENT RELATIONS .....1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  1. Learning Relational Policies from Electronic Health Record Access Logs

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Bradley; Nyemba, Steve; Paulett, John

    2011-01-01

    Modern healthcare organizations (HCOs) are composed of complex dynamic teams to ensure clinical operations are executed in a quick and competent manner. At the same time, the fluid nature of such environments hinders administrators' efforts to define access control policies that appropriately balance patient privacy and healthcare functions. Manual efforts to define these policies are labor-intensive and error-prone, often resulting in systems that endow certain care providers with overly broad access to patients' medical records while restricting other providers from legitimate and timely use. In this work, we propose an alternative method to generate these policies by automatically mining usage patterns from electronic health record (EHR) systems. EHR systems are increasingly being integrated into clinical environments and our approach is designed to be generalizable across HCOs, thus assisting in the design and evaluation of local access control policies. Our technique, which is grounded in data mining and social network analysis theory, extracts a statistical model of the organization from the access logs of its EHRs. In doing so, our approach enables the review of predefined policies, as well as the discovery of unknown behaviors. We evaluate our approach with five months of access logs from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center and confirm the existence of stable social structures and intuitive business operations. Additionally, we demonstrate that there is significant turnover in the interactions between users in the HCO and that policies learned at the department level afford greater stability over time. PMID:21277996

  2. Nursing Practices and Policies Related to Family Presence During Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Kelly A; Candela, Lori

    Despite its shown benefits, family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) is a controversial topic among critical care nurses and is not routinely implemented. The objective of this study was to describe FPDR practices among critical care nurses, as well as the prevalence of FPDR policies and education. The study used a descriptive survey design. Data were collected from a convenience sample of critical care nurses obtained at a national level. A 25-item demographic and professional attribute survey was administered to all participants. There were 124 critical care nurses who participated. Results indicated critical care nurses have vast resuscitative care experience; however, FPDR is not a routine component. In the past year, 23% (n = 29) had never experienced FPDR, and only 17% (n = 21) had experienced it more than 5 times. Furthermore, 48% (n = 59) had never invited FPDR, and 45% (n = 56) had invited it only 1 to 5 times. A lack of FPDR policy was noted, with 73% (n = 91) indicating their facility or unit did not have a policy or they were unsure if one existed. Only 38% (n = 47) had ever received education on FPDR. Despite the shown benefits of FPDR, it is not a routine component of resuscitation in critical care settings. Nurse managers and educators should focus on policy creation and education to help guide nurses at the bedside. The impact of policy and education on critical care nurses' support for and implementation of FPDR requires further study.

  3. Australian television news coverage of alcohol, health and related policies, 2005 to 2010: implications for alcohol policy advocates.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-12-01

    To describe television news coverage between 2005 and 2010 of alcohol, health and relevant alcohol-control policies, with a view to informing policy advocacy. A content analysis of all alcohol stories archived by the Australian Health News Research Collaboration. We recorded what triggered a news item, the main topics covered, whether risks to health were communicated, whether alcohol-control policies were featured and which news-actors appeared. We identified 612 stories, where 69.2% were triggered by a particular newsworthy incident or the release of new findings. The most frequently reported alcohol stories were focused on associated harms (30.2%) and 'binge drinking' (19.0%). A majority (75.3%) reported a variety of positive and negative health effects, yet mainly focused on short-term consequences. Combined, 63% mentioned an alcohol-control policy, yet no one particular policy was featured in more than 10% of all stories. The most commonly featured news-actors included public-health professionals (50.0%), members of affected communities (28.4%) and government representatives (24.3%) Problems related to alcohol were well-established foci of news attention and reportage and covered a broad spectrum of issues related to public health goals, yet less coverage centred on long-term health consequences or effective policy solutions. Future policy advocacy could focus on moving the debate away from simple problem definition to better communication of long-term health risks, existing policies, and evidence of their effectiveness and arguments for their adoption. Future research might consider audience understanding of the information. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  5. Laboring to Relate: Neoliberalism, Embodied Policy, and Network Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds on previous research (Ball, 2012, Ball & Junemann, 2012) to explore some aspects of the embodiment of policy. The author draws on Larner and Laurie's (2010) work on technocratic expertise and how, as she puts it, "privatisation ideas and practices are transferred in embodied forms," and in particular her argument…

  6. POLICY STATEMENT RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    PURPOSES, DEFINITIONS, OBLIGATIONS, AND PRACTICES IN THE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRATORY CHILDREN ARE CLARIFIED IN A POLICY STATEMENT. COLORADO LAW PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN TO DEVELOP THEIR POTENTIALITIES AND CAPACITIES. A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED BY THE MIGRANT CHILDREN EDUCATIONAL ACT. COMMON USAGE AND…

  7. US health policy related to hookah tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H; Fine, Michael J; Donohue, Julie M

    2012-09-01

    Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS.

  8. US Health Policy Related to Hookah Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V.; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Donohue, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. Methods. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Results. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Conclusions. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS. PMID:22827447

  9. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  10. Laboring to Relate: Neoliberalism, Embodied Policy, and Network Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds on previous research (Ball, 2012, Ball & Junemann, 2012) to explore some aspects of the embodiment of policy. The author draws on Larner and Laurie's (2010) work on technocratic expertise and how, as she puts it, "privatisation ideas and practices are transferred in embodied forms," and in particular her argument…

  11. European perspective of ecosystem services and related policies.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Martha Bonnet; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we focus on the importance of terrestrial ecosystems and the services they provide. European Union policies, contributing to the conservation and maintenance of ecosystem services in Europe are discussed and their current impacts briefly reviewed in the light of the main challenges that European ecosystems might face in the near future.

  12. Nurses' perceptions of the challenges related to the Omanization policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Riyami, M; Fischer, I; Lopez, V

    2015-12-01

    Human resource development has become a major concern in Oman since the inception of the 'Omanization' policy in 1988. The main goal of this policy was to replace the expatriate nursing workforce with similarly qualified local nurses to develop a sustainable workforce and achieve self-reliance. The aim of this study is to explore the nurses' perceptions of Omanization policy. A qualitative research design was used and 16 Omani registered nurses and 26 student nurses were interviewed in depth. Transcribed data were analysed using content analysis. Two main themes emerged from the data: 'Challenges of sustaining the local nursing workforce' and 'Challenges of educational preparation for local nurses'. The participants agreed that Omanization benefited national development, social stability and ensuring local workforce. The challenges faced were cultural and work life balance, preparation of nurses and pace of replacement. The participants were concerned that the pace of replacement could leave behind a marked experience gap. A slow-phased approach to Omanization of the nursing workforce was recommended by the participants. Results obtained from this study reflect the perceptions and voices of student nurses and registered nurses only from the Institute of Nursing and Oman Ministry of Health. A policy of this magnitude requires gradual establishment. The upgrading of the nursing education to degree level, continuous professional development, mentoring and role modeling of expert nurses should be established to prepare local nurses for the localization of the nursing workforce. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  13. The Relative Influence of Research on Class-Size Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Social science research suggests that reducing class size has its largest effects on the achievement of minority and inner-city children during the first year of formal schooling. Despite scholarly disagreements about the implications of specific studies on class size, economists generally agree that targeted class-size policies rest on stronger…

  14. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  15. Multilingualism and Assimilationism in Australia's Literacy-Related Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalley, Andrea C.; Guillemin, Diana; Eisenchlas, Susana A.

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of high linguistic diversity, with more than 300 languages spoken. Today, 19% of the population aged over 5 years speak a language other than English at home. Against this background, we examine government policies and prominent initiatives developed at national level in the past 30 years to address the challenge of offering…

  16. Relations between Policy for Medical Teaching and Basic Need Satisfaction in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R. M. G.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M. J.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for…

  17. 34 CFR 303.173 - Policies and procedures related to financial matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policies and procedures related to financial matters...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... System-Application Requirements § 303.173 Policies and procedures related to financial matters. Each...

  18. Croatian Teacher Competencies Related to the Creation and Implementation of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Vesna; Rafajac, Branko; Buchberger, Iva

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to gain a preliminary insight into the general orientation and range of opinions of 396 primary and secondary school teachers in Croatia toward the a) importance of their competencies related to the education policies; b) cognition and mastering of the competencies related to the education policies; c) the…

  19. Relations between Policy for Medical Teaching and Basic Need Satisfaction in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R. M. G.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M. J.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for…

  20. When Policy Instruments Combine to Promote Coherence: An Analysis of Connecticut's Policies Related to Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Bell, Courtney

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the elements of several policy instruments used in Connecticut, the political conditions under which they were chosen, and their intended targets and expected effects on teacher quality and student learning. The purpose of the paper is to explain how the Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) and the Connecticut State Department…

  1. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  2. Policy documents as sources for measuring societal impact: how often is climate change research mentioned in policy-related documents?

    PubMed

    Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Marx, Werner

    2016-01-01

    In the current UK Research Excellence Framework (REF) and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), societal impact measurements are inherent parts of the national evaluation systems. In this study, we deal with a relatively new form of societal impact measurements. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy documents. We regard this data source as an interesting possibility to specifically measure the (societal) impact of research. Using a comprehensive dataset with publications on climate change as an example, we study the usefulness of the new data source for impact measurement. Only 1.2 % (n = 2341) out of 191,276 publications on climate change in the dataset have at least one policy mention. We further reveal that papers published in Nature and Science as well as from the areas "Earth and related environmental sciences" and "Social and economic geography" are especially relevant in the policy context. Given the low coverage of the climate change literature in policy documents, this study can be only a first attempt to study this new source of altmetrics data. Further empirical studies are necessary, because mentions in policy documents are of special interest in the use of altmetrics data for measuring target-oriented the broader impact of research.

  3. Research-Related Injury Compensation Policies of U.S. Research Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Parasidis, Efthimios; Carroll, Kelly; Evans, Jennifer M.; Pike, Elizabeth R.; Kissling, Grace E.

    2014-01-01

    Federal research regulations require participants to be informed about whether medical care or compensation for injury is available in more than minimal risk studies and prohibit language in informed consent documents that waives, or appears to waive, legal rights. The objectives of this study were to compare data collected in 2000 and 2012 to identify significant changes in types of institutional compensation policies at U.S. research institutions, and assess the relationship between institutional characteristics and different types of policies. We found that research-related injury compensation policies did not change substantially during the time period. A significant percentage of policies contain language that can be reasonably interpreted as waiving, or appearing to waive, legal rights. Level of funding, public vs. private status, and institutional involvement in clinical research were associated with different types of policies. The lack of substantial change in compensation policies supports arguments for a national policy. PMID:24649739

  4. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  5. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  6. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  7. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CDL is considered to have consented to such testing...

  8. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  9. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.

  10. Asset allocation using option-implied moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaludin, H.; Abdullah, M. H.; Tolos, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study uses an option-implied distribution as the input in asset allocation. The computation of risk-neutral densities (RND) are based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index option and its constituents. Since the RNDs estimation does not incorporate risk premium, the conversion of RND into risk-world density (RWD) is required. The RWD is obtained through parametric calibration using the beta distributions. The mean, volatility, and covariance are then calculated to construct the portfolio. The performance of the portfolio is evaluated by using portfolio volatility and Sharpe ratio.

  11. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  12. Review and Analysis of the EU Teacher-Related Policies and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stéger, Csilla

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at raising awareness of the key role the EU already plays in matters of teacher policy. It takes stock of European teacher policy related documents and activities, such as relevant strategies, presidency priorities, Council Conclusions, Commission working documents, the activities of thematic working groups, of networks, of data…

  13. California Policies for Teacher Employment Relations, 1930 to 1975: The Gradual Development of a Bargaining Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englert, Richard M.

    The major results are described of an historical/legal study of statewide legislative and judicial decisions tracing changes in California's state policies regarding teacher labor relations from 1930 to 1975. The central research questions dealt with identifying specific public policy changes, events surrounding these changes, positions taken by…

  14. School District Wellness Policy Quality and Weight-Related Outcomes among High School Students in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…

  15. Questions and Answers Related to Policy Issues about Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Exceptional Children Div.

    This document is designed to provide information to North Carolina administrators and teachers on policy issues related to students with disabilities. Policy letters from the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Civil Rights, as well as "Analysis of Comments and Changes" and "Notice of Interpretations on…

  16. Social policies related to parenthood and capabilities of Slovenian parents.

    PubMed

    Mrčela, Aleksandra Kanjuo; Sadar, Nevenka Černigoj

    2011-01-01

    We apply Sen's capability approach to evaluate the capabilities of Slovenian parents to reconcile paid work and family in the context of the transition to a market economy. We examine how different levels of capabilities together affect the work–life balance (WLB) of employed parents. We combine both quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. The results of our quantitative and qualitative research show that increased precariousness of employment and intensification of work create gaps between the legal and normative possibilities for successful reconciliation strategies and actual use of such arrangements in Slovenia. The existing social policies and the acceptance of gender equality in the sphere of paid work enhance capabilities for reconciliation of paid work and parenthood, whereas the intensification of working lives, the dominance of paid work over other parts of life, and the acceptance of gender inequalities in parental and household responsibilities limit parents’ capabilities to achieve WLB.

  17. Public policy for the control of tobacco-related disease.

    PubMed

    Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A

    1992-03-01

    Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual

  18. Regional Comparison of Enteral Nutrition-Related Admission Policies in Skilled Nursing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Slattery, Eoin; Islam, Nafeesa; Ippolito, Paul R; Seres, David S

    2016-06-01

    Nursing home admission policies are one driver of increased and earlier gastrostomy placement, a procedure that is not always medically or ethically indicated among patients needing short-term nutrition support. This important clinical decision should be based upon patient prognosis, goals, and needs. We compared nursing home enteral nutrition-related admission policies in New York City and other regions of the United States. We also explored motivations for these policies. We conducted a telephone survey with skilled nursing facility administrators in New York City and a random sample of facilities throughout the United States about enteral nutrition-related admission policies. Survey data were matched with publically available data about facility characteristics from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The relationship between facility location and admission policies was described with regression models. Reasons for these policies were thematically analyzed. New York City nursing homes were significantly less likely to admit patients with nasogastric feeding tubes than were nursing homes nationwide, after we controlled for facility characteristics (odds ratio = 0.111; 95% CI, 0.032-0.344). Reasons for refusing nasogastric tubes fell into 5 categories: safety, capacity, policy, perception of appropriate level of care, and patient quality of life. Our findings indicate that enteral nutrition-related admission policies vary greatly between nursing homes in New York City and nationwide. Many administrators cited safety and policy as factors guiding their institutional policies and practices, despite a lack of evidence. This gap in research, practice, and policy has implications for quality and cost of care, length of hospital stay, and patient morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access.

    PubMed

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to relatives raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States.

  20. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    PubMed

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  1. Does implied volatility of currency futures option imply volatility of exchange rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alan T.

    2007-02-01

    By investigating currency futures options, this paper provides an alternative economic implication for the result reported by Stein [Overreactions in the options market, Journal of Finance 44 (1989) 1011-1023] that long-maturity options tend to overreact to changes in the implied volatility of short-maturity options. When a GARCH process is assumed for exchange rates, a continuous-time relationship is developed. We provide evidence that implied volatilities may not be the simple average of future expected volatilities. By comparing the term-structure relationship of implied volatilities with the process of the underlying exchange rates, we find that long-maturity options are more consistent with the exchange rates process. In sum, short-maturity options overreact to the dynamics of underlying assets rather than long-maturity options overreacting to short-maturity options.

  2. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-04-15

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  3. Reductions in abortion-related mortality following policy reform: evidence from Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal mortality; however, abortion law and policy liberalization could lead to drops in unsafe abortion and related deaths. This review provides an analysis of changes in abortion mortality in three countries where significant policy reform and related service delivery occurred. Drawing on peer-reviewed literature, population data and grey literature on programs and policies, this paper demonstrates the policy and program changes that led to declines in abortion-related mortality in Romania, South Africa and Bangladesh. In all three countries, abortion policy liberalization was followed by implementation of safe abortion services and other reproductive health interventions. South Africa and Bangladesh trained mid-level providers to offer safe abortion and menstrual regulation services, respectively, Romania improved contraceptive policies and services, and Bangladesh made advances in emergency obstetric care and family planning. The findings point to the importance of multi-faceted and complementary reproductive health reforms in successful implementation of abortion policy reform. PMID:22192901

  4. Sports-related concussions — media, science and policy

    PubMed Central

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk–benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports. PMID:27364748

  5. Development of a Physical Education-Related State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS).

    PubMed

    Mâsse, Louise C; Chriqui, Jamie F; Igoe, James F; Atienza, Audie A; Kruger, Judy; Kohl, Harold W; Frosh, Marcy M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2007-10-01

    As policy-based approaches are increasingly proposed to address childhood obesity, this paper seeks to: (1) present the development of a system to systematically and reliably assess the nature and extent of state physical education (PE) and recess-related policies; (2) determine the inter-rater agreement in using the system; and (3) report on the variability in state policies using a December 31, 2003 baseline. The PE and Recess State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS) was developed from a conceptual framework and was informed by reviewing the scientific and gray literatures and through consultations with an expert panel and key experts. Statutes and regulations enacted as of December 31, 2003 were retrieved from Westlaw (data retrieved and analyzed in 2004-2005). PERSPCS addresses five areas: PE time requirements, staffing requirements for PE, curriculum standards for PE, assessment of health-related fitness, and recess time (elementary schools only). The inter-rater agreement ranged from 0.876 (PE staffing requirements) to perfect agreement (recess time). Staffing requirements had more restrictive policies, followed in decreasing order by time requirements, curriculum standards, assessment, and recess time. Overall, state policies met minimal requirements across areas and grade levels as of December 2003. Extending PERSPCS to address other aspects of childhood obesity is a critical first step in understanding the range of state policy approaches in this area and their impact. PERSPCS should be examined in conjunction with school district-level policies to determine the overall effects of policies on school environmental and behavioral outcomes. PERSPCS is not designed to set policy guidelines.

  6. Policies related to active transport to and from school: a multisite case study.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Amy A; Brownson, Ross C; Doescher, Mark P; Evenson, Kelly R; Fesperman, Carrie E; Litt, Jill S; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E; Terpstra, Jennifer L; Troped, Philip J; Schmid, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that influence ATS initiatives. Nine elementary schools in seven states participated in this case study. Sixty-nine stakeholders were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed using a master thematic codebook. This study identified two distinct aspects of policies: 'influential factors' which are factors that might impact policies related to ATS and 'policy actions' which are policies reported by people involved in ATS initiatives that directly affected their success. Influential factors included sidewalks, crosswalks/crossing guards, funding, personal safety concerns, advocacy group involvement and others. Policy actions included policies on school speed zone, drop-off, no-transport zones, school siting, school start/dismissal time and school choice. Despite the diversity of the schools studied, similarities included influence of built environment, safety concerns, funding and transdisciplinary collaboration. Stakeholders need to work together to stimulate action and ensure successful initiatives. Influential factors appear to be important to this process.

  7. Terrorism-Related Loss of Citizenship - A Policy Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    terrorist organization, or engaging in or supporting terrorism. Although several of our allies, including the U.K., Australia, and France , have...considered and either passed or rejected by the U.K., Australia, and France , it provides a critical review of terrorism- related loss of citizenship...Australia, France , voluntariness, intent, deprivation, withdrawal, statelessness, material support, designated terrorist organization, Immigration and

  8. Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm.

    PubMed

    Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises.

  9. Interactions Between Policy Effects, Population Characteristics and the Tax-Benefit System: An Illustration Using Child Poverty and Child Related Policies in Romania and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Avram, Silvia; Militaru, Eva

    We investigate the impact of the Romanian and Czech family policy systems on the poverty risk of families with children. We focus on separating out the effects of policy design itself and size of benefits from the interaction between policies and population characteristics. We find that interactions between population characteristics, the wider tax benefit system and child related policies are pervasive and large. Both population characteristics and the wider tax-benefit environment can dramatically alter the antipoverty effect of a given set of policies.

  10. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    Framework ( TIFA ). Legislation in the 111th Congress concerning Taiwan includes H.Con.Res. 18, urging that the United States resume diplomatic relations with...trade discussions have been held under a 1994 Trade and Investment Framework Agreement ( TIFA ), a non-binding consultative mechanism the United...States employs for resolving trade and investment difficulties with countries still opening their economies.35 In some instances, a TIFA may lead to

  11. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    TIFA ). Legislation in the 111th Congress concerning Taiwan includes H.Con.Res. 18, urging that the United States resume diplomatic relations with...to Latin America.34 To date, U.S.-Taiwan trade discussions have been held under a 1994 Trade and Investment Framework Agreement ( TIFA ), a non...In some instances, a TIFA may lead to economic liberalization that is significant enough to result in a U.S. FTA with the TIFA country. Taiwan has

  12. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    Framework ( TIFA ). Legislation in the 111th Congress concerning Taiwan includes H.Con.Res. 18, urging that the United States resume diplomatic relations...Taiwan trade discussions have been held under a 1994 Trade and Investment Framework Agreement ( TIFA ), a non-binding consultative mechanism the United...States employs for resolving trade and investment difficulties with countries still opening their economies.35 In some instances, a TIFA may lead to

  13. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  14. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access

    PubMed Central

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States. PMID:26479568

  15. Policies, Procedures, and Practices Regarding Sport-Related Concussion in Community College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Paddack, Michael; DeWolf, Ryan; Covassin, Tracey; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    College sport organizations and associations endorse concussion-management protocols and policies. To date, little information is available on concussion policies and practices at community college institutions. To assess and describe current practices and policies regarding the assessment, management, and return-to-play criteria for sport-related concussion (SRC) among member institutions of the California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA). Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 55 head athletic trainers (ATs) at CCCAA institutions. Data about policies, procedures, and practices regarding SRC were collected over a 3-week period in March 2012 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, and the Spearman test. Almost half (47%) of ATs stated they had a policy for SRC assessment, management, and return to play at their institution. They reported being in compliance with baseline testing guidelines (25%), management guidelines (34.5%), and return-to-play guidelines (30%). Nearly 31% of ATs described having an SRC policy in place for academic accommodations. Conference attendance was positively correlated with institutional use of academic accommodations after SRC (r = 0.44, P = .01). The number of meetings ATs attended and their use of baseline testing were also positively correlated (r = 0.38, P = .01). At the time of this study, nearly half of CCCAA institutions had concussion policies and 31% had academic-accommodation policies. However, only 18% of ATs at CCCAA institutions were in compliance with all of their concussion policies. Our findings demonstrate improvements in the management of SRCs by ATs at California community colleges compared with previous research but a need for better compliance with SRC policies.

  16. Policies, Procedures, and Practices Regarding Sport-Related Concussion in Community College Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Paddack, Michael; DeWolf, Ryan; Covassin, Tracey; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Context College sport organizations and associations endorse concussion-management protocols and policies. To date, little information is available on concussion policies and practices at community college institutions. Objective To assess and describe current practices and policies regarding the assessment, management, and return-to-play criteria for sport-related concussion (SRC) among member institutions of the California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants A total of 55 head athletic trainers (ATs) at CCCAA institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s) Data about policies, procedures, and practices regarding SRC were collected over a 3-week period in March 2012 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, and the Spearman test. Results Almost half (47%) of ATs stated they had a policy for SRC assessment, management, and return to play at their institution. They reported being in compliance with baseline testing guidelines (25%), management guidelines (34.5%), and return-to-play guidelines (30%). Nearly 31% of ATs described having an SRC policy in place for academic accommodations. Conference attendance was positively correlated with institutional use of academic accommodations after SRC (r = 0.44, P = .01). The number of meetings ATs attended and their use of baseline testing were also positively correlated (r = 0.38, P = .01). Conclusions At the time of this study, nearly half of CCCAA institutions had concussion policies and 31% had academic-accommodation policies. However, only 18% of ATs at CCCAA institutions were in compliance with all of their concussion policies. Our findings demonstrate improvements in the management of SRCs by ATs at California community colleges compared with previous research but a need for better compliance with SRC policies. PMID:26765512

  17. Climate change: believing and seeing implies adapting.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tomé, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ± 0.01) to 0.81 (SD ± 0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ± 0.008) to 0.91 (SD ± 0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered.

  18. Climate Change: Believing and Seeing Implies Adapting

    PubMed Central

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tomé, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ±0.01) to 0.81 (SD ±0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ±0.008) to 0.91 (SD ±0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered. PMID:23185568

  19. 75 FR 33821 - Recovery Policy RP9524.10; Direct Disaster-Related Damage to Eligible Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy RP9524.10; Direct Disaster-Related Damage to... Recovery Policy RP9524.10, Direct Disaster-Related Damage to Eligible Facilities. The purpose of this policy is to clarify the definition of damage that is eligible for repair pursuant to FEMA's Public...

  20. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    PubMed

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating School Obesity-related Policies Using Surveillance Tools: Lessons from The ScOPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Coulter, Sara; Davey, Cynthia S.; MacLehose, Richard; Rode, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evidence evaluating the association between school obestiy prevention policies and student weight is mixed. The lack of consistent findings may result, in part, from limited evaluation approaches. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of surveillance data to address methodological gaps and opportunities in the school policy evaluation literature using lessons from the School Obesity-related Policy Evaluation (ScOPE) study. The ScOPE study uses a repeated, cross-sectional study design to evaluate the association between school food and activity policies in Minnesota and behavioral and weight status of youth attending those schools. Three surveillance tools are used to accomplish study goals: Minnesota School Health Profiles (2002–2012), Minnesota Student Survey (2001–2013), and National Center for Educational Statistics. The ScOPE study takes two broad steps. First, we assemble policy data across multiple years and monitor changes over time in school characteristics and the survey instrument(s), establish external validity, and describe trends and patterns in the distribution of policies. Second, we link policy data to student data on health behaviors and weight status, assess nonresponse bias and identify cohorts of schools. To illustrate the potential for program evaluators, the process, challenges encountered, and solutions used in the ScOPE study are presented. PMID:24942750

  2. Evaluating school obesity-related policies using surveillance tools: lessons from the ScOPE study.

    PubMed

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Kubik, Martha Y; Coulter, Sara; Davey, Cynthia S; MacLehose, Richard; Rode, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The evidence evaluating the association between school obestiy prevention policies and student weight is mixed. The lack of consistent findings may result, in part, from limited evaluation approaches. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the use of surveillance data to address methodological gaps and opportunities in the school policy evaluation literature using lessons from the School Obesity-Related Policy Evaluation (ScOPE) study. The ScOPE study uses a repeated, cross-sectional study design to evaluate the association between school food and activity policies in Minnesota and behavioral and weight status of youth attending those schools. Three surveillance tools are used to accomplish study goals: Minnesota School Health Profiles (2002-2012), Minnesota Student Survey (2001-2013), and National Center for Educational Statistics. The ScOPE study takes two broad steps. First, we assemble policy data across multiple years and monitor changes over time in school characteristics and the survey instrument(s), establish external validity, and describe trends and patterns in the distribution of policies. Second, we link policy data to student data on health behaviors and weight status, assess nonresponse bias, and identify cohorts of schools. To illustrate the potential for program evaluators, the process, challenges encountered, and solutions used in the ScOPE study are presented.

  3. Is there a relation between school smoking policies and youth cigarette smoking knowledge and behaviors?

    PubMed

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-02-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the prevalence of students' cigarette smoking. Furthermore, we investigated the association between school policy and students' tobacco purchasing behavior, knowledge of health effects from tobacco use and likelihood of influencing others not to smoke. Data were obtained from a self-report survey administered to 2,658 New Zealand secondary school students and staff from 63 schools selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Components of school policy were not significantly associated with smoking outcomes, health knowledge or health behavior, and weakly related to a punishment emphasis and students advising others to not smoke. Similarly, weak associations were found between not advising others to not smoke and policies with a punishment emphasis as well as smoke-free environments. The results suggest that having a school tobacco policy was unrelated to the prevalence of tobacco use among students, tobacco purchasing behavior and knowledge of the negative health effects of tobacco.

  4. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Among Young People in the US.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Scott E; Xuan, Ziming; Sarda, Vishnudas; Blanchette, Jason; Swahn, Monica H; Heeren, Timothy C; Voas, Robert B; Naimi, Timothy S

    2017-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of death among young people in the United States. We examined the relationship between states' alcohol policy environments and alcohol-related MVC fatalities among children, adolescents, and young adults under the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), an assessment of 29 alcohol policies across 50 states and Washington, DC, developed with the assistance of an interdisciplinary Delphi panel. Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we examined APS scores in relation to fatalities of people ≤20 years old from 2000 to 2013 occurring in crashes in which ≥1 involved driver had a blood alcohol content ≥0.08%. Logistic regression was used with a 1-year lag between policies and MVC fatalities and adjusted for potential confounders. Of 84 756 MVC fatalities of those ≤20 years old during the study period, 23 757 (28.0%) were alcohol related, including deaths of 11 006 (46.3%) drivers, 10 212 (43.0%) passengers, and 2539 (10.7%) pedestrians, cyclists, and others. People killed in alcohol-related MVCs were predominantly male (72.7%) and older (65.5% were 18-20 years old), and 51.2% were non-Hispanic white. Restrictive policy environments were associated with fewer fatalities (adjusted odds ratio, 0.91 per 10-percentage-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.94). The association was observed for drivers and passengers, male and female decendents, and children, adolescents, and young adults. More restrictive alcohol policies are associated with reduced alcohol-related MVC mortality among young people. Studies should scrutinize the relationship between policies and fatalities to highlight mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. 31 CFR 542.527 - Policy on activities related to the telecommunications sector of Syria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy on activities related to the telecommunications sector of Syria. 542.527 Section 542.527 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN...

  6. A Research Review of the Impact of Accountability Policies on Teachers' Workplace Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausethagen, Solvi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on changes in teachers' workplace relations in a policy context that increasingly emphasizes accountability. The findings indicate that a greater focus on testing and student performance often leads to less attention to the caring and relational aspects of teachers' work. Prevailing and enduring ideas about teachers'…

  7. A Research Review of the Impact of Accountability Policies on Teachers' Workplace Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausethagen, Solvi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on changes in teachers' workplace relations in a policy context that increasingly emphasizes accountability. The findings indicate that a greater focus on testing and student performance often leads to less attention to the caring and relational aspects of teachers' work. Prevailing and enduring ideas about teachers'…

  8. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Aniteye, Patience; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2013-07-06

    Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Findings confirm that health providers' views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, 'social pressures' (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers' decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their 'discretion' in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop 'coping mechanisms' which impede implementation of abortion policy. The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that provider values and attitudes (not just resource

  9. Shaping legal abortion provision in Ghana: using policy theory to understand provider-related obstacles to policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in Ghana; despite its liberal abortion law, access to safe, legal abortion in public health facilities is limited. Theory is often neglected as a tool for providing evidence to inform better practice; in this study we investigated the reasons for poor implementation of the policy in Ghana using Lipsky’s theory of street-level bureaucracy to better understand how providers shape and implement policy and how provider-level barriers might be overcome. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 health professionals of different levels (managers, obstetricians, midwives) at three hospitals in Accra, as well as staff from smaller and private sector facilities. Relevant policy and related documents were also analysed. Results Findings confirm that health providers’ views shape provision of safe-abortion services. Most prominently, providers experience conflicts between their religious and moral beliefs about the sanctity of (foetal) life and their duty to provide safe-abortion care. Obstetricians were more exposed to international debates, treaties, and safe-abortion practices and had better awareness of national research on the public health implications of unsafe abortions; these factors tempered their religious views. Midwives were more driven by fundamental religious values condemning abortion as sinful. In addition to personal views and dilemmas, ‘social pressures’ (perceived views of others concerning abortion) and the actions of facility managers affected providers’ decision to (openly) provide abortion services. In order to achieve a workable balance between these pressures and duties, providers use their ‘discretion’ in deciding if and when to provide abortion services, and develop ‘coping mechanisms’ which impede implementation of abortion policy. Conclusions The application of theory confirmed its utility in a lower-middle income setting and expanded its scope by showing that

  10. European water policy and research on water-related topics - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevauviller, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    European water policy developments are essentially linked to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and parent legislation, which is built upon the principle of river basin management planning with the objective of achieving good status for all European water bodies. Recent policy developments in the climate change area call for ‘climate proofing' of EU actions through mainstreaming of adaptation measures into policies and programmes. These policy trends are very closely related to the capacity to get access to supporting scientific information and to bridge the knowledge gap. This paper is about these features, serving as an introduction to the special issue of Journal of Hydrology on climatic change impact on water: overcoming data and science gaps.

  11. Did a local clean indoor air policy increase alcohol-related crime around bars and restaurants?

    PubMed

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Forster, Jean L; Toomey, Traci L; Broder-Oldach, Ben; Erickson, Darin J; Collins, Natalie M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether the adoption of a local clean indoor air (CIA) policy in St. Paul, Minnesota, was associated with changes in alcohol-related crimes outside on-premises alcohol-licensed businesses. The enactment of a comprehensive CIA policy on 31 March 2006 was used as the intervention time point in an interrupted time-series analysis to assess changes in weekly crime frequency prior to the policy enactment compared with the period after the policy was established (n=261 weeks). St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. On-premise alcohol-licensed business addresses were collected from St. Paul, Minnesota, for the period of January 2003 to December 2007, and geocoded. A 500-foot (152.4 m) buffer was drawn around each business. Alcohol-related crime (ie, arrest) data were obtained from the St. Paul Police Department; crimes had been geocoded by the police department. They were aggregated by week to include only those crimes that occurred within the drawn buffer. Relevant types of crimes included serious (eg, aggravated assaults, homicide, robbery, rape and theft) and less serious (eg, lesser assault, fighting, noise violations, public drunkenness/lewdness or other liquor law violations) crimes. Within a buffer of 500 foot of alcohol-licensed businesses, 23 978 serious alcohol-related crimes and 49 560 less serious alcohol-related crimes occurred over 5 years. Using interrupted time-series analyses to compare the weekly alcohol-related crime frequency in proximity with the bars and restaurants, we found no significant change in either type of crime associated with the local comprehensive CIA policy (p=0.13) after adjustment for seasonal differences and overall crime frequencies. Evidence from this study suggests that alcohol-related crimes were not significantly affected by a local comprehensive CIA policy that banned smoking in public workplaces in St. Paul, Minnesota.

  12. Faster than light motion does not imply time travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréka, Hajnal; Madarász, Judit X.; Németi, István; Stannett, Mike; Székely, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    Seeing the many examples in the literature of causality violations based on faster than light (FTL) signals one naturally thinks that FTL motion leads inevitably to the possibility of time travel. We show that this logical inference is invalid by demonstrating a model, based on (3+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, in which FTL motion is permitted (in every direction without any limitation on speed) yet which does not admit time travel. Moreover, the Principle of Relativity is true in this model in the sense that all observers are equivalent. In short, FTL motion does not imply time travel after all.

  13. Promoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation: a realist synthesis.

    PubMed

    McVeigh, Joanne; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Gilmore, Brynne; McClean, Chiedza; Eide, Arne H; Mannan, Hasheem; Geiser, Priscille; Duttine, Antony; Mji, Gubela; McAuliffe, Eilish; Sprunt, Beth; Amin, Mutamad; Normand, Charles

    2016-08-24

    Good governance may result in strengthened performance of a health system. Coherent policies are essential for good health system governance. The overall aim of this research is to provide the best available scientific evidence on principles of good policy related leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation services in less resourced settings. This research was also conducted to support development of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines on health related rehabilitation. An innovative study design was used, comprising two methods: a systematic search and realist synthesis of literature, and a Delphi survey of expert stakeholders to refine and triangulate findings from the realist synthesis. In accordance with Pawson and Tilley's approach to realist synthesis, we identified context mechanism outcome pattern configurations (CMOCs) from the literature. Subsequently, these CMOCs were developed into statements for the Delphi survey, whereby 18 expert stakeholders refined these statements to achieve consensus on recommendations for policy related governance of health related rehabilitation. Several broad principles emerged throughout formulation of recommendations: participation of persons with disabilities in policy processes to improve programme responsiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability, and to strengthen service-user self-determination and satisfaction; collection of disaggregated disability statistics to support political momentum, decision-making of policymakers, evaluation, accountability, and equitable allocation of resources; explicit promotion in policies of access to services for all subgroups of persons with disabilities and service-users to support equitable and accessible services; robust inter-sectoral coordination to cultivate coherent mandates across governmental departments regarding service provision; and 'institutionalizing' programmes by aligning them with preexisting Ministerial models of healthcare to

  14. Old and New Policies in Dialogue: Greek-Cypriot Teachers' Interpretations of a Peace-Related Initiative through Existing Policy Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalambous, Panayiota; Charalambous, Constadina; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at teachers' interpretations of a recent and controversial Greek-Cypriot policy initiative, which aimed to promote "peaceful coexistence" between the two rival communities in conflict-ridden Cyprus. Specifically, it focuses on the ways in which Greek-Cypriot teachers constructed the relation between the new policy for…

  15. The concept of addiction in law and regulatory policy related to pain management: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Aaron M

    2010-01-01

    To present a critical appraisal of the present definitions of addiction-related terminology that appear in US laws and regulatory policies that apply to the prescription of controlled substances for pain management. To establish an appropriate context for existing policy definitions, a historical review was conducted of reports from the World Health Organization expert committees on addiction-related concepts, beginning in 1950. In addition, current World Health Organization and American Psychiatric Association diagnostic classification nomenclature were examined. Results from recent criteria-based evaluations of federal and state laws and regulatory policies containing addiction-related terminology also were referenced. Numerous examples are provided to clarify how inaccurate understandings of the nature of addiction, which can be corroborated by archaic definitions in some states' laws, can impact treatment decisions and patient care. Finally, this article discusses terminological and treatment implications of such concepts as "risk mitigation" and "responsible prescribing", which are goals currently emphasized in the pain management field as principal means to reduce addiction to or abuse of prescription opioid medications. Although notable improvement has been achieved, policy content in some states has not kept pace with advancements in medical and scientific knowledge about the interface between pain management and addictive disease. Effective translation of addiction-related concepts into clinical practice remains an important objective for promoting public health related to treating pain and reducing non-medical use of opioids.

  16. Smokers' Perceptions of the Relative Effectiveness of Five Tobacco Retail Reduction Policies.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lindsay; Gendall, Phil; Hoek, Janet; Cameron, Claire; Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob

    2017-02-01

    Reducing the widespread retail availability of tobacco could help realize tobacco endgame strategies. We assessed New Zealand smokers' perceptions of five potential policies designed to reduce the retail supply of tobacco, relative to a "benchmark" policy of annual tobacco tax increases. A sample of 623 smokers was recruited from an internet panel. Participants evaluated one of six randomly assigned policy scenarios that would reduce tobacco outlet density: (1) no tobacco sold at alcohol on-licensed premises, (2) no tobacco sold within 500 m of a high school, (3) no tobacco sold within 1 km of any school, (4) tobacco sold only at pharmacies, and (5) tobacco sold only at half the existing liquor stores. Continued 10% annual tobacco tax increases served as a benchmark condition. Participants rated the likely effectiveness of one policy on preventing uptake by a 15-year-old susceptible never-smoker and supporting quitting by an adult smoker. Analyses involved pooled t tests and logistic regression. The policy scenarios in which tobacco was only sold at half the existing liquor stores or only at pharmacies were rated more likely to prevent youth smoking initiation, and at least as likely to help smokers to quit, relative to the benchmark policy. This is the first study to compare potential retail interventions against a measure known to reduce smoking prevalence. Policies that substantially reduce tobacco availability and remove it from smokers' usual places of purchase are perceived as being at least as effective in reducing smoking initiation and supporting cessation, as tax increases. Tobacco control advocates have proposed a range of policies to reduce tobacco retail outlet density, as part of endgame strategies. There are no published data on the relative effectiveness of different approaches, therefore it is unclear which would be most likely to reduce smoking prevalence. This study provides an insight into smokers' perspectives on the effectiveness of retail

  17. Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Serge; Crisp, Richard J; De Oliveira, Pierre; Kamiejski, Rodolphe; Kteily, Nour; Kuepper, Beate; Lalonde, Richard N; Levin, Shana; Pratto, Felicia; Tougas, Francine; Sidanius, Jim; Zick, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to authors of previous single-nation studies, we propose that supporting multiculturalism (MC) or assimilation (AS) is likely to have different effects in different countries, depending on the diversity policy in place in a particular country and the associated norms. A causal model of intergroup attitudes and behaviors, integrating both country-specific factors (attitudes and perceived norms related to a particular diversity policy) and general social-psychological determinants (social dominance orientation), was tested among participants from countries where the pro-diversity policy was independently classified as low, medium, or high (N = 1,232). Results showed that (a) anti-Muslim prejudice was significantly reduced when the pro-diversity policy was high; (b) countries differed strongly in perceived norms related to MC and AS, in ways consistent with the actual diversity policy in each country and regardless of participants' personal attitudes toward MC and AS; (c) as predicted, when these norms were salient, due to subtle priming, structural equation modeling with country included as a variable provided support for the proposed model, suggesting that the effect of country on prejudice can be successfully accounted by it; and (d) consistent with the claim that personal support for MC and AS played a different role in different countries, within-country mediation analyses provided evidence that personal attitudes toward AS mediated the effect of social dominance orientation on prejudice when pro-diversity policy was low, whereas personal attitudes toward MC was the mediator when pro-diversity policy was high. Thus, the critical variables shaping prejudice can vary across nations.

  18. 16 CFR 1615.62 - Policy and interpretation relative to items in inventory or as to recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy and interpretation relative to items in inventory or as to recordkeeping requirements. 1615.62 Section 1615.62 Commercial Practices... CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR: SIZES 0 THROUGH 6X (FF 3-71) Interpretations and Policies § 1615.62 Policy...

  19. Impact of a school health coordinator intervention on health-related school policies and student behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Liam M; Polacsek, Michele; Macdonald, Pamela B; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-04-01

    Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams and implemented annual work plans to address health risk behaviors. This study evaluates the impact of the Healthy Maine Partnerships SHC (HMPSHC) intervention on school policies and student risk behaviors after its first 5 years. Data sources include the Maine School Health Profiles Survey and the Maine Youth Drug and Alcohol Use Survey/Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 2006 data to assess physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco-related policy associations with the HMPSHC intervention. Finally, policy and student behavior analyses were conducted to assess associations. Intervention schools were more likely to be associated with physical activity intramural offerings, improved nutritional offerings, and tobacco cessation programs. In intervention schools, supportive school policies were associated with decreased soda consumption, decreased inactivity, and decreased tobacco use. Required school health education curricula were more predictive of decreased risk behavior in intervention schools than in nonintervention schools. In schools with SHCs, there exists a stronger association with improved school programs. Improved policies and programs were associated with decreases in risk behavior among students in intervention schools. The HMPSHC intervention may be a viable CSHP model to replicate and evaluate in other settings.

  20. Third Party Payments for Related Services: Policy Issues and Implications for Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John W.

    Insurance carriers and state directors of special education were contacted for information regarding policies regarding third party payments for related services mandated for handicapped students under P. L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Insurance companies were queried regarding reimbursable services, conditions for…

  1. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related enforcement actions. 202.12 Section 202.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION INFORMAL AND OTHER PROCEDURES §...

  2. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related enforcement actions. 202.12 Section 202.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION INFORMAL AND OTHER PROCEDURES §...

  3. A Review of Policy Issues Related to Competency Testing for High School Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elford, George

    A number of significant policy issues related to the use of competency tests in basic skills as a requirement for high school graduation are discussed. Issues contributing to the interest in this practice include test score decline, the widespread offering of electives in high school, the complaints of employers about the skill level of high…

  4. Critically Adaptive Pedagogical Relations: The Relevance for Educational Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2013-01-01

    In this article Morwenna Griffiths argues that teacher education policies should be predicated on a proper and full understanding of pedagogical relations as contingent, responsive, and adaptive over the course of a career. Griffiths uses the example of the recent report on teacher education in Scotland, by Graham Donaldson, to argue that for all…

  5. Critically Adaptive Pedagogical Relations: The Relevance for Educational Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2013-01-01

    In this article Morwenna Griffiths argues that teacher education policies should be predicated on a proper and full understanding of pedagogical relations as contingent, responsive, and adaptive over the course of a career. Griffiths uses the example of the recent report on teacher education in Scotland, by Graham Donaldson, to argue that for all…

  6. Persons with Mental Retardation and Related Conditions in State Institutions: Trends and Projections. Policy Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Charlie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This Policy Research Brief summarizes longitudinal national statistics on the number and characteristics of persons with mental retardation and related conditions living in state institutions, their movement into and out of those institutions, the costs of state institutions, and the growing numbers of closures of these institutions. Findings are…

  7. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). ACTION: Advance notice of proposed...

  8. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...; ] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET 2 CFR Chapters I and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including Single Audit Act) AGENCY: Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). ACTION: Extension of comment...

  9. [The zig-zagging legislative policies of the European Union in relation to transgenic products].

    PubMed

    Martín Uranga, Amelia

    2003-01-01

    The author analyses the E.U. legislative policies related to transgenic products from the 80s until nowadays, she stops in Directive 2001/18/Ce and its conversion into national law. She explains how the regulatory frame is after the recent approval of the newest rules about tracking and labelling genetically modified organisms (OMG). She also studies communitary jurisprudence about this subject according to the legislation, concretely sentence 9 September 2003 in the affair C-236/01 about commercialisation of two lines of transgenic corn. Finally she points out how legislative policies have influenced the creation and development of biotechnological enterprises.

  10. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Darcy A; Blake, Christine E; Liese, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities.

  11. Public opinion on nutrition-related policies to combat child obesity, Los Angeles County, 2011.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul A; Chiang, Choiyuk; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret

    2014-06-05

    We assessed public opinion on nutrition-related policies to address child obesity: a soda tax, restrictions on advertising unhealthy foods and beverages to children, and restrictions on siting fast food restaurants and convenience stores near schools. We analyzed data from 998 adults (aged ≥18 years) in the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey. Support was highest for advertising restrictions (74%), intermediate for a soda tax (60%), and lowest for siting restrictions on fast food restaurants and convenience stores (44% and 37%, respectively). Support for food and beverage advertising restrictions and soda taxation is promising for future policy efforts to address child obesity.

  12. Developing a Multicomponent Model of Nutritious Food Access and Related Implications for Community and Policy Practice

    PubMed Central

    FREEDMAN, DARCY A.; BLAKE, CHRISTINE E.; LIESE, ANGELA D.

    2014-01-01

    Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities. PMID:24563605

  13. 41 CFR 301-70.600 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative employees? 301-70... Policies and Procedures Relating to Threatened Law Enforcement/Investigative Employees § 301-70.600 What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to threatened law enforcement/investigative...

  14. Current References and Information Services for Policy Decision-Making in State and Local Government Labor Relations: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    Designed to document problems and issues concerning public employee labor relations, this bibliography should identify information useful in the development of equitable labor relations policies. The 550 listings are arranged into sections on: (1) Background References, Current Assessments and Policy Alternatives in Public Sector Labor Relations,…

  15. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-07

    Negroponte, in an interview with Hong Kong’s Phoenix TV.) • August 30, 2007: “We are very supportive of Taiwan on many many fronts.... However...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Taiwan -U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy...Z39-18 U.S.- Taiwan relations have

  16. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive taxonomy and worldwide trends in pharmaceutical policies in relation to country income status.

    PubMed

    Maniadakis, N; Kourlaba, G; Shen, J; Holtorf, A

    2017-05-25

    Rapidly evolving socioeconomic and technological trends make it challenging to improve access, effectiveness and efficiency in the use of pharmaceuticals. This paper identifies and systematically classifies the prevailing pharmaceutical policies worldwide in relation to a country's income status. A literature search was undertaken to identify and taxonomize prevailing policies worldwide. Countries that apply those policies and those that do not were then grouped by income status. Pharmaceutical policies are linked to a country's socioeconomics. Developed countries have universal coverage and control pharmaceuticals with external and internal price referencing systems, and indirect price-cost controls; they carry out health technology assessments and demand utilization controls. Price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also evolving. Developing countries are underperforming in terms of coverage and they rely mostly on restrictive state controls to regulate prices and expenditure. There are significant disparities worldwide in the access to pharmaceuticals, their use, and the reimbursement of costs. The challenge in high-income countries is to maintain access to care whilst dealing with trends in technology and aging. Essential drugs should be available to all; however, many low- and middle-income countries still provide most of their population with only poor access to medicines. As economies grow, there should be greater investment in pharmaceutical care, looking to the policies of high-income countries to increase efficiency. Pharmaceutical companies could also develop special access schemes with low prices to facilitate coverage in low-income countries.

  18. Analysis of Federal Subsidies: Implied Price of Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Thomas Foulke

    2010-10-01

    For informed climate change policy, it is important for decision makers to be able to assess how the costs and benefits of federal energy subsidies are distributed and to be able to have some measure to compare them. One way to do this is to evaluate the implied price of carbon (IPC) for a federal subsidy, or set of subsidies; where the IPC is the cost of the subsidy to the U.S. Treasury divided by the emissions reductions it generated. Subsidies with lower IPC are more cost effective at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while subsidies with a negative IPC act to increase emissions. While simple in concept, the IPC is difficult to calculate in practice. Calculation of the IPC requires knowledge of (i) the amount of energy associated with the subsidy, (ii) the amount and type of energy that would have been produced in the absence of the subsidy, and (iii) the greenhouse gas emissions associated with both the subsidized energy and the potential replacement energy. These pieces of information are not consistently available for federal subsidies, and there is considerable uncertainty in cases where the information is available. Thus, exact values for the IPC based upon fully consistent standards cannot be calculated with available data. However, it is possible to estimate a range of potential values sufficient for initial comparisons. This study has employed a range of methods to generate “first order” estimates for the IPC of a range of federal subsidies using static methods that do not account for the dynamics of supply and demand. The study demonstrates that, while the IPC value depends upon how the inquiry is framed and the IPC cannot be calculated in a “one size fits all” manner, IPC calculations can provide a valuable perspective for climate policy analysis. IPC values are most useful when calculated within the perspective of a case study, with the method and parameters of the calculation determined by the case. The IPC of different policy measures can

  19. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  20. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  1. Policies Related to Opioid Agonist Therapy for Opioid Use Disorders: The Evolution of State Policies from 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rachel M.; Pacula, Rosalie L.; Bauhoff, Sebastian; Gordon, Adam J.; Hendrikson, Hollie; Leslie, Douglas L.; Stein, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Background State Medicaid policies play an important role in Medicaid-enrollees' access to and use of opioid agonists, such as methadone and buprenorphine, in the treatment of opioid use disorders. Little information is available, however, regarding the evolution of state policies facilitating or hindering access to opioid agonists among Medicaid-enrollees. Methods During 2013-14, we surveyed state Medicaid officials and other designated state substance abuse treatment specialists about their state's recent history of Medicaid coverage and policies pertaining to methadone and buprenorphine. We describe the evolution of such coverage and policies and present an overview of the Medicaid policy environment with respect to opioid agonist therapy from 2004 to 2013. Results Among our sample of 45 states with information on buprenorphine and methadone coverage, we found a gradual trend toward adoption of coverage for opioid agonist therapies in state Medicaid agencies. In 2013, only 11% of states in our sample (n=5) had Medicaid policies that excluded coverage for methadone and buprenorphine, while 71% (n=32) had adopted or maintained policies to cover both buprenorphine and methadone among Medicaid-enrollees. We also noted an increase in policies over the time period that may have hindered access to buprenorphine and/or methadone. Conclusions There appears to be a trend for states to enact policies increasing Medicaid coverage of opioid agonist therapies, while in recent years also enacting policies, such as prior authorization requirements, that potentially serve as barriers to opioid agonist therapy utilization. Greater empirical information about the potential benefits and potential unintended consequences of such policies can provide policymakers and others with a more informed understanding of their policy decisions. PMID:26566761

  2. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  3. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China’s policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China’s current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization’s global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  4. Considering the Value of Dietary Assessment Data in Informing Nutrition-Related Health Policy12

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, James R.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Steck, Susan E.; Miller, Donald R.; Tabung, Fred K.; Peterson, Karen E.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Frongillo, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary assessment has long been known to be challenged by measurement error. A substantial amount of literature on methods for determining the effects of error on causal inference has accumulated over the past decades. These methods have unrealized potential for improving the validity of data collected for research studies and national nutritional surveillance, primarily through the NHANES. Recently, the validity of dietary data has been called into question. Arguments against using dietary data to assess diet–health relations or to inform the nutrition policy debate are subject to flaws that fall into 2 broad areas: 1) ignorance or misunderstanding of methodologic issues; and 2) faulty logic in drawing inferences. Nine specific issues are identified in these arguments, indicating insufficient grasp of the methods used for assessing diet and designing nutritional epidemiologic studies. These include a narrow operationalization of validity, failure to properly account for sources of error, and large, unsubstantiated jumps to policy implications. Recent attacks on the inadequacy of 24-h recall–derived data from the NHANES are uninformative regarding effects on estimating risk of health outcomes and on inferences to inform the diet-related health policy debate. Despite errors, for many purposes and in many contexts, these dietary data have proven to be useful in addressing important research and policy questions. Similarly, structured instruments, such as the food frequency questionnaire, which is the mainstay of epidemiologic literature, can provide useful data when errors are measured and considered in analyses. PMID:25022993

  5. Accepting managed aquifer recharge of urban storm water reuse: The role of policy-related factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankad, Aditi; Walton, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A between-groups experimental design examined public acceptance for managed aquifer recharge of storm water for indirect potable and nonpotable reuse; acceptance was based on five policy-related variables (fairness, effectiveness, trust, importance of safety assurances, and importance of communication activities). Results showed that public acceptance (N = 408) for managed aquifer recharge of storm water was higher for nonpotable applications, as was the importance of safety assurances. Analyses of variance also showed that perceptions of fairness and effectiveness were higher for a nonpotable scheme, but not trust. A three-step hierarchical regression (Step 1: age, gender, education, and income; Step 2: type of use; Step 3: fairness, effectiveness, trust, safety assurance, and communication activities) demonstrated that type of storm water use and the policy-related factors accounted for 73% of the variance in acceptance of storm water (R2 = 0.74, adjusted R2 = 0.74, F (10, 397) = 113.919, p < 0.001). Age, type of use, and three of the five policy-related factors were also significant individual predictors of acceptance. The most important predictors were perceptions of trust in water authorities, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of fairness. Interestingly, while safety assurance was important in attitudinal acceptance of managed aquifer recharge based on type of use, safety assurance was not found to be significant predictor of acceptance. This research suggests that policy-makers should look to address matters of greater public importance and drive such as fairness, trust, and effectiveness of storm water programs and advocate these at the forefront of their policies, rather than solely on education campaigns.

  6. Analyzing exposure, use, and policies related to tobacco use on campus for the development of comprehensive tobacco policies at Canadian post-secondary institutions.

    PubMed

    Wallar, Lauren E; Croteau, Sarah; Estill, Amy; Robson, Liz; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Canadians in their early twenties represent the highest prevalence of reported tobacco use among all age groups. With the majority of Canadian young adults accessing post-secondary education, post-secondary institutions can facilitate targeting of health promotion efforts to curb tobacco use among young adults. Effective targeting requires clear comprehensive campus tobacco policies. However, the development and implementation of comprehensive campus tobacco policies has been lacking among Canadian post-secondary institutions. As the first step towards the development of a comprehensive campus tobacco policy at the University of Guelph, an on-line survey of students, faculty and staff was conducted in November 2012. The objectives of this survey were two-fold: (1) Determine the current level of exposure to second-hand smoke on campus, the type and frequency of tobacco use, opinions on seven different tobacco policy options, and the level of awareness of current tobacco policies and programs and; (2) Determine if any associations between opinions on tobacco policy options and exposure to second-hand smoke and tobacco use existed. The results of this survey demonstrate that tobacco use is associated with opinions on tobacco policy options and that the level of awareness of tobacco policies and programs is relatively low and is not associated with tobacco use. This study represents one of the first studies to examine the association between tobacco use and support of policy options and awareness of tobacco policies and programs. As other post-secondary institutions develop comprehensive tobacco policies, these findings will serve as a comparison for other similar institutions.

  7. Relations between policy for medical teaching and basic need satisfaction in teaching.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M J; Laan, Roland F J M

    2015-10-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for medical teaching: (Junior) Principal Lecturer positions [(J)PL positions] and Subsidized Innovation and Research Projects in Medical Education (SIRPMEs). An online questionnaire was used to collect data about medical teaching in the setting of a university hospital. We adapted the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale (Van den Broeck et al. in J Occup Organ Psychol, 83(4):981-1002, 2010), in order to measure feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in teaching. We examined the relations between (J)PL positions and SIRPMEs and the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs. A total of 767 medical teachers participated. The initiatives appear to be related to different beneficial outcomes in terms of feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in medical teaching. Either a (J)PL position is obtained by teachers who feel competent and related towards medical teaching, or obtaining a (J)PL position makes teachers feel more competent and related towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Also, either a SIRPME is obtained by teachers who feel competent and autonomous towards medical teaching, or obtaining a SIRPME makes teachers feel more competent and autonomous towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Additional research needs to scrutinize the causal or interacting relations further and to determine optimal conditions for these policy initiatives more specifically. Implications for future research are discussed.

  8. Can policy ameliorate socioeconomic inequities in obesity and obesity-related behaviours? A systematic review of the impact of universal policies on adults and children.

    PubMed

    Olstad, D L; Teychenne, M; Minaker, L M; Taber, D R; Raine, K D; Nykiforuk, C I J; Ball, K

    2016-12-01

    This systematic review examined the impact of universal policies on socioeconomic inequities in obesity, dietary and physical activity behaviours among adults and children. PRISMA-Equity guidelines were followed. Database searches spanned from 2004 to August 2015. Eligible studies assessed the impact of universal policies on anthropometric, dietary or physical activity-related outcomes in adults or children according to socioeconomic position. Thirty-six studies were included. Policies were classified as agentic, agento-structural or structural, and their impact on inequities was rated as positive, neutral, negative or mixed according to the dominant associations observed. Most policies had neutral impacts on obesity-related inequities regardless of whether they were agentic (60% neutral), agento-structural (68% neutral) or structural (67% neutral). The proportion of positive impacts was similar across policy types (10% agentic, 18% agento-structural and 11% structural), with some differences for negative impacts (30% agentic, 14% agento-structural and 22% structural). The majority of associations remained neutral when stratified by participant population, implementation level and socioeconomic position measures and by anthropometric and behavioural outcomes. Fiscal measures had consistently neutral or positive impacts on inequities. Findings suggest an important role for policy in addressing obesity in an equitable manner and strengthen the case for implementing a broad complement of policies spanning the agency-structure continuum. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Governing drug use through partnerships: Towards a genealogy of government/non-government relations in drug policy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Natalie; Bull, Melissa; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Smith, Catrin

    2016-02-01

    Drug policy in Australia is underpinned by the idea of partnerships wherein the non-government sector is one important partner in both delivering services and contributing to policy and decision-making processes. This article presents a genealogy of the concept of government/non-government 'partnerships', tracing its emergence and development within drug policy discourse in Australia. We find that the rise of neo-liberal policies since the 1980s has been a key factor facilitating the emergence of government/non-government 'partnerships' rhetoric in drug policy. Since the 1980s, the role of non-government organisations (NGOs) in drug policy has been articulated in relation to 'community' responsibilisation in contrast to the welfarist reliance on expert intervention. We link the rise of this rhetoric with the neo-liberal turn to governing through community and the individualisation of social problems. Furthermore, although we find that governments on the whole have encouraged the service delivery and policy work of NGOs at least in policy rhetoric, the actions of the state have at times limited the ability of NGOs to perform advocacy work and contribute to policy. Constraints on NGO drug policy work could potentially compromise the responsiveness of drug policy systems by limiting opportunities for innovative policy-making and service delivery.

  10. Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Anne

    2016-08-01

    In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.

  11. Dress-Related Behavioral Problems and Violence in the Public School Setting: Prevention, Intervention, and Policy--A Holistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    1996-01-01

    Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…

  12. External Actors and National Preference Formation: European Energy Security Policy & Relations with Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Renard, Callie

    This dissertation examines how Russia has impacted the development of a common European energy security policy through case studies of six member states which represent a variety of perspectives on integration and relations with Russia. These case studies focus on how national preferences on energy security policy are formed and the role, if any, Russia has played. The cases, which include Germany, Poland, UK, Bulgaria, Lithuania and France, rely on open source data and interviews with member states' Permanent Representations and subject matter experts from a variety of institutions both in Brussels and in the member states. The cases were selected based on factors such as size, wealth, energy dependence, historic relations with Russia, and membership in the former Eastern Bloc.

  13. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-14

    protests Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi’s annual visits to the Yasukuni Shrine , where war criminals are also enshrined. Since Koizumi first visited...early willingness to de-emphasize the importance of Sino-U.S. relations in American foreign policy, even while being open to substantively and...been held on a regular basis. The talks suggest, in the words of a U.S. official spokesman, an American recognition of “the role that China is playing

  14. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-03

    Secretary of State John Negroponte, in an interview with Hong Kong’s Phoenix TV.) ! August 30, 2007: “We are very supportive of Taiwan on many many fronts...democracy and rule of law programs in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan , provided that money for Taiwan be matched from sources other than the U.S. government...Order Code RL34683 Taiwan -U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications Updated October 3, 2008 Kerry Dumbaugh Specialist in

  15. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-27

    Taiwan -China trade has also increased dramatically, so that China (along with Hong Kong) now has surpassed the United States as Taiwan’s most important...democracy and rule of law programs in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan , provided that money for Taiwan be matched from sources other than the U.S...Order Code RL34683 Taiwan -U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications Updated October 27, 2008 Kerry Dumbaugh Specialist in

  16. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-25

    Negroponte, in an interview with Hong Kong’s Phoenix TV.) ! August 30, 2007: “We are very supportive of Taiwan on many many fronts.... However...The Act provides $15 million for democracy and rule of law programs in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan , provided that money for Taiwan be matched from...Order Code RL34683 Taiwan -U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications September 25, 2008 Kerry Dumbaugh Specialist in Asian

  17. Law, Policy and Nonproliferation Project Events and Workshops: Key Themes, Results and Related Materials 2008 - 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    THEMES, RESULTS, AND RELATED MATERIALS 2008-2009 PG. 32  Mr. Michael Carter, Deputy Principal Associate Director for Programs/Global Security at...Livermore National Laboratory, Mr. Michael Carter. 7. MAY 18, 2009—THE LEGAL AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF AMBIGUOUS ROCKET LAUNCH: LEARNING FROM THE...2008—PROJECT SCOPING CONFERENCE ATTENDEES NAME ORGANIZATION Anthony Arend Georgetown University School of Foreign Service William Baumgartner US

  18. Migration Related to Climate Change: Impact, Challenges and Proposed Policy Initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Migration of human population possesses a great threat to human development and nation building. A significant cause for migration is due to change in climatic conditions and vulnerabilities associated with it. Our case study focuses on the consequent reason and impact of such migration in the coastal areas of West Bengal, India. The changes in rainfall pattern and the variation of temperature have been considered as parameters which have resulted in migration. It is worthy to note that the agricultural pattern has subsequently changed over the last two decades due to change in rainfall and temperature. India being an agriculture oriented economy, the changes in the meteorological variables have not only altered the rate of agricultural pattern but also the rate of migration. A proposed framework depicting relationship between changes in meteorological variables and the migration pattern, and an estimate of how the migration pattern is expected to change over the next century by utilizing the downscaled values of future rainfall and temperature has been analyzed. Moreover, various public policy frameworks has also been proposed through the study for addressing the challenges of migration related to climate change. The proposed public policy framework has been streamlined along the lines of various international treaties and conventions in order to integrate the policy initiatives through universalization of law and policy research.

  19. Injury news coverage, relative concern, and support for alcohol-control policies: an impersonal impact explanation.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Hayes, Andrew F; Chung, Adrienne H

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impersonal impact hypothesis suggests that news (especially print) coverage of health and safety risks primarily influences perceptions of risk as a societal issue, and not perceptions of personal risk. The authors propose that the impersonal impact of news-impact primarily on concerns about social-level risks-will mediate effects of news stories on support for public health policies; such effects substantively matter as evidence suggests health policies, in turn, have important effects on protective behaviors and health outcomes. In an experiment using 60 randomly selected violent crime and accident news stories manipulated to contain or not contain reference to alcohol use as a causative factor, the authors find that the effect of stories that mention alcohol as a causative factor on support for alcohol-control policies is mediated by social-level concern and not by personal-level concern. In so doing, the authors provide a theoretical explanation as well as empirical evidence regarding the potential for news coverage-including breaking or episodic news-to influence health-related public policy.

  20. Relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation: The Thai experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketudat, Sippanondha; Fry, Gerald

    1981-06-01

    The relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation in Thailand are the topic of this paper. The major focus is on the research/policy linkage. A complex educational administrative structure and a pluralistic informal power structure characterize the Thai research context. A tetrahedral model of linkages provides the conceptual framework for the analysis. Details are then provided with respect to the actual operationalization of the model in terms of the Thai approach in practice. Major elements in the Thai approach include the use of expert policy committees, joint committees involving both administrators and researchers, problem-oriented seminars, and commissioned research. Actual examples of research efforts described are an educational reform study, local level school mapping, a school cluster experiment, a budget exercise to improve the equity of primary school resource allocations, and a policy evaluation of sub-district secondary schools. Finally, lessons to be learned from the Thai experience are summarized. Thailand has experienced some success in building analytical educational research capacity and ensuring its utilization. Key elements in this success have been an emphasis on strengthening human capacities; judging political will in a timely, flexible manner; creatively utilizing bureaucratic forms such as committees; and remaining both politically detached and sensitive.

  1. How do public health policies tackle alcohol-related harm: a review of 12 developed countries.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrence; Wallace, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    To identify how current public health policies of 12 developed countries assess alcohol-related problems, the goals and targets that are set and the strategic directives proposed. Policy documents on alcohol and on general public heath were obtained through repeated searches of government websites. Documents were reviewed by two independent observers. All the countries studied state that alcohol causes substantial harm to individual health and family well-being, increases crime and social disruption, and results in economic loss through lost productivity. All are concerned about consumption of alcohol by young adults and by heavy and problem drinkers. Few aim to reduce total consumption. Only five of the countries set specific targets for changes in drinking behaviour. Countries vary in their commitment to intervene, particularly on taxation, drink-driving, the drinking environment and for high-risk groups. Australia and New Zealand stand out as having coordinated intervention programmes in most areas. Policies differ markedly in their organization, the goals and targets that are set, the strategic approaches proposed and areas identified for intervention. Most countries could improve their policies by following the recommendations in the World Heath Organization's European Alcohol Action Plan.

  2. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  3. Disempowered doctors? A relational view of public health policy implementation in urban India.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Kabir; Porter, John D H

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the nature of power relationships between urban hospital practitioners and other groups of actors involved in the implementation of public health policies in India, and the effects of enacting different strategies to strengthen implementation, in the context of these balances of power. It is based on an empirical research study conducted over 18 months in five Indian cities involving 61 in-depth interviews with medical practitioners and policy actors, and an interpretivist analytical approach. An issue case study-of the implementation of national HIV testing guidelines-was used to focus the interviews on specific events and phenomena. Respondents' accounts revealed that practitioners in both private and government hospitals tended to successfully resist or subvert the attempts of regulators and administrators to enforce the guidelines. However, in spite of often possessing perspectives and convictions that differed from the nationally sanctioned guidelines, practitioners were not able to effectively communicate these ideas to other health systems actors, or introduce them into mainstream policy discourse. The metaphor of public health guideline implementation throws light on the problematical nature of the power possessed by medical practitioners in relation to public health systems in India. Even as practitioners wield 'negative' power in their ability to resist authority, they appear to lack the 'positive' power to contribute intellectually to the policy process. This mix of political obduracy and intellectual demoralization among practitioners also underpins a subtle trend in public health, of the separation of the world of ideas from the world of actions. Study findings highlight that stronger regulations and provisions for accountability in Indian health systems critically need to be balanced by measures to develop collective intellectual capital and include the voices of frontline practitioners in public health policy discourse.

  4. Trends in alcohol prevalence, age of initiation and association with alcohol-related harm among South African youth: implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Ramsoomar, Leane; Morojele, Neo K

    2012-06-05

    To understand alcohol use trends and alcohol-related harm among youth in South Africa (SA) between 1998 and 2008, and discuss implications for the current alcohol policy process. A review was conducted of 4 national prevalence and 2 sentinel surveillance studies. Data were extracted to Epi Info (version 7) and chi-square analyses undertaken. RESULTS. Lifetime alcohol use remained stable but high at 20 - 25% and 49.1 - 49.6% according to South African Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS) and Youth Risk Behaviour Survey (YRBS) data, respectively. Age of initiation remained stable; 12% of adolescents initiated alcohol use prior to age 13 years. Significant gender differences existed with more males having ever consumed alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, and driven or walked under the influence of alcohol (DUI and WUI, respectively). Binge drinking among females increased significantly from 27% to 36% (SADHS) and 18% to 27% (YRBS). DUI and WUI increased. Homicide/violence, suicide and unintentional deaths were significantly associated with blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Although SA has made significant strides in alcohol control and prevention of alcohol-related harm over the past decade, early alcohol initiation remains a concern and binge drinking is increasing, especially among females. Significant associations exist between BAC and alcohol-related fatalities. Findings imply that regulatory policies are inadequate; additional efforts are required to ensure that control strategies translate into a reduction in harmful alcohol use by SA youth.

  5. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-10

    investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) linked tainted PRC exports of pet food with wheat gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney...policy toward Tibet and the state of Sino-Tibetan relations. Tibet remains an issue of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S.-China... sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino-U.S. relations.41 It is the issue that many observers most fear could lead

  6. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-29

    March and April 2007, when an investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) linked tainted PRC exports of pet food with wheat gluten to...reviewing U.S. policy toward Tibet and the state of Sino-Tibetan relations. Tibet remains an issue of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S...exchanges. Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino-U.S. relations

  7. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Theresa M.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300 000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Results: Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. Conclusions: The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. PMID:25983329

  8. Egalitarian health policy preference and its related factors in Korea: national representative sample survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Whan; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Recently in Korea, the commercialization of health services has come to the fore, and the issue of egalitarianism/universal coverage in health is a matter for debate. This study explored the extent of Korean citizen's preference for egalitarian health policies focusing on the provision of health care service, financing and related factors. The data came from the 2011 Korean General Social Survey (KGSS) and the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). The preference for an egalitarian health policy (dependent variable) was divided into a preference for an egalitarian health services provision (ES) and a willingness to contribute (WC) to it. Each index was linearly regressed with demographic factors, socioeconomic status, ideology, and health-related factors. ES was significantly associated with an individual's egalitarianism and political liberalism, having illness/disability, having no additional private health insurance, and their perception of health insurance coverage. WC was associated with age, sex, household income, education, egalitarianism, and their perception of health insurance coverage. There were evidently different factors between ES and WC, mainly socioeconomic factors. WC was strongly influenced by socioeconomic status, whereas ES seemed to be linked more closely to economic affordability. Moreover, the results showed that Korean citizens prefer ES but do not like WC. These results deserve great attention, and the authorities should keep it in perspective. If the government wants to make a successful attempt to change the healthcare system through public policy, it will need to take public preferences into account.

  9. Upping the ante: relative caregivers' perceptions of changes in child welfare policies.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P; Massat, C R; Gleeson, J P

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five caregivers of related children who were in the custody of the child welfare system were interviewed individually or in focus groups as the state child welfare system implemented new federal and state policies encouraging these caregivers to adopt or assume guardianship of the children in their care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. Issues of concern included emergency entrance into caregiving; the simultaneous satisfaction and burden of caregiving; obstacles to caregiving, adoption, or guardianship; complex changes in family dynamics following placement of children; sources of support; and caution regarding adoption or guardianship. The caregivers also offered recommendations for the child welfare system. Policy, practice, and research implications are discussed.

  10. Recommendations for policy development regarding sport-related concussion prevention and management in Canada.

    PubMed

    Frémont, Pierre; Bradley, Lindsay; Tator, Charles H; Skinner, Jill; Fischer, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Concussion Collaborative (CCC) is composed of health-related organisations concerned with the recognition, treatment and management of concussion. Its mission is to create synergy between organisations concerned with concussion to improve education and implementation of best practices for the prevention and management of concussions. Each of the organisations that constitute the CCC has endorsed two recommendations that address the need for relevant authorities to develop policies about concussion management in sports. The recommendations were developed to support advocacy for regulations, policies or legislation to improve concussion prevention and management at all levels of sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. 16 CFR 303.18 - Terms implying fibers not present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms implying fibers not present. 303.18... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.18 Terms implying fibers... designation of a fiber which is not present in the product, (b) which are phonetically similar to the name...

  12. 16 CFR 303.18 - Terms implying fibers not present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms implying fibers not present. 303.18... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.18 Terms implying fibers... designation of a fiber which is not present in the product, (b) which are phonetically similar to the name...

  13. 16 CFR 303.18 - Terms implying fibers not present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terms implying fibers not present. 303.18... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.18 Terms implying fibers... designation of a fiber which is not present in the product, (b) which are phonetically similar to the name or...

  14. 16 CFR 303.18 - Terms implying fibers not present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms implying fibers not present. 303.18... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.18 Terms implying fibers... designation of a fiber which is not present in the product, (b) which are phonetically similar to the name or...

  15. 16 CFR 303.18 - Terms implying fibers not present.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terms implying fibers not present. 303.18... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.18 Terms implying fibers... designation of a fiber which is not present in the product, (b) which are phonetically similar to the name or...

  16. Are physical education-related state policies and schools' physical education requirement related to children's physical activity and obesity?

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-06-01

    This study examines whether the extent of states' physical education (PE) requirement policies and the prevalence of schools requiring PE are associated with children's physical activity (PA) and obesity. Two cycles (2002-2003 and 2006-2007) of cross-sectional data with individual- and state-level information were analyzed. Information on states' PE requirement was from the 2003 and 2006 Physical Education-Related State Policy Classification System, and the prevalence of schools requiring PE was from the 2002 and 2006 School Health Profiles. The individual-level sample includes 11- to 17-year-old children from the 2003 (N = 25,251) and 2007 (N = 23,728) National Survey of Children's Health. The associations of states' PE requirement and schools' PE requirement with children's PA and obesity were examined, controlling for individual, family, and state covariates. Variation in the associations by individual and family characteristics was also tested. States' PE requirement was not associated with any outcome. In cycle 1, overall, a 10% increase in the percentage of schools requiring PE was associated with a 28% increase in the number of days having vigorous PA per week. In cycle 2, the association was not significant. However, significant variation in the association by gender in cycle 2 suggests an influence of schools' PE requirement on girls' PA only. No association was found between schools' PE requirement and obesity. Gaps exist between state PE-related policies and implementation in schools. However, schools' PE requirement seems to improve children's PA with some gender variation. The association between schools' PE requirement and children's weight is less clear. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  17. Policy related to abdominoplasty in publicly funded elective surgery programs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Wiechula, Rick; Jordan, Zoe; Louey, Melissa

    2009-06-01

    Objectives  This systematic review set out to establish best practice in relation to policy for the inclusion/exclusion of abdominoplasty procedures within public health systems. Inclusion criteria  The review considered any studies relating to abdominoplasty that addressed issues of inclusion/exclusion from public funded health systems including criteria for clinical need, contraindications, fit/ready for surgery, policy compliance and issues in relation to surgical training. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find published and unpublished studies and papers limited to English. An initial search of Medline and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of keywords contained in the title, abstract and index terms. A second comprehensive search was then undertaken using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Health Business, and FullTEXT Elite and PsycINFO. The search was restricted to the period 1995-2005. Methodological quality  Each paper identified was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management and Assessment Review Instrument package. Results  A total of 19 papers were included in the review. Owing to the diverse nature of the papers no meta-analysis or meta-synthesis was able to be used to pool studies. The results are therefore presented in a narrative form. The papers identified were mainly retrospective audits and discussion/opinion papers. The main issues addressed were criteria to establish clinical need, contraindications and policy compliance. Conclusion  There are clinical indicators, mainly in relation to physical symptoms/dysfunction, to support exemption of some cases of abdominoplasty. For abdominoplasty to be conducted clinical need must be assessed and formally documented. Where clinical need is primarily based on psychological distress/dysfunction a

  18. Universities and the Public Good: A Review of Knowledge Exchange Policy and Related University Practice in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthill, Michael; O'Shea, Éidín; Wilson, Bruce; Viljoen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Australian policy relating to knowledge exchange has never been well articulated, notwithstanding that the nexus between knowledge, engagement and higher education in Australia has been on the national agenda for several decades (Grattan Institute, 2013). In universities, this policy deficit is reflected in a lack of project management and…

  19. Changing shapes and implied viscosities of suspended submicron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sanchez, M. S.; Douet, C.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; Kuwata, M.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Sato, B. B.; Liu, P. F.; Bertram, A. K.; Geiger, F. M.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    The change in shape of atmospherically relevant organic particles is used to estimate the viscosity of the particle material without the need for removal from aerosol suspension. The dynamic shape factors χ of particles produced by α-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor, under conditions of particle coagulation, were measured while altering the relative humidity (RH) downstream of the flow tube. As relative humidity was increased, the results showed that χ could change from 1.27 to 1.02, corresponding to a transition from aspherical to nearly spherical shapes. The shape change could occur at elevated RH because the organic material had decreased viscosity and was therefore able to flow to form spherical shapes, as favored by the minimization of surface area. Numerical modeling was used to estimate the particle viscosity associated with this flow. Based on particle diameter and RH exposure time, the viscosity dropped from 10(8.7±2.0) to 10(7.0±2.0) Pa s (two sigma) for an increase in RH from < 5 to 58 % at 293 K. These results imply that the equilibration of the chemical composition of the particle phase with the gas phase can shift from hours at mid-range RH to days at low RH.

  20. Changing shapes and implied viscosities of suspended submicron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sanchez, M. S.; Douet, C.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Gong, Z.; Kuwata, M.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Sato, B. B.; Liu, P. F.; Bertram, A. K.; Geiger, F. M.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-03-01

    The change in shape of atmospherically relevant organic particles is used to estimate the viscosity of the particle material without the need for removal from aerosol suspension. The dynamic shape factors χ of particles produced by α-pinene ozonolysis in a flow tube reactor, under conditions of particle coagulation, were measured while altering the relative humidity (RH) downstream of the flow tube. As relative humidity was increased, the results showed that χ could change from 1.27 to 1.02, corresponding to a transition from aspherical to nearly spherical shapes. The shape change could occur at elevated RH because the organic material had decreased viscosity and was therefore able to flow to form spherical shapes, as favored by minimization of surface area. Numerical modeling was used to estimate the particle viscosity associated with this flow. Based on particle diameter and RH exposure time, the viscosity dropped from 10(8.7±2.0) to 10(7.0±2.0) Pa s (2σ) for an increase in RH from < 5 to 58% at 293 K, corresponding to a solid to semisolid transition for the organic material. These results imply that the equilibration of the chemical composition of the particle phase with the gas phase can shift from hours at mid-range RH to weeks for low RH.

  1. Global climate change policy issues related to the movement of industry from developed to rapidly industrializing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Waltemath, L.A.

    1990-10-01

    Global climate change policies adopted by developed countries may encourage industries to move to countries with less restrictive policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policy-driven issues that may result in such a movement. This report (1) summarizes the conclusions of previous studies that have explored the relationship between environmental regulations and industrial movement, (2) identifies and summarizes existing and proposed US global climate change policy options, and (3) discusses issues and topics relating to possible industrial relocation because of the global climate change policy options. It concludes with recommendations for further research. Although federal global climate change policy options are the primary focus of this report, some international and regional efforts addressing this issue are also included. A potential regional industrial migration issue is highlighted. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    PubMed

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-01-13

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  3. Multifractal analysis of implied volatility in index options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, GabJin

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the statistical and the non-linear properties of the log-variations in implied volatility for the CAC40, DAX and S& P500 daily index options. The price of an index option is generally represented by its implied volatility surface, including its smile and skew properties. We utilize a Lévy process model as the underlying asset to deepen our understanding of the intrinsic property of the implied volatility in the index options and estimate the implied volatility surface. We find that the options pricing models with the exponential Lévy model can reproduce the smile or sneer features of the implied volatility that are observed in real options markets. We study the variation in the implied volatility for at-the-money index call and put options, and we find that the distribution function follows a power-law distribution with an exponent of 3.5 ≤ γ ≤ 4.5. Especially, the variation in the implied volatility exhibits multifractal spectral characteristics, and the global financial crisis has influenced the complexity of the option markets.

  4. School district wellness policy quality and weight-related outcomes among high school students in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between WellSAT scores and district-level means of high school student responses to a statewide survey of health behaviors were examined in this ecologic study. WellSAT Total Strength and Total Comprehensiveness scores were positively associated with both student mean Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile (Strength: P = 0.018, Comprehensiveness: P = 0.031) and mean percent overweight or obese (Strength: P = 0.008, Comprehensiveness: P = 0.026), but only in districts with >50% of students eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunches (FRPLs), or ‘high FRPL districts’. WellSAT Physical Education and Physical Activity subscale scores were also positively associated with the mean days per week students engaged in physical activity for ≥ 60 min in high FRPL districts (Strength: P = 0.008, Comprehensiveness: P = 0.003) and in low FRPL districts (<35% eligible) for Strength score: (P = 0.027). In medium FRPL districts (35–50% eligible), Nutrition Education and Wellness Promotion Strength and Comprehensiveness subscale scores were positively associated with, respectively, daily servings of vegetables (P = 0.037) and fruit (P = 0.027); and WellSAT Total scores were positively associated with daily vegetable servings (Strength: P = 0.037, Comprehensiveness: P = 0.012). Administrators of economically disadvantaged school districts with a higher percentage of overweight students may be recognizing the need for stronger wellness policies and the specific importance of implementing policies pertaining to physical activity as a means to improve student health. PMID:26850060

  5. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  6. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  7. Obesity-Related Policy/Environmental Interventions: A Systematic Review of Economic Analyses.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Robin A; Siddiqi, Sameer M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Mancino, Lisa; Prasad, Kislaya

    2016-04-01

    Policy and environmental changes to support and encourage individual-level nutrition and physical activity behavior are underway in many parts of the U.S. and around the world at national, state, and local levels. Yet, to the authors' knowledge, no summary of the cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness studies of obesity-related policy/environmental interventions exists. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement guidelines were followed to identify, screen, and describe the protocols used in this systematic review. In 2014, a unique search was conducted of titles and abstracts in MEDLINE, EconLit, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases that were published from January 2002 through January 2014 in English-language, peer-reviewed journals. The search terms described obesity, physical activity, and diet in combination with economic evaluation. In 2014 and 2015, the results were analyzed. A total of 27 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 26 described separate interventions. Of the 27 included studies, eight focused on the community and built environment, seven assessed nutrition-related changes, nine reported on the school environment, and three evaluated social marketing and media interventions. The vast majority of included studies reported beneficial economic outcomes of the interventions. Given the large and growing literature on the health and behavioral outcomes of policy and environmental interventions, the relatively low number of located cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness economic assessments appears to indicate a prime opportunity for the research community to address. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Understanding men's health and illness: a gender-relations approach to policy, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L

    2000-05-01

    Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

  9. The generalized second law implies a quantum singularity theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Aron C.

    2013-08-01

    The generalized second law can be used to prove a singularity theorem, by generalizing the notion of a trapped surface to quantum situations. Like Penrose’s original singularity theorem, it implies that spacetime is null-geodesically incomplete inside black holes, and to the past of spatially infinite Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies. If space is finite instead, the generalized second law requires that there only be a finite amount of entropy producing processes in the past, unless there is a reversal of the arrow of time. In asymptotically flat spacetime, the generalized second law also rules out traversable wormholes, negative masses, and other forms of faster-than-light travel between asymptotic regions, as well as closed timelike curves. Furthermore it is impossible to form baby universes which eventually become independent of the mother universe, or to restart inflation. Since the semiclassical approximation is used only in regions with low curvature, it is argued that the results may hold in full quantum gravity. The introduction describes the second law and its time-reverse, in ordinary and generalized thermodynamics, using either the fine-grained or the coarse-grained entropy. (The fine-grained version is used in all results except those relating to the arrow of time.)

  10. Electrodermal responses to implied versus actual violence on television.

    PubMed

    Kalamas, A D; Gruber, M L

    1998-01-01

    The electrodermal response (EDR) of children watching a violent show was measured. Particular attention was paid to the type of violence (actual or implied) that prompted an EDR. In addition, the impact of the auditory component (sounds associated with violence) of the show was evaluated. Implied violent stimuli, such as the villain's face, elicited the strongest EDR. The elements that elicited the weakest responses were the actual violent stimuli, such as stabbing. The background noise and voices of the sound track enhanced the total number of EDRs. The results suggest that implied violence may elicit more fear (as measured by EDRs) than actual violence does and that sounds alone contribute significantly to the emotional response to television violence. One should not, therefore, categorically assume that a show with mostly actual violence evokes less fear than one with mostly implied violence.

  11. Large Martian regolith water content implied by rampart crater population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S. T.; Ahrens, T. J.; O'Keefe, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    We estimate the global regolith water content using a new model for rampart crater formation (Stewart et al.~LPSC 2001). The Martian surface has a high fraction (probably significantly >20%) of craters with so-called fluidized ejecta blankets, characterized by the appearance of ground-hugging flow terminating in one or more continuous distal ramparts. While rampart craters have long held the promise of revealing information about the water content of the Martian regolith, the lack of a comprehensive physical model for the formation of fluidized ejecta blankets has hindered quantitative studies. We have developed a model for rampart crater formation based on ice shock data obtained at Martian temperatures and numerical simulations of impacts onto ice-rock mixtures under Martian conditions. We find that significant quantities of liquid water may be produced by an impact event and that the excavation process is modified by the presence of interstitial ice. As a result, single or multiple rampart ejecta blankets do not require the presence of pre-existing water in the liquid phase. A few to several volume percent of shock-produced liquid water may be incorporated into the continuous ejecta blanket for average impact conditions and reasonable regolith pore space assumptions, e.g. 15~vol% ice-filled near-surface pores. For a given diameter rampart crater, we calculate the associated minimum regolith ice content. Using the Viking-based rampart crater database by Barlow and Bradley (1990), the observed rampart crater population ( ~20% of all craters) implies a minimum regolith ice content of order 0.1~m global layer equivalent. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data suggest that a much larger fraction of craters, especially in the northern plains, may have rampart ejecta features. To derive the implied global regolith ice content, we correct for the impact flux rate over the past ~3~Ga using a number density for 1-10~km diameter craters, the peak rampart crater size

  12. How to Address Citizens' Practices and Policies on Sustainability? A Consultative Tool for Brokering Policy-Related Knowledge between the Worlds of Policymaking and Everyday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espluga, Josep; Konrad, Wilfried; Mays, Claire; Oltra, Christian; Poumadére, Marc; Prades, Ana

    2016-01-01

    An innovative investigative approach (STAVE), combining elements of research, engagement and brokerage, was used to uncover policy assumptions and daily experiences related to energy use practices. Exploratory work within three policymaker institutions and eight reconvened focus groups were carried out in three different European countries…

  13. How to Address Citizens' Practices and Policies on Sustainability? A Consultative Tool for Brokering Policy-Related Knowledge between the Worlds of Policymaking and Everyday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espluga, Josep; Konrad, Wilfried; Mays, Claire; Oltra, Christian; Poumadére, Marc; Prades, Ana

    2016-01-01

    An innovative investigative approach (STAVE), combining elements of research, engagement and brokerage, was used to uncover policy assumptions and daily experiences related to energy use practices. Exploratory work within three policymaker institutions and eight reconvened focus groups were carried out in three different European countries…

  14. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  15. Work-related trauma, PTSD, and workers compensation legislation: Implications for practice and policy.

    PubMed

    Wise, Edward A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-09-01

    The current review examines work-related traumatic events, with particular focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a potential mental health outcome. Despite considerable empirical knowledge about trauma and PTSD, a gap exists with respect to laws undergirding Workers Compensation (WC) insurance coverage for work-related mental health injuries. In this article, state and federal WC statutes are examined with an eye toward coverage of PTSD following work-related trauma. Examples of differences between states, as well as state-specific idiosyncratic facets of WC laws, are discussed. Federal WC programs are also examined. Two policy issues are highlighted: (a) lack of parity between WC coverage for work-related physical versus mental health injuries and (b) lack of reliance on psychological science in scripting legislation and determining WC benefits. The cost of untreated PTSD following work-related trauma is examined, focusing on costs to the individual, the employer, and society at large. The authors provide 3 recommendations designed to address discrepancies related to compensable psychological injuries following work-related trauma exposure.

  16. The Effect of Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents eight definitions of "policy" that are implied in the literature and, by applying these definitions in three policy arenas, notes their differential effects in terms of policy questions, data collected, data sources, methodology, and policy products. (MLF)

  17. Policy related to rhinoplasty in publicly funded elective surgery programs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Wiechula, Rick; Jordan, Zoe; Henstridge, Victoria

    2009-06-01

    Objectives  This systematic review set out to establish best practice in relation to policy for the inclusion/exclusion of rhinoplasty within public health systems. Inclusion criteria  The review considered any studies relating to rhinoplasty that addressed issues of inclusion/exclusion from public funded health systems including criteria for clinical need, contraindications, fit/ready for surgery, policy compliance and issues in relation to surgical training. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find published and unpublished studies and papers limited to English. An initial search of Medline and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of keywords contained in the title, abstract and index terms. A second comprehensive search was then undertaken using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Health Business, and FullTEXT Elite and PsycINFO. The search was restricted to the period 1995-2005. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management and Assessment Review Instrument package. Results  A total of nine papers were included in the review. Owing to the diverse nature of these papers, meta-synthesis was only possible for three of the seven papers. For this reason, the rest of the results are presented in narrative form. The majority of the papers included in the review related to psychological indicators for surgery and the potential impact of surgery on quality of life. Conclusion  Where clinical indications for surgery are determined and documented following thorough diagnostic evaluation, rhinoplasty may be conducted.

  18. Encodings of implied motion for animate and inanimate object categories in the two visual pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengang; Li, Xueting; Meng, Ming

    2016-01-15

    Previous research has proposed two separate pathways for visual processing: the dorsal pathway for "where" information vs. the ventral pathway for "what" information. Interestingly, the middle temporal cortex (MT) in the dorsal pathway is involved in representing implied motion from still pictures, suggesting an interaction between motion and object related processing. However, the relationship between how the brain encodes implied motion and how the brain encodes object/scene categories is unclear. To address this question, fMRI was used to measure activity along the two pathways corresponding to different animate and inanimate categories of still pictures with different levels of implied motion speed. In the visual areas of both pathways, activity induced by pictures of humans and animals was hardly modulated by the implied motion speed. By contrast, activity in these areas correlated with the implied motion speed for pictures of inanimate objects and scenes. The interaction between implied motion speed and stimuli category was significant, suggesting different encoding mechanisms of implied motion for animate-inanimate distinction. Further multivariate pattern analysis of activity in the dorsal pathway revealed significant effects of stimulus category that are comparable to the ventral pathway. Moreover, still pictures of inanimate objects/scenes with higher implied motion speed evoked activation patterns that were difficult to differentiate from those evoked by pictures of humans and animals, indicating a functional role of implied motion in the representation of object categories. These results provide novel evidence to support integrated encoding of motion and object categories, suggesting a rethink of the relationship between the two visual pathways.

  19. A critical review of health-related economic evaluations in Australia: implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, G; Davey, P; Arnolda, G

    1995-02-01

    In Australia, as in many other countries, economic evaluation is increasingly seen by health care policy makers as a useful aid to priority setting and resource allocation. In Australia, economic evaluation is now a requirement for new drugs to be listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme which provides a government subsidy on the price of listed drugs for purchasers. Yet, despite recognition of the importance of economic evaluation by policy makers, there is a paucity of published evaluations in Australia. We reviewed all of the 33 health-related economic evaluations conducted in Australia and subsequently published since 1978. This study assesses how well informed decision makers might be if they used the results and conclusions of published economic evaluations as an aid to resource allocation. The review highlights several issues: (i) it is difficult to interpret the conclusions or assess the generalisability of individual papers without information on the context of the original study; (ii) the choice of comparator(s) was often unexplained and most papers did not employ marginal analysis; (iii) in the absence of marginal analysis, the comparability of cost-effectiveness ratios in league tables must be questioned as well as the completeness (were all the relevant alternatives included?) of studies; and (iv) the quality of effectiveness evidence varies enormously, with some authors content to use the best available evidence (even if it is of poor quality). The development of standards for economic evaluation methods might ensure a more consistent and scientific approach to evaluative work, but they cannot guarantee it. A more concerted effort to disseminate the principles and methods of economic evaluation to policy makers and non-economist evaluators might be a more important precursor to improving the credibility and usefulness of economic evaluations in priority setting.

  20. Social science and the public agenda: reflections on the relation of knowledge to policy in the United States and abroad.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, H L

    1997-10-01

    It is tempting to oversell the practical value of applied research. A hard look at the effects of U.S. social science on public policy in areas such as active labor market policies (training, job creation, placement, etc.), crime prevention, fiscal policy, poverty reduction, and health care reform suggests an inverse relationship between social science consensus and policy and budgetary decisions. Fragmented and decentralized political economies (e.g., the United States) foster policy segmentation and isolated, short-run single-issue research--often politicized and misleading. More corporatist democracies (such as Sweden, Norway, Austria, and Germany) evidence a tighter relation between knowledge and power in which a wider range of issues is connected, longer-range effects are sometimes considered, and research is more often actually used for planning and implementation. Even in less hospitable societies, however, social science does make its way in the long run. Favorable conditions and examples are discussed.

  1. Implied motion perception from a still image in infancy.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko

    2014-10-01

    Visual motion perception can arise from non-directional visual stimuli, such as still images (implied motion, cf. Kourtzi, Trends Cogn Sci 8:47-49, 2004). We tested 5- to 8-month-old infants' implied motion perception with two experiments using the forced-choice preferential looking method. Our results indicated that a still image of a person running toward either the left or right side significantly enhanced infants' visual preference for a visual target that consistently appeared on the same side as the running direction (the run condition in Experiment 1). Such enhanced visual preference disappeared in response to an image of the same person standing and facing the left/right side (the stand condition in Experiment 1), an image of the running figure covered with a set of opaque rectangles (the block condition in Experiment 2) (Gervais et al. in Atten Percept Psychophys 72:1437-1443, 2010), and an image of the inverted running figure (the inversion condition in Experiment 3). These results suggest that only the figure that implied dynamic body motion shifted the infants' visual preference to the same direction as the implied running action. These findings demonstrate that even infants as young as 5 to 8 months old are sensitive to the implied motion of static figures.

  2. Implied preference for seismic design level and earthquake insurance.

    PubMed

    Goda, K; Hong, H P

    2008-04-01

    Seismic risk can be reduced by implementing newly developed seismic provisions in design codes. Furthermore, financial protection or enhanced utility and happiness for stakeholders could be gained through the purchase of earthquake insurance. If this is not so, there would be no market for such insurance. However, perceived benefit associated with insurance is not universally shared by stakeholders partly due to their diverse risk attitudes. This study investigates the implied seismic design preference with insurance options for decisionmakers of bounded rationality whose preferences could be adequately represented by the cumulative prospect theory (CPT). The investigation is focused on assessing the sensitivity of the implied seismic design preference with insurance options to model parameters of the CPT and to fair and unfair insurance arrangements. Numerical results suggest that human cognitive limitation and risk perception can affect the implied seismic design preference by the CPT significantly. The mandatory purchase of fair insurance will lead the implied seismic design preference to the optimum design level that is dictated by the minimum expected lifecycle cost rule. Unfair insurance decreases the expected gain as well as its associated variability, which is preferred by risk-averse decisionmakers. The obtained results of the implied preference for the combination of the seismic design level and insurance option suggest that property owners, financial institutions, and municipalities can take advantage of affordable insurance to establish successful seismic risk management strategies.

  3. Motor mapping of implied actions during perception of emotional body language.

    PubMed

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2012-04-01

    Perceiving and understanding emotional cues is critical for survival. Using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) previous TMS studies have found that watching humans in emotional pictures increases motor excitability relative to seeing landscapes or household objects, suggesting that emotional cues may prime the body for action. Here we tested whether motor facilitation to emotional pictures may reflect the simulation of the human motor behavior implied in the pictures occurring independently of its emotional valence. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to single-pulse TMS of the left motor cortex were recorded from hand muscles during observation and categorization of emotional and neutral pictures. In experiment 1 participants watched neutral, positive and negative IAPS stimuli, while in experiment 2, they watched pictures depicting human emotional (joyful, fearful), neutral body movements and neutral static postures. Experiment 1 confirms the increase in excitability for emotional IAPS stimuli found in previous research and shows, however, that more implied motion is perceived in emotional relative to neutral scenes. Experiment 2 shows that motor excitability and implied motion scores for emotional and neutral body actions were comparable and greater than for static body postures. In keeping with embodied simulation theories, motor response to emotional pictures may reflect the simulation of the action implied in the emotional scenes. Action simulation may occur independently of whether the observed implied action carries emotional or neutral meanings. Our study suggests the need of controlling implied motion when exploring motor response to emotional pictures of humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups.

  5. The Effectiveness of Tax Policy Interventions for Reducing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Randy W.; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S.; Brewer, Robert D.; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Toomey, Traci L.; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specifıed quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the fınal review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also signifıcantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modifıed by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. PMID:20117579

  6. Priorities of Municipal Policy Makers in Relation to Physical Activity and the Built Environment: A Latent Class Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Monica L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Anatchkova, Milena; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly; Maddock, Jay; Clausen, Kristian E; Lemon, Stephenie C

    2016-01-01

    To examine policy makers' public policy priorities related to physical activity and the built environment, identify classes of policy makers based on priorities using latent class analysis, and assess factors associated with class membership. Cross-sectional survey data from municipal officials in 94 cities and towns across 6 US states were analyzed. Participants (N = 423) were elected or appointed municipal officials spanning public health, planning, transportation/public works, community and economic development, parks and recreation, and city management. Participants rated the importance of 11 policy areas (public health, physical activity, obesity, economic development, livability, climate change, air quality, natural resource conservation, traffic congestion, traffic safety, and needs of vulnerable populations) in their daily job responsibilities. Latent class analysis was used to determine response patterns and identify distinct classes based on officials' priorities. Logistic regression models assessed participant characteristics associated with class membership. Four classes of officials based on policy priorities emerged: (1) economic development and livability; (2) economic development and traffic concerns; (3) public health; and (4) general (all policy areas rated as highly important). Compared with class 4, officials in classes 1 and 3 were more likely to have a graduate degree, officials in class 2 were less likely to be in a public health job/department, and officials in class 3 were more likely to be in a public health job/department. Findings can guide public health professionals in framing discussions with policy makers to maximize physical activity potential of public policy initiatives, particularly economic development.

  7. Overview of regulatory/policy/economic issues related to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Leaf, Dennis; Verolme, Hans J H; Hunt, William F

    2003-06-01

    This is an overview of Session 2c dealing with the regulatory, policy and economic issues related to carbon dioxide and its impact on global climate change. The information is taken from the two papers presented in this session (the U.S. Perspective by Dennis Leaf and the European Perspective by Hans J.H. Verolme) and from the panel discussion that took place at the end of the session. The overview focuses primarily on the policy responses of both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) to changes in global atmospheric pollution. To a lesser extent, the progress of policy responses to these changes is discussed. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been signed and ratified by over 180 countries. The UNFCCC contained no binding targets or timetables for emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol [United Nations. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNEP.IUC/99/10. Chatlelaine, Switzerland: United Nations Environment Programme's Information Unit for Conventions, for the Climate Change Secretariat, 1997] to the UNFCCC did contain targets and timetables for reductions of greenhouse gases on the part of developed countries. The US has signed but not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The US has experienced some movement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the part of various levels of government, as well as the private sector. The UK's commitment to reducing green house gases is laid down in the UK Climate Change Programme 2000. The UK is a member of the European Union (EU). In this context, an example of EU-wide progress, the voluntary agreement with car manufacturers to reduce CO(2) emissions in new vehicles, will be discussed. In addition, there will be some discussion on the UK CO(2) trading scheme that created the first market in the world in April 2001. Overall, the policy process is constantly informed by scientific research. In the case of climate change, much of this work is carried

  8. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado.

  9. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  10. Is There a Relation between School Smoking Policies and Youth Cigarette Smoking Knowledge and Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-01-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the…

  11. Guidance Matters: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Race-Related Policy Vocabularies Shaping Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the federal government's historical effort to ensure educational equity via policies targeting issues critical to U.S. urban cities, a transformation has taken place in the discourses shaping educational policy solutions. While policies targeting educational equity have not completely vanquished, they have been largely re-written by…

  12. Guidance Matters: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Race-Related Policy Vocabularies Shaping Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the federal government's historical effort to ensure educational equity via policies targeting issues critical to U.S. urban cities, a transformation has taken place in the discourses shaping educational policy solutions. While policies targeting educational equity have not completely vanquished, they have been largely re-written by…

  13. Is There a Relation between School Smoking Policies and Youth Cigarette Smoking Knowledge and Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-01-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the…

  14. Student Affairs and Higher Education Policy Issues Related to Multiracial Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Angela; Niskode, Amanda Suniti

    2008-01-01

    Race-based policies and programs for higher education were mainly based on the needs and interests of monoracial students. Until recently, federal policies as well as campus practices have reflected this mind-set. This article provides an overview of U.S. national policy regarding racial data collection and reporting, including implications for…

  15. Public opinion on motor vehicle-related injury prevention policies: a systematic review of a decade of research.

    PubMed

    Debinski, Beata; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Legislation is an effective strategy for reducing road-related fatalities and injuries. Public opinion can be an impetus for passing new laws and can affect the success of their implementation, but little is known about the current state of public opinion toward existing and proposed road-related policies in the United States. This review describes the scope and results of research on public support for state- and local-level evidence-based motor vehicle- and bicycle-related policies. We identify gaps in our understanding of public support for these policies. Published U.S. literature and all reports from the NHTSA from the past decade (2003-2012) were searched for data on opinions about existing or proposed policies related to motor vehicle or bicycle injury prevention. Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In all, studies reported public opinion about 7 injury prevention topic areas: all-terrain vehicles (n = 1), automated enforcement with red light and speed cameras (n = 5), distracted driving (n = 4), drinking and driving (n = 5), graduated driver licensing (n = 7), helmets (n = 7), and seat belts (n = 4). Twenty-three studies focused only on one topic, and 3 sought public opinion about multiple topic areas. The studies revealed generally high levels of support for injury prevention policies in all topic areas. Fifteen studies collected information from national samples, and only 7 studies reported data from the state (n = 5) or local (n = 2) level. There is a relatively small evidence base on public opinion related to motor vehicle- and bicycle-related evidence-based policies; even less is less known for state- or county-specific policies. The findings of this review suggest that the public's opinion toward injury prevention legislation is generally favorable. This information can be used to communicate with the media and policy makers to reinforce the need for effective policy solutions to continuing motor vehicle injury problems. More research

  16. The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Voaklander, Donald

    2017-06-24

    Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms. To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime. Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language. Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study. Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Policy related to varicose veins in publicly funded elective surgery programs: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Wiechula, Rick; Jordan, Zoe; Stern, Cindy

    2009-12-01

    Objectives  This systematic review set out to establish best practice in relation to policy for the inclusion/exclusion of varicose vein procedures within public health systems. Inclusion criteria  The review considered any studies relating to varicose veins that addressed issues of inclusion/exclusion from publicly funded health systems including criteria for clinical need, contraindications, fit/ready for surgery, policy compliance and issues in relation to surgical training. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find published and unpublished studies that were limited to English. An initial search of Medline and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of key words contained in the title, abstract and index terms. A second comprehensive search was then undertaken using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Health Business FullTEXT Elite and PsycINFO. The search was restricted to the period 1995-2005. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information software (JBI-SUMARI). Results  A total of nine papers were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of these papers, meta-analysis and synthesis of the results was not possible. For this reason, results are presented in narrative form. The majority of papers included in the review related to the identification of indicators for surgical intervention for the treatment of varicose veins. Other major themes were related to measures of quality of life of patients with varicose veins and the potential for surgical training. Recommendations for practice and research 1 Reasons for presentation should be thoroughly examined before any decision is made regarding surgery for varicose veins and indications documented thoroughly. 2 Every effort should be

  18. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Moro, Valentina; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2006-07-26

    The human visual system is highly tuned to perceive actual motion as well as to extrapolate dynamic information from static pictures of objects or creatures captured in the middle of motion. Processing of implied motion activates higher-order visual areas that are also involved in processing biological motion. Imagery and observation of actual movements performed by others engenders selective activation of motor and premotor areas that are part of a mirror-neuron system matching action observation and execution. By using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the mere observation of static snapshots of hands suggesting a pincer grip action induced an increase in corticospinal excitability as compared with observation of resting, relaxed hands, or hands suggesting a completed action. This facilitatory effect was specific for the muscle that would be activated during actual execution of the observed action. We found no changes in responsiveness of the tested muscles during observation of nonbiological entities with (e.g., waterfalls) or without (e.g., icefalls) implied motion. Thus, extrapolation of motion information concerning human actions induced a selective activation of the motor system. This indicates that overlapping motor regions are engaged in the visual analysis of physical and implied body actions. The absence of motor evoked potential modulation during observation of end posture stimuli may indicate that the observation-execution matching system is preferentially activated by implied, ongoing but not yet completed actions.

  19. Unit-Weighted Scales Imply Models that Should Be Tested!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauducel, Andre; Leue, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In several studies unit-weighted sum scales based on the unweighted sum of items are derived from the pattern of salient loadings in confirmatory factor analysis. The problem of this procedure is that the unit-weighted sum scales imply a model other than the initially tested confirmatory factor model. In consequence, it remains generally unknown…

  20. Comprehending Implied Meaning in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) proficiency affects pragmatic comprehension, namely the ability to comprehend implied meaning in spoken dialogues, in terms of accuracy and speed of comprehension. Participants included 46 native English speakers at a U.S. university and 160 Japanese students of English in a college in Japan who…

  1. Comprehending Implied Meaning in English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) proficiency affects pragmatic comprehension, namely the ability to comprehend implied meaning in spoken dialogues, in terms of accuracy and speed of comprehension. Participants included 46 native English speakers at a U.S. university and 160 Japanese students of English in a college in Japan who…

  2. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  3. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  4. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  5. Relating climate change policy to poverty policy: assessing the global exposure of the poor to floods and droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Bangalore, Mook; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Prior to the COP21 conference in Paris this year, the World Bank published a report called "Shockwaves - Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty". The report flagged that ending poverty and stabilizing climate change should be jointly tackled and that without a good joint policy, a further 100 million people could become trapped in poverty by 2050. As part of the "Shockwaves" report, we investigated whether low-income households are disproportionately overrepresented in hazard-prone areas compared to households with higher income. Furthermore, the hazardous conditions under which poor households are exposed to now may become worse due to climate change with resulting increases in intensity and frequency of floods and droughts. We also show how the amount of affected people to these natural hazards change in the future if nothing is done. We use recent advances in the global spatial modeling of flood and drought hazard and a large sample of household surveys containing asset and income data to explore the relationships.

  6. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    that, in fact, that women are not impacted equally by energy policy preferences as men and that women in developing countries benefit from increased access to modern household energy. Thus, gender-differentiated energy usage illustrates why treating population as a homogenous group fails to capture how energy policy preferences and energy policy performance can affect different subgroups of population in terms of individual choices and how those differences can affect an overall economic growth and development. Fundamental theoretical implications emerge from this dissertation's empirical findings. First, improving gender equality through technological advancements in household electricity facilitates the progress of demographic transition in terms of reducing fertility rates. Time altering effects of increased access and use of household electricity modify intra-household relations by diminishing differing roles between men and women. When women gain greater autonomy facilitated by increasing time via access to modern household electricity for more economically and educationally productive activities, fertility rates and child births tend to decrease by altering choice in family size with increased investments in children. The effect that the reduction in fertility generated by increased gender equality has upon demographic transition is that it alters the change in age structure in a developing country by decreasing youth dependency ratios generating the demographic dividend. Gender equality-generated fertility reductions may also facilitate the return to human capital by lessening the burden of non-SNA work and activities including reducing child care, increasing female labor force participation rates.

  7. Marine swimming-related illness: implications for monitoring and environmental policy.

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, S E; Wong, T; Allen, P; Ford, T; Epstein, P R

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental degradation may be contributing to an increase in marine-related diseases across a wide range of taxonomic groups. This includes a growing number of reports of both recreational and occupational users of marine waters developing gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatologic, and ear, nose, and throat infections. The duration and type of exposure, concentration of pathogens, and host immunity determine the risk of infection. Public health authorities may not be able to accurately predict the risk of waterborne disease from marine waters due to the limitations of conventional monitoring, as well as erroneous perceptions of pathogen life span in marine systems. Pathogens undetectable by conventional methods may remain viable in marine waters, and both plankton and marine sediments may serve as reservoirs for pathogenic organisms, which can emerge to become infective when conditions are favorable. In this paper we address the environmental factors that may contribute to illness, the types of associated economic costs, the issues of water quality monitoring and the policy implications raised by the apparent rise in incidence of marine water-related illnesses. PMID:11485861

  8. Environmental, policy, and cultural factors related to physical activity in sedentary American Indian women.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Janice L; Allen, Peg; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Yazzie, Dedra A; Curtis, Michelle; Davis, Sally M

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted to explore sociocultural, environmental, and policy-related determinants of physical activity among sedentary American Indian women. Thirty women aged 20 to 50 years (mean = 37.4 +/- 10.6 years) participated. Three sessions were conducted with women aged 20 to 34 years and three with women aged 35 to 50 to evaluate response differences by age. Because no obvious age differences were observed, data were pooled. Barriers to physical activity included inadequate support for household and child care responsibilities and difficulties balancing home-related and societal expectations with physical activity. In addition, women reported little support from their communities and work sites to be physically active. Environmental barriers included lack of safe outdoor areas and accessible walking trails. Weather and stray dogs were also commonly mentioned. Sociocultural barriers included giving family obligations priority above all other things, being expected to eat large portions of high-fat foods, and failing to follow a traditionally active lifestyle. Enablers of physical activity included support from family and coworkers and participation in traditional community events. Suggested intervention approaches included accessible and affordable programs and facilities, community emphasis on physical activity, and programs that incorporated the needs of larger women and of families. Participants emphasized a preference for programs that were compatible with the role expectations of their families and communities, and they expressed the desire for acceptance and encouragement to be physically active from the family, the community, the worksite, and their tribal leaders.

  9. An Examination of the Perceived Importance and Skills Related to Policies and Policy Making Among State Public Health Injury Prevention Staff.

    PubMed

    Liller, Karen D; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Castrucci, Brian; Wingate, Martha Slay; Hilson, Renata; Mendez, Dara; Cilenti, Dorothy; Raskind, Ilana

    2017-09-06

    The purpose of this research is to use the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey to assess in greater detail state injury prevention staff perceptions of policy development and related skills and their awareness and perception of "Health in All Policies" (HiAP). The public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey gauged public health practitioners' perspectives on workplace environment, job satisfaction, national trends, and training needs, and gathered demographics on the workforce. This study utilizes data from the state health agency frame only, focusing solely on those permanently employed, central office staff in injury prevention. Respondents were sampled from 5 paired Health and Human Services regions. Approximately 25 000 invitations were sent to central office employees. The response rate was 46% (n = 10 246). The analysis in this article includes only injury prevention employees with programmatic roles, excluding clerical and custodial staff, providing us with a total of 97 respondents. When weighted, this resulted in a weighted population size of 365 injury prevention workers. The main outcome measures include demographics, responses to understanding of and skill levels related to policy development, and perceptions of HiAP public health trend. State injury prevention workers reported lower policy-making skill but had an overall appreciation of the importance of policies. In general, state injury prevention workers heard of HiAP, thought there should be more emphasis on it, but did not think that HiAP would have an impact on their day-to-day work. Efforts are needed for all state injury prevention workers to become better skilled in policy development, implementation, and evaluation in order to become stronger injury prevention advocates and role models.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download

  10. A Reexamination of Medical Marijuana Policies in Relation to Suicide Risk*

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Hur, Michael; Agrawal, Arpana; Krauss, Melissa J.; Plunk, Andrew D.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Previous research has suggested that medical marijuana policies lead to reductions in suicide rates. In this study, we further investigate the association between these policies and within-state changes in suicide risk. Methods Data on suicide deaths (n=662,993) from the National Vital Statistics System Multiple Cause of Death files were combined with living population data. Fixed-effects regression methods were employed to control for state differences in suicide rates and national and state secular trends. Analyses extended prior research that suggested a protective effect of medical marijuana policies by incorporating newer data and additional covariates. Results After adjustment for race/ethnicity, tobacco control policies, and other covariates, we found no association between medical marijuana policy and suicide risk in the population ages 15 and older (OR=1.000; 95% CI: 0.956, 1.045; p=.98), among men overall (OR=0.996; 95% CI: 0.951, 1.043; p=.87) or for any other age-by-sex groups. Conclusion We find no statistically significant association between medical marijuana policy and suicide risk. These results contradict prior analyses which did not control for race/ethnicity and certain state characteristics such as tobacco control policies. Failure to control for these factors in future analyses would likely bias estimates of the associations between medical marijuana policy and health outcomes. PMID:25979644

  11. Overview of State Policies Related to Adolescent Parenthood. A Report of the Adolescent Parenthood Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Sharon J.; And Others

    To help state policy makers and program developers, researchers gathered information on government policies regarding adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. Data were compiled through a questionnaire survey of health, education, and social service agencies in the federal government and all 50 states. The report describes federal programs relevant to…

  12. Relays and Relations: Tracking a Policy Initiative for Improving Teacher Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenny; Drew, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a new way of exploring some of the complexities inherent in attempts by policy makers and others to promote educational change. The focus of this study is on the current drive in education policy to alter the basis of teacher professionalism through the application of principles of lifelong learning to teachers' professional…

  13. Power Relations in the Enactment of English Language Education Policy for Chinese Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Minglin

    2017-01-01

    The scale of English language education in China is astounding, but recent research has shown that the latest national English education policy for Chinese schools has not been implemented successfully due to various reasons. One reason given for the lack of success is the impracticability of the top-down policy itself excluding teachers'…

  14. Semantic Models of Host-Immigrant Relations in Norwegian Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Oppedal, Brit; Vike, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    Education has continuously been regarded as a vital tool in Norwegian policymakers' immigrant integration agendas. This study analyzes semantic structures substantiating the policy language of historical Norwegian immigrant education policies from their inception in 1973 until today (2013). The analysis is framed by Kronenfeld's linguistic…

  15. 75 FR 3122 - Policy Statement Concerning Cooperation by Individuals in Its Investigations and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... comment, and prior publication are not applicable to general statements of policy, such as this policy... below, the Commission's general approach is to determine whether, how much, and in what manner to credit... cooperation, including whether the individual was first to report the misconduct to the Commission or to offer...

  16. Semantic Models of Host-Immigrant Relations in Norwegian Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Oppedal, Brit; Vike, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    Education has continuously been regarded as a vital tool in Norwegian policymakers' immigrant integration agendas. This study analyzes semantic structures substantiating the policy language of historical Norwegian immigrant education policies from their inception in 1973 until today (2013). The analysis is framed by Kronenfeld's linguistic…

  17. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  18. 76 FR 39385 - Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data, Information, and Related Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Payment Policy Change for Access to NOAA Environmental Data... Service (NESDIS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Policy Change. SUMMARY: NOAA's National Data Centers will not accept checks (nor money...

  19. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  20. Relays and Relations: Tracking a Policy Initiative for Improving Teacher Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jenny; Drew, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a new way of exploring some of the complexities inherent in attempts by policy makers and others to promote educational change. The focus of this study is on the current drive in education policy to alter the basis of teacher professionalism through the application of principles of lifelong learning to teachers' professional…

  1. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Forecasting International Relations: Some Views on the Relevancy of the Dimensionality of Nations Project to Policy Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Dimensionality of Nations Project (DON) is basic research on international relations attempting to determine the major patterns in the behavior...nature and direction of international relations . The paper gives a brief overview of the project itself, lists the problems associated with prediction in... international relations , and lays out the approaches to prediction and time series analysis employed on the Project. The final section discusses the relationship of DON to foreign and defense policies. (Author)

  3. An Assessment of Behavioural Variables Implied in Teamwork: An Experience with Engineering Students of Zaragoza University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Juan Luis Cano; Lopez, Ivan Lidon; Rubio, Ruben Rebollar; Marco, Fernando Gimeno

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of behavioural variables implied in the working dynamics of student groups undertaking their first project. The study was carried out in two phases. During the first phase, the participants answered a survey of open questions regarding their own behaviour and that of their teammates, questions related to: the quality of…

  4. Publicity as policy: the changing role of press and public relations at the BMA, 1940s-80s.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between policy and publicity or public relations (PR) have been questioned since the emergence of professional public relations in the early-twentieth century. In the field of health and medicine organised PR activity began to flourish in the decades following World War Two. Its presence became evident in government departments, in professional associations, voluntary bodies and campaigning groups. Increasingly, policy decisions had to be publicly performed through rituals like the press conference. This chapter documents the development of press and PR activity at the British Medical Association (BMA) from the 1950s to the 1980s. The BMA provides a well-documented case, which can be used to suggest broader shifts in the association between policy and publicity.

  5. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    PubMed

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans.

  6. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  7. Mitigation Policy Scenario of Space Debris Threat Related with National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Frimawaty, Evy; Munir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The development of air space recently entered a new phase, when the space issues correlated with the future of a country. In past time, the space authorization was related with advancing technology by many space mission and various satellite launchings, or it could be said that who ruled technology will rule the space. Therefore, the numerous satellites in the space could be a threat for the countries which are mainly located in the path of the satellite, especially in the equatorial region including Indonesia. This study aims to create a policy scenario in mitigating the threat of space debris. The results showed that although space debris was not threatened national security for now, but the potential and its impact on the future potentially harmful. The threats of orbit circulation for some experts considered as a threat for national security, because its danger potential which caused by space debris could significantly damage the affected areas. However, until now Indonesia has no comprehensive mitigation strategy for space matters although it has been ratified by the United Nations Convention.

  8. The impact of voltage independent carriers on implied voltage measurements on silicon devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhl, M. K.; Trupke, T.

    2016-10-01

    The electrical performance a solar cell is determined from direct measurements of the current voltage relationship, while the so-called implied current-voltage measurements are often performed to estimate the performance of partially processed samples. Implied current voltage measurements are commonly obtained from quasi steady state photoconductance and quasi steady state photoluminescence measurements, where the implied voltage is inferred from the average excess carrier density. As will be shown here, this approach can be problematic due to the presence of excess carriers that do not contribute to the terminal voltage. These carriers are referred to as voltage independent carriers, a concept that is not widely known or generally accepted. This paper provides the theoretical background for the distinction of voltage dependent and voltage independent carriers. It is shown that the relative impact of voltage independent carriers on implied voltage data depends strongly on device parameters and on the illumination wavelength. Practical limits are provided for these parameters for which the voltage independent carriers can be neglected and for which an implied voltage thus accurately reflects the junction voltage.

  9. 20 CFR 661.203 - What is meant by the terms “optimum policy making authority” and “expertise relating to [a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is meant by the terms âoptimum policy... Provisions § 661.203 What is meant by the terms “optimum policy making authority” and “expertise relating to... investment boards: (a) A representative with “optimum policy making authority” is an individual who...

  10. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  11. Heat-related morbidity and mortality in New England: Evidence for local policy.

    PubMed

    Wellenius, Gregory A; Eliot, Melissa N; Bush, Kathleen F; Holt, Dennis; Lincoln, Rebecca A; Smith, Andy E; Gold, Julia

    2017-07-01

    Heat-related morbidity and mortality is a recognized public health concern. However, public health officials need to base policy decisions on local evidence, which is often lacking for smaller communities. To evaluate the association between maximum daily heat index (HI) and morbidity and mortality in 15 New England communities (combined population: 2.7 million) in order to provide actionable evidence for local officials. We applied overdispersed Poisson nonlinear distributed lag models to evaluate the association between HI and daily (May-September) emergency department (ED) admissions and deaths in each of 15 study sites in New Hampshire, Maine, and Rhode Island, controlling for time trends, day of week, and federal holidays. Site-specific estimates were meta-analyzed to provide regional estimates. Associations (sometimes non-linear) were observed between HI and each health outcome. For example, a day with a HI of 95°F vs. 75°F was associated with a cumulative 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5%, 8.5%) and 5.1% (95% CI: 0.2%, 10.3%) higher rate of all-cause ED visits and deaths, respectively, with some evidence of regional heterogeneity. We estimate that in the study area, days with a HI≥95°F were associated with an annual average of 784 (95% CI: 658, 908) excess ED visits and 22 (95% CI: 3, 39) excess deaths. Our results suggest the presence of adverse health impacts associated with HI below the current local guideline criteria of HI≥100°F used to issue heat advisories. We hypothesize that lowering this threshold may lead to substantially reduced heat-related morbidity and mortality in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpreting the implied meridional oceanic energy transport in AMIP

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D.A.; Gleckler, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) was outlined in Paper No. CLIM VAR 2.3 (entitled {open_quote}The validation of ocean surface heat fluxes in AMIP`) of these proceedings. Preliminary results of AMIP subproject No. 5 were also summarized. In particular, zonally averaged ocean surface heat fluxes resulting from various AMIP simulations were intercompared, and to the extent possible they were validated with uncertainties in observationally-based estimates of surface heat fluxes. The intercomparison is continued in this paper by examining the Oceanic Meridional Energy Transport (OMET) implied by the net surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes, the perspective here will be very cursory. The annual mean implied ocean heat transport can be estimated by integrating the zonally averaged net ocean surface heat flux, N{sub sfc}, from one pole to the other. In AGCM simulations (and perhaps reality), the global mean N{sub sfc} is typically not in exact balance when averaged over one or more years. Because of this, an important assumption must be made about changes in the distribution of energy in the oceans. Otherwise, the integration will yield a non-zero transport at the endpoint of integration (pole) which is not physically realistic. Here the authors will only look at 10-year means of the AMIP runs, and for simplicity they assume that any long term imbalance in the global averaged N{sub sfc} will be sequestered (or released) over the global ocean. Tests have demonstrated that the treatment of how the global average energy imbalance is assumed to be distributed is important, especially when the long term imbalances are in excess of 10 W m{sup {minus}2}. However, this has not had a substantial impact on the qualitative features of the implied heat transport of the AMIP simulations examined thus far.

  13. Implied Reading Direction and Prioritization of Letter Encoding.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Alex O; Nguyen, Elizabeth H L; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2017-09-11

    Capacity limits hinder processing of multiple stimuli, contributing to poorer performance for identifying two briefly presented letters than for identifying a single letter. Higher accuracy is typically found for identifying the letter on the left, which has been attributed to a right-hemisphere dominance for selective attention. Here, we use rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of letters in two locations at once. The letters to be identified are simultaneous and cued by rings. In the first experiment, we manipulated implied reading direction by rotating or mirror-reversing the letters to face to the left rather than to the right. The left-side performance advantage was eliminated. In the second experiment, letters were positioned above and below fixation, oriented such that they appeared to face downward (90° clockwise rotation) or upward (90° counterclockwise rotation). Again consistent with an effect of implied reading direction, performance was better for the top position in the downward condition, but not in the upward condition. In both experiments, mixture modeling of participants' report errors revealed that attentional sampling from the two locations was approximately simultaneous, ruling out the theory that the letter on one side was processed first, followed by a shift of attention to sample the other letter. Thus, the orientation of the letters apparently controls not when the letters are sampled from the scene, but rather the dynamics of a subsequent process, such as tokenization or memory consolidation. Implied reading direction appears to determine the letter prioritized at a high-level processing bottleneck. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. F Appendix F to Part 50—Policy... qualifications as required by § 50.33(f), shall include information enabling the Commission to determine...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. F Appendix F to Part 50—Policy... qualifications as required by § 50.33(f), shall include information enabling the Commission to determine...

  16. The "New York Times" and Foreign Policy: Press Coverage and U.S.-India Relations, 1973-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaprasad, Jyotika; Riffe, Daniel

    A study was conducted to determine whether the "New York Times" news coverage given India between 1973 and 1980 was consistent with trends in United States foreign policy toward India during those years. The period under study was characterized by four alternating periods of tense and relaxed relations between India and the United…

  17. How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Pogodzinski, Ben; Galey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how labor-management relations between school districts and teacher associations seem to affect teacher contract provisions regarding the role of seniority in teacher assignment and how contract provisions and teacher assignment policies seem to affect beginning teachers' perceptions about their work environments.…

  18. Workers' Attitudes to Technical Change: An Integrated Survey of Research. Industrial Relations Aspects of Manpower Policy 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touraine, Alain; And Others

    Methods for encouraging positive worker attitude and behavior toward change were examined to provide a basis for re-evaluation of current policies and programs relating to introduction of technological changes. The literature reviewed is presented in sections of: (1) "The Worker and the Occupational System," by Claude Durand, (2)…

  19. 45 CFR 12.10 - Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts (environmental impact). 12.10 Section 12.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES §...

  20. Identifying Scalable Policy Solutions: A State-Wide Cross-CDlassified Analysis of Factors Related to Early Childhood Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagi, Robert L.; Collins, Clarin; Clark, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Given the critical role that literacy plays in children's academic and personal development, policymakers have increasingly focused on policies related to early childhood literacy, particularly among poor and minority students. In this study, authors use a census of data from Arizona, a state with a large and growing population of traditionally…

  1. 41 CFR 301-70.500 - What governing policies and procedures should we establish relating to emergency travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergency travel under part 301-30; (b) Who will determine if the employee's situation warrants payment for... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures should we establish relating to emergency travel? 301-70.500 Section 301-70.500...

  2. A Legal Analysis of Federal Disability Law as Related to Emerging Technology: Guidelines for Postsecondary Leadership, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Roderick Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation identified and described the legal requirements imposed by federal disability mandates and case law related to emerging technology. Additionally, the researcher created a legal framework (guidelines) for higher education institutions to consider during policy development and implementation of emerging technology by providing an…

  3. A Legal Analysis of Federal Disability Law as Related to Emerging Technology: Guidelines for Postsecondary Leadership, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Roderick Dwayne

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation identified and described the legal requirements imposed by federal disability mandates and case law related to emerging technology. Additionally, the researcher created a legal framework (guidelines) for higher education institutions to consider during policy development and implementation of emerging technology by providing an…

  4. How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Pogodzinski, Ben; Galey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how labor-management relations between school districts and teacher associations seem to affect teacher contract provisions regarding the role of seniority in teacher assignment and how contract provisions and teacher assignment policies seem to affect beginning teachers' perceptions about their work environments.…

  5. Public Laws of the 98th Congress Relating to Information Policy. Report No. 85-215 S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Sandra N.

    This study enumerates statutes of the 98th Congress treating information-related concerns. Limited to public laws of a substantive nature, the topical overview of areas of congressional concern is divided into nine sections: (1) Federal Information Resources Management; (2) International Communications and Information Policy; (3)…

  6. Arrest Decisions as Precludes To? An Evaluation of Policy Related Research. Volume I: Administrative Summary and Training Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neithercutt, M. G.; And Others

    The document is the first part of a study conducted to evaluate policy-related research on police arrest discretion as an alternative solution to arrest. It presents the administrative summary of the Arrest Decisions as Preludes To? (ADAPT) project and contains scripts intended for use by police departments as a staff training device. The…

  7. Demographic Differences in District-Level Policies Related to School Mental Health and Social Services--United States, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health conditions among youth are a major concern. Schools can play an important role in supporting students affected by these conditions. This study examined district-level school health policies related to mental health and social services to determine if they varied by district demographic characteristics. Methods: The School…

  8. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... authorities. This policy statement sets forth the analytical framework employed by the Commission and its... violations and in the context of the individual's knowledge, education, training, experience, and position...

  9. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorities. This policy statement sets forth the analytical framework employed by the Commission and its... violations and in the context of the individual's knowledge, education, training, experience, and position...

  10. 17 CFR 202.12 - Policy statement concerning cooperation by individuals in its investigations and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... authorities. This policy statement sets forth the analytical framework employed by the Commission and its... violations and in the context of the individual's knowledge, education, training, experience, and position...

  11. 76 FR 35006 - Recovery Policy RP9525.16, Research-Related Equipment and Furnishings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... the genetic likeness of lab animals; the deletion document retention language in VIII.B.3, given that..., Office of Policy and Program Analysis, Federal Emergency Management Agency. BILLING CODE 9111-23-P ...

  12. A public health success: understanding policy changes related to teen sexual activity and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D

    2006-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention has long been on the American public health agenda. Over the past decade, a number of concurrent federal, state, and local policies have responded to the myriad and diverse needs of adolescents, from supporting adolescents who have not initiated sexual intercourse to strategies aimed at avoiding a repeat pregnancy among teenage parents. Key policies, including comprehensive family life education, access to contraceptive care, and youth development, have resulted in delays in sexual debut, improved contraceptive use, and have achieved reductions in pregnancies, abortions, and births. Although improvements are documented across all ethnic and racial subgroups, substantial health disparities continue to exist. Synergistic policy approaches represent a substantial change from the past when narrow, single-issue strategies were adopted and were limited in their effectiveness. Renewed efforts to implement narrow policy approaches (e.g., abstinence-until-marriage or restrictions to contraceptive access) need to be considered in light of existing research findings.

  13. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  14. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  15. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Samples of Policy Statements, Guidelines, and Forms Collected from Educational Institutions with Small Public Relations Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.

    Sample policy statements, guidelines, and forms collected from 16 educational institutions with small public relations staffs are presented as a guide to campus relations personnel. The importance of written policies for small public relations staffs is emphasized, and it is proposed that there be a written job description for the public relations…

  16. China on the Move. A Franco-American Analysis of Emerging Chinese Strategic Policies and Their Consequences for Transatlantic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    prices. 26 All quotes from the People’s Daily, 18 April 2003. 27 Feng Zhongping, “Thoughts on the Relation of European Countries to the United States...Policies and Their Consequences for Transatlantic Relations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 13

  17. China on the Move. A Franco-American Analysis of Emerging Chinese Strategic Policies and Their Consequences for Transatlantic Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    April 2003. 27 Feng Zhongping, “Thoughts on the Relation of European Countries to the United States,” Xiandai guoji guanxi [Contemporary International...Strategic Policies and Their Consequences for Transatlantic Relations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

  18. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  19. SU-E-J-16: A Review of the Magnitude of Patient Imaging Shifts in Relation to Departmental Policy Changes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, M; Sansourekidou, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate how changes in imaging policy affect the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Methods: In June 2012, the department's imaging policy was altered to require that any shifts derived from imaging throughout the course of treatment shall be considered systematic only after they were validated with two data points that are consistent in the same direction. Multiple additions and clarifications to the imaging policy were implemented throughout the course of the data collection, but they were mostly of administrative nature. Entered shifts were documented in MOSAIQ (Elekta AB) through the localization offset. The MOSAIQ database was queried to identify a possible trend. A total of 25,670 entries were analyzed, including four linear accelerators with a combination of MV planar, kV planar and kV three dimensional imaging. The monthly average of the magnitude of the vector was used. Plan relative offsets were excluded. During the evaluated period of time, one of the satellite facilities acquired and implemented Vision RT (AlignRT Inc). Results: After the new policy was implemented the shifts variance and standard deviation decreased. The decrease is linear with time elapsed. Vision RT implementation at one satellite facility reduced the number of overall shifts, specifically for breast patients. Conclusion: Changes in imaging policy have a significant effect on the magnitude of shifts applied to patients. Using two statistical points before applying a shift as persistent decreased the overall magnitude of the shifts applied to patients.

  20. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    PubMed

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  1. Can innovative health financing policies increase access to MDG-related services? Evidence from Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Sekabaraga, Claude; Diop, Francois; Soucat, Agnes

    2011-11-01

    Ensuring financial access to health services is a critical challenge for poor countries if they are to reach the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This article examines the case of Rwanda, a country which has championed innovative health care financing policies. Between 2000 and 2007, Rwanda has improved financial access for the poor, increased utilization of health services and reduced out-of-pocket payments for health care. Poor groups' utilization has increased for all health services, sometimes dramatically. Use of assisted deliveries, for example, increased from 12.1% to 42.7% among the poorest quintile; payments at the point of delivery have also been reduced; and catastrophic expenditures have declined. Part of these achievements is likely linked to innovative health financing policies, particularly the expansion of micro-insurance ('mutuelles') and performance-based financing. The paper concludes that the Rwanda experience provides a useful example of effective implementation of policies that reduce the financial barrier to health services, hereby contributing to the health MDGs. Today's main challenge is to build the sustainability of this system. Finally, the paper proposes a simple set of rigorous metrics to assess the impact of health financing policies and calls for implementing rigorous impact evaluation of health care financing policies in low-income countries.

  2. United States - Republic of Korea Security Relations: Policy/Strategy for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    bok , "Seoul-Moscow Normalization Only at Floating Stage," The Korea Times, 24 April 1990, p. 2. 7Edward A. Olsen, Prospects For An Increased Naval Role...2, No. 4, 1989. Kim, Sung- Bok . "Seoul-Moscow Normalization Only at Floating Stage." The Korea Herald, 24 April 1990, p. 2. Kinnard, Douglas. "The...Public and National Security Policy." Naval War College Review, Autumn 1989, pp. 66-82. Kwang, Soo Choi . "Korea’s Foreign Policy in the 1990’s." Korea

  3. The role of implied motion in engaging audiences for health promotion: encouraging naps on a college campus.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Guadagno, Marie; Hughes Wagner, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Lack of sleep among college students negatively impacts health and academic outcomes. Building on research that implied motion imagery increases brain activity, this project tested visual design strategies to increase viewers' engagement with a health communication campaign promoting napping to improve sleep habits. PARTICIPANTS (N = 194) were recruited from a large southwestern university in October 2012. Utilizing an experimental design, participants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an implied motion superhero spokes-character, a static superhero spokes-character, and a control group. The use of implied motion did not achieve the hypothesized effect on message elaboration, but superheroes are a promising persuasive tool for health promotion campaigns for college audiences. Implications for sleep health promotion campaigns and the role of implied motion in message design strategies are discussed, as well as future directions for research on the depiction of implied motion as it relates to theoretical development.

  4. 75 FR 49506 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.16, Research-Related Equipment and Furnishings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... CFR part 206. David J. Kaufman, Director, Office of Policy and Program Analysis, Federal Emergency... Public Assistance Program. DATES: Comments must be received by September 13, 2010. ADDRESSES: Comments... applicants conducting active research programs, and that have incurred damages to their facility as a result...

  5. Federal Income-Maintenance and Manpower Policy Related to a Selected Poverty Group in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Don Charles

    This study, while also surveying nationwide poverty, concentrated on the ability of Federal income maintenance and manpower policies to alleviate poverty in a selected Mississippi group. Over 3,200 Mississippi families were analyzed for family characteristics and household heads' educational, training, and employment status. Findings included the…

  6. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  7. On Relating Health Care Policy to the Provision of Health Care to Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darity, William A.

    This paper addresses health and social issues as well as other socioeconomic problems which affect the black family, and the development of appropriate policy and programs to deal with those problems. Data on infant mortality, life expectancy, maternal mortality, physician and dental visits, and some selected death rates from specific causes are…

  8. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  9. Pedagogising the University: On Higher Education Policy Implementation and Its Effects on Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at providing a theoretical and empirical discussion on the concept of pedagogisation which derives from the hypothesis of a new era of "totally pedagogised society" in Basil Bernstein's work. The article is based on empirical research on higher education policy, with a focus on the implementation of curriculum change…

  10. Beyond Accountability and Average Mathematics Scores: Relating State Education Policy Attributes to Cognitive Achievement Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.; Smith, Thomas M.; Hayes, Susan A.; Frisvold, David

    2005-01-01

    We found moderate correlations among four policy attributes (consistency, specificity, authority, and power), which suggest that in many states, at least in design, standards-based reform is working as advocates imagined--aligned content standards and assessments established, backed up by detailed guidelines and frameworks, incentivized by rewards…

  11. Pedagogising the University: On Higher Education Policy Implementation and Its Effects on Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at providing a theoretical and empirical discussion on the concept of pedagogisation which derives from the hypothesis of a new era of "totally pedagogised society" in Basil Bernstein's work. The article is based on empirical research on higher education policy, with a focus on the implementation of curriculum change…

  12. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  13. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  14. Federal Income-Maintenance and Manpower Policy Related to a Selected Poverty Group in Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Don Charles

    This study, while also surveying nationwide poverty, concentrated on the ability of Federal income maintenance and manpower policies to alleviate poverty in a selected Mississippi group. Over 3,200 Mississippi families were analyzed for family characteristics and household heads' educational, training, and employment status. Findings included the…

  15. Relations between Educational Research, Policy, Planning and Implementation: The Thai Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketudat, Sippanondha; Fry, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the research/policy linkage, within the complex educational administrative structure and pluralistic informal power structure which characterize Thai research. Thailand has experienced some success in building analytical educational research capacity and ensuring its utilization. Lessons to be learned from this…

  16. Street-Level Governments: Assessing Decentralization and Urban Services (An Evaluation of Policy Related Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Yates, Douglas

    Urban decentralization is an attempt to reorganize local services through some combination of: (1) giving service recipients or clients greater responsibility over service policies (the client dimension) and (2) increasing service resources at the level of specific, geographically defined neighborhoods (the territorial dimension). The…

  17. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  18. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  19. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  20. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  1. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  2. Minimal cosmic background fluctuations implied by streaming motions

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkiewicz, R.; Gorski, K.; Silk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The minimal cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy implied by the presence of peculiar motions of a given amplitude on some specified scale is calculated using a new, power spectrum-independent approach. If the tentative evidence for deviations from the Hubble flow of magnitude delta V/V roughly 0.1 at V roughly 5000 km/s is confirmed, microwave background fluctuations with a coherence scale of about 2 deg and dispersion delta T/T greater than 10 to the -5th are predicted. It is found that the existing upper limits on delta T/T are not inconsistent with v(r) = 500 km/s at r = 50/h Mpc. A reduction of the observational limits on the CBR anisotropy below the authors' minimal predictions for delta T/T would challenge the current interpretation of measurements of deviations from the Hubble flow. Gravitational instability without reheating as a mechanism for generation of the large-scale structure of the universe would be in severe difficulty. 38 references.

  3. Minimal cosmic background fluctuations implied by streaming motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Gorski, Krzysztof; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The minimal cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy implied by the presence of peculiar motions of a given amplitude on some specified scale is calculated using a new, power spectrum-independent approach. If the tentative evidence for deviations from the Hubble flow of magnitude delta V/V roughly 0.1 at V roughly 5000 km/s is confirmed, microwave background fluctuations with a coherence scale of about 2 deg and dispersion delta T/T greater than 10 to the -5th are predicted. It is found that the existing upper limits on delta T/T are not inconsistent with v(r) = 500 km/s at r = 50/h Mpc. A reduction of the observational limits on the CBR anisotropy below the authors' minimal predictions for delta T/T would challenge the current interpretation of measurements of deviations from the Hubble flow. Gravitational instability without reheating as a mechanism for generation of the large-scale structure of the universe would be in severe difficulty.

  4. Minimal cosmic background fluctuations implied by streaming motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Gorski, Krzysztof; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The minimal cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy implied by the presence of peculiar motions of a given amplitude on some specified scale is calculated using a new, power spectrum-independent approach. If the tentative evidence for deviations from the Hubble flow of magnitude delta V/V roughly 0.1 at V roughly 5000 km/s is confirmed, microwave background fluctuations with a coherence scale of about 2 deg and dispersion delta T/T greater than 10 to the -5th are predicted. It is found that the existing upper limits on delta T/T are not inconsistent with v(r) = 500 km/s at r = 50/h Mpc. A reduction of the observational limits on the CBR anisotropy below the authors' minimal predictions for delta T/T would challenge the current interpretation of measurements of deviations from the Hubble flow. Gravitational instability without reheating as a mechanism for generation of the large-scale structure of the universe would be in severe difficulty.

  5. Adaptation to implied tilt: extensive spatial extrapolation of orientation gradients

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Neil W.; Webb, Ben S.

    2013-01-01

    To extract the global structure of an image, the visual system must integrate local orientation estimates across space. Progress is being made toward understanding this integration process, but very little is known about whether the presence of structure exerts a reciprocal influence on local orientation coding. We have previously shown that adaptation to patterns containing circular or radial structure induces tilt-aftereffects (TAEs), even in locations where the adapting pattern was occluded. These spatially “remote” TAEs have novel tuning properties and behave in a manner consistent with adaptation to the local orientation implied by the circular structure (but not physically present) at a given test location. Here, by manipulating the spatial distribution of local elements in noisy circular textures, we demonstrate that remote TAEs are driven by the extrapolation of orientation structure over remarkably large regions of visual space (more than 20°). We further show that these effects are not specific to adapting stimuli with polar orientation structure, but require a gradient of orientation change across space. Our results suggest that mechanisms of visual adaptation exploit orientation gradients to predict the local pattern content of unfilled regions of space. PMID:23882243

  6. Collective memory in primate conflict implied by temporal scaling collapse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edward D; Daniels, Bryan C; Krakauer, David C; Flack, Jessica C

    2017-09-01

    In biological systems, prolonged conflict is costly, whereas contained conflict permits strategic innovation and refinement. Causes of variation in conflict size and duration are not well understood. We use a well-studied primate society model system to study how conflicts grow. We find conflict duration is a 'first to fight' growth process that scales superlinearly, with the number of possible pairwise interactions. This is in contrast with a 'first to fail' process that characterizes peaceful durations. Rescaling conflict distributions reveals a universal curve, showing that the typical time scale of correlated interactions exceeds nearly all individual fights. This temporal correlation implies collective memory across pairwise interactions beyond those assumed in standard models of contagion growth or iterated evolutionary games. By accounting for memory, we make quantitative predictions for interventions that mitigate or enhance the spread of conflict. Managing conflict involves balancing the efficient use of limited resources with an intervention strategy that allows for conflict while keeping it contained and controlled. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Formation of double neutron star systems as implied by observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-03-01

    Double Neutron Stars (DNS) have to survive two supernovae (SNe) and still remain bound. This sets strong limits on the nature of the second collapse in these systems. We consider the masses and orbital parameters of the DNS population and constrain the two distributions of mass ejection and kick velocities directly from observations with no a priori assumptions regarding evolutionary models and/or the types of the SNe involved. We show that there is strong evidence for two distinct types of SNe in these systems, where the second collapse in the majority of the observed systems involved small mass ejection (ΔM ≲ 0.5 M⊙) and a corresponding low-kick velocity (vk ≲ 30 km s-1). This formation scenario is compatible, for example, with an electron-capture SN. Only a minority of the systems have formed via the standard SN scenario involving larger mass ejection of ˜2.2 M⊙ and kick velocities of up to 400 km s-1. Due to the typically small kicks in most DNS (which are reflected by rather low proper motion), we predict that most of these systems reside close to the Galactic disc. In particular, this implies that more NS-NS mergers occur close to the Galactic plane. This may have non-trivial implications to the estimated merger rates of DNS and to the rate of LIGO/VIRGO detections.

  8. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    PubMed

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government.

    PubMed

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K

    2014-09-01

    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  10. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

  11. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  12. U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-11

    Malaysia , Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan. 3 The data capture “cross-border” trade in services. Because they are intangible, most...in East Asia by negotiating FTAs with South Korea, Malaysia , Thailand, the Philippines, and Mexico.10 The agreement with Mexico is noteworthy because...Administration got Japan to agree to another, more loosely shaped format, the Enhanced Initiative on Deregulation and Competition Policy (the Enhanced Initiative

  13. Consular Identification Cards: Domestic and Foreign Policy Implications, the Mexican Case, and Related Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    National Government Domestic Social Policy Division K. Larry Storrs Specialist in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division...security consular registration” (matrícula consular de alta seguridad , MCAS, in Spanish), first became available in the United States in March 2002.1...obtain a driver’s license. It is also accepted by numerous telephone and utility companies, hospitals , and video stores, among other establishments. Some

  14. Relative Militarization and Its Impact on Public Policy Budgetary Shifts in Argentina, 1963-1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    literature on the subject, the evidence with regard to social and economic policy remains inconclusive. While it is generally accepted that in absolute...militarization generally occurs in response to the severity of the political crisis that precipitated the military’s assumption of power (O’Donnell, 1978). The...first study of such a regime type (O’Donnell, 1973, 1982), while the " Proceso de Reorganizaci6n Nacional" of 1976-1983 represents A refinement of the

  15. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments’ ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  16. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  17. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children.

  18. Overview of systematic reviews on the health-related effects of government tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-08-05

    Government interventions are critical to addressing the global tobacco epidemic, a major public health problem that continues to deepen. We systematically synthesize research evidence on the effectiveness of government tobacco control policies promoted by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), supporting the implementation of this international treaty on the tenth anniversary of it entering into force. An overview of systematic reviews was prepared through systematic searches of five electronic databases, published up to March 2014. Additional reviews were retrieved from monthly updates until August 2014, consultations with tobacco control experts and a targeted search for reviews on mass media interventions. Reviews were assessed according to predefined inclusion criteria, and ratings of methodological quality were either extracted from source databases or independently scored. Of 612 reviews retrieved, 45 reviews met the inclusion criteria and 14 more were identified from monthly updates, expert consultations and a targeted search, resulting in 59 included reviews summarizing over 1150 primary studies. The 38 strong and moderate quality reviews published since 2000 were prioritized in the qualitative synthesis. Protecting people from tobacco smoke was the most strongly supported government intervention, with smoke-free policies associated with decreased smoking behaviour, secondhand smoke exposure and adverse health outcomes. Raising taxes on tobacco products also consistently demonstrated reductions in smoking behaviour. Tobacco product packaging interventions and anti-tobacco mass media campaigns may decrease smoking behaviour, with the latter likely an important part of larger multicomponent programs. Financial interventions for smoking cessation are most effective when targeted at smokers to reduce the cost of cessation products, but incentivizing quitting may be effective as well. Although the findings for bans on tobacco advertising were

  19. Policy Shifted the Functional Relations of Coupled Human and Natural Systems on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Applying the CHN concept, we examine the spatiotemporal changes of livestock (LSKD), socioeconomic conditions, and ecosystem productivity using data at the prefecture level for Inner Mongolia (IM) and Mongolia (MG) over a 30-year study period (1981-2010). There exist clear spatiotemporal changes in all eight socioeconomic and natural variables on the Mongolian Plateau. Substantial differences in LSKD, population (POPD), and economic development were found among the biomes and between IM and MG. We developed a simple structural equation model (SEM) for a comprehensive assessment, which includes three latent variables: LSKD, NPP, and land use and land cover change (LULCC). Treating the Mongolian Plateau as a whole, we found that LSKD, POPD, and NPP are all positively correlated, with a weak correlation found between LSKD and NPP (r=0.12) and a strong correlation found between LSKD and LULCC (r=0.75) and NPP and LULCC (r=0.75). POPD showed significant positive effects on LSKD, while NPP had an insignificant or weak negative effect. EVI and precipitation (P) had significant, positive relationships with NPP, but albedo had a significantly negative effect. In addition, precipitation affected EVI positively and albedo negatively. The directions and strengths of the above relationships were not always consistent for IM and MG as independent systems. The addition of policy shifts to our SEM significantly changed the strengths of the above relationships in both IM and MG. The WTO for China and the collapse of the former Soviet Union for MG were two shifts included in our policy-inclusion SEMs. For both IM and MG, policy weakened the relationship between LSKD and LULCC, but strengthened the connections of LSKD~NPP and LULCC~NPP.

  20. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-20

    transition, see CRS Report RL31661, China’s New Leadership Line -up: Implications for U.S. Policy, by Kerry Dumbaugh. while being open to substantively and...human rights. 4 State Department spokesman Richard Boucher in the daily press briefing of April 8, 2005. 5 According to the U.S. Centers for Disease...but also parts of China’s pig population. 5 During a U.N. summit on September 13, 2005, President George Bush and PRC President Hu Jintao reportedly

  1. Interim Policy Determination Related to NSR/PSD Significance Level for ODS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  3. Communications satellite business ventures - Measuring the impact of technology programmes and related policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An economic evaluation and planning procedure which assesses the effects of various policies on fixed satellite business ventures is described. The procedure is based on a stochastic financial simulation model, the Domsat II, which evaluates spacecraft reliability, market performance, and cost uncertainties. The application of the Domsat II model to the assessment of NASA's ion thrusters for on-orbit propulsion and GaAs solar cell technology is discussed. The effects of insurance rates and the self-insurance option on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures are investigated. The selection of a transportation system for placing the satellites into GEO is analyzed.

  4. School Finance Reform: Do Equalized Expenditures Imply Equalized Teacher Salaries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streams, Meg; Butler, J. S.; Cowen, Joshua; Fowles, Jacob; Toma, Eugenia F.

    2011-01-01

    Kentucky is a poor, relatively rural state that contrasts greatly with the relatively urban and wealthy states typically the subject of education studies employing large-scale administrative data. For this reason, Kentucky's experience of major school finance and curricular reform is highly salient for understanding teacher labor market dynamics.…

  5. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  6. A violation of the uncertainty principle implies a violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hänggi, Esther; Wehner, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty relations state that there exist certain incompatible measurements, to which the outcomes cannot be simultaneously predicted. While the exact incompatibility of quantum measurements dictated by such uncertainty relations can be inferred from the mathematical formalism of quantum theory, the question remains whether there is any more fundamental reason for the uncertainty relations to have this exact form. What, if any, would be the operational consequences if we were able to go beyond any of these uncertainty relations? Here we give a strong argument that justifies uncertainty relations in quantum theory by showing that violating them implies that it is also possible to violate the second law of thermodynamics. More precisely, we show that violating the uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics leads to a thermodynamic cycle with positive net work gain, which is very unlikely to exist in nature.

  7. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness: An Overview of State Policies and Practices Related to Pre-K-12 Teacher Effectiveness or Teacher Evaluation. AACC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Carole; Rabinowitz, Stanley; Yeagley, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of state policies and practices related to Pre-K-12 teacher effectiveness or teacher evaluation. The state policies and practices are presented according to the following tables: (1) National Council on Teacher Quality 2009 Survey Ratings; (2) "Education Week's Quality Counts" 2010 Indicators; and (3) Other…

  8. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every

  9. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Poluyi, Edward O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2015-01-01

    There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily

  10. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  11. Technical and policy issues related to semantically and spatially incompatible geodata

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalko, S.J.; Ganter, J.H.; Meter, M.D. Van

    1995-07-01

    Both the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and National Information Infrastructure (NU) efforts have ambitious goals that are expected to improve the fundamental infrastructure, commerce, and society of the United States. Achieving these goals will require rapid development and deployment of information compatibility methods through technical and institutional standards. These standards will have to be scaleable and flexible to support new, and as-yet-undiscovered, data. Yet they will also need to accommodate our valuable data reserves. The area of geospatial data, and thus the creation of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), is particularly challenging due to the profoundly different forms, evolutionary histories, and meanings attached to spatial data. We discuss technical issues resulting from the different natures and inaccuracy of existing geodata, and areas where federal policy could lead the way to greater compatibility.

  12. Untying the Gordian knot: policies, practices, and ethical issues related to banking of umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    Since the first successful transplantation of umbilical cord blood in 1988, cord blood has become an important source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for the treatment of blood and genetic disorders. Significant progress has been accompanied by challenges for scientists, ethicists, and health policy makers. With the recent recognition of the need for a national system for the collection, banking, distribution, and use of cord blood and the increasing focus on cord blood as an alternative to embryos as a source of tissue for regenerative medicine, cord blood has garnered significant attention. We review the development of cord blood banking and transplantation and then discuss the scientific and ethical issues influencing both established and investigational practices surrounding cord blood collection, banking, and use. PMID:16200191

  13. Non-response bias in a community survey of drinking, alcohol-related experiences and public opinion on alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John; Room, Robin

    2012-11-01

    The continuing decline in response rates to household surveys is a concern for the health and social sciences as it increases the risk of selective non-response biasing the estimates of interest. We analysed non-response bias in a postal survey measuring drinking behaviour, experience of harm and opinion on local government alcohol policies among residents in six New Zealand communities. The Continuum of Resistance model, which suggests that late respondents to a survey are most similar to non-respondents on the measures of interest, was used to guide our investigation. Men, younger people, those of Māori descent and those living in more deprived areas were less likely to respond to our survey than women, older people, those not of Māori descent and those living in comparatively affluent areas. Late respondents more closely resembled non-respondents demographically than early respondents. The prevalence of binge drinking and experience of assault was higher, and support for restrictive local government alcohol policies lower, among late respondents. Assuming the drinking behaviour and alcohol-related experiences of non-respondents were the same as those of late respondents, prevalence was under-estimated by 3.4% (relative difference: 13%) and 2.1% (relative difference: 21%) for monthly binge drinking and assault respectively. Policy support was not over-estimated. The findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that surveys under-estimate risk behaviour because of selective non-response and this bias increases as response rates fall. Notably, public opinion may not be subject to such misestimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Population policies and development.

    PubMed

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  16. Benefits on public health from transport-related greenhouse gas mitigation policies in Southeastern European cities.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Kontoroupis, P; Nikolaki, S; Gotti, A; Chapizanis, D; Karakitsios, S

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario. Two types of measures are investigated: operation of underground rail in the city centre and changes in fleet composition. Potential co-benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions on public health by the year 2020 are computed utilizing state-of-the-art concentration response functions for PMx, NO2 and C6H6. Results show significant environmental health and monetary co-benefits when the city metro is coupled with appropriate changes in the traffic composition. Monetary savings due to avoided mortality or leukaemia incidence corresponding to the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure will be 56.6, 45, 37.7 and 1.0 million Euros respectively. Promotion of 'green' transportation in the city (i.e. the wide use of electric vehicles), will provide monetary savings from the reduction in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and C6H6 exposure up to 60.4, 49.1, 41.2 and 1.08 million Euros. Overall, it was shown that the respective GHG emission reduction policies resulted in clear co-benefits in terms of air quality improvement, public health protection and monetary loss mitigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Federal Energy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1976-01-01

    There is no federal energy policy. There is a fuel use policy of sorts, but that policy is related as much to foreign policy as to domestic needs, with the United States public paying the large bill. Neither presidential candidate has yet offered a plan for a coherent energy policy. (Editor/BT)

  18. Impact of Policy and Built Environment Changes on Obesity-related Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Naturally-Occurring Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Stephanie L.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2016-01-01

    Policies and changes to the built environment are promising targets for obesity prevention efforts and can be evaluated as “natural”- or “quasi”-experiments. This systematic review examined the use of natural- or quasi-experiments to evaluate the efficacy of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes (body mass index, diet, or physical activity). PubMed (Medline) was searched for studies published 2005–2013; 1,175 abstracts and 115 articles were reviewed. Of the 37 studies included, 18 studies evaluated impacts on nutrition/diet, 17 on physical activity, and 3 on body mass index. Nutrition-related studies found greater effects due to bans/restrictions on unhealthy foods, mandates offering healthier foods, and altering purchase/payment rules on foods purchased using low-income food vouchers compared to other interventions (menu labeling, new supermarkets). Physical activity-related studies generally found stronger impacts when the intervention involved improvements to active transportation infrastructure, longer follow-up time, or measured process outcomes (e.g., cycling rather than total physical activity) compared to other studies. Only three studies directly assessed body mass index or weight, and only one (installing light-rail system) observed a significant effect. Studies varied widely in the strength of their design and studies with weaker designs were more likely to report associations in the positive direction. PMID:25753170

  19. Impact of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes: a systematic review of naturally occurring experiments.

    PubMed

    Mayne, S L; Auchincloss, A H; Michael, Y L

    2015-05-01

    Policies and changes to the built environment are promising targets for obesity prevention efforts and can be evaluated as 'natural'- or 'quasi'-experiments. This systematic review examined the use of natural- or quasi-experiments to evaluate the efficacy of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes (body mass index, diet or physical activity). PubMed (Medline) was searched for studies published 2005-2013; 1,175 abstracts and 115 papers were reviewed. Of the 37 studies included, 18 studies evaluated impacts on nutrition/diet, 17 on physical activity and 3 on body mass index. Nutrition-related studies found greater effects because of bans/restrictions on unhealthy foods, mandates offering healthier foods, and altering purchase/payment rules on foods purchased using low-income food vouchers compared with other interventions (menu labelling, new supermarkets). Physical activity-related studies generally found stronger impacts when the intervention involved improvements to active transportation infrastructure, longer follow-up time or measured process outcomes (e.g., cycling rather than total physical activity), compared with other studies. Only three studies directly assessed body mass index or weight, and only one (installing light-rail system) observed a significant effect. Studies varied widely in the strength of their design and studies with weaker designs were more likely to report associations in the positive direction. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Indexing the Implied Reader of the Hong Kong Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollon, Ron

    A study analyzed the discourse in a variety of Hong Kong newspapers to assess how an individual takes on the role of reader in relation to the rather complex public discourse of a daily newspaper, particularly in a multicultural, politically charged context. Four categories of newspaper (Hong Kong English, Hong Kong Chinese, non-Hong Kong Chinese,…

  1. How many scientific papers are mentioned in policy-related documents? An empirical investigation using Web of Science and Altmetric data.

    PubMed

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    In this short communication, we provide an overview of a relatively newly provided source of altmetrics data which could possibly be used for societal impact measurements in scientometrics. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy-related documents. Using data from Altmetric, we study how many papers indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) are mentioned in policy-related documents. We find that less than 0.5% of the papers published in different subject categories are mentioned at least once in policy-related documents. Based on our results, we recommend that the analysis of (WoS) publications with at least one policy-related mention is repeated regularly (annually) in order to check the usefulness of the data. Mentions in policy-related documents should not be used for impact measurement until new policy-related sites are tracked.

  2. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L.; Black, Mairi

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a ‘carbon debt’ with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC. PMID:22482030

  3. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L; Black, Mairi

    2011-04-06

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a 'carbon debt' with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC.

  4. Attributes of an alluvial river and their relation to water policy and management

    PubMed Central

    Trush, William J.; McBain, Scott M.; Leopold, Luna B.

    2000-01-01

    Rivers around the world are being regulated by dams to accommodate the needs of a rapidly growing global population. These regulatory efforts usually oppose the natural tendency of rivers to flood, move sediment, and migrate. Although an economic benefit, river regulation has come at unforeseen and unevaluated cumulative ecological costs. Historic and contemporary approaches to remedy environmental losses have largely ignored hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes that form and maintain healthy alluvial river ecosystems. Several commonly known concepts that govern how alluvial channels work have been compiled into a set of “attributes” for alluvial river integrity. These attributes provide a minimum checklist of critical geomorphic and ecological processes derived from field observation and experimentation, a set of hypotheses to chart and evaluate strategies for restoring and preserving alluvial river ecosystems. They can guide how to (i) restore alluvial processes below an existing dam without necessarily resorting to extreme measures such as demolishing one, and (ii) preserve alluvial river integrity below proposed dams. Once altered by dam construction, a regulated alluvial river will never function as before. But a scaled-down morphology could retain much of a river's original integrity if key processes addressed in the attributes are explicitly provided. Although such a restoration strategy is an experiment, it may be the most practical solution for recovering regulated alluvial river ecosystems and the species that inhabit them. Preservation or restoration of the alluvial river attributes is a logical policy direction for river management in the future. PMID:11050220

  5. Attributes of an alluvial river and their relation to water policy and management.

    PubMed

    Trush, W J; McBain, S M; Leopold, L B

    2000-10-24

    Rivers around the world are being regulated by dams to accommodate the needs of a rapidly growing global population. These regulatory efforts usually oppose the natural tendency of rivers to flood, move sediment, and migrate. Although an economic benefit, river regulation has come at unforeseen and unevaluated cumulative ecological costs. Historic and contemporary approaches to remedy environmental losses have largely ignored hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes that form and maintain healthy alluvial river ecosystems. Several commonly known concepts that govern how alluvial channels work have been compiled into a set of "attributes" for alluvial river integrity. These attributes provide a minimum checklist of critical geomorphic and ecological processes derived from field observation and experimentation, a set of hypotheses to chart and evaluate strategies for restoring and preserving alluvial river ecosystems. They can guide how to (i) restore alluvial processes below an existing dam without necessarily resorting to extreme measures such as demolishing one, and (ii) preserve alluvial river integrity below proposed dams. Once altered by dam construction, a regulated alluvial river will never function as before. But a scaled-down morphology could retain much of a river's original integrity if key processes addressed in the attributes are explicitly provided. Although such a restoration strategy is an experiment, it may be the most practical solution for recovering regulated alluvial river ecosystems and the species that inhabit them. Preservation or restoration of the alluvial river attributes is a logical policy direction for river management in the future.

  6. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2017-02-01

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  7. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2016-09-23

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  8. Reconsidering risk: adapting public policies to intergenerational determinants and biosocial interactions in health-related needs.

    PubMed

    Strully, Kate W; Conley, Dalton

    2004-12-01

    According to recent research, interactions between infant health and environment can play crucial roles in clustering health and economic disadvantage among certain families. Researchers have provided a clear example of such intergenerational biosocial cycles when they document that interactions between parental low birth weight status and prenatal environment are associated with the risk of a low birth weight, and that interactions between a child's birth weight status and early childhood environment are associated with adult socioeconomic outcomes. In this article, we consider how existing policies may be revised to more effectively address such interactions between social and biological risk categories. We are particularly concerned in this discussion with revising risk categories so they can encompass biological risk, social risk, and developmental frameworks. A framework of biosocial risk is quite flexible and may be applied to a variety of issues and programs; however, in this article we focus on the single case of low birth weight to illustrate our argument. In considering specific applications, we further explore how attention to biosocial interactions may reshape Medicaid, special education, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families.

  9. Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiqiu; Smith, Adam S; Gu, Yuting; Tan, Jie; Liu, C Karen; Turk, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Plesiosaurians are an extinct group of highly derived Mesozoic marine reptiles with a global distribution that spans 135 million years from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. During their long evolutionary history they maintained a unique body plan with two pairs of large wing-like flippers, but their locomotion has been a topic of debate for almost 200 years. Key areas of controversy have concerned the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke, e.g. whether it consisted of rowing, underwater flight, or modified underwater flight, and how the four limbs moved in relation to each other: did they move in or out of phase? Previous studies have investigated plesiosaur swimming using a variety of methods, including skeletal analysis, human swimmers, and robotics. We adopt a novel approach using a digital, three-dimensional, articulated, free-swimming plesiosaur in a simulated fluid. We generated a large number of simulations under various joint degrees of freedom to investigate how the locomotory repertoire changes under different parameters. Within the biologically possible range of limb motion, the simulated plesiosaur swims primarily with its forelimbs using an unmodified underwater flight stroke, essentially the same as turtles and penguins. In contrast, the hindlimbs provide relatively weak thrust in all simulations. We conclude that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability.

  10. Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiqiu; Smith, Adam S.; Gu, Yuting; Tan, Jie; Liu, C. Karen; Turk, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Plesiosaurians are an extinct group of highly derived Mesozoic marine reptiles with a global distribution that spans 135 million years from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. During their long evolutionary history they maintained a unique body plan with two pairs of large wing-like flippers, but their locomotion has been a topic of debate for almost 200 years. Key areas of controversy have concerned the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke, e.g. whether it consisted of rowing, underwater flight, or modified underwater flight, and how the four limbs moved in relation to each other: did they move in or out of phase? Previous studies have investigated plesiosaur swimming using a variety of methods, including skeletal analysis, human swimmers, and robotics. We adopt a novel approach using a digital, three-dimensional, articulated, free-swimming plesiosaur in a simulated fluid. We generated a large number of simulations under various joint degrees of freedom to investigate how the locomotory repertoire changes under different parameters. Within the biologically possible range of limb motion, the simulated plesiosaur swims primarily with its forelimbs using an unmodified underwater flight stroke, essentially the same as turtles and penguins. In contrast, the hindlimbs provide relatively weak thrust in all simulations. We conclude that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability. PMID:26683221

  11. The WHO construct of health-related functioning (HrF) and its implications for health policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Functioning (ICF) has acquired a central role in the WHO Family of International Classifications and it has been extensively adopted as the reference framework for health-related functioning (HrF). This review aims to provide a description of the ICF/HrF to contextualise ICF/HrF in relation to other approaches to health functioning and to describe its application in policy and legislation with a special focus on Spain. Methods Narrative review based on the scientific literature and prior expert knowledge. Results ICF is both a coding system and a conceptual framework of HrF, which is framed as a unidimensional, bipolar and asymmetric construct with a negative pole (disability) and a positive pole (good functioning) with higher complexity. Other models of HrF include health promotion, quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL). The curtailed taxonomy of ICF and its unclear distinction from other approaches have had significant implications for research, policy and legislation, as illustrated by the case of the legislation and services for functional dependency in Spain and other examples. Conclusions The ICF model of functioning is more comprehensive and usable than previous alternatives, but a full taxonomy of the HrF construct is needed to avoid further confusions in this field. This should also comprise harmonisation with other classifications of the WHO Family of International Classifications and other models of health functioning. PMID:21624195

  12. Health-related claims on food labels in Australia: understanding environmental health officers' roles and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Condon-Paoloni, Deanne; Yeatman, Heather R; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health and related claims on food labels can support consumer education initiatives that encourage purchase of healthier foods. A new food Standard on Nutrition, Health and Related Claims became law in January 2013. Implementation will need careful monitoring and enforcement to ensure that claims are truthful and have meaning. The current study explored factors that may impact on environmental health officers' food labelling policy enforcement practices. The study used a mixed-methods approach, using two previously validated quantitative questionnaire instruments that provided measures of the level of control that the officers exercised over their work, as well as qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Local government; Australia. Thirty-seven officers in three Australian states participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, as well as completing the quantitative questionnaires. Senior and junior officers, including field officers, participated in the study. The officers reported a high level of autonomy and control of their work, but also a heavy workload, dominated by concerns for public health and food safety, with limited time for monitoring food labels. Compliance of labels with proposed health claims regulations was not considered a priority. Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucracy was used to enhance understanding of officers' work practices. Competing priorities affect environmental health officers' monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Understanding officers' work practices and their perceptions of enforcement is important to increase effectiveness of policy implementation and hence its capacity to augment education initiatives to optimize health benefits.

  13. Donor Relations: The Essential Guide to Stewardship Policies, Procedures, and Protocol. The Newcomer Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Karla, Ed.; Joyce, Shannon, Ed.

    This book discusses various facets of stewardship as it applies specifically to philanthropy and donor relations for institutions of higher education. Stewardship is defined as a way of preserving opportunities for further support, as the legal and public relations protection of institutions, and as a "right" thing to do. Following an…

  14. 31 CFR 542.528 - Policy on activities related to the agricultural sector of Syria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agricultural sector of Syria. 542.528 Section 542.528 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... related to the agricultural sector of Syria. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by-case basis to authorize U.S. persons to engage in transactions involving Syria's agricultural sector that are...

  15. Donor Relations: The Essential Guide to Stewardship Policies, Procedures, and Protocol. The Newcomer Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Karla, Ed.; Joyce, Shannon, Ed.

    This book discusses various facets of stewardship as it applies specifically to philanthropy and donor relations for institutions of higher education. Stewardship is defined as a way of preserving opportunities for further support, as the legal and public relations protection of institutions, and as a "right" thing to do. Following an…

  16. Positive climate feedback under future climate implied by multifactor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, C.; van der Linden, L.; Ibrom, A.; Larsen, K. S.; Ambus, P.; Climaite Scientific Team

    2011-12-01

    Results after 2 years of a "full factor" climate change experiment in a semi natural shrubland ecosystem within the CLIMAITE project suggests that all three climate change factors warming, drought and elevated CO2 reduced the carbon sink strength of the ecosystem. In particular elevated CO2 stimulated the carbon loss from the ecosystem leading to a significant positive climate feedback. A fundamental question related to climate change concerns the overall biosphere-atmosphere feedback. Will terrestrial ecosystems mitigate climate change through increased plant derived uptake of CO2, or will they accelerate climate change through increased emission of CO2 from decomposition of organic matter? This fundamental question is key to understanding and predicting future climate change and the consequences for the globe. However, our knowledge in this field is still limited and experimental data is generally missing. The CLIMAITE experiment exposed a semi-natural Danish heathland ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 - 510 ppm), warming (+1 oC), and extended summer drought (4-6 week precipitation removal) in all combinations to simulate a realistic climate scenario in Denmark in 2075. In total, the experiment provides a full-factorial design with 6 replicates of all eight combinations of D, T and CO2 and an untreated control for reference (A), i.e. N = 48. Details on the experimental setup are given by Mikkelsen et al. (2008). Generally, single factor treatments (i.e. CO2, warming or drought treatments alone) showed effects often in accordance with previous single factor studies, while, more interestingly, multifactor treatments often interacted generally leading to relatively small net effects of the full factor combined treatments relative to the control (Larsen et al., 2011). Warming and drought both reduced carbon uptake and stimulated carbon emissions slightly leading to a small and additive reduction in the carbon sink strength by these factors

  17. Plant and animal transglutaminases: do similar functions imply similar structures?

    PubMed

    Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Della Mea, Massimiliano; Tasco, Gianluca; Casadio, Rita; Del Duca, Stefano

    2009-04-01

    In plants the post-translational modification of proteins by polyamines catalysed by transglutaminases has been studied since 1987; it was identified by the production of glutamyl-polyamine derivatives, biochemical features, recognition by animal antibodies and modification of typical animal substrates. Transglutaminases are widespread in all plant organs and cell compartments studied until now, chloroplast being the most studied. Substrates are: photosynthetic complexes and Rubisco in chloroplasts, cytoskeleton and cell wall proteins. Roles either specific of plants or in common with animals are related to photosynthesis, fertilisation, stresses, senescence and programmed cell death, showing that the catalytic function is conserved across the kingdoms. AtPng1p, the first plant transglutaminase sequenced shows undetectable sequence homology to the animal enzymes, except for the catalytic triad. It is, however, endowed with a calcium-dependent activity that allowed us to build a three-dimensional model adopting as a template the animal transglutaminase 2.

  18. Energy Gap of Neutral Excitations Implies Vanishing Charge Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Haruki

    2017-03-01

    In quantum many-body systems with a U(1) symmetry, such as particle number conservation and axial spin conservation, there are two distinct types of excitations: charge-neutral excitations and charged excitations. The energy gaps of these excitations may be independent from each other in strongly correlated systems. The static susceptibility of the U(1) charge vanishes when the charged excitations are all gapped, but its relation to the neutral excitations is not obvious. Here we show that a finite excitation gap of the neutral excitations is, in fact, sufficient to prove that the charge susceptibility vanishes (i.e., the system is incompressible). This result gives a partial explanation for why the celebrated quantization condition n (S -mz)∈Z at magnetization plateaus works even in spatial dimensions greater than one.

  19. The resource-based relative value scale and physician reimbursement policy.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2014-11-01

    Most physicians are unfamiliar with the details of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and how changes in the RBRVS influence Medicare and private reimbursement rates. Physicians in a wide variety of settings may benefit from understanding the RBRVS, including physicians who are employees, because many organizations use relative value units as productivity measures. Despite the complexity of the RBRVS, its logic and ideal are simple: In theory, the resource usage (comprising physician work, practice expense, and liability insurance premium costs) for one service is relative to the resource usage of all others. Ensuring relativity when new services are introduced or existing services are changed is, therefore, critical. Since the inception of the RBRVS, the American Medical Association's Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) has made recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on changes to relative value units. The RUC's core focus is to develop estimates of physician work, but work estimates also partly determine practice expense payments. Critics have attributed various health-care system problems, including declining and growing gaps between primary care and specialist incomes, to the RUC's role in the RBRVS update process. There are persistent concerns regarding the quality of data used in the process and the potential for services to be overvalued. The Affordable Care Act addresses some of these concerns by increasing payments to primary care physicians, requiring reevaluation of the data underlying work relative value units, and reviewing misvalued codes.

  20. Evaluating California campus tobacco policies using the American College Health Association guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool.

    PubMed

    Roditis, Maria L; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) Position Statement on Tobacco. The Institutional Grammar Tool was used to breakdown policy statements into Strategies, Norms, or Rules. Differences in ACHA score and number of Strategies, Norms, and Rules were assessed by region, policy, and institution type. Median ACHA score was 0.35 (scale of 0-1). Schools with 100% tobacco-free policies had highest ACHA scores, but failed to address relationships between schools and tobacco companies. Less than half the schools assessed (7/16) had Rules (enforceable penalties related to policies). In 67% of the policy statements, individuals doing the action were implied (not specifically stated). Campuses should address ACHA recommendations related to campus relationships with tobacco companies, include enforceable rules, and specify individuals and entities covered by policy.

  1. How Allentown Is Putting Its Policy on Human Relations into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, Neild

    1974-01-01

    Human relations committees, composed of all elements in the school district family, were formed in each school to initiate self-study programs and assist in planning school assemblies stressing cultural awareness. (Author)

  2. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-08

    gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning of a series of well publicized...and the state of Sino-Tibetan relations. Tibet remains an issue of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S.-China relations. Controversy...and high-level military exchanges. Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face

  3. Operations Policy Manual, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teacher Education Accreditation Council, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Teacher Education Accreditation Council's (TEAC's) "Operations Policy Manual" outlines all of TEAC's current policies and procedures related to TEAC members, TEAC administration, and the public, and includes the Bylaws of the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Contents include: (1) Policies Related to TEAC Members; (2) Policies Related…

  4. Information and Communications Technologies Health Projects in Panama: A Systematic Review and their Relation with Public Policies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Gema Anabel Castillo; Berbey, Aranzazu; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a review about Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) health projects in Panama. The main contribution is to provide a vision of the situation in Panama, allowing an understanding of the dynamics of health policies and how they have affected the implementation of ICT's Projects to improve the health of Panamanians. We analyze the projects found with ICT's in health of Panama, which allow us to see a perspective of projects information is obtained from 2000 to 2016, however it is important to highlight that there may be other projects that we do not know because we did not find enough information or evidence of the same. That is why this review has interviews with key personnel, who have guided us with the search for information. 56% of technology projects are concentrated in the capital city and only 16% in the province of Chiriquí. 64% of these projects are focused on the development of information systems, mainly focused on electronic patient registration. And 60% refers to projects related to primary health care. The MINSA and CSS both with a 20% participation in ICT project, in addition we can notice the dispersion of projects for hospitals, where each one is developing programs per their needs or priorities. The national information about ICT projects of Health, it has been notorious the state of dispersion and segmented of public health information. We consider that it is a natural consequence of Policy in Panamanian Health System. This situation limits the information retrieval and knowledge of ICT in Health of Panama. To stakeholders, this information is directed so that health policies are designed towards a more effective and integral management, administering the ICT's as tools for the well-being of most the Panamanian population, including indigenous group.

  5. [Decreasing incidence of perinatal group B streptococcal disease (Barcelona 1994-2002). Relation with hospital prevention policies].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Antonia; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Viñas, Lluis; Barranco, Margarita; Bosch, Jordi; Dopico, Eva; Guardia, Celia; Juncosa, Teresa; Lite, Josep; Matas, Lurdes; Sánchez, Ferrán; Sierr, Montse

    2003-04-01

    To analyze the incidence of perinatal sepsis due to group B streptococcus (GBS) as related to compliance with recommendations for its prevention issued by the Catalan Societies for Obstetrics, for Pediatrics, and for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 1997. The study was conducted from 1994 to 2001 in 10 Barcelona-area hospitals, where 157,848 live infants were born. GBS disease was diagnosed in 129 neonates. Incidence decreased by 86.1% over the study period, from 1.92 cases per 1000 live births in 1994 to 0.26 per 1000 in 2001 (p < 0.001). Changes in the characteristics of perinatal GBS disease were observed in the 18 cases diagnosed in the last 3 years, the time when prevention policies were operative. The incidence was lower (0.28 per 1000 vs. 1.19 for the previous 5 years, p <.00006), the proportion of mothers without risk factors was greater (77.8% vs. 55.9%, p 5 0.009), and premature neonates were not affected (0% vs. 12.6%, p 5 0.003); nevertheless, mortality was similar (5.5% vs. 4.5%, p 5 0.8). Among these 18 cases of sepsis, 9 can be considered failures inherent to the prevention policy and 9 failures of compliance. Only 3 hospitals had prevention policies in 1994, whereas all 10 used intrapartum prophylaxis based on screening results in 2001. A substantial decrease in the incidence of perinatal GBS disease coinciding with the application of prevention measures for this pathology has been registered in 10 participating hospitals over the 1994-2001 period.

  6. Legislative activity related to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States (2006-2015): a need for evidence-based policy.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma M; DeGuzman, Pamela B; Stoler, Mark H; Kennedy, Christine

    2017-01-01

    State-based policies to mandate HPV vaccination are politically challenging and have received broad criticisms. There is a critical need to understand the legislative activities that underpin subsequent policy implementation. The objective of this policy analysis was to analyze state legislation that focused on HPV vaccination from 2006-2015. A content analysis was conducted among primary sources of legislative data from HPV vaccine-related bills, including using the National Conference of State Legislatures as a search-source. Findings reveal that much of the legislative activity occurred early after the HPV vaccination was introduced, and focused on increased information for parents, public financing, awareness campaigns, etc. Far fewer states focused on voluntary or mandatory vaccination. Understanding the barriers to achieving mandatory vaccination policy and implementation of such policies for HPV vaccines remains a public health priority.

  7. Legislative activity related to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States (2006–2015): a need for evidence-based policy

    PubMed Central

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Mitchell, Emma M; DeGuzman, Pamela B; Stoler, Mark H; Kennedy, Christine

    2017-01-01

    State-based policies to mandate HPV vaccination are politically challenging and have received broad criticisms. There is a critical need to understand the legislative activities that underpin subsequent policy implementation. The objective of this policy analysis was to analyze state legislation that focused on HPV vaccination from 2006–2015. A content analysis was conducted among primary sources of legislative data from HPV vaccine-related bills, including using the National Conference of State Legislatures as a search-source. Findings reveal that much of the legislative activity occurred early after the HPV vaccination was introduced, and focused on increased information for parents, public financing, awareness campaigns, etc. Far fewer states focused on voluntary or mandatory vaccination. Understanding the barriers to achieving mandatory vaccination policy and implementation of such policies for HPV vaccines remains a public health priority. PMID:28331378

  8. Tools to Support Policy Decisions Related to Treatment Strategies and Surveillance of Schistosomiasis Japonica towards Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Xu, Jing; Chen, Hong-Gen; Wang, Tian-Ping; Huang, Xi-Bao; Lin, Dan-Dan; Wang, Qi-Zhi; Tang, Li; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Feng, Ting; Chen, Jia-Xu; Guo, Jian; Chen, Shao-Hong; Li, Hao; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate diagnostics to monitor disease trends and assess the effectiveness and impact of interventions are essential for guiding treatment strategies at different thresholds of schistosomiasis transmission and for certifying elimination. Field validation of these assays is urgently needed before they can be adopted to support policy decisions of the national programme for control and elimination of schistosomiasis in P.R. China. We compared the efficacy and utility of different immunoassays in guiding control strategies and monitoring the endemic status of S. japonicum infections towards elimination. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven villages with different transmission intensities settings to assess the performance and utility of three immunoassays, e.g., an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA_JX), an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA_SZ), and a dot immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA_SH). 6,248 individuals aged 6–65 years old who gave consent and supplied their stool and blood samples were included for data analysis. Results showed that ELISA_SZ performed significantly higher sensitivity (95.45%, 95%CI: 92.94–97.97%) than IHA_JX (87.59%, 95%CI: 83.51–91.49%) and DIGFA_SH (79.55%, 95%CI: 74.68–84.41%), especially in subgroups with very low infection intensity. The specificity of ELISA_SZ, IHA_JX, DIGFA_SH in 6–9 year olds with occasional exposure was nearly 90%. DIGFA_SH performed the highest screening efficacy for patients among three assays with overall positive predicative value of 13.07% (95%CI: 11.42–14.72%). We found a positive correlation of antibody positive rate of IHA_JX with results of stool examination in age strata (r = 0.70, P<0.001). Seropositivity of IHA_JX in children aged 6–9 years old showed an excellent correlation with prevalence of schistosome infection in the seven communities (r = 0.77, P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Studies suggest that ELISA

  9. Relational narratives: solving an ethical dilemma concerning an individual's insurance policy.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, R; Graham, H

    2000-03-01

    Decisions based on ethics confront nurses daily. In this account, a cardiac nurse struggles with the challenge of securing health care benefits for Justin, a patient within the American system of health care. An exercise therapy that is important for his well-being is denied. The patient's nurse and an interested insurance agent develop a working relationship, resulting in a relational narrative based on Justin's care. Gadow's concept of a relational narrative and Keller's concept of a relational autonomy guide this particular case. As an ethics framework influenced by feminist ethical theory, Gadow's, Keller's and Tisdale's ideas demonstrate the fluidity with which the nurse and others can work while maintaining both autonomy and engagement without being self-sacrificing.

  10. 20 CFR 661.203 - What is meant by the terms “optimum policy making authority” and “expertise relating to [a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Provisions § 661.203 What is meant by the terms “optimum policy making authority” and “expertise relating to... entity to a chosen course of action. (b) A representative with “expertise relating to program, service or... expertise relating to the One-stop partner program....

  11. Drug-related crime and sentencing policies from the perspective of the United Nations crime prevention and criminal justice programme.

    PubMed

    Hanreich, H

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the incompleteness of available data, there is no conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of sentencing policies in various countries. Insufficient data at both the regional and international levels also make it difficult to draw any firm conclusions on general trends in sentencing policies for offenders convicted of drug-related infractions. Regional, and particularly national, circumstances influence the pattern of penal measures against drug offences in any given country. Thus, drug legislation reflects the socio-cultural, religious and other values of a nation. There is a growing tendency to apply measures of treatment and social reintegration to drug-addicted persons who have committed minor offences rather than to impose prison sentences on them. Drug addiction is increasingly recognized as a disease, which should be cured in an appropriate treatment setting, but the data available indicate that the application of this measure to drug offenders is rather restricted. Another apparent tendency is the move to decriminalize the simple use of drugs and, at the same time, to provide more severe penalties for drug trafficking. In certain countries, however, there is a trend towards increased penalties for illicit drug use as well.

  12. The Impact of Journal Ranking Fetishism on Australian Policy-Related Research: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Suzanne; Peetz, David; Marais, Magalie

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the Excellence in Research (ERA) exercise, first conducted in 2008 and continuing relatively unchanged in 2012, determines the level of research funding made available to Australian universities. However, the use of journal rankings as part of ERA is argued to be problematic (Cooper & Poletti 2011). Through a survey of academics…

  13. A Study of Taiwanese Children's Conceptions of and Relation to Nature: Curricular and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Amy Hsin-I

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated children's conceptions of and relations to nature. Understanding the factors that influence them was the goal. The study used the Contextual Model of Learning as the theoretical framework to structure the research questions and data analysis to understand children's nature learning in the personal, sociocultural, and…

  14. AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

  15. Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-29

    Related Grounds for Exclusion ........................................................................................2 Legislative History ...Program in § 217 of the INA. 2 Other grounds for exclusion include criminal history ; security and terrorist concerns; public charge (e.g., indigence...grounds; criminal history ;7 security and terrorist concerns; public charge (e.g., indigence); seeking to work without proper labor certification

  16. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2010: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-07

    9 For more, see CRS Report R40755, U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress, by Michael F. Martin. 10 Peru ...as electricity, energy, steel, and mining. The previous plan emphasized lighter industries such as foodstuffs, textiles , and electronics. According

  17. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  18. The State of Asian Pacific America: Transforming Race Relations. A Public Policy Report, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M., Ed.

    The papers in this collection respond to the importance of race in U.S. society by providing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary empirical analysis of the diverse ways in which Asian Pacific Americans are redefining and transforming contemporary U.S. race relations. Following a preface by Don T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama, the chapters are: (1)…

  19. An Administrative Appraisal of the NLRB. Labor Relations and Public Policy Series No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edward B.

    The author, former chairman of the National Labor Relations Board, outlines what the board does and evaluates how efficiently it performs its two roles--honest ballot association and public law enforcer. The author is most concerned with the latter role. Emphasis is placed on the organization and administration of the board and its supporting…

  20. A Study of Taiwanese Children's Conceptions of and Relation to Nature: Curricular and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, Amy Hsin-I

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated children's conceptions of and relations to nature. Understanding the factors that influence them was the goal. The study used the Contextual Model of Learning as the theoretical framework to structure the research questions and data analysis to understand children's nature learning in the personal, sociocultural, and…

  1. The State of Asian Pacific America: Transforming Race Relations. A Public Policy Report, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M., Ed.

    The papers in this collection respond to the importance of race in U.S. society by providing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary empirical analysis of the diverse ways in which Asian Pacific Americans are redefining and transforming contemporary U.S. race relations. Following a preface by Don T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama, the chapters are: (1)…

  2. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  3. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  4. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Considering Productivity-Related Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Class size may be important in achievement, but it is not the only decision for policymakers. Class size plays a role, but the role is effectively fulfilled only when the other players are successful. Therefore, it is appropriate to address several questions: What goals are to be accomplished; what is the best distribution of personnel related to…

  5. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  6. Community-School Relations. Current Policies of Parental Involvement and Community Participation. Cases in Brazil and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Maria Eulina Pessoa de; Jeria, Jorge

    Current educational policy in Latin America has been aiming to include community participation in a wider spectrum as part of decentralization reform. Much of the rhetoric of these policies seems to originate from neo-liberal policies of State modernization carried out under the auspices of international organizations. Based on a critical review…

  7. 45 CFR 12.10 - Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with the National Environmental Policy... PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.10 Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the National Archeological...

  8. 45 CFR 12.10 - Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance with the National Environmental Policy... PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.10 Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the National Archeological...

  9. 45 CFR 12.10 - Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and other related Acts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with the National Environmental Policy... PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.10 Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the National Archeological...

  10. WHO guideline for brief sexuality-related communication: implications for STI/HIV policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Toskin, Igor; Cooper, Bergen; Troussier, Thierry; Klugman, Barbara; Kulier, Regina; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-11-01

    Brief sexuality-related communication (BSC) aims to identify current and potential sexual concerns and motivate those at risk to change their sexual behaviour or maintain safe sexual behaviour. BSC in primary health care can range from 5 to 60 minutes and takes into account biological, psychological and social dimensions of sexual health and wellbeing. It focuses on opportunistic rather than systematic or continuous communication and can be used in conjunction with already established prevention programs. The informational and motivational techniques of BSC enable health care providers to communicate more effectively with their patients, encouraging them to take steps to avoid HIV and sexually transmitted infections. The WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, following a review and assessment of existing evidence with regards to BSC, has recently published the guideline on Brief Sexuality-Related Communication: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rethinking policies for the retention of allied health professionals in rural areas: a social relations approach.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Kevin; Schoo, Adrian; Stagnitti, Karen; Cuss, Kate

    2008-09-01

    Retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem. Generally the literature has concentrated on three elements: practitioner needs, community needs and organisational needs. There has been little attempt to focus other types of social relations in which health practitioner retention and recruitment takes place. The aim of this paper is to question the present dominant hierarchical approach taken in relation to the retention of allied health professionals in rural localities. The data derives from a survey in Southwest Victoria, Australia. The sample was purposive rather than representative as it was intended to be exploratory in nature rather than definitive. The data indicates that there is a greater tendency for allied health professionals in private practice to be retained in rural areas than those in the public sector. The paper concludes by raising some questions about the pertinence of present models for regional health initiatives since they are locked into a bureaucratic model where relationships are hierarchical and asymmetrically controlled.

  12. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-20

    exports of pet food with wheat gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning of a...of concern for Congress and a sensitive issue in U.S.-China relations. Controversy continues over Tibet’s current political status as part of China...military exchanges. Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino

  13. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    food with wheat gluten to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning of a series of... sensitive issue in U.S.-China relations. Controversy continues over Tibet’s current political status as part of China, the role of the Dalai Lama and...understanding to plan for joint military exercises (July 2008). Taiwan The island democracy of Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue

  14. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-14

    province,” remains the most sensitive issue the two countries face and the one many observers fear could lead to Sino-U.S. conflict. But U.S. relations...arrested in 2005, went on trial in federal court in Los Angeles for allegedly providing China with sensitive high-tech Navy weapons technology that he...had helped develop while working for his employer, Power Paragon. According to the allegations, the technology included sensitive details about the

  15. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-09

    with China ($256 billion in 2007). Democratic Taiwan, over which China claims sovereignty, remains the most sensitive bilateral issue and the one many...pet food with wheat gluten from China to reports of pet deaths from kidney failure in the United States. The pet food contamination was the beginning...Taiwan remains the most sensitive and complex issue that U.S. policymakers face in bilateral Sino-U.S. relations.24 It is the issue that many

  16. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-18

    Goals in the Bilateral Relationship Currently, factors generating U.S. interest in the relationship include growing trade and investment flows, the...support as critical—to enable the country’s economy to continue to expand so it can achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized country by 2020...bilateral relations is limited by several factors , including Hanoi’s wariness of upsetting Beijing, U.S. scrutiny of Vietnam’s human rights record, and

  17. The China Factor in America’s Foreign Relations: Perceptions and Policy Choices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    cooperation, also had a powerful impact on worldwide perceptions of international relations: the "Nixon shock" effect on the Japanese ; the consternation of...terraced fields, and an exotic cuisine . There are, as well, dark images of China derived from the country’s millennial poverty, periods of political...pong diplomacy," the artistic wonders of China’s imperial past, and opportunities for trade and tourism with a talented and hard-working people

  18. Attutude-action consistency and social policy related to nuclear technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.; Greene, M.

    1980-06-01

    This study reports the results of a further analysis of questionnaire data--parts of which have been previously reported by Lindell, Earle, Hebert and Perry (1978)--that are related to the issue of consistency of attitudes and behavior toward nuclear power and nuclear waste management. Three factors are considered that might be expected to have a significant bearing on attitude-action consistency: social support, attitude object importance and past activism. Analysis of the data indicated that pronuclear respondents were more likely to show consistency of attitudes and actions (66%) than were antinuclear respondents (51%) although the difference in proportions is not statistically significant. Further analyses showed a strong positive relation between attitude-action consistency and perceived social support, measured by the degree to which the respondent believed that close friends and work associated agreed with his attitude. This relationship held up even when controls for attitude object importance and past activism were introduced. Attitude object importance--the salience of the issue of energy shortage--had a statistically significant effect only when perceived social support was low. Past activism had no significant relation to attitude-action consistency. These data suggest that the level of active support for or opposition to nuclear technology will be affected by the distribution of favorable and unfavorable attitudes among residents of an area. Situations in which pro- and antinuclear attitudes are concentrated among members of interacting groups, rather than distributed randomly, are more likely to produce high levels of polarization.

  19. Lighting and marking policies are associated with reduced farm equipment-related crash rates: a policy analysis of nine Midwestern US states.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Marizen; Bedford, Ronald; Wu, Hongqian; Harland, Karisa; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of roadway policies for lighting and marking of farm equipment in reducing crashes in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. In this ecological study, state policies on lighting and marking of farm equipment were scored for compliance with standards of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). Using generalized estimating equations negative binomial models, we estimated the relationships between lighting and marking scores, and farm equipment crash rates, per 100 000 farm operations. A total of 7083 crashes involving farm equipment was reported from 2005 to 2010 in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. As the state lighting and marking score increased by 5 units, crash rates reduced by 17% (rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.88). Lighting-only (rate ratio=0.48; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.51) and marking-only policies (rate ratio=0.89; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) were each associated with reduced crash rates. Aligning lighting and marking policies with ASABE standards may effectively reduce crash rates involving farm equipment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Lighting and marking policies are associated with reduced farm equipment-related crash rates: a policy analysis of nine Midwestern US states

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Marizen; Bedford, Ronald; Wu, Hongqian; Harland, Karisa; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of roadway policies for lighting and marking of farm equipment in reducing crashes in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Methods In this ecological study, state policies on lighting and marking of farm equipment were scored for compliance with standards of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). Using generalized estimating equations negative binomial models, we estimated the relationships between lighting and marking scores, and farm equipment crash rates, per 100 000 farm operations. Results A total of 7083 crashes involving farm equipment was reported from 2005 to 2010 in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. As the state lighting and marking score increased by 5 units, crash rates reduced by 17% (rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.88). Lighting-only (rate ratio=0.48; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.51) and marking-only policies (rate ratio=0.89; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) were each associated with reduced crash rates. Conclusions Aligning lighting and marking policies with ASABE standards may effectively reduce crash rates involving farm equipment. PMID:27405602

  1. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    PubMed

    Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  2. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Newton, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0–15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372

  3. International variation in policies and practices related to informed consent in acute cardiovascular research: Results from a 44 country survey.

    PubMed

    van Belle, Gerald; Mentzelopoulos, Spyros D; Aufderheide, Tom; May, Susanne; Nichol, Graham

    2015-06-01

    Research in an emergency setting such as that with an acute cardiovascular event is challenging because the window of opportunity to treat may be short and may preclude time to obtain informed consent from the patient or their representative. Some perceive that requiring informed consent in emergency situations has limited improvements in care. Vulnerable populations including minorities or residents of low-income countries are at greatest risk of need for resuscitation. Lack of enrollment of such patients would increase uncertainties in treatment benefit or harm in those at greater risk of need for resuscitation. We sought to assess international variation in policies and procedures related to exception from informed consent (EFIC) or deferred consent for emergency research. A brief survey instrument was developed and modified by consensus among the investigators. Included were multiple choice and open-ended responses. The survey included an illustrative example of a hypothetical randomized study. Elicited information included the possibility of conducting such a study in the respondent's country, as well as approvals required to conduct the study. The population of interest was emergency physicians or other practitioners of acute cardiovascular event research. Usable responses were obtained from 44 countries (76% of surveyed). Community opposition to EFIC was noted in 6 (14%) countries. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers in 8 (20%) countries were judged unable or unwilling to participate. A majority of countries (36, 82%) required approval by a Research Ethics Committee or similar. Government approval was required in 25 (57%) countries. There is international variation in practices and policies related to consent for emergency research. There is an ongoing need to converge regulations based on the usefulness of multinational emergency research to benefit both affluent and disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. The inclusion of biodiversity in environmental impact assessment: Policy-related progress limited by gaps and semantic confusion.

    PubMed

    Bigard, Charlotte; Pioch, Sylvain; Thompson, John D

    2017-09-15

    Natural habitat loss and fragmentation, as a result of development projects, are major causes of biodiversity erosion. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the most commonly used site-specific planning tool that takes into account the effects of development projects on biodiversity by integrating potential impacts into the mitigation hierarchy of avoidance, reduction, and offset measures. However, the extent to which EIA fully address the identification of impacts and conservation stakes associated with biodiversity loss has been criticized in recent work. In this paper we examine the extent to which biodiversity criteria have been integrated into 42 EIA from 2006 to 2016 for small development projects in the Montpellier Metropolitan territory in southern France. This study system allowed us to question how EIA integrates biodiversity impacts on a scale relevant to land-use planning. We examine how biodiversity inclusion has changed over time in relation to new policy for EIA and how the mitigation hierarchy is implemented in practice and in comparison with national guidelines. We demonstrate that the inclusion of biodiversity features into EIA has increased significantly in relation to policy change. Several weaknesses nevertheless persist, including the continued absence of substitution solution assessment, a correct analysis of cumulative impacts, the evaluation of impacts on common species, the inclusion of an ecological network scale, and the lack of monitoring and evaluation measures. We also show that measures for mitigation hierarchy are primarily associated with the reduction of impacts rather than their avoidance, and avoidance and offset measures are often misleadingly proposed in EIA. There is in fact marked semantic confusion between avoidance, reduction and offset measures that may impair stakeholders' understanding. All in all, reconsideration of stakeholders routine practices associated with a more strategic approach towards impact anticipation

  5. Diffusion of Complete Streets policies Across US communities.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Eyler, Amy; Barbero, Colleen; Hipp, J Aaron; Walsh, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Complete Streets policies guide planning in communities by making the transportation system accommodating to all users including vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists, as well as those using public transportation. While the number of Complete Streets policies has increased over the past decade, no research has explored the factors attributing to the widespread diffusion of these policies. The purpose of this study was to apply concepts of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to data related to Complete Streets policies in order to identify potential patterns and correlates. The main outcome of this study was policy adoption. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory and results from previous literature, we identified several factors that had the potential to affect the rate of Complete Streets policy diffusion: rural/urban status, state obesity rate, state funding for transportation, state obesity prevention funding, percentage of people who walk or bike to work in the state, presence of a state Complete Streets policy, and the number of bordering communities with Complete Streets policy. We used event history analysis as the main analysis method. Data from 49 community-level policies were analyzed, with a "community" defined as a city, a county, or a regional/Metropolitan Planning Organization. Three variables were significant predictors of Complete Streets policy adoption: state obesity rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.465; confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.96) percentage of people who bike or walk to work in the state (OR = 1.726; CI = 1.069-2.79), and presence of a border community with a Complete Streets policy (OR = 3.859; CI = 1.084-13.742). Communities with Complete Streets policies varied in geographic and sociodemographic factors. Information about communities that are more likely to adopt a policy can be a tool for advocates and policy makers interested in this topic. Because adoption does not imply implementation, further research is needed to study

  6. 21 CFR 101.65 - Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... honey,” except that claims about the presence of ingredients other than vitamins or minerals or that are represented as a source of vitamins and minerals are not allowed on labels or in labeling of dietary supplements of vitamins and minerals that are not in conventional food form. (4) A statement of identity for...

  7. 21 CFR 101.65 - Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... honey,” except that claims about the presence of ingredients other than vitamins or minerals or that are represented as a source of vitamins and minerals are not allowed on labels or in labeling of dietary supplements of vitamins and minerals that are not in conventional food form. (4) A statement of identity for...

  8. 21 CFR 101.65 - Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... honey,” except that claims about the presence of ingredients other than vitamins or minerals or that are represented as a source of vitamins and minerals are not allowed on labels or in labeling of dietary supplements of vitamins and minerals that are not in conventional food form. (4) A statement of identity for...

  9. 21 CFR 101.65 - Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... honey,” except that claims about the presence of ingredients other than vitamins or minerals or that are represented as a source of vitamins and minerals are not allowed on labels or in labeling of dietary supplements of vitamins and minerals that are not in conventional food form. (4) A statement of identity for...

  10. 21 CFR 101.65 - Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... honey,” except that claims about the presence of ingredients other than vitamins or minerals or that are represented as a source of vitamins and minerals are not allowed on labels or in labeling of dietary supplements of vitamins and minerals that are not in conventional food form. (4) A statement of identity for...

  11. Achieving a Dream: Meeting Policy Goals Related to Improving Drug Access

    PubMed Central

    Zakus, David; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Zakriova, Venera; Yarmoshuk, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    International experts recognize that significant inequities exist in the accessibility of life-saving medicines among poor and vulnerable populations, especially in developing countries. This article highlights that drug access even for relatively cheap medicines is out of reach for the vast numbers of global poor. This badly affects people living with HIV/AIDS who face serious obstacles in accessing ARVs. The same concerns are attributed to neglected diseases. Despite international meetings, promises from the pharmaceutical industry and a lot of media attention little has changed in the past 20 years. The accessibility gap to life-saving drugs could be reduced by the UNITAID initiative to pool patents for the many different ARVs, but the reality is that UNITAID is still a promise. To surmount this global problem of inequity requires a rethinking of traditional models of drug access and health objectives that should not be compromised by commercial interests. PMID:20148088

  12. The Impact of Various Definitions of "Policy" on the Nature and Outcomes of Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Egon G.

    The impact of various definitions of the term "policy" on the nature and outcomes of policy analysis is illustrated by noting a variety of definitions which are implied in the literature. These definitions are applied to exemplar policy arenas to note their differential effect. The policy arenas discussed include the community…

  13. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M; Durant, John L; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2015-06-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200-400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning.

  14. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  15. Intersectorial health-related policies: the use of a legal and theoretical framework to propose a typology to a case study in a Brazilian municipality.

    PubMed

    Tess, Beatriz Helena; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2014-11-01

    This article analyzes intersectorial health-related policies (IHRP) based on a case study performed in 2008-2009 that mapped the social policies of the city of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research strategy comprised quantitative and qualitative methodologies and converging information sources. Legal and theoretical conceptual frameworks were applied to the Piracicaba study results and served as the basis for proposing a typology of IHRP. Three types of IHRP were identified: health policies where the health sector is coordinator but needs non-health sectors to succeed; policies with a sector other than health as coordinator, but which needs health sector collaboration to succeed; and thirdly, genuine intersectorial policies, not led by any one sector but by a specifically-appointed intersectorial coordinator. The authors contend that political commitment of local authorities alone may not be enough to promote efficient intersectorial social policies. Comprehension of different types of IHRP and their interface mechanisms may contribute to greater efficiency and coverage of social policies that affect health equity and its social determinants positively. In the final analysis,, this will lead to more equitable health outcomes.

  16. Cigarette Warning Label Policy Alternatives and Smoking-Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Gray, Kevin M.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. Purpose To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. Methods From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Results Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Conclusions Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. PMID:23159254

  17. Cigarette warning label policy alternatives and smoking-related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Carpenter, Matthew J; Andrews, Jeannette O; Gray, Kevin M; Alberg, Anthony J; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-12-01

    Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-03-28

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  19. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? A study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Lu, Wanyi; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-15

    The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities produce the greatest influence

  20. Are social security policies for Chinese landless farmers really effective on health in the process of Chinese rapid urbanization? a study on the effect of social security policies for Chinese landless farmers on their health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL. Methods This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Results First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities

  1. Estimating the implied cost of carbon in future scenarios using a CGE model: The Case of Colorado

    DOE PAGES

    Hannum, Christopher; Cutler, Harvey; Iverson, Terrence; ...

    2017-03-01

    Using Colorado as a case study, we develop a state-level computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that reflects the roles of coal, natural gas, wind, solar, and hydroelectricity in supplying electricity. We focus on the economic impact of implementing Colorado's existing Renewable Portfolio Standard, updated in 2013. This requires that 25% of state generation come from qualifying renewable sources by 2020. We evaluate the policy under a variety of assumptions regarding wind integration costs and assumptions on the persistence of federal subsidies for wind. Specifically, we estimate the implied price of carbon as the carbon price at which a state-level policymore » would pass a state-level cost-benefit analysis, taking account of estimated greenhouse gas emission reductions and ancillary benefits from corresponding reductions in criteria pollutants. Our findings suggest that without the Production Tax Credit (federal aid), the state policy of mandating renewable power generation (RPS) is costly to state actors, with an implied cost of carbon of about $17 per ton of CO2 with a 3% discount rate. Federal aid makes the decision between natural gas and wind nearly cost neutral for Colorado.« less

  2. A study of Taiwanese children's conceptions of and relation to nature: Curricular and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Amy Hsin-I.

    The present study investigated children's conceptions of and relations to nature. Understanding the factors that influence them was the goal. The study used the Contextual Model of Learning as the theoretical framework to structure the research questions and data analysis to understand children's nature learning in the personal, sociocultural, and physical contexts that change over time. Twelve children aged 5 and 6 were prompted to draw a picture of themselves in nature. They were interviewed about the sources of those ideas and living experiences, and if they thought photographs of scenery were nature. These twelve children's parents also participated in a survey to study the family influence. I used interpretational analysis to seek for common patterns and themes. Scoring rubrics, coaxial comparison, constant comparison, and the theoretical framework were used to triangulate and investigate influential factors of children's ideas of nature. The study showed that children at this age already had developed a basic conception of what is nature, but also need to learn about the role of human beings in nature and the interrelations of nature in order to develop environmental education ideas. Most children also had a positive feeling toward nature. Children's definitions of nature were developed mainly from what parents and grandparents had told them and their firsthand exposure to nature. Only during the weekend did the children's families have time to visit nature. It was found that most parents in this study stated that they were inspired by nature and were very willing to take their children to nature settings. The most visited natural places that were reported visited were parks in the city and the mountains surrounding the city. However, very often parents missed teachable opportunities to make the experiences with nature meaningful to children. Implications of the study apply to curriculum designers, educators, urban planners, and parents. It is recommended

  3. Using simulation modelling to examine the impact of venue lockout and last-drink policies on drinking-related harms and costs to licensees.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nick; Livingston, Michael; Reporter, Iyanoosh; Dietze, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Many variations of venue lockout and last-drink policies have been introduced in attempts to reduce drinking-related harms. We estimate the public health gains and licensee costs of these policies using a computer simulated population of young adults engaging in heavy drinking. Using an agent-based model we implemented 1 am/2 am/3 am venue lockouts in conjunction with last drinks zero/one/two hours later, or at current closing times. Outcomes included: the number of incidents of verbal aggression in public drinking venues, private venues or on the street; and changed revenue to public venues. The most effective policy in reducing verbal aggression among agents was 1 am lockouts with current closing times. All policies produced substantial reductions in street-based incidents of verbal aggression among agents (33-81%) due to the smoothing of transport demand. Direct revenue losses were 1-9% for simulated licensees, with later lockout times and longer periods between lockout and last drinks producing smaller revenue losses. Simulation models are useful for exploring consequences of policy change. Our simulation suggests that additional hours between lockout and last drinks could reduce aggression by easing transport demand, while minimising revenue loss to venue owners. Implications for public health: Direct policies to reduce late-night transport-related disputes should be considered. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Provincial alcohol index and its relationship to alcohol-related harm in Thailand: implications for subnational alcohol policy development.

    PubMed

    Chaiyasong, Surasak; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2016-07-11

    alcohol-related problems. The PAI scores can be used to benchmark the alcohol situation across jurisdiction areas. Future studies are suggested to develop a scale to measure subnational alcohol policy performances.

  5. [Health and gender relations: a reflection on the challenges for the implementation of public policies for health care for indigenous women].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luciane Ouriques

    2013-04-01

    This article presents some contrasts that exist between the discourses of public policies concerning women's health care, especially with respect to indigenous women, and the ethnological discourse which emphasizes the specificity of gender relations within indigenous societies. We worked on the assumption that the development of these public policies as well as the organization of health care services offered, which in fact are necessary, have a transforming effect on prevailing gender relations within Amerindian Societies. On the one hand, gender relations between indigenous people are associated with the domains of kinship and corporeality. On the other hand, the process of creating public policies, by means of biomedical intervention and the medicalization of the female body, constitutes a powerful tool for body modeling and the construction of subjectivities contributing to making women worthy of citizenship. The female gender is under discussion and its content is being negotiated.

  6. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  7. Quantifying differences in land use emission estimates implied by definition discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, B. D.; Joos, F.

    2015-11-01

    The quantification of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land use and land use change (eLUC) is essential to understand the drivers of the atmospheric CO2 increase and to inform climate change mitigation policy. Reported values in synthesis reports are commonly derived from different approaches (observation-driven bookkeeping and process-modelling) but recent work has emphasized that inconsistencies between methods may imply substantial differences in eLUC estimates. However, a consistent quantification is lacking and no concise modelling protocol for the separation of primary and secondary components of eLUC has been established. Here, we review differences of eLUC quantification methods and apply an Earth System Model (ESM) of Intermediate Complexity to quantify them. We find that the magnitude of effects due to merely conceptual differences between ESM and offline vegetation model-based quantifications is ~ 20 % for today. Under a future business-as-usual scenario, differences tend to increase further due to slowing land conversion rates and an increasing impact of altered environmental conditions on land-atmosphere fluxes. We establish how coupled Earth System Models may be applied to separate secondary component fluxes of eLUC arising from the replacement of potential C sinks/sources and the land use feedback and show that secondary fluxes derived from offline vegetation models are conceptually and quantitatively not identical to either, nor their sum. Therefore, we argue that synthesis studies should resort to the "least common denominator" of different methods, following the bookkeeping approach where only primary land use emissions are quantified under the assumption of constant environmental boundary conditions.

  8. Large differences in land use emission quantifications implied by definition discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, B. D.; Joos, F.

    2015-03-01

    The quantification of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land use and land use change (eLUC) is essential to understand the drivers of the atmospheric CO2 increase and to inform climate change mitigation policy. Reported values in synthesis reports are commonly derived from different approaches (observation-driven bookkeeping and process-modelling) but recent work has emphasized that inconsistencies between methods may imply substantial differences in eLUC estimates. However, a consistent quantification is lacking and no concise modelling protocol for the separation of primary and secondary components of eLUC has been established. Here, we review the conceptual differences of eLUC quantification methods and apply an Earth System Model to demonstrate that what is claimed to represent total eLUC differs by up to ~20% when quantified from ESM vs. offline vegetation models. Under a future business-as-usual scenario, differences tend to increase further due to slowing land conversion rates and an increasing impact of altered environmental conditions on land-atmosphere fluxes. We establish how coupled Earth System Models may be applied to separate component fluxes of eLUC arising from the replacement of potential C sinks/sources and the land use feedback and show that secondary fluxes derived from offline vegetation models are conceptually and quantitatively not identical to either, nor their sum. Therefore, we argue that synthesis studies and global carbon budget accountings should resort to the "least common denominator" of different methods, following the bookkeeping approach where only primary land use emissions are quantified under the assumption of constant environmental boundary conditions.

  9. Correlates of domestic waste management and related health outcomes in Sunyani, Ghana: a protocol towards enhancing policy.

    PubMed

    Addo, Henry O; Dun-Dery, Elvis J; Afoakwa, Eugenia; Elizabeth, Addai; Ellen, Amposah; Rebecca, Mwinfaug

    2017-07-03

    Domestic waste generation has contributed significantly to hampering national waste management efforts. It poses serious threat to national development and requires proper treatment and management within and outside households. The problem of improper waste management has always been a challenge in Ghana, compelling several national surveys to report on the practice of waste management. However, little is known about how much waste is generated and managed within households and there is a serious dearth of information for national policy and planning. This paper seeks to document the handling and practice of waste management, including collection, storage, transportation and disposal along with the types and amount of waste generated by Households and their related health outcome. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi-stage sampling technique to sample 700 households. The study was planned and implemented from January to May 2015. It involved the use of structured questionnaires in the data collection over the period. Factors such as demographic characteristics, amount of waste generated, types of waste bins used within households, waste recycling, cost of disposing waste, and distance to dumpsite were all assessed. The paper shows that each surveyed household generated 0.002 t of waste per day, of which 29% are both organic and inorganic. Though more than half of the respondents (53.6%) had positive attitude towards waste management, only 29.1% practiced waste management. The study reveals that there is no proper management of domestic waste except in few households that segregate waste. The study identified several elements as determinants of waste management practice. Female respondents were less likely to practice waste management (AOR 0.45; 95% Cl 0.29, 0.79), household size also determined respondents practice (AOR 0.26; Cl 0.09, 0.77). Practice of recycling (AOR 0.03; Cl 0.02, 0.08), distance to dumpsite (AOR 0.45; Cl 0.20, 0

  10. Consideration on the health risk reduction related to attainment of the new particulate matter standards in Poland: A top-down policy risk assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Joanna; Pastuszka, Józef S; Gulis, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Policies can influence health of a population in various ways. Numerous epidemiological studies supported by toxicological investigations demonstrate a positive association between ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter and increased adverse cardio-respiratory events, including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper was to present the concept of the top-down health policy risk assessment approach model developed to estimate the expected health risk reduction associated with policy aiming at attaining the new particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10) standards in Poland. The top-down approach guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy to health outcomes. In this case study we tried to estimate the predicted health effects of the policy change over the past 20 years. Since Polish annual standard for PM10 changed from 50 μg/m³ in 1990 to 40 μg/m³ in 2010, we calculated the relative risk associated with decreasing PM10 in diameter to 10 μg/m3 in the annual level of PM10 for 6 adverse health effects. The relative risk slightly decreased for almost all adverse health effects, which means that the relative decrease in the incidence of health effects from the baseline incidence should range from about 0.5-0.6% for heart disease admissions to > 1% for respiratory admissions. The obtained results indicate that implementation of the new ambient air standards could influence improvement of the health status of Polish population. A top-down policy health risk assessment model can be one of the main tools in this process, providing harmonized guidance how to seek evidence-based information, which could serve policy-makers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Technical Change and Manpower Planning: Co-Ordination at Enterprise Level. Industrial Relations Aspects of Manpower Policy 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkin, Solomon, Ed.

    The 29 case studies in this report seek to define the policies and practices followed by firms in programing technological change and manpower adjustments. The purpose of the report is to make these policies and practices more broadly known and to extend the range of effective adjustments provided by individual managements. The inquiries were…

  12. What Are Districts' Written Policies Regarding Student Substance-Related Incidents? NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2012-4022

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes key features of the high school alcohol and drug policies in the 100 largest school districts in the United States. The written policies of at least 80% of these districts include parent conferences, referral to law enforcement, principal-determined suspensions, or referral for expulsion hearings (or some combination of these)…

  13. 75 FR 65366 - Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability... availability. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of the final Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and... eligibility of emergency work to protect eligible facilities threatened by landslides or slope failures;...

  14. Adaptation to real motion reveals direction-selective interactions between real and implied motion processing.

    PubMed

    Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Kenemans, J Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Lommers, Marjolein W; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2007-08-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following adaptation to static or moving random dot patterns. The implied motion response was defined as the difference between evoked potentials to pictures with and without implied motion. Interaction between real and implied motion was found as a modulation of this difference response by the preceding motion adaptation. The amplitude of the implied motion response was significantly reduced after adaptation to motion in the same direction as the implied motion, compared to motion in the opposite direction. At 280 msec after stimulus onset, the average difference in amplitude reduction between opposite and same adapted direction was 0.5 muV on an average implied motion amplitude of 2.0 muV. These results indicate that the response to implied motion arises from direction-selective motion-sensitive neurons. This is consistent with interactions between real and implied motion processing at a neuronal level.

  15. An investigation of implied volatility during financial crisis: Evidence from Australian index options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mimi Hafizah; Harun, Hanani Farhah

    2014-10-01

    Volatility implied by an option pricing model is seen as the market participants' assessment of volatility. Past studies documented that implied volatility based on an option pricing model is found to outperform the historical volatility in forecasting future realised volatility. Thus, this study examines the implied volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian S&P/ASX 200 index options from the year 2001 to 2010, which covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007 until the end of 2008. The results show that the implied volatility rises significantly during the crisis period, which is three time the rate before crisis.

  16. The effect of tobacco control policy on smoking cessation in relation to gender, age and education in Lithuania, 1994-2010.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Sakyte, Edita; Petkeviciene, Janina; Prattala, Ritva; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-02-25

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between tobacco control policies and trends in smoking cessation according to gender, age and educational level in Lithuania in 1994-2010. The data were obtained from nine cross-sectional postal surveys conducted biennially within the framework of Finbalt Health Monitor project during 1994-2010. Each survey was based on a nationally representative random sample drawn from the National population register. The sample consisted of 3000 citizens aged 20-64 in 1994-2008 surveys and 4000 in the 2010 survey. In total, 17161 individuals participated in all surveys. The development of tobacco control policy in Lithuania was assessed using the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The association of the TCS scores with short-term and long-term quitting according to gender, age and education was examined using logistic regression analysis with control for secular trends. Over the last two decades, a large improvement in the development of tobacco control policy has been achieved in Lithuania. At the same time, this progress was associated with the increase in smoking cessation. A significant increase in both short-term and long-term quit ratios was found among people aged 20-44. An increase by 10 points on the TCS was associated with 17% increase in the odds of short-term quitting and with 15% increase in the odds of long-term quitting. The association between tobacco control policies and long-term quitting was stronger among younger than older people. No differential effect of tobacco control policies on smoking cessation was found in relation to gender and educational level. The improvement in Lithuanian tobacco control policies was associated with an increase in smoking cessation in long-term perspective. These policies have not only benefitted highly educated groups, but lower educated groups as well. Nonetheless, further development of comprehensive tobacco control policies is needed in order to decrease social inequalities in smoking

  17. Hollows on Mercury: Bright-haloed depressions imply recent endogenic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, D. T.; Fontanella, N. R.; Peel, S. E.; Zhong, E. D.; Pashai, P.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Izenberg, N. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Xiao, Z.; Braden, S.; Baker, D. M.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Head, J. W.; McCoy, T. J.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft began orbital observations of Mercury in March 2011. The Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring global monochrome and multispectral image maps. Complementing the global maps are special targeted observations with resolutions as good as 10 m/pixel for monochrome and 80 m/pixel for multispectral images. These high-resolution morphology and color images reveal an unusual landform on Mercury, characterized by small (tens of meters to a few kilometers), fresh-appearing, irregularly shaped, shallow, rimless depressions, often occurring in clusters and in association with high-reflectance materials. The features ("hollows") are commonly found on the central peaks, floors, walls, and rims of impact craters or basins, implying a link to material brought near the surface from depth during crater formation. Hollows occur in both rayed (Kuiperian) craters as well as older degraded craters. They have been identified over a range of latitudes (approximately 54 deg. S to 66 deg. N) and at longitudes for which images with adequate spatial resolution and appropriate illumination and viewing conditions have been collected. The hollows are found in locations known from prior flyby observations to have characteristic high reflectance and a shallow slope of spectral reflectance versus wavelength relative to the global average. The most likely formation mechanisms for the hollows involve recent loss of volatiles through some combination of sublimation, sputtering, outgassing, or pyroclastic volcanism. A hollow found on the south-facing inner wall of a crater at a high northern latitude suggests a correlation with peak diurnal temperatures. The involvement of volatiles in formation mechanisms for the hollows fits with growing evidence that Mercury's interior contains higher abundances of volatile materials than predicted by most scenarios for the formation of the Solar System's innermost planet. Mercury is a small rocky-metal world whose internal geological

  18. Cultural Diplomacy and its Presentation in International Affairs Textbooks, 1945-1971. A Study of the Treatment Accorded International Education and Cultural Relations in 171 Textbooks on International Relations, Foreign Policy, and International Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Michael J.; And Others

    International education and cultural relations (IEC) are surveyed in the content of books from three areas of political science--international relations, foreign policy, and international organizations. One hundred seventy one texts published in the U.S. from 1945-mid 1971 are statistically analyzed in terms of amount of consideration of IEC;…

  19. Roles and strategies of state organizations related to school-based physical education and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Carnoske, Cheryl; Chriqui, Jamie F; Evenson, Kelly R; Gustat, Jeanette; Healy, Isobel B; Heinrich, Katie M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Tompkins, Nancy Oʼhara; Reed, Hannah L; Zieff, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    School-based physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA) policies can improve PA levels of students and promote health. Studies of policy implementation, communication, monitoring, enforcement, and evaluation are lacking. To describe how states implement, communicate, monitor, enforce, and evaluate key school-based PE and PA policies, researchers interviewed 24 key informants from state-level organizations in 9 states, including representatives from state departments of health and education, state boards of education, and advocacy/professional organizations. These states educate 27% of the US student population. Key informants described their organizations' roles in addressing 14 school-based PE and PA state laws and regulations identified by the Bridging the Gap research program and the National Cancer Institute's Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.) system. On average, states had 4 of 14 school-based PE and PA laws and regulations, and more than one-half of respondents reported different policies in practice besides the "on the books" laws. Respondents more often reported roles implementing and communicating policies compared with monitoring, enforcing, and evaluating them. Implementation and communication strategies used included training, technical assistance, and written communication of policy to local education agency administrators and teachers. State-level organizations have varying roles in addressing school-based PE and PA policies. Opportunities exist to focus state-level efforts on compliance with existing laws and regulations and evaluation of their impact.

  20. "It's All Coming Together": An Encounter between Implied Reader and Actual Reader in the Australian Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how taking a particular literary theory--the implied reader--serves to offer a focus for the teacher's initial reading of a text and provides a formative assessment tool. Iser's Implied Reader theory is discussed, after which a picture book, "Where the Forest Meets the Sea" by Jeannie Baker, is analysed from this…

  1. Changing Perspectives: The Implied Reader in Australian Children's Literature, 1841-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxby, Maurice

    1995-01-01

    Looks back at 150 years of writing for children in Australia through the illumination cast by Wolfgang Iser's notion of "the implied reader." Suggests that the implied reader in 1841 was of the educated elite; by 1941 the reader was more likely to be middle-class with popular tastes and interests; and the reader of 1991 reflected a…

  2. "It's All Coming Together": An Encounter between Implied Reader and Actual Reader in the Australian Rainforest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how taking a particular literary theory--the implied reader--serves to offer a focus for the teacher's initial reading of a text and provides a formative assessment tool. Iser's Implied Reader theory is discussed, after which a picture book, "Where the Forest Meets the Sea" by Jeannie Baker, is analysed from this…

  3. Scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    PubMed

    Delamotte, Bertrand; Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Using the Wilson renormalization group, we show that if no integrated vector operator of scaling dimension -1 exists, then scale invariance implies conformal invariance. By using the Lebowitz inequalities, we prove that this necessary condition is fulfilled in all dimensions for the Ising universality class. This shows, in particular, that scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.

  4. An Analysis of English Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Relation to SEN and Disability and Its Implications in a Changing SEN Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekins, Alison; Savolainen, Hannu; Engelbrecht, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Policy and practice in relation to meeting the diverse needs of all children, including those with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities, is in a state of change in the UK. As a result, there is growing interest in and understanding of the need to focus on factors which impact on teachers' levels of self-efficacy in meeting the needs of…

  5. 41 CFR 301-75.3 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.3 Section 301-75.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  6. 41 CFR 301-75.3 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.3 Section 301-75.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  7. 41 CFR 301-75.3 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.3 Section 301-75.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  8. 41 CFR 301-75.3 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.3 Section 301-75.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  9. 41 CFR 301-75.3 - What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What governing policies and procedures must we establish related to pre-employment interview travel? 301-75.3 Section 301-75.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES...

  10. Agreement Between the Association for Higher Education of Shoreline Community College and the Board of Trustees concerning Salary, Working Conditions, and Related College Policies 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoreline Community Coll., Seattle, WA.

    This document presents the agreement between the Association for Higher Education of Shoreline Community College and the Board of Trustees concerning salary, working conditions, and related college policies for the period from July 19, 1973 to June 30, 1974. The articles of the agreement cover initial placement of teaching faculty, salary…

  11. Influence of Host Community on Industrial Relations Practices and Policies: A Survey of Agbara Community and Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidi, Christopher O.; Shadare, Oluseyi A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of host community on industrial relations practices and policies using Agbara community and Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC as a case. The study adopted both the qualitative and quantitative methods. A total of 120 samples were drawn from the population using the simple random sampling technique in which…

  12. An Analysis of English Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Relation to SEN and Disability and Its Implications in a Changing SEN Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekins, Alison; Savolainen, Hannu; Engelbrecht, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Policy and practice in relation to meeting the diverse needs of all children, including those with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities, is in a state of change in the UK. As a result, there is growing interest in and understanding of the need to focus on factors which impact on teachers' levels of self-efficacy in meeting the needs of…

  13. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland 1991-2011 (II): policy, social norms, the alcohol market, clinical changes and a synthesis.

    PubMed

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    To provide a basis for evaluating post-2007 alcohol policy in Scotland, this paper tests the extent to which pre-2007 policy, the alcohol market, culture or clinical changes might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality outcomes in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Rapid literature reviews, descriptive analysis of routine data and narrative synthesis. We assessed the impact of pre-2007 Scottish policy and policy in the comparison areas in relation to the literature on effective alcohol policy. Rapid literature reviews were conducted to assess cultural changes and the potential role of substitution effects between alcohol and illicit drugs. The availability of alcohol was assessed by examining the trends in the number of alcohol outlets over time. The impact of clinical changes was assessed in consultation with key informants. The impact of all the identified factors were then summarised and synthesised narratively. The companion paper showed that part of the rise and fall in alcohol-related mortality in Scotland, and part of the differing trend to E&W, were predicted by a model linking income trends and alcohol-related mortality. Lagged effects from historical deindustrialisation and socio-economic changes exposures also remain plausible from the available data. This paper shows that policy differences or changes prior to 2007 are unlikely to have been important in explaining the trends. There is some evidence that aspects of alcohol culture in Scotland may be different (more concentrated and home drinking) but it seems unlikely that this has been an important driver of the trends or the differences with E&W other than through interaction with changing incomes and lagged socio-economic effects. Substitution effects with illicit drugs and clinical changes are unlikely to have substantially changed alcohol-related harms: however, the increase in alcohol availability across the UK is likely to partly explain the rise in

  14. Increasing public support for food-industry related, obesity prevention policies: The role of a taste-engineering frame and contextualized values.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Selena E; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Adler, Gary J

    2016-05-01

    Support for policies to combat obesity is often undermined by a public sense that obesity is largely a matter of personal responsibility. Industry rhetoric is a major contributor to this perception, as the soda/fast food/big food companies emphasize choice and individual agency in their efforts to neutralize policies that are burdensome. Yet obesity experts recognize that environmental forces play a major role in obesity. We investigate whether exposure to a taste-engineering frame increases support for food and beverage policies that address obesity. A taste-engineering frame details strategies used by the food industry to engineer preferences and increase the over-consumption of processed foods and sugary beverages. We also examine the effects of exposure to two contextualized values that have recently been promoted in expert discourse-consumer knowledge and consumer safety - on public support of policies. Our research shows how causal frames and contextualized values may effectively produce support for new obesity policies. We use an online survey experiment to test the effects of exposure to a taste-engineering frame (TEF), the value of consumer knowledge (CK), or the value of consumer safety (CS), on level of support for a range of policies. A random sample of adults, age 18 + living in the United States was included in the study (N = 2580). Ordered logistic regression was used to measure the effects of treatment exposure. The primary outcome was level-of-support for four (4) food-industry related, obesity prevention policies (aka food and beverage policies): 1) require food-manufacturers to disclose the amount of additives in food products on food packaging; 2) require food-manufacturers to advertise food products in accordance with their actual nutritional value; 3) prohibit all high-fat, high-sugar food advertising on television programming watched primarily by children; and 4) increase healthy food availability in work sites, schools, and hospitals

  15. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  16. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    DOE PAGES

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; ...

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Ourmore » findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10Wm 2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5Wm 2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15Wm 2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.« less

  17. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10 W m−2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1–5 W m−2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5–15 W m−2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds. PMID:26657324

  18. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christopher J; Walden, Von P; Rowe, Penny M; Shupe, Matthew D

    2015-12-10

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10 W m(-2). With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1-5 W m(-2) in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5-15 W m(-2) by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  19. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Christopher J.; Walden, Von P.; Rowe, Penny M.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2015-12-01

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10 W m-2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1-5 W m-2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5-15 W m-2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  20. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Christopher; Walden, Von; Rowe, Penny; Shupe, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Infrared radiative processes are implicated in Arctic warming and sea-ice decline. The infrared cloud radiative effect (CRE) at the surface is modulated by cloud properties, but CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. Here we show how temperature and humidity control CRE through competing influences between the mid- and far-infrared. At constant relative humidity, CRE does not decrease with increasing temperature/absolute humidity as expected, but rather is found to be approximately constant for temperatures characteristic of the Arctic. This stability is disrupted if relative humidity varies. Our findings explain observed seasonal and regional variability in Arctic CRE of order 10 W m-2. With the physical properties of Arctic clouds held constant, we calculate recent increases in CRE of 1-5 W m-2 in autumn and winter, which are projected to reach 5-15 W m-2 by 2050, implying increased sensitivity of the surface to clouds.

  1. Modelling tree dynamics to assess the implementation of EU policies related to afforestation in SW Spain rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herguido, Estela; Pulido, Manuel; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Schnabel, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    In Iberian dehesas and montados, the lack of tree recruitment compromises its long-term sustainability. However, in marginal areas of dehesas shrub encroachment facilitates tree recruitment while altering the distinctive physiognomic and cultural characteristics of the system. These are ongoing processes that should be considered when designing afforestation measures and policies. Based on spatial variables, we modeled the proneness of a piece of land to undergo tree recruitment and the results were related with the afforestation measures carried out under the UE First Afforestation Agricultural Land Program between 1992 and 2008. We analyzed the temporal tree population dynamics in 800 randomly selected plots of 100 m radius (2,510 ha in total) in dehesas and treeless pasturelands of Extremadura (hereafter rangelands). Tree changes were revealed by comparing aerial images taken in 1956 with orthophotographs and infrared ones from 2012. Spatial models that predict the areas prone either to lack tree recruitment or with recruitment were developed and based on three data mining algorithms: MARS (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines), Random Forest (RF) and Stochastic Gradient Boosting (Tree-Net, TN). Recruited-tree locations (1) vs. locations of places with no recruitment (0) (randomly selected from the study areas) were used as the binary dependent variable. A 5% of the data were used as test data set. As candidate explanatory variables we used 51 different topographic, climatic, bioclimatic, land cover-related and edaphic ones. The statistical models developed were extrapolated to the spatial context of the afforested areas in the region and also to the whole Extremenian rangelands, and the percentage of area modelled as prone to tree recruitment was calculated for each case. A total of 46,674.63 ha were afforested with holm oak (Quercus ilex) or cork oak (Quercus suber) in the studied rangelands under the UE First Afforestation Agricultural Land Program. In

  2. What is it going to take to move youth-related HIV programme policies into practice in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Daniella; Taing, Lina; Cluver, Lucie; Collins, Chris; Iorpenda, Kate; Andrade, Catarina; Hatane, Luann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: HIV has been reported to be the leading cause of mortality amongst adolescents in Africa. This has brought attention to the changes in service provision and health management that many adolescents living with HIV experience when transferring from specialized paediatric- or adolescent-focused services to adult care. When transition is enacted poorly, adherence may be affected and the continuum of care disrupted. As the population of HIV-infected adolescents grows, effective and supported transition increases in significance as an operational imperative. Discussion: Considerable gaps remain in moving policy to practice at global, national, and local levels. Policies that give clear definition to transition and provide standard operating procedures or tools to support this process are lacking. National guidelines tend to neglect transition. Beyond transition itself, there has been slow progress on the inclusion of adolescents in national policies and strategies. Guidance often overlooks the specific needs and rights of adolescents, in particular for those living with HIV. In some cases, prohibitive laws can impede adolescent access by applying age of consent restriction to HIV testing, counselling and treatment, as well as SRH services. Where adolescent-focused policies do exist, they have been slow to emerge as tangible operating procedures at health facility level. A key barrier is the nature of existing transition guidance, which tends to recommend an individualized, client-centred approach, driven by clinicians. In low- and middle-income settings, flexible responses are resource intensive and time consuming, and therefore challenging to implement amidst staff shortages and administrative challenges. First, national governments must adopt transition-specific policies to ensure that adolescents seamlessly receive appropriate and supportive care. Second, transition policies must form part of a broader adolescent-centred policy landscape and

  3. Dress codes and appearance policies: challenges under federal legislation, part 3: Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the National Labor Relations Act.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, sex, national origin, religion, disability, age, or any other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the third part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issues of race and national origin under the Civil Rights Act, disability under the Americans With Disabilities Act, and employees' rights to engage in concerted activities under the National Labor Relations Act. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.

  4. The continued influence of implied and explicitly stated misinformation in news reports.

    PubMed

    Rich, Patrick R; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2016-01-01

    The piecemeal reporting of unfolding news events can lead to the reporting of mistaken information (or misinformation) about the cause of the newsworthy event, which later needs to be corrected. Studies of the continued influence effect have shown, however, that corrections are not entirely effective in reversing the effects of initial misinformation. Instead, participants continue to rely on the discredited misinformation when asked to draw inferences and make judgments about the news story. Most prior studies have employed misinformation that explicitly states the likely cause of an outcome. However, news stories do not always provide misinformation explicitly, but instead merely imply that something or someone might be the cause of an adverse outcome. Two experiments employing both direct and indirect measures of misinformation reliance were conducted to assess whether implied misinformation is more resistant to correction than explicitly stated misinformation. The results supported this prediction. Experiment 1 showed that corrections reduced misinformation reliance in both the explicit and implied conditions, but the correction was much less effective following implied misinformation. Experiment 2 showed that implied misinformation was more resistant to correction than explicit misinformation, even when the correction was paired with an alternative explanation. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that greater resistance to correction in the implied misinformation condition did not reflect greater disbelief in the correction. Potential reasons why implied misinformation is more difficult to correct than explicitly provided misinformation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Is gender policy related to the gender gap in external cause and circulatory disease mortality? A mixed effects model of 22 OECD countries 1973–2008

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender differences in mortality vary widely between countries and over time, but few studies have examined predictors of these variations, apart from smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between gender policy and the gender gap in cause-specific mortality, adjusted for economic factors and health behaviours. Methods 22 OECD countries were followed 1973–2008 and the outcomes were gender gaps in external cause and circulatory disease mortality. A previously found country cluster solution was used, which includes indicators on taxes, parental leave, pensions, social insurances and social services in kind. Male breadwinner countries were made reference group and compared to earner-carer, compensatory breadwinner, and universal citizen countries. Specific policies were also analysed. Mixed effect models were used, where years were the level 1-units, and countries were the level 2-units. Results Both the earner-carer cluster (ns after adjustment for GDP) and policies characteristic of that cluster are associated with smaller gender differences in external causes, particularly due to an association with increased female mortality. Cluster differences in the gender gap in circulatory disease mortality are the result of a larger relative decrease of male mortality in the compensatory breadwinner cluster and the earner-carer cluster. Policies characteristic of those clusters were however generally related to increased mortality. Conclusion Results for external cause mortality are in concordance with the hypothesis that women become more exposed to risks of accident and violence when they are economically more active. For circulatory disease mortality, results differ depending on approach – cluster or indicator. Whether cluster differences not explained by specific policies reflect other welfare policies or unrelated societal trends is an open question. Recommendations for further studies are made. PMID:23145477

  6. Voices of oncology nursing society members matter in advocacy and decisions related to U.S. Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Saria, Marlon Garzo; Stone, Alec; Walton, AnnMarie Lee; Brown, Gean; Norton, Vicki; Barton-Burke, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS), a member of the Nursing Organizations Alliance, invests in advocating for health and public policy decisions by sending members to the Nurse in Washington Internship (NIWI) program annually. NIWI provides a forum to educate nurses on the legislative process, giving attendees a better understanding of political, legislative, and regulatory issues facing nurses. The 2014 ONS delegation participated in training and lobbying focused on federal funding issues, nursing education, workforce oversight, and funding for nursing research. The three-day program ended with a Capitol Hill visit where nurses met with their respective legislators or their staff, using skills learned at NIWI briefings to influence policy for nurses and the patients they serve. Critical health and public policy decisions affecting nurses, their practice, and their patients require participation in and understanding of the legislative process. This article provides a glimpse into the three-day experience of the delegates attending the 2014 NIWI.

  7. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  8. The impact of spatial and temporal availability of alcohol on its consumption and related harms: A critical review in the context of UK licensing policies

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, John; Guo, Yelan; Maheswaran, Ravi; Nicholls, James; Meier, Petra S; Brennan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Issues Reviews recommend controlling alcohol availability to limit alcohol-related harm. However, the translation of this evidence into policy processes has proved challenging in some jurisdictions. Approach This paper presents a critical review of empirical spatial and temporal availability research to identify its features and limitations for informing alcohol availability policies. The UK is used as an example jurisdiction. It reviews 138 studies from a 2008 systematic review of empirical availability research and our update of this to January 2014. Data describing study characteristics (settings, measures, design) were extracted and descriptively analysed. Key Findings Important limitations in current evidence were identified: (i) outlet-level temporal availability was only measured in three studies, and there has been little innovation in measurement of spatial availability; (ii) empirical analyses focus on acute harms with few studies of longer-term harms; (iii) outlets are typically classified at aggregated levels with little empirical analysis of variation within outlet categories; (iv) evidence comes from a narrow range of countries; and (v) availability away from home, online availability and interactions between availability, price and place are all relatively unexamined. Implications Greater innovation in study and measure design and enhanced data quality are required. Greater engagement between researchers and policy actors when developing studies would facilitate this. Conclusions Research and data innovations are needed to address a series of methodological gaps and limitations in the alcohol availability evidence base, advance this research area and enable findings to be translated effectively into policy processes. [Holmes J, Guo Y, Maheswaran R, Nicholls J, Meier PS, Brennan A. The impact of spatial and temporal availability of alcohol on its consumption and related harms: A critical review in the context of UK licensing policies. Drug Alcohol Rev

  9. Observation of implied motion in a work of art modulates cortical connectivity and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Concerto, Carmen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Mineo, Ludovico; Pereira, Manuel; Freedberg, David; Chusid, Eileen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2016-01-01

    Following the discovery of mirror neurons, much attention has been de-voted to understanding the neural responses evoked by observation of implied motion in works of art. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is commonly involved during observation of movements but the role of the inhibitory and excitatory connections between PMd and primary motor cortex (M1) during observation of implied motion remains uncertain. In this study, using high and low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we examined PMd–M1 connectivity and plasticity during observation of Michelangelo’s frescos with and without implied motion (Sistine Chapel, 1508–1512). We found that observation of implied motion in a painting specifically reduces the activity of inhibitory PMd–M1 connections. On the contrary PMd–M1 facilitatory connections, as examined by means of 5-Hz rTMS, were not modulated during observation of the painting. Our data suggest that observation of implied motion in a painting modulates PMd–M1 connectivity and plasticity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that art with implied motion might be used as a plasticity-based intervention in rehabilitation. PMID:27807519

  10. Key membership and implied harmony in Western tonal music: developmental perspectives.

    PubMed

    Trainor, L J; Trehub, S E

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the role of key membership and implied harmony in adults' and children's perception of tone sequences. Listeners were evaluated on their ability to detect three types of changes in one note of a well-structured Western tonal melody. In one change (out-of-key) the new note was not in the basis key, in another (out-of-harmony) it was in the key but not in the implied harmony, and in the third (within-harmony) it was in both the key and the implied harmony. Adults and 7-year-olds performed better on the out-of-key and out-of-harmony changes than on the within-harmony change, reflecting their implicit knowledge of key membership and implied harmony. Five-year-olds performed better on the out-of-key change than on the other two changes, reflecting the influence of key membership but not implied harmony. We consider the developmental precedence of key membership over implied harmony in the context of cross-cultural and theoretical perspectives.

  11. Are Physical Education-Related State Policies and Schools' Physical Education Requirement Related to Children's Physical Activity and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether the extent of states' physical education (PE) requirement policies and the prevalence of schools requiring PE are associated with children's physical activity (PA) and obesity. Methods: Two cycles (2002-2003 and 2006-2007) of cross-sectional data with individual- and state-level information were…

  12. Are Physical Education-Related State Policies and Schools' Physical Education Requirement Related to Children's Physical Activity and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether the extent of states' physical education (PE) requirement policies and the prevalence of schools requiring PE are associated with children's physical activity (PA) and obesity. Methods: Two cycles (2002-2003 and 2006-2007) of cross-sectional data with individual- and state-level information were…

  13. Novel Setting for Addressing Tobacco-Related Disparities: A Survey of Community Welfare Organization Smoking Policies, Practices and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevski, B.; O'Brien, J.; Frost, S.; Yiow, L.; Oakes, W.; Barker, D.

    2013-01-01

    Research in the United States and Australia acknowledges the potential of non-government social and community service organizations (SCSOs) for reaching socially disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to describe SCSO smoking policies and practices, and attitudes of senior staff towards smoking and cessation. It also investigated factors…

  14. A time-series analysis of alcohol tax policy in relation to mortality from alcohol attributed causes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-12-01

    It is known that taxation on alcohol products may effectively reduce the alcohol consumption. However, whether alcohol taxation may lead to a decrease in alcohol attributed disease mortality (ADM) has been inclusively. We conducted this time-series analysis to assess the effect of alcohol tax policy intervention in 2002 on rate of ADM in Taiwan. Mortality data were retrieved from Taiwan's Death Registry. We employed the autoregression integrated moving average technique to examine secular patterns of quarterly rate of ADM in residents aged 15 or above between 1991 and 2007, and to determine whether alcohol tax policy intervention, imposed in January 2002, had affected the time trend in rate of ADM in subsequent years. We observed a statistically significant reduction in the rate of ADM following the implementation of alcohol tax policy for all sex- and age-specific segments of population. Further analyses revealed that the effect was most obvious in men aged 15-64 years, who showed an abrupt decline in AMD rate (10.9%) in the first quarter of 2002. For elderly men and women, the tax intervention was followed by a gradually declining trend of ADM, with a magnitude ranging from 0.53% per season (elderly women) to 0.63% per season (elderly men). This study demonstrated that alcohol taxation policy may pose favorite influences on the time trend of ADM rate in Taiwan, and such influence was most noteworthy in young and middle aged men.

  15. HPE in Aotearoa New Zealand: The Reconfiguration of Policy and Pedagogic Relations and Privatisation of Curriculum and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Petrie, Kirsten; Fellows, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper centres on research that investigated the contemporary policy, curriculum and pedagogical landscape of Health and Physical Education (HPE) in Aotearoa New Zealand, in the light of increasing impressions that provision was moving to an "open market" situation. Publicly available information sourced via the Internet was used to…

  16. Contributions and Costs of Manpower Development and Training. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Garth L.

    As a part of a larger project under grant from the Ford Foundation to evaluate federal manpower policies and programs, this evaluation of the training efforts under Title II of the Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) made use of data provided by the Departments of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare. By the end of fiscal 1967, 1.2…

  17. A qualitative review of existing national and international occupational safety and health policies relating to occupational sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Pieter; Gilson, Nicholas; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Straker, Leon M

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified. Using a qualitative synthesis, it was observed that many jurisdictions had legal frameworks establishing a duty of care for employers, designers/manufacturers/suppliers and employees. While no occupational authority policies focusing specifically on sedentary behaviour were found, relevant aspects of existing policies were identified. We highlight implications for ergonomics research and practice and recommend the development of policy to specifically address occupational sedentary behaviour and support workplace initiatives to assess and control the risks of this emergent hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Old Age, Handicapped and Vietnam-Era Antidiscrimination Legislation. Labor Relations and Public Policy Series No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, James

    This book brings together materials, cases, and opinions regarding the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974; analyzes these materials; and examines their impact on employer personnel policies. These laws represent, in a sense, a relatively…

  19. Novel Setting for Addressing Tobacco-Related Disparities: A Survey of Community Welfare Organization Smoking Policies, Practices and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevski, B.; O'Brien, J.; Frost, S.; Yiow, L.; Oakes, W.; Barker, D.

    2013-01-01

    Research in the United States and Australia acknowledges the potential of non-government social and community service organizations (SCSOs) for reaching socially disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to describe SCSO smoking policies and practices, and attitudes of senior staff towards smoking and cessation. It also investigated factors…

  20. An Evaluation of Policy Related Research on Postsecondary Education for the Disadvantaged. Volume I--Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulka, Mary Janet; Sheerin, Edmund J.

    This report is organized in two volumes: Volume 1--"Executive Summary," and Volume 2--Main Report and Appendices." Volume 1 explains that the purpose of this study was to identify, review, and assess the literature concerned with postsecondary education of disadvantaged youth for internal validity, external validity, and policy utility. The…