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Sample records for important wood species

  1. Wood carbon content of tree species in Eastern China: interspecific variability and the importance of the volatile fraction.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S C; Malczewski, G

    2007-11-01

    Data on the mass density and carbon content of tree organs, and in particular stem wood, are essential for accurate assessments of forest carbon sequestration. However most available data, including that for East Asia, has neglected the volatile C fraction. Wood samples were collected and assayed for C content from 14 native tree species in Jilin Province, NE China. C content showed statistically significant variation among species, ranging from 48.4% to 51.0%. The volatile C fraction was non-negligible, averaging 2.2%, and showed high variation among species. As found in prior studies, wood C content was appreciably higher in conifer than hardwood (angiosperm) species (50.8+/-0.1% vs. 49.5+/-0.2%, respectively). Wood carbon density (gC/cm(3)) showed very high inter-specific variation, due mainly to differences in wood specific gravity. Our analyses, in conjunction with recently published data from North America, indicate a global mean value of 47.5+/-0.5% wood C content exclusive of volatile C; the widely used 50% figure corresponds more closely to total wood C inclusive of the volatile fraction. Failure to include volatile C or to use species- or higher-taxon-specific C content values in forest C assessments is likely to introduce biases on the order approximately 4-6%. In addition, the stocks and flows of the volatile C fraction in wood are in themselves an important and sorely neglected aspect of forest C processes likely to be strongly impacted by harvests and other management practices.

  2. Wood specific gravity variation among five important hardwood species of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Bodha, R H; Khan, Amina

    2014-02-01

    Wood Specific Gravity (SG) is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In the present study, specific gravity varied among the five different woods at three different sites from 0.40 in Populus nigra at site III (Shopian) to 0.80 in Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana at site II (Surasyar). Among the three different sites, specific gravity varied from 0.73 to 0.80 in Parroptiosis jacquemontiana; in Robinia pseudoacacia it varied from 0.71 to 0.79; in Salix alba, it varied from 0.42 to 0.48; In Populus nigra it varied from 0.40 to 0.48 and in Juglans regia it varied from 0.59 to 0.66. On the basis of the specific gravity variation patterns these woods were categorized as light (Salix alba, Populus nigra) moderately heavy (Juglans regia) and moderately heavy to heavy (Robinia pseudoacacia, Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana) which predicts their properties like strength, dimensional stability with moisture content change, ability to retain paint, fiber yield per unit volume, suitability for making particleboard and related wood composite materials and suitability as a raw material for making paper.

  3. The importance of mercury in leaves, bark and wood of eight tree species across four northeastern forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, R. D.; Yang, Y.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposition affects forests even in remote areas, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known, in part because concentrations of Hg in wood are often below the analytical detection limit by ICP-OES. We analyzed Hg in wood, bark, and foliage of 8 tree species across four sites (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME) in the northeastern USA, using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (USEPA Method 7473). The hardwood species, namely American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), had lower Hg concentrations (averaging 7.7 ng g-1 in bark and 16.3 ng g-1 in foliage) than the conifers, namely red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white pine (Pinus strobus L.) (averaging 22.5 ng g-1 in bark and 28.6 ng g-1 in foliage) (p < 0.001). Yellow birch had especially high Hg in wood (2.5 ng g-1) (p < 0.001); the other species averaged 1.4 ng g-1. The Hg content of aboveground biomass, estimated from modeled tree biomass and species composition at each site, declined from the west to the east. Wood is important to Hg budgets in spite of low concentrations, because of its large mass. With the proper analytical methods, it is possible to estimate pools and fluxes of Hg in forest vegetation.

  4. The Importance of Measuring Mercury in Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Yanai, R. D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forests are important receptors of Hg deposition, and biological Hg hotspots occur mainly in forested regions, but few efforts have been made to determine the Hg content of trees. Mercury concentrations in stem tissue are lower than the foliage and bark, so low that they have often been below detection limits, especially in hardwood species. However, because wood is the largest component of forest biomass, it can be a larger Hg pool than the foliage, and thus quantifying concentrations in wood is important to Hg budgets in forests. The objective of our study was to determine the methods necessary to detect Hg in bole wood of four tree species, including two hardwoods and two conifers. We also evaluated the effect of air-drying and oven-drying samples on Hg recovery, compared to freeze-drying samples prior to analysis, which is the standard procedure. Many archived wood samples that were air-dried or oven-dried could be appropriate for Hg analysis if these methods could be validated; few are freeze-dried. We analyzed samples for total Hg using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Method 7473, USEPA 1998). The result of the method detection limit study was 1.27 ng g-1, based on apple leaf standards (NIST 1515, 44 ± 4 ng/g). Concentrations in the hardwood species were 1.48 ± 0.23 ng g-1 for sugar maple and 1.75 ± 0.14 ng g-1 for American beech. Concentrations were higher in red spruce and balsam fir. Samples that were analyzed fresh, freeze-dried, or oven-dried at 65 ˚C were in close agreement, after correcting for moisture content. However, Hg concentrations were 34 to 45% too high in the air-dry samples, presumably reflecting absorption from the atmosphere, and they were 44 to 66% too low in the samples oven-dried at 103 ˚C, presumably due to volatilization. We recommend that samples be freeze-dried or oven-dried at 65 ˚C for analysis of Hg in wood; archived samples that have been oven-dried at

  5. The importance of forest type, tree species and wood posture to saproxylic wasp (Hymenoptera) communities in the southeastern United States.

    Treesearch

    Michael Ulyshen; Thomas Pucci; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Although the forests of the southeastern United States are among the most productive and diverse in North America, information needed to develop conservation guidelines for the saproxylic (i.e., dependent on dead wood) fauna endemic to the region is lacking. Particularly little is known about the habitat associations and requirements of saproxylic parasitoids even...

  6. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Jean-François; Fayolle, Adeline; Tarelkin, Yegor; Van den Bulcke, Jan; de Haulleville, Thales; Mortier, Frederic; Beeckman, Hans; Van Acker, Joris; Serckx, Adeline; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was

  7. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood

    PubMed Central

    Bastin, Jean-François; Fayolle, Adeline; Tarelkin, Yegor; Van den Bulcke, Jan; de Haulleville, Thales; Mortier, Frederic; Beeckman, Hans; Van Acker, Joris; Serckx, Adeline; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Context Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Methods Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Results Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific

  8. Characteristics and availability of commercially important woods

    Treesearch

    Regis B. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the unique characteristics and comparative abundance of wood have made it a natural material for homes and other structures, furniture, tools, vehicles, and decorative objects. Today, for the same reasons, wood is prized for a multitude of uses. All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and minor amounts (5% to 10%) of extraneous...

  9. Assemblage composition of fungal wood-decay species has a major influence on how climate and wood quality modify decomposition.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Parvathy; Junninen, Kaisa; Edman, Mattias; Kouki, Jari

    2017-03-01

    The interactions among saprotrophic fungal species, as well as their interactions with environmental factors, may have a major influence on wood decay and carbon release in ecosystems. We studied the effect that decomposer diversity (species richness and assemblage composition) has on wood decomposition when the climatic variables and substrate quality vary simultaneously. We used two temperatures (16 and 21°C) and two humidity levels (70% and 90%) with two wood qualities (wood from managed and old-growth forests) of Pinus sylvestris. In a 9-month experiment, the effects of fungal diversity were tested using four wood-decaying fungi (Antrodia xantha, Dichomitus squalens, Fomitopsis pinicola and Gloeophyllum protractum) at assemblage levels of one, two and four species. Wood quality and assemblage composition affected the influence of climatic factors on decomposition rates. Fungal assemblage composition was found to be more important than fungal species richness, indicating that species-specific fungal traits are of paramount importance in driving decomposition. We conclude that models containing fungal wood-decay species (and wood-based carbon) need to take into account species-specific and assemblage composition-specific properties to improve predictive capacity in regard to decomposition-related carbon dynamics. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 Neotropical tree species.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; Poorter, Lourens; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2010-12-01

    The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of interspecific variation in species traits on differences in wood decomposition rates remains unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we applied a novel method to study long-term wood decomposition of 15 tree species in a Bolivian semi-evergreen tropical moist forest. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in species traits are important drivers of variation in wood decomposition rates. Wood decomposition rates (fractional mass loss) varied between 0.01 and 0.31 yr(-1). We measured 10 different chemical, anatomical, and morphological traits for all species. The species' average traits were useful predictors of wood decomposition rates, particularly the average diameter (dbh) of the tree species (R2 = 0.41). Lignin concentration further increased the proportion of explained inter-specific variation in wood decomposition (both negative relations, cumulative R2 = 0.55), although it did not significantly explain variation in wood decomposition rates if considered alone. When dbh values of the actual dead trees sampled for decomposition rate determination were used as a predictor variable, the final model (including dead tree dbh and lignin concentration) explained even more variation in wood decomposition rates (R2 = 0.71), underlining the importance of dbh in wood decomposition. Other traits, including wood density, wood anatomical traits, macronutrient concentrations, and the amount of phenolic extractives could not significantly explain the variation in wood decomposition rates. The surprising results of this multi-species study, in which for the first time a large set of traits is explicitly linked to wood decomposition rates, merits further testing in other forest ecosystems.

  11. The role of extractives in naturally durable wood species

    Treesearch

    G.T. Kirker; A.B. Blodgett; R.A. Arango; P.K. Lebow; C.A. Clausen

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous examples of wood species that naturally exhibit enhanced performance and longevity in outside exposure independent of preservative treatment. Wood extractives are largely considered to be the contributing factor when evaluating and predicting the performance of a naturally durable wood species. However, little test methodology exists that focuses on...

  12. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  13. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  14. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  15. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species

    PubMed Central

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N.; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect. PMID:27649315

  16. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  17. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  18. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Treesearch

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  19. Species selection in secondary wood products: implications for product design and promotion

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Scott A. Bowe; Scott A. Bowe

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions that people have of several commercially important wood species and determined if word-based and specimen-based evaluations differed. Such knowledge can help secondary wood manufacturers better understand their products and develop more effective design concepts and promotional messages. A sample of more than 250 undergraduate...

  20. Transferable Durability: Enhancing decay resistance of non-durable species with extractives from durable wood species

    Treesearch

    G.T. Kirker; A.B. Blodgett; S. Lebow; C.A. Clausen

    2013-01-01

    Extractive content and composition is a vital component of naturally durable woods; however, variability in extractives can limit their usefulness in the field. Two extractive-free, non-durable wood species were pressure treated with ethanol-toluene extractives from 8 durable wood species. Extracted Southern pine, Paulownia and unextracted Southern pine blocks were...

  1. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD28 Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA...). Introductions into the United States of exotic plant pests such as the pine shoot beetle (Tomicus...

  2. Artificial rearing of 10 species of wood-boring insects

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1969-01-01

    Small numbers of 10 species of wood-boring insects were reared from newly hatched larvae to adults on artificial media with good survival. Species with life cycles of up to 2 years in nature were reared on the media in less than 1 year. Although all of the adults appeared normal physically, some were sterile. One species was reared artificially for three generations....

  3. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    PubMed Central

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  4. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood.

  5. Criterion 6, indicator 32 : exports as a share of wood and wood products production and imports as a share of wood and wood products production

    Treesearch

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    The United States has become progressively more reliant on imports to meet consumption needs. In roundwood equivalents, imports of wood and paper products as a share of consumption increased from 13% to 30% between 1965 and 2005. This increase is due largely to increased softwood lumber import share, which increased from 15% in 1965 to 38% in 2006. The import share for...

  6. Wood Litter Consumption by three Species of Nasutitermes Termites in an Area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m2. The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain. PMID:20673190

  7. Wood litter consumption by three species of Nasutitermes termites in an area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m(2). The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain.

  8. Durability of wood/plastic composites made from Parthenium species

    Treesearch

    Poo Chow; Francis S. Nakayama; John A. Youngquist; James H. Muehl; Andrzej M. Krzysik

    2002-01-01

    Previous study indicated that the natural chemical constituents of the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum) improved some durability properties of wood when it was treated with resin extracted from guayule. At present, there are about a dozen species of Parthenium growing in the North American continent. P. argentatum is the only species with harvestable amounts of...

  9. Study of microbial adhesion on some wood species: theoretical prediction.

    PubMed

    Soumya, El abed; Mohamed, Mostakim; Fatimazahra, Berguadi; Hassan, Latrache; Abdellah, Houari; Fatima, Hamadi; Saad, Ibnsouda koraichi

    2011-01-01

    The initial interaction between microorganisms and substrata is mediated by physicochemical forces, which in turn originate from the physicochemical surface properties of both interacting phases. In this context, we have determined the physicochemical proprieties of all microorganisms isolated from cedar wood decay in an old monument at the Medina of Fez-Morocco. The cedar wood was also assayed in terms of hydrophobicity and electron dono-r-electron acceptor (acid-base) properties. Investigations of these two aspects were performed by contact angles measurements via sessile drop technique. Except Bacillus subtilis strain (deltaGiwi < 0), all strains studied showed positive values of the degree ofhydrophobicity (deltaGiwi > 0) and can therefore be considered as hydrophilic while cedar wood revealed a hydrophobic character (deltaGiwi = -58.81 mi m(-2)). All microbial strains were predominantly electron donor. The results show also that all strains were weak electron acceptors. Cedar wood exhibits a weak electron donor/acceptor character. Based on the thermodynamic approach, the Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction free energy, the acid-basic interactions free energy, the total interaction free energy between the microbial cells and six different wood species (cedar, oak, beech, ash, pine and teak) in aqueous media was calculated and used to predict which microbial strains have a higher ability to adhere to wooden surfaces. Except of weak wood, for all the situations studied, generalizations concerning the adhesion of the microbiata on wood species cannot be made and the microbial adhesion on wooden substrata was dependent on wood species and microorganismstested.

  10. Subabul: A wood species for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    In view of energy and environmental considerations, efforts have been made in this article to suggest the use of biomass as a renewable and nonpolluting source of energy for power generation. This article presents the results of the proximate analyses and energy contents of various components of the Subabul tree and their impact on land requirements to generate necessary biomass for small-scale electricity generation units. The results have shown that for the Subabul-wood-based thermal power plant, approximately 400 ha of land are required to generate 2,000 kWh/d.

  11. Species selection in secondary wood products: perspectives from different consumers

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Bowe; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adult consumer perceptions of several wood species to determine if word-based and appearance-based evaluations differed. The research replicated a 2001 study by the authors, which used undergraduate college students as a proxy for older and more experienced adult furniture consumers. The literature is somewhat inconclusive concerning the extent...

  12. Differences between standing and downed dead tree wood density reduction factors: A comparison across decay classes and tree species

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Harmon; Christopher W. Woodall; Becky Fasth; Jay Sexton; Misha. Yatkov

    2011-01-01

    Woody detritus or dead wood is an important part of forest ecosystems and has become a routine facet of forest monitoring and inventory. Biomass and carbon estimates of dead wood depend on knowledge of species- and decay class-specifi c density or density reduction factors. While some progress has been made in determining these parameters for dead and downed trees (DD...

  13. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    PubMed

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals.

  14. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  15. [Wood anatomy and uses of 7 tropical tree species from Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rebollar, S; Quintanar, A

    2000-01-01

    The wood anatomy of Coccoloba cozumelensis Hemsl., Coccoloba spicata Lundell, Gymnanthes lucida Sw., Blomia cupanioides Miranda, Canella winterana (L.) Gaertn., Aspidosperma megalocarpon Müell Arg. and Ehretia tinifolia L., is described. One tree per species was collected in the tropical rain forest of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Their wood has important traditional uses in furniture, tools, rural buildings, posts, fences, railroads and firewood. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were described and measured in wood samples, permanent slides and macerated material. These species have diffuse porosity, alternate vessel pits, simple perforation plates, numerous and small rays; libriform fibres are common, as well as ergastic material in gum forms, calcium carbonate and silica crystals. These characteristics explain aesthetical, weight, hardness and resistance (to mechanical and biological damage) characters that fit traditional use by the Maya.

  16. Natural resistance of exotic wood species to the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival and wood consumption of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, on ten different species of wood used as commercial lumber. Six of the wood species had natural resistance to termites and caused an average of >75% mortalit...

  17. GC-MS Characterizations of Termiticidal Heartwood Extractives from Wood Species Utilized in Pakistan

    Treesearch

    Mark Mankowski; Blossie Boyd; Barbar Hassan; Grant T. Kirker

    2016-01-01

    Wood species that exhibit innate tolerance to wood destroying organisms such as termites are considered to be naturally durable. This durability can, in part, be due to the complex chemical compounds in the heartwood of naturally durable wood species. We examined the effects of varying concentrations of heartwood extractives on the subterranean termite, ...

  18. Thirty-nine years of U.S. wood furniture importing: sources and products

    Treesearch

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze changes in United States imports of wood furniture over the 39-year period from 1972 to 2010. In 1972, Canada and the former Yugoslavia were the most important sources of imported wood furniture, and Europe accounted for nearly 60 percent of total imports. Shipments of low-cost wood furniture from Taiwan started to increase in the 1970s, and by...

  19. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Laurance, W. F.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Almeida, S.; Arroyo, L.; Difiore, A.; Erwin, T.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, S. G.; Nascimento, H.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Silva, J. N. M.; Malhi, Y.; López Gonzalez, G.; Peacock, J.; Quesada, C. A.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. In this study, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and above-ground, coarse wood production of trees ≥10 cm diameter (CWP) for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Average species maximum height and wood density are lower in Western than Eastern Amazonia and are negatively correlated with CWP. To test the hypothesis that variation in these traits causes the variation in CWP, we generate plot-level estimates of CWP by resampling the full distribution of tree biomass growth rates whilst maintaining the appropriate tree-diameter and functional-trait distributions for each plot. These estimates are then compared with the observed values. Overall, the estimates do not predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of CWP, suggesting that the variation in community-level trait values does not determine variation in coarse wood productivity in Amazonian forests. Instead, the regional gradient in CWP is caused by higher biomass growth rates across all tree types in Western Amazonia. Therefore, the regional gradient in CWP is driven primarily by environmental factors, rather than the particular functional composition of each stand. These results contrast with previous findings for forest biomass, where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns in above-ground biomass. Therefore, in tropical forests, above-ground wood productivity may be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  20. Browsing affects intra-ring carbon allocation in species with contrasting wood anatomy.

    PubMed

    Palacio, S; Paterson, E; Sim, A; Hester, A J; Millard, P

    2011-02-01

    Current knowledge on tree carbon (C) allocation to wood is particularly scarce in plants subjected to disturbance factors, such as browsing, which affects forest regeneration worldwide and has an impact on the C balance of trees. Furthermore, quantifying the degree to which tree rings are formed from freshly assimilated vs. stored carbohydrates is highly relevant for our understanding of tree C allocation. We used (13)C labelling to quantify seasonal allocation of stored C to wood formation in two species with contrasting wood anatomy: Betula pubescens Ehrh. (diffuse-porous) and Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl. (ring-porous). Clipping treatments (66% shoot removal, and unclipped) were applied to analyse the effect of browsing on C allocation into tree rings, plus the effects on tree growth, architecture, ring width and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs). The relative contribution of stored C to wood formation was greater in the ring-porous (55-70%) than in the diffuse-porous species (35-60%), although each species followed different seasonal trends. Clipping did not cause a significant depletion of C stores in either species. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the proportion of stored C allocated to earlywood growth was observed in clipped birches, and this could be explained through changes in tree architecture after clipping. The size of C pools across tree species seems to be important in determining the variability of seasonal C allocation patterns to wood and their sensibility to disturbances such as browsing. Our results indicate that the observed changes in C allocation to earlywood in birch were not related to variations in the amount or concentration of NSC stores, but to changes in the seasonal availability of recently assimilated C caused by modifications in tree architecture after browsing.

  1. Patterns and determinants of wood physical and mechanical properties across major tree species in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JiangLing; Shi, Yue; Fang, LeQi; Liu, XingE; Ji, ChengJun

    2015-06-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of wood affect the growth and development of trees, and also act as the main criteria when determining wood usage. Our understanding on patterns and controls of wood physical and mechanical properties could provide benefits for forestry management and bases for wood application and forest tree breeding. However, current studies on wood properties mainly focus on wood density and ignore other wood physical properties. In this study, we established a comprehensive database of wood physical properties across major tree species in China. Based on this database, we explored spatial patterns and driving factors of wood properties across major tree species in China. Our results showed that (i) compared with wood density, air-dried density, tangential shrinkage coefficient and resilience provide more accuracy and higher explanation power when used as the evaluation index of wood physical properties. (ii) Among life form, climatic and edaphic variables, life form is the dominant factor shaping spatial patterns of wood physical properties, climatic factors the next, and edaphic factors have the least effects, suggesting that the effects of climatic factors on spatial variations of wood properties are indirectly induced by their effects on species distribution.

  2. Species verification of Dalbergia nigra and Dalbergia spruceana samples in the wood collection of the Forest Products Laboratory

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Wiemann; Edgard O. Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    To evade endangered timber species laws, unscrupulous importers sometimes attempt to pass protected Dalbergia nigra as look-alike but unprotected, Dalbergia Spruceana. Wood density and fluorescence properties are sometimes used to identify the species. Although these properties are useful and do not require special equipment,...

  3. Effects of species information and furniture price on consumer preferences for selected woods

    Treesearch

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Geoffrey Donovan

    2007-01-01

    Changing consumer tastes and species availability are influencing the design and manufacture of hardwood products. In addition, the globalization of wood product markets is exposing U.S. consumers to new species. This research evaluates consumer preferences for six domestic wood species--three from the eastern United States and three from the western United States. The...

  4. Wood density and its radial variation in six canopy tree species differing in shade-tolerance in western Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Charles A.; Geihofer, Daniela; Grabner, Michael; Baker, Patrick J.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Hietz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Wood density is a key variable for understanding life history strategies in tropical trees. Differences in wood density and its radial variation were related to the shade-tolerance of six canopy tree species in seasonally dry tropical forest in Thailand. In addition, using tree ring measurements, the influence of tree size, age and annual increment on radial density gradients was analysed. Methods Wood density was determined from tree cores using X-ray densitometry. X-ray films were digitized and images were measured, resulting in a continuous density profile for each sample. Mixed models were then developed to analyse differences in average wood density and in radial gradients in density among the six tree species, as well as the effects of tree age, size and annual increment on radial increases in Melia azedarach. Key Results Average wood density generally reflected differences in shade-tolerance, varying by nearly a factor of two. Radial gradients occurred in all species, ranging from an increase of (approx. 70%) in the shade-intolerant Melia azedarach to a decrease of approx. 13% in the shade-tolerant Neolitsea obtusifolia, but the slopes of radial gradients were generally unrelated to shade-tolerance. For Melia azedarach, radial increases were most-parsimoniously explained by log-transformed tree age and annual increment rather than by tree size. Conclusions The results indicate that average wood density generally reflects differences in shade-tolerance in seasonally dry tropical forests; however, inferences based on wood density alone are potentially misleading for species with complex life histories. In addition, the findings suggest that a ‘whole-tree’ view of life history and biomechanics is important for understanding patterns of radial variation in wood density. Finally, accounting for wood density gradients is likely to improve the accuracy of estimates of stem biomass and carbon in tropical trees. PMID:19454592

  5. Importance of landscape heterogeneity to wood storks in Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, D. Martin; Wolff, Wilfried F.; Deangelis, Donald L.

    1994-09-01

    Declines in populations of and reproductive success of wood storks and other wading birds have occurred in the Florida Everglades over the past several decades. These declines have been concurrent with major changes in the Everglades’ landscape characteristics. Among the plausible hypotheses that relate to landscape change are the following: (1) general loss of habitat; (2) heavy loss of specific habitat, namely, short-hydroperiod wetlands that provide high prey availability early in the breeding season; and (3) an increase in frequency of major drying out of the central slough areas, which can affect prey availability late in the breeding season. These three hypotheses were compared using an individual-based model of wood stork ( Mycteria americana) reproduction. This model simulated the behavior and energetics of each individual wood stork in a breeding colony on 15-min time intervals. Changes in water depth and prey availability occurred on daily time steps. Simulation results showed a threshold response in reproductive success to reduction of wetland heterogeneity. Model comparisons in which (1) only short-hydroperiod wetlands were removed and (2) wetlands of both long and short hydroperiods were removed showed that, for the same loss of total area, the specific habitat removal caused a much greater reduction in wood stork reproduction, indicating hypothesis 2 may be a more likely explanation than hypothesis 1. Reduction of initial prey availability in the central slough areas (simulating frequent drying; hypothesis 3) reduced fledging success by an average of more than 90% in the model.

  6. Assessing Potential Acidification of Marine Archaeological Wood Based on Concentration of Sulfur Species

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    The presence of sulfur in marine archaeological wood presents a challenge to conservation. Upon exposure to oxygen, sulfur compounds in waterlogged wooden artifacts are being oxidized, producing sulfuric acid. This speeds the degradation of the wood, potentially damaging specimens beyond repair. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to identify the species of sulfur present in samples from the timbers of the Mary Rose, a preserved 16th century warship known to undergo degradation through acidification. The results presented here show that sulfur content varied significantly on a local scale. Only certain species of sulfur have the potential to produce sulfuric acid by contact with oxygen and seawater in situ, such as iron sulfides and elemental sulfur. Organic sulfurs, such as the amino acids cysteine and methionine, may produce acid but are integral parts of the wood's structure and may not be released from the organic matrix. The sulfur species contained in the sample reflect the exposure to oxygen while submerged, and this exposure can differ greatly over time and position. A better understanding of the species pathway to acidifications required, along with its location, in order to suggest a more customized and effective preservation strategy. Waterlogged archaeological wood, frequently in the form of shipwrecks, is being excavated for historical purposes in many countries around the world. Even after extensive efforts towards preservation, scientists are discovering that accumulation of sulfate salts results in acidic conditions on the surfaces of the artifacts. Sulfuric acid degrades structural fibers in the wood by acid hydrolysis of cellulose, accelerating the decomposition of the ship timbers. Determining the sulfur content of waterlogged wood is now of great importance in maritime archaeology. Artifact preservation is often more time consuming and expensive than the original excavation; but it is key to the availability of objects for

  7. Molecular database for classifying Shorea species (Dipterocarpaceae) and techniques for checking the legitimacy of timber and wood products.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Kado, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Kazumasa; Abe, Hisashi; Ohtani, Masato; Taguchi, Yuriko; Fukue, Yoko; Tani, Naoki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Kamiya, Koichi; Harada, Ko; Takeuchi, Yayoi; Diway, Bibian; Finkeldey, Reiner; Na'iem, Mohamad; Indrioko, Sapto; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Lee, Soon Leong

    2011-01-01

    The extent of tropical forest has been declining, due to over-exploitation and illegal logging activities. Large quantities of unlawfully extracted timber and other wood products have been exported, mainly to developed countries. As part of the export monitoring effort, we have developed methods for extracting and analyzing DNA from wood products, such as veneers and sawn timbers made from dipterocarps, in order to identify the species from which they originated. We have also developed a chloroplast DNA database for classifying Shorea species, which are both ecologically and commercially important canopy tree species in the forests of Southeast Asia. We are able to determine the candidate species of wood samples, based on DNA sequences and anatomical data. The methods for analyzing DNA from dipterocarp wood products may have strong deterrent effects on international trade of illegitimate dipterocarp products. However, the method for analyzing DNA from wood is not perfect for all wood products and need for more improvement, especially for plywood sample. Consequently, there may be benefits for the conservation of tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

  8. Above Ground Field Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood Species

    Treesearch

    G.T. Kirker; A.B. Blodgett; S.T. Lebow; C.A. Clausen

    2012-01-01

    Nine wood species are being evaluated in above ground field studies in Mississippi and Wisconsin. Candidate naturally durable wood (NDW) species are being rated at yearly intervals for resistance to decay, cupping, and checking. Field ratings after 12 months exposure are presented. To date, Paulownia tomentosa (PAW) and southern yellow pine (SYP)...

  9. Growth inhibition and antioxidative response of wood decay fungi exposed to plant extracts of Casearia species.

    PubMed

    Bento, T S; Torres, L M B; Fialho, M B; Bononi, V L R

    2014-01-01

    Ligninolytic fungi take part in critical processes in ecosystems such as nutrient recycling; however, some fungal species can be pathogenic to forest and urban trees and deteriorate wood products. The tropical flora is an important source of antimicrobial compounds environmentally safer than traditional wood preservatives. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of ethanol plant extracts of Casearia sylvestris and Casearia decandra on the white-rot wood decay basidiomycetes Trametes villosa and Pycnoporus sanguineus. In addition, the effect of the extracts on the fungal antioxidative metabolism was studied. Among the different substances present in the extracts, the phytochemical analyses identified a clerodane diterpenoid (C. sylvestris) and cinnamic acid, hydroquinone and β-sitosterol (C. decandra). The extracts inhibited the fungi up to 70% and caused hyphal morphology changes. The extracts triggered oxidative stress process as indicated by the increased levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione reductase. Therefore, the Casearia extracts are a potential source of natural biocides to control wood decay fungi, and one of the mechanisms of action is the oxidative stress. The Casearia plant extracts exhibited important antifungal activity on wood decay fungi and triggered oxidative stress process, an inhibitory mechanism rarely studied in filamentous fungi exposed to plant extracts. Therefore, a starting point was provided for the development of natural compounds-based products as an alternative to chemical fungicides. In addition, subsidies were given to further studies in order to elucidate in more detail how compounds present in extracts of native tropical plants affect the physiology of fungi. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2456 Neotropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Baker, Timothy R; Easdale, Tomás A; ter Steege, Hans; Webb, Campbell O

    2006-12-01

    Wood density is a crucial variable in carbon accounting programs of both secondary and old-growth tropical forests. It also is the best single descriptor of wood: it correlates with numerous morphological, mechanical, physiological, and ecological properties. To explore the extent to which wood density could be estimated for rare or poorly censused taxa, and possible sources of variation in this trait, we analyzed regional, taxonomic, and phylogenetic variation in wood density among 2456 tree species from Central and South America. Wood density varied over more than one order of magnitude across species, with an overall mean of 0.645 g/cm3. Our geographical analysis showed significant decreases in wood density with increasing altitude and significant differences among low-altitude geographical regions: wet forests of Central America and western Amazonia have significantly lower mean wood density than dry forests of Central and South America, eastern and central Amazonian forests, and the Atlantic forests of Brazil; and eastern Amazonian forests have lower wood densities than the dry forests and the Atlantic forest. A nested analysis of variance showed that 74% of the species-level wood density variation was explained at the genus level, 34% at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) family level, and 19% at the APG order level. This indicates that genus-level means give reliable approximations of values of species, except in a few hypervariable genera. We also studied which evolutionary shifts in wood density occurred in the phylogeny of seed plants using a composite phylogenetic tree. Major changes were observed at deep nodes (Eurosid 1), and also in more recent divergences (for instance in the Rhamnoids, Simaroubaceae, and Anacardiaceae). Our unprecedented wood density data set yields consistent guidelines for estimating wood densities when species-level information is lacking and should significantly reduce error in Central and South American carbon accounting

  11. Nondestructive wood discrimination: FTIR - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in the characterization of different wood species used for artistic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, Maria Crista; de Poli, Mario; Matthaes, Peter; Silvestrin, Luca; Zafiropoulos, Demetre

    2016-09-01

    Wooden artifacts represent a significant component of past cultures. Successful conservation of wooden artifacts depends on the knowledge of wood structure and types. It is critical that conservators know the category of wood that they are treating in order to successfully conserve it. Recently, vibrational spectroscopy has been successfully applied to determine the chemical structure of wood and to characterize wood types. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is a useful nondestructive or micro-destructive analytical technique providing information about chemical bonding and molecular structure. Its application in the discrimination between softwoods (conifers) and hardwoods (broad-leafs) has already been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of FTIR as a tool for the discrimination between different wood types belonging to the same genus. Three different hardwood species, namely poplar (Populus spp), lime (Tilia spp) and birch (Betula spp), were investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy. The woods were first inspected using a light microscope to certify the wood essence types through micrographic and morphoanatomical features. The FTIR spectra in the 4000 cm-1 to 450 cm-1 region were recorded using a Perkin-Elmer Spectrum 100 spectrometer. To enhance the qualitative interpretation of the IR spectra, second derivatives of all spectra were calculated using the Spectrum software to separate superimposed bands and to extract fine spectral details. To obtain a comprehensive characterization, the essences under investigation were also analyzed by means of Raman Spectroscopy. Clear differences were found in the spectra of the three samples confirming FTIR to be a powerful tool for wood type discrimination.

  12. Response of Microtermes mycophagus (Isoptera: Termitidae) to twenty one wood species

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Shafqat

    2015-01-01

    The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21 ± 5.09% and 68.38 ± 7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02 ± 1.65% and 91.69 ± 2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus. PMID:26312171

  13. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Massijaya, Muh Yusram; Arinana, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana), mangium (Acacia mangium), and pine (Pinus merkusii) were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance) to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance). Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples. PMID:27455331

  14. Subterranean Termite Resistance of Polystyrene-Treated Wood from Three Tropical Wood Species.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Massijaya, Muh Yusram; Arinana, A

    2016-07-21

    The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance of three Indonesian wood species to termite attack. Samples from sengon (Falcataria moluccana), mangium (Acacia mangium), and pine (Pinus merkusii) were treated with polystyrene at loading levels of 26.0%, 8.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Treated and untreated samples were exposed to environmental conditions in the field for 3 months. Untreated specimens of sengon, mangium, and pine had resistance ratings of 3.0, 4.6, and 2.4, respectively, based on a 10-point scale from 0 (no resistance) to 10 (complete or near-complete resistance). Corresponding resistance values of 7.8, 7.2, and 8.2 were determined for specimens treated with polystyrene. Overall weight loss values of 50.3%, 23.3%, and 66.4% were found for untreated sengon, mangium, and pine samples, respectively; for treated samples, the values were 7.6%, 14.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. Based on the findings in this study, overall resistance to termite attack was higher for treated samples compared to untreated samples.

  15. Evaluating Naturally Durable Wood Species for Repair and Rehabilitation of Above-Ground Components of Covered Bridges

    Treesearch

    Grant T. Kirker; Carol A. Clausen; A. B Blodgett; Stan T. Lebow

    2013-01-01

    More than 1,500 covered bridges remain in the United States. They are a unique part of our history; thus, replacement of bridge components is an equally important part of preserving this uncommon style of craftsmanship. The goal of this project was to evaluate seven wood species for their durability in above-ground field exposure. Chemical analysis was also conducted...

  16. Wood dusts induce the production of reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pylkkänen, Lea; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene; Alenius, Harri; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2009-08-21

    Wood dusts are associated with several respiratory symptoms, e.g. impaired lung function and asthma, in exposed workers. However, despite the evidence from epidemiological studies, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated different wood dusts for their capacity to induce cytotoxicity and production of radical oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of the apoptotic caspase-3 enzyme in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Dusts from three different tree species widely used in wood industry were studied; birch and oak represented hardwood species, and pine a common softwood species. All the experiments were carried out in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 500 microg/ml) and the analysis was performed after 0.5, 2, 6, and 24h exposure. All wood dusts studied were cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner after 2 and 6h treatment. Exposure to pine, birch, or oak dust had a significant stimulating effect on the production of ROS. Also an induction in caspase-3 protease activity, one of the central components of the apoptotic cascade, was seen in BEAS-2B cells after 2 and 6h exposure to each of the wood dusts studied. In summary, we demonstrate that dusts from pine, birch and oak are cytotoxic, able to increase the production of ROS and the apoptotic response in human broncho-epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, our current data suggest oxidative stress by ROS as an important mechanism likely to function in wood dust related pulmonary toxicity although details of the cellular targets and cell-particle interactions remain to be solved. It is though tempting to speculate that redox-regulated transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1 may play a role in this wood dust-evoked process leading to apparently induced apoptosis of target cells.

  17. DNA barcoding of vouchered xylarium wood specimens of nine endangered Dalbergia species.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Jiao, Lichao; Guo, Juan; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C; He, Tuo; Jiang, Xiaomei; Yin, Yafang

    2017-08-19

    ITS2+ trnH - psbA was the best combination of DNA barcode to resolve the Dalbergia wood species studied. We demonstrate the feasibility of building a DNA barcode reference database using xylarium wood specimens. The increase in illegal logging and timber trade of CITES-listed tropical species necessitates the development of unambiguous identification methods at the species level. For these methods to be fully functional and deployable for law enforcement, they must work using wood or wood products. DNA barcoding of wood has been promoted as a promising tool for species identification; however, the main barrier to extensive application of DNA barcoding to wood is the lack of a comprehensive and reliable DNA reference library of barcodes from wood. In this study, xylarium wood specimens of nine Dalbergia species were selected from the Wood Collection of the Chinese Academy of Forestry and DNA was then extracted from them for further PCR amplification of eight potential DNA barcode sequences (ITS2, matK, trnL, trnH-psbA, trnV-trnM1, trnV-trnM2, trnC-petN, and trnS-trnG). The barcodes were tested singly and in combination for species-level discrimination ability by tree-based [neighbor-joining (NJ)] and distance-based (TaxonDNA) methods. We found that the discrimination ability of DNA barcodes in combination was higher than any single DNA marker among the Dalbergia species studied, with the best two-marker combination of ITS2+trnH-psbA analyzed with NJ trees performing the best (100% accuracy). These barcodes are relatively short regions (<350 bp) and amplification reactions were performed with high success (≥90%) using wood as the source material, a necessary factor to apply DNA barcoding to timber trade. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using vouchered xylarium specimens to build DNA barcoding reference databases.

  18. Physical properties and moisture relations of wood

    Treesearch

    William Simpson; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wood species for a product, the value of appearance- type properties,...

  19. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-03-28

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  20. Factors controlling bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition in five tropical tree species

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Gbadamassi G. O.; Paudel, Ekananda; Cao, Kunfang; Schaefer, Douglas; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter decomposition represents a vital ecosystem process by which nutrients are made available for plant uptake and is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have investigated decomposition of different plant parts, but few considered bark decomposition or its role in decomposition of wood. However, bark can comprise a large fraction of tree biomass. We used a common litter-bed approach to investigate factors affecting bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition for five tree species in a secondary seasonal tropical rain forest in SW China. For bark, we implemented a litter bag experiment over 12 mo, using different mesh sizes to investigate effects of litter meso- and macro-fauna. For wood, we compared the decomposition of branches with and without bark over 24 mo. Bark in coarse mesh bags decomposed 1.11–1.76 times faster than bark in fine mesh bags. For wood decomposition, responses to bark removal were species dependent. Three species with slow wood decomposition rates showed significant negative effects of bark-removal, but there was no significant effect in the other two species. Future research should also separately examine bark and wood decomposition, and consider bark-removal experiments to better understand roles of bark in wood decomposition. PMID:27698461

  1. Factors controlling bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition in five tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Gbadamassi G O; Paudel, Ekananda; Cao, Kunfang; Schaefer, Douglas; Harrison, Rhett D

    2016-10-04

    Organic matter decomposition represents a vital ecosystem process by which nutrients are made available for plant uptake and is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have investigated decomposition of different plant parts, but few considered bark decomposition or its role in decomposition of wood. However, bark can comprise a large fraction of tree biomass. We used a common litter-bed approach to investigate factors affecting bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition for five tree species in a secondary seasonal tropical rain forest in SW China. For bark, we implemented a litter bag experiment over 12 mo, using different mesh sizes to investigate effects of litter meso- and macro-fauna. For wood, we compared the decomposition of branches with and without bark over 24 mo. Bark in coarse mesh bags decomposed 1.11-1.76 times faster than bark in fine mesh bags. For wood decomposition, responses to bark removal were species dependent. Three species with slow wood decomposition rates showed significant negative effects of bark-removal, but there was no significant effect in the other two species. Future research should also separately examine bark and wood decomposition, and consider bark-removal experiments to better understand roles of bark in wood decomposition.

  2. Host preference and species richness of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi in a cool temperate area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Tsutomu; Abe, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    We examined the species richness and host utilization patterns of wood-inhabiting aphyllophoraceous fungi (polypores and related fungi) in an old-growth beech and oak forest in a cool, temperate area of Japan. Coarse woody debris (CWD) > or = 20 cm diam within a 6 ha plot was surveyed in Sep 2002. Tree genus, diameter, decay class and tree part of CWD samples were recorded. Fruiting bodies of aphyllophoraceous fungi that arose from the CWD were surveyed three times and identified to species. In total 256 CWD samples from 12 tree genera were surveyed with Quercus being the most frequent followed by Castanea and Fagus. From 196 CWD samples we recorded 436 wood-inhabiting fungi belonging to 63 species. Fifteen fungal species had at least 10 records, with Hymenochaete rubiginosa, Daedalea dickinsii, Xylobolus frustulatus, Rigidoporus cinereus and the small form of Fomes fomentarius being the most frequent. The number of fungal species that appeared on Fagus was significantly larger than that on Castanea, when the number of fruiting bodies collected was at least 50. The occurrences of the 15 dominant fungal species, except Trametes versicolor, were related to traits of the CWD. Tree genus was a predictor variable that affected the appearance of 11 of the 15 species of wood-inhabiting fungi. Only the tree part was selected for the models of Rigidoporus eminens, Schizopora flavipora and Stereum ostrea. Our results suggest that tree genus and tree part are important factors determining fungal community structure because these were selected as complementary predictor variables. Both oak and beech appear to be the most important tree genera for maintaining wood-inhabiting fungal species richness because the fungal flora formed on oak CWD is nearly complementary to those on chestnut, with low fungal species richness.

  3. [Book review] Lichens of the north woods: a field guide to 111 northern species, by Joe Walewski

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Review of: LICHENS OF THE NORTH WOODS, A FIELD GUIDE TO 111 NORTHERN SPECIES. Joe Walewski. 2007. North Woods Naturalist Series, Kollath & Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 152 pp, softcover. ISBN: 0-9673793-50. $18.95.

  4. Wood

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  5. Wood species affect the degradation of crude oil in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Gerald; Rodríguez Arranz, Alberto; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The addition of wood chips as a co-substrate can promote the degradation of oil in soil. Therefore, in the present study, the tree species-specific impact of wood chips of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa L.) on the degradation of crude oil was tested in beach sand in a 4-week incubation experiment. The CO2-C release increased in the order of control without wood chips < +spruce < +pine < +poplar. Initial and final hydrocarbon concentrations (C10 to C40), as indicators for the oil degradation, were determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The degradation increased for the light fraction (C10 to C22), the heavy fraction (C23 to C40) as well as the whole range (C10 to C40) in the order of control without wood chips (f(degrad.) = 23% vs. 0% vs. 12%) < +poplar (f(degrad.) = 49% vs. 19% vs. 36%) < +spruce (f(degrad.) = 55% vs. 34% vs. 46%) < +pine (f(degrad.) = 60% vs. 44% vs. 53%), whereas the heavy fraction was less degraded in comparison to the light fraction. It can be concluded, that the tree species-specific wood quality is a significant control of the impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons, and pine wood chips might be promising, possibly caused by their lower decomposability and lower substrate replacement than the other wood species.

  6. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees.

    PubMed

    McCulloh, Katherine A; Johnson, Daniel M; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea and Anacardium excelsum. As hypothesized, the higher wood density of Miconia was associated with smaller diameter vessels and fibres, more water stress-resistant leaves and stems, and roughly half the capacitance of the lower wood density Anacardium. However, the scaling of hydraulic parameters such as the increases in leaf area and measures of hydraulic conductivity with stem diameter was remarkably similar between the two species. The collection of traits exhibited by Miconia allowed it to tolerate more water stress than Anacardium, which relied more heavily on its capacitance to buffer daily water potential fluctuations. This work demonstrates the importance of examining a range of hydraulic traits throughout the plant and highlights the spectrum of possible strategies for coping with daily and seasonal water stress cycles.

  7. Characterization of the Oxygen Transmission Rate of Oak Wood Species Used in Cooperage.

    PubMed

    Del Alamo-Sanza, María; Cárcel, Luis Miguel; Nevares, Ignacio

    2017-01-25

    The oxygen that wine receives while aged in barrels is of interest because it defines the reactions that occur during aging and, therefore, the final properties of the wine. This study is intended to make up for the lack of information concerning the oxygen permeability of eight different woods of Quercus alba L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. commonly used. In addition, it shows how oxygen transfer evolves with the liquid contact time during testing under similar aging conditions to those in wine barrels. French oak woods permitted a higher oxygenation rate than American ones in all cases. A decrease in the oxygen entry caused by impregnation of the wood during the process was observed in all of the species studied. This process is determined by the thickness of the flooded wood layer containing free water, although differently in the two species, possibly due to the anatomical structure and the logging process for each.

  8. Remote sensing of endangered species foraging habitats: a wood stork example

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Coulter, M.

    1986-03-01

    Potential foraging sites for an endangered species, the wood stork, were identified using thematic mapper data for May 1984, for a section of north-central Georgia. This was accomplished using innovative clustering techniques applied to known wood stork foraging sites around the Birdsville Colony in Georgia. The signatures for known sites were then geographically extended to a 1,520-square-kilometer region surrounding the Birdsville Colony. Thematic maps were produced, and foraging area acreages computed providing a regional assessment of existing and potential wood stork foraging sits. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Gamma-radiation-induced wood-plastic composites from Syrian tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Salman, Numan; Al-kassiri, Haroun

    2001-05-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPC) have been prepared with five low-grade woods, native to Syria, using three monomer systems; acrylamide, butylmethacrylate, and styrene, with methanol as the swelling solvent. Polymerization was induced at various radiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h using a 60Co gamma radiation source. Some physical properties of WPC, namely polymer loading and compression strength have been measured. The polymer loading decreases approximately with increasing density of the wood species used.

  10. An Investigation of bat durability by wood species

    Treesearch

    Eric Ruggiero; James Sherwood; Patrick Drane; David Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    Northern white ash had been the wood of choice for Major League Baseball (MLB) bats until the introduction of hard maple in the late 1990s. Since the introduction of maple to the game, there has been a perceived increase in the rate of bats to exhibit multi-piece failures (MPF)—both ash and maple. Lab and field data indicate that while a maple bat is as...

  11. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  12. Nucleotide variation in genes invloved in wood formation in two pine species

    Treesearch

    David Pot; Lisa McMillan; Craig Echt; Gregoire Le Provost; Pauline Garnier-Gere; Sheree Cato; Christophe Plomion

    2005-01-01

    Nucleotide diversity in eight genes related to wood formation was investigated in two pine species, Pinus pinaster and P. radiata. The nucleotide diversity patterns observed and their properties were compared between the two species according to the specific characteristics of the samples analysed. A lower diversity was observed in P. radiata...

  13. Potential for Converting Wood into Plastics: Chemicals from wood may regain importance as the cost of petroleum continues to rise.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, I S

    1975-09-12

    The conversion of wood into chemicals for the production of most of our synthetic plastics, fibers, and rubbers is technically feasible. With refinements in technology a large integrated plant utilizing all components of the wood for production of ethanol (to be further processed to ethylene and butadiene), phenols and furfural would be approaching economic feasibility as well at current petrochemical prices. If crude oil prices continue to climb at a faster rate than wood costs, the economic feasibility of chemicals for polymers from wood would become certain. Although technical feasibility has not been established, synthetic oils from liquefaction of wood might serve as feedstocks for cracking to chemicals in the same way that crude oil is presently used. The fulfillment of all our polymer needs from wood as a raw material should not place an impossible burden on our wood supply, but might actually improve the availability of wood for lumber, plywood and pulp by providing a use for less valuable wood which would allow reforestation and improved forest management.

  14. Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph; Bergamini, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status). Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri) and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria) of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and functional species

  15. Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness.

    PubMed

    Kiebacher, Thomas; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph; Bergamini, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status). Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri) and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria) of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and functional species

  16. Argentinean native wood species: Physical and mechanical characterization of some Prosopis species and Acacia aroma (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Pizzo, Benedetto; Brunetti, Michele; Macchioni, Nicola; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2009-03-01

    One of the problems in marketing the wood of Prosopis and Acacia is the lack of standardization of its qualities. The aim of this paper was to obtain a preliminary detection of some properties of the wood of four species of the genus Prosopis and one species from Acacia grown in Argentina. To accomplish this objective, the content of extractives and some physical and mechanical characteristics were analyzed. The density rho(12) of all the species indicates that these woods range from heavy to very heavy (>or=0.69g/cm(3)). The total volumetric shrinkage values are low, less than 10%, for all species. The parallel compression strength and the shear strength for all the species indicate a very resistant wood (>or=46.93MPa and >or=18.35MPa, respectively). Brinell hardness was higher than 5kg/mm(2) in all cases. The species with less content of extractives is P. ruscifolia (approximately 9% of anhydrous mass) whereas A. aroma was the one with the greatest content (approximately 25% of anhydrous mass in the heartwood).

  17. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  18. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  19. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    PubMed

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  20. Salt stress induces the formation of a novel type of 'pressure wood' in two Populus species.

    PubMed

    Janz, Dennis; Lautner, Silke; Wildhagen, Henning; Behnke, Katja; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz; Fromm, Jörg; Polle, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    • Salinity causes osmotic stress and limits biomass production of plants. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying hydraulic adaptation to salinity. • Anatomical, ecophysiological and transcriptional responses to salinity were investigated in the xylem of a salt-sensitive (Populus × canescens) and a salt-tolerant species (Populus euphratica). • Moderate salt stress, which suppressed but did not abolish photosynthesis and radial growth in P. × canescens, resulted in hydraulic adaptation by increased vessel frequencies and decreased vessel lumina. Transcript abundances of a suite of genes (FLA, COB-like, BAM, XET, etc.) previously shown to be activated during tension wood formation, were collectively suppressed in developing xylem, whereas those for stress and defense-related genes increased. A subset of cell wall-related genes was also suppressed in salt-exposed P. euphratica, although this species largely excluded sodium and showed no anatomical alterations. Salt exposure influenced cell wall composition involving increases in the lignin : carbohydrate ratio in both species. • In conclusion, hydraulic stress adaptation involves cell wall modifications reciprocal to tension wood formation that result in the formation of a novel type of reaction wood in upright stems named 'pressure wood'. Our data suggest that transcriptional co-regulation of a core set of genes determines reaction wood composition.

  1. Effect of thermal treatments on technological properties of wood from two Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Cademartori, Pedro Henrique G; Missio, André L; Mattos, Bruno D; Gatto, Darci A

    2015-03-01

    The effect of thermal treatments on physical and mechanical properties of rose gum and Sydney blue gum wood was evaluated. Wood samples were thermally modified in a combination: pre-treatment in an autoclave (127°C - 1h) and treatment in an oven (180-240°C - 4h); and only treatment in an oven at 180-240°C for 4h. Chemical changes in the structure of woods were evaluated through infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of physical properties was performed through mass loss, specific gravity, equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability tests. Surface changes were analyzed through apparent contact angle technique and static bending tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior. Use of pre-treatment in autoclave affected the properties analyzed, however oven, resulted in the highest changes on wood from both species. Chemical changes were related to the degradation of hemicelluloses. Moreover, a significant decrease of hygroscopicity and mechanical strength of thermally modified woods was observed, while specific gravity did not significantly change for either of the species studied. The best results of decrease of wettability were found in low temperatures, while dimensional stability increased as a function of temperature of exposure in oven. The highest loss of mechanical strength was observed at 240°C for both species.

  2. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used wood species can deteriorate if exposed to conditions that support growth of wood-degrading organisms (see Chap. 14). Wood products can be protected from the attack of decay fungi, harmful insects, or marine borers by applying chemical preservatives. Preservative treatments greatly increase the life of wood structures, thus reducing replacement costs...

  3. Relative importance of breakage and decay as processes depleting large wood from streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Eric C.; Vaz, Pedro G.; Decker-Fritz, Jo A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2013-05-01

    Large wood pieces affect virtually every physical, chemical, and biological process in fluvial systems, including hydraulics, transport of materials, algal biomass accrual, nutrient uptake, and trophic interactions. The processes that deplete wood are thus of broad importance to stream ecosystems. We assessed the relative contributions for breakage-induced mobilization (where pieces are more prone to transport as a result of breakage into shorter parts) and gradual biochemical decay to wood depletion rates in a field study on 12 northern Minnesota, USA, streams. Wood pieces > 0.05 m in diameter for a portion > 1 m in length were individually tagged (n = 651), measured, and remeasured a year later. Pieces showed significant reductions in density and branching complexity (i.e., branches and twigs) and 22% of pieces broke (i.e., lost 10% or more of length). Processes related to breakage and decay were examined using Bayesian structural equation modeling and multiple regression. Breakage was more likely for pieces that were thin in diameter, long, deeply submerged, braced, buried, and traveled long distances. Pieces lost more density if they were initially dense, traveled a long distance, were not deeply submerged, lacked bark, were thin in diameter, were steeply pitched, were long, and were not buried. Pieces lost more branching complexity if they were complex with little gap between them and the streambed. Actual mass losses related to breakage and decay were 7.3% and 1.9% (respectively), both less than the 36% observed for total fluvial export. In contrast to the associations of breakage and decay with structural properties of the wood pieces and their position, hydraulic and geomorphic variables (stream power, slope, velocity, width) had little effect.

  4. Soil organic matter dynamics under decaying wood in a subtropical wet forest: effect of tree species and decay stage.

    Treesearch

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; Chien-Lu Ping; Gary Michaelson

    2007-01-01

    Decaying wood is an important structural and functional component of forests: it contributes to generate habitat diversity, acts as either sink or source of nutrients, and plays a preponderant role in soil formation. Thus, decaying wood might likely have measurable effects on chemical properties of the underlying soil.We hypothesized that decaying wood would have a...

  5. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; Frederick C. Meinzer; Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jean-Christophe. Domec

    2012-01-01

    Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea...

  6. Fuel wood properties of some oak tree species of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Meetei, Shougrakpam Bijen; Singh, E J; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Five indigenous oak tree species, i.e., Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC., Lithocarpus fenestratus (Roxb.) Rehder, Lithocarpus pachyphyllus (Kurz) Rehder, Lithocarpus polystachyus (Wall. ex A.DC.) Rehder and Quercus serrata Murray were estimated for their wood properties such as calorific value, density, moisture content and ash content from a sub-tropical forest of Haraothel hill, Senapati District, Manipur. Wood biomass components were found to have higher calorific value (kJ g(-)) than bark components. The calorific values for tree species were found highest in L. pachyphyllus (17.99 kJ g(-1)) followed by C. indica (17.98 kJ g1), L. fenestratus (17.96 kJ g"), L. polystachyus (17.80 kJ g(-1)) and Q. serrata (17.49 kJ g(-1)). Calorific values for bole bark, bole wood and branch bark were found significantly different (F > 3.48 at p = 0.05) in five oak tree species. Percentage of ash on dry weight basis was found to be highest in Q. serrata (4.73%) and lowest in C. indica (2.19%). Ash content of tree components gives a singnificant factor in determining fuelwood value index (FVI). Of all the five oak tree species, Q. serrata exhibited highest value of wood density (0.78 g cm-) and lowest was observed in C. indica (0.63 g cm(-3)). There was significant correlation between wood density (p<0.05), ash content (p<0.01) with calorific value in oak tree species. Fuelwood value index (FVI) was in the following order: C. indica (1109.70) > L. pachyphyllus (898.41)> L. polystachyus (879.02)> L. fenestratus (824.61)> Q. serrata (792.50). Thus, the present study suggests that C. indica may be considered as a fuelwood oak tree species in Manipur.

  7. Wood anatomy of the Brazilian species of Swartizia and considerations within the tribe Swartzieae

    Treesearch

    Veronica Angyalossy-Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-one Brazilian species and varieties of Swartzia Schreber and eight other genera from the tribe Swartzieae were examined. Features with the greatest diagnostic value for the tribe are intervascular pit size, ray width and frequency, storied structure, axial parenchyma strand length, parenchyma band width, and vessel diameter. We analyzed the wood anatomical data...

  8. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species

    Treesearch

    Grant T. Kirker; Amy Blodgett; Patricia Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat...

  9. Diversity of Diaporthe species associated with wood cankers of fruit and nut crops in northern California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaporthe ampelina, causal agent of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), is also frequently isolated from grapevine wood, causing Phomopsis dieback. In California, Diaporthe species cause a wide range of symptoms not only on grape, but also other fruit and nut crops. To bet...

  10. Influence of geographical origin and botanical species on the content of extractives in American, French, and East European oak woods.

    PubMed

    Prida, Andrei; Puech, Jean-Louis

    2006-10-18

    The chemical composition of East European (Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania) oaks was investigated profoundly for the first time in the present study and compared with American and French counterparts. Taking into account the high natural variability of oak extractives contents, the wide-ranging sampling was performed for all oak origins: 276 French oaks, 102 East European oaks of both species (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl.), and 56 American oaks (Quercus alba). These oaks were compared with great attention paid to the extractives, which are most important for sensorial impact in wine or spirit maturation, such as ellagitannins and principal odorant substances (aromatic aldehydes, lactones and phenols). The substances in question were studied by application of HPLC and GC-MS techniques. The pattern of all studied extractive contents allowed adequate separation of oak samples according to their geographical origin or botanical species. The highest separation rate was for American and French oaks, whereas East European samples could be partially misclassified in two sets mentioned above. The most important variables for species discrimination were whiskey lactone related variables and ellagitannins, whereas the most important features for distinguishing the origin were eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, vanillin, and syringaldehyde. These substances allowed the distinction of French and East European woods of the same species. With regard to chemical composition, East European wood held the intermediary place between American and French oaks according to their ellagitannin and whiskey lactone levels; nevertheless, it was characterized by specific high values of eugenol, aromatic aldehydes, and 2-phenylethanol.

  11. Associations between regional moisture gradient, tree species dominance, and downed wood abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Mills, J.

    2007-12-01

    Downed wood functions as a source of nurse logs, physical structure in streams, food, and carbon. Because downed wood is important in upland and aquatic habitats, an understanding of wood recruitment along a continuum from wet to dry landscapes is critical for both preservation of biodiversity and restoration of natural ecosystem structure and function. We assessed downed wood in public and private forests of Washington and Oregon by using a subset of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database including 15,842 sampled conditions. Multivariate regression trees, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to discern environmental conditions most closely associated with abundance of woody debris. Of the 16 parameters included in the analysis, rainfall, forest ownership, number of damaged standing trees, and forest elevation were most indicative of woody debris abundance. The Hemlock/spruce Group, including hemlock, spruce, cedar, and white pine, most associated with wetter soils, had significantly more downed wood than 12 other forest groups. The Ponderosa Pine Group, indicative of drier sites with higher fire frequencies, included ponderosa pine, sugar pine, and incense cedar, and had significantly less downed wood volume. Overall, the amount of woody debris in either the Spruce/hemlock Group or the Ponderosa Pine Group did not change significantly as tree age increased from 5 to 350 years. Plots within the Hemlock/spruce with greater standing tree volume also had significantly greater downed wood volume. In contrast, greater downed wood volume was not associated with greater standing tree volume in the Ponderosa Pine Group. Knowledge of linkages among environmental variables and stand characteristics are useful in development of regional forest models aimed at understanding the effects of climate change and disturbance on forest succession.

  12. Comparative evaluation of three lignin isolation protocols for various wood species.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Anderson; Filpponen, Ilari; Lucia, Lucian A; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2006-12-27

    Milled wood lignin (MWL), cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL), and enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL) were isolated from different wood species and characterized by various techniques. The EMAL protocol offered gravimetric lignin yields 2-5 times greater than those of the corresponding MWL and CEL. The purities of the EMALs were 3.75-10.6% higher than those of their corresponding CELs, depending upon the wood species from which they were isolated. Molecular weight analyses showed that the EMAL protocol isolates lignin fractions that are not accessed by the other procedures evaluated, while 31P NMR spectroscopy revealed that MWL is more condensed and bears more phenolic hydroxyl groups than EMAL and CEL. The yields and purities of EMAL, MWL, and CEL from hardwood were greater than those obtained for the examined softwoods. Structural details obtained by DFRC (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage)/31P NMR revealed different contents of condensed and uncondensed beta-O-aryl ether structures, dibenzodioxocins, and condensed and uncondensed phenolic hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups within lignins isolated from different wood species.

  13. Leaf and wood carbon isotope ratios, specific leaf areas and wood growth of Eucalyptus species across a rainfall gradient in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Turner, Neil C; Nicolle, Dean; Schumacher, Jens

    2006-04-01

    delta 13C was associated with changes in SLA, 16% with soil type and only 1% with rainfall. Additionally, 21% was associated with species identity. For a subset of sites with > 300 mm rainfall, 43% of the variation was explained by SLA, 13% by soil type and only 3% by rainfall. The species effect decreased to 9% because there were fewer species in the subset of sites. The small effect of rainfall on delta 13C was further supported by a path analysis that yielded a standardized path coefficient of 0.38 for the effect of rainfall on SLA and -0.50 for the effect of SLA on delta 13C, but an insignificantly low standardized path coefficient of -0.05 for the direct effect of rainfall on delta 13C. Thus, in contrast to our hypothesis that delta 13C decreases with rainfall independent of soil type and species, we detected no statistically significant relationship between rainfall and delta 13C in leaves of trees growing at sites receiving < 300 mm of rainfall annually. Rainfall affected delta 13C indirectly through soil type (a surrogate for water-holding capacity) across the rainfall gradient. Annual tree rings are not clearly visible in evergreen Eucalyptus species, even in the seasonally cool climate of SW Australia. Generally, visible density transitions in the wood are related not to a strict annual cycle but to periods of growth associated mainly with rainfall. The relationship between delta 13C of leaves and the width of these stem increments was not statistically significant. Analysis of stem growth periods showed that delta 13C in wood responded to rainfall events, but carbohydrate storage and reallocation also affected the isotopic signature. Although delta 13C in wood of any one species varied over a range of 2 to 4 per thousand, there was a general relationship between delta 13C of the leaves and the annual range of delta 13C in wood. We conclude that species-specific traits are important in understanding the response of Eucalyptus to rainfall and that the diversity

  14. Wood Products by Species and Quality in Upland Forests

    Treesearch

    David W. Patterson

    2004-01-01

    Products that can be produced from an upland forest depend on the species and quality of the trees present. Quality depends on growth rate and tree form. These variables are discussed as well as the products that can be produced such as veneer and plywood, grade lumber, handle stock, pallet stock, cross ties, and industrial lumber.

  15. The importance and benefits of species.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Claude; Brooks, Thomas M; Contreras-MacBeath, Topiltzin; Heard, Nicolas; Konstant, William; Lamoreux, John; Launay, Frederic; Maunder, Michael; Mittermeier, Russell A; Molur, Sanjay; Al Mubarak, Razan Khalifa; Parr, Michael J; Rhodin, Anders G J; Rylands, Anthony B; Soorae, Pritpal; Sanderson, James G; Vié, Jean-Christophe

    2015-05-18

    Humans depend on biodiversity in myriad ways, yet species are being rapidly lost due to human activities. The ecosystem services approach to conservation tries to establish the value that society derives from the natural world such that the true cost of proposed development actions becomes apparent to decision makers. Species are an integral component of ecosystems, and the value they provide in terms of services should be a standard part of ecosystem assessments. However, assessing the value of species is difficult and will always remain incomplete. Some of the most difficult species' benefits to assess are those that accrue unexpectedly or are wholly unanticipated. In this review, we consider recent examples from a wide variety of species and a diverse set of ecosystem services that illustrate this point and support the application of the precautionary principle to decisions affecting the natural world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  17. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  18. Performance of Northeastern United States wood species treated with copper based preservatives: 10 year above-ground decking evaluation

    Treesearch

    S. T. Lebow; S. A. Halverson

    2015-01-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate the decking performance of northeastern United States wood species treated with copper based preservatives. Decking specimens were treated with one of four wood preservatives and exposed near Madison, Wisconsin. Specimens were evaluated for biological attack and dimensional stability. After 10 years, none of the preservative treated...

  19. An Analysis of Wood Pellets For Export: A Case Study of Sweden as an Importer

    Treesearch

    P.B. Aruna; Jan G. Laarman; Philip A. Araman; Frederick Cubbage

    1997-01-01

    North America is a major producer of wood pellets, and the principal market for them is domestic residential wood heating. To date, the export market for wood pellets is small. On the other hand , several developments are occurring that may be increasing the foreign demand for biomass fuels. A few North American companies are considering Sweden as a potential export...

  20. Health effects of residential wood smoke particles: the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Pagels, Joakim; Yttri, Karl Espen; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Schwarze, Per E; Boman, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Background Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles. Outline The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties. Conclusion Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles. PMID:19891791

  1. Lignification and tension wood.

    PubMed

    Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

  2. [Study on artificial neural network combined with near infrared spectroscopy for wood species identification].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Yu; Wang, Gui-Yun; Huang, An-Min; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong; Xiang, Yu-Hong; Gu, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    In the present article, near infrared spectra of 89 wood samples of different geographical provenances and species were measured, and back propagation artificial neural networks(BPANN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) were used for modeling of wood species NIRS identifying. Parameters for two neural networks were chosen via analysis of variance, respectively; and networks were trained with optimum parameters. Considering the difference between spectra, spectra with different levels of white noise and different levels of bias were simulated and predicted by using the models built. It was found that both the two models had satisfactory prediction results, identification correct rates obtained by BPANN model applied to spectra with bias level no higher than 2% and noise level no higher than 4% were above 97%; correct rates obtained by GRNN model applied to spectra with bias level no higher than 2% and noise level no higher than 4% were above 99%.

  3. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan.

  4. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:27956767

  5. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  6. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  7. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Analysis of the dielectric properties of trunk wood in dominant conifer species from New England and Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Rock, B. N.; Salas, W. A.; Smith, K.; Williams, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data were collected for dominant conifer species. Dielectric properties of trunk wood were measured using a C-band dielectric probe. For certain specimens, electrical resistance was also measured using a shigometer. The water status of the trees studies was determined either by use of a Scholander pressure chamber on branch samples collected simultaneously with dielectric measurements or by fresh-weight/dry-weight assessment of wood core samples extracted and analyzed with the dielectric probe and shigometer. Diurnal delectric properties and xylem water column tension are inversely correlated such that real and imaginary dielectric values drop as tension increases. The dielectric properties were positively correlated with wood core moisture content while electrical resistance was poorly correlated with wood core moisture content in one species studied. Results support the view that dielectric properties are strongly correlated with moisture status in trunk wood, and possibly ion concentrations associated with decay processes in damaged specimens.

  9. Analysis of the dielectric properties of trunk wood in dominant conifer species from New England and Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Rock, B. N.; Salas, W. A.; Smith, K.; Williams, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Data were collected for dominant conifer species. Dielectric properties of trunk wood were measured using a C-band dielectric probe. For certain specimens, electrical resistance was also measured using a shigometer. The water status of the trees studies was determined either by use of a Scholander pressure chamber on branch samples collected simultaneously with dielectric measurements or by fresh-weight/dry-weight assessment of wood core samples extracted and analyzed with the dielectric probe and shigometer. Diurnal delectric properties and xylem water column tension are inversely correlated such that real and imaginary dielectric values drop as tension increases. The dielectric properties were positively correlated with wood core moisture content while electrical resistance was poorly correlated with wood core moisture content in one species studied. Results support the view that dielectric properties are strongly correlated with moisture status in trunk wood, and possibly ion concentrations associated with decay processes in damaged specimens.

  10. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  11. Wood properties affecting finish service life

    Treesearch

    R. Sam. Williams; Charles. Jourdain; George I. Daisey; Robert W. Springate

    2000-01-01

    Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth conditions, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Some of the more important wood properties as they relate to wood finishing are discussed, e.g., growth rate, density, knots, extractives, juvenile...

  12. Wood specific gravity and anatomy of branches and roots in 113 Amazonian rainforest tree species across environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Fortunel, Claire; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Fine, Paul V A; Baraloto, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of tree performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in French Guiana, spanning broad environmental gradients found throughout Amazonia. We measured 15 traits relating to branches and small woody roots in 113 species representing the 15 most abundant species in each habitat and representative species from seven monophyletic lineages occurring in all habitats. Fiber traits appear to be major determinants of WSG, independent of vessel traits, in branches and roots. Fiber traits and branch and root WSG increased from seasonally flooded species to clay terra firme species and lastly to white sand species. Branch and root wood traits were strongly phylogenetically constrained. Lineages differed in wood design, but exhibited similar variation in wood structure across habitats. We conclude that tropical trees can invest differently in support and transport to respond to environmental conditions. Wind disturbance and drought stress represent significant filters driving tree distribution of Amazonian forests; hence we suggest that biophysical explanations should receive more attention.

  13. Cadophora species associated with wood-decay of grapevine in North America.

    PubMed

    Travadon, Renaud; Lawrence, Daniel P; Rooney-Latham, Suzanne; Gubler, Walter D; Wilcox, Wayne F; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Cadophora species are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of its ability to cause wood lesions/discoloration in pathogenicity tests, suggest that C. luteo-olivacea is part of the trunk pathogen complex. In North America, little is known regarding the diversity, geographic distribution, and roles of Cadophora species as trunk pathogens. Accordingly, we characterized 37 Cadophora isolates from ten US states and two Canadian provinces, based on molecular and morphological comparisons, and pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis of three loci (ITS, translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1-α) and beta-tubulin (BT)) distinguished two known species (C. luteo-olivacea and Cadophora melinii) and three newly-described species (Cadophora orientoamericana, Cadophora novi-eboraci, and Cadophora spadicis). C. orientoamericana, C. novi-eboraci, and C. spadicis were restricted to the northeastern US, whereas C. luteo-olivacea was only recovered from California. C. melinii was present in California and Ontario, Canada. Morphological characterization was less informative, due to significant overlap in dimensions of conidia, hyphae, conidiophores, and conidiogenous cells. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the presence of wood lesions after 24 m, suggesting that Cadophora species may have a role as grapevine trunk pathogens.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from exotic woods: importance of patch-testing with patient-provided samples.

    PubMed

    Podjasek, Joshua O; Cook-Norris, Robert H; Richardson, Donna M; Drage, Lisa A; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Exotic woods from tropical and subtropical regions (eg, from South America, south Asia, and Africa) frequently are used occupationally and recreationally by woodworkers and hobbyists. These exotic woods more commonly provoke irritant contact dermatitis reactions, but they also can provoke allergic contact dermatitis reactions. We report three patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to exotic woods. Patch testing was performed and included patient-provided wood samples. Avoidance of identified allergens was recommended. For all patients, the dermatitis cleared or improved after avoidance of the identified allergens. Clinicians must be aware of the potential for allergic contact dermatitis reactions to compounds in exotic woods. Patch testing should be performed with suspected woods for diagnostic confirmation and allowance of subsequent avoidance of the allergens.

  15. Cottonwood: An American Wood

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1985-01-01

    Two species of cottonwood trees in the United States are commercially important: eastern cottonwood and black cottonwood. Eastern cottonwood is the more important of these. Wood of both species is similar in appearance and properties, being light in weight and color with a fairly straight grain and uniform texture. It is not strong and decays rapidly in damp areas or...

  16. Biochemical, genetic and physiological characterization of venom components from two species of scorpions: Centruroides exilicauda Wood and Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Dávila, Sonia; Licea, Alexei; Corona, Miguel; Zamudio, Fernando Z; García-Valdes, Jesús; Boyer, Leslie; Possani, Lourival D

    2004-06-01

    Current literature concerning the taxonomic names of two possibly distinct species of scorpions from the genus Centruroides (sculpturatus and/or exilicauda) is controversial. This communication reports the results of biochemical, genetic and electrophysiological experiments conducted with C. exilicauda Wood of Baja California (Mexico) and C. sculpturatus Ewing of Arizona (USA). The chromatographic profile fractionation of the soluble venom from both species of scorpions is different. The N-terminal amino acid sequence for nine toxins of C. exilicauda was determined and compared with those from C. sculpturatus. Lethality tests conducted in mice support the idea that C. exilicauda venom should be expected to be medically less important than C. sculpturatus. Thirteen genes from the venomous glands of the scorpion C. exilicauda were obtained and compared with previously published sequences from genes of the species C. sculpturatus. Genes coding for cytochrome oxidase I and II of both species were also sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was generated with this information showing important differences between them. Additionally, the results of electrophysiological assays conducted with the venom from both species on the Ca(2+)-dependent K(+)-channels, showed significant differences. These results strongly support the conclusion that C. exilicauda and C. sculpturatus are in fact two distinct species of scorpions.

  17. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  18. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  19. Spencermartinsiella silvicola sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from rotting wood.

    PubMed

    Morais, Camila G; Lara, Carla A; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Peter, Gábor; Dlauchy, Dénes; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-11-10

    Three strains of a new xylanase-producing yeast species were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil. The sequences of the ITS region and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene showed that this new yeast species belongs to the genus Spencermartinsiella, and its closest relatives among the recognized species are S. europaea and S. ligniputridi. The novel species Spencermartinsiella silvicola sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-CM-Y274T (= CBS 13490T). The MycoBank number is MB 813053. In addition, Candida cellulosicola is reassigned to the genus Spencermartinsiella as a new combination.

  20. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    PubMed

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Framework for Modelling Economic Impacts of Invasive Species, Applied to Pine Wood Nematode in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Tarek; Mourits, Monique C. M.; van der Werf, Wopke; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Robinet, Christelle; Lansink, Alfons G. J. M. Oude

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. Methodology/Principal Findings Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008–2030), assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014–2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300–800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. Conclusions/Significance Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions. PMID:23029059

  2. The leaf, wood and bark oils of three species of Myodocarpus (Myodocarpaceae) endemic to New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Lawes, Douglas; Hnawia, Edouard; Page, Michael; Brophy, Joseph; Nour, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    The leaf, wood and bark oils of three species of Myodocarpus, M. viellardii Brongn. & Gris, M. fraxinifolius Brongn. & Gris and M. lanceolatus Dubard & R. Viguier have been examined. From the wood oil of M. viellardii the major components were α-pinene (22.4%) and a monoterpene methyl ester, methyl myodocarpate (methyl 3,7-dimethylbicyclo [4,1,0]hept-3-ene-7-carboxylate) (61%), based on the δ-3-carene skeleton. Also present in lesser amounts was the corresponding acid, myodocarpic acid (3,7-dimethylbicyclo[4,1,0]hept-3-ene-7-carboxilic acid) and the corresponding alcohol, myodocarpol (3,7- dimethylbicyclo[4,1,0]hept-3-en-7-yl) methanol), in lesser (< 3%) amounts. The bark oil contained β-caryophyllene (13.8%) and a series of long chain fatty alcohols, dodecanol, tetradecanol, hexadecanol, octadecanol and octadec-9-en-1-ol in amounts of 1.4-15% (all but octadecanol > 11%). The leaf oil of this species produced a sesquiterpenic oil with the principal components being β-caryophyllene (36%), α-humulene (11.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.6%). In M. fraxinifolius, both the wood and bark oils contained a series of long chain alcohols, tetradecanol (30-38%), hexadecanol (23-29%) and octadec-9-en-1-ol (12%) as principal components. In the leaf oil of this species the principal component was β-caryophyllene (63%), with lesser amounts of humulene oxide II (2.9%), isocomene (2.8%) and viridiflorol (1.4%). In M. lanceolatus, the leaf oil was dominated by the monoterpene hydrocarbons α-pinene (22.9%) and δ-3-carene (32.6%). In the wood oil of this species the principal components were geraniol (7.4%), citronellol (4.7%), germacrene-B (7.1%), zingiberine (6.8%) and linalool (6.7%), while in the bark oil they were geraniol (12.4%), citronellol (2.6%), germacrene-B (5.8%), and linalool (6.5%).

  3. Properties of seven Colombian woods

    Treesearch

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff

    1981-01-01

    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  4. Comparative interrogation of the developing xylem transcriptomes of two wood-forming species: Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis.

    PubMed

    Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2015-06-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process governed by genetic and environmental stimuli. Populus and Eucalyptus are fast-growing, high-yielding tree genera that represent ecologically and economically important species suitable for generating significant lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analysis of the developing xylem and leaf transcriptomes of Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis together with phylogenetic analyses identified clusters of homologous genes preferentially expressed during xylem formation in both species. A conserved set of 336 single gene pairs showed highly similar xylem preferential expression patterns, as well as evidence of high functional constraint. Individual members of multi-gene orthologous clusters known to be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis also showed conserved xylem expression profiles. However, species-specific expression as well as opposite (xylem versus leaf) expression patterns observed for a subset of genes suggest subtle differences in the transcriptional regulation important for xylem development in each species. Using sequence similarity and gene expression status, we identified functional homologs likely to be involved in xylem developmental and biosynthetic processes in Populus and Eucalyptus. Our study suggests that, while genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis show high levels of gene expression conservation, differential regulation of some xylem development genes may give rise to unique xylem properties.

  5. Role of charred wood, heat-shock and light in germination of postfire phrygana species from the eastern Mediterranean Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Babr-Keeley, Melanie

    1999-01-01

    Seeds of 22 species collected from recently burned phrygana were tested for their response to fire-type cues of charred wood and heat-shock. All Cistus species were stimulated by brief heat-shock, as shown in previous studies; however, none responded to charred wood. Only one of the 22 species was stimulated by charred wood, and only in dark-inhibited seeds, and this response did not occur in the light. The lack of charred-wood-induced germination is in contrast to the substantial proportion of species with this germination response reported for mediterranean-type vegetation in California, the Cape region of South Africa, and Western Australia. Phrygana has many species with heat-shock-stimulated germination, primarily in the Fabaceae and Cistaceae. This germination cue is widespread in these two families, thus, the presence of heat-shock-stimulated germination is a result of homologous, rather than covergent, adaptations in mediterranean-climate ecosystems. Germination response to light was not randomly distributed with respect to fire-type response. Heat-shock-stimulated species were almost uniformly light neutral, in contrast to more opportunistic colonizing species with non-refractory seeds, in which half of the species responded positively or negatively to light.

  6. Micrandra inundata (Euphorbiaceae), a new species with unusual wood anatomy from black-water river banks in southern Venezuela

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2004-01-01

    Micrandra inundata is a distinctive new species adapted to seasonally flooded black-water river banks in southern Venezuela. Trees rarely exceed 10 m in height but have thick basal trunks composed of very lightweight wood. It has the smallest leaves and fruits of any known Micrandra species and appears to be most closely related to M. minor Benth. The botanical...

  7. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack.

    PubMed

    Hermawan, Dede; Hadi, Yusuf S; Fajriani, Esi; Massijaya, Muhamad Y; Hadjib, Nurwati

    2012-05-29

    Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae) by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea) with a density of 0.41 g/cm³; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae) with a density of 0.46 g/cm³; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae) with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm³ and 0.80 g/cm³ by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon.

  8. SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS, SURROGACY, AND IMPORTANT CONSERVATION REGIONS IN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservation actions could be more efficient if there is congruence among taxa in the distribution of species. Patterns in the geographic distribution of species of six taxa were used to identify nationally important sites for conservation in Canada. Species richness and a meas...

  9. Importance of intraspecifically gregarious species in a tropical bird community.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Hari; Shanker, Kartik

    2014-11-01

    In both single- and mixed-species social groups, certain participants are known to play important roles in providing benefits. Identifying these participants is critical for understanding group dynamics, but is often difficult with large roving social groups in the wild. Here, we develop a new approach to characterize roles in social groups and apply it to mixed-species bird flocks (flocks hereafter) in an Indian tropical evergreen forest. Two types of species, namely intraspecifically gregarious and sallying species, are thought to play important roles in flocks because studies have shown they attract other flock participants. However, it is unclear why these types are attractive and whether they are essential for flock formation. We address these questions by focusing on the composition of the subset of flocks containing only two species each. In two-species flocks, it is reasonable to assume that at least one species obtains some kind of benefit. Therefore, only those species combinations that result in benefit to at least one species should occur as two-species flocks. Using data from 540 flocks overall, of which 158 were two-species flocks, we find that intraspecifically gregarious species are disproportionately represented in two-species flocks and always lead flocks when present, and that flocks containing them are joined significantly more by other species. Our results suggest that intraspecifically gregarious species are likely to be the primary benefit providers in flocks and are important for tropical flock formation. Our study also provides a new approach to understanding importance in other mixed-species and single-species social groups.

  10. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. PMID:27245694

  11. Prediction of hot-water-soluble extractive, pentosan and cellulose content of various wood species using FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Wenming; Hu, Huiren

    2013-07-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with partial least squares regression to predict chemical composition of various wood species including softwoods and hardwoods was examined. Hot-water-soluble extractive, pentosan and cellulose content of various wood species were predicted with high coefficient of determination between the predicted and measured values, the ratio of performance to deviation, range error ratio, and low root mean square error of cross validation for cross-validation and root mean square error of prediction for test set validation. Hot-water-soluble extractive and cellulose content models were only suitable for quality control analysis, but pentosan content model had an excellent fit with the data and could be used in any application. All the results indicate that Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy could be applied to predict the chemical composition of various wood species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ∼0.74 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the overstory and ∼0.25 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0-1.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface

  13. A multi-species comparison of delta13C from whole wood, extractive-free wood and holocellulose.

    PubMed

    Harlow, B A; Marshall, J D; Robinson, A P

    2006-06-01

    The stable carbon (C) isotope composition (delta13C) of tree rings is a powerful metric for reconstructing past physiological responses to climate variation. However, accurate measurement and interpretation are complicated by diagenesis and the translocation of compounds with distinct isotopic signatures. Isolation and analysis of cellulose minimizes these complications by eliminating variation due to biosynthetic pathways; however, isolation of cellulose is time-consuming and has no clear endpoint. A faster and better-defined analytical method is desirable. Our objectives were to determine if there is a direct relationship between the isotopic compositions of whole wood (WW), whole wood treated with solvents to remove mobile extractives (extractive-free wood; EF) and holocellulose (HC) isolated by extractive removal and subsequent bleaching. We also determined if total C concentration could explain the isotopic composition and variation among these three wood components of each sample. A set of wood samples of diverse phylogeny, anatomy and chemical composition, was examined. The mean offset or difference between HC and EF delta13C was 1.07 +/- 0.09 per thousand and the offset between HC and WW was 1.32 +/- 0.10 per thousand. Equivalence tests (with alpha = 0.05) indicated that the relationship between EF delta13C and HC delta13C had a slope significantly similar to 1 +/- 5.5%, whereas for the WW delta13C: HC delta13C relationship, the slope was significantly similar to 1 +/- 10.08%. A regression model using EF delta13C to predict HC delta13C had a slope of 0.97, which was not significantly different from unity (P = 0.264), whereas the regression for WW had a slope of 0.92 which was significantly different from unity (P = 0.0098). Carbon concentration was correlated with HC:WW offset and cellulose:EF offset (P = 0.0501 and 0.007, respectively), but neither relationship explained much of the variation (r2 = 0.12 and 0.14, respectively). We suggest that HC

  14. The importance of wood in headwater streams of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Christine; Gresswell, Robert E.; Erickson, Janet L.

    2004-01-01

    Although headwater streams comprise the majority of stream length in mountainous regions, little is known about their form and function in comparison to higher-order rivers. A better understanding of the role of headwater streams in routing water, wood, and sediment is needed to clarify the physical and biological connections among uplands, riparian zones, and downstream reaches.

  15. The Importance of Child Development in Education: A Conservation with James Comer and Chip Wood. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James; Wood, Chip

    Taped before an audience of teachers from around the country, this 65-minute videotape presents a discussion between James Comer and Chip Wood, noted experts in child development and education, in which they converse and respond to questions about critical issues confronting educators today. During the first part of the video, Comer and Wood…

  16. Small enterprises' importance to the U.S. secondary wood processing industry

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Omar Espinoza; Matthew Bumgardner; Michael. Sperber

    2013-01-01

    The past decades have seen numerous U.S. secondary wood processing companies shift their production to overseas locations, mainly in Southeast Asia. The remaining companies have been hit hard by the downturn in housing markets and the following recession. Thus, many large customers of the U.S. hardwood lumber industry have reduced or stopped the purchase of products,...

  17. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  18. Selected environmental aspects of the introduction into the polish market of exotic wood species on the example of caviuna (Machaerium scleroxylon Tul.).

    PubMed

    Krauss, Andrzej; Krauss, Hanna; Waliszewska, Bogusława; Piątek, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and elemental composition of caviuna wood was determined. The elemental composition of the examined wood was similar to the elemental composition of the deciduous tree species of the temperate zone except that it did not contain sulphur. The examined wood was found to comprise a very high content of extractive substances which could contain toxic substances, as well as a considerably higher proportion than in other palisander species mineral compounds determining tool dulling. Numerous cases of diseases were recorded among people who came into contact with the examined wood. An elevated level of eosinophils was found in these people. It was confirmed that Caviuna wood, following its introduction into the trade turnover of exotic wood species, posed many threats in the working environment.

  19. The biology and the importance of Photobacterium species.

    PubMed

    Moi, Ibrahim Musa; Roslan, Noordiyanah Nadhirah; Leow, Adam Thean Chor; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Rahimpour, Azam; Sabri, Suriana

    2017-06-01

    Photobacterium species are Gram-negative coccobacilli which are distributed in marine habitats worldwide. Some species are unique because of their capability to produce luminescence. Taxonomically, about 23 species and 2 subspecies are validated to date. Genomes from a few Photobacterium spp. have been sequenced and studied. They are considered a special group of bacteria because some species are capable of producing essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, antibacterial compounds, lipases, esterases and asparaginases. They are also used as biosensors in food and environmental monitoring and detectors of drown victim, as well as an important symbiont.

  20. Tree growth traits and social status affect the wood density of pioneer species in secondary subtropical forest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxiu; Xiang, Wenhua; Wu, Huili; Lei, Pifeng; Zhang, Shengli; Ouyang, Shuai; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi

    2017-07-01

    Wood density (WD) is not only an important parameter to estimate aboveground biomass but also an indicator of timber quality and plant adaptation strategies to stressful conditions (i.e., windthrow, pests, and pathogens). This study had three objectives: (1) to compare WD among seven subtropical tree species; (2) to determine how tree growth traits may influence possible differences in WD between the pioneer and shade-tolerant species; and (3) to examine whether or not WD differs by tree social status (dominant vs. suppressed trees) within species. To do this, 70 trees were destructively harvested. From each tree, disks at different stem heights were obtained and subjected to a method of stem analysis to measure whole tree level WD. The results showed that WD differed significantly among the seven species (p < .001). Their average WD was 0.537 g/cm(3), ranging from 0.409 g/cm(3) for Choerospondias axillaris to 0.691 g/cm(3) for Cyclobalanopsis glauca. The average WD of the four pioneer species (0.497 ± 0.13 g/cm(3)) was significantly lower (p < .01) than that of the three shade-tolerant species (0.589 ± 0.12 g/cm(3)). The WD of the pioneers had a significant positive correlation with their stem diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height (H), and tree age, but WD had a significant negative correlation with relative growth rate (RGR). In contrast, the WD of the shade-tolerant tree species had no significant relationships with DBH, H, tree age, or RGR. The dominant trees of the pioneer species had a higher WD than the suppressed trees, whereas the shade-tolerant species had a lower WD for dominant trees than the suppressed trees. However, the differences in WD between dominant and suppressed trees were not significant. Taken together, the results suggest that classifying species into pioneer and shade-tolerant groups to examine the effects of tree growth traits and social status could improve our understanding of intra- and interspecific variation in

  1. Finishes for Wood Decks

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction. Wood decks can add versatile living space to a home and, with minimal maintenance, provide decades of use. However, wood decks are exposed to high levels of stress from severe weather conditions that shrink and swell the wood. Without proper maintenance, wood decks can develop problems such as checks...

  2. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  3. The nuclear question: rethinking species importance in multi-species animal groups.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Umesh; Raza, Rashid Hasnain; Quader, Suhel

    2010-09-01

    1. Animals group for various benefits, and may form either simple single-species groups, or more complex multi-species associations. Multi-species groups are thought to provide anti-predator and foraging benefits to participant individuals. 2. Despite detailed studies on multi-species animal groups, the importance of species in group initiation and maintenance is still rated qualitatively as 'nuclear' (maintaining groups) or 'attendant' (species following nuclear species) based on species-specific traits. This overly simplifies and limits understanding of inherently complex associations, and is biologically unrealistic, because species roles in multi-species groups are: (i) likely to be context-specific and not simply a fixed species property, and (ii) much more variable than this dichotomy indicates. 3. We propose a new view of species importance (measured as number of inter-species associations), along a continuum from 'most nuclear' to 'least nuclear'. Using mixed-species bird flocks from a tropical rainforest in India as an example, we derive inter-species association measures from randomizations on bird species abundance data (which takes into account species 'availability') and data on 86 mixed-species flocks from two different flock types. Our results show that the number and average strength of inter-species associations covary positively, and we argue that species with many, strong associations are the most nuclear. 4. From our data, group size and foraging method are ecological and behavioural traits of species that best explain nuclearity in mixed-species bird flocks. Parallels have been observed in multi-species fish shoals, in which group size and foraging method, as well as diet, have been shown to correlate with nuclearity. Further, the context in which multi-species groups occur, in conjunction with species-specific traits, influences the role played by a species in a multi-species group, and this highlights the importance of extrinsic factors in

  4. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Perrone, G; Susca, A; Cozzi, G; Ehrlich, K; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C; Meijer, M; Noonim, P; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Samson, R A

    2007-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non

  5. Clostridium clostridioforme: a mixture of three clinically important species.

    PubMed

    Finegold, S M; Song, Y; Liu, C; Hecht, D W; Summanen, P; Könönen, E; Allen, S D

    2005-05-01

    Clostridium clostridioforme shows much variability in phenotypic and antimicrobial susceptibility tests, suggesting it may be more than a single species even though all strains share unique morphology. This study was designed to determine if there are multiple species and, if so, to demonstrate the differences that exist between them. A total of 107 strains of C. clostridioforme were investigated by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, phenotypic studies, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In addition, clinical data from patients whose infections yielded an organism identified as C. clostridioforme was reviewed. Data from the above studies revealed three principal species in what has been called C. clostridioforme: Clostridium bolteae, C. clostridioforme, and Clostridium hathewayi. Each species may be distinguished by certain phenotypic tests. All three species were involved in infections, including bacteremia. C. clostridioforme appears to be associated with more serious or invasive human infections than the other two species in the group. Resistance to penicillin G is common and is due to beta-lactamase production. Resistance to clindamycin and moxifloxacin is also seen. The three species differ in terms of virulence and antimicrobial resistance. "C. clostridioforme" actually represents three distinct species that are different in terms of 16S rRNA sequences, phenotypic characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility. It is important for microbiology laboratories to distinguish between these species and for clinicians to be aware of the differences between them.

  6. Controlling the release of wood extractives into water bodies by selecting suitable eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilulya, K. F.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Mamba, B. B.; Ngila, J. C.; Bush, T.

    Pulping industries are increasing worldwide as a result of the increase in the demand for pulp for cellulose derivatives and paper manufacturing. Due to the activities involved in pulping processes, different chemicals from raw materials (wood) and bleaching agents are released in pulp-mill effluent streams discharged into the environment and find their way into water bodies. Large quantities of water and chemicals used in pulping result in large amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of extractives such as unsaturated fatty acids, which are known to be toxic, and plant sterols which affect the development, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms. This study was aimed at assessing the composition of extractives in two eucalyptus species used for pulp production in South Africa, in order to identify the suitable species with regard to extractive content. Samples from two eucalyptus plant species (Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii) were collected from three sites and analysed for extractives by first extracting with water, followed by Soxhlet extraction using acetone. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major classes of extractives identified were fatty acids (mainly hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic, 9-octadecenoic and octadecanoic acids) and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol and stigmastanol). E. dunnii was found to contain higher amounts of the compounds compared to those found in E. grandis in all sampled sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and explained 92.9% of the total variation using three principal components. It was revealed that the percentage of fatty acids, which has a negative influence on both principal components 2 and 3, was responsible for the difference between the species. E. grandis, which was found to contain low amounts of extractives, was therefore found suitable for pulping with regard to minimal water usage and environment pollution.

  7. Significant Alteration of Gene Expression in Wood Decay Fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium by Plant Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Mozuch, Michael; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Sabat, Grzegorz; Ralph, John; Skyba, Oleksandr; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kersten, Philip J.; Cullen, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulosics from an expanding number of potential feedstocks is of growing interest to bioenergy process development. The basidiomycetous wood decay fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta are promising in this regard because they are able to utilize a wide range of simple and complex carbon compounds. However, systematic comparative studies with different woody substrates have not been reported. To address this issue, we examined gene expression of these fungi colonizing aspen (Populus grandidentata) and pine (Pinus strobus). Transcript levels of genes encoding extracellular glycoside hydrolases, thought to be important for hydrolytic cleavage of hemicelluloses and cellulose, showed little difference for P. placenta colonizing pine versus aspen as the sole carbon source. However, 164 genes exhibited significant differences in transcript accumulation for these substrates. Among these, 15 cytochrome P450s were upregulated in pine relative to aspen. Of 72 P. placenta extracellular proteins identified unambiguously by mass spectrometry, 52 were detected while colonizing both substrates and 10 were identified in pine but not aspen cultures. Most of the 178 P. chrysosporium glycoside hydrolase genes showed similar transcript levels on both substrates, but 13 accumulated >2-fold higher levels on aspen than on pine. Of 118 confidently identified proteins, 31 were identified in both substrates and 57 were identified in pine but not aspen cultures. Thus, P. placenta and P. chrysosporium gene expression patterns are influenced substantially by wood species. Such adaptations to the carbon source may also reflect fundamental differences in the mechanisms by which these fungi attack plant cell walls. PMID:21551287

  8. Updating knowledge on new medically important scorpion species in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Everardo R; Santibañez-López, Carlos E; Güereca, Leopoldo; Uribe-Romero, Selene J; Gómez-Ramírez, Ilse V; Cárcamo-Noriega, Edson N; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar

    2017-11-01

    The increment in the number of scorpion envenoming cases in Mexico is mainly associated to the rapid growth of the urban areas, and consequently, to the invasion of natural habitats of these arachnids. On the other hand, there is a great diversity of scorpion species, so it is indispensable to identify those of medical importance, which we now know are many more than the 7-8 previously reported as dangerous to humans. Because different LD50 values have been reported for the venom of the same species, probably due to variations in the experimental conditions used, in this work we determined the LD50 values for the venoms of 13 different species of scorpions using simple but systematic procedures. This information constitutes a referent on the level of toxicity of medically important scorpion species from Mexico and establishes the bases for a more comprehensive assessment of the neutralizing capacity of current and developing antivenoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of microsatellite markers in Gonystylus bancanus (Ramin) useful for tracing and tracking of wood of this protected species.

    PubMed

    Smulders, M J M; VAN 't Westende, W P C; Diway, B; Esselink, G D; VAN DER Meer, P J; Koopman, W J M

    2008-01-01

    Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers have been developed for Gonystylus bancanus (Ramin), a protected tree species of peat swamp forests in Malaysia and Indonesia. Eight markers were also shown to be polymorphic in other Gonystylus species. The markers will enable assessing the amount of genetic variation within and among populations and the degree of population differentiation, such that donor populations can be selected for reforestation projects. They may be used for tracing and tracking of wood in the production chain, so that legal trade in this Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora-protected timber species, derived from specifically described origins, can be distinguished from illegally logged timber.

  10. New species, hyper-diversity and potential importance of Calonectria spp. from Eucalyptus in South China.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; Chen, S F; Mou, X; Zhou, X D; Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J

    2015-03-01

    Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates. These isolates were identified using the Consolidated Species Concept, employing morphological characters and DNA sequence comparisons for the β-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Twenty-one Calonectria species were identified of which 18 represented novel taxa. Of these, 12 novel taxa belonged to Sphaero-Naviculate Group and the remaining six to the Prolate Group. Southeast Asia appears to represent a centre of biodiversity for the Sphaero-Naviculate Group and this fact could be one of the important constraints to Eucalyptus forestry in China. The remarkable diversity of Calonectria species in a relatively small area of China and associated with a single tree species is surprising.

  11. New species, hyper-diversity and potential importance of Calonectria spp. from Eucalyptus in South China

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; Chen, S.F.; Mou, X.; Zhou, X.D.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates. These isolates were identified using the Consolidated Species Concept, employing morphological characters and DNA sequence comparisons for the β-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Twenty-one Calonectria species were identified of which 18 represented novel taxa. Of these, 12 novel taxa belonged to Sphaero-Naviculate Group and the remaining six to the Prolate Group. Southeast Asia appears to represent a centre of biodiversity for the Sphaero-Naviculate Group and this fact could be one of the important constraints to Eucalyptus forestry in China. The remarkable diversity of Calonectria species in a relatively small area of China and associated with a single tree species is surprising. PMID:26955194

  12. Heavy metals accumulation in wood tissues of the forest-forming species growed in the Steppe technogenic landscapes in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinska, Viktoriia; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Territory of Steppe in Ukraine is affected by significant anthropogenic impact caused with mining, metallurgical, chemicalplants and heat power stations. The priority pollutants of the region emissions of these enterprises are presented such heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn. The regional forest ecosystems can be considered as potential concentrators of pollutants borned with different technogenic impact. It is necessary to study an ability of forests wood to accumulate heavy metals because accumulated toxins are eliminated from biogeochemical cycle in forest ecosystem for a long time. This study goal is to determine the accumulation properties of forest-forming species - Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) difference age group in relation to heavy metals. It was considerable also to assess the heavy metal distribution in the wood tissue of referred species.Heavy metals content were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer using. Scots pine and black locust are the main forest-forming species of natural and artificial forests within Northern Steppe.They can be seen as transformers of the heavy metals cycle and selective concentrators of toxic elements, under the conditions of their excessive concentrations in the environment.It was established that wood tissue of Scots pine and black locust accumulated cadmium in high concentrations according to the age in both species. Indexes of zinc accumulation in the wood of Scots pine exceeded the maximal value in the wood tissue of black locust. The results of our research demonstrated antagonistic interaction of cadmium and zinc. The highest copper concentrations was found for the trees at the age of 45 years. Lead has been identified in wood sample of all ages. Accumulation maximum was fixed in the oldest samples. The trend of concentration increasing of metal didn't find for both species. As for nickel there was established the opposite tendention for both studied species

  13. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  14. Comparative wood anatomy of some shrubs native to the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Arlene Dale

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes some xylem characteristics of the more important shrub species of the Northern Rockies and presents a key for identifying shrub-wood specimens by microscopic characters. The paper contains photomicrographs of 55 shrub woods.

  15. Measuring wood specific gravity...Correctly.

    PubMed

    Williamson, G Bruce; Wiemann, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester's variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these developments have expanded our knowledge and sample of woods, the methodologies employed to measure wood SG have not received as much scrutiny as SG's ecological importance. Here, we reiterate some of the basic principles and methods for measuring the SG of wood to clarify past practices of foresters and ecologists and to identify some of the prominent errors in recent studies and their consequences. In particular, we identify errors in (1) extracting wood samples that are not representative of tree wood, (2) differentiating wood specific gravity from wood density, (3) drying wood samples at temperatures below 100°C and the resulting moisture content complications, and (4) improperly measuring wood volumes. In addition, we introduce a new experimental technique, using applied calculus, for estimating SG when the form of radial variation is known, a method that significantly reduces the effort required to sample a tree's wood.

  16. Formosan and native subterranean termite attack of pressure-treated SPF wood species exposed in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Stan Lebow; Todd Shupe; Bessie Woodward; Douglas Crawford; Brian Via; Cherilyn Hatfield

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative ability of three types of wood preservatives to inhibit attack by Formosan subterranean termites (FST) (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) and native subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.). The study also evaluated the roles of preservative retention and penetration in preventing termite damage. Sections of boards from six wood...

  17. The Moisture Content and Specific Gravity of the Bark and Wood of Northern Pulpwood Species

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1972-01-01

    Much information is available on the specific gravity of wood on a dry weight over green volume and dry weight over dry volume basis. This paper presents the conventional specific gravity on a green weight over green volume basis. The relative specific gravities of bark and wood chips may be helpful in finding way to remove bark particles from chips.

  18. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Species in Some Important Agricultural Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin-producing A. fl...

  19. Predicting diameters inside bark for 10 important hardwood species

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Hilt; Everette D. Rast; Herman J. Bailey

    1983-01-01

    General models for predicting DIB/DOB ratios up the stem, applicable over wide geographic areas, have been developed for 10 important hardwood species. Results indicate that the ratios either decrease or remain constant up the stem. Methods for adjusting the general models to local conditions are presented. The prediction models can be used in conjunction with optical...

  20. Microwave Characterization of Typical Australian Wood-Based Biomass Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Shanmuganathan; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2009-03-01

    Many applications of microwave energy to wood-based materials require a reliable estimation of permittivity, which is the physical parameter of crucial importance in the absorption of electromagnetic energy. Wood-based materials are of significant importance in a number of application areas particularly in: (i) power generation, (ii) fire safety, and (iii) manufacturing. In the present study, dielectric measurements were carried out for typical Australian wood species such as slash pine (Pinus elliottii, soft wood), and spotted gum (Eucalyptus maculata, hard wood), based on Von Hippel's transmission line method. The influence of extractive removal is also studied and compared with the virgin wood samples. Measurements were performed at 9.5 GHz for virgin wood samples and extractive-free wood samples. Experiments were carried out at room temperatures and atmospheric pressure. The dielectric properties of wood species were determined for three principle structural directions (i.e. longitudinal, tangential and radial) and different moisture contents. Moisture content varied from 0% to 15% for virgin wood samples and from 3-6.6% for extractive-free wood samples at atmospheric equilibrium condition. Results indicated that for both wood species the dielectric constant was affected by moisture content, structural direction and density. The dielectric properties of both wood species were found to be quantitatively similar. In general, for virgin wood samples the dielectric constant was found to increase with moisture content and density. The values of dielectric constant in the longitudinal direction were generally higher than those in the transverse direction for both types of wood species. An abnormal trend was obtained for extractive—free wood samples.

  1. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species.

    PubMed

    Kirker, G T; Bishell, A B; Lebow, P K

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat southern pine, Pt, Pinus taeda L. sapwood blocks. Extractive treated blocks were evaluated for decay resistance in standard soil bottle fungal assays challenged with brown and white rot decay fungi. Results showed that extractives did impart some improvement to decay resistance of Pt blocks. BL- and HM-treated Pt blocks were also used in choice and no-choice assays to determine feeding preference and damage by eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Kollar. Minimal feeding on treated blocks was seen in both choice and no-choice assays. In choice assays, there was similar mortality between HM and BL arenas; however, in no-choice assays, complete mortality was recorded for HM-treated Pt and high mortality was seen with BL-treated Pt. Subsequent dose mortality termite assays showed HM to be effective in killing R. flavipes at low concentrations. Both HM and BL show promise as deterrents or termiticidal protectants and will be further evaluated in field studies.

  2. Global Establishment Risk of Economically Important Fruit Fly Species (Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R.; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region. PMID:25588025

  3. Comparative demography of commercially important parrotfish species from Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B M; Choat, J H

    2014-02-01

    Fishery-independent sampling was used to determine growth patterns, life span, mortality rates and timing of maturation and sex change in 12 common parrotfishes (Labridae: tribe Scarinae) from five genera (Calotomus, Cetoscarus, Chlorurus, Hipposcarus and Scarus) in Micronesia. Interspecific variation in life-history traits was explored using multivariate analysis. All species displayed strong sex-specific patterns of length-at-age among which males reached larger asymptotic lengths. There was a high level of correlation among life-history traits across species. Relationships between length-based and age-based variables were weakest, with a tenuous link between maximum body size and life span. Cluster analysis based on similarities among life-history traits demonstrated that species were significantly grouped at two major levels. The first grouping was driven by length-based variables (lengths at maturity and sex change and maximum length) and separated the small- and large-bodied species. Within these, species were grouped by age-based variables (age at maturity, mortality and life span). Groupings based on demographic and life-history features were independent of phylogenetic relationships at the given taxonomic level. The results reiterate that body size is an important characteristic differentiating species, but interspecific variation in age-based traits complicates its use as a life-history proxy. Detailed life-history metrics should facilitate future quantitative assessments of vulnerability to overexploitation in multispecies fisheries.

  4. Global establishment risk of economically important fruit fly species (Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region.

  5. Allergens/Antigens, toxins and polyketides of important Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Bhetariya, Preetida J; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P

    2011-04-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important species relevant to human, agricultural and biotechnological applications. The potential of Aspergillus species to produce highly diversified complex biomolecules such as multifunctional proteins (allergens, antigens, enzymes) and polyketides is fascinating and demands greater insight into the understanding of these fungal species for application to human health. Recently a regulator gene for secondary metabolites, LaeA has been identified. Gene mining based on LaeA has facilitated new metabolites with antimicrobial activity such as emericellamides and antitumor activity such as terrequinone A from A. nidulans. Immunoproteomic approach was reported for identification of few novel allergens for A. fumigatus. In this context, the review is focused on recent developments in allergens, antigens, structural and functional diversity of the polyketide synthases that produce polyketides of pharmaceutical and biological importance. Possible antifungal drug targets for development of effective antifungal drugs and new strategies for development of molecular diagnostics are considered.

  6. Thermal removal of nitrogen species from wood waste containing urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde resins.

    PubMed

    Girods, P; Dufour, A; Rogaume, Y; Rogaume, C; Zoulalian, A

    2008-11-30

    The removal of nitrogen from wood board waste through a low temperature pyrolysis (523-573 K) is investigated with two analytical methods. The kinetic study of the thermal behaviour of wood board and of its components (wood, UF and MF resins) shows the feasibility of removing thermally nitrogen from wood board waste. Indeed, the range of temperatures associated with the degradation of wood is different from the one obtained for the degradation of UF and MF resin. Isothermal conditions enable the determination of a kinetic model for degradation of wood board and of its components and demonstrate that the thermal behaviour of wood board is not the reflection of the sum of its components' behaviour. FTIR analysis of gas products confirms the feasibility removing nitrogen thermally and enables the evaluation of the optimum treatment conditions (temperature/duration). Elementary analysis of the treated samples and study of their low heating value (LHV) enable to quantify the efficiency of the thermal treatment in terms of nitrogen removal and of energy recovery. Results show that around 70% of the initial nitrogen can be removed from the waste, and that the temperature of treatment (between 523 K and 573 K) does not influence the efficiency in terms of nitrogen removal. Nevertheless, the ratio Residual energy/Initial energy (between 76% and 90%) is improved with the lowest temperature of treatment.

  7. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  8. Effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of plant species on eroded marly terrains in a Mediterranean mountainous climate (Southern Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Vincent; Crosaz, Yves; Rey, Freddy

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of plant species can limit soil erosion dynamics in degraded lands. In marly areas in the Southern French Alps, both harsh water erosion and drought conditions in summer due to the Mediterranean mountainous climate prevent the natural implementation and regeneration of vegetation. Soil fertility improvement is sometimes necessary. With the purpose of revegetating such areas, we aimed to evaluate the effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of different native or sub-spontaneous plant species. We conducted two experiments on steep slopes over three growing seasons (2012-2014). The first consisted of planting seedlings (10 species), and the second consisted of seeding (nine species including six used in the first experiment). First we noted that wood chips were able to remain in place even in steep slope conditions. The planting of seedlings showed both an impact of wood chip amendment and differences between species. A positive effect of wood chips was shown with overall improvement of plant survival (increasing by 11 % on average, by up to 50 % for some species). In the seeding experiment, no plants survived after three growing seasons. However, intermediate results for the first and second years showed a positive effect of wood chips on seedling emergence: seeds of four species only sprouted on wood chips, and for the five other species the average emergence rate increased by 50 %.

  9. Cymbopogon species; ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and the pharmacological importance.

    PubMed

    Avoseh, Opeyemi; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa; Rungqu, Pamela; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta; Oyedeji, Adebola

    2015-04-23

    Cymbopogon genus is a member of the family of Gramineae which are herbs known worldwide for their high essential oil content. They are widely distributed across all continents where they are used for various purposes. The commercial and medicinal uses of the various species of Cymbopogon are well documented. Ethnopharmacology evidence shows that they possess a wide array of properties that justifies their use for pest control, in cosmetics and as anti-inflammation agents. These plants may also hold promise as potent anti-tumor and chemopreventive drugs. The chemo-types from this genus have been used as biomarkers for their identification and classification. Pharmacological applications of Cymbopogon citratus are well exploited, though studies show that other species may also useful pharmaceutically. Hence this literature review intends to discuss these species and explore their potential economic importance.

  10. Identification of lipolytic enzymes isolated from bacteria indigenous to Eucalyptus wood species for application in the pulping industry.

    PubMed

    Ramnath, L; Sithole, B; Govinden, R

    2017-09-01

    This study highlights the importance of determining substrate specificity at variable experimental conditions. Lipases and esterases were isolated from microorganisms cultivated from Eucalyptus wood species and then concentrated (cellulases removed) and characterized. Phenol red agar plates supplemented with 1% olive oil or tributyrin was ascertained to be the most favourable method of screening for lipolytic activity. Lipolytic activity of the various enzymes were highest at 45-61 U/ml at the optimum temperature and pH of between at 30-35 °C and pH 4-5, respectively. Change in pH influenced the substrate specificity of the enzymes tested. The majority of enzymes tested displayed a propensity for longer aliphatic acyl chains such as dodecanoate (C12), myristate (C14), palmitate (C16) and stearate (C18) indicating that they could be characterised as potential lipases. Prospective esterases were also detected with specificity towards acetate (C2), butyrate (C4) and valerate (C5). Enzymes maintained up to 95% activity at the optimal pH and temperature for 2-3 h. It is essential to test substrates at various pH and temperature when determining optimum activity of lipolytic enzymes, a method rarely employed. The stability of the enzymes at acidic pH and moderate temperatures makes them excellent candidates for application in the treatment of pitch during acid bi-sulphite pulping, which would greatly benefit the pulp and paper industry.

  11. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of

  12. Development of species identification in ducklings: XII. Ineffectiveness of auditory self-stimulation in wood ducklings (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, G

    1984-06-01

    A previous study revealed that wood ducklings vocalize copiously when in auditory isolation. However, such self-stimulation appeared to be ineffective in maintaining their preference for the characteristically descending frequency-modulated (FM) notes of the wood duck maternal call. Only isolated birds that had been exposed to a recording of descending sib calls showed the normal preference for descending maternal notes in a choice test with descending and ascending maternal calls. In this study, the actual vocalizations of stimulated and unstimulated wood ducklings were examined in order to explore the possibility that there is a difference in the kind and/or amount of auditory self-stimulation in the two groups (e.g., the stimulated birds might produce more descending calls). Although the stimulated birds produced more ascending notes than the unstimulated birds, no differences were found in the overall vocal behavior, vocal reactivity, or specific kinds of frequency modulation produced by the birds that preferred the descending maternal call and the other birds that responded in the choice test. The absence of a difference in vocal production between the birds that preferred the descending call and the other responding birds supports the previous conclusion that self-stimulation apparently plays no role in the development or maintenance of the species-typical perceptual preference for the descending FM notes of the wood duck maternal call.

  13. Are all species necessary to reveal ecologically important patterns?

    PubMed

    Pos, Edwin; Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto; Sabatier, Daniel; Molino, Jean-François; Pitman, Nigel; Mogollón, Hugo; Neill, David; Cerón, Carlos; Rivas, Gonzalo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Thomas, Raquel; Tirado, Milton; Young, Kenneth R; Wang, Ophelia; Sierra, Rodrigo; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Zagt, Roderick; Palacios, Walter; Aulestia, Milton; Ter Steege, Hans

    2014-12-01

    While studying ecological patterns at large scales, ecologists are often unable to identify all collections, forcing them to either omit these unidentified records entirely, without knowing the effect of this, or pursue very costly and time-consuming efforts for identifying them. These "indets" may be of critical importance, but as yet, their impact on the reliability of ecological analyses is poorly known. We investigated the consequence of omitting the unidentified records and provide an explanation for the results. We used three large-scale independent datasets, (Guyana/ Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador) each consisting of records having been identified to a valid species name (identified morpho-species - IMS) and a number of unidentified records (unidentified morpho-species - UMS). A subset was created for each dataset containing only the IMS, which was compared with the complete dataset containing all morpho-species (AMS: = IMS + UMS) for the following analyses: species diversity (Fisher's alpha), similarity of species composition, Mantel test and ordination (NMDS). In addition, we also simulated an even larger number of unidentified records for all three datasets and analyzed the agreement between similarities again with these simulated datasets. For all analyses, results were extremely similar when using the complete datasets or the truncated subsets. IMS predicted ≥91% of the variation in AMS in all tests/analyses. Even when simulating a larger fraction of UMS, IMS predicted the results for AMS rather well. Using only IMS also out-performed using higher taxon data (genus-level identification) for similarity analyses. Finding a high congruence for all analyses when using IMS rather than AMS suggests that patterns of similarity and composition are very robust. In other words, having a large number of unidentified species in a dataset may not affect our conclusions as much as is often thought.

  14. Are all species necessary to reveal ecologically important patterns?

    PubMed Central

    Pos, Edwin; Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto; Sabatier, Daniel; Molino, Jean-François; Pitman, Nigel; Mogollón, Hugo; Neill, David; Cerón, Carlos; Rivas, Gonzalo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Thomas, Raquel; Tirado, Milton; Young, Kenneth R; Wang, Ophelia; Sierra, Rodrigo; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Zagt, Roderick; Palacios, Walter; Aulestia, Milton; ter Steege, Hans

    2014-01-01

    While studying ecological patterns at large scales, ecologists are often unable to identify all collections, forcing them to either omit these unidentified records entirely, without knowing the effect of this, or pursue very costly and time-consuming efforts for identifying them. These “indets” may be of critical importance, but as yet, their impact on the reliability of ecological analyses is poorly known. We investigated the consequence of omitting the unidentified records and provide an explanation for the results. We used three large-scale independent datasets, (Guyana/ Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador) each consisting of records having been identified to a valid species name (identified morpho-species – IMS) and a number of unidentified records (unidentified morpho-species – UMS). A subset was created for each dataset containing only the IMS, which was compared with the complete dataset containing all morpho-species (AMS: = IMS + UMS) for the following analyses: species diversity (Fisher's alpha), similarity of species composition, Mantel test and ordination (NMDS). In addition, we also simulated an even larger number of unidentified records for all three datasets and analyzed the agreement between similarities again with these simulated datasets. For all analyses, results were extremely similar when using the complete datasets or the truncated subsets. IMS predicted ≥91% of the variation in AMS in all tests/analyses. Even when simulating a larger fraction of UMS, IMS predicted the results for AMS rather well. Using only IMS also out-performed using higher taxon data (genus-level identification) for similarity analyses. Finding a high congruence for all analyses when using IMS rather than AMS suggests that patterns of similarity and composition are very robust. In other words, having a large number of unidentified species in a dataset may not affect our conclusions as much as is often thought. PMID:25558357

  15. Taxonomy and Antifungal Susceptibility of Clinically Important Rasamsonia Species

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.; Bertout, S.; Frisvad, J. C.; Meis, J. F.; Bouchara, J. P.; Samson, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among a set of Rasamsonia argillacea strains, including 28 clinical strains, was studied, and antifungal susceptibility profiles were generated. Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences revealed the presence of four species in the Rasamsonia argillacea complex, two of which are newly described here: R. piperina sp. nov. and R. aegroticola sp. nov. In contrast to other related genera, all Rasamsonia species can be identified with ITS sequences. A retrospective identification was performed on recently reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole was the least active of the antifungals tested. The phenotypically similar species R. brevistipitata and R. cylindrospora had different antifungal susceptibility profiles, and this indicates that correct species identification is important to help guide appropriate antifungal therapy. PMID:23077129

  16. The importance of species name synonyms in literature searches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guala, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The synonyms of biological species names are shown to be an important component in comprehensive searches of electronic scientific literature databases but they are not well leveraged within the major literature databases examined. For accepted or valid species names in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) which have synonyms in the system, and which are found in citations within PLoS, PMC, PubMed or Scopus, both the percentage of species for which citations will not be found if synonyms are not used, and the percentage increase in number of citations found by including synonyms are very often substantial. However, there is no correlation between the number of synonyms per species and the magnitude of the effect. Further, the number of citations found does not generally increase proportionally to the number of synonyms available. Users looking for literature on specific species across all of the resources investigated here are often missing large numbers of citations if they are not manually augmenting their searches with synonyms. Of course, missing citations can have serious consequences by effectively hiding critical information. Literature searches should include synonym relationships and a new web service in ITIS, with examples of how to apply it to this issue, was developed as a result of this study, and is here announced, to aide in this.

  17. The Importance of Species Name Synonyms in Literature Searches.

    PubMed

    Guala, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    The synonyms of biological species names are shown to be an important component in comprehensive searches of electronic scientific literature databases but they are not well leveraged within the major literature databases examined. For accepted or valid species names in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) which have synonyms in the system, and which are found in citations within PLoS, PMC, PubMed or Scopus, both the percentage of species for which citations will not be found if synonyms are not used, and the percentage increase in number of citations found by including synonyms are very often substantial. However, there is no correlation between the number of synonyms per species and the magnitude of the effect. Further, the number of citations found does not generally increase proportionally to the number of synonyms available. Users looking for literature on specific species across all of the resources investigated here are often missing large numbers of citations if they are not manually augmenting their searches with synonyms. Of course, missing citations can have serious consequences by effectively hiding critical information. Literature searches should include synonym relationships and a new web service in ITIS, with examples of how to apply it to this issue, was developed as a result of this study, and is here announced, to aide in this.

  18. The Importance of Species Name Synonyms in Literature Searches

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synonyms of biological species names are shown to be an important component in comprehensive searches of electronic scientific literature databases but they are not well leveraged within the major literature databases examined. For accepted or valid species names in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) which have synonyms in the system, and which are found in citations within PLoS, PMC, PubMed or Scopus, both the percentage of species for which citations will not be found if synonyms are not used, and the percentage increase in number of citations found by including synonyms are very often substantial. However, there is no correlation between the number of synonyms per species and the magnitude of the effect. Further, the number of citations found does not generally increase proportionally to the number of synonyms available. Users looking for literature on specific species across all of the resources investigated here are often missing large numbers of citations if they are not manually augmenting their searches with synonyms. Of course, missing citations can have serious consequences by effectively hiding critical information. Literature searches should include synonym relationships and a new web service in ITIS, with examples of how to apply it to this issue, was developed as a result of this study, and is here announced, to aide in this. PMID:27627118

  19. A Molecular Orbital Study of Atmospherically Important Species.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    AD-A33 656 A MOLECULARORBIAL STUDYOFAMOSPHERICALL IMPORTANT / SPECIES(U) COLLEGE OF THE HOL CROSS WORCESTER MA DEPT OF CHEMISTRY C A DEAKYNE JUN 83...Period Covered: Final Report, June 2 h- 1983. Author: Carol A. Deakyne Department of Chemistry College of the Holy Cross Worcester, MA. 01610...Controlling Office: United States Air Force Air Force Office of Scientific Research Building 410 Bolling AFB, D.C. 20332 Security Class: Unclassified

  20. Wood : adhesives

    Treesearch

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  1. [A new cestode species Paranoplocephala gubanovi sp.n. (Cyclophyllidea: Anoplocephalidae) from the wood lemming Myopus schisticolor of eastern Siberia].

    PubMed

    Guliaev, V D; Krivolapov, A V

    2003-01-01

    A new species of anoplocephalid cestode, Paranoplocephala gubanovi sp. n. (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae), from wood lemmings of Eastern Siberia (Myopus schisticolor) is described. The new species differs from other known species of Paranoplocephala associated with Holarctic lemmings by having unique combination of characters as follows: a few-segmented strobila, superficial suckers sticking out of the scolex, ovary covering practically the whole middle part of the segment, relatively little number of testicles situated in the aporal part of the segment, cirrus bursa crossing the poral excretory vessels, and subspherical spermatheca situated in the middle part of the segment. Comparison of P. gubanovi sp. n. and several closest species, P. fellmani Haukisaimi et Henttonen, 2001, P. serrata Haukisaimi et Henttonen, 2000, and P. arctica (Rausch, 1952) has been carried out. Features distinguishing the new species from Aprostatandrya macrocephala and A. microti have also been studied.

  2. Distinction of three wood species by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Anmin; Zhou, Qun; Liu, Junliang; Fei, Benhua; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, Pterocarpus santalinus L.F. and Pterocarpus soyauxii are three kinds of the most valuable wood species, which are hard to distinguish. In this paper, differentiation of D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The three woods have their characteristic peaks in conventional IR spectra. For example, D. odorifera has obvious absorption peaks at 1640 and 1612 cm -1; P. santalinus has only one peak at 1614 cm -1; and P. soyauxii has one peak at 1619 cm -1 and one shoulder peak at 1597 cm -1. To enhance spectrum resolution and amplify the differences between the IR spectra of different woods, the second derivative technology was adopted to examine the three wood samples. More differences could be observed in the region of 800-1700 cm -1. Then, the thermal perturbation is applied to distinguish different wood samples in an easier way, because of the spectral resolution being enhanced by the 2D correlation spectroscopy. In the region of 1300-1800 cm -1, D. odorifera has five auto-peaks at 1518, 1575, 1594, 1620 and 1667 cm -1; P. santalinus has four auto-peaks at 1469, 1518, 1627 and 1639 cm -1 and P. soyauxii has only two auto-peaks at 1627 and 1639 cm -1. It is proved that the 2D correlation IR spectroscopy can be a new method to distinguish D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii.

  3. Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 allocates carbon into wood fibers.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Niittylä, Totte

    2013-12-01

    Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H(+) symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after (13)CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more (13)C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers.

  4. The importance of wood nutrient storage in tropical forest nitrogen and phosphorus cycles: Insights from a sapling defoliation experiment in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineman, K.; Dalling, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients limits productivity and influences tree species distribution in tropical forests. Given the scarcity of soil resources, trees in tropical forests should be under selection to store nutrients for periods when nutrient demand exceeds supply. However, little is known about the capacity of trees to remobilize nutrients from long-lived woody biomass in tropical forests, despite wood sequestering a large proportion of bioavailable nutrients in tropical ecosystems. We evaluated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) remobilization from woody biomass via experimental defoliation of saplings from four widely distributed genera of tropical trees in Panama. Focal saplings were sampled in high and low fertility habitats in both montane and lowland forests to maximize contrast in the availability and identity of limiting nutrients. N and P concentrations of stem wood were measured before defoliation and after subsequent re-foliation response to calculate wood remobilization efficiency. Initial wood P concentrations differed significantly within taxa between low and high fertility habitats, whereas initial wood N differed significantly within taxa between lowland and montane forests, but not among soil fertility habitats. In three of four genera studied, wood P concentrations declined after refoliation at both elevations, and the proportion of wood P remobilized was greater on low fertility compared to high fertility sites. In contrast, significant N remobilization was restricted to the low fertility montane site, where nitrogen is most likely to limit plant growth. These findings provide evidence that a significant fraction of N and P in woody biomass is can be remobilized in response to asymmetry in nutrient supply and demand, as opposed consisting primarily of recalcitrant structural material. Furthermore, variation in remobilization responses of species to defoliation provides additional evidence that multiple nutrient-limitation in tropical

  5. Wickerhamomyces mori sp. nov., an anamorphic yeast species found in the guts of wood-boring insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Hui, Feng-Li; Chen, Liang; Chu, Xue-Ying; Niu, Qiu-Hong; Ke, Tao

    2013-03-01

    A novel anamorphic yeast species is described to accommodate three isolates recovered from the guts of three different wood-boring insect larvae collected in Henan, central China. On the basis of sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer regions, the three strains are assigned to a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, although the formation of ascospores was not observed. These strains also exhibited a number of distinct morphological and physiological characteristics that clearly differentiated them from Wickerhamomyces mucosus, Candida odintsovae and Wickerhamomyces rabaulensis, the most closely related species. In view of the phenotypic differences and unique rRNA gene sequences, we consider that these three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Wickerhamomyces, Wickerhamomyces mori sp. nov. The type strain is NYNU 1216(T) ( = CICC 1983(T)  = CBS 12678(T)).

  6. New Insights on Wood Dimensional Stability Influenced by Secondary Metabolites: The Case of a Fast-Growing Tropical Species Bagassa guianensis Aubl.

    PubMed Central

    Bossu, Julie; Beauchêne, Jacques; Estevez, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Challenging evaluation of tropical forest biodiversity requires the reporting of taxonomic diversity but also the systematic characterization of wood properties in order to discover new promising species for timber industry. Among wood properties, the dimensional stability is regarded as a major technological characteristic to validate whether a wood species is adapted to commercial uses. Cell structure and organization are known to influence the drying shrinkage making wood density and microfibrils angle markers of choice to predict wood dimensional stability. On the contrary the role of wood extractive content remains unclear. This work focuses on the fast-growing tropical species Bagassa guianensis and we report herein a correlation between heartwood drying shrinkage and extractive content. Chemical extractions and shrinkage experiments were performed on separate wood twin samples to better evaluate correctly how secondary metabolites influence the wood shrinkage behaviour. Extractive content were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed using HPLC and NMR spectroscopy. We found that B guianensis heartwood has a homogeneous low shrinkage along its radius that could not be explained only by its basic density. In fact the low drying shrinkage is correlated to the high extractive content and a corrected model to improve the prediction of wood dimensional stability is presented. Additionally NMR experiments conducted on sapwood and heartwood extracts demonstrate that secondary metabolites biosynthesis occurs in sapwood thus revealing B. guianensis as a Juglans-Type heartwood formation. This work demonstrates that B. guianensis, a fast-growing species associated with high durability and high dimensional stability, is a good candidate for lumber production and commercial purposes. PMID:27007687

  7. New Insights on Wood Dimensional Stability Influenced by Secondary Metabolites: The Case of a Fast-Growing Tropical Species Bagassa guianensis Aubl.

    PubMed

    Bossu, Julie; Beauchêne, Jacques; Estevez, Yannick; Duplais, Christophe; Clair, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Challenging evaluation of tropical forest biodiversity requires the reporting of taxonomic diversity but also the systematic characterization of wood properties in order to discover new promising species for timber industry. Among wood properties, the dimensional stability is regarded as a major technological characteristic to validate whether a wood species is adapted to commercial uses. Cell structure and organization are known to influence the drying shrinkage making wood density and microfibrils angle markers of choice to predict wood dimensional stability. On the contrary the role of wood extractive content remains unclear. This work focuses on the fast-growing tropical species Bagassa guianensis and we report herein a correlation between heartwood drying shrinkage and extractive content. Chemical extractions and shrinkage experiments were performed on separate wood twin samples to better evaluate correctly how secondary metabolites influence the wood shrinkage behaviour. Extractive content were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed using HPLC and NMR spectroscopy. We found that B guianensis heartwood has a homogeneous low shrinkage along its radius that could not be explained only by its basic density. In fact the low drying shrinkage is correlated to the high extractive content and a corrected model to improve the prediction of wood dimensional stability is presented. Additionally NMR experiments conducted on sapwood and heartwood extracts demonstrate that secondary metabolites biosynthesis occurs in sapwood thus revealing B. guianensis as a Juglans-Type heartwood formation. This work demonstrates that B. guianensis, a fast-growing species associated with high durability and high dimensional stability, is a good candidate for lumber production and commercial purposes.

  8. Rapid Identification of Candida Species and Other Clinically Important Yeast Species by Flow Cytometry†

    PubMed Central

    Page, Brent T.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid diagnostic assays, utilizing two different Luminex flow cytometry methods, were developed for identification of clinically important ascomycetous yeast species. Direct hybridization and allele-specific primer extension methods were both successful in establishing a DNA-based assay that can rapidly and accurately identify Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis as well as other clinical species. The direct hybridization assay was designed to identify a total of 19 ascomycetous yeast species, and the allele-specific primer extension assay was designed to identify a total of 34 species. Probes were validated against 438 strains representing 303 species. From culture to identification, the allele-specific primer extension method takes 8 h and the direct hybridization method takes less than 5 h to complete. These assays represent comprehensive, rapid tests that are well suited for the clinical laboratory. PMID:16145099

  9. Assessing the role of natural disturbance and forest management on dead wood dynamics in mixed-species stands of central Maine, USA

    Treesearch

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Shawn Fraver; Matthew B. Russell; Laura S. Kenefic

    2016-01-01

    Dead wood pools are strongly influenced by natural disturbance events, stand development processes, and forest management activities. However, the relative importance of these influences can vary over time. In this study, we evaluate the role of these factors on dead wood biomass pools across several forest management alternatives after 60 years of treatment on the...

  10. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSY OF MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT INDIAN VITEX SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R. V Krishna; Satyanarayana, T.; Jena, Ranjit

    1996-01-01

    Vitex genera is reputed for their medicinal properties. Of the 12 species reported to be present in Indian only 8 species are medicinally useful. Of these six species were colled and their pharmacognostic characters were studied and described. PMID:22556769

  11. Preliminary observations of heat treatment to control Phytophthora ramorum in infected wood species: an extended abstract

    Treesearch

    K.M. Tubajika; R. Singh; Shelly J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of appropriate phytosanitary treatments that can be used for certifying solid wood packing material movement from areas infested or threatened by actionable plant pests and pathogens into uninfested areas is mportant. Heat treatment has been used on commodities to control fungal diseases and insect infestations for many years. The restricted use of...

  12. EFFECTS OF BURNRATE, WOOD SPECIES, ALTITUDE, AND STOVE TYPE ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the winter of 1986-87, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an emission measurement program in Boise, ID, as part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP). This program was designed to identify the potential mutagenic impact of residential wood burni...

  13. Decay and termite resistance of medium density fiberboard (MDF) made from different wood species

    Treesearch

    S. Nami Kartal; Frederick Green

    2003-01-01

    Medium density fiberboard (MDF) production worldwide is increasing due to the development of new manufacturing technologies. As a result, MDF products are increasingly utilized in traditional wood applications that require fungal and insect resistance. This study evaluated the ability of white and brown rot fungi and termites to decompose MDF consisting of different...

  14. Compartmentalization of decayed wood associated with Armillaria mellea in several tree species

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo; Joanna T. Tippett

    1981-01-01

    Decayed wood associated with Armillaria mellea was compartmentalized according to the CODIT (Compartmentalization Of Decay In Trees) model. Compartmentalization in the sapwood began after the tree walled off the area of dead cambium associated with the inflection of the fungus. The fungus spread into dying sapwood beneath and beyond the area of...

  15. New Phomopsis species identified from wood cankers in eastern North American vineyards.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, caused by the Ascomycete fungus Phomopsis viticola, is a destructive fruit and foliar disease in eastern North American vineyards. The pathogen typically attacks green tissues, but can also cause wood cankers, presumably due to infection of pruning wounds, as is the cas...

  16. Utilization of treated conifer wood chips by Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Karst. species for cultivating mushrooms

    Treesearch

    Suki C. Croan

    2003-01-01

    Mushroom-producing white-rot basidiomycetes can grow rapidly and produce heavy mycelial growth on treated conifer wastes with extractive-degrading fungi. This study evaluates the treatment of scaled-up conifer wood chips with Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip 97). Treated conifer chips were used as substrates for cultivating mushroom-producing basidiomycetes of various...

  17. Evaluating the natural durability of native and tropical wood species against Reticulitermes flavipes

    Treesearch

    R.A. Arango; F. Green; K. Hintz; R.B. Miller

    2004-01-01

    Environmental pressures to eliminate arsenate from wood preservatives has resulted in voluntary removal of CCA for residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives has been formulated to replace CCA for decking and in-ground applications but there is no guarantee that these preservatives represent a permanent solution to...

  18. EFFECTS OF BURNRATE, WOOD SPECIES, ALTITUDE, AND STOVE TYPE ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the winter of 1986-87, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an emission measurement program in Boise, ID, as part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP). This program was designed to identify the potential mutagenic impact of residential wood burni...

  19. Diurnal changes in embolism rate in nine dry forest trees: relationships with species-specific xylem vulnerability, hydraulic strategy and wood traits.

    PubMed

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Nardini, Andrea; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Savi, Tadeja; Raimondo, Fabio

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have reported correlations between stem sapwood capacitance (C(wood)) and xylem vulnerability to embolism, but it is unclear how C(wood) relates to the eventual ability of plants to reverse embolism. We investigated possible functional links between embolism reversal efficiency, C(wood), wood density (WD), vulnerability to xylem embolism and hydraulic safety margins in nine woody species native to dry sclerophyllous forests with different degrees of iso versus anisohydry. Substantial inter-specific differences in terms of seasonal/diurnal changes of xylem and leaf water potential, maximum diurnal values of transpiration rate and xylem vulnerability to embolism formation were recorded. Significant diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) were recorded for five species. Significant correlations were recorded between diurnal PLC changes and P50 and P88 values (i.e., xylem pressure inducing 50 and 88% PLC, respectively) as well as between diurnal PLC changes and safety margins referenced to P50 and P88. WD was linearly correlated with minimum diurnal leaf water potential, diurnal PLC changes and wood capacitance across all species. In contrast, significant relationships between P50, safety margin values referenced to P50 and WD were recorded only for the isohydric species. Functional links between diurnal changes in PLC, hydraulic strategies and WD and C(wood) are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Evidence of the late lignification of the G-layer in Simarouba tension wood, to assist understanding how non-G-layer species produce tensile stress.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Jean-Romain; Clair, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    To recover verticality after disturbance, angiosperm trees produce 'tension wood' allowing them to bend actively. The driving force of the tension has been shown to take place in the G-layer, a specific unlignified layer of the cell wall observed in most temperate species. However, in tropical rain forests, the G-layer is often absent and the mechanism generating the forces to reorient trees remains unclear. A study was carried out on tilted seedlings, saplings and adult Simarouba amara Aubl. trees-a species known to not produce a G-layer. Microscopic observations were done on sections of normal and tension wood after staining or observed under UV light to assess the presence/absence of lignin. We showed that S. amara produces a cell-wall layer with all of the characteristics typical of G-layers, but that this G-layer can be observed only as a temporary stage of the cell-wall development because it is masked by a late lignification. Being thin and lignified, tension wood fibres cannot be distinguished from normal wood fibres in the mature wood of adult trees. These observations indicate that the mechanism generating the high tensile stress in tension wood is likely to be the same as that in species with a typical G-layer and also in species where the G-layer cannot be observed in mature cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. DNA Microarray Detection of 18 Important Human Blood Protozoan Species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Xin; Ai, Lin; Chen, Jun-Hu; Feng, Xin-Yu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Accurate detection of blood protozoa from clinical samples is important for diagnosis, treatment and control of related diseases. In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was assessed for the detection of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia in humans, animals, and vectors, in comparison with microscopy and PCR data. Developing a rapid, simple, and convenient detection method for protozoan detection is an urgent need. The microarray assay simultaneously identified 18 species of common blood protozoa based on the differences in respective target genes. A total of 20 specific primer pairs and 107 microarray probes were selected according to conserved regions which were designed to identify 18 species in 5 blood protozoan genera. The positive detection rate of the microarray assay was 91.78% (402/438). Sensitivity and specificity for blood protozoan detection ranged from 82.4% (95%CI: 65.9% ~ 98.8%) to 100.0% and 95.1% (95%CI: 93.2% ~ 97.0%) to 100.0%, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 20.0% (95%CI: 2.5% ~ 37.5%) to 100.0% and 96.8% (95%CI: 95.0% ~ 98.6%) to 100.0%, respectively. Youden index varied from 0.82 to 0.98. The detection limit of the DNA microarrays ranged from 200 to 500 copies/reaction, similar to PCR findings. The concordance rate between microarray data and DNA sequencing results was 100%. Overall, the newly developed microarray platform provides a convenient, highly accurate, and reliable clinical assay for the determination of blood protozoan species.

  2. DNA Microarray Detection of 18 Important Human Blood Protozoan Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Hu; Feng, Xin-Yu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Cai, Yu-Chun; Lu, Yan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate detection of blood protozoa from clinical samples is important for diagnosis, treatment and control of related diseases. In this preliminary study, a novel DNA microarray system was assessed for the detection of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia in humans, animals, and vectors, in comparison with microscopy and PCR data. Developing a rapid, simple, and convenient detection method for protozoan detection is an urgent need. Methodology/Principal Findings The microarray assay simultaneously identified 18 species of common blood protozoa based on the differences in respective target genes. A total of 20 specific primer pairs and 107 microarray probes were selected according to conserved regions which were designed to identify 18 species in 5 blood protozoan genera. The positive detection rate of the microarray assay was 91.78% (402/438). Sensitivity and specificity for blood protozoan detection ranged from 82.4% (95%CI: 65.9% ~ 98.8%) to 100.0% and 95.1% (95%CI: 93.2% ~ 97.0%) to 100.0%, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 20.0% (95%CI: 2.5% ~ 37.5%) to 100.0% and 96.8% (95%CI: 95.0% ~ 98.6%) to 100.0%, respectively. Youden index varied from 0.82 to 0.98. The detection limit of the DNA microarrays ranged from 200 to 500 copies/reaction, similar to PCR findings. The concordance rate between microarray data and DNA sequencing results was 100%. Conclusions/Significance Overall, the newly developed microarray platform provides a convenient, highly accurate, and reliable clinical assay for the determination of blood protozoan species. PMID:27911895

  3. The Fusarium solani species complex: ubiquitous pathogens of agricultural importance.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jeffrey J

    2016-02-01

    Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are capable of causing disease in many agriculturally important crops. The genomes of some of these fungi include supernumerary chromosomes that are dispensable and encode host-specific virulence factors. In addition to genomics, this review summarizes the known molecular mechanisms utilized by members of the FSSC in establishing disease. Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Sordariomycetes; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; Genus Fusarium. Members of the FSSC collectively have a very broad host range, and have been subdivided previously into formae speciales. Recent phylogenetic analysis has revealed that formae speciales correspond to biologically and phylogenetically distinct species. Typically, FSSC causes foot and/or root rot of the infected host plant, and the degree of necrosis correlates with the severity of the disease. Symptoms on above-ground portions of the plant can vary greatly depending on the specific FSSC pathogen and host plant, and the disease may manifest as wilting, stunting and chlorosis or lesions on the stem and/or leaves. Implementation of agricultural management practices, such as crop rotation and timing of planting, can reduce the risk of crop loss caused by FSSC. If available, the use of resistant varieties is another means to control disease in the field. http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Necha2/Necha2.home.html. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Microplastics as contaminants in commercially important seafood species.

    PubMed

    Santillo, David; Miller, Kathryn; Johnston, Paul

    2017-05-01

    The ingestion of microplastic fragments, spheres, and fibers by marine mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, including a number of commercially important species, appears to be a widespread and pervasive phenomenon. Evidence is also growing for direct impacts of microplastic ingestion on physiology, reproductive success and survival of exposed marine organisms, and transfer through food webs, although the ecological implications are not yet known. Concerns also remain over the capacity for microplastics to act as vectors for harmful chemical pollutants, including plastic additives and persistent organic pollutants, although their contribution must be evaluated alongside other known sources. The potential for humans, as top predators, to consume microplastics as contaminants in seafood is very real, and its implications for health need to be considered. An urgent need also exists to extend the geographical scope of studies of microplastic contamination in seafood species to currently underrepresented areas, and to finalize and adopt standardized methods and quality-assurance protocols for the isolation, identification, and quantification of microplastic contaminants from biological tissues. Such developments would enable more robust investigation of spatial and temporal trends, thereby contributing further evidence as a sound basis for regulatory controls. Despite the existence of considerable uncertainties and unknowns, there is already a compelling case for urgent actions to identify, control, and, where possible, eliminate key sources of both primary and secondary microplastics before they reach the marine environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:516-521. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Growing evidence for facultative biotrophy in saprotrophic fungi: data from microcosm tests with 201 species of wood-decay basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gabriel R; Finlay, Roger D; Stenlid, Jan; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2017-04-06

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses have evolved a minimum of 78 times independently from saprotrophic lineages, indicating the potential for functional overlap between ECM and saprotrophic fungi. ECM fungi have the capacity to decompose organic matter, and although there is increasing evidence that some saprotrophic fungi exhibit the capacity to enter into facultative biotrophic relationships with plant roots without causing disease symptoms, this subject is still not well studied. In order to determine the extent of biotrophic capacity in saprotrophic wood-decay fungi and which systems may be useful models, we investigated the colonization of conifer seedling roots in vitro using an array of 201 basidiomycete wood-decay fungi. Microtome sectioning, differential staining and fluorescence microscopy were used to visualize patterns of root colonization in microcosm systems containing Picea abies or Pinus sylvestris seedlings and each saprotrophic fungus. Thirty-four (16.9%) of the tested fungal species colonized the roots of at least one tree species. Two fungal species showed formation of a mantle and one showed Hartig net-like structures. These features suggest the possibility of an active functional symbiosis between fungus and plant. The data indicate that the capacity for facultative biotrophic relationships in free-living saprotrophic basidiomycetes may be greater than previously supposed.

  6. Evaluation of carbohydrates and lignocellulosic biomass from different wood species as raw material for the synthesis of 5-bromomethyfurfural.

    PubMed

    Bredihhin, Aleksei; Mäeorg, Uno; Vares, Lauri

    2013-06-28

    The influence of different parameters on the conversion of carbohydrates and biomass into the potential biofuel intermediate 5-bromomethylfurfural (BMF) has been studied. Our optimized conditions avoid the use of lithium salt additives, making this method cheaper and environmentally more benign compared to previously reported methods. Different wood species and their potential as a raw material in BMF and furfural production have also been evaluated. In addition, we report a very simple and efficient procedure for conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into BMF or 5-chloromethylfurfural (CMF).

  7. Divergences in hydraulic architecture form an important basis for niche differentiation between diploid and polyploid Betula species in NE China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Song, Jia; Wang, Miao; Liu, Yan-Yan; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Holbrook, N Michele; Hao, Guang-You

    2017-02-13

    Habitat differentiation between polyploid and diploid plants are frequently observed, with polyploids usually occupying more stressed environments. In woody plants, polyploidization can greatly affect wood characteristics but knowledge of its influences on xylem hydraulics is scarce. The four Betula species in NE China, representing two diploids and two polyploids with obvious habitat differentiation, provide an exceptional study system for investigating the impact of polyploidization on environmental adaptation of trees from the point view of xylem hydraulics. To test the hypothesis that changes in hydraulic architecture play an important role in determining their niche differentiation, we measured wood structural traits at both the tissue and pit levels and quantified xylem water transport efficiency and safety in these species. The two polyploids had significantly larger hydraulic weighted mean vessel diameters than the two diploids (45.1 and 45.5 vs 25.9 and 24.5 μm) although the polyploids are occupying more stressed environments. As indicated by more negative water potentials corresponding to 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivities, the two polyploids exhibited significantly higher resistance to drought-induced embolism than the two diploids (-5.23 and -5.05 vs -3.86 and -3.13 MPa) despite their larger vessel diameters. This seeming discrepancy is reconciled by distinct characteristics favoring greater embolism resistance at the pit level in the two polyploid species. Our results showed clearly that the two polyploid species have remarkably different pit-level anatomical traits favoring greater hydraulic safety than their congeneric diploid species, which have likely contributed to the abundance of polyploid birches in more stressed habitats; however, less porous inter-conduit pits together with a reduced leaf to sapwood area may have compromised their competitiveness under more favorable conditions. Contrasts in hydraulic architecture between diploid and

  8. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  9. Wood preservative testing

    Treesearch

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  10. Slope failure as an upslope source of stream wood

    Treesearch

    Daniel. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Large woody debris is recognized as an important component of stream geomorphology and stream ecosystem function, and forest-land management is recognized as an important control on the quantity (and size and species distributions) of wood available for recruitment to streams. Much of the wood present in streams comes from adjacent forests, and riparian management...

  11. Wooded draws in rangelands of the northern Great Plains

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Michele M. Girard

    1985-01-01

    Wooded draws and natural prairie woodlands occupy about 1.1 percent of the northern Great Plains. While the extent of wooded draws is extremely limited, their importance and value is much greater. These unique communities are important for wildlife and livestock habitats, soil stabilization, watershed maintenance, firewood, esthetics, and species diversity (Fig. 1). An...

  12. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  13. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  14. Longitudial variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark

    2012-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is the most important plantation species grown in the southern United States, having more than half of the standing pine volume. Wood from loblolly pine is a principal source of raw material for the pulp and paper industry and is desirable for the production of lumber and composite wood products. The quality of wood...

  15. Fragmented habitats of traditional fruit orchards are important for dead wood-dependent beetles associated with open canopy deciduous woodlands.

    PubMed

    Horak, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The conservation of traditional fruit orchards might be considered to be a fashion, and many people might find it difficult to accept that these artificial habitats can be significant for overall biodiversity. The main aim of this study was to identify possible roles of traditional fruit orchards for dead wood-dependent (saproxylic) beetles. The study was performed in the Central European landscape in the Czech Republic, which was historically covered by lowland sparse deciduous woodlands. Window traps were used to catch saproxylic beetles in 25 traditional fruit orchards. The species richness, as one of the best indicators of biodiversity, was positively driven by very high canopy openness and the rising proportion of deciduous woodlands in the matrix of the surrounding landscape. Due to the disappearance of natural and semi-natural habitats (i.e., sparse deciduous woodlands) of saproxylic beetles, orchards might complement the functions of suitable habitat fragments as the last biotic islands in the matrix of the cultural Central European landscape.

  16. Fragmented habitats of traditional fruit orchards are important for dead wood-dependent beetles associated with open canopy deciduous woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The conservation of traditional fruit orchards might be considered to be a fashion, and many people might find it difficult to accept that these artificial habitats can be significant for overall biodiversity. The main aim of this study was to identify possible roles of traditional fruit orchards for dead wood-dependent (saproxylic) beetles. The study was performed in the Central European landscape in the Czech Republic, which was historically covered by lowland sparse deciduous woodlands. Window traps were used to catch saproxylic beetles in 25 traditional fruit orchards. The species richness, as one of the best indicators of biodiversity, was positively driven by very high canopy openness and the rising proportion of deciduous woodlands in the matrix of the surrounding landscape. Due to the disappearance of natural and semi-natural habitats (i.e., sparse deciduous woodlands) of saproxylic beetles, orchards might complement the functions of suitable habitat fragments as the last biotic islands in the matrix of the cultural Central European landscape.

  17. Influence of wood species on properties of injection mould natural flour-HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanawilai, Thanate; Leeyoa, Massalan; Tiptong, Yoawanat

    2016-05-01

    Four combinations of wood flour, HDPE, and maleic anhydride (MA) include; (1) rubberwood:HDPE (30:70), (2) rubberwood: HDPE:MA (30:67:3), (3) palm oil:HDPE (30:70), and (4) palm oil:HDPE:MA (30:67:3) were studied. The injection moulding machine was used to produce wood plastic composites (WPCs). Maleic anhydride is an ingredient in bonding agents used to manufacture wood plastic composites. Extrusion molding process was conducted to prefabricate WPCs. Consequently, the effect of temperature and pressure ranging from 180, 190, 200°C and 2300, 2400, 2500 bar on injection molding was evaluated. Mechanical properties were tested including flexural testing and tensile testing according to ASTM D790 and D638, respectively. Hardness testing according to ASTM D2240 and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also performed. Five replications were done on each test. The result showed that rubberwood:HDPE (30:70) gave a highest strength. The values of ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness are 24.9 MPa, 33.3 MPa and 67.2 shore D, respectively. Finally, the uniform distribution of particle in WPCs, examined through SEM was achieved.

  18. Regulatory phenotyping reveals important diversity within the species Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Herwig; Starrenburg, Marjo J C; Dijkstra, Annereinou; Molenaar, Douwe; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Rademaker, Jan L W; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T

    2009-09-01

    The diversity in regulatory phenotypes among a collection of 84 Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from dairy and nondairy origin was explored. The specific activities of five enzymes were assessed in cell extracts of all strains grown in two different media, a nutritionally rich broth and a relatively poor chemically defined medium. The five investigated enzymes, branched chain aminotransferase (BcaT), aminopeptidase N (PepN), X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase (PepX), alpha-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase (HicDH), and esterase, are involved in nitrogen and fatty acid metabolism and catalyze key steps in the production of important dairy flavor compounds. The investigated cultures comprise 75 L. lactis subsp. lactis isolates (including 7 L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis isolates) and 9 L. lactis subsp. cremoris isolates. All L. lactis subsp. cremoris and 22 L. lactis subsp. lactis (including 6 L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis) cultures originated from a dairy environment. All other cultures originated from (fermented) plant materials and were isolated at different geographic locations. Correlation analysis of specific enzyme activities revealed significantly different regulatory phenotypes for dairy and nondairy isolates. The enzyme activities in the two investigated media were in general poorly correlated and revealed a high degree of regulatory diversity within this collection of closely related strains. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the most extensive diversity analysis of regulatory phenotypes within a single bacterial species to date. The presented findings underline the importance of the availability of screening procedures for, e.g., industrially relevant enzyme activities in models closely mimicking application conditions. Moreover, they corroborate the notion that regulatory changes are important drivers of evolution.

  19. Important biological factors for utilizing native plant species

    Treesearch

    Loren E. Wiesner

    1999-01-01

    Native plant species are valuable resources for revegetation of disturbed ecosystems. The success of these plantings is dependent on the native species selected, quality of seed used, condition of the soil, environmental conditions before and after planting, planting equipment used, time of planting, and other factors. Most native species contain dormant seed. Dormancy...

  20. Wood nitrogen concentrations in tropical trees: phylogenetic patterns and ecological correlates.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam R; Erickson, David L; Kress, W John; Thomas, Sean C

    2014-11-01

    In tropical and temperate trees, wood chemical traits are hypothesized to covary with species' life-history strategy along a 'wood economics spectrum' (WES), but evidence supporting these expected patterns remains scarce. Due to its role in nutrient storage, we hypothesize that wood nitrogen (N) concentration will covary along the WES, being higher in slow-growing species with high wood density (WD), and lower in fast-growing species with low WD. In order to test this hypothesis we quantified wood N concentrations in 59 Panamanian hardwood species, and used this dataset to examine ecological correlates and phylogenetic patterns of wood N. Wood N varied > 14-fold among species between 0.04 and 0.59%; closely related species were more similar in wood N than expected by chance. Wood N was positively correlated with WD, and negatively correlated with log-transformed relative growth rates, although these relationships were relatively weak. We found evidence for co-evolution between wood N and both WD and log-transformed mortality rates. Our study provides evidence that wood N covaries with tree life-history parameters, and that these patterns consistently co-evolve in tropical hardwoods. These results provide some support for the hypothesized WES, and suggest that wood is an increasingly important N pool through tropical forest succession.

  1. Energy from wood

    Treesearch

    J.I. Zerbe

    2004-01-01

    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  2. Seasonal and Inter-annual Variation in Wood Production in Tropical Trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, is Related to Local Climate and Species Functional Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, K.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Kellner, J. R.; Wright, S. J.; Condit, R.; Detto, M.; Tribble, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest carbon budgets play a major role in global carbon dynamics, but the responses of tropical forests to current and future inter-annual climatic variation remains highly uncertain. Better predictions of future tropical forest carbon fluxes require an improved understanding of how different species of tropical trees respond to changes in climate at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scales. We installed dendrometer bands on a size-stratified sample of 2000 trees in old growth forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a moist lowland forest that experiences an annual dry season of approximately four months. Tree diameters were measured at the beginning and end of the rainy season since 2008. Additionally, we recorded the canopy illumination level, canopy intactness, and liana coverage of all trees during each census. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate how tree growth was related to seasonal and interannual variation in local climate, tree condition, and species identity, and how species identity effects related to tree functional traits. Climatic variables considered included precipitation, solar radiation, soil moisture, and climatological water deficit, and were all calculated from high-quality on-site measurements. Functional traits considered included wood density, maximum adult stature, deciduousness, and drought tolerance. We found that annual wood production was positively related to water availability, with higher growth in wetter years. Species varied in their response to seasonal water availability, with some species showing more pronounced reduction of growth during the dry season when water availability is limited. Interspecific variation in seasonal and interannual growth patterns was related to life-history strategies and species functional traits. The finding of higher growth in wetter years is consistent with previous tree ring studies conducted on a small subset of species with reliable annual rings. Together with previous

  3. Temporal trends in (137)Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four tree species in Japanese forests from 2011 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Takano, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Youki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Abe, Hisashi; Kagawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Masaki; Kubojima, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Chunhua; Yamamoto, Koichi

    2017-09-28

    To understand the changes in radiocesium ((137)Cs) concentrations in stem woods after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we investigated (137)Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four major tree species at multiple sites with different levels of radiocesium deposition from the FDNPP accident since 2011 (since 2012 at some sites): Japanese cedar at four sites, hinoki cypress and Japanese konara oak at two sites, and Japanese red pine at one site. Our previous report on (137)Cs concentrations in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2015 suggested that temporal variations were different among sites even within the same species. In the present study, we provided data on bark and whole wood samples in 2016 and separately measured (137)Cs concentrations in sapwood and heartwood samples from 2011 to 2016; we further discussed temporal trends in (137)Cs concentrations in each part of tree stems, particularly those in (137)Cs distributions between sapwood and heartwood, in relation to their species and site dependencies. Temporal trends in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2016 were consistent with those reported in samples collected from 2011 to 2015. Temporal variations in (137)Cs concentrations in barks showed either a decreasing trend or no clear trend, implying that (137)Cs deposition in barks is inhomogeneous and that decontamination is relatively slow in some cases. Temporal trends in (137)Cs concentrations in sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood were different among species and also among sites within the same species. Relatively common trends within the same species, which were increasing, were observed in cedar heartwood, and in oak sapwood and whole wood. On the other hand, the ratio of (137)Cs concentration in heartwood to that in sapwood (fresh weight basis) was commonly increased to more than 2 in cedar, although distinct temporal trends were not found in the other species

  4. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of wood mice (genus Apodemus Kaup, 1829) based on complete mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, with emphasis on Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Wei, Fuwen; Li, Ming; Jiang, Xuelong; Feng, Zuojian; Hu, Jinchu

    2004-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 15 species of wood mice (genus Apodemus) were reconstructed to explore some long-standing taxonomic problems. The results provided support for the monophyly of the genus Apodemus, but could not reject the hypothesis of paraphyly for this genus. Our data divided the 15 species into four major groups: (1) the Sylvaemus group (A. sylvaticus, A. flavicollis, A. alpicola, and A. uralensis), (2) the Apodemus group (A. peninsulae, A. chevreri, A. agrarius, A. speciosus, A. draco, A. ilex, A. semotus, A. latronum, and A. mystacinus), (3) A. argenteus, and (4) A. gurkha. Our results also suggested that orestes should be a valid subspecies of A. draco rather than an independent species; in contrast, A. ilex from Yunnan may be regarded as a separate species rather than a synonym of orestes or draco. The species level status of A. latronum, tscherga as synonyms of A. uralensis, and A. chevrieri as a valid species and the closest sibling species of A. agrarius were further corroborated by our data. Applying a molecular clock with the divergences of Mus and Rattus set at 12 million years ago (Mya) as a calibration point, it was estimated that five old lineages (A. mystacinus and four major groups above) diverged in the late Miocene (7.82-12.74 Mya). Then the Apodemus group (excluding A. mystacinus) split into two subgroups: agrarius and draco, at about 7.17-9.95 Mya. Four species of the Sylvaemus group were estimated to diverge at about 2.92-5.21 Mya. The Hengduan Mountains Region was hypothesized to have played important roles in Apodemus evolutionary histories since the Pleistocene.

  5. Effects of tree species and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from tree prunings.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment.

  6. Sensitivity to zinc of Mediterranean woody species important for restoration.

    PubMed

    Disante, Karen B; Fuentes, David; Cortina, Jordi

    2010-04-15

    Heavy metals have increased in natural woodlands and shrublands over the last several decades as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. However, our knowledge of the effects of these elements on woody species is scarce. In this study, we examined the responses of six Mediterranean woody species to increasing levels of zinc in hydroponic culture and discussed the possible implications for the restoration of contaminated sites. The species used, Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster Ait., Pinus halepensis Mill., Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast., Rhamnus alaternus L. and Quercus suber L. represent a climatic gradient from dry sub-humid to semi-arid conditions. Zinc concentrations in shoots ranged from 53 microg g(-1) in Q. suber to 382 microg g(-1) in T. articulata and were well below the levels found in roots. Zinc inhibited root elongation and root biomass and changed the root length distribution per diameter class, but the magnitude of the effects was species-specific. Only P. halepensis and Q. suber showed toxicity symptoms in aboveground parts. Species more characteristic from xeric environments (T. articulata, R. alaternus and P. halepensis) were more sensitive to zinc than species from mesic environments (Q. suber, P. pinaster and P. pinea). According to the Zn responses and bioaccumulation, Q. suber P. pinea and P. halepensis are the best candidates for field trials to test the value of woody species to restore contaminated sites. None of the species tested seemed suitable for phytoremediation.

  7. Description of Scheffersomyces henanensis sp. nov., a New D-Xylose-Fermenting Yeast Species Isolated from Rotten Wood

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Niu, Qiuhong; Hui, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of a D-xylose-fermenting yeast species were isolated from rotten wood samples collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve in Henan Province, central China. These strains formed hat-shaped ascospores in conjugated and deliquescent asci. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis that included the nearly complete small subunit (SSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes, as well as RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) gene demonstrated that the two strains represent a novel yeast species closely related to Scheffersomyces segobiensis. A sequence comparison of xylose reductase (XYL1) gene, which was recently recommended for rapid identification of cryptic species in the Scheffersomyces clade, revealed a significant sequence divergence of 25 nucleotides between the novel strains and their closest relative S. segobiensis, supporting their classification as a distinct species. Furthermore, these new strains can be clearly distinguished from S. segobiensis by a number of morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, a novel yeast species, Scheffersomyces henanensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is BY-41T ( =  CICC 1974T  =  CBS 12475T). PMID:24647466

  8. Description of Scheffersomyces henanensis sp. nov., a new D-xylose-fermenting yeast species isolated from rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Niu, Qiuhong; Hui, Fengli

    2014-01-01

    Two strains of a D-xylose-fermenting yeast species were isolated from rotten wood samples collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve in Henan Province, central China. These strains formed hat-shaped ascospores in conjugated and deliquescent asci. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis that included the nearly complete small subunit (SSU), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes, as well as RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1) gene demonstrated that the two strains represent a novel yeast species closely related to Scheffersomyces segobiensis. A sequence comparison of xylose reductase (XYL1) gene, which was recently recommended for rapid identification of cryptic species in the Scheffersomyces clade, revealed a significant sequence divergence of 25 nucleotides between the novel strains and their closest relative S. segobiensis, supporting their classification as a distinct species. Furthermore, these new strains can be clearly distinguished from S. segobiensis by a number of morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, a novel yeast species, Scheffersomyces henanensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is BY-41T ( =  CICC 1974T  =  CBS 12475T).

  9. Univariate and multivariate analysis of tannin-impregnated wood species using vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Thomas; Musso, Maurizio; Tondi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools in polymer science. Three main techniques--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), FT-Raman spectroscopy, and FT near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy--can also be applied to wood science. Here, these three techniques were used to investigate the chemical modification occurring in wood after impregnation with tannin-hexamine preservatives. These spectroscopic techniques have the capacity to detect the externally added tannin. FT-IR has very strong sensitivity to the aromatic peak at around 1610 cm(-1) in the tannin-treated samples, whereas FT-Raman reflects the peak at around 1600 cm(-1) for the externally added tannin. This high efficacy in distinguishing chemical features was demonstrated in univariate analysis and confirmed via cluster analysis. Conversely, the results of the NIR measurements show noticeable sensitivity for small differences. For this technique, multivariate analysis is required and with this chemometric tool, it is also possible to predict the concentration of tannin on the surface.

  10. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species

  11. Treatability of underutilized northeastern species with CCA and alternative wood preservatives

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2005-01-01

    Opportunities for use of northeastern species such as balsam fir, eastern spruce, eastern hemlock, and red maple could be improved if these species could be adequately penetrated with preservatives and subsequently shown to be durable in outdoor exposures. In this study, specimens cut from lumber of northeastern species were pressure-treated with either chromated...

  12. Organic compounds in biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterization at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Philip M.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2002-11-01

    Wood smoke in the atmosphere often accounts for 20-30% of the ambient fine-particle concentrations. In communities where wood is burned for home heating, wood smoke can at times contribute the majority of the atmospheric fine-particle burden. Chemical mass balance receptor models that use organic compounds as tracers can be used to determine the contributions of different emission sources, including wood smoke, to atmospheric fine-particle samples. In order for organic chemical tracer techniques to be applied to communities across the United States, differences in wood smoke composition that arise from differences in the type of wood burned in various regions must be understood. A continental-scale accounting of particulate organic compound emissions from residential wood combustion has been constructed which helps to quantify the regional differences in wood smoke composition that exist between different parts of the United States. Data from a series of source tests conducted on 22 North American wood species have been used to assemble a national inventory of emissions for more than 250 individual organic compounds that are released from wood combustion in fireplaces and wood stoves in the United States. The emission rates of important wood smoke markers, such as levoglucosan, certain substituted syringols and guaiacols, and phytosterols vary greatly with wood type and combustor type. These differences at the level of individual wood type and combustion conditions translate into regional differences in the aggregate composition of ambient wood smoke. By weighting the source test results in proportion to the availability of firewood from specific tree species and the quantities of wood burned in each locale, it is possible to investigate systematic differences that exist between wood smokes from different regions of North America. The relative abundance of 10 major wood smoke components averaged over the emissions inventory in different regions of the United States

  13. Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Rebekah J.; Kaye, Margot W.; Abrams, Marc D.; Hanson, Paul J; Martin, Madhavi Z

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

  14. Wood and society

    Treesearch

    Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2005-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations of humankind was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence...

  15. Effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in central-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, M A; Rodríguez-Echeverría, S

    2003-01-01

    The effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on germination was tested on 10 species of the Cistaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae, from fire-prone, shrubby woodlands in central-western Spain. Dry seeds were exposed to smoke, by watering with distilled water-charred wood suspensions, or NaNO2, KNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3. Smoke enhanced germination in 9 of 10 of the species. In species of Poaceae, germination was stimulated by 20 min of smoke exposure. In Asteraceae and Fabaceae species, 10 min of smoke exposure was the most effective treatment for enhancing germination. Three species--Cistus ladanifer, Cistus crispus, and Cistus monspeliensis--had a positive response to 20 min of smoke exposure; germination of Cistus salviifolius L. was also enhanced after 10 min. The effect of charred wood was variable, with no consistent germination pattern within the families. Trifolium angustifolium and Retama sphaerocarpa showed no stimulation of germination under most of the charred wood concentrations. Similarly, germination of Senecio jacobea under the charred wood treatment did not surpass that of the control. NaNO2 promoted seed germination in Dactylis glomerata (10 mM), Cistus ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), and Cistus crispus (1 and 10 mM). KNO3 enhanced germination in Dactylis glomerata (1 and 25 mM), Dittrichia viscosa (10 and 25 mM), C. ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), Cistus crispus (1 and 25 mM), and C. salviifolius aud C. monspeliensis (25 mM). NH4Cl induced germination of Dactylis glomerata and Dittrichia viscosa (1 mM), and Cistus species germinated best in 25 mM of this salt. NH4NO3 induced germination only in Cistus species. Holcus lanatus had the highest level of germination regardless of treatment.

  16. Can we relate respiration rates of bark and wood with tissue nitrogen concentrations and branch-level CO2 fluxes across woody species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; Wright, I.; Cernusak, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Respiration from above-ground woody tissue is generally responsible for 5-15% of ecosystem respiration (~ 30% of total above-ground respiration). The CO2 respired by branches comes from both the sapwood and the living layers within the bark, but because there is considerable movement of respired CO2 within woody tissues (e.g. in the transpiration stream), and because the bark can present a considerable barrier to CO2 diffusion, it can be difficult to interpret measured CO2 efflux from intact branches in relation to the respiration rates of the component tissues, and to relative mass allocation to each. In this study we investigated these issues in 15 evergreen tree and shrub species native to the Sydney area in eastern Australia. We measured CO2 efflux and light-dependent refixation of respired CO2 in photosynthetic bark from the exterior surfaces of branches (0.5-1.5 cm in diameter), and measured the tissue-specific respiration rates of the bark and wood from those same branches. We also measured the nitrogen content and tissue density of the wood and bark to determine: 1) Among species, what is the relationship between %N and tissue respiration? 2) How is photosynthetic refixation of CO2 related to respiration and %N in the bark and underlying wood? and 3) What is the relationship between branch CO2 efflux and the respiration rates of the underlying wood and bark that make up the branch? Across the 15 species %N was a better predictor of respiration in wood than in bark. CO2 efflux measured from the exterior of the stem in the dark was positively correlated with photosynthetic refixation and explained ~40% of the variation in rates of refixation. Refixation rates were not strongly related to bark or wood %N. Differences among species in CO2 efflux rates were not well explained by differences in bark or wood %N and there was a stronger relationship between bark respiration and CO2 efflux than between wood respiration and CO2 efflux. These results suggest that the

  17. Supplies and production of aircraft wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparhawk, W N

    1920-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present in brief form such information as is available regarding the supplies of the kinds of wood that have been used or seem likely to become important in the construction of airplanes, and the amount of lumber of each species normally put on the market each year. A general statement is given of the uses to which each kind of wood is or may be put.

  18. The importance of education in managing invasive plant species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive plant species can establish in diverse environments and with the increase in human mobility, they are no longer restricted to isolated pockets in remote parts of the world. Cheat grass (Bromus tectorum L.) in rangelands, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) in wet lands and Canada this...

  19. Important Hawaiian tree species in need of genetic conservation

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Hauff

    2017-01-01

    Resource managers in Hawaii face unique forest conservation challenges. Invasive species continue to inundate the remote island archipelago, directly threatening its forest resources. Hawaii has the largest number (> 400) of endangered plants in the United States, and managers use genetic approaches to preserve these small populations which are often island...

  20. Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor): implications for late Quaternary history of the taiga species in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V B; Goropashnaya, A V; Boeskorov, G G; Cook, J A

    2008-01-01

    The association between demographic history, genealogy and geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b haplotypes was studied in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor), a species that is closely associated with the boreal forest of the Eurasian taiga zone from Scandinavia to the Pacific coast. Except for a major phylogeographic discontinuity (0.9% nucleotide divergence) in southeastern Siberia, only shallow regional genetic structure was detected across northern Eurasia. Genetic signs of demographic expansions imply that successive range contractions and expansions on different spatial scales represented the primary historical events that shaped geographical patterns of genetic variation. Comparison of phylogeographic structure across a taxonomically diverse array of other species that are ecologically associated with the taiga forest revealed similar patterns and identified two general aspects. First, the major south-north phylogeographic discontinuity observed in five out of six species studied in southeastern Siberia and the Far East implies vicariant separation in two different refugial areas. The limited distribution range of the southeastern lineages provides no evidence of the importance of the putative southeastern refugial area for postglacial colonization of northern Eurasia by boreal forest species. Second, the lack of phylogeographic structure associated with significant reciprocal monophyly and genetic signatures of demographic expansion in all nine boreal forest animal species studied to date across most of northern Eurasia imply contraction of each species to a single refugial area during the late Pleistocene followed by range expansion on a continental scale. Similar phylogeographic patterns observed in this taxonomically diverse set of organisms with different life histories and dispersal potentials reflect the historical dynamics of their shared environment, the taiga forest in northern Eurasia.

  1. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  2. Long-term dead wood changes in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest: habitat and fire hazard implications

    Treesearch

    Eric E. Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Dead trees play an important role in forests, with snags and coarse woody debris (CWD) used by many bird and mammal species for nesting, resting, or foraging. However, too much dead wood can also contribute to extreme fire behavior. This tension between dead wood as habitat and dead wood as fuel has raised questions about appropriate quantities in fire-dependent...

  3. Compression debarking of wood chips.

    Treesearch

    Rodger A. Arola; John R. Erickson

    1973-01-01

    Presents results from 2 years testing of a single-pass compression process for debarking wood chips of several species. The most significant variable was season of cut. Depending on species, approximately 70% of the bark was removed from wood cut in the growing season while approximately 45% was removed from wood cut in the dormant season.

  4. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mensah, John Kenneth; Adei, Evans; Adei, Dina; Owusu Ansah, Gwendolyn

    2012-12-18

    Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers', manufacturers', retailers' and consumers' (end-users') preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Suppliers', manufacturers' and retailers' preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy development on improvement in quality of available

  5. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’) preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy

  6. Relations between water balance, wood traits and phenological behavior of tree species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica--a multifactorial study.

    PubMed

    Worbes, Martin; Blanchart, Sofie; Fichtler, Esther

    2013-05-01

    Drought tolerance is a key factor for the establishment and survival of tree species in tropical ecosystems. Specific mechanisms of drought resistance can be grouped into four functional ecotypes based on differences in leaf fall behavior: deciduous, brevi-deciduous, stem succulent and evergreen. To identify the key factors influencing phenology and cambial activity and thus drought tolerance, we tested the stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and stable carbon isotopes in the leaves and wood of 12 species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. With wood anatomical techniques, we further studied seasonal cambial activity and a suite of wood traits related to water transport for each of the functional ecotypes. Using a principal component analysis, we identified two groups of variables that can be related to (i) hydraulic conductivity and (ii) control of transpiration and water loss. Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by vessel size as the limiting variable, water potential as the driving force and wood density as the stabilizing factor of the anatomical structure of an effective water transport system. Stomatal control plays a major role in terms of water loss or saving and is the dominant factor for differences in phenological behavior. Stem succulent species in particular developed a rarely identified but highly effective strategy against drought stress, which makes it a successful pioneer species in tropical dry forests.

  7. Characterization of Cytospora isolates from wood cankers of declining grapevine in North America, with the descriptions of two new Cytospora species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytospora species are ubiquitous pathogens of woody plants, causing dieback and wood cankers in numerous perennial hosts, including agronomic crops (e.g., Prunus), timber trees (e.g., Eucalyptus), and riparian hosts (e.g., Salix). Cytospora chrysosperma, C. cincta, and C. leucostoma have been report...

  8. Laccase and its role in production of extracellular reactive oxygen species during wood decay by the brown rot basidiomycete Postia placenta

    Treesearch

    Dongsheng Wei; Carl J. Houtman; Alexander N. Kapich; Christopher G. Hunt; Daniel Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2010-01-01

    Brown rot basidiomycetes initiate wood decay by producing extracellular reactive oxygen species that depolymerize the structural polysaccharides of lignocellulose. Secreted fungal hydroquinones are considered one contributor because they have been shown to reduce Fe3+, thus generating perhydroxyl radicals and Fe2+, which...

  9. The world species of Balcha Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), parasitoids of wood-boring beetles

    Treesearch

    Gary A. P. Gibson

    2005-01-01

    The world species of Balcha Walker (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) are revised, keyed and illustrated. Sixteen species are recognized, including two that are newly classified in the genus, B. reticulata (Nikol?skaya) n. comb. and B. splendida (Girault) n. comb., and eight that are described as new, B. \\i>...

  10. Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.

    PubMed

    Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib

    2016-06-01

    Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens.

  11. Barcode identifiers as a practical tool for reliable species assignment of medically important black yeast species.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Guido; de Hoog, G Sybren; Haase, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives.

  12. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species.

    PubMed

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere.

  13. Molecular systematics of the wood-inhabiting, lichen-forming genus Xylographa (Baeomycetales, Ostropomycetidae) with eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Resl, Philipp; Ahti, Teuvo; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Tønsberg, Tor; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete genus Xylographa includes some of the most abundant species of wood-inhabiting lichenized fungi in boreal and temperate regions. It has never been monographed and little is known of its species diversity and evolutionary relationships. Based on a morphological and secondary metabolite-based assessment of material from North and South America, Europe and Asia, we generated a three-locus phylogeny based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer, 28S nuclear rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA. We analyzed the data within the context of putatively related genera in the order Baeomycetales. Xylographa is a strongly supported monophyletic group closely related to Lithographa and Ptychographa, as well as rock-dwelling and lichenicolous species of Rimularia s.lat. The evolution of linearized ascomata in Xylographa appears to have enabled ascomata to grow laterally, and patterns of lateral growth are diagnostic. We recognize twenty species in Xylographa and provide a thorough revision of nomenclature. The following eight species are new: Xylographa bjoerkii T. Sprib., X. constricta T. Sprib., X. erratica T. Sprib., X. lagoi T. Sprib. & Pérez-Ortega, X. schofieldii T. Sprib., X. septentrionalis T. Sprib., X. stenospora T. Sprib. & Resl and X. vermicularis T. Sprib. The combinations Lambiella insularis (Nyl.) T. Sprib. and Xylographa carneopallida (Räsänen) T. Sprib. are newly proposed. Xylographa constricta from southern South America represents the first known case of secondary de-lichenization in the Baeomycetales. Xylographa parallela s.str. is confirmed as bipolar on the basis of sequenced collections from both southern Chile and the northern Hemisphere. PMID:26953522

  14. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)).

  15. How to Make a Beetle Out of Wood: Multi-Elemental Stoichiometry of Wood Decay, Xylophagy and Fungivory

    PubMed Central

    Filipiak, Michał; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates. PMID:25536334

  16. Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Tara, T.; Smith, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    Dead, downed wood is an important component of upland forest and aquatic ecosystems, but its role in wetland ecosystems, including mangroves, is poorly understood. We measured downed wood in ten sites on the western Pacific islands of Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap, all located within the Federated States of Micronesia. Our goals were to examine patterns of variability in the quantity of downed wood in these mangrove ecosystems, provide a general characterization of downed wood in a region with no previously published accounts, and investigate the relationship between harvesting practices and the amount of downed wood. The overall mean volume of downed wood at our study sites was estimated to be 60.8 m3 ha-1 (20.9 t ha-1), which is greater than most published data for forested wetlands. There were significant differences among islands, with the sites on Kosrae (104.2 m3 ha-1) having a much greater mean volume of downed wood than those on Pohnpei (43.1 m3 ha-1) or Yap (35.1 m3 ha-1). Part of the difference among islands may be attributable to differences in stand age and structure, but the most important factor seems to be the greater amount of wood harvesting on Kosrae, coupled with a low efficiency of use of cut trees. Of a total of 45 cut trees examined on Kosrae, no wood had been removed from 18 (40%); these are believed to be trees cut down because other, more valuable, trees were caught on them as they were felled. Of the other 27 trees, only 24 to 42% of the stem volume (to a 10 cm top) was removed from the forest, the amount varying by species. The impacts of current harvesting practices are unknown but may include important effects on tree regeneration and the abundance and species composition of crab populations.

  17. Morphological and Genetic Diversity of the Wood-Boring Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia): New Species and Records from Deep-Sea Iberian Canyons

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Chiara; Voight, Janet Ruth; Pérez-Portela, Rocío; Martin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea bivalves of the Xylophagaidae, a poorly known group, are obligate wood-borers. Deployment of wood in three submarine canyons off the Iberian coast, the Blanes and La Fonera Canyons (Mediterranean Sea) and the Avilés Canyon (Cantabric Sea, Bay of Biscay), lead to the discovery of four xylophagaid species in our samples. Xylophaga dorsalis (the dominant species), X. atlantica, X. cf. anselli and the new species X. brava, were identified on the basis of morphological data, and supported by a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the nuclear genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA and including several genus of Xylophagaidae. Genetic divergence between species of Xylophaga varied between genes, ranging from 0.5 to 4.0% for the 18SrDNA and from 4.1 to 16.6% for the 28SrDNA. Xylophaga brava sp. nov. appeared to be restricted to the Mediterranean and morphologically resembled the closely related X. cf. anselli from the Cantabrian Sea. However, they clearly diverged in two well-supported clades. Low levels of intraspecific variability and higher interspecific divergence between species also supported the existence of these two different species. Morphologically they differ in the number of cirri at the siphon openings, in the shape of the posterior shell and in the size of prodissoconch II. The new species is characterized by having weak, poorly mineralized mesoplax and siphons united throughout, covered by a periostracal, non-calcified tube; distinct proximal and distal siphons, the former translucent and soft, the latter muscular, with concentric rings. Xylophaga atlantica, previously known only from the western Atlantic, is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. Whether its presence in the Mediterranean indicates its natural distribution or reflects its recent introduction is unknown. Although xylophagaids have been previously reported to recruit heavily to wood deposited on the seabed, these four species colonized wood suspended 30 m above the seafloor

  18. Morphological and genetic diversity of the wood-boring Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia): new species and records from deep-sea Iberian canyons.

    PubMed

    Romano, Chiara; Voight, Janet Ruth; Pérez-Portela, Rocío; Martin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea bivalves of the Xylophagaidae, a poorly known group, are obligate wood-borers. Deployment of wood in three submarine canyons off the Iberian coast, the Blanes and La Fonera Canyons (Mediterranean Sea) and the Avilés Canyon (Cantabric Sea, Bay of Biscay), lead to the discovery of four xylophagaid species in our samples. Xylophaga dorsalis (the dominant species), X. atlantica, X. cf. anselli and the new species X. brava, were identified on the basis of morphological data, and supported by a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the nuclear genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA and including several genus of Xylophagaidae. Genetic divergence between species of Xylophaga varied between genes, ranging from 0.5 to 4.0% for the 18SrDNA and from 4.1 to 16.6% for the 28SrDNA. Xylophaga brava sp. nov. appeared to be restricted to the Mediterranean and morphologically resembled the closely related X. cf. anselli from the Cantabrian Sea. However, they clearly diverged in two well-supported clades. Low levels of intraspecific variability and higher interspecific divergence between species also supported the existence of these two different species. Morphologically they differ in the number of cirri at the siphon openings, in the shape of the posterior shell and in the size of prodissoconch II. The new species is characterized by having weak, poorly mineralized mesoplax and siphons united throughout, covered by a periostracal, non-calcified tube; distinct proximal and distal siphons, the former translucent and soft, the latter muscular, with concentric rings. Xylophaga atlantica, previously known only from the western Atlantic, is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. Whether its presence in the Mediterranean indicates its natural distribution or reflects its recent introduction is unknown. Although xylophagaids have been previously reported to recruit heavily to wood deposited on the seabed, these four species colonized wood suspended 30 m above the seafloor.

  19. Fracture tolerance of reaction wood (yew and spruce wood in the TR crack propagation system).

    PubMed

    Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E; Keunecke, Daniel; Tschegg, Elmar K

    2011-07-01

    The fracture properties of spruce and yew were studied by in-situ loading in an environmental scanning microscope (ESEM). Loading was performed with a micro-wedge splitting device in the TR-crack propagation direction. The emphasis was laid on investigating the main mechanisms responsible for a fracture tolerant behavior with a focus on the reaction wood. The fracture mechanical results were correlated with the features of the surface structure observed by the ESEM technique, which allows loading and observation in a humid environment. Some important differences between the reaction wood and normal wood were found for both investigated wood species (spruce and yew), including the formation of cracks before loading (ascribed to residual stresses) and the change of fracture mode during crack propagation in the reaction wood. The higher crack propagation resistance was attributed mainly to the different cell (i.e. fiber) geometries (shape, cell wall thickness) and fiber angle to the load axis of the reaction wood, as basic structural features are responsible for more pronounced crack deflection and branching, thus leading to crack growth retardation. Fiber bridging was recognized as another crack growth retarding mechanism, which is effective in both wood species and especially pronounced in yew wood.

  20. Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 Allocates Carbon into Wood Fibers1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Niittylä, Totte

    2013-01-01

    Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H+ symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after 13CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more 13C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers. PMID:24170204

  1. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Treesearch

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  2. Economics of wood dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    This article reviews the economic effects of wood dust. The most important use of wood today is a fuel, and wood chips and shavings are sources of feedstock for boilers. Other uses include wood chips in the manufacture of particleboard, wood dust as bedding in riding stables and race tracks, as mulch for florists, and as an absorbent in the meat packing industry. The installation of dust collection systems is strongly urged as the consequences of inadequate collection include rapid machine wear, poor environmental conditions for workers, general interference with work, and its combustibility makes it a constant fire hazard.

  3. Gas-phase reactions of halogen species of atmospheric importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Anne C.

    A low-pressure discharge-flow technique, with various optical detection methods, has been used to determine bimolecular rate coefficients for a number of reactions in the gas-phase between OH radicals and organic halogen-containing molecules and between NO3 radicals and the iodine species I2 and I. These experiments have shown that: (1) the reaction of methyl iodide with OH accounts for approximately 2 percent of the removal of CH3I from the troposphere as compared with photolysis; (2) abstraction of I-atoms from a C-I bond by OH is probable in the gas-phase; (3) the halogen-containing anaesthetic substances halothane CF3CClBrH, enflurane CF2HOCF2CFClH, isoflurane CF2HOCClHCF3 and sevoflurane (CF3)2CHOCFH2 have significantly shorter tropospheric lifetimes than the fully halogenated CFCs and halons because of reaction with the OH radical and are thus unlikely to be transported up to the stratosphere where they could contribute to the depletion of ozone. Data obtained for reactions between OH and some 'CFC alternatives' along with measurements of the integrated absorption cross-sections of the compounds in the spectral region 800-1200 cm(exp -1) were used to calculate ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and greenhouse warming potentials relative to CFCl3 for each compound. The study of the reactions between OH and CF3CFBrH and CF2BrH was used to provide a useful first estimate of the environmental acceptability of these compounds in the context of their possible use as replacements for the conventional CFCs. A method was developed to provide a first estimate of the ODP of a halogenated alkane without use of a complicated (and expensive) computer modeling scheme. A reaction between molecular iodine and the nitrate radical in the gas-phase was discovered and the kinetics of this reaction have been studied. No temperature or pressure dependence was observed for the rate of reaction, the rate constant of which was found to be (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp -12)/cu cm

  4. Environmental controls of wood entrapment in upper Midwestern streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Eric C.; Finlay, J.; Johnson, L.; Newman, R.; Stefan, H.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Wood deposited in streams provides a wide variety of ecosystem functions, including enhancing habitat for key species in stream food webs, increasing geomorphic and hydraulic heterogeneity and retaining organic matter. Given the strong role that wood plays in streams, factors that influence wood inputs, retention and transport are critical to stream ecology. Wood entrapment, the process of wood coming to rest after being swept downstream at least 10 m, is poorly understood, yet important for predicting stream function and success of restoration efforts. Data on entrapment were collected for a wide range of natural wood pieces (n = 344), stream geomorphology and hydraulic conditions in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. Locations of pieces were determined in summer 2007 and again following an overbank stormflow event in fall 2007. The ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio) and the weight of the piece were important in a multiple logistic regression model that explained 25% of the variance in wood entrapment. Entrapment remains difficult to predict in natural streams, and often may simply occur wherever wood pieces are located when high water recedes. However, this study can inform stream modifications to discourage entrapment at road crossings or other infrastructure by applying the model formula to estimate the effective width required to pass particular wood pieces. Conversely, these results could also be used to determine conditions (e.g. pre-existing large, stable pieces) that encourage entrapment where wood is valued for ecological functions. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. [Revision of the species composition of the wood mice from the genus Sylvaemus from the territory of Rostov oblast using karyological, allozyme and molecular genetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Stakheev, V V; Bogdanov, A S; Vodolazhskiĭ, D I

    2011-05-01

    Using karyological, allozyme, and molecular genetic analysis, habitation of the four Sylvaemus wood mice species, pygmy wood mouse (S. uralensis), wood mouse (S. sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (S. flavicollis), and yellow-bellied mouse (S. fulvipectus) in Rostov oblast was demonstrated. Sylvaemus uralensis was distributed nearly over nearlythe whole territory of the oblast; S. sylvaticus was found in the central and western parts of the oblast on the right bank area of Don River; S. flavicollis inhabited northern and central parts of the right bank area of Don River; S. fulvipectus was found in the southern parts of the oblast, in the left bank area of Don River. Using the chromosome C-banding technique, it was demonstrated that the pygmy wood mice living in Rostov oblast in the right bank areas of Manych River and Don River in its low course, belonged to the eastern European chromosomal form of S. uralensis. The mice from the outskirts of the town of Salsk, the left bank area of Manych River, were probably hybrids between eastern European and southern European chromosomal forms. Based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene fragment sequencing and chromosome C-banding, it was suggested that the wood mice inhabiting Rostov oblast belonged to the southern lineage of S. sylvaticus, living on Apennine Peninsula, Balkan Peninsula, and nearly throughout Ukraine.

  6. Wood-based composites and panel products

    Treesearch

    John A. Youngquist

    1999-01-01

    Because wood properties vary among species, between trees of the same species, and between pieces from the same tree, solid wood cannot match reconstituted wood in the range of properties that can be controlled in processing. When processing variables are properly selected, the end result can sometimes surpass nature’s best effort. With solid wood, changes in...

  7. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  8. Gas-Phase Reactions of Halogen Species of Atmospheric Importance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Anne C.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A low-pressure discharge-flow technique, with various optical detection methods, has been used to determine bimolecular rate coefficients for a number of reactions in the gas-phase between OH radicals and organic halogen -containing molecules and between NO_3 radicals and the iodine species I_2 and I. These experiments have shown that: (i) the reaction of methyl iodide with OH accounts for approximately 2% of the removal of CH_3I from the troposphere as compared with photolysis; (ii) abstraction of I-atoms from a C-I bond by OH is probable in the gas -phase; (iii) the halogen-containing anaesthetic substances halothane CF_3CCl BrH, enflurane CF_2HOCF _2CFClH, isoflurane CF_2HOCClHCF _3 and sevoflurane (CF_3) _2CHOCFH_2 have significantly shorter tropospheric lifetimes than the fully halogenated CFCs and halons because of reaction with the OH radical and are thus unlikely to be transported up to the stratosphere where they could contribute to the depletion of ozone. Data obtained for reactions between OH and some 'CFC alternatives' along with measurements of the integrated absorption cross -sections of the compounds in the spectral region 800-1200 cm^{-1} were used to calculate ozone depletion potentials (ODP) and greenhouse warming potentials relative to CFCl_3 for each compound. The study of the reactions between OH and CF_3CFBrH and CF _2BrH was used to provide a useful first estimate of the environmental acceptability of these compounds in the context of their possible use as replacements for the conventional CFCs. A method was developed to provide a first estimate of the ODP of a halogenated alkane without use of a complicated (and expensive) computer modeling scheme. A reaction between molecular iodine and the nitrate radical in the gas-phase was discovered and the kinetics of this reaction have been studied. No temperature or pressure dependence was observed for the rate of

  9. Desulfovibrio species are potentially important in regressive autism.

    PubMed

    Finegold, Sydney M

    2011-08-01

    Autism is a complex disorder with no specific diagnostic test so the disease is defined by its characteristics including cognitive defects, social, communication and behavioral problems, repetitive behaviors, unusual sensitivity to stimuli such as noise, restricted interests, and self stimulation. The incidence of this disease has increased remarkably in recent years and was 110/10,000 children (∼1%) in multiple areas of the US in 2007. The financial burden on families and communities is enormous. In terms of predisposing factors, heredity plays a role in some subjects, but it is clear that environmental factors are also important. Environmental toxins can affect the immune system adversely. Intestinal bacteria are recognized by a few investigators as potentially important and we have proposed that certain antimicrobial drugs may be a key factor in modifying the intestinal bacterial flora adversely, selecting out potentially harmful bacteria that are normally suppressed by an intact normal intestinal flora. We had felt that clostridia in the gut might be involved in autism because they are virulent organisms and spore-formers; spores would resist antibacterial agents so that when antibiotics were discontinued the spores would germinate and by toxin production or another mechanism lead to autism. However, a recent study of ours employing the powerful pyrosequencing technique on stools of subjects with regressive autism showed that Desulfovibrio was more common in autistic subjects than in controls. We subsequently confirmed this with pilot cultural and real-time PCR studies and found siblings of autistic children had counts of Desulfovibrio that were intermediate, suggesting possible spread of the organism in the family environment. Desulfovibrio is an anaerobic bacillus that does not produce spores but is nevertheless resistant to aerobic and other adverse conditions by other mechanisms and is commonly resistant to certain antimicrobial agents (such as

  10. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  11. Wood volume increment in thinned, 50- to 55-year-old, mixed-species Allegheny hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Christopher A. Nowak

    1996-01-01

    A thinning study in 50- to 55-year-old, even-aged, mixed species Allegheny hardwoods produced highly variable merchantable stemwood volume increment responses. Regression equations relating parameters of stand growth (ingrowth, mortality, survivor growth, net growth, and gross growth) to relative stand density had R2 values ranging from 0.07 to 0...

  12. Durability of five native Argentine wood species of the genera Prosopis and Acacia decayed by rot fungi and its relationship with extractive content.

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Palanti, Sabrina; Pizzo, Benedetto; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Boizot, Nathalie; Resio, Claudio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2010-09-01

    The natural durability of four Argentinean species of Prosopis and one of Acacia was evaluated in laboratory tests, according to European standards, using three brown rot and one white rot fungi. These tests were complemented by assessing the wood chemical composition. All the species were from moderately slightly durable to very durable (classes 4-1), and in all cases the heartwood was the most resistant to fungal attack. Chemical extractives content (organic, aqueous, tannic and phenolic) was higher in the heartwood. However, species durability was not related to extractive contents nor with wood density. Instead, it is possible that extractives could contribute to natural durability in different ways, including the effects related to the antioxidant properties of some of them.

  13. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  14. Treatability of five Appalachian wood species with creosote and timbor®

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey J. Slahor; Curt C. Hassler; Rodney C. DeGroot; Douglas J. Gardner

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this paper culminates an investigation into the treatability of five Appalachian hardwood species. Previous papers have described work using the waterborne preservatives CCA-C and ACQ-B. This paper details the results of pressure treatment with creosote and Timbor®. Six-inch long nominal two-by-four samples of red maple, yellow-poplar, red oak,...

  15. Wood staining fungi revealed taxonomic novelties in Pezizomycotina: New order Superstratomycetales and new species Cyanodermella oleoligni.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, E J; Miadlikowska, J M; Houbraken, J A M P; Adan, O C G; Lutzoni, F M; Samson, R A

    2016-09-01

    A culture-based survey of staining fungi on oil-treated timber after outdoor exposure in Australia and the Netherlands uncovered new taxa in Pezizomycotina. Their taxonomic novelty was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, mitSSU, RPB1, RPB2, and EF-1α) using multiple reference data sets. These previously unknown taxa are recognised as part of a new order (Superstratomycetales) potentially closely related to Trypetheliales (Dothideomycetes), and as a new species of Cyanodermella, C. oleoligni in Stictidaceae (Ostropales) part of the mostly lichenised class Lecanoromycetes. Within Superstratomycetales a single genus named Superstratomyces with three putative species: S. flavomucosus, S. atroviridis, and S. albomucosus are formally described. Monophyly of each circumscribed Superstratomyces species was highly supported and the intraspecific genetic variation was substantially lower than interspecific differences detected among species based on the ITS, nrLSU, and EF-1α loci. Ribosomal loci for all members of Superstratomyces were noticeably different from all fungal sequences available in GenBank. All strains from this genus grow slowly in culture, have darkly pigmented mycelia and produce pycnidia. The strains of C. oleoligni form green colonies with slimy masses and develop green pycnidia on oatmeal agar. These new taxa could not be classified reliably at the class and lower taxonomic ranks by sequencing from the substrate directly or based solely on culture-dependent morphological investigations. Coupling phenotypic observations with multi-locus sequencing of fungi isolated in culture enabled these taxonomic discoveries. Outdoor situated timber provides a great potential for culturable undescribed fungal taxa, including higher rank lineages as revealed by this study, and therefore, should be further explored.

  16. Wood formation in Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, Annabelle; Laurans, Françoise; Arnaud, Dominique; Breton, Christian; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles

    2010-04-01

    Wood formation is a complex biological process, involving five major developmental steps, including (1) cell division from a secondary meristem called the vascular cambium, (2) cell expansion (cell elongation and radial enlargement), (3) secondary cell wall deposition, (4) programmed cell death, and (5) heartwood formation. Thanks to the development of genomic studies in woody species, as well as genetic engineering, recent progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wood formation. In this review, we will focus on two different aspects, the lignification process and the control of microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres, as they are both key features of wood material properties.

  17. Interactions between soil- and dead wood-inhabiting fungal communities during the decay of Norway spruce logs

    PubMed Central

    Mäkipää, Raisa; Rajala, Tiina; Schigel, Dmitry; Rinne, Katja T; Pennanen, Taina; Abrego, Nerea; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between fungal communities of soil and dead wood substrates. For this, we applied molecular species identification and stable isotope tracking to both soil and decaying wood in an unmanaged boreal Norway spruce-dominated stand. Altogether, we recorded 1990 operational taxonomic units, out of which more than 600 were shared by both substrates and 589 were found to exclusively inhabit wood. On average the soil was more species-rich than the decaying wood, but the species richness in dead wood increased monotonically along the decay gradient, reaching the same species richness and community composition as soil in the late stages. Decaying logs at all decay stages locally influenced the fungal communities from soil, some fungal species occurring in soil only under decaying wood. Stable isotope analyses suggest that mycorrhizal species colonising dead wood in the late decay stages actively transfer nitrogen and carbon between soil and host plants. Most importantly, Piloderma sphaerosporum and Tylospora sp. mycorrhizal species were highly abundant in decayed wood. Soil- and wood-inhabiting fungal communities interact at all decay phases of wood that has important implications in fungal community dynamics and thus nutrient transportation. PMID:28430188

  18. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  19. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  20. The dynamic of the annual carbon allocation to wood in European tree species is consistent with a combined source-sink limitation of growth: implications for modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, J.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Dufrene, E.; Francois, C.; Soudani, K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Delpierre, N.

    2015-05-01

    The extent to which wood growth is limited by carbon (C) supply (i.e. source control) or by cambial activity (i.e. sink control) will strongly determine the responses of trees to global changes. Nevertheless, the physiological processes that are responsible for limiting forest growth are still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the key determinants of the annual C allocation to wood along large soil and climate regional gradients over France. The study was conducted for five tree species representative of the main European forest biomes (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Quercus ilex, Quercus robur and Picea abies). The drivers of stand biomass growth were assessed on both inter-site and inter-annual scales. Our data set comprised field measurements performed at 49 sites (931 site-years) that included biometric measurements and a variety of stand characteristics (e.g. soil water holding capacity, leaf area index). It was complemented with process-based simulations when possible explanatory variables could not be directly measured (e.g. annual and seasonal tree C balance, bioclimatic water stress indices). Specifically, the relative influences of tree C balance (source control), direct environmental control (water and temperature controls of sink activity) and allocation adjustments related to age, past climate conditions, competition intensity and soil nutrient availability on growth were quantified. The inter-site variability in the stand C allocation to wood was predominantly driven by age-related decline. The direct effects of temperature and water stress on sink activity (i.e. effects independent from their effects on the C supply) exerted a strong influence on the annual stand wood growth in all of the species considered, including deciduous temperate species. The lagged effect of the past environmental conditions (e.g. the previous year's water stress and low C uptake) significantly affected the annual C allocation to wood. The C supply

  1. Properties of Seven Colombian Woods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    the botanical name about 4 feet long at the Potlatch range outlook suggests greater followed by "spp." indicates that the laboratory. Thirty sticks of...the un- was collected by Potlatch Forests, species were received, each represen- tapped timber resources of the world. Inc. (now Potlatch Corporation...Sample material was being pro- Six sticks 2-1/2 inches square and 5 of these woods important to their ef- cessed at the Potlatch A & D feet long were cut

  2. Comparison of δ(18)O and δ(13)C values between tree-ring whole wood and cellulose in five species growing under two different site conditions.

    PubMed

    Weigt, Rosemarie B; Bräunlich, Stephanie; Zimmermann, Lothar; Saurer, Matthias; Grams, Thorsten E E; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Nikolova, Petia S

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the applicability of tree-ring whole-wood material for δ(18)O and δ(13)C analysis in comparison with the more time- and resource-intensive use of cellulose, by considering possible variability between (i) five different tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Picea abies, Abies alba, Pseudotsuga menziesii), (ii) two sites that differ in soil moisture, and (iii) climate conditions within a 10-year period. Stem cores of 30 individual trees (n = 3 trees per each species and site) were sampled from two sites in south Germany (Bavaria), and tree rings within sapwood of the years 2001-2010 were separated. The δ(18)O and δ(13)C values from homogenized tree-ring whole wood and from extracted cellulose were measured by mass spectrometry. Species-specific offsets in isotope values were analyzed and the responses in isotopic signature to climate variability including a single drought event were compared between whole-wood and cellulose. A constant offset in δ(18)O values of ca 5‰ between wood and cellulose was observed for most species independent of site conditions, with a significant difference between beech and Douglas-fir, while inter-annual variability was only observed in oak. The offset in δ(13)C values ranged between 1.45 and 1.84‰ across species, sites and years. Both materials generally showed similar strength in responses to temperature, precipitation and soil water availability, particularly for conifers. Resistance to severe drought stress--partly more strongly reflected in the δ(13)C values of cellulose--was lower for conifers than for the deciduous species. Wood material from the sapwood of the studied tree species is as useful as cellulose for studying environmental effects on tree-ring δ(18)O and δ(13)C values at a short-term scale as considered in most ecophysiological studies. The more variable response of oak may require further investigations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Temporal dynamics of instream wood in headwater streams draining mixed Carpathian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galia, Tomáš; Šilhán, Karel; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Tichavský, Radek; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Instream wood can reside in fluvial systems over varying periods depending on its geographical context, instream position, tree species, piece size, and fluvial environment. In this paper, we investigate the residence time of two typical species representing a majority of instream wood in steep headwaters of the Carpathians and located under mixed forest canopy. Residence times of individual logs were then confronted with other wood parameters (i.e., wood dimensions, mean annual increment rate, tree age, class of wood stabilisation and decay, geomorphic function of wood pieces, and the proportion of the log length within the active channel). Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) samples indicated more than two times longer mean and maximal residence times as compared to European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) based on the successful cross-dating of 127 logs. Maximum residence time in the headwaters was 128 years for P. abies and 59 years for F. sylvatica. We demonstrate that log age and log diameter played an important role in the preservation of wood in the fluvial system, especially in the case of F. sylvatica instream wood. By contrast, we did not observe any significant trends between wood residence time and total wood length. Instream wood with geomorphic functions (i.e., formation of steps and jams) did not show any differences in residence time as compared to nonfunctional wood. Nevertheless, we found shorter residence times for hillslope-stabilised pieces when compared to pieces located entirely in the channel (either unattached or stabilised by other wood or bed sediments). We also observed changes of instream wood orientation with respect to wood residence time. This suggests some movement of instream wood (i.e., its turning or short-distance transport), including pieces longer than channel width in the steep headwaters studied here (1.5 ≤ W ≤ 3.5 m), over the past few decades.

  4. Creosote accumulation as a function of moisture content, wood species, and fire intensity in an airtight stove, and chimney fire experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, J.W.

    1981-11-01

    Two basic aspects of creosote investigated were: creosote accumulation as a function of moisture content, wood species, and stove power output; and creosote combustion - that is, chimney fires. For the creosote accumulation studies, six identical stove systems were operated simultaneously for four months, during which power output, fuel species and fuel moisture content were systematically varied. Chimneys were weighed before and after each test series to determine creosote accumulation. For the simulated fireplace series, where the stove doors were left wide open, the conventional wisdom holds true - creosote accumulation increased with increasing moisture content. For closed combustion systems (airtight stoves), however, green wood produced less creosote than dry or medium wood under medium and high power conditions. Under low power conditions there was no significant effect of moisture content on creosote accumulation. How an appliance is operated can have a larger effect on creosote than either the fuel species or moisture content; up to 48 times more creosote was observed with a smoldering fire than a brightly burning fire. The chimney fires, induced in heavily creosoted chimneys in the laboratory, resulted in a maximum flue gas temperature of 1125/sup 0/C, as measured with unshielded thermocouples. The creosote fires typically lasted 3 to 15 minutes. Noncreosote chimney fires were also observed.

  5. What determines the importance of a species for ecosystem processes? Insights from tropical ant assemblages.

    PubMed

    Houadria, Mickal; Menzel, Florian

    2017-07-26

    Biodiversity is known to increase ecosystem functioning. However, species vary in their contributions to ecosystem processes. Here, we investigated seven ecosystem functions based on the consumption of different resources in tropical ant communities. We analysed how different species influence site-level resource consumption, and determined how each species influenced performance and stability of these functions. Based on simulated extinctions, we identified 'key species' with significant functional contributions. We then investigated which traits, such as biomass, abundance, and specialisation, characterized them, and compared trait distributions across four sites to analyse differences in functional redundancy. Only few species significantly influenced ecosystem functions. Common generalist species tended to be the most important drivers of many ecosystem functions, though several specialist species also proved to be important in this study. Moreover, species-specific ecological impacts varied across sites. In addition, we found that functional redundancy varied across sites, and was highest in sites where the most common species did not simultaneously have the greatest functional impacts. Furthermore, redundancy was enhanced in sites where species were less specialised and had more even incidence distributions. Our study demonstrates that the ecological importance of a species depends on its functional traits, but also on the community context. It cannot be assessed without investigating its species-specific performance across multiple functions. Hence, to assess functional redundancy in a habitat and the potential for compensation of species loss, researchers need to study species-specific traits that concern functional performance as well as population dynamics and tolerance to environmental conditions.

  6. Assessment and Management of Dead-Wood Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al

  7. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  8. Flat Mites of the World interactive identification key for economically important species in the family Tenuipalpidae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several flat mite species associated with fruit and crop trees, and ornamentals are commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry. These species complex are also the most complicated and part of the most diverse group in the flat mite family. Three of the most economically important species in the fa...

  9. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (H. cannabinus L.) and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterc...

  10. The identification of Douglas-fir wood

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)

    1963-01-01

    Douglas-fir is one of the largest, most abundant and widely distributed species of trees native to North America, and next to the southern yellow pines, it is cut in the greatest quantities of any wood of commercial importance. It belongs to the coniferous family and is, therefore, a softwood. Other names for Douglas -fir are red fir, yellow fir, Oregon pine, Puget...

  11. A comparison of the hydraulic efficiency of a palm species (Iriartea deltoidea) with other wood types.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Heidi J; McCulloh, Katherine A; Phillips, Nathan

    2013-02-01

    Palms are an important component of tropical ecosystems, living alongside dicotyledonous trees, even though they have a very different growth pattern and vascular system. As monocots, vessels in palms are located within vascular bundles and, without a vascular cambium that many dicotyledonous trees possess, palms cannot add additional vessels to their vascular system as they get older and taller. This means that hydraulic architecture in palms is more predetermined, which may require a highly efficient hydraulic system. This preset nature, along with the decoupling of hydraulic and mechanical functioning to different cell types, may allow palms to have a more efficient hydraulic system than dicotyledonous trees. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the efficiency of the hydraulic system in the palm Iriartea deltoidea (Ruiz & Pav.) and compare this efficiency with other tree forms. We measured cross-sectional areas of roots, stems and fronds as well as leaf areas of I. deltoidea saplings. Likewise, cross-sections were made and vessel diameters and frequencies measured. This allowed for the calculation of theoretical specific conductivity (K(S,calc)), theoretical leaf-specific conductivity (K(L,calc)), and vessel diameter and vessel number ratios between distal and proximal locations in the palms. Iriartea deltoidea palms were found to have the largest, least frequent vessels that diverged most from the square packing limit (maximum number of vessels that fit into a given area) compared with other major tree forms, and they therefore invested the least space and carbon into water transport structures. Likewise, conduits tapered by ∼1/3 between ranks (root, bole and petiole), which represents an efficient ratio with regard to the trade-offs between safety and efficiency of the conducting system. Conduits also exhibited a high conservation of the sum of the conduit radii cubed (Σr(3)) across ranks, thereby approximating Murray's law patterning. Therefore, our

  12. Above-ground carbon storage, downed wood, and understory plant species richness after thinning in western Oregon

    Treesearch

    Julia I. Burton; Adrian Ares; Sara E. Mulford; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have generated worldwide interest in managing forests for the uptake and storage of carbon (C). Simultaneously, preserving and enhancing structural, functional, and species diversity in forests remains an important objective. Therefore, understanding tradeoffs and synergies among C storage and sequestration and diversity in managed forests...

  13. Pre-treatment assemblages of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae) of the hardwood ecosystem experiment

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Holland; John T. Shukle; Hossam Eldien M. Abdel Moniem; Thomas W. Mager; Kapil R. Raje; Kyle Schnepp; Shulin. Yang

    2013-01-01

    Longhorned beetles are a diverse and important group of insects in forest ecosystems; several species attack weakened or stressed trees, relatively few attack healthy trees, and most species use only dead and decomposing wood. We surveyed longhorned beetles and metallic wood-boring beetles using four different types of traps at 36 Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (Indiana...

  14. Effect of wood hardness and secondary compounds on feeding preference of Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Kasseney, Boris Dodji; Deng, Tianfu; Mo, Jianchu

    2011-06-01

    Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is one of the most destructive plant pests in China, which control relies mainly on baits strategies. Baits made from the wood of eight different tree species were used to study the feeding preference of this termite, and conversely wood protection strategies of the tree species. Three bait types were used to identify wood protection strategies: solid wood (physical and chemical protection), crude flour (chemical protection) made from ground wood, and extracted flour (no protection) made by extracting crude flour with ethanol and toluene. Feeding preference was influenced by wood species and bait type. For solid wood, Magnolia denudata Desr (75%) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus Merr (41%) were most preferred; for crude flour, E. glabripetalus (97%) and Quercus variabilis Blume (92%) were most preferred; and for extracted flour, there were no significant differences between wood species, demonstrating the influence of chemical defense. The greatest contrast between bait types was for Platanus orientalis L, the least preferred as solid wood and crude flour, suggesting that chemical defense compounds are particularly important in this species. Solid wood consumption was inversely correlated with wood density. Extracted flour consumption was positively correlated with glucose concentration. There was no direct effect of holocellulose and other components tested. O. formosanus preferred to fed on soft wood with low chemical protection (M. denudata); conversely trees protected their wood either physically [e.g., E. glabripetalus, Q. variabilis, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, and Ligustrum lucidum Aiton] or chemically (Populus bonati Levl) or a combination of both strategies (Liquidamba formosana Hance and P. orientalis).

  15. Importance of two consecutive methionines at the N-terminus of a cellulose synthase (PtdCesA8A) for normal wood cellulose synthesis in aspen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Xu, Fuyu; Gou, Jiqing; Al-Haddad, Jameel; Telewski, Frank W; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P

    2012-11-01

    All known orthologs of a secondary wall-associated cellulose synthase (CesA) gene from Arabidopsis, AtCesA8, encode CesA proteins with two consecutive methionines at their N-termini (MM or 2M). Here, we report that these 2Ms in an aspen ortholog of AtCesA8, PtdCesA8A, are important for maintaining normal wood cellulose biosynthesis in aspen trees. Overexpression of an altered PtdCesA8A cDNA encoding a PtdCesA8A protein missing one methionine at the N-terminus (1M) in aspen resulted in substantial decrease in cellulose content and caused negative effects on wood strength, suggesting that both methionines are essential for proper CesA expression and function in developing xylem tissues. Transcripts from a pair of paralogous native PtdCesA8 genes, as well as introduced PtdCesA8A:1M transgenes were significantly reduced in developing xylem tissues of transgenic aspen plants, suggestive of a co-suppression event. Overexpression of a native PtdCesA8A cDNA encoding a CesA protein with 2Ms at the N-terminus did not cause any such phenotypic changes. These results suggest the importance of 2Ms present at the N-terminus of PtdCesA8A protein during cellulose synthesis in aspen.

  16. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Heat sterilization of wood

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  18. Predicting segregation of wood and bark chips by differences in terminal velocities.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1973-01-01

    Presents data on length, width, thickness, moisture content, specific gravity, and terminal velocities of wood and bark chips for eight important pulpwood species. Gives differences in terminal velocities of the wood and bark chips used to predict the degree of segregation possible by air flotation.

  19. Online resources for the identification of North American wood decay fungi

    Treesearch

    Jessie A. Glaeser

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify wood decay fungi is an important skill for an arborist. Knowing which fungus is colonizing a tree can be used to better assess the type, amount, and position of decay in the tree, and its subsequent effects on wood strength. Distinguishing species of fungi that colonize sapwood, heartwood, or roots can provide information to improve the quality...

  20. Using abiotic variables to predict importance of sites for species representation.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul

    2015-10-01

    In systematic conservation planning, species distribution data for all sites in a planning area are used to prioritize each site in terms of the site's importance toward meeting the goal of species representation. But comprehensive species data are not available in most planning areas and would be expensive to acquire. As a shortcut, ecologists use surrogates, such as occurrences of birds or another well-surveyed taxon, or land types defined from remotely sensed data, in the hope that sites that represent the surrogates also represent biodiversity. Unfortunately, surrogates have not performed reliably. We propose a new type of surrogate, predicted importance, that can be developed from species data for a q% subset of sites. With species data from this subset of sites, importance can be modeled as a function of abiotic variables available at no charge for all terrestrial areas on Earth. Predicted importance can then be used as a surrogate to prioritize all sites. We tested this surrogate with 8 sets of species data. For each data set, we used a q% subset of sites to model importance as a function of abiotic variables, used the resulting function to predict importance for all sites, and evaluated the number of species in the sites with highest predicted importance. Sites with the highest predicted importance represented species efficiently for all data sets when q = 25% and for 7 of 8 data sets when q = 20%. Predicted importance requires less survey effort than direct selection for species representation and meets representation goals well compared with other surrogates currently in use. This less expensive surrogate may be useful in those areas of the world that need it most, namely tropical regions with the highest biodiversity, greatest biodiversity loss, most severe lack of inventory data, and poorly developed protected area networks. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; França, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2010-03-01

    Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the

  2. RNA extraction from decaying wood for (meta)transcriptomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Martino; Voyron, Samuele; Girlanda, Mariangela; Marmeisse, Roland

    2017-10-01

    Wood decomposition is a key step of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is of economic importance. It is essentially a microbiological process performed by fungi and to an unknown extent by bacteria. To gain access to the genes expressed by the diverse microbial communities participating in wood decay, we developed an RNA extraction protocol from this recalcitrant material rich in polysaccharides and phenolic compounds. This protocol was implemented on 22 wood samples representing as many tree species from 11 plant families in the Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. RNA was successfully extracted from all samples and converted into cDNAs from which were amplified both fungal and bacterial protein coding genes, including genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes participating in lignocellulose hydrolysis. This protocol applicable to a wide range of decomposing wood types represents a first step towards a metatranscriptomic analysis of wood degradation under natural conditions.

  3. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    Treesearch

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  4. The importance of species identity and interactions for multifunctionality depends on how ecosystem functions are valued.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eleanor M; Kirwan, Laura; Bell, Thomas; Philipson, Christopher D; Lewis, Owen T; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-10-01

    Studies investigating how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning increasingly focus on multiple functions measured simultaneously ("multifunctionality"). However, few such studies assess the role of species interactions, particularly under alternative environmental scenarios, despite interactions being key to ecosystem functioning. Here we address five questions of central importance to ecosystem multifunctionality using a terrestrial animal system. (1) Does the contribution of individual species differ for different ecosystem functions? (2) Do inter-species interactions affect the delivery of single functions and multiple functions? (3) Does the community composition that maximizes individual functions also maximize multifunctionality? (4) Is the functional role of individual species, and the effect of interspecific interactions, modified by changing environmental conditions? (5) How do these roles and interactions change under varying scenarios where ecosystem services are weighted to reflect different societal preferences? We manipulated species' relative abundance in dung beetle communities and measured 16 functions contributing to dung decomposition, plant productivity, nutrient recycling, reduction of greenhouse gases, and microbial activity. Using the multivariate diversity-interactions framework, we assessed how changes in species identity, composition, and interspecific interactions affected these functions in combination with an environmental driver (increased precipitation). This allowed us to identify key species and interactions across multiple functions. We then developed a desirability function approach to examine how individual species and species mixtures contribute to a desired state of overall ecosystem functioning. Species contributed unequally to individual functions, and to multifunctionality, and individual functions were maximized by different community compositions. Moreover, the species and interactions important for maintaining

  5. Habitat associations of saproxylic beetles in the southeastern United States: A comparison of forest types, tree species and wood postures.

    Treesearch

    M.D. Ulyshen; J. L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Saproxylic beetles are highly sensitive to forest management practices that reduce the abundance and variety of dead wood. However, this diverse fauna continues to receive little attention in the southeastern United States even though this region supports some of the most diverse, productive and intensively managed forests in North...

  6. Habitat associations of saproxylic beetles in the southeastern United States: A comparison of forest types, tree species and wood postures.

    Treesearch

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Saproxylic beetles are highly sensitive to forest management practices that reduce the abundance and variety of dead wood. However, this diverse fauna continues to receive little attention in the southeastern United States even though this region supports some of the most diverse, productive and intensively managed forests in North America.

  7. Significant alteration of gene expression in wood decay fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium by plant species

    Treesearch

    Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Jill Gaskell; Michael Mozuch; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Grzegorz Sabat; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D. Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Igor Grigoriev; Philip J. Kersten; Daniel Cullen

    2011-01-01

    Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulosics from an expanding number of potential feedstocks is of growing interest to bioenergy process development. The basidiomycetous wood decay fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta are promising in this regard because they are able to utilize a wide range of simple and...

  8. Domestic market opportunities for Alaska lumber-species preferences by secondary wood products manufacturers in the continental United States.

    Treesearch

    Joseph Roos; David L. Nicholls

    2006-01-01

    New equipment, technology, and marketing efforts have allowed Alaska’s wood products producers to consider opportunities previously unavailable to them. Until recently, the primary product produced by Alaska firms was rough, unseasoned lumber sold primarily within local markets. Given the purchase and installation of new drying and planing equipment, Alaska producers...

  9. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). In

  10. PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 affects reactive oxygen species metabolism, cell wall and wood properties in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Ślesak, Ireneusz; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Fedak, Halina; Sidoruk, Natalia; Dąbrowska-Bronk, Joanna; Witoń, Damian; Rusaczonek, Anna; Antczak, Andrzej; Drożdżek, Michał; Karpińska, Barbara; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-07-01

    The phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAD4) is involved in the regulation of plant--pathogen interactions. The role of PAD4 in woody plants is not known; therefore, we characterized its function in hybrid aspen and its role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signalling and wood development. Three independent transgenic lines with different suppression levels of poplar PAD expression were generated. All these lines displayed deregulated ROS metabolism, which was manifested by an increased H2O2 level in the leaves and shoots, and higher activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase (CAT) in the leaves in comparison to the wild-type plants. However, no changes in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) between the transgenic lines and wild type were observed in the leaves. Moreover, changes in the ROS metabolism in the pad4 transgenic lines positively correlated with wood formation. A higher rate of cell division, decreased tracheid average size and numbers, and increased cell wall thickness were observed. The results presented here suggest that the Populus tremula × tremuloides PAD gene might be involved in the regulation of cellular ROS homeostasis and in the cell division--cell death balance that is associated with wood development.

  11. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  12. Stakeholder perspectives on the importance of rare-species research for deep-sea environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Phillip J.; Campbell, Lisa M.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2017-07-01

    The apparent prevalence of rare species (rarity) in the deep sea is a concern for environmental management and conservation of biodiversity. Rare species are often considered at risk of extinction and, in terrestrial and shallow water environments, have been shown to play key roles within an ecosystem. In the deep-sea environment, current research focuses primarily on abundant species and deep-sea stakeholders are questioning the importance of rare species in ecosystem functioning. This study asks whether deep-sea stakeholders (primarily scientists) view rare-species research as a priority in guiding environmental management. Delphi methodology (i.e., an iterative survey approach) was used to understand views about whether or not 'deep-sea scientists should allocate more resources to research on rare species in the deep sea, even if this means less resources might be available for abundant-species research.' Results suggest little consensus regarding the prioritization of resources for rare-species research. From Survey 1 to Survey 3, the average participant response shifted toward a view that rare-species research is not a priority if it comes at a cost to research on abundant species. Participants pointed to the need for a balanced approach and highlighted knowledge gaps about even the most fundamental questions, including whether rare species are truly 'rare' or simply under-sampled. Participants emphasized the lack of basic biological knowledge for rare and abundant species, particularly abundant meio- and microscopic species, as well as uncertainty in the roles rare and abundant species play in ecosystem processes. Approaches that jointly consider the role of rare and abundant species in ecosystem functioning (e.g., biological trait analysis) may help to clarify the extent to which rare species need to be incorporated into deep-sea environment management in order to maintain ecosystem functioning.

  13. Changes in tree species importance following harvesting disturbance in north Mississippi between 1967 and 1994

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Hartsell; James F. Rosson

    2007-01-01

    We used continuous forest inventory data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service to study the impacts of timber harvesting on species composition and species importance in a 26-county region in north Mississippi. The region was 59 percent forested and contained 1 965 223 ha of timberland. There were 524 upland...

  14. Helminth communities of four commercially important fish species from Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Vidal-Martínez, V M; González-Solís, D; Caballero, P I

    2007-03-01

    The relative importance of ecology and evolution as factors determining species richness and composition of the helminth communities of fish is a matter of current debate. Theoretical studies use host-parasite lists, but these do not include studies on a temporal or spatial scale. Local environmental conditions and host biological characteristics are shown to influence helminth species richness and composition in four fish species (Eugerres plumieri, Hexanematichthys assimilis, Oligoplites saurus, and Scomberomorus maculatus) in Chetumal Bay, Mexico. With the exception of H. assimilis, the helminth communities had not been previously studied and possible associations between environmental and host biological characteristics as factors determining helminth species richness and composition using redundancy analysis (RDA) are described. Thirty-four helminth species are identified, with the highest number of species (19 total (mean = 6.3 +/- 2.1)) and the lowest (9 (4.0 +/- 1.0)) occurring in H. assimilis and S. maculatus, respectively. The larval nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. were not only the helminth species shared by all four host species but also were the most prevalent and abundant. Statistical associations between helminth community parameters and local ecological variables such as host habitat use, feeding habits, mobility, and time of residence in coastal lagoons are identified. Phylogeny is important because it clearly separates all four host species by their specialist parasites, although specific habitat and feeding habits also significantly influence the differentiation between the four fish species.

  15. Microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and Clostridium species in living trees. [Eastern Cottonwood; Block Poplar; American Elm

    SciTech Connect

    Schink, B.; Ward, J.C.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1981-09-01

    Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to the power of 4 to 10 to the power of 6 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (is less than or equal to 0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these trees. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the tree samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium species, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living trees. (Refs. 38).

  16. N-fertilization has different effects on the growth, carbon and nitrogen physiology, and wood properties of slow- and fast-growing Populus species.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Li, Mengchun; Luo, Jie; Cao, Xu; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Liu, Tongxian; Bai, Hua; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate how N-fertilization affects the growth, carbon and nitrogen (N) physiology, and wood properties of poplars with contrasting growth characteristics, slow-growing (Populus popularis, Pp) and fast-growing (P. alba×P. glandulosa, Pg) poplar saplings were exposed to different N levels. Above-ground biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic rates (A), instantaneous photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE (i)), chlorophyll and foliar sugar concentrations were higher in Pg than in Pp. Foliar nitrate reductase (NR) activities and root glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were higher in Pg than in Pp as were the N amount and NUE of new shoots. Lignin contents and calorific values of Pg wood were less than that of Pp wood. N-fertilization reduced root biomass of Pg more than of Pp, but increased leaf biomass, leaf area, A, and PNUE(i) of Pg more than of Pp. Among 13 genes involved in the transport of ammonium or nitrate or in N assimilation, transcripts showed more pronounced changes to N-fertilization in Pg than in Pp. Increases in NR activities and N contents due to N-fertilization were larger in Pg than in Pp. In both species, N-fertilization resulted in lower calorific values as well as shorter and wider vessel elements/fibres. These results suggest that growth, carbon and N physiology, and wood properties are more sensitive to increasing N availability in fast-growing poplars than in slow-growing ones, which is probably due to prioritized resource allocation to the leaves and accelerated N physiological processes in fast-growing poplars under higher N levels.

  17. Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Diptera:Sarcophagidae): a flesh fly species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Suwannayod, S; Sanit, S; Sukontason, K; Sukontason, K L

    2013-06-01

    Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis is a well-known flesh fly species of medical importance, both as a myiasis-producing agent and fly seen in a forensic entomology context. This study performed a comprehensive literature review of this fly species, dealing with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important characteristics used to identify P. ruficornis have been provided for both its third instar and adult for identification purpose in the future.

  18. The Relationship between Canopy Cover and Colony Size of the Wood Ant Formica lugubris - Implications for the Thermal Effects on a Keystone Ant Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Huei; Robinson, Elva J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change may affect ecosystems and biodiversity through the impacts of rising temperature on species’ body size. In terms of physiology and genetics, the colony is the unit of selection for ants so colony size can be considered the body size of a colony. For polydomous ant species, a colony is spread across several nests. This study aims to clarify how climate change may influence an ecologically significant ant species group by investigating thermal effects on wood ant colony size. The strong link between canopy cover and the local temperatures of wood ant’s nesting location provides a feasible approach for our study. Our results showed that nests were larger in shadier areas where the thermal environment was colder and more stable compared to open areas. Colonies (sum of nests in a polydomous colony) also tended to be larger in shadier areas than in open areas. In addition to temperature, our results supported that food resource availability may be an additional factor mediating the relationship between canopy cover and nest size. The effects of canopy cover on total colony size may act at the nest level because of the positive relationship between total colony size and mean nest size, rather than at the colony level due to lack of link between canopy cover and number of nests per colony. Causal relationships between the environment and the life-history characteristics may suggest possible future impacts of climate change on these species. PMID:25551636

  19. A new species of Rhabdias from lungs of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, in North America: the last sibling of Rhabdias ranae?

    PubMed

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Kuzmin, Yuriy; Pulis, Eric E

    2006-06-01

    Rhabdias bakeri n. sp. is described from specimens found in lungs of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, from North Dakota. The new species has previously been mistakenly identified as Rhabdias ranae Walton, 1929, a common parasite of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. The new species differs from R. ranae and Rhabdias joaquinensis Ingles, 1935 by the shape and size of pseudolabia, shape and size of buccal capsule, and wider esophageal bulb. Molecular analysis based on the partial sequences of nuclear 18S rDNA gene, complete sequences of internal transcribed spacer region, and partial sequences of 28S gene demonstrates clear differences between Rhabdias from Ra. sylvatica and Ra. pipiens, and supports the status of R. bakeri as a new species.

  20. Wood for sound.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  1. Heat tolerance predicts the importance of species interaction effects as the climate changes.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sarah E; Chick, Lacy; Penick, Clint A; Nichols, Lauren M; Cahan, Sara Helms; Dunn, Robert R; Ellison, Aaron M; Sanders, Nathan J; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have quantified the relative importance of direct effects of climate change on communities versus indirect effects that are mediated thorough species interactions, and the limited evidence is conflicting. Trait-based approaches have been popular in studies of climate change, but can they be used to estimate direct versus indirect effects? At the species level, thermal tolerance is a trait that is often used to predict winners and losers under scenarios of climate change. But thermal tolerance might also inform when species interactions are likely to be important because only subsets of species will be able to exploit the available warmer climatic niche space, and competition may intensify in the remaining, compressed cooler climatic niche space. Here, we explore the relative roles of the direct effects of temperature change and indirect effects of species interactions on forest ant communities that were heated as part of a large-scale climate manipulation at high- and low-latitude sites in eastern North America. Overall, we found mixed support for the importance of negative species interactions (competition), but found that the magnitude of these interaction effects was predictable based on the heat tolerance of the focal species. Forager abundance and nest site occupancy of heat-intolerant species were more often influenced by negative interactions with other species than by direct effects of temperature. Our findings suggest that measures of species-specific heat tolerance may roughly predict when species interactions will influence responses to global climate change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Development and cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci for Puccinellia maritima, an important engineer saltmarsh species.

    PubMed

    Rouger, R; Vallejo-Marin, M; Jump, A S

    2014-04-30

    The grass Puccinellia maritima is an important saltmarsh ecosystem engineer exhibiting wide morphological variation, which is partially genetically determined. Nevertheless, nothing is known about its population genetics or how neutral genetic variation is distributed throughout its geographical range. Here, we describe 12 polymorphic microsatellites pooled into two multiplexes for this octoploid species. Assessment of 24 samples from three populations revealed 4 to 29 alleles per locus, with variation in allele presence and abundance between populations. The transferability of these markers is reported based on their cross-amplification in six other Puccinellia species of different ploidy levels.

  3. Molecular control of wood formation in trees.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng-Hua; Zhong, Ruiqin

    2015-07-01

    Wood (also termed secondary xylem) is the most abundant biomass produced by plants, and is one of the most important sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The development of wood begins with the differentiation of the lateral meristem, vascular cambium, into secondary xylem mother cells followed by cell expansion, secondary wall deposition, programmed cell death, and finally heartwood formation. Significant progress has been made in the past decade in uncovering the molecular players involved in various developmental stages of wood formation in tree species. Hormonal signalling has been shown to play critical roles in vascular cambium cell proliferation and a peptide-receptor-transcription factor regulatory mechanism similar to that controlling the activity of apical meristems is proposed to be involved in the maintenance of vascular cambium activity. It has been demonstrated that the differentiation of vascular cambium into xylem mother cells is regulated by plant hormones and HD-ZIP III transcription factors, and the coordinated activation of secondary wall biosynthesis genes during wood formation is mediated by a transcription network encompassing secondary wall NAC and MYB master switches and their downstream transcription factors. Most genes encoding the biosynthesis enzymes for wood components (cellulose, xylan, glucomannan, and lignin) have been identified in poplar and a number of them have been functionally characterized. With the availability of genome sequences of tree species from both gymnosperms and angiosperms, and the identification of a suite of wood-associated genes, it is expected that our understanding of the molecular control of wood formation in trees will be greatly accelerated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  5. A new species of Syncuaria Gilbert, 1927 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. (Aves: Ciconiiformes: Ciconiidae) from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Syncuaria mycteriae n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) was collected under the lining of the gizzard of a wood stork, Mycteria americana L., from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The new species can be distinguished from all known species of Syncuaria by having irregular dotted ornamentations on the caudal alae of males, a complex distal end of the left spicule comprising 3 protuberances, and a spicule ratio of 1:9.3. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of 11 Syncuaria spp. based on 9 morphological characters produced 2 equally parsimonious cladograms with a consistency index of 85%, differing only in the placement of S. hargilae. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that the new species is the sister species of S. leptoptili, whose male members have a single protuberance on the left spicule. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that the plesiomorphic host group for the genus is Ciconiiformes, specifically Ciconiidae (host for 5 species), with 2 species occurring in Threskiornithidae (also Ciconiiformes), possibly as a result of cospeciation, and 2 species each occurring in Pelecaniformes and Podicipediformes, resulting from 4 episodes of speciation by host switching.

  6. Techniques for the detection of pathogenic Cryptococcus species in wood decay substrata and the evaluation of viability in stored samples.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Christian; Barbosa, Glaucia Gonçalves; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de; Morales, Bernardina Penarrieta; Wanke, Bodo; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated several techniques for the detection of the yeast form of Cryptococcus in decaying wood and measured the viability of these fungi in environmental samples stored in the laboratory. Samples were collected from a tree known to be positive for Cryptococcus and were each inoculated on 10 Niger seed agar (NSA) plates. The conventional technique (CT) yielded a greater number of positive samples and indicated a higher fungal density [in colony forming units per gram of wood (CFU x g(-1))] compared to the humid swab technique (ST). However, the difference in positive and false negative results between the CT-ST was not significant. The threshold of detection for the CT was 0.05.10³ CFU x g(-1), while the threshold for the ST was greater than 0.1.10³ CFU(-1). No colonies were recovered using the dry swab technique. We also determined the viability of Cryptococcus in wood samples stored for 45 days at 25ºC using the CT and ST and found that samples not only continued to yield a positive response, but also exhibited an increase in CFU x g(-1), suggesting that Cryptococcus is able to grow in stored environmental samples. The ST.1, in which samples collected with swabs were immediately plated on NSA medium, was more efficient and less laborious than either the CT or ST and required approximately 10 min to perform; however, additional studies are needed to validate this technique.

  7. Wing morphometrics as a tool in species identification of forensically important blow flies of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sontigun, Narin; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Zajac, Barbara K; Zehner, Richard; Sukontason, Kom; Wannasan, Anchalee; Amendt, Jens

    2017-05-10

    Correct species identification of blow flies is a crucial step for understanding their biology, which can be used not only for designing fly control programs, but also to determine the minimum time since death. Identification techniques are usually based on morphological and molecular characters. However, the use of classical morphology requires experienced entomologists for correct identification; while molecular techniques rely on a sound laboratory expertise and remain ambiguous for certain taxa. Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of insect wings has been extensively applied in species identification. However, few wing morphometric analyses of blow fly species have been published. We applied a landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wings for species identification of 12 medically and forensically important blow fly species of Thailand. Nineteen landmarks of each right wing of 372 specimens were digitised. Variation in wing size and wing shape was analysed and evaluated for allometric effects. The latter confirmed the influence of size on the shape differences between species and sexes. Wing shape variation among genera and species were analysed using canonical variates analysis followed by a cross-validation test. Wing size was not suitable for species discrimination, whereas wing shape can be a useful tool to separate taxa on both, genus and species level depending on the analysed taxa. It appeared to be highly reliable, especially for classifying Chrysomya species, but less robust for a species discrimination in the genera Lucilia and Hemipyrellia. Allometry did not affect species separation but had an impact on sexual shape dimorphism. A landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wings is a useful additional method for species discrimination. It is a simple, reliable and inexpensive method, but it can be time-consuming locating the landmarks for a large scale study and requires non-damaged wings for analysis.

  8. Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

  9. A new member of the Pteropine Orthoreovirus species isolated from fruit bats imported to Italy.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Alessio; Teodori, Liana; Leone, Alessandra; Marcacci, Maurilia; Mangone, Iolanda; Orsini, Massimiliano; Capobianco-Dondona, Andrea; Camma', Cesare; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    A novel member of the Pteropine Orthoreovirus species has been isolated and sequenced for the whole genome from flying foxes (Pteropus vampyrus) imported to Italy from Indonesia. The new isolate named Indonesia/2010 is genetically similar to Melaka virus which has been the first virus of this species to be shown to be responsible for human respiratory disease. Our findings highlight the importance of flying foxes as vectors of potentially zoonotic viruses and the biological hazard that lies in the import of animals from geographical areas that are ecologically diverse from Europe.

  10. Improving the performance of indicator groups for the identification of important areas for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper; Rahbek, Carsten

    2007-06-01

    Indicator groups may be important tools with which to guide the selection of networks of areas for conservation. Nevertheless, the literature provides little guidance as to what makes some groups of species more suitable than others to guide area selection. Using distributional data on all sub-Saharan birds and mammals, we assessed factors that influence the effectiveness of indicator groups. We assessed the influence of threatened, endemic, range-restricted, widespread, and large-bodied species by systematically varying their number in indicator groups. We also assessed the influence of taxonomic diversity by systematically varying the number of distinct genera and families within the indicator groups. We selected area networks based on the indicator groups and tested their ability to represent a set of species, which, in terms of species composition, is independent of the indicator group. Increasing the proportion of threatened, endemic, and range-restricted species in the indicator groups improved effectiveness of the selected area networks; in particular it improved the effectiveness in representing other threatened and range-restricted species. In contrast increasing the proportion of widespread and large-bodied species decreased effectiveness. Changes in the number of genera and families only marginally affected the performance of indicator groups. Our results reveal that a focus on species of special conservation concern, which are legitimate conservation targets in their own right, also improves the effectiveness of indicator groups, in particular in representing other species of conservation concern.

  11. Importance of hybridization between indigenous and nonindigenous freshwater species: an overlooked threat to North American biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Perry, William L; Lodge, David M; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2002-04-01

    Biodiversity of North American freshwaters is among the greatest in the world. However, due to extensive habitat degradation, pollution, and introductions of nonindigenous species, this biodiversity is also among the most endangered. Unlike habitat degradation and pollution, nonindigenous species represent a permanent loss of biodiversity because their removal or control is often impossible. Most species introduced into nonnative North American ranges, however, are not from Eurasia but have been introduced from geographically isolated regions within North America. Although the ecological effects of introduced species have been widely documented, the effects of hybridization, especially between closely related species, represents an equally serious mechanism of extinction but is much less studied. Identification of which species are likely to hybridize after contact is of critical importance to prevent the further loss of native species. Molecular phylogenetics serves as a powerful tool to identify freshwater species at risk of introgression, if we can assume that genetic distance is a good predictor of the potential for hybridization. Although not a thorough review of all cases of hybridization, this article documents the extent and effects of hybridization in fishes, crayfishes, mussels, and other invertebrates in light of the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships. We suggest this approach may be the first step in addressing the potential threat of hybridization between many of the closely related species in North American fresh waters.

  12. Species mobility and landscape context determine the importance of local and landscape-level attributes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Watts, Kevin; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Lopez-Gallego, Zeltia; J Park, Kirsty

    2017-07-01

    Conservation strategies to tackle habitat loss and fragmentation require actions at the local (e.g., improving/expanding existing habitat patches) and landscape level (e.g., creating new habitat in the matrix). However, the relative importance of these actions for biodiversity is still poorly understood, leading to debate on how to prioritize conservation activities. Here, we assess the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes in determining the use of woodlands by bats in fragmented landscapes; we also compare the role of habitat amount in the surrounding landscape per se vs. a combination of both habitat amount and configuration and explore whether the relative importance of these attributes varies with species mobility and landscape context. We conducted acoustic surveys in 102 woodland patches in the UK that form part of the WrEN project (www.wren-project.com), a large-scale natural experiment designed to study the effects of 160 yr of woodland creation on biodiversity and inform landscape-scale conservation. We used multivariate analysis and a model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of local (e.g., vegetation structure) and landscape-level (e.g., amount/configuration of surrounding land types) attributes on bat occurrence and activity levels. Species mobility was an important trait determining the relative importance of local vs. landscape-level attributes for different bat species. Lower mobility species were most strongly influenced by local habitat quality; the landscape became increasingly important for higher mobility species. At the landscape-scale, a combination of habitat amount and configuration appeared more important than habitat amount alone for lower mobility species, while the opposite was observed for higher mobility species. Regardless of species mobility, landscape-level attributes appeared more important for bats in a more homogeneous and intensively farmed landscape. Conservation strategies involving

  13. Wood colors and their coloring matters: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    A number of colored specialty woods, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany and amboyna, and commercially important woods, such as morus, logwood, Brazilwood, Japanese yellowwood, blackwood, kwila, red beech and myrtle beech, exhibit a wide range of colors from black, violet, dark red, reddish brown, to pale yellow. These colors are not only due to colored pigments contained in extractives from those woods but also to insoluble polymers. Wood and bark from many species of both hardwood and softwood trees contain many types of flavonoid compounds. Research on flavonoids has been conducted mainly from two points of view. The first is chemotaxonomy with flavonoid compounds as taxonomic markers, and the second relates to the utilization of woods for pulp and paper and the use of tannins from bark for wood adhesives. Most chemotaxonomic studies have been conducted on flavonoids in the extracts from softwoods such as Podocarpus, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Taxus, Libocedrus, Tsuja, Taxodium, Sequoia, Cedrus, Tsuga, Abies and Picea. Hardwood chemotaxonomic studies include those on Prunus and Eucalyptus species. Studies on flavonoids in pulp and paper production were conducted on Eucalyptus woods in Australia and woods from Douglas fir in the USA and larch in Japan. Flavonoids as tannin resources from black wattle tannin and quebracho tannin have been used commercially as wood adhesives. Flavonoids in the bark from radiata pine and southern pine, from western and eastern hemlock, southern red oak and Quercus dentata are also discussed. In addition, the distribution of flavonoids among tree species is described, as is the first isolation of rare procyanidin glycosides in nature.

  14. Papuadocus blodiwai gen. nov., sp. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Maeridae), a new bathyal species associated with sunken wood in the Bismarck Sea (Papua New Guinea).

    PubMed

    Corbari, Laure; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2015-01-29

    A new species belonging to a new genus of Maeridae, Papuadocus blodiwai gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from bathyal bottoms of the Bismarck Sea (Papua New Guinea). This genus/species can be distinguished from most other known maerids by right and left maxillas 1 with asymmetrical palps and by gnathopod 2 not sexually dimorphic. Its closest relative is the genus Bathyceradocus also characterized by asymmetrical maxillas 1, but differing by the presence of gill on coxae 7. These observations lead to the conclusion that the diagnosis of the family Maeridae has to be amended to receive both Bathyceradocus and Papuadocus genera. All the collected specimens lived in association with sunken wood, at 500-580 m depth.

  15. Cryptic diversity and habitat partitioning in an economically important aphid species complex.

    PubMed

    Savory, F R; Ramakrishnan, U

    2015-03-01

    Cardamom Bushy Dwarf Virus (CBDV) is an aphid-borne nanovirus which infects large cardamom, Amomum subulatum (Zingiberaceae family), in the Himalayan foothills of Northeast India, Nepal and Bhutan. Two aphid species have been reported to transmit CBDV, including Pentalonia nigronervosa and Micromyzus kalimpongensis (also described as Pentalonia kalimpongensis). However, P. nigronervosa was recently split into two species which exhibit different host plant affiliations. Whilst P. nigronervosa primarily feeds on banana plants, Pentaloniacaladii (previously considered a 'form' of P. nigronervosa) typically feeds on plants belonging to the Araceae, Heliconiaceae and Zingiberaceae families. This raises the possibility that CBDV vectors that were originally described as P. nigronervosa correspond to P. caladii. Accurate identification of vector species is important for understanding disease dynamics and for implementing management strategies. However, closely related species can be difficult to distinguish based on morphological characteristics. In this study, we used molecular markers (two mitochondrial loci and one nuclear locus) and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to identify aphid specimens collected from 148 CBDV infected plants at a range of locations and elevations throughout Sikkim and the Darjeeling district of West Bengal (Northeast India). Our results revealed the presence of a diversity of lineages, comprising up to six distinct species in at least two related genera. These included the three species mentioned above, an unidentified Pentalonia species and two lineages belonging to an unknown genus. Surprisingly, P. caladii was only detected on a single infected plant, indicating that this species may not play an important role in CBDV transmission dynamics. Distinct elevation distributions were observed for the different species, demonstrating that the community composition of aphids which feed on large cardamom plants changes across an elevation gradient

  16. Methods for Mitigating the Environmental Risks Associated with Wood Preservatives

    Treesearch

    Dennis Hayward; Stan T. Lebow; Kenneth M. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    As noted in earlier chapters, the treatment of wood is both art and science. Wood is a variable material; treatment results tend to vary with the preservative and wood species and even within boards of the same species. This means that treated wood often contains a range of preservative retentions. Some pieces will have less than the desired retention, while others may...

  17. Googling Food Webs: Can an Eigenvector Measure Species' Importance for Coextinctions?

    PubMed Central

    Allesina, Stefano; Pascual, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in ecology is forecasting the effects of species' extinctions, a pressing problem given current human impacts on the planet. Consequences of species losses such as secondary extinctions are difficult to forecast because species are not isolated, but interact instead in a complex network of ecological relationships. Because of their mutual dependence, the loss of a single species can cascade in multiple coextinctions. Here we show that an algorithm adapted from the one Google uses to rank web-pages can order species according to their importance for coextinctions, providing the sequence of losses that results in the fastest collapse of the network. Moreover, we use the algorithm to bridge the gap between qualitative (who eats whom) and quantitative (at what rate) descriptions of food webs. We show that our simple algorithm finds the best possible solution for the problem of assigning importance from the perspective of secondary extinctions in all analyzed networks. Our approach relies on network structure, but applies regardless of the specific dynamical model of species' interactions, because it identifies the subset of coextinctions common to all possible models, those that will happen with certainty given the complete loss of prey of a given predator. Results show that previous measures of importance based on the concept of “hubs” or number of connections, as well as centrality measures, do not identify the most effective extinction sequence. The proposed algorithm provides a basis for further developments in the analysis of extinction risk in ecosystems. PMID:19730676

  18. Species ecological similarity modulates the importance of colonization history for adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiaqi; Yang, Xian; Jiang, Lin

    2017-06-01

    Adaptive radiation is an important evolutionary process, through which a single ancestral lineage rapidly gives rise to multiple newly formed lineages that specialize in different niches. In the first-arrival hypothesis, David Lack emphasized the importance of species colonization history for adaptive radiation, suggesting that the earlier arrival of a diversifying species would allow it to radiate to a greater extent. Here, we report on the first rigorous experimental test of this hypothesis, using the rapidly evolving bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and six different bacterial competitors. We show that the earlier arrival of P. fluorescens facilitated its diversification. Nevertheless, significant effects of colonization history, which led to alternative diversification trajectories, were observed only when the competitors shared similar niche and competitive fitness with P. fluorescens. These results highlight the important role of species colonization history, modified by their ecological differences, for adaptive radiation. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Montane and coastal species diversification in the economically important Mexican grasshopper genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    The genus Sphenarium (Pyrgomorphidae) is a small group of grasshoppers endemic to México and Guatemala that are economically and culturally important both as a food source and as agricultural pests. However, its taxonomy has been largely neglected mainly due to its conserved interspecific external morphology and the considerable intraspecific variation in colour pattern of some taxa. Here we examined morphological as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to assess the species boundaries and evolutionary history in Sphenarium. Our morphological identification and DNA sequence-based species delimitation, carried out with three different approaches (DNA barcoding, general mixed Yule-coalescent model, Bayesian species delimitation), all recovered a higher number of putative species of Sphenarium than previously recognised. We unambiguously delimit seven species, and between five and ten additional species depending on the data/method analysed. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus strongly support two main clades, one exclusively montane, the other coastal. Divergence time estimates suggest late Miocene to Pliocene ages for the origin and most of the early diversification events in the genus, which were probably influenced by the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A series of Pleistocene events could have led to the current species diversification in both montane and coastal regions. This study not only reveals an overlooked species richness for the most popular edible insect in Mexico, but also highlights the influence of the dynamic geological and climatic history of the region in shaping its current diversity.

  20. Wood density as a conservation tool: quantification of disturbance and identification of conservation-priority areas in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Breman, Floris C; VAN Beek, Marloes; Salim, Agus; Sheil, Douglas

    2008-10-01

    Inventories of tree species are often conducted to guide conservation efforts in tropical forests. Such surveys are time consuming, demanding of expertise, and expensive to perform and interpret. Approaches to make survey efforts simpler or more effective would be valuable. In particular, it would be good to be able to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely linked to its successional status. We used tree inventory data from eastern Borneo to determine whether wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average density of wood in a plot was significantly and negatively related to disturbance levels, with plots with higher wood densities occurring almost exclusively in old-growth forests. Average wood density was unimodally related to the diversity of tree species, indicating that the average wood density in a plot might be a better indicator of old-growth forest than species diversity. In addition, Borneo endemics had significantly heavier wood than species that are common throughout the Malesian region, and they were more common in plots with higher average wood density. We concluded that wood density at the plot level could be a powerful tool for identifying areas of conservation priority in the tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia.

  1. Are Photosynthetic Characteristics and Energetic Cost Important Invasive Traits for Alien Sonneratia Species in South China?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Lan; Zan, Qi-Jie; Hu, Zheng-Yu; Shin, Paul-K. S.; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Lei, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A higher photosynthesis and lower energetic cost are recognized as important characteristics for invasive species, but whether these traits are also important for the ability of alien mangrove species to become invasive has seldom been reported. A microcosm study was conducted to compare the photosynthetic characteristics, energetic cost indices and other growth traits between two alien species (Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris) and four native mangrove species over four seasons in a subtropical mangrove nature reserve in Shenzhen, South China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invasive potential of Sonneratia based on these physiological responses. The annual average net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and total carbon assimilation per unit leaf area (Atotal) of the two alien Sonneratia species were significantly higher than the values of the native mangroves. In contrast, the opposite results were obtained for the leaf construction cost (CC) per unit dry mass (CCM) and CC per unit area (CCA) values. The higher Atotal and lower CC values resulted in a 72% higher photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) for Sonneratia compared to native mangroves, leading to a higher relative growth rate (RGR) of the biomass and height of Sonneratia with the respective values being 51% and 119% higher than those of the native species. Higher photosynthetic indices for Sonneratia compared to native species were found in all seasons except winter, whereas lower CC values were found in all four seasons. The present findings reveal that alien Sonneratia species may adapt well and become invasive in subtropical mangrove wetlands in Shenzhen due to their higher photosynthetic characteristics coupled with lower costs in energy use, leading to a higher PEUE. The comparison of these physiological responses between S. apetala and S. caseolaris reveal that the former species is more invasive than the latter one, thus requiring more attention in future. PMID

  2. Are Photosynthetic Characteristics and Energetic Cost Important Invasive Traits for Alien Sonneratia Species in South China?

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Lan; Zan, Qi-Jie; Hu, Zheng-Yu; Shin, Paul-K S; Cheung, Siu-Gin; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Lei, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A higher photosynthesis and lower energetic cost are recognized as important characteristics for invasive species, but whether these traits are also important for the ability of alien mangrove species to become invasive has seldom been reported. A microcosm study was conducted to compare the photosynthetic characteristics, energetic cost indices and other growth traits between two alien species (Sonneratia apetala and S. caseolaris) and four native mangrove species over four seasons in a subtropical mangrove nature reserve in Shenzhen, South China. The aim of the study was to evaluate the invasive potential of Sonneratia based on these physiological responses. The annual average net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and total carbon assimilation per unit leaf area (Atotal) of the two alien Sonneratia species were significantly higher than the values of the native mangroves. In contrast, the opposite results were obtained for the leaf construction cost (CC) per unit dry mass (CCM) and CC per unit area (CCA) values. The higher Atotal and lower CC values resulted in a 72% higher photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) for Sonneratia compared to native mangroves, leading to a higher relative growth rate (RGR) of the biomass and height of Sonneratia with the respective values being 51% and 119% higher than those of the native species. Higher photosynthetic indices for Sonneratia compared to native species were found in all seasons except winter, whereas lower CC values were found in all four seasons. The present findings reveal that alien Sonneratia species may adapt well and become invasive in subtropical mangrove wetlands in Shenzhen due to their higher photosynthetic characteristics coupled with lower costs in energy use, leading to a higher PEUE. The comparison of these physiological responses between S. apetala and S. caseolaris reveal that the former species is more invasive than the latter one, thus requiring more attention in future.

  3. Wood composites

    Treesearch

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  4. Occurrence and Diversity of Clinically Important Vibrio Species in the Aquatic Environment of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Kokashvili, Tamar; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Tskhvediani, Ana; Grim, Christopher J.; Elbakidze, Tinatin; Mitaishvili, Nino; Janelidze, Nino; Jaiani, Ekaterine; Haley, Bradd J.; Lashkhi, Nino; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Tediashvili, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Among the more than 70 different Vibrio species inhabiting marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems, 12 are recognized as human pathogens. The warm subtropical climate of the Black Sea coastal area and inland regions of Georgia likely provides a favorable environment for various Vibrio species. From 2006 to 2009, the abundance, ecology, and diversity of clinically important Vibrio species were studied in different locations in Georgia and across seasons. Over a 33-month period, 1,595 presumptive Vibrio isolates were collected from the Black Sea (n = 657) and freshwater lakes around Tbilisi (n = 938). Screening of a subset of 440 concentrated and enriched water samples by PCR-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS) detected the presence of DNA from eight clinically important Vibrio species: V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. metschnikovii, and V. cincinnatiensis. Almost 90% of PCR/ESI-MS samples positive for Vibrio species were collected from June through November. Three important human-pathogenic Vibrio species (V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus) were detected in 62.8, 37.8, and 21.4% of samples testing positive for Vibrios, respectively. The results of these activities suggest that natural reservoirs for human-pathogenic Vibrios exist in Georgian aquatic environments. Water temperature at all sampling sites was positively correlated with the abundance of clinically important Vibrio spp. (except V. metschnikovii), and salinity was correlated with species composition at particular Black Sea sites as well as inland reservoirs. PMID:26528464

  5. Geographic distribution, evolution, and disease importance of species within the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis Group (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ruiz-Lopez, J. Freddy; Conn, Jan E.; Sallum, Maria Anice M.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Bergo, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Tatiane M. P.; Sucupira, Izis; Wilkerson, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles albitarsis group of mosquitoes comprises eight recognized species and one mitochondrial lineage. Our knowledge of malaria vectorial importance and the distribution and evolution of these taxa is incomplete. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for these taxa and used hypothesized phylogenetic relationships and ENMs to investigate environmental and ecological divergence associated with speciation events. Two major clades were identified, one north (Clade 1) and one south (Clade 2) of the Amazon River that likely is or was a barrier to mosquito movement. Clade 1 species occur more often in higher average temperature locations than Clade 2 species, and taxon splits within Clade 1 corresponded with a greater divergence of variables related to precipitation than was the case within Clade 2. Comparison of the ecological profiles of sympatric species and sister species support the idea that phylogenetic proximity is related to ecological similarity. Anopheles albitarsis I, An. janconnae, and An. marajoara ENMs had the highest percentage of their predicted suitable habitat overlapping distribution models of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and warrant additional studies of the transmission potential of these species. Phylogenetic proximity may be related to malaria vectorial importance within the Albitarsis Group. PMID:24820570

  6. Interaction strength, food web topology and the relative importance of species in food webs.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Jacob, Ute; Jonsson, Tomas; Emmerson, Mark C

    2010-05-01

    1. We established complex marine communities, consisting of over 100 species, in large subtidal experimental mesocosms. We measured the strength of direct interactions and the net strength of direct and indirect interactions between the species in those communities, using a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. 2. Theoretical predictions of interaction strength were derived from the interaction coefficient matrix, which was parameterised using allometric predator-prey relationships. Empirical estimates of interaction strength were quantified using the ln-ratio, which measures the change in biomass density of species A in the presence and absence of species B. 3. We observed that highly connected species tend to have weak direct effects and net effects in our experimental food webs, whether we calculate interaction strength theoretically or empirically. 4. We found a significant correlation between our theoretical predictions and empirical estimates of direct effects and net effects. The net effects correlation was much stronger, indicating that our experimental communities were dominated by a mixture of direct and indirect effects. 5. Re-calculation of the theoretical predictions of net effects after randomising predator and prey body masses did not affect the negative relationship with connectance. 6. These results suggest that food web topology, which in this system is constrained by body mass, is overwhelmingly important for the magnitude of direct and indirect interactions and hence species importance in the face of biodiversity declines.

  7. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Treesearch

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  8. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Treesearch

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  9. Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): A flesh fly species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sanit, Sangob; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom

    2014-04-01

    Although tropical climate of Thailand is suitably endowed with biodiversity of insects, flies of medical importance is not well investigated. Using information from literature search, fly survey approach and specialist's experience, we review database of Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) dux Thomson (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), one of the priorities flesh fly species of medical importance in Thailand. This review deals with morphology, bionomics and medical involvement. Important morphological characteristics of egg, larva, puparia and adult were highlighted with illustration and/or micrographs. Search pertaining to molecular analysis used for fly identification and developmental rate of larvae were included. Medical involvement of larvae was not only myiasis-producing agent in humans and animals, but associated with human death investigations. This information will enable us to accurate identify this species and to emphasis the increase medically important scene in Thailand.

  10. Effectiveness of an innovative prototype subtracted diversity array (SDA) for fingerprinting plant species of medicinal importance.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Ruchira; Hai Niu, Lin; Coram, Tristan E; Kong, Stephan; Kaganovitch, Janna; Xue, Charlie C L; Li, Chun G; Pang, Edwin C K

    2009-08-01

    The accurate identification of medicinal plants is becoming increasingly important due to reported concerns about purity, quality and safety. The previously developed prototype subtracted diversity array (SDA) had been validated for the ability to distinguish clade-level targets in a phylogenetically accurate manner. This study represents the rigorous investigation of the SDA for genotyping capabilities, including the genotyping of plant species not included during the construction of the SDA, as well as to lower classification levels including family and species. The results show that the SDA, in its current form, has the ability to accurately genotype species not included during SDA development to clade level. Additionally, for those species that were included during SDA development, genotyping is successful to the family level, and to the species level with minor exceptions. Twenty polymorphic SDA features were sequenced in a first attempt to characterize the polymorphic DNA between species, which showed that transposon-like sequences may be valuable as polymorphic features to differentiate angiosperm families and species. Future refinements of the SDA to allow more sensitive genotyping are discussed with the overall goal of accurate medicinal plant identification in mind.

  11. The influence of wind direction on the capture of the wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix), an uncommon migratory species in the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Barriocanal, Carles; Montserrat, David; Robson, David

    2011-11-01

    The wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix) is a migratory species in the western Mediterranean wintering in the Gulf of Guinea region, West Africa. In autumn and spring, this species, along with the populations breeding in Ireland and Britain, uses the Italian peninsula as its main axis of migration. From the data of captured birds at several ringing stations in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and coastal Iberian Peninsula), we analyzed capture rates of the species during spring migration from 1993 to 2007. Based on the selection of days with a significant number of captures and those without captures, we analyzed the effect of wind direction over the western Mediterranean to determine a relationship between winds and the number of captures. From a total of 663 wood warblers captured between 1993 and 2007, a total of 31 days have been selected as significant days with a high number of captures, and 31 days have been selected as no-capture days. On days of maximum captures, winds coming from an easterly direction, i.e. Algeria and Tunisia, were dominant, indicating days with a clear eastern component. Contrary to expected results, captures were also made on days when the wind direction was predominantly from a northerly direction. Analysis of the origin of the winds in north eastern Spain (western Mediterranean) revealed that the majority of northerly winds originated from Africa and not from Europe as is usual for this region. Days or periods selected as no-capture days were characterized by winds coming from a northerly (European origin) or westerly direction.

  12. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T.; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  13. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  14. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) -a species of sanitary and forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaired sclerite in a form of a spicule is reported herein in the second and the third instar larvae. Occurrence of this sclerite was hitherto unknown in the second instar larvae of Muscidae and was only known from the third instar of several species, however not in a form of a spicule. Our study is the first report of the occurrence of the "sensory organ X" in all three larval instars of a species representing the family Muscidae. The bubble membrane, previously known only from third instar cyclorrhaphan larvae, is reported herein for the first time in the second instar. Characters allowing for discrimination of A. orientalis larvae from other forensically important Muscidae are summarised.

  15. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Andreas J.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. PMID:27563041

  16. Multiple Genome Sequences of the Important Beer-Spoiling Species Lactobacillus backii.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-08-25

    Lactobacillus backii is an important beer-spoiling species. Five strains isolated from four different breweries were sequenced using single-molecule real-time sequencing. Five complete genomes were generated, which will help to understand niche adaptation to beer and provide the basis for consecutive analyses. Copyright © 2016 Geissler et al.

  17. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK(-1) , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m(-3) (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Sound quality assessment of wood for xylophone bars.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Mitsuko; Baillères, Henri; Brancheriau, Loïc; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi

    2007-04-01

    Xylophone sounds produced by striking wooden bars with a mallet are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the wood species chosen by the xylophone maker. In this paper, we address the relationship between the sound quality based on the timbre attribute of impacted wooden bars and the physical parameters characterizing wood species. For this, a methodology is proposed that associates an analysis-synthesis process and a perceptual classification test. Sounds generated by impacting 59 wooden bars of different species but with the same geometry were recorded and classified by a renowned instrument maker. The sounds were further digitally processed and adjusted to the same pitch before being once again classified. The processing is based on a physical model ensuring the main characteristics of the wood are preserved during the sound transformation. Statistical analysis of both classifications showed the influence of the pitch in the xylophone maker judgement and pointed out the importance of two timbre descriptors: the frequency-dependent damping and the spectral bandwidth. These descriptors are linked with physical and anatomical characteristics of wood species, providing new clues in the choice of attractive wood species from a musical point of view.

  19. Ecosystem processes related to wood decay

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2017-01-01

    Wood decay elements include snags, down wood, root wads, tree stumps, litter, duff, broomed or diseased branches, and partially dead trees, all of which contribute to ecological processes and biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. Down wood can serve as reservoirs for moisture and mycorrhizal fungi beneficial to the health and growth of commercial tree species. Decaying...

  20. Pollen Deposition Is More Important than Species Richness for Seed Set in Luffa Gourd.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A

    2016-10-01

    In the context of global biodiversity decline, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of bee communities for sustaining the vital ecosystem service of pollination. Bee species can be assigned to functional groups (average difference among species in functionally related traits) on the basis of complementarity (trait variations exhibited by individual organisms) in their behavior but is not yet known which functional group trait is most important for seed set. In this study, first, the functional groups of bees were made based on their five selected traits (pollen deposition, visitation rate, stay time, visiting time of the day, body size) and then related to the seed set of obligate cross-pollinated Luffa gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca). We found that bee diversity and abundance differed significantly among the studied plots, but only the bee species richness was positively related to the seed set. Functional group diversity in terms of pollen deposition explained even more of the variance in seed set (r (2) = 0.74) than did the species richness (r (2) = 0.53) making it the most important trait of bee species for predicting the crop reproductive success.

  1. A report on identification of sequence polymorphism in barcode region of six commercially important Cymbopogon species.

    PubMed

    Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Kavane, Aarti; Sharma, Anjali; Geetha, K A

    2017-02-01

    CYMBOPOGON: is an important member of grass family Poaceae, cultivated for essential oils which have greater medicinal and industrial value. Taxonomic identification of Cymbopogon species is determined mainly by morphological markers, odour of essential oils and concentration of bioactive compounds present in the oil matrices which are highly influenced by environment. Authenticated molecular marker based taxonomical identification is also lacking in the genus; hence effort was made to evaluate potential DNA barcode loci in six commercially important Cymbopogon species for their individual discrimination and authentication at the species level. Four widely used DNA barcoding regions viz., ITS 1 & ITS 2 spacers, matK, psbA-trnH and rbcL were taken for the study. Gene sequences of the same or related genera of the concerned loci were mined from NCBI domain and primers were designed and validated for barcode loci amplification. Out of the four loci studied, sequences from matK and ITS spacer loci revealed 0.46% and 5.64% nucleotide sequence diversity, respectively whereas the other two loci i.e., psbA-trnH and rbcL showed 100% sequence homology. The newly developed primers can be used for barcode loci amplification in the genus Cymbopogon. The identified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from the studied sequences may be used as barcodes for the six Cymbopogon species. The information generated can also be utilized for barcode development of the genus by including more number of Cymbopgon species in future.

  2. Importance of Providencia species as a major cause of travellers' diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Myonsun; Matsuyama, Junko; Ohnishi, Motoki; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Miyagi, Hirozane; Mori, Kazuhiro; Park, Kwon-Sam; Ono, Takahiro; Honda, Takeshi

    2005-11-01

    In this study the importance of Providencia species as a cause of travellers' diarrhoea was examined using a selective medium developed by the authors. Providencia species could easily be distinguished from other enteric pathogens by the colour of the colonies obtained. Nine strains of Providencia alcalifaciens, nine of Providencia rettgeri and five of Providencia stuartii were isolated from 130 specimens, representing a surprisingly high incidence of infection compared with other pathogens isolated on SS agar and TCBS agar. Patients infected with P. rettgeri complained of abdominal pain, as for other Providencia species, but also of vomiting, which is rather characteristic of P. rettgeri infection. To analyse the pathogenicity of these isolates, their invasiveness was examined using Caco-2 cells. Most of the P. rettgeri strains invaded Caco-2 cells. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting showed the same profile for two P. rettgeri isolates from individuals travelling in the same tour group. The results show that Providencia species, especially P. rettgeri, might cause diarrhoea, and that these species are important pathogens.

  3. The relationship between species richness and community biomass: the importance of environmental variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.; Taylor, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    Several studies have used plant community biomass to predict species richness with varying success. In this study we examined the relationship between species richness and biomass for 36 marsh communities from two different watersheds. In addition, we measured several environmental variables and estimated the potential richness (the total number of species known to be able to occur in a community type) for each community. Above ground living and dead biomass combined was found to be weakly correlated with species richness (R2=0.02). Instead, a multiple regression model based on elevation (R2=0.47), salinity (R2=0.30), soil organic matter (R2=0.18), and biomass was able to explain 82% of the variance in species richness. It was found that environmental conditions could explain 89% of the variation in potential richness. Biomass had no relation to potential richness. When used as a predictor variable, potential richness was found to explain 72% of the variation in realized (observed) richness and biomass explained an addition 9% of the variance in realized richness. This finding suggests that realized richness in our system was controlled primarily by environmental regulation of potential richness and secondarily by biomass (as an indicator of competition). Further examination of the data revealed that when sites exposed to extreme environmental conditons were eliminated from the analysis, biomass became the primary predictor of realized richness and potential richness was of secondary importance. We conclude that community biomass has a limited capacity to predict species richness across a broad range of habitat conditions. Of particular importance is the inability of biomass to indicate the effect of environmental factors and evolutionary history on the potential species richness at a site.

  4. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    PubMed Central

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices. PMID:28102323

  5. Relative importance of estuarine nurseries for species of the genus Diplodus (Sparidae) along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The relative importance of estuarine nursery areas for species of the genus Diplodus and their relations with several environmental variables was evaluated along the Portuguese coast. Nine estuarine systems were sampled with beam trawl surveys. Species of the genus Diplodus were only present in estuaries south of the Ria de Aveiro (40°38'). A latitudinal gradient of increasing species richness and abundance towards the south was found. Estuarine nurseries of Diplodus vulgaris, Diplodus sargus and Diplodus puntazzo were characterized by mud substrate, lower salinity and lower dissolved oxygen, with the exception of Ria Formosa. Diplodus bellottii was associated with estuaries with large areas and high volumes, the Tejo and the Sado. Diplodus bellottii nursery grounds were characterized by low depth. Diplodus annularis was associated with seagrass and saltmarsh habitats, certainly because it is the only species of the genus Diplodus which recruits exclusively to seagrass meadows. Diplodus annularis nursery grounds were also characterized by sand substrate, higher salinity and higher dissolved oxygen. Niche breath varied widely amongst species and location. Diplodus vulgaris generally presented the highest values of niche breath, except when D. bellottii was present. Niche overlap was not high, the highest value being that between D. vulgaris and D. sargus in the Mira estuary, with 76% spatial niche overlap. Considerations were made on these species progress towards the north in a climate warming context, taking into account the habitat associations described here.

  6. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes.

    PubMed

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-19

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  7. Bacterial endophyte communities of three agricultural important grass species differ in their response towards management regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wemheuer, Franziska; Kaiser, Kristin; Karlovsky, Petr; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are critical for plant growth and health. However, compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophyte communities towards agricultural practices are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed the influence of fertilizer application and mowing frequency on bacterial endophytes in three agriculturally important grass species. For this purpose, we examined bacterial endophytic communities in aerial plant parts of Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca rubra L., and Lolium perenne L. by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes over two consecutive years. Although management regimes influenced endophyte communities, observed responses were grass species-specific. This might be attributed to several bacteria specifically associated with a single grass species. We further predicted functional profiles from obtained 16S rRNA data. These profiles revealed that predicted abundances of genes involved in plant growth promotion or nitrogen metabolism differed between grass species and between management regimes. Moreover, structural and functional community patterns showed no correlation to each other indicating that plant species-specific selection of endophytes is driven by functional rather than phylogenetic traits. The unique combination of 16S rRNA data and functional profiles provided a holistic picture of compositional and functional responses of bacterial endophytes in agricultural relevant grass species towards management practices.

  8. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  9. Honeybees increase fruit set in native plant species important for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wild cherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  10. Organic compounds in PM 2.5 emitted from fireplace and woodstove combustion of typical Portuguese wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Alves, Célia; Fernandes, Ana Patrícia; Monteiro, Cristina; Tarelho, Luís; Evtyugina, Margarita; Pio, Casimiro

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is the further characterisation of PM 2.5 emissions from the residential wood combustion of common woods grown in Portugal. This new research extends to eight the number of biomass fuels studied and tries to understand the differences that the burning appliance (fireplace versus woodstove) and the combustion temperature (cold and hot start) have on emissions. Pinus pinaster (Maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (Golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (Olive), Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste were used in the combustion tests. Determinations included fine particle emission factors, carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermal-optical transmission technique and detailed identification and quantification of organic compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fine particle emission factors from the woodstove were lower than those from the fireplace. For both combustion appliances, the OC/EC ratio was higher in "cold start" tests (1.56 ± 0.95 for woodstove and 2.03 ± 1.34 for fireplace). These "cold start" OC/EC values were, respectively, for the woodstove and the fireplace, 51% and 69% higher than those obtained in "hot start" experiments. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAHs, n-alkanals, ketones, n-alkanols, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, alcohols, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, unsaturated acids and alkyl esters of acids. The smoke emission rate and composition varied widely depending on fuel type, burning appliance and combustion temperature.

  11. A critical analysis of species selection and high vs. low-input silviculture on establishment success and early productivity of model short-rotation wood-energy cropping systems

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, M.; Kelley, A. M.; Ward, E. J.; ...

    2017-02-03

    Most research on bioenergy short rotation woody crops (SRWC) has been dedicated to the genera Populus and Salix. These species generally require relatively high-input culture, including intensive weed competition control, which increases costs and environmental externalities. Widespread native early successional species, characterized by high productivity and good coppicing ability, may be better adapted to local environmental stresses and therefore could offer alternative low-input bioenergy production systems. In order to test this concept, we established a three-year experiment comparing a widely-used hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii, clone ‘NM6’) to two native species, American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and tuliptreemore » (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) grown under contrasting weed and pest control at a coastal plain site in eastern North Carolina, USA. Mean cumulative aboveground wood production was significantly greater in sycamore, with yields of 46.6 Mg ha-11 under high-inputs and 32.7 Mg ha-1 under low-input culture, which rivaled the high-input NM6 yield of 32.9 Mg ha-1. NM6 under low-input management provided noncompetitive yield of 6.2 Mg ha-1. We also found that sycamore showed superiority in survival, biomass increment, weed resistance, treatment convergence, and within-stand uniformity. All are important characteristics for a bioenergy feedstock crop species, leading to reliable establishment and efficient biomass production. Poor performance in all traits was found for tuliptree, with a maximum yield of 1.2 Mg ha-1, suggesting this native species is a poor choice for SRWC. We then conclude that careful species selection beyond the conventionally used genera may enhance reliability and decrease negative environmental impacts of the bioenergy biomass production sector.« less

  12. Identification of coniferous woods

    Treesearch

    B. Francis Kukachka

    1960-01-01

    The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

  13. Microbial effects on the development of forensically important blow fly species.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Esther R; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2016-09-01

    Colonisation times and development rates of specific blow fly species are used to estimate the minimum Post Mortem Interval (mPMI). The presence or absence of bacteria on a corpse can potentially affect the development and survival of blow fly larvae. Therefore an understanding of microbial-insect interactions is important for improving the interpretation of mPMI estimations. In this study, the effect of two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) on the growth rate and survival of three forensically important blow fly species (Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria) was investigated. Sterile larvae were raised in a controlled environment (16:8h day: night light cycle, 23:21°C day: night temperature cycle and a constant 35% relative humidity) on four artificial diets prepared with 100μl of 10(5) CFU bacterial solutions as follows: (1) E. coli, (2) S. aureus, (3) a 50:50 E. coli:S. aureus mix and (4) a sterile bacteria-free control diet. Daily measurements (length, width and weight) were taken from first instar larvae through to the emergence of adult flies. Survival rates were also determined at pupation and adult emergence. Results indicate that bacteria were not essential for the development of any of the blow fly species. However, larval growth rates were affected by bacterial diet, with effects differing between blow fly species. Peak larval weights also varied according to species-diet combination; C. vomitoria had the largest weight on E. coli and mixed diets, C. vicina had the largest weight on S. aureus diets, and treatment had no significant effect on the peak larval weight of L. sericata. These results indicate the potential for the bacteria that larvae are exposed to during development on a corpse to alter both developmental rates and larval weight in some blow fly species.

  14. Species sorting and neutral processes are both important during the initial assembly of bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Langenheder, Silke; Székely, Anna J

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that species sorting, that is, the selection by local environmental conditions is important for the composition and assembly of bacterial communities. On the other hand, there are other studies that could show that bacterial communities are neutrally assembled. In this study, we implemented a microcosm experiment with the aim to determine, at the same time, the importance of species sorting and neutral processes for bacterial community assembly during the colonisation of new, that is, sterile, habitats, by atmospheric bacteria. For this we used outdoor microcosms, which contained sterile medium from three different rock pools representing different environmental conditions, which were seeded by rainwater bacteria. We found some evidence for neutral assembly processes, as almost every 4th taxon growing in the microcosms was also detectable in the rainwater sample irrespective of the medium. Most of these taxa belonged to widespread families with opportunistic growth strategies, such as the Pseudomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae, indicating that neutrally assembled taxa may primarily be generalists. On the other hand, we also found evidence for species sorting, as one out of three media selected a differently composed bacterial community. Species sorting effects were relatively weak and established themselves via differences in relative abundance of generalists among the different media, as well as media-specific occurrences of a few specific taxa. In summary, our results suggest that neutral and species sorting processes interact during the assembly of bacterial communities and that their importance may differ depending on how many generalists and specialists are present in a community. PMID:21270841

  15. Evaluating the accuracy of genomic prediction of growth and wood traits in two Eucalyptus species and their F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Biyue; Grattapaglia, Dario; Martins, Gustavo Salgado; Ferreira, Karina Zamprogno; Sundberg, Björn; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2017-06-29

    used are the two most important factors for model prediction, compared to the statistical methods and the genomic location of SNPs. Furthermore, training the prediction model based on pure parental species only provide limited ability to predict traits in interspecific hybrids. Our results provide additional promising perspectives for the implementation of genomic prediction in Eucalyptus breeding programs by the selection of interspecific hybrids.

  16. Distinguishing the importance between habitat specialization and dispersal limitation on species turnover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shixiong; Wang, Xiaoan; Guo, Hua; Fan, Weiyi; Lv, Haiying; Duan, Renyan

    2013-09-01

    Understanding what governs community assembly and the maintenance of biodiversity is a central issue in ecology, but has been a continuing debate. A key question is the relative importance of habitat specialization (niche assembly) and dispersal limitation (dispersal assembly). In the middle of the Loess Plateau, northwestern China, we examined how species turnover in Liaodong oak (Quercus wutaishanica) forests differed between observed and randomized assemblies, and how this difference was affected by habitat specialization and dispersal limitation using variation partitioning. Results showed that expected species turnover based on individual randomization was significantly lower than the observed value (P < 0.01). The turnover deviation significantly depended on the environmental and geographical distances (P < 0.05). Environmental and spatial variables significantly explained approximately 40% of the species composition variation at all the three layers (P < 0.05). However, their contributions varied among forest layers; the herb and shrub layers were dominated by environmental factors, whereas the canopy layer was dominated by spatial factors. Our results underscore the importance of synthetic models that integrate effects of both dispersal and niche assembly for understanding the community assembly. However, habitat specialization (niche assembly) may not always be the dominant process in community assembly, even under harsh environments. Community assembly may be in a trait-dependent manner (e.g., forest layers in this study). Thus, taking more species traits into account would strengthen our confidence in the inferred assembly mechanisms.

  17. Importance of riparian remnants for frog species diversity in a highly fragmented rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Mendoza, Clara; Pineda, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests undergo continuous transformation to other land uses, resulting in landscapes typified by forest fragments surrounded by anthropogenic habitats. Small forest fragments, specifically strip-shaped remnants flanking streams (referred to as riparian remnants), can be particularly important for the maintenance and conservation of biodiversity within highly fragmented forests. We compared frog species diversity between riparian remnants, other forest fragments and cattle pastures in a tropical landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We found similar species richness in the three habitats studied and a similar assemblage structure between riparian remnants and forest fragments, although species composition differed by 50 per cent. Frog abundance was halved in riparian remnants compared with forest fragments, but was twice that found in pastures. Our results suggest that riparian remnants play an important role in maintaining a portion of frog species diversity in a highly fragmented forest, particularly during environmentally stressful (hot and dry) periods. In this regard, however, the role of riparian remnants is complementary, rather than substitutive, with respect to the function of other forest fragments within the fragmented forest. PMID:20554561

  18. An overview of important ethnomedicinal herbs of Phyllanthus species: present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Bharti; Verma, Nidhi; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.

  19. Meeting the Vitamin A Requirement: The Efficacy and Importance of β-Carotene in Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A is essential for life in all vertebrate animals. Vitamin A requirement can be met from dietary preformed vitamin A or provitamin A carotenoids, the most important of which is β-carotene. The metabolism of β-carotene, including its intestinal absorption, accumulation in tissues, and conversion to vitamin A, varies widely across animal species and determines the role that β-carotene plays in meeting vitamin A requirement. This review begins with a brief discussion of vitamin A, with an emphasis on species differences in metabolism. A more detailed discussion of β-carotene follows, with a focus on factors impacting bioavailability and its conversion to vitamin A. Finally, the literature on how animals utilize β-carotene is reviewed individually for several species and classes of animals. We conclude that β-carotene conversion to vitamin A is variable and dependent on a number of factors, which are important to consider in the formulation and assessment of diets. Omnivores and herbivores are more efficient at converting β-carotene to vitamin A than carnivores. Absorption and accumulation of β-carotene in tissues vary with species and are poorly understood. More comparative and mechanistic studies are required in this area to improve the understanding of β-carotene metabolism. PMID:27833936

  20. An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Bharti; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius. PMID:24672382

  1. Distinguishing the importance between habitat specialization and dispersal limitation on species turnover

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixiong; Wang, Xiaoan; Guo, Hua; Fan, Weiyi; Lv, Haiying; Duan, Renyan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what governs community assembly and the maintenance of biodiversity is a central issue in ecology, but has been a continuing debate. A key question is the relative importance of habitat specialization (niche assembly) and dispersal limitation (dispersal assembly). In the middle of the Loess Plateau, northwestern China, we examined how species turnover in Liaodong oak (Quercus wutaishanica) forests differed between observed and randomized assemblies, and how this difference was affected by habitat specialization and dispersal limitation using variation partitioning. Results showed that expected species turnover based on individual randomization was significantly lower than the observed value (P < 0.01). The turnover deviation significantly depended on the environmental and geographical distances (P < 0.05). Environmental and spatial variables significantly explained approximately 40% of the species composition variation at all the three layers (P < 0.05). However, their contributions varied among forest layers; the herb and shrub layers were dominated by environmental factors, whereas the canopy layer was dominated by spatial factors. Our results underscore the importance of synthetic models that integrate effects of both dispersal and niche assembly for understanding the community assembly. However, habitat specialization (niche assembly) may not always be the dominant process in community assembly, even under harsh environments. Community assembly may be in a trait-dependent manner (e.g., forest layers in this study). Thus, taking more species traits into account would strengthen our confidence in the inferred assembly mechanisms. PMID:24223289

  2. Insects associated with hospital environment in Egypt with special reference to the medically important species.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Mohamed A; Amer, Hanan S; Lotfy, Nadia M; Khamis, Nagwa; Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M

    2014-12-01

    A study was planned to examine the insect fauna associated with two hospitals: urban (A) in Cairo and rural (B) in Banha, Egypt with varying hygienic levels and their adjacent residential areas (AC) and (BC), respectively and to investigate the effect of hygienic level on species composition and relative abundance. A total of 22 species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families were reported in the four study areas of which, Dipterous flies were the most common (8/22, 36.36% species). A total of 5257 adults were collected of which Dipterous flies were the abundant (3800, 72.28% insect) and Musca domestica was the most abundant species (3535, 67.24% insect) which was present in all areas where it was more common / predominant species (21.94%-90.91% insect). Moreover, higher densities of M domestica were in (B) and BC than in (A) or (AC). The heavily infested area was AC (54.55% species) followed by (A), (BC) and (B) however, the total number of the collected insects was higher in (BC) and (B) than in (AC) and (A). This was confirmed by finding maximum diversity indices in (AC) and minimum ones in B. In all areas, means of M domestica was more common during summer/autumn and spring than in the winter. Periplaneta americana collected oily during autumn in AC and was more common in autumn in (BC) while Blatella germanica collected only during summer in (AC) and was more common in autumn in (B). The prevalence and higher abundance of the medically important species mainly M domestica, P. americana and B. germanica in rural hospital than in urban one attribute mainly to the lower hygienic level of rural hospital This require a control program based mainly on sanitation supplemented by other measures to overcome the risk of disease transmission by such insects

  3. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  4. Chapter 1: Wood and Society

    Treesearch

    Chrisopher D. Risbrudt

    2013-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking, as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence of this use...

  5. Diversity of the Neglected and Underutilized Crop Species of Importance in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Dansi, A.; Vodouhè, R.; Azokpota, P.; Yedomonhan, H.; Assogba, P.; Adjatin, A.; Loko, Y. L.; Dossou-Aminon, I.; Akpagana, K.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the plant species that are cultivated for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. To assess their diversity in Benin and identify the priority species and establish their research needs, a survey was conducted in 50 villages distributed throughout the country. The study revealed 41 neglected and underutilized crop species (NUCS) among which 19 were identified as of priority base on 10 criteria among which included their extent and degree of consumption. Reasons for neglect vary with the producers and the agricultural technicians. Market surveys revealed that NUCS are important source of household incomes and substantially contribute to poverty reduction. Review of the literature available revealed that most of the species are rich in nutrients and have some proven medicinal values and the promotion of their use would help in combating malnutrition and improving the health status of the local populations. The knowledge gaps and research needs are immense on most of the species identified as no concrete scientific data is nationally available. In terms of research, almost all has to be done starting from basic ethnobotanical investigation. The results will help the scientists and students willing to conduct research on NUCS in Benin to better orient their research programs. PMID:22593712

  6. Diversity of the neglected and underutilized crop species of importance in Benin.

    PubMed

    Dansi, A; Vodouhè, R; Azokpota, P; Yedomonhan, H; Assogba, P; Adjatin, A; Loko, Y L; Dossou-Aminon, I; Akpagana, K

    2012-01-01

    Many of the plant species that are cultivated for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. To assess their diversity in Benin and identify the priority species and establish their research needs, a survey was conducted in 50 villages distributed throughout the country. The study revealed 41 neglected and underutilized crop species (NUCS) among which 19 were identified as of priority base on 10 criteria among which included their extent and degree of consumption. Reasons for neglect vary with the producers and the agricultural technicians. Market surveys revealed that NUCS are important source of household incomes and substantially contribute to poverty reduction. Review of the literature available revealed that most of the species are rich in nutrients and have some proven medicinal values and the promotion of their use would help in combating malnutrition and improving the health status of the local populations. The knowledge gaps and research needs are immense on most of the species identified as no concrete scientific data is nationally available. In terms of research, almost all has to be done starting from basic ethnobotanical investigation. The results will help the scientists and students willing to conduct research on NUCS in Benin to better orient their research programs.

  7. The importance of groundwater discharge for plant species number in riparian zones.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Roland; Laudon, Hjalmar; Johansson, Eva; Augspurger, Clemens

    2007-01-01

    Riparian zones are hotspots of plant species richness in temperate and boreal biomes. The phenomenon is believed to be caused primarily by river-related processes, and upland influences on riparian zones have received relatively little attention. We investigated the importance of discharge of groundwater derived from uplands on riparian patterns in vascular plant species composition. We found that groundwater discharge areas in riparian zones were 36-209% more species rich than non-discharge areas, depending on spatial scale (1-50 m wide transects from annual high-water levels to summer low-water levels) and river (one free-flowing and one regulated). Higher nitrogen availability and less drought stress during low river stages are suggested as the major causes for the higher species diversity in discharge areas. Riparian zones lacking groundwater discharge lost more species following water-level regulation than did discharge areas. This indicates that groundwater discharge areas are more resistant to regulation because both individual plants and plant populations may grow larger in discharge areas. These results demonstrate that riparian zones are controlled by water and nutrient input from upland parts of catchments in ways that have been overlooked despite more than three decades of research into linkages between stream ecosystems and their valleys.

  8. Multiple gene genealogies reveal important relationships between species of Phaeophleospora infecting Eucalyptus leaves.

    PubMed

    Andjic, Vera; Hardy, Giles E StJ; Cortinas, Maria Noel; Wingfield, Michael J; Burgess, Treena I

    2007-03-01

    The majority of Eucalyptus species are native to Australia, but worldwide there are over 3 million ha of exotic plantations, especially in the tropics and subtropics. Of the numerous known leaf diseases, three species of Phaeophleospora can cause severe defoliation of young Eucalyptus; Phaeophleospora destructans, Phaeophleospora eucalypti and Phaeophleospora epicoccoides. Phaeophleospora destructans has a major impact on seedling survival in Asia and has not, as yet, been found in Australia where it is considered a serious threat to the biosecurity of native eucalypts. It can be difficult to distinguish Phaeophleospora species based on symptoms and micromorphology and an unequivocal diagnostic tool for quarantine purposes would be useful. In this study, a multiple gene genealogy of these Phaeophleospora species and designed specific primers has been constructed to detect their presence from leaf samples. The phylogenetic position of these Phaeophleospora species within Mycosphaerella was established. They are closely related to each other and to other important Eucalyptus pathogens, Mycosphaerella nubilosa, Mycosphaerella cryptica and Colletogloeopsis zuluensis. The specific primers developed can now be used for diagnostic and screening purposes within Australia.

  9. The importance of range edges for an irruptive species during extreme weather events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, Brooke L.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Allstadt, Andrew J.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    In a changing climate where more frequent extreme weather may be more common, conservation strategies for weather-sensitive species may require consideration of habitat in the edges of species’ ranges, even though non-core areas may be unoccupied in ‘normal’ years. Our results highlight the conservation importance of range edges in providing refuge from extreme events, such as drought, and climate change.

  10. Wood identification of Dalbergia nigra (CITES Appendix I) using quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naive Bayes classification.

    PubMed

    Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J; Whinder, Frances; Zieminska, Kasia

    2010-01-01

    Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36.36 %. Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study.

  11. Effects of host species and life stage on the helminth communities of sympatric northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in the Sheyenne National Grasslands, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Newman, Robert A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-08-01

    We studied helminth communities in sympatric populations of leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and assessed the effects of host species and life stage on helminth community composition and helminth species richness. We examined 328 amphibians including 218 northern leopard frogs and 110 wood frogs collected between April and August of 2009 and 2010 in the Sheyenne National Grasslands of southeastern North Dakota. Echinostomatid metacercariae were the most common helminths found, with the highest prevalence in metamorphic wood frogs. Host species significantly influenced helminth community composition, and host life stage significantly influenced the component community composition of leopard frogs. In these sympatric populations, leopard frogs were common hosts for adult trematodes whereas wood frogs exhibited a higher prevalence of nematodes with direct life cycles. Metamorphic frogs were commonly infected with echinostomatid metacercariae and other larval trematodes whereas juvenile and adult frogs were most-frequently infected with directly transmitted nematodes and trophically transmitted trematodes. Accordingly, helminth species richness increased with the developmental life stage of the host.

  12. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    PubMed Central

    R. LaBonte, James

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of Scolytus schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in Scolytus schevyrewi is discussed. PMID:21594181

  13. Diversity of Wood-Inhabiting Polyporoid and Corticioid Fungi in Odaesan National Park, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2016-01-01

    Polyporoid and corticioid fungi are among the most important wood-decay fungi. Not only do they contribute to nutrient cycling by decomposing wood debris, but they are also valuable sources for natural products. Polyporoid and corticioid wood-inhabiting fungi were investigated in Odaesan National Park. Fruit bodies were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular analyses using 28S and internal transcribed spacer regions of DNA sequences. As a result, a total of 149 species, 69 genera, 22 families, and 11 orders were recognized. Half (74 species) of the species were polypores, and the other half (75 species) were corticioid fungi. Most of the species belonged to Polyporales (92 species) followed by Hymenochaetales (33 species) and Russulales (11 species). At the genus level, a high number of species was observed from Steccherinum, Hyphodontia, Phanerochaete, Postia, and Trametes. Concerning distribution, almost all the species could be found below 1,000 m, and only 20% of the species were observed from above 1,000 m. Stereum subtomentosum, Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, T. pubescens, Bjerkandera adusta, and Ganoderma applanatum had wide distribution areas. Deciduous wood was the preferred substrate for the collected species. Sixty-three species were new to this region, and 21 species were new to Korea, of which 17 species were described and illustrated. PMID:28154480

  14. Intron-mediated alternative splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B regulates cell wall thickening during fiber development in Populus species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation.

  15. Phenological adjustment in arctic bird species: relative importance of snow melt and ecological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebezeit, Joseph R.; Gurney, K. E. B.; Budde, Michael E.; Zack, Steve; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have documented advancement in clutch initiation dates (CIDs) in response to climate change, most notably for temperate-breeding passerines. Despite accelerated climate change in the Arctic, few studies have examined nest phenology shifts in arctic breeding species. We investigated whether CIDs have advanced for the most abundant breeding shorebird and passerine species at a long-term monitoring site in arctic Alaska. We pooled data from three additional nearby sites to determine the explanatory power of snow melt and ecological variables (predator abundance, green-up) on changes in breeding phenology. As predicted, all species (semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla, pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos, red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus, red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius, Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponicus) exhibited advanced CIDs ranging from 0.40 to 0.80 days/year over 9 years. Timing of snow melt was the most important variable in explaining clutch initiation advancement (“climate/snow hypothesis”) for four of the five species, while green-up was a much less important explanatory factor. We found no evidence that high predator abundances led to earlier laying dates (“predator/re-nest hypothesis”). Our results support previous arctic studies in that climate change in the cryosphere will have a strong impact on nesting phenology although factors explaining changes in nest phenology are not necessarily uniform across the entire Arctic. Our results suggest some arctic-breeding shorebird and passerine species are altering their breeding phenology to initiate nesting earlier enabling them to, at least temporarily, avoid the negative consequences of a trophic mismatch.

  16. Conditions Promoting Mycorrhizal Parasitism Are of Minor Importance for Competitive Interactions in Two Differentially Mycotrophic Species.

    PubMed

    Friede, Martina; Unger, Stephan; Hellmann, Christine; Beyschlag, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may range along a broad continuum from strong mutualism to parasitism, with mycorrhizal benefits received by the plant being determined by climatic and edaphic conditions affecting the balance between carbon costs vs. nutritional benefits. Thus, environmental conditions promoting either parasitism or mutualism can influence the mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD) of a plant and in consequence may play an important role in plant-plant interactions. In a multifactorial field experiment we aimed at disentangling the effects of environmental and edaphic conditions, namely the availability of light, phosphorus and nitrogen, and the implications for competitive interactions between Hieracium pilosella and Corynephorus canescens for the outcome of the AMF symbiosis. Both species were planted in single, intraspecific and interspecific combinations using a target-neighbor approach with six treatments distributed along a gradient simulating conditions for the interaction between plants and AMF ranking from mutualistic to parasitic. Across all treatments we found mycorrhizal association of H. pilosella being consistently mutualistic, while pronounced parasitism was observed in C. canescens, indicating that environmental and edaphic conditions did not markedly affect the cost:benefit ratio of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in both species. Competitive interactions between both species were strongly affected by AMF, with the impact of AMF on competition being modulated by colonization. Biomass in both species was lowest when grown in interspecific competition, with colonization being increased in the less mycotrophic C. canescens, while decreased in the obligate mycotrophic H. pilosella. Although parasitism-promoting conditions negatively affected MGD in C. canescens, these effects were small as compared to growth decreases related to increased colonization levels in this species. Thus, the lack of plant control over

  17. Conditions Promoting Mycorrhizal Parasitism Are of Minor Importance for Competitive Interactions in Two Differentially Mycotrophic Species

    PubMed Central

    Friede, Martina; Unger, Stephan; Hellmann, Christine; Beyschlag, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may range along a broad continuum from strong mutualism to parasitism, with mycorrhizal benefits received by the plant being determined by climatic and edaphic conditions affecting the balance between carbon costs vs. nutritional benefits. Thus, environmental conditions promoting either parasitism or mutualism can influence the mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD) of a plant and in consequence may play an important role in plant-plant interactions. In a multifactorial field experiment we aimed at disentangling the effects of environmental and edaphic conditions, namely the availability of light, phosphorus and nitrogen, and the implications for competitive interactions between Hieracium pilosella and Corynephorus canescens for the outcome of the AMF symbiosis. Both species were planted in single, intraspecific and interspecific combinations using a target-neighbor approach with six treatments distributed along a gradient simulating conditions for the interaction between plants and AMF ranking from mutualistic to parasitic. Across all treatments we found mycorrhizal association of H. pilosella being consistently mutualistic, while pronounced parasitism was observed in C. canescens, indicating that environmental and edaphic conditions did not markedly affect the cost:benefit ratio of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in both species. Competitive interactions between both species were strongly affected by AMF, with the impact of AMF on competition being modulated by colonization. Biomass in both species was lowest when grown in interspecific competition, with colonization being increased in the less mycotrophic C. canescens, while decreased in the obligate mycotrophic H. pilosella. Although parasitism-promoting conditions negatively affected MGD in C. canescens, these effects were small as compared to growth decreases related to increased colonization levels in this species. Thus, the lack of plant control over

  18. Hidden Biodiversity in an Ecologically Important Freshwater Amphipod: Differences in Genetic Structure between Two Cryptic Species

    PubMed Central

    Westram, Anja Marie; Jokela, Jukka; Keller, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic species, i.e. species that are morphologically hard to distinguish, have been detected repeatedly in various taxa and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the importance of this finding, we have to know in how far cryptic species differ in various aspects of their biology. The amphipod Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater streams and contains several cryptic species. We examined the population genetic structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of two of them (type A and type B) using microsatellite markers and asked whether they show significant differences. We present results of population genetic analyses based on a total of 37 populations from the headwaters of two major European drainages, Rhine and Rhone. We found that, in both species, genetic diversity was geographically structured among and within drainages. For type A in the Rhine and type B in the Rhone, we detected significant patterns of isolation by distance. The increase of genetic differentiation with geographical distance, however, was much higher in type A than in type B. This result indicates substantial interspecific differences in population history and/or the extent of current gene flow between populations. In the Rhine, type B does not show evidence of isolation by distance, and population differentiation is relatively low across hundreds of kilometres. The majority of these populations also show signatures of recent bottlenecks. These patterns are consistent with a recent expansion of type B into the Rhine drainage. In summary, our results suggest considerable and previously unrecognized interspecific differences in the genetic structure of these cryptic keystone species. PMID:23967060

  19. Hidden biodiversity in an ecologically important freshwater amphipod: differences in genetic structure between two cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Westram, Anja Marie; Jokela, Jukka; Keller, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Cryptic species, i.e. species that are morphologically hard to distinguish, have been detected repeatedly in various taxa and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the importance of this finding, we have to know in how far cryptic species differ in various aspects of their biology. The amphipod Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater streams and contains several cryptic species. We examined the population genetic structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of two of them (type A and type B) using microsatellite markers and asked whether they show significant differences. We present results of population genetic analyses based on a total of 37 populations from the headwaters of two major European drainages, Rhine and Rhone. We found that, in both species, genetic diversity was geographically structured among and within drainages. For type A in the Rhine and type B in the Rhone, we detected significant patterns of isolation by distance. The increase of genetic differentiation with geographical distance, however, was much higher in type A than in type B. This result indicates substantial interspecific differences in population history and/or the extent of current gene flow between populations. In the Rhine, type B does not show evidence of isolation by distance, and population differentiation is relatively low across hundreds of kilometres. The majority of these populations also show signatures of recent bottlenecks. These patterns are consistent with a recent expansion of type B into the Rhine drainage. In summary, our results suggest considerable and previously unrecognized interspecific differences in the genetic structure of these cryptic keystone species.

  20. Identification of Medically Important Yeast Species by Sequence Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Leaw, Shiang Ning; Chang, Hsien Chang; Sun, Hsiao Fang; Barton, Richard; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by yeasts have increased in previous decades due primarily to the increasing population of immunocompromised patients. In addition, infections caused by less common species such as Pichia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Saccharomyces spp. have been widely reported. This study extensively evaluated the feasibility of sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions for the identification of yeasts of clinical relevance. Both the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 373 strains (86 species), including 299 reference strains and 74 clinical isolates, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The sequences were compared to reference data available at the GenBank database by using BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) to determine if species identification was possible by ITS sequencing. Since the GenBank database currently lacks ITS sequence entries for some yeasts, the ITS sequences of type (or reference) strains of 15 species were submitted to GenBank to facilitate identification of these species. Strains producing discrepant identifications between the conventional methods and ITS sequence analysis were further analyzed by sequencing of the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for species clarification. The rates of correct identification by ITS1 and ITS2 sequence analysis were 96.8% (361/373) and 99.7% (372/373), respectively. Of the 373 strains tested, only 1 strain (Rhodotorula glutinis BCRC 20576) could not be identified by ITS2 sequence analysis. In conclusion, identification of medically important yeasts by ITS sequencing, especially using the ITS2 region, is reliable and can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional identification methods. PMID:16517841

  1. Factors that lead to failure with wood adhesive bonds

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; James F. Beecher

    2016-01-01

    Understanding what makes a good wood adhesive is difficult since the type of adhesive, wood species, bonding process, and resultant products vary considerably. Wood bonds are subjected to a variety of tests that reflect the different product performance criteria in diverse countries. The most common tests involve some type of moisture resistance; both wood and adhesive...

  2. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Treesearch

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiednebeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  3. The importance of considering rainfall partitioning in afforestation initiatives in semiarid climates: A comparison of common planted tree species in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyed Mohammad Moein; Attarod, Pedram; Van Stan, John Toland; Pypker, Thomas Grant

    2016-10-15

    As plantations become increasingly important sources of wood and fiber in arid/semiarid places, they have also become increasingly criticized for their hydrological impacts. An examination and comparison of gross rainfall (GR) partitioning across commonly-planted tree species (Pinus eldarica, Cupressus arizonica, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Fraxinus rotundifolia) in semiarid regions has great value for watershed and forest managers interested in managing canopy hydrological processes for societal benefit. Therefore, we performed a field study examining GR partitioning into throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), and rainfall interception (I) for these species in the semiarid Chitgar Forest Park, Tehran, Iran. An advantage to our study is that we explore the effects of forest structural differences in plantation forests experiencing similar climatic factors and storm conditions. As such, variability in GR partitioning due to different meteorological conditions is minimized, allowing comparison of structural attributes across plantations. Our results show that commonly-selected afforestation species experiencing the same climate produced differing stand structures that differentially partition GR into TF, SF, and I. P. eldarica might be the best of the four species to plant if the primary goal of afforestation is to limit erosion and stormwater runoff as it intercepted more rainfall than other species. However, the high SF generation from F. rotundifolia, and low GR necessary to initiate SF, could maximize retention of water in the soils since SF has been shown to infiltrate along root pathways and access groundwater. A consideration of GR partitioning should be considered when selecting a species for afforestation/reforestation in water-limited ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Species Sorting of Benthic Invertebrates in a Salinity Gradient - Importance of Dispersal Limitation.

    PubMed

    Josefson, Alf B

    2016-01-01

    The relative importance of environment and dispersal related processes for community assembly has attracted great interest over recent decades, but few empirical studies from the marine/estuarine realm have examined the possible effects of these two types of factors in the same system. Importance of these processes was investigated in a hypothetical metacommunity of benthic invertebrates in 16 micro-tidal estuaries connected to the same open sea area. The estuaries differed in size and connectivity to the open sea and represented a salinity gradient across the estuaries. The Elements of Metacommunity Structure (EMS) approach on estuary scale was complemented with a mechanistic variance partitioning approach on sample scale to disentangle effects of factors affecting assembly of three trait groups of species with different dispersivity. A quasi-Clementsian pattern was observed for all three traits, a likely response to some latent gradient. The primary axis in the pattern was most strongly related to gradients in estuary salinity and estuary entrance width and correlation with richness indicated nestedness only in the matrix of the most dispersive trait group. In the variance partitioning approach measures of turnover and nestedness between paired samples each from different estuaries were related to environmental distance in different gradients. Distance between estuaries was unimportant suggesting importance of factors characterizing the estuaries. While the high dispersive species mainly were sorted in the salinity gradient, apparently according to their tolerance ranges towards salinity, the two less dispersive traits were additionally affected by estuary entrance width and possibly also area. The results exemplify a mechanism of community assembly in the marine realm where the niche factor salinity in conjunction with differential dispersal structure invertebrates in a metacommunity of connected estuaries, and support the idea that dispersive species are more

  5. Importance of fragmentation-tolerant species as seed dispersers in disturbed landscapes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeffrey E; Swihart, Robert K

    2007-04-01

    Forest fragmentation can negatively affect plants if animal seed-dispersers become locally extinct in fragments. We conducted a 2-year experiment to evaluate the importance of tree squirrels (Sciurus) as seed dispersers for Quercus, Carya, and Juglans, and to assess dispersal consequences in patches where fragmentation-sensitive eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) are absent. We accounted for fates of approximately 15,700 seeds from five tree species in four exclosure treatments at 18 fragments during a high (2003-2004) and low seed (2004-2005) year. Two treatments excluded Sciurus to mimic disperser loss. We sampled nut-tree seedling density at 259 sites across eight watersheds, half of which were too fragmented to support S. carolinensis, but supported fragmentation-tolerant fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). Autumn-to-spring seed survival was low ( approximately 1%) for all species during low seed production. During high seed production, survival was higher for Juglans nigra (20%) and Carya ovata (16%) than for three Quercus species ( approximately 4% for Quercus palustris and Quercus rubra in two exclosure types; approximately 1% for Quercus alba in all treatments). Survival of J. nigra, C. ovata, and Q. rubra was >or=2.1-7.7 times higher for seeds in exclosures that Sciurus could access. Seed displacement distance was higher in the low seed than the seed-rich year, but the proportion of seeds surviving to greater distances was higher in seed-rich years for all seed types except Q. rubra. This affirms the importance of masting to seed survival and dispersal, but also suggests an advantage to trees of producing seed in non-mast years. Seedling densities were comparable in watersheds with and without S. carolinensis. These results demonstrate the importance of tree squirrels as dispersers of nut-bearing trees, but suggest that fragmentation may not disrupt dispersal of certain species if losing S. carolinensis from disturbed landscapes is compensated for by

  6. Species Sorting of Benthic Invertebrates in a Salinity Gradient – Importance of Dispersal Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Josefson, Alf B.

    2016-01-01

    The relative importance of environment and dispersal related processes for community assembly has attracted great interest over recent decades, but few empirical studies from the marine/estuarine realm have examined the possible effects of these two types of factors in the same system. Importance of these processes was investigated in a hypothetical metacommunity of benthic invertebrates in 16 micro-tidal estuaries connected to the same open sea area. The estuaries differed in size and connectivity to the open sea and represented a salinity gradient across the estuaries. The Elements of Metacommunity Structure (EMS) approach on estuary scale was complemented with a mechanistic variance partitioning approach on sample scale to disentangle effects of factors affecting assembly of three trait groups of species with different dispersivity. A quasi-Clementsian pattern was observed for all three traits, a likely response to some latent gradient. The primary axis in the pattern was most strongly related to gradients in estuary salinity and estuary entrance width and correlation with richness indicated nestedness only in the matrix of the most dispersive trait group. In the variance partitioning approach measures of turnover and nestedness between paired samples each from different estuaries were related to environmental distance in different gradients. Distance between estuaries was unimportant suggesting importance of factors characterizing the estuaries. While the high dispersive species mainly were sorted in the salinity gradient, apparently according to their tolerance ranges towards salinity, the two less dispersive traits were additionally affected by estuary entrance width and possibly also area. The results exemplify a mechanism of community assembly in the marine realm where the niche factor salinity in conjunction with differential dispersal structure invertebrates in a metacommunity of connected estuaries, and support the idea that dispersive species are more

  7. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  8. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  9. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood.

  10. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus species of medical or economical importance: why so fastidious?

    PubMed

    Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Sugui, Janyce A

    2009-11-01

    Heterothallism is dependent upon the obligatory cross-mating between self-sterile homokaryotic individuals and represents a common pattern of sexuality in yeasts and molds. Heterothallic reproductive cycles have recently been discovered in three Aspergillus species of medical and economic importance, namely Aspergillus fumigatus,A. parasiticus and A. flavus. Together with Aspergillus udagawae (Neosartorya udagawae), heterothallism has now been discovered in a total of four aspergilli that affect human health or economy. These fungi appear to express relatively low levels of fertility compared to other heterothallic or homothallic aspergilli and require unusually fastidious environmental parameters to complete the sexual cycle. Because the purpose of sex is to reproduce, we favor the hypothesis that while fertility of these species is on the decline this is compensated by their proficiency to reproduce asexually in a wider range of environmental conditions. Heterothallism in these species could provide an invaluable tool for the recombinational analysis of factors relevant to pathogenicity or toxin production. There is concern, however, whether extensive recombinational analysis can be very practical in light of the fact that formation of ascospores in these species requires a long period of time and the construction of genetically marked strains is likely to decrease fertility even further.

  11. The importance of species sorting differs between habitat generalists and specialists in bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Székely, Anna J; Langenheder, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the spatial turnover of bacterial communities, that is, beta-diversity, is determined by a combination of different assembly mechanisms, such as species sorting, that is, environmental filtering, and dispersal-related mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear to what extent the importance of the different mechanisms depends on community traits. Here, we implemented a study using a rock pool metacommunity to test whether habitat specialization of bacterial taxa and groups or their phylogenetic identity influenced by which mechanisms communities were assembled. In general, our results show that species sorting was the most important assembly mechanism. However, we found that a larger fraction of the variation in bacterial community composition between pools could be explained by environmental factors in case of habitat generalists, that is, taxa that were widespread and abundant in the metacommunity, compared with habitat specialists, that is, taxa that had a more restricted distribution range and tended to be rare. Differences in assembly mechanisms were observed between different major phyla and classes. However, also here, a larger fraction of the variation in community composition among pools could be explained for taxonomic groups that contained on average more habitat generalists. In summary, our results show that species sorting is stronger for the most common taxa, indicating that beta-diversity along environmental gradients can be adequately described without considering rare taxa.

  12. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P; Guerra, Miguel P

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100-220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field.

  13. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P.; Guerra, Miguel P.

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100–220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field. PMID:26284102

  14. A new species and key to species of the agriculturally important sharpshooter genus Sonesimia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellini).

    PubMed

    Felix, Márcio; Lima, Douglas Felipe Dos Santos; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Cavichioli, Rodney R

    2013-01-17

    The new sharpshooter species Sonesimia nessimiani is described from Bolivia based on specimens collected on sugar cane. An identification key to males and females of all known species of the genus is given. In addition to the external morphology, color pattern, and male genitalia, female genital structures are also described and illustrated. Notes comparing the new species with the remaining six Sonesimia species are provided.

  15. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Phyllostachys edulis (Poaceae), an important bamboo species in China1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Xin; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Ding, Yu-Long

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Phyllostachys edulis (Poaceae), an ecologically and economically important bamboo species in China, to evaluate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of P. edulis and other Phyllostachys species. • Methods and Results: Twenty microsatellite markers were developed and their polymorphisms were tested on 71 samples from three geographically disparate populations. Each locus exhibited between two and 10 alleles with an average of five alleles. Excluding monomorphic loci, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from zero to one and from 0.041 to 0.676, respectively. • Conclusions: These 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for studies on the molecular ecology, population genetics, and conservation of P. edulis. PMID:25202564

  16. Variation in intra-annual wood formation, and foliage and shoot development of three major Canadian boreal tree species.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lihong; Bergeron, Yves; Huang, Jian-Guo; Berninger, Frank

    2012-05-01

    In a warming climate, boreal trees may have adjusted their growth strategy (e.g., onset and coordination of growth among different organs such as stem, shoot, and foliage, within and among species) to cope with the extended growing seasons. A detailed investigation into growth of different organs during a growing season may help us assess the potential effects of climate change on tree growth in the boreal forest. The intra-annual growth of stem xylem, shoot tips, and foliage area of Pinus banksiana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula papyrifera was monitored in a boreal forest in Quebec, Canada during the growing season of 2007. Xylem formation was measured at weekly intervals, and shoot elongation and foliage expansion were measured three times per week from May to September. Growth indices for stem, shoot, and foliage were calculated and used to identify any climate-growth dependence. The time periods required for stem growth, branch extension, and foliage expansion differed among species. Of the three species, P. banksiana had the earliest budburst (20 May) yet the latest completion date of the foliage growth (2 August); P. tremuloides had the latest budburst (27 May) yet the earliest completion date of the foliage growth (10 July). Air temperature positively affected shoot extension growth of all three species. Precipitation positively influenced stem growth of the two broadleaf species, whereas growing season temperature positively impacted stem growth of P. banksiana. The results show that both the timing of growth processes and environmental dependences differ among co-occurring species, thereby leading to different adaptive capability of these boreal tree species to climate change.

  17. Spectral Data Captures Important Variability Between and Among Species and Functional Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. A.; Serbin, S. P.; Kingdon, C.; Singh, A.; Couture, J. J.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Narrowband spectral data in the visible, near and shortwave infrared (400-2500 nm) are being used increasingly in plant ecology to characterize the biochemical, physiological and water status of vegetation, as well as community composition. In particular, spectroscopic data have recently received considerable attention for their capacity to discriminate plants according to functional properties or 'optical types.' Such measurements can be acquired from airborne/satellite remote sensing imagery or field spectrometers and are commonly used to directly estimate or infer properties important to photosynthesis, carbon and water fluxes, nutrient dynamics, phenology, and disturbance. Spectral data therefore represent proxies for measurements that are otherwise time consuming or expensive to make, and - more importantly - provide the opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of taxonomic or functional groups. We have found that spectral variation within species and functional types can in fact exceed the variation between types. As such, we recommend that the traditional quantification of characteristics defining species and/or functional types must be modified to include the range of variability in those properties. We provide four examples of the importance of spectral data for describing within-species/functional type variation. First, within temperate forests, the spectral properties of foliage vary considerably with canopy position. This variability is strongly related to differences in specific leaf area between shade- and sun-lit leaves, and the resulting differences among leaves in strategies for light harvesting, photosynthesis, and leaf longevity. These results point to the need to better characterize leaf optical properties throughout a canopy, rather than basing the characterization of ecosystem functioning on only the sunlit portion of the canopy crown. Second, we show considerable differences in optical properties of foliage from

  18. Robust Detection of Rare Species Using Environmental DNA: The Importance of Primer Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Taylor M.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Jane, Stephen F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is being rapidly adopted as a tool to detect rare animals. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) using probe-based chemistries may represent a particularly powerful tool because of the method’s sensitivity, specificity, and potential to quantify target DNA. However, there has been little work understanding the performance of these assays in the presence of closely related, sympatric taxa. If related species cause any cross-amplification or interference, false positives and negatives may be generated. These errors can be disastrous if false positives lead to overestimate the abundance of an endangered species or if false negatives prevent detection of an invasive species. In this study we test factors that influence the specificity and sensitivity of TaqMan MGB assays using co-occurring, closely related brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and bull trout (S. confluentus) as a case study. We found qPCR to be substantially more sensitive than traditional PCR, with a high probability of detection at concentrations as low as 0.5 target copies/µl. We also found that number and placement of base pair mismatches between the Taqman MGB assay and non-target templates was important to target specificity, and that specificity was most influenced by base pair mismatches in the primers, rather than in the probe. We found that insufficient specificity can result in both false positive and false negative results, particularly in the presence of abundant related species. Our results highlight the utility of qPCR as a highly sensitive eDNA tool, and underscore the importance of careful assay design. PMID:23555689

  19. Pollinators of Richardia grandiflora (Rubiaceae): an Important Ruderal Species for Bees.

    PubMed

    Cruz, R M; Martins, C F

    2015-02-01

    Ruderal species may provide pollen and nectar to maintain the pollinators of crops in periods of floral resource shortage. The knowledge about the floral biology of these plant species and their interaction with insects is important for management strategies of agricultural systems. The study was carried out at an experimental research station in two different periods (August 2010-April 2011 and August 2012-January 2013). Floral biology was studied, and the reproductive system and reproductive efficacy (RE) were analyzed using controlled pollination experiments. Furthermore, floral visitors and pollination were identified and quantified. Reproductive success obtained in the open pollination and cross-pollination experiments was higher than those obtained in spontaneous self, hand self, and wind pollination. Richardia grandiflora bloomed throughout the experimental period, and flowers were visited by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, which were observed foraging for pollen and/or nectar. Among the floral visitors, bees were the richest and most frequent group and often contacted anthers and stigmas during visits. Africanized honeybees touched the floral reproductive structures in all visits, and their frequency may be related to changes in the reproductive efficacy between the study periods. Pollinator species of crops cultivated at the experimental research station were frequent bee visitors of R. grandiflora. We demonstrated that R. grandiflora requires cross-pollination and biotic pollen vectors. Among floral visitors, bees are the main pollinators, especially the Africanized honeybees. R. grandiflora can be considered an important ruderal species for maintaining bee pollinator populations at the study site, providing resources during the period that crops are not blooming.

  20. Robust detection of rare species using environmental DNA: the importance of primer specificity.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Taylor M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Jane, Stephen F; Lowe, Winsor H; Whiteley, Andrew R; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is being rapidly adopted as a tool to detect rare animals. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) using probe-based chemistries may represent a particularly powerful tool because of the method's sensitivity, specificity, and potential to quantify target DNA. However, there has been little work understanding the performance of these assays in the presence of closely related, sympatric taxa. If related species cause any cross-amplification or interference, false positives and negatives may be generated. These errors can be disastrous if false positives lead to overestimate the abundance of an endangered species or if false negatives prevent detection of an invasive species. In this study we test factors that influence the specificity and sensitivity of TaqMan MGB assays using co-occurring, closely related brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and bull trout (S. confluentus) as a case study. We found qPCR to be substantially more sensitive than traditional PCR, with a high probability of detection at concentrations as low as 0.5 target copies/µl. We also found that number and placement of base pair mismatches between the Taqman MGB assay and non-target templates was important to target specificity, and that specificity was most influenced by base pair mismatches in the primers, rather than in the probe. We found that insufficient specificity can result in both false positive and false negative results, particularly in the presence of abundant related species. Our results highlight the utility of qPCR as a highly sensitive eDNA tool, and underscore the importance of careful assay design.

  1. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species.

    PubMed

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2016-07-01

    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution.

  2. Tracing nitrogen accumulation in decaying wood and examining its impact on wood decomposition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Krista; Chen, Janet; Smolander, Aino; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    Decomposition of dead wood, which is controlled primarily by fungi is important for ecosystem carbon cycle and has potentially a significant role in nitrogen fixation via diazotrophs. Nitrogen content has been found to increase with advancing wood decay in several studies; however, the importance of this increase to decay rate and the sources of external nitrogen remain unclear. Improved knowledge of the temporal dynamics of wood decomposition rate and nitrogen accumulation in wood as well as the drivers of the two processes would be important for carbon and nitrogen models dealing with ecosystem responses to climate change. To tackle these questions we applied several analytical methods on Norway spruce logs from Lapinjärvi, Finland. We incubated wood samples (density classes from I to V, n=49) in different temperatures (from 8.5oC to 41oC, n=7). After a common seven day pre-incubation period at 14.5oC, the bottles were incubated six days in their designated temperature prior to CO2 flux measurements with GC to determine the decomposition rate. N2 fixation was measured with acetylene reduction assay after further 48 hour incubation. In addition, fungal DNA, (MiSeq Illumina) δ15N and N% composition of wood for samples incubated at 14.5oC were determined. Radiocarbon method was applied to obtain age distribution for the density classes. The asymbiotic N2 fixation rate was clearly dependent on the stage of wood decay and increased from stage I to stage IV but was substantially reduced in stage V. CO2 production was highest in the intermediate decay stage (classes II-IV). Both N2 fixation and CO2 production were highly temperature sensitive having optima in temperature 25oC and 31oC, respectively. We calculated the variation of annual levels of respiration and N2 fixation per hectare for the study site, and used the latter data together with the 14C results to determine the amount of N2 accumulated in wood in time. The proportion of total nitrogen in wood

  3. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  4. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  5. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  6. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  7. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  8. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  9. Observations on morphology of immature Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-11-01

    Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) is a blow fly of forensic importance, and shares its geographical distribution with a related forensically important species, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann). The immature stages of both species are similar in general appearance; therefore, correct identification should be given special consideration. This study highlighted the main features of L. porphyrina larvae, as observed under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Particular attention is given to the anterior and posterior spiracles, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, and characteristics of the dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax. In the third instar specifically, morphological information on L. porphyrina showed several features that are shared by L. cuprina, and therefore need certain identification to distinguish between them. Such key features are (1) greater posterior spiracle, (2) apparent inner projection between the middle and lower slits of the posterior spiracle, and (3) strongly sclerotized peritreme. The number of papillae on the anterior spiracle may be a supplement, five to nine and three to six in L. porphyrina and L. cuprina, respectively. The key for identifying third instar of forensically important flies in Thailand has been updated to include L. porphyrina.

  10. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity. PMID:27658591

  11. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity.

  12. The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and possible ecosystem function in tall-grass prairies

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Meha; Flynn, Dan FB; Prager, Case M; Hart, Georgia M; DeVan, Caroline M; Ahrestani, Farshid S; Palmer, Matthew I; Bunker, Daniel E; Knops, Johannes MH; Jouseau, Claire F; Naeem, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The majority of species in ecosystems are rare, but the ecosystem consequences of losing rare species are poorly known. To understand how rare species may influence ecosystem functioning, this study quantifies the contribution of species based on their relative level of rarity to community functional diversity using a trait-based approach. Given that rarity can be defined in several different ways, we use four different definitions of rarity: abundance (mean and maximum), geographic range, and habitat specificity. We find that rarer species contribute to functional diversity when rarity is defined by maximum abundance, geographic range, and habitat specificity. However, rarer species are functionally redundant when rarity is defined by mean abundance. Furthermore, when using abundance-weighted analyses, we find that rare species typically contribute significantly less to functional diversity than common species due to their low abundances. These results suggest that rare species have the potential to play an important role in ecosystem functioning, either by offering novel contributions to functional diversity or via functional redundancy depending on how rare species are defined. Yet, these contributions are likely to be greatest if the abundance of rare species increases due to environmental change. We argue that given the paucity of data on rare species, understanding the contribution of rare species to community functional diversity is an important first step to understanding the potential role of rare species in ecosystem functioning. PMID:24455165

  13. The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and possible ecosystem function in tall-grass prairies.

    PubMed

    Jain, Meha; Flynn, Dan Fb; Prager, Case M; Hart, Georgia M; Devan, Caroline M; Ahrestani, Farshid S; Palmer, Matthew I; Bunker, Daniel E; Knops, Johannes Mh; Jouseau, Claire F; Naeem, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The majority of species in ecosystems are rare, but the ecosystem consequences of losing rare species are poorly known. To understand how rare species may influence ecosystem functioning, this study quantifies the contribution of species based on their relative level of rarity to community functional diversity using a trait-based approach. Given that rarity can be defined in several different ways, we use four different definitions of rarity: abundance (mean and maximum), geographic range, and habitat specificity. We find that rarer species contribute to functional diversity when rarity is defined by maximum abundance, geographic range, and habitat specificity. However, rarer species are functionally redundant when rarity is defined by mean abundance. Furthermore, when using abundance-weighted analyses, we find that rare species typically contribute significantly less to functional diversity than common species due to their low abundances. These results suggest that rare species have the potential to play an important role in ecosystem functioning, either by offering novel contributions to functional diversity or via functional redundancy depending on how rare species are defined. Yet, these contributions are likely to be greatest if the abundance of rare species increases due to environmental change. We argue that given the paucity of data on rare species, understanding the contribution of rare species to community functional diversity is an important first step to understanding the potential role of rare species in ecosystem functioning.

  14. Wood shipments to Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Harold W. Wisdom; James E. Granskog; Keith A. Blatner

    1983-01-01

    Puerto Rico's importance as an offshore market for U.S. wood products is often overlooked. Because of Puerto Rico's unique Commonwealth status, trade flows between the United States and Puerto Rico are recorded separately and are not counted in the U.S. foreign trade statistics. In 1981, wood product shipments from the United States to Puerto Rico totaled...

  15. Marine fronts are important fishing areas for demersal species at the Argentine Sea (Southwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany, Daniela; Acha, Eduardo M.; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2014-03-01

    The high primary and secondary production associated with frontal systems attract a diversity of organisms due to high prey availability; this is why a strong relationship between fronts and pelagic fisheries has been shown worldwide. In the Argentine Sea, demersal resources are the most important, both in economical and in ecological sense; so we hypothesize that fronts are also preferred fishing areas for demersal resources. We evaluated the relationship between spatial distribution of fishing effort and oceanographic fronts, analyzing three of the most important frontal systems located in the Argentine Sea: the shelf-break front, the southern Patagonia front and the mid-shelf front. Individual vessel satellite monitoring system data (VMS; grouped by fleet type: ice-trawlers, freezer-trawlers and jigging fleet) were studied and fishing events were identified. Fishing events per area were used as a proxy of fishing effort and its spatial distribution by fleet type was visualized and analyzed with Geographic Information Systems. Oceanographic fronts were defined using polygons based on satellite chlorophyll amplitude values, and the percentage of fishing events within each polygon was calculated. Results showed a positive association between fronts and fishing activities of the different fleets, which suggests the aggregation of target species in these zones. The coupling of the freezer-trawler and jigging fleets (that operate on lower trophic level species; Macruronus magellanicus and Illex argentinus respectively) with fronts was higher than the ice-trawler fleet, targeting species of higher trophic level (Merluccius hubbsi). Marine fronts represent important fishing areas, even for demersal resources, as the distribution of fishing fleets and fishing effort are positively associated with frontal zones.

  16. Two New Species of Egg Parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) of Wood-Boring Beetle Pests from China

    Treesearch

    Yanzhou Zhang; Dawei Huang; Tonghai Zhao; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2005-01-01

    Oobius agrili sp.n. and Avetianella xystrocerae sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from China. Morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. O. agrili is an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and A....

  17. Specific gravity and other properties of wood and bark for 156 tree species found in North America

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; W. Brad. Smith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports information for the estimation of biomass for 156 tree species found in North America for use in national forest inventory applications. We present specific gravities based on average green volume as well as 12 percent moisture content volume for calculation of oven-dry biomass....

  18. BOREAL FOREST CARBON STOCKS AND WOOD SUPPLY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE RESPONSES TO CHANGING CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE AND SPECIES AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper assesses the role in boreal forest growth played by environment. It examines past changes in climate coupled with glaciation, and future changes in climate coupled with agricultural land use and tree species availability. The objective was to define and evaluate potenti...

  19. BOREAL FOREST CARBON STOCKS AND WOOD SUPPLY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE RESPONSES TO CHANGING CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE AND SPECIES AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper assesses the role in boreal forest growth played by environment. It examines past changes in climate coupled with glaciation, and future changes in climate coupled with agricultural land use and tree species availability. The objective was to define and evaluate potenti...

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars produced from coppiced wood of thirteen tree species for use in horticultural substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven-year-old coppiced shoots from thirteen species of native and non-native trees and shrubs were harvested, dried, and were pyrolyzed to produce biochars for potential use in horticultural substrates. Several chemical and physical characteristics of the biochars were determined. There were slight...

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Bacterial and Faunal Communities Associated with Deep-Sea Wood Falls.

    PubMed

    Pop Ristova, Petra; Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Rossel, Pamela E; Boetius, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas. By combining fingerprinting of bacterial communities by ARISA and 454 sequencing with in situ and ex situ biogeochemical measurements, we show that sunken wood logs have a locally confined long-term impact (> 3y) on the sediment geochemistry and community structure. We confirm previous hypotheses of different successional stages in wood degradation including a sulphophilic one, attracting chemosynthetic fauna from nearby seep systems. Wood experiments deployed at similar water depths (1100-1700 m), but in hydrographically different oceanic regions harbored different wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic faunal communities, and chemosynthetic species. Similarly, bacterial communities on sunken wood logs were more similar within one geographic region than between different seas. Diverse sulphate-reducing bacteria of the Deltaproteobacteria, the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria Sulfurovum as well as members of the Acidimicrobiia and Bacteroidia dominated the wood falls in the Eastern Mediterranean, while Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia colonized the Norwegian Sea wood logs. Fauna and bacterial wood-associated communities changed between 1 to 3 years of immersion, with sulphate-reducers and sulphide-oxidizers increasing in proportion, and putative cellulose degraders decreasing with time. Only 6% of all bacterial genera, comprising the core community, were found at any time on

  2. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Mining the transcriptomes of four commercially important shellfish species for single nucleotide polymorphisms within biomineralization genes.

    PubMed

    Vendrami, David L J; Shah, Abhijeet; Telesca, Luca; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional profiling not only provides insights into patterns of gene expression, but also generates sequences that can be mined for molecular markers, which in turn can be used for population genetic studies. As part of a large-scale effort to better understand how commercially important European shellfish species may respond to ocean acidification, we therefore mined the transcriptomes of four species (the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the great scallop Pecten maximus and the blunt gaper Mya truncata) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Illumina data for C. gigas, M. edulis and P. maximus and 454 data for M. truncata were interrogated using GATK and SWAP454 respectively to identify between 8267 and 47,159 high quality SNPs per species (total=121,053 SNPs residing within 34,716 different contigs). We then annotated the transcripts containing SNPs to reveal homology to diverse genes. Finally, as oceanic pH affects the ability of organisms to incorporate calcium carbonate, we honed in on genes implicated in the biomineralization process to identify a total of 1899 SNPs in 157 genes. These provide good candidates for biomarkers with which to study patterns of selection in natural or experimental populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species via NOXa Is Important for Development and Pathogenicity of Mycosphaerella graminicola

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-E; Lee, Changsu

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym Zymoseptoria tritici) is an important pathogen of wheat causing economically significant losses. The primary nutritional mode of this fungus is thought to be hemibiotrophic. This pathogenic lifestyle is associated with an early biotrophic stage of nutrient uptake followed by a necrotrophic stage aided possibly by production of a toxin or reactive oxygen species (ROS). In many other fungi, the genes CREA and AREA are important during the biotrophic stage of infection, while the NOXa gene product is important during necrotrophic growth. To test the hypothesis that these genes are important for pathogenicity of M. graminicola, we employed an over-expression strategy for the selected target genes CREA, AREA, and NOXa, which might function as regulators of nutrient acquisition or ROS generation. Increased expressions of CREA, AREA, and NOXa in M. graminicola were confirmed via quantitative real-time PCR and strains were subsequently assayed for pathogenicity. Among them, the NOXa over-expression strain, NO2, resulted in significantly increased virulence. Moreover, instead of the usual filamentous growth, we observed a predominance of yeast-like growth of NO2 which was correlated with ROS production. Our data indicate that ROS generation via NOXa is important to pathogenicity as well as development in M. graminicola. PMID:27103853

  5. CHROMagar Candida, a new differential isolation medium for presumptive identification of clinically important Candida species.

    PubMed Central

    Odds, F C; Bernaerts, R

    1994-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a novel, differential culture medium that is claimed to facilitate the isolation and presumptive identification of some clinically important yeast species. We evaluated the use of this medium with 726 yeast isolates, including 82 isolated directly on the medium from clinical material. After 2 days of incubation at 37 degrees C, 285 C. albicans isolates gave distinctive green colonies that were not seen with any of 441 other yeast isolates representing 21 different species. A total of 54 C. tropicalis isolates also developed distinctive dark blue-gray colonies with a halo of dark brownish purple in the surrounding agar. C. krusei isolates (n = 43) also formed highly characteristic rough, spreading colonies with pale pink centers and a white edge that was otherwise encountered only rarely with isolates of C. norvegensis. Trichosporon spp. (n = 34) formed small, pale colonies that became larger and characteristically rough with prolonged incubation. Most of the other 310 yeasts studied formed colonies with a color that ranged from white to pink to purple with a brownish tint. The only exceptions were found among isolates identified as Geotrichum sp. or Pichia sp., some of which formed colonies with a gray to blue color and which in two instances formed a green pigment or a dark halo in the agar. The specificity and sensitivity of the new medium for the presumptive identification of C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis exceeded 99% for all three species. A blinded reading test involving four personnel and 57 yeast isolates representing nine clinically important species confirmed that colonial appearance after 48 h of incubation on CHROMagar Candida afforded the correct presumptive recognition of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C, krusei, and Trichosporon spp. None of nine bacterial isolates grew on CHROMagar Candida within 72 h, and bacteria (Escherichia coli) grew from only 4 of 104 vaginal, 100 oral, and 99 anorectal swabs. The new medium

  6. Effects of environmental temperature on oviposition behavior in three blow fly species of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Ody, Helen; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2017-03-14

    A number of factors are known to affect blow fly behavior with respect to oviposition. Current research indicates that temperature is the most significant factor. However temperature thresholds for oviposition in forensically important blow flies have not been well studied. Here, the oviposition behavior of three species of forensically important blow fly species (Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata,) was studied under controlled laboratory conditions over a range of temperatures (10-40°C). Lower temperature thresholds for oviposition of 16°C and 17.5°C were established for C. vomitoria and L. sericata respectively, whilst C. vicina continued to lay eggs at 10°C. C. vomitoria and L. sericata both continued to lay eggs at 40°C, whilst the highest temperature at which oviposition occurred in C. vicina was 35°C. Within these thresholds there was considerable variation in the number of surviving pupae, with a general pattern of a single peak within the range of temperatures at which eggs were laid, but with the pattern being much less distinct for L. sericata.

  7. Evaluating Functional Diversity: Missing Trait Data and the Importance of Species Abundance Structure and Data Transformation.

    PubMed

    Májeková, Maria; Paal, Taavi; Plowman, Nichola S; Bryndová, Michala; Kasari, Liis; Norberg, Anna; Weiss, Matthias; Bishop, Tom R; Luke, Sarah H; Sam, Katerina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Lepš, Jan; Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity (FD) is an important component of biodiversity that quantifies the difference in functional traits between organisms. However, FD studies are often limited by the availability of trait data and FD indices are sensitive to data gaps. The distribution of species abundance and trait data, and its transformation, may further affect the accuracy of indices when data is incomplete. Using an existing approach, we simulated the effects of missing trait data by gradually removing data from a plant, an ant and a bird community dataset (12, 59, and 8 plots containing 62, 297 and 238 species respectively). We ranked plots by FD values calculated from full datasets and then from our increasingly incomplete datasets and compared the ranking between the original and virtually reduced datasets to assess the accuracy of FD indices when used on datasets with increasingly missing data. Finally, we tested the accuracy of FD indices with and without data transformation, and the effect of missing trait data per plot or per the whole pool of species. FD indices became less accurate as the amount of missing data increased, with the loss of accuracy depending on the index. But, where transformation improved the normality of the trait data, FD values from incomplete datasets were more accurate than before transformation. The distribution of data and its transformation are therefore as important as data completeness and can even mitigate the effect of missing data. Since the effect of missing trait values pool-wise or plot-wise depends on the data distribution, the method should be decided case by case. Data distribution and data transformation should be given more careful consideration when designing, analysing and interpreting FD studies, especially where trait data are missing. To this end, we provide the R package "traitor" to facilitate assessments of missing trait data.

  8. Evaluating Functional Diversity: Missing Trait Data and the Importance of Species Abundance Structure and Data Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bryndová, Michala; Kasari, Liis; Norberg, Anna; Weiss, Matthias; Bishop, Tom R.; Luke, Sarah H.; Sam, Katerina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Lepš, Jan; Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity (FD) is an important component of biodiversity that quantifies the difference in functional traits between organisms. However, FD studies are often limited by the availability of trait data and FD indices are sensitive to data gaps. The distribution of species abundance and trait data, and its transformation, may further affect the accuracy of indices when data is incomplete. Using an existing approach, we simulated the effects of missing trait data by gradually removing data from a plant, an ant and a bird community dataset (12, 59, and 8 plots containing 62, 297 and 238 species respectively). We ranked plots by FD values calculated from full datasets and then from our increasingly incomplete datasets and compared the ranking between the original and virtually reduced datasets to assess the accuracy of FD indices when used on datasets with increasingly missing data. Finally, we tested the accuracy of FD indices with and without data transformation, and the effect of missing trait data per plot or per the whole pool of species. FD indices became less accurate as the amount of missing data increased, with the loss of accuracy depending on the index. But, where transformation improved the normality of the trait data, FD values from incomplete datasets were more accurate than before transformation. The distribution of data and its transformation are therefore as important as data completeness and can even mitigate the effect of missing data. Since the effect of missing trait values pool-wise or plot-wise depends on the data distribution, the method should be decided case by case. Data distribution and data transformation should be given more careful consideration when designing, analysing and interpreting FD studies, especially where trait data are missing. To this end, we provide the R package “traitor” to facilitate assessments of missing trait data. PMID:26881747

  9. Vulnerability assessment of New Jersey's food supply to invasive species: the New Jersey IMPORT project.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Petros; Hamilton, George; Borjan, Marija; Robson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The United States' environment and economy have been severely impacted by unintentionally introduced biological organisms for the last 100 years. Our ecosystems and biological reserves of conservation importance are regularly invaded by non-indigenous species. To help prevent future invaders from entering the ports, this project undertaken at the Port of Elizabeth proposed to: 1. Catalog the different vegetable and fruit crops entering this country; 2. Evaluate the potential risk to New Jersey crops that an introduced exotic pest might pose; and 3. Evaluate the potential that imported crops entering the U.S. have for harboring exotic pests. The New Jersey IMPORT report, or Invasive Management Promoting Open and Responsible Trade project, details a newly designed ecological risk assessment tool to evaluate entry potential of invasive pests at the Port of Elizabeth. Risk designations were assigned to shipments of four fruits; seven vegetables; and two field/forage crops based on: i) Country of origin; ii) Amounts of commodities imported; and iii) Endemic pests present in exporting countries. Between 5,000 and 180,000 tons of crops were imported into the Port of Elizabeth from October 2001 to 2003. Pest risk analyses were drafted for twenty-five intercepted insects taken from the Port Information Network. In addition, eighteen pest risk analyses were drafted for invasive fungi, bacteria, and viruses of global concern as alerted by ProMed Digest. It was concluded that three crops imported remain at high risk: apples, peppers, and tomatoes. Peaches, soybeans, lettuce, sweet corn, potatoes, squash, and eggplant imported were considered moderate risk. Blueberries, cranberries, and alfalfa were considered low risk.

  10. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  11. Preservative treatment of wood for farm use

    Treesearch

    J. Oscar Blew

    1965-01-01

    With all the favorable properties that contribute to its wide use in farming, wood nevertheless needs to be used intelligently, and protected from certain natural enemies. For example, while some species of wood are naturally resistant to attack by decay fungi and harmful insects, most species lack adequate resistance when exposed to attack, This is not serious when...

  12. Radial wood Allocation in Schizolobium Parahyba

    Treesearch

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann; James P. Geaghan

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of tropical trees has captivated botanists for centuries. Woods of difterent species, not only differ in appearance, but also in functional traits-density, porosity and strength-characteristics that relate to various plant functions such as support and conduction. The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a species' trait that integrates mechanical...

  13. 9 CFR 93.911 - Ports designated for the importation of live VHS-regulated fish species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ports designated for the importation of live VHS-regulated fish species. 93.911 Section 93.911 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish Species § 93.911 Ports designated for the...

  14. 9 CFR 93.911 - Ports designated for the importation of live VHS-regulated fish species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ports designated for the importation of live VHS-regulated fish species. 93.911 Section 93.911 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish Species § 93.911 Ports designated for the...

  15. 9 CFR 93.911 - Ports designated for the importation of live VHS-regulated fish species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ports designated for the importation of live VHS-regulated fish species. 93.911 Section 93.911 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish Species § 93.911 Ports designated for the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.911 - Ports designated for the importation of live VHS-regulated fish species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of live VHS-regulated fish species. 93.911 Section 93.911 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN... Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish Species § 93.911 Ports designated for...

  17. Wood as an adherend

    Treesearch

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  18. Is tree species diversity or tree species identity the most important driver of European forest soil carbon stocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Muhie Dawud, Seid; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Finér, Leena; Domisch, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Land management includes the selection of specific tree species and tree species mixtures for European forests. Studies of functional species diversity effects have reported positive effects for aboveground carbon (C) sequestration, but the question remains whether higher soil C stocks could also result from belowground niche differentiation including more efficient root exploitation of soils. We studied topsoil C stocks in tree species diversity gradients established within the FunDivEurope project to explore biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in six European forest types in Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Spain and Italy. In the Polish forest type we extended the sampling to also include subsoils. We found consistent but modest effects of species diversity on total soil C stocks (forest floor and 0-20 cm) across the six European forest types. Carbon stocks in the forest floor alone and in the combined forest floor and mineral soil layers increased with increasing tree species diversity. In contrast, there was a strong effect of species identity (broadleaf vs. conifer) and its interaction with site-related factors. Within the Polish forest type we sampled soils down to 40 cm and found that species identity was again the main factor explaining total soil C stock. However, species diversity increased soil C stocks in deeper soil layers (20-40 cm), while species identity influenced C stocks significantly within forest floors and the 0-10 cm layer. Root biomass increased with diversity in 30-40 cm depth, and a positive relationship between C stocks and root biomass in the 30-40 cm layer suggested that belowground niche complementarity could be a driving mechanism for higher root carbon input and in turn a deeper distribution of C in diverse forests. We conclude that total C stocks are mainly driven by tree species identity. However, modest positive diversity effects were detected at the European scale, and stronger positive effects on subsoil C stocks

  19. Chapter 3: Wood Decay

    Treesearch

    Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  20. Unifying bacteria from decaying wood with various ubiquitous Gibbsiella species as G. acetica sp. nov. based on nucleotide sequence similarities and their acetic acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Geider, Klaus; Gernold, Marina; Jock, Susanne; Wensing, Annette; Völksch, Beate; Gross, Jürgen; Spiteller, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from necrotic apple and pear tree tissue and from dead wood in Germany and Austria as well as from pear tree exudate in China. They were selected for growth at 37 °C, screened for levan production and then characterized as Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. Nucleotide sequences from 16S rRNA genes, the housekeeping genes dnaJ, gyrB, recA and rpoB alignments, BLAST searches and phenotypic data confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis showed that these bacteria belong to the genus Gibbsiella and resembled strains isolated from diseased oaks in Britain and Spain. Gibbsiella-specific PCR primers were designed from the proline isomerase and the levansucrase genes. Acid secretion was investigated by screening for halo formation on calcium carbonate agar and the compound identified by NMR as acetic acid. Its production by Gibbsiella spp. strains was also determined in culture supernatants by GC/MS analysis after derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide. Some strains were differentiated by the PFGE patterns of SpeI digests and by sequence analyses of the lsc and the ppiD genes, and the Chinese Gibbsiella strain was most divergent. The newly investigated bacteria as well as Gibbsiella querinecans, Gibbsiella dentisursi and Gibbsiella papilionis, isolated in Britain, Spain, Korea and Japan, are taxonomically related Enterobacteriaceae, tolerate and secrete acetic acid. We therefore propose to unify them in the species Gibbsiella acetica sp. nov.

  1. 76 FR 76690 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ..., thickness of back ply, thickness of core, and thickness of inner plies; width; and length); wood species.... Shanghai Lairunde Wood Co., Shanghai Lairunde Wood 3.30 Ltd. Co., Ltd. Shanghai New Sihe Wood Co., Shanghai New Sihe Wood 3.30 Ltd. Co., Ltd. Shanghai Shenlin Corporation.. Shanghai Shenlin 3.30 Corporation...

  2. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    PubMed

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-01-28

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic, with serious implications for conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. Here we quantify dynamic change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding (i.e. food and nesting sites) for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the swift parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compare estimates of occupied habitat (km(2) ) derived from dynamic presence-background data climatic models to those derived from dynamic occupancy models that include a direct measure of food availability. We also compare estimates that incorporate fine resolution information on key ecological resources (i.e functional habitats) into distribution maps with more common approaches that typically focus on broader climatic suitability. For all models, both the extent and spatial location of occupied areas varied dramatically over the study period. The occupancy models produced significantly smaller (up to an order of magnitude) and more spatially discrete estimates of occupied habitat than climate-based models. Estimates accounting for the area of functional habitats were also significantly smaller than estimates based only on occupied habitat. Importantly, an increase (or decrease) in one functional habitat did not necessarily correspond to changes in the other, with consequences for overall habitat functionality. We argue that these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists, but currently go unnoticed due to limited data on (1) species' presence/absence and (2) availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile

  3. The importance of data quality for generating reliable distribution models for rare, elusive, and cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Aubry, Keith B; Raley, Catherine M; McKelvey, Kevin S

    2017-01-01

    The availability of spatially referenced environmental data and species occurrence records in online databases enable practitioners to easily generate species distribution models (SDMs) for a broad array of taxa. Such databases often include occurrence records of unknown reliability, yet little information is available on the influence of data quality on SDMs generated for rare, elusive, and cryptic species that are prone to misidentification in the field. We investigated this question for the fisher (Pekania pennanti), a forest carnivore of conservation concern in the Pacific States that is often confused with the more common Pacific marten (Martes caurina). Fisher occurrence records supported by physical evidence (verifiable records) were available from a limited area, whereas occurrence records of unknown quality (unscreened records) were available from throughout the fisher's historical range. We reserved 20% of the verifiable records to use as a test sample for both models and generated SDMs with each dataset using Maxent. The verifiable model performed substantially better than the unscreened model based on multiple metrics including AUCtest values (0.78 and 0.62, respectively), evaluation of training and test gains, and statistical tests of how well each model predicted test localities. In addition, the verifiable model was consistent with our knowledge of the fisher's habitat relations and potential distribution, whereas the unscreened model indicated a much broader area of high-quality habitat (indices > 0.5) that included large expanses of high-elevation habitat that fishers do not occupy. Because Pacific martens remain relatively common in upper elevation habitats in the Cascade Range and Sierra Nevada, the SDM based on unscreened records likely reflects primarily a conflation of marten and fisher habitat. Consequently, accurate identifications are far more important than the spatial extent of occurrence records for generating reliable SDMs for the

  4. miRNAs of two medically important mosquito species: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wanqi; Crisione, Frank; Liang, Shaohui; Tu, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded small RNAs that have important regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we characterize miRNAs in two divergent mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, through deep sequencing of small RNAs spanning all developmental stages. We discovered eight novel miRNAs in Ae. aegypti and 20 novel miRNAs in An. stephensi, which enabled the first systematic analysis of miRNA evolution in mosquitos. We traced the phylogenetic history of all miRNAs in both species and report a rate of 0.055–0.13 miRNA net gain per million years. Most novel miRNAs originate de novo. Duplications that produced miRNA clusters and families are more common in Ae. aegypti than in An. stephensi. We also identified arm-switch as a source of new miRNAs. Expression profile analysis identified mosquito-specific miRNAs that showed strong stage-specific expression in one or both lineages. For example, the aae-miR-2941/2946 family represents the most abundant maternally-deposited and zygotically transcribed miRNAs in Ae. aegypti. miR-2943 is a highly expressed zygotic miRNA in both Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Such information provides the basis to study the function of these miRNAs in biology common to all mosquitos or unique to one particular lineage. PMID:25420875

  5. Fine structure of Chrysomya nigripes (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Ngern-klun, Radchadawan; Sukontason, Kom; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-04-01

    The fine structure of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a blow fly species of medical importance, is presented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to contribute information on the morphology of the adult of this fly species. The surface of the dome-shaped ommatidia exhibits a microscopic granulose appearance. The palpus is equipped with small sensilla basiconica and sensilla chaetica, which provide sensory reception for detecting environmental information. At the apex of the mouthparts, the labellum is endowed with large numbers of sensilla trichodea and basiconic-like sensilla of variable length. The anterior (mesothoracic) spiracle is elliptical in shape and covered with extensively ramified setae except for a small dorsal aperture. The posterior (metathoracic) spiracle is shaped like a rounded isosceles triangle and covered by two valves of unequal size. The larger valve covers the upper approximately 2/3 of the spiracular opening, whereas the smaller valve covers the lower approximately 1/3 of the opening. Extensively ramified setae line and cover the valves over the entire spiracle. SEM analyses of the haltere knob and the prosternal organs, located adjacent to the cervical sclerites, revealed a striking resemblance of the morphological features of their sensilla. Each sensillum emanates from a cuticular ring, is approximately 12-15 mum in length, has a smooth surface, and terminates in a sharp tip. Various types of sensilla were associated with the ovipositor including sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica, sensilla placodea and probably sensilla styloconica. The possible function of sensilla distributed in particular regions of the fly integument is discussed.

  6. Intra- and inter-species interactions within biofilms of important foodborne bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Giaouris, Efstathios; Heir, Even; Desvaux, Mickaël; Hébraud, Michel; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig; Doulgeraki, Agapi; Nychas, George-John; Kačániová, Miroslava; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ölmez, Hülya; Simões, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A community-based sessile life style is the normal mode of growth and survival for many bacterial species. Under such conditions, cell-to-cell interactions are inevitable and ultimately lead to the establishment of dense, complex and highly structured biofilm populations encapsulated in a self-produced extracellular matrix and capable of coordinated and collective behavior. Remarkably, in food processing environments, a variety of different bacteria may attach to surfaces, survive, grow, and form biofilms. Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus are important bacterial pathogens commonly implicated in outbreaks of foodborne diseases, while all are known to be able to create biofilms on both abiotic and biotic surfaces. Particularly challenging is the attempt to understand the complexity of inter-bacterial interactions that can be encountered in such unwanted consortia, such as competitive and cooperative ones, together with their impact on the final outcome of these communities (e.g., maturation, physiology, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, dispersal). In this review, up-to-date data on both the intra- and inter-species interactions encountered in biofilms of these pathogens are presented. A better understanding of these interactions, both at molecular and biophysical levels, could lead to novel intervention strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilm formation in food processing environments and thus improve food safety. PMID:26347727

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Catalase Is Important for Female Lutzomyia longipalpis Fecundity and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Mitford, Roanna; Genta, Fernando A.; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R. V.; Dillon, Rod J.

    2011-01-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), the disseminated and most serious form of the disease in Central and South America. In the natural environment, most female L. longipalpis are thought to survive for less than 10 days and will feed on blood only once or twice during their lifetime. Successful transmission of parasites occurs when a Leishmania-infected female sand fly feeds on a new host. Knowledge of factors affecting sand fly longevity that lead to a reduction in lifespan could result in a decrease in parasite transmission. Catalase has been found to play a major role in survival and fecundity in many insect species. It is a strong antioxidant enzyme that breaks down toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ovarian catalase was found to accumulate in the developing sand fly oocyte from 12 to 48 hours after blood feeding. Catalase expression in ovaries as well as oocyte numbers was found to decrease with age. This reduction was not found in flies when fed on the antioxidant ascorbic acid in the sugar meal, a condition that increased mortality and activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade. RNA interference was used to silence catalase gene expression in female Lu. longipalpis. Depletion of catalase led to a significant increase of mortality and a reduction in the number of developing oocytes produced after blood feeding. These results demonstrate the central role that catalase and ROS play in the longevity and fecundity of phlebotomine sand flies. PMID:21408075

  8. Secondary metabolites of Capsicum species and their importance in the human diet.

    PubMed

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-04-26

    The genus Capsicum (pepper) comprises a large number of wild and cultivated species. The plants are grown all over the world, primarily in tropical and subtropical countries. The fruits are an excellent source of health-related compounds, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotenoids (provitamin A), tocopherols (vitamin E), flavonoids, and capsaicinoids. Pepper fruits have been used for fresh and cooked consumption, as well as for medicinal purposes, such as treatment of asthma, coughs, sore throats, and toothache. Depending on its uses, there are several main characters important for product quality; pungency, bright attractive colors, highly concentrated extracts, and a small number of seeds are the main characters on which quality is based and priced. Herein, a general overview of biochemical composition, medical properties of these compounds, and characteristics of quality attributes of pepper fruits is presented.

  9. From the stretcher to the pharmacy's shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.

    PubMed

    Rates, Breno; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Nunes, Kênia Pedrosa; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2011-10-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents.

  10. The role of wood hardness in limiting nest site selection in avian cavity excavators.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Teresa J; Vierling, Kerri T; Johnson, Timothy R; Fischer, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    Woodpeckers and other primary cavity excavators (PCEs) are important worldwide for excavating cavities in trees, and a large number of studies have examined their nesting preferences. However, quantitative measures of wood hardness have been omitted from most studies, and ecologists have focused on the effects of external tree- and habitat-level features on nesting. Moreover, information is lacking on the role of wood hardness in limiting nesting opportunities for this important guild. Here, we used an information theoretic approach to examine the role of wood hardness in multi-scale nest site selection and in limiting nesting opportunities for six species of North American PCEs. We found that interior wood hardness at nests (n = 259) differed from that at random sites, and all six species of PCE had nests with significantly softer interior wood than random trees (F1,517 = 106.15, P < 0.0001). Accordingly, interior wood hardness was the most influential factor in our models of nest site selection at both spatial scales that we examined: in the selection of trees within territories and in the selection of nest locations on trees. Moreover, regardless of hypothesized excavation abilities, all the species in our study appeared constrained by interior wood hardness, and only 4-14% of random sites were actually suitable for nesting. Our findings suggest that past studies that did not measure wood hardness counted many sites as available to PCEs when they were actually unsuitable, potentially biasing results. Moreover, by not accounting for nest site limitations in PCEs, managers may overestimate the amount of suitable habitat. We therefore urge ecologists to incorporate quantitative measures of wood hardness into PCE nest site selection studies, and to consider the limitations faced by avian cavity excavators in forest management decisions.

  11. Transcriptome sequencing in an ecologically important tree species: assembly, annotation, and marker discovery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Massively parallel sequencing of cDNA is now an efficient route for generating enormous sequence collections that represent expressed genes. This approach provides a valuable starting point for characterizing functional genetic variation in non-model organisms, especially where whole genome sequencing efforts are currently cost and time prohibitive. The large and complex genomes of pines (Pinus spp.) have hindered the development of genomic resources, despite the ecological and economical importance of the group. While most genomic studies have focused on a single species (P. taeda), genomic level resources for other pines are insufficiently developed to facilitate ecological genomic research. Lodgepole pine (P. contorta) is an ecologically important foundation species of montane forest ecosystems and exhibits substantial adaptive variation across its range in western North America. Here we describe a sequencing study of expressed genes from P. contorta, including their assembly and annotation, and their potential for molecular marker development to support population and association genetic studies. Results We obtained 586,732 sequencing reads from a 454 GS XLR70 Titanium pyrosequencer (mean length: 306 base pairs). A combination of reference-based and de novo assemblies yielded 63,657 contigs, with 239,793 reads remaining as singletons. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, these sequences represent approximately 17,000 unique genes, many of which are well covered by contig sequences. This sequence collection also included a surprisingly large number of retrotransposon sequences, suggesting that they are highly transcriptionally active in the tissues we sampled. We located and characterized thousands of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms as potential molecular markers in our assembled and annotated sequences. High quality PCR primers were designed for a substantial number of the SSR loci, and a large number of these

  12. Relationships within balsaminoid Ericales: a wood anatomical approach.

    PubMed

    Lens, Frederic; Dressler, Stefan; Jansen, Steven; van Evelghem, Liesbeth; Smets, Erik

    2005-06-01

    Wood samples of 49 specimens representing 31 species and 11 genera of woody balsaminoids, i.e., Balsaminaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Pellicieraceae, and Tetrameristaceae, were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Marcgraviaceae, Pellicieraceae, and Tetrameristaceae is characterized by radial vessel multiples with simple perforation plates, alternate vessel pitting, apotracheal and paratracheal parenchyma, septate libriform fibers, and the presence of raphides in ray cells. Tetrameristaceae and Pellicieraceae are found to be closely related based on the occurrence of unilaterally compound vessel-ray pitting and multiseriate rays with long uniseriate ends. The narrow rays in Pelliciera are characteristic of this genus, but a broader concept of Tetrameristaceae including Pelliciera is favored. Within Marcgraviaceae, wide rays (more than five-seriate) are typical of the genus Marcgravia. Furthermore, there is evidence that the impact of altitude and habit plays an important role in the wood structure of this family. The wood structure of Balsaminaceae cannot be compared systematically with other balsaminoids because of their secondary woodiness. Balsaminaceae wood strongly differs due to the presence of exclusively upright ray cells in Impatiens niamniamensis, the absence of rays in Impatiens arguta, and the occurrence of several additional paedomorphic features in both species.

  13. The Importance of the Regional Species Pool, Ecological Species Traits and Local Habitat Conditions for the Colonization of Restored River Reaches by Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, Stefan; Kail, Jochem; Lorenz, Armin W.; Sundermann, Andrea; Haase, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish depends on the regional species pools; however, quantifications of the relationship between the composition of the regional species pool and restoration outcome are lacking. We analyzed data from 18 German river restoration projects and adjacent river reaches constituting the regional species pools of the restored reaches. We found that the ability of statistical models to describe the fish assemblages established in the restored reaches was greater when these models were based on ‘biotic’ variables relating to the regional species pool and the ecological traits of species rather than on ‘abiotic’ variables relating to the hydromorphological habitat structure of the restored habitats and descriptors of the restoration projects. For species presence in restored reaches, ‘biotic’ variables explained 34% of variability, with the occurrence rate of a species in the regional species pool being the most important variable, while ’abiotic’ variables explained only the negligible amount of 2% of variability. For fish density in restored reaches, about twice the amount of variability was explained by ‘biotic’ (38%) compared to ‘abiotic’ (21%) variables, with species density in the regional species pool being most important. These results indicate that the colonization of restored river reaches by fish is largely determined by the assemblages in the surrounding species pool. Knowledge of species presence and abundance in the regional species pool can be used to estimate the likelihood of fish species becoming established in restored reaches. PMID:24404187

  14. Dynamics of wood fall colonization in relation to sulfide concentration in a mangrove swamp.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Mélina C Z; Le Bris, Nadine; Gaill, Françoise; Gros, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Wood debris are an important component of mangrove marine environments. Current knowledge of the ecological role of wood falls is limited by the absence of information on metazoan colonization processes over time. The aim of this study was to provide insights to their temporal dynamics of wood eukaryotic colonization from a shallow water experiment in a mangrove swamp. Combined in situ chemical monitoring and biological surveys revealed that the succession of colonizers in the mangrove swamp relates with the rapid evolution of sulfide concentration on the wood surface. Sulfide-tolerant species are among the first colonizers and dominate over several weeks when the sulfide content is at its maximum, followed by less tolerant opportunistic species when sulfide decreases. This study supports the idea that woody debris can sustain chemosynthetic symbioses over short time-scale in tropical shallow waters.

  15. Photoinactivation of Eight Health-Relevant Bacterial Species: Determining the Importance of the Exogenous Indirect Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Maraccini, Peter A; Wenk, Jannis; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-05-17

    It is presently unknown to what extent the endogenous direct, endogenous indirect, and exogenous indirect mechanisms contribute to bacterial photoinactivation in natural surface waters. In this study, we investigated the importance of the exogenous indirect mechanism by conducting photoinactivation experiments with eight health-relevant bacterial species (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli K12, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus bovis). We used three synthetic photosensitizers (methylene blue, rose bengal, and nitrite) and two model natural photosensitizers (Suwannee River natural organic matter and dissolved organic matter isolated from a wastewater treatment wetland) that generated singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical. B. thetaiotaomicron had larger first order rate constants than all other organisms under all conditions tested. The presence of the synthetic photosensitizers generally enhanced photoinactivation of Gram-positive facultative anaerobes (Ent. faecalis, Staph. aureus, and Strep. bovis). Among Gram-negative bacteria, only methylene blue with E. coli K12 and rose bengal with C. jejuni showed an enhancing effect. The presence of model natural photosensitizers either reduced or did not affect photoinactivation rate constants. Our findings highlight the importance of the cellular membrane and photosensitizer properties in modulating the contribution of the exogenous indirect mechanism to the overall bacterial photoinactivation.

  16. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    DADAR, Maryam; ALBORZI, Alireza; PEYGHAN, Rahim; ADEL, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses. Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil), Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus), crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles) and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus) from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3) of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae). The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II. Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas. PMID:28096859

  17. Evaluating climate signal recorded in tree ring δ(13) C and δ(18) O values from bulk wood and α-cellulose for six species across four sites in the northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Jennings, Katie; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Ollinger, Scott

    2017-09-22

    We evaluated the applicability of tree ring δ(13) C and δ(18) O values in bulk wood - instead of the more time and lab-consuming α-cellulose δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, for assessing climate and physiological signals across multiple sites and for six tree species along a latitudinal gradient (35°97(') N to 45°20(') N) of the northeastern United States. Wood cores (n=4 per tree) were sampled from ten trees per species. Cores were cross-dated within and across trees at each site, and for the last 30 years. Seven years, including the driest on record, were selected for this study. The δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were measured on two of the ten trees from the bulk wood and the α-cellulose. The offsets between materials in δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were assessed. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the strength of the climate signal across sites. Finally the relationship between δ(13) C and δ(18) O values in bulk wood vs α-cellulose was analyzed to assess the consistency of the interpretation, in terms of CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, from both materials. We found an offset of 1.1‰ and 5.6‰ between bulk and α-cellulose for δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, respectively, consistent with offset values reported in the literature. Bulk wood showed similar or stronger correlations to climate parameters than α-cellulose for the investigated sites. In particular, temperature and vapour pressure deficit and SPEI were the most visible climate signals recorded in δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, respectively. For most of the species, there was no relationship between δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, regardless of the wood material considered. α-cellulose extraction was not necessary to detect climate signals in tree rings across the four investigated sites. Furthermore, the physiological information inferred from the dual isotope approach was similar for most of the species regardless of the material considered. This article

  18. The use and market for wood in the electrometallurgical industry

    Treesearch

    Jeffery L. Wartluft; Jeffery L. Wartluft

    1971-01-01

    Wood residues, particularly large chips, play an important role in the electric smelting of certain ferro-alloys. This is a report on the characteristics and growth potential of the market for wood in the electrometallurgicaI industry, including a brief account of how wood is used in electrometallurgical processes, a discussion of the preferred form of wood used, a...

  19. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  20. Relationship of wood surface energy to surface composition

    Treesearch

    Feipeng P. Liu; Timothy G. Rials; John Simonsen

    1998-01-01

    The wood cell wall is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and extractives. Thus, the surface energy of the wood material must be some combination of the surface energies of these components. The influence of extractives on wood surface chemistry can be important in diverse industrial applications, such as coating, pulping, and wood-based composites. In this...

  1. Mechanical Properties of 23 Species of Eastern Hardwoods.

    Treesearch

    B. A. Bendtsen; R. L. Ethington

    1975-01-01

    Important mechanical properties of clear, straight-grained wood of 23 species are tabulated, along with coefficients of variation. These property estimates can be used to match up species with kind of material needed for a specific job, or to search for substitutes for a presently used species. Some of the species appear, with allowable properties, in two published...

  2. Organ and Tissue-specific Sucrose Transporters. Important Hubs in Gene and Metabolite Networks Regulating Carbon Use in Wood-forming Tissues of Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2016-01-04

    The overall project objective was to probe the relationship between sucrose transporters and plant productivity in the biomass for biofuels woody perennial, Populus. At the time the proposal was written, sucrose transporters had already been investigated in many plant model systems, primarily with respect to the export of photosynthate sucrose from source leaves, and the uptake of sucrose in storage organs and seeds. Preliminary findings by the PI found that in Populus, sucrose transporter genes (SUTs) were well expressed in wood-forming tissues that comprise the feedstock for biofuels production. Because sucrose comprises by far the predominant form in which photosynthate is delivered from source organs to sink organs like roots and wood-forming tissues, SUTs control a gate that nominally at least could impact the allocation or partitioning of sucrose for potentially competing end uses like growth (stem biomass) and storage. In addition, water use might be conditioned by the way in which sucrose is distributed throughout the plant, and/or by the way in which sucrose is partitioned intracellularly. Several dozen transgenic lines were produced in year 1 of the project to perturb the expression ratio of multiple plasma membrane (PM) SUTs (intercellular trafficking), versus the single tonoplast membrane (TM) sucrose transporter that effectively regulates intracellular trafficking of sucrose. It was possible to obtain transgenic lines with dual SUT gene knockdown using the 35S promoter, but not the wood-specific TUA1 promoter. By the end of project year 2, a decision was made to work with the 35S plants while archiving the TUA1 plants. The PhD candidate charged with producing the transgenic lines abandoned the project during its second year, substantially contributing to the decision to operate with just the 35S lines. That student’s interests ranged more toward evolutionary topics, and a report on SUT gene evolution was published (Peng et al 2014).

  3. Nordic-Baltic Student Teachers' Identification of and Interest in Plant and Animal Species: The Importance of Species Identification and Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmberg, Irmeli; Berg, Ida; Jeronen, Eila; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Norrgård-Sillanpää, Pia; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of species, interest in nature, and nature experiences are the factors that best promote interest in and understanding of environmental issues, biodiversity and sustainable life. The aim of this study is to investigate how well student teachers identify common local species, their interest in and ideas about species identification, and their perceptions of the importance of species identification and biodiversity for sustainable development. Totally 456 student teachers for primary schools were tested using an identification test and a questionnaire consisting of fixed and open questions. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to get a more holistic view of students' level of knowledge and their preferred learning methods. The student teachers' ability to identify very common species was low, and only 3 % were able to identify most of the tested species. Experiential learning outdoors was suggested by the majority of students as the most efficie