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Sample records for imported bancroftian filariasis

  1. Imported bancroftian filariasis: diethylcarbamazine response and benzimidazole susceptibility of Wuchereria bancrofti in dynamic cross-border migrant population targeted by the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis in South Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bhumiratana, A; Pechgit, P; Koyadun, S; Siriaut, C; Yongyuth, P

    2010-02-01

    The implementation on the Thailand-Myanmar border of annual mass drug administration (MDA) of a single 6 mg/kg dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus 400mg albendazole, part of the National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF), has been challenging. In particular, chain migration of cross-border Myanmar workers at risk for nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti infection can lead to imported bancroftian filariasis (IBF) in Thailand. IBF is targeted for multiple-dose MDA with 300 mg DEC, in addition to what is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The dynamic Myanmar migrants in Phang-nga, southern Thailand were sampled to test whether the responsible W. bancrofti has a genetic predisposition of benzimidazole exposure, and IBF exhibits DEC susceptibility. The long-term migrants had more access to DEC. IBF in W. bancrofti antigenemic (microfilaremic vs. amicrofilaremic) short-term migrants exhibited susceptibility to a 300-mg single-dose DEC treatment. During the course of a 3-month follow-up, antigenemia was significantly reduced, but microfilaremia was fluctuated. Surprisingly, a newly recognized Mansonella infection co-existing among W. bancrofti-affected Myanmar migrants elicited microfilaremia clearance within a month after treatment. As a result of the presence of genetically stable W. bancrofti beta-tubulin (Wbtubb) gene responsible for benzimidazole susceptibility, IBF did not possess a genetic predisposition for benzimidazole exposure. Point mutations at positions Phe167Tyr and Phe200Tyr were not detected by Wbtubb locus-specific nested PCR and sequencing. This study has the potential to help guide not only the Thai/Myanmar PELF surveillance and monitoring of mass treatment impacts on W. bancrofti, but also the other endemic countries allied with the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). PMID:19835831

  2. Control of bancroftian filariasis in the Pacific*

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, John F.; Massal, Emile

    1962-01-01

    Although the etiological agent and the vector of filariasis were recognized early in the history of tropical medicine, control programmes were slow in developing, mainly because efficient filaricides were not known. Following the discovery of diethylcarbamazine, however, control projects were inaugurated in many parts of the world, including a number among island populations of the Pacific, in ideal conditions for observation and assessment. This paper reviews the answers to questionnaires sent to twelve areas in the Pacific where control projects have been undertaken. The most rapid and effective results appear to have been obtained in the Society Islands and Niue and Atiue, where mass treatment of the whole population with diethylcarbamazine was employed simultaneously with mosquito control. The authors conclude from the answers received that most control projects support the combined use of diethylcarbamazine and mosquito control, and that, where a control programme has brought the microfilaraemia rate down to 5% or less, the launching of an eradication programme should be considered. PMID:14032129

  3. Bancroftian filariasis in Egypt: visualization of adult worms and subclinical lymphatic pathology by scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Faris, R; Hussain, O; El Setouhy, M; Ramzy, R M; Weil, G J

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the value of scrotal ultrasound as a means of evaluating Bancroftian filariasis. Color Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed to look for subclinical hydroceles and motile adult filarial worms (dancing worms) in dilated lymphatics. Sixty-one male subjects from a filariasis-endemic area in Egypt were studied including 19 clinically normal microfilaria (MF) carriers (seven with dancing worms and eight with subclinical hydroceles), 13 MF-negative subjects with positive filarial antigen test results (three with dancing worms and seven with subclinical hydroceles), 22 exposed subjects with no MF and negative antigen test results (no dancing worms, four subclinical hydroceles), and seven subjects with clinical filariasis (no dancing worms, seven hydroceles). Thus, all men tested with clinical filariasis and most clinically normal subjects with either microfilaremia or filarial antigenemia had abnormal ultrasound examination results. Ultrasound findings often changed after therapy with diethylcarbamazine, with disappearance of dancing worms and development of new scrotal calcifications or hydroceles. This study confirms the value of scrotal ultrasound as a means of noninvasively visualizing adult filarial worms and assessing subclinical lymphatic damage in Bancroftian filariasis.

  4. Field evaluation of ELISA using Wuchereria bancrofti mf ES antigen for bancroftian filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Harinath, B. C.; Malhotra, Ashok; Ghirnikar, S. N.; Annadate, S. D.; Isaacs, V. P.; Bharti, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial excretory-secretory antigen was used in field studies to screen blood samples collected on filter-paper from persons residing in areas endemic for bancroftian filariasis. This assay system, when compared with examination of night wet blood smears for microfilariae, gave a relative sensitivity of 98% and a relative specificity of 86%. Daytime blood samples can also be used in this test, which can thus replace tedious examination of night blood samples in field surveys in endemic areas. PMID:6398132

  5. Bancroftian filariasis in Namrup tea estate, district Dibrugarh, Assam.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Mohapatra, P K; Das, H K; Sharma, R K; Mahanta, J

    1998-01-01

    Filariasis survey in a randomly selected tea estate of district Dibrugrah revealed 6.7% infection of Wuchereria bancrofti in labour population with microfilaria (mf) rate of 7.6% in males and 5.9% in females. The mf rate increased progressively with the age which however, dropped in 31-40 age group of males and in 41-50 age group of females. Chronic filariasis diseases rate was 2.7%. The involvement of genitals in manifesting chronic filariasis was significantly higher than of the lower extremities. Infection and infectivity rates in the vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus were 6.1% and 4.6% respectively with mean L3 load per infective mosquito of 8.5. Drains, land, peridomestic ditches were chief breeding habitats of Cules quinquefasciatus in the tea estate. PMID:10389521

  6. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B.; Bopda, Jean; Mbickmen-Tchana, Steve; Elong-Kana, Nathalie; Nnomzo’o, Etienne; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Njiokou, Flobert; Kamgno, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administration (MDA) was required. Methodology The endemicity status and distribution of LF was assessed in eight of the ten Regions of Cameroon by a rapid-format card test for detection of W. bancrofti antigen (immunochromatographic test, ICT). The baseline data required to monitor the effectiveness of MDA was collected by assessing microfilariaemia in nocturnal calibrated thick blood smears in sentinel sites selected in the health districts where ICT positivity rate was ≥ 1%. Principal findings Among the 120 health districts visited in the eight Regions during ICT survey, 106 (88.3%) were found to be endemic for LF (i.e. had ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%), with infection rate from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2–5.5) to 20.0% (95% CI: 10–30). The overall infection rate during the night blood survey was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.08–0.16) in 11 health districts out of the 106 surveyed; the arithmetic mean for microfilaria density was 1.19 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.13–2.26) for the total population examined. Conclusion/significance ICT card test results showed that LF was endemic in all the Regions and in about 90% of the health districts surveyed. All of these health districts qualified for MDA (i.e. ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%). Microfilariaemia data collected as part of this study provided the national program with baseline data (sentinel sites) necessary to measure the impact of MDA on the endemicity level and transmission of LF important for the 2020 deadline for global elimination. PMID:26353087

  7. [ Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis: toward its elimination from the Pacific?].

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Roux, J F

    2008-06-01

    The region of the Pacific is historically affected by lymphatic filariasis (LF). Following the World Health Assembly resolution in 1997, the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched. In the Pacific, the World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented from 1999, the Pacific Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PacELF) bringing together the 22 countries and territories, in a common effort to eliminate the disease. The strategy is based on Mass Drug Administration (MDA); in annual single dose during 5 years of a Diethycarbamazine/Albendazole association distributed to all the population at risk. Among the 22 countries and territories of the Pacific, 16 are endemic and 6 are non endemic. The classification is based according to the filarian antigen prevalence upper or lower than 1%. MDA are decided when the rate of the filarian antigen prevalence is > 1%. The objective of PacELF is to reduce this rate down to < 1%, threshold under which the transmission is supposed to be stopped. From 1999 to 2007, 14 of the 16 endemic countries organized MDA. Eleven of them completed the cycle of 5 treatments and even beyond. But, these MDA reached only 19% of the at risk population, because of logistic difficulties in Papua New Guinea, the most populated country in the Pacific. The investigations carried out in sentinel sites showed a public health impact, by the fall of the number of microfilaria carriers, often down to a rate < 1%. However the rate of circulating antigen prevalence remains often above the required threshold of 1%. Prevalence surveys carried out in 2007, in different endemic countries, revealed the necessity to intensify efforts and to refine strategy for elimination of FL from the Pacific. A lot of progress were obtained, but few problems were identified. Reflexions are imperative and in progress about: the MDA coverage rates while at the same time a certain lassitude appears in the populations and among health staff, the methods

  8. Cytological diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis presented as a subcutaneous swelling in the cubital fossa: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Tanwar, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Filariasis is a disabling parasitic disease and the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is quite high in India. However, W. bancrofti presenting as a subcutaneous swelling and a demonstration of microfilariae in cytological smears from upper extremity lesions is extremely rare. We report a case of 20-year-old male who presented with a small subcutaneous swelling near medial aspect of the left cubital fossa. The wet mount preparation showed many motile microfilariae. Cytology smears revealed a large number of sheathed microfilariae with the tail tip free of nucleus, identified as W. bancrofti without significant inflammatory cell infiltrate. Indirect ELISA was highly positive for specific recombinant W. bancrofti filarial antigen (WL-L2). The role of cytology cannot be underestimated in clinically unanticipated cases of bancroftian filariasis, especially with the amicrofilaremic state. Filariasis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis during cytological evaluation of any swelling, especially in endemic areas. PMID:26634138

  9. Cytological diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis presented as a subcutaneous swelling in the cubital fossa: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Tanwar, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a disabling parasitic disease and the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is quite high in India. However, W. bancrofti presenting as a subcutaneous swelling and a demonstration of microfilariae in cytological smears from upper extremity lesions is extremely rare. We report a case of 20-year-old male who presented with a small subcutaneous swelling near medial aspect of the left cubital fossa. The wet mount preparation showed many motile microfilariae. Cytology smears revealed a large number of sheathed microfilariae with the tail tip free of nucleus, identified as W. bancrofti without significant inflammatory cell infiltrate. Indirect ELISA was highly positive for specific recombinant W. bancrofti filarial antigen (WL-L2). The role of cytology cannot be underestimated in clinically unanticipated cases of bancroftian filariasis, especially with the amicrofilaremic state. Filariasis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis during cytological evaluation of any swelling, especially in endemic areas. PMID:26634138

  10. Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis?

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, C. A.; Mohammed, K.; Kisumku, U.; Curtis, C. F.

    1999-01-01

    A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme. PMID:10083712

  11. High prevalence of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar-migrant workers: a study in Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Triteeraprapab, S; Songtrus, J

    1999-07-01

    Although the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in the Thai population is low, migration of Myanmar labor into Thailand may increase the incidence of bancroftian filariasis. Epidemiology of filariasis in Myanmars has not been precisely determined. By using microscopic examination, we found that the microfilarial rate in 654 Myanmar migrants working in Mae Sot, Tak province, was 4.4 per cent. The highest microfilarial rate was found in males aged 21-30 years (6.8%). History of mosquito bites was significantly correlated with microfilaremia. The majority of Myanmar migrants (55.5%) have been staying in Thailand 1-6 years; most (82.0%) have never been back to Myanmar. Seventy-nine per cent of infected Myanmars were from Moulmein (Maulamyine) city. Since these migrants carry the parasite with high infected rate and the mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus is also prevalent in Thailand, Thai people are at high risk of acquiring this disease if good control and prevention strategies are not implemented.

  12. Bancroftian filariasis: circulating B-1 cells decreased in microfilaria carriers and correlate with immunoglobulin M levels.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R; Sahoo, P K; Mishra, S; Achary, K G; Dwibedi, B; Kar, S K; Satapathy, A K

    2014-05-01

    B-1 cells play an important role in the outcome of infection in schistosomiasis, pneumonia and experimental filariasis. However, no information exists regarding status of B-1 cells in clinical manifestations of human filariasis. We investigated the levels of B-1 cells from the total B cells by flow cytometry. Significantly low levels of B-1 cells and IgM antibodies were detected against a wide variety of autoantigens in microfilariae carriers as compared to endemic controls and patients with chronic pathology. A positive correlation was found between IgM antibodies to actin and ss-DNA. Absorption of plasma with soluble actin, myosin and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) resulted in significant removal of antifilarial antibodies. Affinity-purified anti-ss-DNA antibodies were found to be reactive to filarial antigens and various autoantigens. Further, a positive correlation was found between polyreactive antibodies and B-1 cells in filarial-infected human subjects. After antifilarial treatment, levels of IgM antibodies to ss-DNA, actin, LPS and filarial antigen increased significantly indicating a role of polyreactive naturally occurring antibodies in filarial infection. Our findings add to the existing evidence that the B-cell defect in BALB.Xid mice account for susceptibility to murine filarial infection and indicate an important role for these antibodies in providing host protection against filarial infection.

  13. The Impact of Repeated Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Diethylcarbamazine Plus Albendazole on Bancroftian Filariasis in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Gary J.; Kastens, Will; Susapu, Melinda; Laney, Sandra J.; Williams, Steven A.; King, Christopher L.; Kazura, James W.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2008-01-01

    Background This study employed various monitoring methods to assess the impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea, which has the largest filariasis problem in the Pacific region. Methodology/Principal Findings Residents of rural villages near Madang were studied prior to and one year after each of three rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole administered per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The mean MDA compliance rate was 72.9%. Three rounds of MDA decreased microfilaremia rates (Mf, 1 ml night blood by filter) from 18.6% pre-MDA to 1.3% after the third MDA (a 94% decrease). Mf clearance rates in infected persons were 71%, 90.7%, and 98.1% after 1, 2, and 3 rounds of MDA. Rates of filarial antigenemia assessed by card test (a marker for adult worm infection) decreased from 47.5% to 17.1% (a 64% decrease) after 3 rounds of MDA. The filarial antibody rate (IgG4 antibodies to Bm14, an indicator of filarial infection status and/or exposure to mosquito-borne infective larvae) decreased from 59.3% to 25.1% (a 54.6% decrease). Mf, antigen, and antibody rates decreased more rapidly in children <11 years of age (by 100%, 84.2%, and 76.8%, respectively) relative to older individuals, perhaps reflecting their lighter infections and shorter durations of exposure/infection prior to MDA. Incidence rates for microfilaremia, filarial antigenemia, and antifilarial antibodies also decreased significantly after MDA. Filarial DNA rates in Anopheles punctulatus mosquitoes that had recently taken a blood meal decreased from 15.1% to 1.0% (a 92.3% decrease). Conclusions/Significance MDA had dramatic effects on all filariasis parameters in the study area and also reduced incidence rates. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine whether residual infection rates in residents of these villages are sufficient to support sustained transmission by the An. punctulatus vector. Lymphatic filariasis

  14. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  15. A Multicenter Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools to Define Endpoints for Programs to Eliminate Bancroftian Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Katherine; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V. E.; Boakye, Daniel; Bradley, Mark; Fischer, Peter U.; Gyapong, John; Itoh, Makoto; Ituaso-Conway, Nese; Joseph, Hayley; Kyelem, Dominique; Laney, Sandra J.; Legrand, Anne-Marie; Liyanage, Tilaka S.; Melrose, Wayne; Mohammed, Khalfan; Pilotte, Nils; Ottesen, Eric A.; Plichart, Catherine; Ramaiah, Kapa; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Talbot, Jeffrey; Weil, Gary J.; Williams, Steven A.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Lammie, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Successful mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns have brought several countries near the point of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. A diagnostic tool is needed to determine when the prevalence levels have decreased to a point that MDA campaigns can be discontinued without the threat of recrudescence. A six-country study was conducted assessing the performance of seven diagnostic tests, including tests for microfilariae (blood smear, PCR), parasite antigen (ICT, Og4C3) and antifilarial antibody (Bm14, PanLF, Urine SXP). One community survey and one school survey were performed in each country. A total of 8,513 people from the six countries participated in the study, 6,443 through community surveys and 2,070 through school surveys. Specimens from these participants were used to conduct 49,585 diagnostic tests. Each test was seen to have both positive and negative attributes, but overall, the ICT test was found to be 76% sensitive at detecting microfilaremia and 93% specific at identifying individuals negative for both microfilariae and antifilarial antibody; the Og4C3 test was 87% sensitive and 95% specific. We conclude, however, that the ICT should be the primary tool recommended for decision-making about stopping MDAs. As a point-of-care diagnostic, the ICT is relatively inexpensive, requires no laboratory equipment, has satisfactory sensitivity and specificity and can be processed in 10 minutes—qualities consistent with programmatic use. Og4C3 provides a satisfactory laboratory-based diagnostic alternative. PMID:22272369

  16. Transmission of bancroftian filariasis in tea agro-ecosystem of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, B; Handique, R; Narain, K; Dutta, P; Mahanta, J

    2001-09-01

    Tea industry is a labor intensive agro-industry and filariasis is mostly localized among the tea garden workers in Assam. The workers live inside the gardens in colonies. Studies conducted in two cosecutive years revealed that among the host seeking Culex quinquefasciatus average infection rate was 4.6% and with 2.1 larvae per mosquito. The overall prevalence of infective mosquitos was 0.8% with average L3 load of 2.0 per mosquito. The probability of infected mosquitos surviving to have complete development of filarial larvae (13 days) was 0.17. The expectation of infective life was 1.416 days for man biting Cx. quinquefasciatus and the estimated adult survival rate of was 87.6%. It has been estimated that a total of 22,569 mosquito bites were received/man/year in tea garden environment out of which 182 bites/man/year were infective (0.806%). The monthly biting rate varied from 310-4,758.5 bites per man (mean 1,846 +/- 1,389.7 SD). Monthly transmission index of W. bancrofti filaria showed two periods of transmission. In both the year no infection was detected during February and March and infection rate remained low up to May (average infection in April 0.72% and in May 0.48%). PMID:11944721

  17. [Role of Culex quinquefasciatus in the transmission of bancroftian filariasis in the Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros (Indian Ocean)].

    PubMed

    Sabatinelli, G; Ranieri, E; Gianzi, F P; Papakay, M; Cancrini, G

    1994-03-01

    In October 1988-January 1989, as a part of a malaria and filariasis control programme in Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros an entomological survey was carried out in 19 rural and urban localities of Grande Comore. Anjouan and Moheli Islands. The potential breeding places were examined and pyrethrum spray catches were made to evaluate the indoor resting densities of mosquitos. A total of 14.578 adult mosquitos potential vectors of filariasis was collected: 94.5% Culex quinquefasciatus, 3.5% Anopheles gambiae s. str. 1.9% A. funestus and 0.1% other anopheline species. A. funestus, uniformly spread in Moheli, was present only in the south-west coast of Anjouan and absent in Grande Comore. A. gambiae and Cx quinquefasciatus were present in Grande Comore. A. gambiae and Cx quinquefasciatus were present in the three islands with different densities in the villages. Only Cx quinquefasciatus specimens la maximum of 150 for each locality) were dissected to search filaria larvae being the Anopheles specimens used to evaluate the malaria transmission. The global infection rate (9.4%) and the infectivity rate (0.9%) observed in Cx quinquefasciatus are higher than indices reported in previous surveys. All the larvae in the third development instar (L3) were identified as Wuchereria bancrofti. The results suggest that in FIR of Comoros W. bancrofti is well adopted to local Cx quinquefasciatus population. Because of the presence of high mosquito density this species plays a prominent role in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in that area. The high transmission levels calls for the implementation of a specific control program.

  18. Filarial Antigenemia and Loa loa Night Blood Microfilaremia in an Area Without Bancroftian Filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Bakajika, Didier K.; Nigo, Maurice M.; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A.; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M.; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0–14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. PMID:25223938

  19. Filarial antigenemia and Loa loa night blood microfilaremia in an area without bancroftian filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bakajika, Didier K; Nigo, Maurice M; Lotsima, Jean Pierre; Masikini, Germain A; Fischer, Kerstin; Lloyd, Melanie M; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of incomplete mapping and coendemic loiasis. We mapped two regions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were suspected to have LF. Night blood samples were collected from 2,724 subjects in 30 villages. Filarial antigenemia rates by card test exceeded 1% in 28 villages (range = 0-14%). Prevalence rates for large sheathed microfilariae (Mf) ranged from 4% to 40%; Mansonella perstans rates ranged from 22% to 98%. Large Mf were exclusively Loa loa by microscopy, and only 1 of 337 samples tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was positive for Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Filarial antigen positivity was strongly associated with high L. loa Mf counts. Periodicity studies revealed atypical patterns, with no significant diurnal periodicity in some individuals. Thus, methods routinely used for LF mapping may not be reliable in areas in central Africa that are highly endemic for loiasis. PMID:25223938

  20. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  1. Imported lymphatic filariasis in an Indian immigrant to iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Sharifdini, Meysam; Hajjaran, Homa; Shahbazi, Ali Ehsan; Sayyad Talaie, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a nematode disease transmitted by arthropod vectors, is repeatedly reported in immigrant population. This disease is not endemic in Iran; however, different species of mosquitoes, capable of transmission of parasite microfilaria, are distributed in the country. Hereby, incidental detection of an imported case of LF due to Wuchereria bancrofti in an Indian worker in Iran is reported. Identification of the case was performed based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics of microfilaria and PCR sequencing. PMID:25642273

  2. Blood groups and filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, H; Santhanam, S

    1989-01-01

    Only a little is known about the studies done with filariasis in relation to blood groups. The present communication reports the results of a preliminary study carried out to investigate any relationship of ABO and Rho(D) blood groups in persons with circulating microfilariae (mf) in blood and with disease manifestations compared with healthy normal controls within a population in similar epidemiological and ecological conditions. Blood groups ABO and Rho(D) were investigated among 271 persons with filarial disease and 172 normal subjects from an endemic area of bancroftian filariasis. No relationship was observed between infection and blood groups. It appeared that blood groups and filarial infection were independent of each other. Also the sex of the individual and stage of the infection, i.e. persons with circulating mf only without manifestations and persons with established manifestation without mf, has no bearing on blood group inheritance. There were 95.05% of Rh-positive and 4.95% of Rh-negative persons in the whole studied population. The observations are similar to other studies.

  3. The importance of communication with the foci of infection in the transmission of filariasis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Oemijati, S; Djakaria, S; Ramschie, D; Sugiarto, E; Yasin, M; Zulhasril

    1986-09-01

    Studies on the occurrence of early symptoms of filariasis have been conducted in two transmigration Units in the valley of the Wae Apu river, Buru island, Maluku Province, Indonesia. In both Units, higher disease rates were found in areas, where there was a closer contact with positive natives, higher density of the vector mosquito, and higher infective rates in the mosquitoes.

  4. Unusual presentation of filariasis as an abscess: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Mukta; Pruthi, Sonam Kumar; Gupta, Renu; Khare, Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Bancroftian filariasis, a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, is transmitted by the culex mosquito. The disease is conventionally diagnosed by the demonstration of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear. Microfilaria and adult filarial worms have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in various locations. The disease may be missed if one is not aware of the possibility, particularly in cases where eosinophilia is absent. Therefore, clinicians and pathologists need to be more vigilant in the endemic zones for early diagnosis and the treatment of filariasis. We report here an unusual case of filariasis in a 17-year-old female with a swelling in the lower part of the left arm on the flexor surface. This highlights the chances of finding microfilaria in cytology of an unsuspected case at an unusual site. This case, in addition, stresses the fact that microfilaria may be associated with an abscess even in the absence of eosinophilia. PMID:27011444

  5. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the World Health Assembly’s (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997) call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region) and Recife (Northeastern region) were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast). Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country. PMID:23181663

  6. Lymphatic Filariasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Lymphatic Filariasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... this? Submit Button Information For: Travelers Related Links Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Neglected Tropical Diseases ...

  7. Filariasis and erisipela in Santo Domingo.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A L; Ureña Rojas, C A; Ayoub, E M; Ottesen, E A; Harden, E G

    1998-06-01

    This study examined acute-convalescent changes in diagnostic anti-streptococcal antibodies by the anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNAase B (ADAB) tests among patients (n 28) with lymphedema and recurrent erisipela of the lower limb, comparing them with endemic normal control residents (n=25). The study was based in Villa Francisca, an urban focus of Bancroftian filariasis in eastern Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic. The acute signs and symptoms of erisipela were consistent with a diagnosis of bacterial cellulitis. The ASO test was especially successful at demonstrating a rise in mean titer during convalescence, whereas the ADAB produced about the same frequency of significant increases (0.2 log titer) as did the ASO. When subjects were scored as responders if mounting a minimal titer increase by either test, patients were found more frequently positive than were controls (chi2=5.3, P=0.02). About half (54%) of all patients mounted at least a minimal antibody increase. Filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies were absent from all sera of 20 residents of a nonendemic Dominican mountain town but appeared in about two-thirds of the sampled residents of the endemic barrio. Notably however, levels did not change between the acute phase and convalescence. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that recurrent streptococcal invasion of the lymphatics may be a significant factor triggering or amplifying lymphedema and elephantiasis in patients with chronic filariasis.

  8. [Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and urbanization. Examples of urban vectors of dengue and filariasis].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    1983-01-01

    Once located in time and place the beginning of urbanization process, the mechanisms of adaptation to urban ecosystem and of dissemination by human conveyances are studied for two domestic mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens fatigans (= quinque-fasciatus). Then epidemiological consequences are discussed. Ae. aegypti pullulation constitutes a potential risk of urban yellow fever outbreak and the main factor of dengue haemorrhagic fever appearance; the increase of C. p. fatigans populations involves a slow rise of bancroftian filariasis. Future prospects for these diseases are discussed with regards to data concerning recent evolution of their own epidemiological features.

  9. The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control

  10. Lymphatic filariasis in two distinct communities of upper Assam.

    PubMed

    Khan, A M; Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Mohapatra, P K; Baruah, N K; Sharma, C K; Mahanta, A J

    1999-06-01

    Current status of bancroftian filariasis among two distinct communities of Upper Assam was evaluated. High prevalence (10.3% mf rate) in tea workers descendents of tribals migrated from endemic states such as Orissa, Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and southern states of India, were recorded. Among non tea workers (indigenous population) significantly low mf rate was found in spite of the fact that both the communities are living in close vicinity and in similar ecological and mosquitogenic conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus was incriminated as vector in the areas of both the communities. A group of recent migrants of Bihar and Bengal living in the locality of non tea worker population were also found microfilaraemic. Significantly lower infection rate in non tea worker population appears to be associated with host susceptibility to the infection. Familial clustering in microfilaraemic subjects noticed in tea workers group also suggests involvement of racial susceptibility to infection. PMID:10810596

  11. Immunology of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Babu, S; Nutman, T B

    2014-08-01

    The immune responses to filarial parasites encompass a complex network of innate and adaptive cells whose interaction with the parasite underlies a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The predominant immunological feature of lymphatic filariasis is an antigen-specific Th2 response and an expansion of IL-10 producing CD4(+) T cells that is accompanied by a muted Th1 response. This antigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness appears to be crucial for the maintenance of the sustained, long-standing infection often with high parasite densities. While the correlates of protective immunity to lymphatic filariasis are still incompletely understood, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models to study susceptibility, it is clear that T cells and to a certain extent B cells are required for protective immunity. Host immune responses, especially CD4(+) T-cell responses clearly play a role in mediating pathological manifestations of LF, including lymphedema, hydrocele and elephantiasis. The main underlying defect in the development of clinical pathology appears to be a failure to induce T-cell hyporesponsiveness in the face of antigenic stimulation. Finally, another intriguing feature of filarial infections is their propensity to induce bystander effects on a variety of immune responses, including responses to vaccinations, allergens and to other infectious agents. The complexity of the immune response to filarial infection therefore provides an important gateway to understanding the regulation of immune responses to chronic infections, in general.

  12. Immunology of lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Subash; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    The immune responses to filarial parasites encompass a complex network of innate and adaptive cells whose interaction with the parasite underlies a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The predominant immunological feature of lymphatic filariasis is an antigen - specific Th2 response and an expansion of IL-10 producing CD4+ T cells that is accompanied by a muted Th1 response. This antigen specific T cell hypo-responsiveness appears to be crucial for the maintenance of the sustained, long-standing infection often with high parasite densities. While the correlates of protective immunity to lymphatic filariasis are still incompletely understood, primarily due to the lack of suitable animal models to study susceptibility, it is clear that T cells and to a certain extent B cells are required for protective immunity. Host immune responses, especially CD4+ T cell responses clearly play a role in mediating pathological manifestations of LF, including lymphedema, hydrocele and elephantiasis. The main underlying defect in the development of clinical pathology appears to be a failure to induce T cell hypo-responsiveness in the face of antigenic stimulation. Finally, another intriguing feature of filarial infections is their propensity to induce bystander effects on a variety of immune responses, including responses to vaccinations, allergens and to other infectious agents. The complexity of the immune response to filarial infection therefore provides an important gateway to understanding the regulation of immune responses to chronic infections, in general. PMID:24134686

  13. Immuno-epidemiology of bancroftian filariasis: a 14-year follow-up study in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, N N; Achary, K G; Kar, S K; Bal, M S

    2014-05-01

    Forty asymptomatic, circulating filarial antigen negative (CFA(-ve)) and ten asymptomatic, circulating filarial antigen positive (CFA(+ve)) individuals were followed up longitudinally over a period of 14 years at intervals of 7 years in order to investigate the immunological, parasitological and clinical changes that took place in an endemic area due to natural process. The clinical status, microfilaremia, circulating filarial antigenemia and immunological responses to filarial antigens (DSSd1 and Sd30) prepared from cattle filarial parasite Setaria digitata, were examined. The observations showed that 19 individuals had developed either antigenemia or filarial symptoms (acute filarial lymphangitis/hydrocele) from CFA(-ve) group. Three individuals had cleared antigenemia and one had developed microfilaremia from CFA(+ve) group after 7 years. Increased IgG and IgM and low IgG2 and IgG4 level responses along with high lymphocyte production were observed in CFA-negative individuals. This was in contrast to observations made in CFA(+ve) subjects. The results of the present study indicated that the changes taking place in the immunological, clinical and CFA status of individuals residing in filaria endemic regions developed different clinical manifestation with course of time.

  14. [Medical treatment of lymphatic filariasis].

    PubMed

    Hovette, P; Laroche, R; Verrot, D; Molinier, S; Touze, J E

    1991-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis remains in 1991 a major health problem. Ivermectine revolutionizes their treatment and, by suppressing microfilaremia, provides a new method of helping to control the vector-borne transmission of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:2072855

  15. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Gary J.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D.; Brattig., Norbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded serum or plasma samples that included 55 samples from people with microfilaremic Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia infections and 26 control samples. Qualitative results were identical in all four test sites. In addition, each laboratory tested samples from their own serum banks. The test detected antibodies in 32 of 36 samples (91%) from people with Brugian filariasis and in 96 of 98 samples (98%) from people with Bancroftian filariasis. Specificity testing showed that many serum or plasma samples from patients with other filarial infections such as onchocerciasis had positive antibody tests. Specificity was otherwise excellent, although 3 of 30 samples from patients with ascariasis and 4 of 51 with strongyloidiasis had positive antibody tests; it is likely that some or all of these people had previously lived in filariasis-endemic areas. Antibody test results obtained with eluates from blood dried on filter paper were similar to those obtained with plasma tested at the same dilution. This test may be helpful for diagnosing LF in patients with clinical signs of filariasis. It may also be a useful tool for use in LF endemic countries to monitor the progress of filariasis elimination programs and for post-MDA surveillance. PMID:20430004

  16. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14.

    PubMed

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C; Fischer, Peter U; Won, Kimberly Y; Lammie, Patrick J; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded serum or plasma samples that included 55 samples from people with microfilaremic Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia infections and 26 control samples. Qualitative results were identical in all four test sites. In addition, each laboratory tested samples from their own serum banks. The test detected antibodies in 32 of 36 samples (91%) from people with Brugian filariasis and in 96 of 98 samples (98%) from people with Bancroftian filariasis. Specificity testing showed that many serum or plasma samples from patients with other filarial infections such as onchocerciasis had positive antibody tests. Specificity was otherwise excellent, although 3 of 30 samples from patients with ascariasis and 4 of 51 with strongyloidiasis had positive antibody tests; it is likely that some or all of these people had previously lived in filariasis-endemic areas. Antibody test results obtained with eluates from blood dried on filter paper were similar to those obtained with plasma tested at the same dilution. This test may be helpful for diagnosing LF in patients with clinical signs of filariasis. It may also be a useful tool for use in LF endemic countries to monitor the progress of filariasis elimination programs and for post-MDA surveillance.

  17. The impact of a national program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in selected Myanmar immigrant communities in Bangkok and Ranong Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Satimai, Wichai; Jiraamonnimit, C; Thammapalo, S; Choochote, W; Luenee, P; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

    2011-09-01

    Some immigrants from Myanmar to Thailand have brought Wuchereria bancrofti infections with them, causing a community health problem for Thai citizens. The seroprevalence of bancroftian filariasis was detected in 438 and 512 Myanmar immigrants residing in Bangkok and Ranong Provinces, respectively, along with 81 Thai citizens living in Bangkok. The immunochromatograpy card test was positive in 5 Myanmar immigrants living in Bangkok and 1 living in Ranong for a prevalence of 0.63%. Antifilarial IgG4 antibodies were found in 21 Myanmar immigrants living in Bangkok and 14 living in Ranong for a prevalence of 3.68%. None of the samples from Thai citizens were positive with either test. These prevalence rates are lower than those observed between 2001 and 2005. The Thai mass drug administration program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis among Myanmar immigrants appears to be a successful public health strategy.

  18. [Mansonella perstans filariasis].

    PubMed

    Bregani, E R; Tantardini, F; Rovellini, A

    2007-06-01

    Mansonella perstans filariasis is widely present in Africa and equatorial America and its pathogenicity has been recently reconsidered. Although M. perstans infection has been considered a minor filariasis, remaining asymptomatic in most of infected subjects, more recent studies have shown that M. perstans is capable of inducing a variety of clinical features, including angioedemas, swellings like the "Calabar swellings" of loiasis, pruritus, fever, headache, pain in bursae and/or joint synovia, or in serous cavities. It is likely that some of the pathological changes observed are induced by the immune response to the infection. Eosinophilia is present in many cases of infection. Moreover M. perstans filariasis is difficult to be treated. Effective treatment is lacking and there is no consensus on optimal therapeutic approach. The most commonly used drug is diethylcarbamazine (DEC) that is however often ineffective. Although other drugs have been tried (e.g. praziquantel, ivermectin), none has proven to be reliably and rapidly effective. Mebendazole seemed more active than DEC in eliminating the infection, with a comparable rate of overall responses. Thiabendazole evidenced a small, but significant activity against the infection. Combination treatments (DEC plus mebendazole) resulted in a significantly higher activity compared with the single drugs. PMID:18416002

  19. Filariasis in Thailand*

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, M. O. T.

    1953-01-01

    Endemic filariasis in Thailand is restricted to the flat, low-lying, rural areas in the eastern coastal belt of peninsular Thailand. A large number of villages was surveyed, and 4,112 persons were examined, of whom 863 were found to be positive for microfilariae in the peripheral blood and 215 to have filarial disease. The chief manifestation was elephantiasis of the leg, which was sometimes associated with elephantiasis of the arm. The causative organism of endemic filariasis in Thailand is Wuchereria malayi. Nine species of mosquito (four of Mansonia and five of Anopheles) are vectors of W. malayi infection in Thailand. They are found naturally infected with the larval stages of W. malayi, the infection rates in the different vector species ranging between 3% and 17%. These mosquitos occur in large numbers and breed in the extensive marshes in the vicinity of the villages. The author discusses the feasibility of different measures for the control of filariasis. Under the conditions prevailing in the endemic areas of Thailand, the author considers that halting transmission by spraying dwellings with residual insecticides would be feasible as well as economical. This method was tried experimentally in a restricted area, and it was found that spraying all dwellings in a village with DDT, in a dosage of 170 mg per square foot (approximately 1.8 g per m2), effectively controlled the transmission of filarial infection and considerably lowered the incidence of vector mosquitos. PMID:13141129

  20. Insights into host-finding by Culex mosquitoes: New tools for surveillance?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens and parasites causing diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and bancroftian filariasis. Surveillance of these species is based on traps using conventional mosquito attractan...

  1. In utero sensitization modulates IgG isotype, IFN-γ and IL-10 responses of neonates in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Achary, K G; Mandal, N N; Mishra, S; Mishra, R; Sarangi, S S; Satapathy, A K; Kar, S K; Bal, M S

    2014-10-01

    In utero exposure has been considered as a risk factor for filarial infection. To evaluate the influence of maternal infection on filarial-specific IgG subclass response in neonates and their correlation with plasma levels IL-10 and interferon-γ, 145 pairs of mothers and their respective cord bloods were examined. Transplacental transfer of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was observed in 34·8% cord bloods from CFA positive mothers. Filarial-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 responses of cord bloods were found to be positively correlated with CFA of mothers. In contrast, IgG3 responses negatively correlated with CFA of mothers. The % of similarity of recognition pattern in the cord blood with maternal blood was high for IgG3 response than IgG4 in all three groups. An increased levels of IL-10 and decreased levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were observed in cord blood of infected mothers. Interferon gamma was positively correlated with IgG3 and negatively correlated with IgG4 level. On the other hand, IL-10 was positively correlated with IgG4 and CFA, indicating that cytokines may play a role in modulating the immune responses in cord bloods of sensitized foetus. The findings of the study reveal that in utero tolerance or sensitization may influence the filarial-specific immunity to infection in neonates.

  2. An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

    1999-12-01

    This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

  3. The argument for integrating vector control with multiple drug administration campaigns to ensure elimination of lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Burkot, TR; Durrheim, DN; Melrose, WD; Speare, R; Ichimori, K

    2006-01-01

    Background There is a danger that mass drug administration campaigns may fail to maintain adequate treatment coverage to achieve lymphatic filariasis elimination. Hence, additional measures to suppress transmission might be needed to ensure the success of the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. Discussion Vector control successfully eliminated lymphatic filariasis when implemented alone or with mass drug administration. Challenges to lymphatic filariasis elimination include uncertainty of the exact level and duration of microfilarial suppression required for elimination, the mobility of infected individuals, consistent non-participation of some infected individuals with mass drug administration, the possible development of anti-filarial drug resistance and treatment strategies in areas co-endemic with loasis. Integration of vector control with mass drug administration can address some of these challenges. The potential benefits of vector control would include: (1) the ability to suppress filariasis transmission without the need to identify all individual 'foci of infection'; (2) minimizing the risk of reestablishment of transmission from imported microfilaria positive individuals; and (3) decreasing the risk of dengue or malaria transmission where, respectively, Aedes or Anopheles are lymphatic filariasis vectors. Summary With adequate sustained treatment coverage, mass drug administration should meet the criteria for elimination of lymphatic filariasis. However, it may be difficult to sustain sufficiently high mass drug administration coverage to achieve lymphatic filariasis elimination in some areas, particularly, where Aedes species are the vectors. Since vector control was effective in controlling and even eliminating lymphatic filariasis transmission, integration of vector control with mass drug administration will ensure the sustainability of transmission suppression and thereby better ensure the success of national filariasis

  4. Multivalent Vaccine for Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Samykutty, Abhilash; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic infection that cause severe economic burden in several parts of the world. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent this infection in human. Multidrug therapy is effective, however, requires annual treatment and there is significant concern of drug resistance. In this manuscript we describe development of a multivalent DNA based vaccine comprising BmALT-2 and BmHSP antigens of lymphatic filariasis. Challenge experiments using third stage infective larvae of Brugia malayi in a mouse model suggested that nearly 90% protection can be achieved using the multivalent formulation in a DNA prime protein boost approach. The vaccination regimen induced significant IgG antibody responses and ELISPOT analysis for secreted cytokines from the spleen cells of vaccinated animals showed that these cells produce significant amount of IL-4. Results from this study thus show that a multivalent vaccine formulation of BmALT-2 and BmHSP is an excellent vaccine for lymphatic filariasis and significant protection can be achieved against a challenge infection with B. malayi in a mouse model. PMID:21709765

  5. Multivalent Vaccine for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Samykutty, Abhilash; Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2010-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic infection that cause severe economic burden in several parts of the world. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent this infection in human. Multidrug therapy is effective, however, requires annual treatment and there is significant concern of drug resistance. In this manuscript we describe development of a multivalent DNA based vaccine comprising BmALT-2 and BmHSP antigens of lymphatic filariasis. Challenge experiments using third stage infective larvae of Brugia malayi in a mouse model suggested that nearly 90% protection can be achieved using the multivalent formulation in a DNA prime protein boost approach. The vaccination regimen induced significant IgG antibody responses and ELISPOT analysis for secreted cytokines from the spleen cells of vaccinated animals showed that these cells produce significant amount of IL-4. Results from this study thus show that a multivalent vaccine formulation of BmALT-2 and BmHSP is an excellent vaccine for lymphatic filariasis and significant protection can be achieved against a challenge infection with B. malayi in a mouse model.

  6. FOXC2 and FLT4 Gene Variants in Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Sheik, Yasmeen; Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Mohhammed, Basheeruddin; Nallari, Pratibha

    2015-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is the leading cause of secondary lymphedema wherein lymph transport is impaired due to lymphatic damage. FLT4 signaling and transcription factors such as FOXC2 play an important role in this type of lymphangiogenesis process induced by filarial parasites. The present study aims to assess the association of FLT4 and FOXC2 genes in lymphatic development/remodeling in lymphatic filariasis. A total of 118 lymphatic filariasis patients and 100 non-endemic and 50 endemic healthy subjects were enrolled for the present study. Allele-specific PCR and PCR-RFLP were adopted for the genotyping, and screening of FLT4 and FOXC2 genes was carried out by PCR-SSCP, followed by in-silico and statistical analysis. A novel variation (G357A SNP) was identified on FOXC2 gene screening that may have an effect on codon usage frequency during translational process. In FLT4, A3123G mutation was found in 3.39% of the case subjects but the functional role of this mutation, along with subject's clinical presentations and patient's age, emphasize its pathogenic role in lymphedema development. Two of the subjects exhibit compound heterozygosity (A3123G FLT4 mutation and G357A SNP of FOXC2 gene). As these two genes share a common pathway, we hypothesise a synergistic interaction of these two SNPs in inhibiting the downstream signaling resulting in lymphedema progression.

  7. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The ... South America. You cannot get infected with the worms in the United States. How is lymphatic filariasis ...

  8. The ultrastructure of the foregut and its influence on bancroftian microfilariae ingestion in three Egyptian mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, A; Soliman, B A

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory observations on the uptake of bancroftian microfilariae (mf.) by three Egyptian mosquito species revealed that microfilariae ingested by some tested species were badly damaged during ingestion. The foregut structures in Culex pipiens, Aedes caspius and Anopheles multicolor were investigated by light and scanning microscope techniques. In Ae. caspius which have well developed pharyngeal armatures, and An multicolor which have well developed cibarial armatures, high proportion of microfilariae were scored and damaged. Vice virsa, Cx. pipiens, considered as the main vector of bancroftian filariaris have neither developed pharyngeal nor cibarial pumps, the percentage of damaged mf was very small. The relationship between the injury of mf. in mosquito midgut and the presence of the foregut armatures was discussed.

  9. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis. PMID:16971182

  10. An unusual presentation of filariasis in a nonendemic country

    PubMed Central

    Kandalam, Parampil Thulasidharan Shibu; Parampath, Arif Nelliyulla; Farghaly, Hanan Ibrahim; Salah, Salem Abo; Kayakkool, Muhammed Kunhi; Mathew, Joe Varghese; Radhakrishnan, Pradeep; Al Badawi, Ibrahim; Farook, Saleena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Filariasis is an endemic disease with worldwide distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. It is uncommon in Qatar. The conventional diagnostic procedure is the demonstration of microfilaria in blood smears. Even with its high incidence, it is unusual to detect microfilaria in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. Although the ‘filarial dance sign’ is rarely documented, it remains a classical ultrasonographic sign in lymphatic filariasis. Case presentation: We present a case of a 38-year-old male patient with fever, chills, shortness of breath and a tender warm swelling on his right thigh. Ultrasound of the thigh lesion showed the classical filarial dance sign. Subsequently FNAC from the lesion documented microfilaria in spite of absent peripheral blood eosinophilia and microfilaria. The patient underwent an incision and drainage of the thigh lesion and was treated with ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine. He was subsequently admitted to the medical ward and discharged home after two weeks in a stable condition. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the importance of diagnostic tools like ultrasound and FNAC along with a high index of clinical suspicion while evaluating patients presenting with unusual signs and symptoms. We would like to highlight the rarity of filarial presentation in a nonendemic country like Qatar. This case is unique since microfilaria was demonstrated in the pus aspirated from the thigh abscess and showed the filarial dance sign by ultrasound along with involvement of the pleura and pericardium. PMID:26865993

  11. New strategies to combat filariasis.

    PubMed

    Hoerauf, Achim

    2006-04-01

    Two of the major filarial infections, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis, affect 150 million people, while 1 billion living in endemic areas are at risk of infection. Public health programs to control these infections have successfully existed for years and have evolved from activities driven by the WHO into global programs with public-private partnerships. Currently, these programs use yearly mass application of drugs that mainly kill the larval stages (the microfilariae), with the aim of preventing uptake by the transmitting insect vectors and thus, to block transmission and reduce the infections to such levels that in 15-30 years from now, they will no longer pose a public health problem. While the programs have been very successful in general, there are drawbacks such as coverage being too low within the population, reappearance of infection by migration of infected people into controlled areas, targeting of a stage (the microfilaria) that does not induce pathology in LF and thus lowers compliance, and the potential development of drug resistance, first indications of which have been clearly observed in onchocerciasis. In addition, even without drawbacks, program scopes are not the eradication of filarial infections, which is, however, an ultimate goal of control activities. There is therefore an unequivocal call for the development of higher efficient, complementary chemotherapeutical approaches that lead to a long-lasting reduction of the pathology-inducing worm stages; that is, microfilariae in onchocerciasis and adult worms in LF, or to a macrofilaricidal effect. The recent discovery that depletion of Wolbachia endosymbionts by tetracycline antibiotics leads to long-lasting sterility of adult female worms in onchocerciasis and a macrofilaricidal effect in LF fulfils these requirements. Successful regimens have already been published and agreed upon for use by expert panels. While these regimens are still too long for mass application, the

  12. Epidemiological Assessment of Eight Rounds of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in India: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Subramanian; Perumal, Vanamail; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Kaliannagounder, Krishnamoorthy; Rengachari, Ravi; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2012-01-01

    Background Monitoring and evaluation guidelines of the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis require impact assessments in at least one sentinel and one spot-check site in each implementation unit (IU). Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that assess antigenaemia (Ag) in children in IUs that have completed at least five rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) each with >65% coverage and with microfilaria (Mf) levels <1% in the monitored sites form the basis for stopping the MDA. Despite its rigour, this multi-step process is likely to miss sites with transmission potential (‘hotspots’) and its statistical assumptions for sampling and threshold levels for decision-making have not been validated. We addressed these issues in a large-scale epidemiological study in two primary health centres in Thanjavur district, India, endemic for bancroftian filariasis that had undergone eight rounds of MDA. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence and intensity of Mf (per 60 µl blood) were 0.2% and 0.004 respectively in the survey that covered >70% of 50,363 population. The corresponding values for Ag were 2.3% and 17.3 Ag-units respectively. Ag-prevalence ranged from 0.7 to 0.9%, in children (2–10 years) and 2.7 to 3.0% in adults. Although the Mf-levels in the survey and the sentinel/spot check sites were <1% and Ag-level was <2% in children, we identified 7 “residual” (Mf-prevalence ≥1%, irrespective of Ag-status in children) and 17 “transmission” (at least one Ag-positive child born during the MDA period) hotspots. Antigenaemic persons were clustered both at household and site levels. We identified an Ag-prevalence of ∼1% in children (equivalent to 0.4% community Mf-prevalence) as a possible threshold value for stopping MDA. Conclusions/Significance Existence of ‘hotspots’ and spatial clustering of infections in the study area indicate the need for developing good surveillance strategies for detecting ‘hotspots’, adopting evidence

  13. Ocular Filariasis in US Residents, Returning Travelers, and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Several factors acting in concert now place US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates at risks of contracting ocular filariasis including increasing seroprevalence rates of zoonotic filariasis, international travel bringing tourists to and expatriates from filariasis-endemic regions, and warming temperatures extending distribution ranges of arthropod vectors. To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of ocular filariasis and to recommend strategies for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of ocular filariasis, internet search engines were queried with the key words in order to examine case reports and series of ocular filariasis in the US and elsewhere. Descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular filariasis in domestic and wild animals and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species. Clinicians should maintain early suspicion of ocular filariasis in US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates who complain of combinations of red eye, eye pain, foreign body sensation, reduced visual acuity, and migrating ocular worms, even without significant peripheral eosinophilia or microfilaremia. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and O. volvulus may traverse the eye, but can usually be treated medically. Mobile adult worms trapped in the subconjunctiva or anterior chamber should be removed by ophthalmologists to permit species identification, prevent posterior uveitis and iritis, and stop worm migration into the posterior chamber which could require lens removal and vitrectomy for worm extraction causing further eye damage. PMID:27159510

  14. Illness anxiety disorder related to filariasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karia, Sagar; Shah, Nilesh; Sonavane, Sushma; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease which is associated with anxiety and depression and may also result in social isolation. We present here a case of illness anxiety disorder where the patient developed a morbid fear that he will develop filariasis.

  15. Ocular Filariasis in US Residents, Returning Travelers, and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Several factors acting in concert now place US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates at risks of contracting ocular filariasis including increasing seroprevalence rates of zoonotic filariasis, international travel bringing tourists to and expatriates from filariasis-endemic regions, and warming temperatures extending distribution ranges of arthropod vectors. To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of ocular filariasis and to recommend strategies for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of ocular filariasis, internet search engines were queried with the key words in order to examine case reports and series of ocular filariasis in the US and elsewhere. Descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular filariasis in domestic and wild animals and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species. Clinicians should maintain early suspicion of ocular filariasis in US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates who complain of combinations of red eye, eye pain, foreign body sensation, reduced visual acuity, and migrating ocular worms, even without significant peripheral eosinophilia or microfilaremia. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and O. volvulus may traverse the eye, but can usually be treated medically. Mobile adult worms trapped in the subconjunctiva or anterior chamber should be removed by ophthalmologists to permit species identification, prevent posterior uveitis and iritis, and stop worm migration into the posterior chamber which could require lens removal and vitrectomy for worm extraction causing further eye damage.

  16. Successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-12-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  17. Successful Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2009-01-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  18. Filariasis in northern Ghana: some cultural beliefs and practices and their implications for disease control.

    PubMed

    Gyapong, M; Gyapong, J O; Adjei, S; Vlassoff, C; Weiss, M

    1996-07-01

    This article reports on how some endemic rural communities in northern Ghana perceive and manage lymphatic filariasis. The disease was mainly attributed to supernatural and spiritual factors. Except for a few instances of neglect, the community was generally caring towards people with the disease. Issues related to marriage, stigma, concealment and leadership are discussed. On the whole, the importance of social and cultural perceptions of a disease and its relevance to control cannot be over emphasized.

  19. Breast filariasis or inflammatory breast carcinoma? Reaching a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dwijesh Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Mohapatra, Madhusmita Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. Involvement of the breast is relatively uncommon and may affect only 10% of individuals with lymphatic filariasis. We present a case of an elderly woman with breast pathology. The condition clinically appeared as a malignancy. Routine diagnostic tests including tissue histopathological studies failed to clinch a diagnosis. However, a serological test helped in identifying the pathology, which turned out to be a manifestation of breast filariasis, and aided in instituting appropriate therapy for this condition. PMID:26567240

  20. Breast filariasis or inflammatory breast carcinoma? Reaching a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dwijesh Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Mohapatra, Madhusmita Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti. Involvement of the breast is relatively uncommon and may affect only 10% of individuals with lymphatic filariasis. We present a case of an elderly woman with breast pathology. The condition clinically appeared as a malignancy. Routine diagnostic tests including tissue histopathological studies failed to clinch a diagnosis. However, a serological test helped in identifying the pathology, which turned out to be a manifestation of breast filariasis, and aided in instituting appropriate therapy for this condition.

  1. Circulating filarial antigen detection in brugian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Praveen Kumar; Mahajan, Ramesh Chander; Malla, Nancy; Mewara, Abhishek; Bhattacharya, Shailja Misra; Shenoy, Ranganatha Krishna; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of disability globally. The success of global elimination programmes for LF depends upon effectiveness of tools for diagnosis and treatment. In this study on stage-specific antigen detection in brugian filariasis, L3, adult worm (AW) and microfilarial antigenaemia were detected in around 90-95% of microfilariae carriers (MF group), 50-70% of adenolymphangitis (ADL) patients, 10-25% of chronic pathology (CP) patients and 10-15% of endemic normal (EN) controls. The sensitivity of the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detection in serum samples from MF group was up to 95%. In sera from ADL patients, unexpectedly, less antigen reactivity was observed. In CP group all the CFA positive individuals were from CP grade I and II only and none from grade III or IV, suggesting that with chronicity the AWs lose fecundity and start to disintegrate and die. Amongst EN subject, 10-15% had CFA indicating that few of them harbour filarial AWs, thus they might not be truly immune as has been conventionally believed. The specificity for antigen detection was 100% when tested with sera from various other protozoan and non-filarial helminthic infections.

  2. Inter and intra-specific diversity of parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Weil, Gary J.; Fischer, Peter U.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by three closely related nematode parasites: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These species have many ecological variants that differ in several aspects of their biology such as mosquito vector species, host range, periodicity, and morphology. Although the genome of B. malayi (the first genome sequenced from a parasitic nematode) has been available for more than five years, very little is known about genetic variability among the lymphatic dwelling filariae. The genetic diversity among these worms is not only interesting from a biological perspective, but it may have important practical implications for the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, as the parasites may respond differently to diagnostic tests and/or medical interventions. Therefore, better information on their genetic variability is urgently needed. With improved methods for nucleic acid extraction and recent advances in sequencing chemistry and instrumentation, this gap can be filled relatively inexpensively. Improved information on filarial genetic diversity may increase the chances of success for lymphatic filariasis elimination programs. PMID:23201850

  3. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  4. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  5. Evaluation of a PCR-ELISA to detect Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex pipiens from an Egyptian village with a low prevalence of filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, I H; Fischer, P; Adly, M; El Sayed, A S; Morsy, Z S; Ramzy, R M

    2001-12-01

    The programmes for the elimination of bancroftian filariasis that have been implemented in the Nile delta of Egypt are expected to lead to substantial reductions in filarial loads in the treated populations. Better methods than those currently available are needed for monitoring the efficacy of these and similar efforts at intervention. A PCR-ELISA was therefore evaluated as an epidemiological tool for the detection of the Wuchereria-bancrofti-specific SspI repeat in pools of Culex pipiens collected in a village with a low prevalence of filarial infection in its human residents (2.1%). Indoor-resting mosquitoes were collected by aspiration from 114 randomly selected houses (during one to nine visits/house) and separated into 673 pools, each of which held the mosquitoes collected during one night from one house. Although 18 (2.7%) of the pools showed PCR inhibition and had to be excluded, filarial DNA was detected, using the PCR-ELISA, in 91 (13.9%) of the 655 remaining mosquito pools. The minimum prevalence of W. bancrofti infection in the mosquitoes caught (assuming one infected mosquito/positive pool) was 2.8%. The mean (S.D.) number of mosquitoes/pool did not vary significantly between positive [5.5 (3.4)] and negative [4.9 (3.5)] pools. The assay detected parasite DNA in mosquitoes from 19.3% of 114 houses when only the first visit was considered and from 73.9% of the 88 houses visited more than once. The PCR-ELISA yielded results comparable with those of the regular PCR-SspI assay. The latter assay is recommended for the routine examination, in laboratories in endemic areas, of mosquito pools from randomly selected houses, as the ELISA component of the PCR-ELISA is exceedingly time-consuming, expensive and requires special equipment. PMID:11784438

  6. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Sambou, Sana Malang; Thomas, Brent; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Jaye, Momodou C.; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Molyneux, David H.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti, which causes lymphatic filariasis (LF) in The Gambia was among the highest in Africa in the 1950s. However, surveys conducted in 1975 and 1976 revealed a dramatic decline in LF endemicity in the absence of mass drug administration (MDA). The decline in prevalence was partly attributed to a significant reduction in mosquito density through the widespread use of insecticidal nets. Based on findings elsewhere that vector control alone can interrupt LF, we asked the question in 2013 whether the rapid scale up in the use of insecticidal nets in The Gambia had interrupted LF transmission. Methodology/Principal Finding We present here the results of three independently designed filariasis surveys conducted over a period of 17 years (1997–2013), and involving over 6000 subjects in 21 districts across all administrative divisions in The Gambia. An immunochromatographic (ICT) test was used to detect W. bancrofti antigen during all three surveys. In 2001, tests performed on stored samples collected between 1997 and 2000, in three divisions, failed to show positive individuals from two divisions that were previously highly endemic for LF, suggesting a decline towards extinction in some areas. Results of the second survey conducted in 2003 showed that LF was no longer endemic in 16 of 21 districts surveyed. The 2013 survey used a WHO recommended LF transmission verification tool involving 3180 6–7 year-olds attending 60 schools across the country. We demonstrated that transmission of W. bancrofti has been interrupted in all 21 districts. Conclusions We conclude that LF transmission may have been interrupted in The Gambia through the extensive use of insecticidal nets for malaria control for decades. The growing evidence for the impact of malaria vector control activities on parasite transmission has been endorsed by WHO through a position statement in 2011 on integrated vector management to control malaria and LF. PMID

  7. Lymphatic filariasis: Treatment, control and elimination.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Eric A

    2006-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disease not just treatable or controllable; it is a disease that can be eliminated. Indeed, LF is currently the target of a major global initiative to do just that; a few visionaries of the past 50 years did hypothesize that LF elimination was feasible. However, for most of the scientific and global health communities, the elimination of such a broadly disseminated, mosquito-borne disease has seemed highly unlikely. During the past decade, however, both the treatment strategies and the control strategies for LF have undergone profound paradigm shifts-all because of a rapid increase in knowledge and understanding of LF that derived directly from a series of remarkable achievements by the scientific and medical research communities. As a result, a public health dimension with a focus on affected populations, now supplements the earlier, predominantly patient-oriented clinical approach to LF. The early uncertainties, then the essential steps leading to this change in outlook are outlined below, followed by descriptions of the new strategy for LF elimination, the Global Programme created to attain this goal and the successes achieved to date.

  8. Immunoadjuvant effect of diethylcarbamazine in experimental filariasis.

    PubMed

    Parasurama Jawaharlal, Jeya Prita; Rajaiah Prabhu, Prince; Gandhirajan, Anugraha; Krishnan, Nithya; Perumal, Kaliraj

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by tissue dwelling nematodes is endemic in 73 countries and drugs have been administered to control or stop the infection. Resurgence of the infection after mass drug administration necessitates the study of several parasite antigens or adjuvants for vaccine developments. In this study, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was evaluated for its efficacy as adjuvant against the filarial parasite; Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) by combining with the Escherichia coli expressed recombinant BmShp-1 protein. Shp-1 is one of the sheath proteins expressed by adult female and microfilarial stage of the filarial parasite. Hence, immunoprophylactic efficacy of Shp-1 using DEC and alum adjuvants was compared in BALB/c mice model by an in situ micropore chamber method. Shp-1 antibody titre was high when the mice were immunized with Shp-1 along with DEC and they exhibited balanced Th1/Th2 profile. DEC also induced significantly high T-cell proliferation (P<0.001) when stimulated with Shp-1 compared to alum. Significantly high percentage protection against B. malayi microfilariae was observed in Shp-1+DEC immunized mice groups (P<0.05) and hence it is concluded that the need of repeated drug administration can be controlled when there is a possibility of developing protective immunity in the host against mf by vaccination.

  9. The Socioeconomic Impact of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tropical Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwoke, Bertram Ekejiuba Bright; Nwoke, Eunice Anyalewechi; Dozie, Ikechukwu Nosike Simplicius

    2007-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is an endemic parasitic disease and a major cause of acute and chronic morbidity and incapacitation with devastating public health and socio-economic consequences. It exacerbates poor conditions of afflicted persons and endemic communities through reduced or lost labour supply and productivity. Stigmatisation and…

  10. Data reporting constraints for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration activities in two districts in Ghana: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aryeetey, Richmond; Boateng, Richard; Anto, Francis; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Timely and accurate health data are important for objective decision making and policy formulation. However, little evidence exists to explain why poor quality routine health data persist. This study examined the constraints to data reporting for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration programme in two districts in Ghana. This qualitative study focused on timeliness and accuracy of mass drug administration reports submitted by community health volunteers. Methods: The study is nested within a larger study focusing on the feasibility of mobile phone technology for the lymphatic filariasis programme. Using an exploratory study design, data were obtained through in-depth interviews (n = 7) with programme supervisors and focus group discussions (n = 4) with community health volunteers. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results: Reasons for delays in reporting were attributed to poor numeracy skills among community health volunteers, difficult physical access to communities, high supervisor workload, poor adherence reporting deadlines, difficulty in reaching communities within allocated time and untimely release of programme funds. Poor accuracy of data was mainly attributed to inadequate motivation for community health volunteers and difficulty calculating summaries. Conclusion: This study has shown that there are relevant issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the quality of lymphatic filariasis treatment coverage reports. Some of the factors identified are problems within the health system; others are specific to the community health volunteers and the lymphatic filariasis programme. Steps such as training on data reporting should be intensified for community health volunteers, allowances for community health volunteers should be re-evaluated and other non-monetary incentives should be provided for community health volunteers. PMID:26770791

  11. Toxicological properties of several medicinal plants from the Himalayas (India) against vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue.

    PubMed

    Alam, M F; Safhi, Mohammed M; Chopra, A K; Dua, V K

    2011-08-01

    The leaves of five plants namely Nyctanthes arbortistis (Oleaceae), Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Boenininghusenia albiflora (Rutaceae), Valeriana hardwickii (Valerianaceae) and Eupatorium odoratum (Asteraceae) were selected for the first time from the Garhwal region of north west Himalaya to investigation its toxicological properties against mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue. In a laboratory study, using different polarity solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) were tested against important larvae of malaria, filariasis and dengue vectors in India. It was observed that petroleum ether fraction of all selected plant possess good larvicidal properties than other solvent fraction. The LC(50) values of isolates from Nyctanthes arbortistis (HAR-1), C. roseus (CAT-1), B. albiflora (BOA-1), V. hardwickii (SUG-1) and E. odoratum (EUP-1) against Anopheles stephensi were 185 ppm, 150 ppm, 105 ppm, 225 ppm and 135 ppm, respectively. The results therefore suggest that the fraction code BOA-1 has excellent larvicidal properties and could be incorporated as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to nontarget organisms. The same fraction was tested against adult vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue, but no mortality was observed.

  12. Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irish, Seth R; Stevens, William M B; Derua, Yahya A; Walker, Thomas; Cameron, Mary M

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a collection method that targets mosquitoes that have already fed could result in increased sensitivity in detecting W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. The aim of this experiment was to test this hypothesis by comparing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with CDC gravid traps in northeastern Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. After an initial study where small numbers of mosquitoes were collected, a second study collected 16,316 Cx. quinquefasciatus in 60 gravid trap-nights and 240 light trap-nights. Mosquitoes were pooled and tested for presence of W. bancrofti DNA. Light and gravid traps collected similar numbers of mosquitoes per trap-night, but the physiological status of the mosquitoes was different. The estimated infection rate in mosquitoes collected in light traps was considerably higher than in mosquitoes collected in gravid traps, so light traps can be a useful tool for xenomonitoring work in Tanzania. PMID:26350454

  13. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis in India-prospects of elimination: precept to action?

    PubMed

    Shriram, A N; Krishnamoorthy, K; Saha, B P; Roy, Avijit; Kumaraswami, V; Shah, W A; Jambulingam, P; Vijayachari, P

    2011-07-01

    The elimination of lymphatic filariasis in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provides unique opportunities and challenges at the same time. Since these islands are remote, are sparsely populated, and have poor transport networks, mass drug administration programs are likely to be difficult to implement. Diurnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti vectored by Downsiomyia nivea was considered for the scope of vector control options. Considering the bioecology of this mosquito, vector control including personal protection measures may not be feasible. However, since these islands are covered by separate administrative machinery which also plays an important role in regulating the food supply, the use of diethylcarbamazine (DEC)-fortified salt as a tool for the interruption of transmission is appealing. DEC-fortified salt has been successfully pilot tested in India and elsewhere, operationally used by China for eliminating lymphatic filariasis. Administration of DEC-fortified salt though simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for translating this precept into action by evolving operationally feasible strategy. Although the use of DEC-fortified salt is conceptually simple, it requires commitment of all sections of the society, an elaborate distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt only in the endemic communities, and a vigorous monitoring mechanism. Here, we examine the inbuilt administrative mechanisms to serve the tribal people, health infrastructure, and public distribution system and discuss the prospects of putting in place an operationally feasible strategy for its elimination. PMID:21286754

  14. Comparison of Methods for Xenomonitoring in Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis in Northeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Irish, Seth R; Stevens, William M B; Derua, Yahya A; Walker, Thomas; Cameron, Mary M

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary. Gravid traps collected large numbers of Culex quinquefasciatus in Tanzania, and a collection method that targets mosquitoes that have already fed could result in increased sensitivity in detecting W. bancrofti-infected mosquitoes. The aim of this experiment was to test this hypothesis by comparing U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps with CDC gravid traps in northeastern Tanzania, where Cx. quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis. After an initial study where small numbers of mosquitoes were collected, a second study collected 16,316 Cx. quinquefasciatus in 60 gravid trap-nights and 240 light trap-nights. Mosquitoes were pooled and tested for presence of W. bancrofti DNA. Light and gravid traps collected similar numbers of mosquitoes per trap-night, but the physiological status of the mosquitoes was different. The estimated infection rate in mosquitoes collected in light traps was considerably higher than in mosquitoes collected in gravid traps, so light traps can be a useful tool for xenomonitoring work in Tanzania.

  15. Setaria digitata in advancing our knowledge of human lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Perumal, A N I; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2016-03-01

    Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses, resulting in substantial economic losses in animal husbandry in the tropics. Due to its close resemblance to Wuchereria bancrofti, this nematode is also frequently used as a model organism to study human lymphatic filariasis. This review highlights numerous insights into the morphological, histological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of S. digitata that have broadened our understanding towards the control and eradication of filarial diseases. PMID:25924635

  16. Diagnosis of filariasis on cytology: a series of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Singhal, Niti; Mohan, Harsh

    2014-04-01

    Filariasis has a worldwide distribution, with a special predilection for tropical and subtropical areas. The microfilaria wanders in lymphatics and can be accidentally trapped in the needle during fine-needle aspiration cytology, thus leading to its incidental detection. This is a retrospective study of 24 cases of microfilarial infestation diagnosed on cytology. Accurate recognition and detection of the parasite leads to the institution of specific treatment and prevents chronic manifestations of the disease.

  17. 'Palatal swelling in a patient suffering from filariasis'.

    PubMed

    Boaz, Karen; Mehta, Krupa Kaushik; Natarajan, Srikant; Baliga, Mohan; Nandita, Kp

    2013-11-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMEC) is a distinct but an uncommon salivary gland neoplasm with only 19 cases reported in English literature till date. Densely collagenous sclerotic stroma, resemblance to other benign lesions and rarity of this tumour often makes the diagnosis of SMEC challenging. Here we report a case of SMEC in a 73-year old female patient suffering from filariasis. Clinical, radiological, fine needle aspiration biopsy, gross and histopathological features are discussed with detailed review of literature and probable pathogenesis.

  18. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:26179420

  19. Chimeric Epitope Vaccine from Multistage Antigens for Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Anugraha, G; Madhumathi, J; Prince, P R; Prita, P J Jeya; Khatri, V K; Amdare, N P; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2015-10-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne parasitic disease, affects more than 120 million people worldwide. Vaccination for filariasis by targeting different stages of the parasite will be a boon to the existing MDA efforts of WHO which required repeated administration of the drug to reduce the infection level and sustained transmission. Onset of a filaria-specific immune response achieved through antigen vaccines can act synergistically with these drugs to enhance the parasite killing. Multi-epitope vaccine approach has been proved to be successful against several parasitic diseases as it overcomes the limitations associated with the whole antigen vaccines. Earlier results from our group suggested the protective efficacy of multi-epitope vaccine comprising two immunodominant epitopes from Brugia malayi antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), several epitopes from transglutaminase (TGA) and abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2). In this study, the prophylactic efficacy of the filarial epitope protein (FEP), a chimera of selective epitopes identified from our earlier study, was tested in a murine model (jird) of filariasis with L3 larvae. FEP conferred a significantly (P < 0.0001) high protection (69.5%) over the control in jirds. We also observed that the multi-epitope recombinant construct (FEP) induces multiple types of protective immune responses, thus ensuring the successful elimination of the parasite; this poses FEP as a potential vaccine candidate.

  20. Prevalence of filariasis in symptomatic patients in Moyen Chari district, south of Chad.

    PubMed

    Bregani, Enrico Rino; Balzarini, Laura; Mbaïdoum, Narassem; Rovellini, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Filarial parasites infect an estimated 140 million people worldwide. Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa and Mansonella perstans are responsible for most filarial infections in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of filariasis in symptomatic patients in Goundi Sanitary district:167 patients were enrolled (99 men, 68 women). M. perstans microfilariae were isolated in peripheral blood in 164 cases, while Loa loa and Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis were diagnosed in only six and three cases, respectively. The most frequent filariasis observed in our study were due to M. perstans and L. loa, while the few cases of W. bancrofti filariasis seem to have been acquired abroad. No cases of O. volvulus were observed. Microfilarial burden was not related to symptoms, but a correlation between eosinophilia and pruritus was evident. No relationship was observed between eosinophils and symptoms. The prevalence observed in symptomatic patients could reflect the real prevalence of filariasis. PMID:17716512

  1. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication.

  2. Investing in Justice: Ethics, Evidence, and the Eradication Investment Cases for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Maria W.; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people’s experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication. PMID:25713967

  3. Strategies and tools for the control/elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed Central

    Ottesen, E. A.; Duke, B. O.; Karam, M.; Behbehani, K.

    1997-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis infects 120 million people in 73 countries worldwide and continues to be a worsening problem, especially in Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Elephantiasis, lymphoedema, and genital pathology afflict 44 million men, women and children; another 76 million have parasites in their blood and hidden internal damage to their lymphatic and renal systems. In the past, tools and strategies for the control of the condition were inadequate, but over the last 10 years dramatic research advances have led to new understanding about the severity and impact of the disease, new diagnostic and monitoring tools, and, most importantly, new treatment tools and control strategies. The new strategy aims both at transmission control through community-wide (mass) treatment programmes and at disease control through individual patient management. Annual single-dose co-administration of two drugs (ivermectin + diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or albendazole) reduces blood microfilariae by 99% for a full year; even a single dose of one drug (ivermectin or DEC) administered annually can result in 90% reductions; field studies confirm that such reduction of microfilarial loads and prevalence can interrupt transmission. New approaches to disease control, based on preventing bacterial superinfection, can now halt or even reverse the lymphoedema and elephantiasis sequelae of filarial infection. Recognizing these remarkable technical advances, the successes of recent control programmes, and the biological factors favouring elimination of this infection, the Fiftieth World Health Assembly recently called on WHO and its Member States to establish as a priority the global elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem. PMID:9509621

  4. Economic Costs and Benefits of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Stillwaggon, Eileen; Sawers, Larry; Rout, Jonathan; Addiss, David; Fox, LeAnne

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis afflicts 68 million people in 73 countries, including 17 million persons living with chronic lymphedema. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to stop new infections and to provide care for persons already affected, but morbidity management programs have been initiated in only 24 endemic countries. We examine the economic costs and benefits of alleviating chronic lymphedema and its effects through a simple limb-care program. For Khurda District, Odisha State, India, we estimated lifetime medical costs and earnings losses due to chronic lymphedema and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) with and without a community-based limb-care program. The program would reduce economic costs of lymphedema and ADLA over 60 years by 55%. Savings of US$1,648 for each affected person in the workforce are equivalent to 1,258 days of labor. Per-person savings are more than 130 times the per-person cost of the program. Chronic lymphedema and ADLA impose a substantial physical and economic burden on the population in filariasis-endemic areas. Low-cost programs for lymphedema management based on limb washing and topical medication for infection are effective in reducing the number of ADLA episodes and stopping progression of disabling and disfiguring lymphedema. With reduced disability, people are able to work longer hours, more days per year, and in more strenuous, higher-paying jobs, resulting in an important economic benefit to themselves, their families, and their communities. Mitigating the severity of lymphedema and ADLA also reduces out-of-pocket medical expense. PMID:27573626

  5. Case report: effects of diethylcarbamazine and thiabendazole combination against Mansonella perstans filariasis.

    PubMed

    Bregani, E R; Tantardini, F; Rovellini, A

    2007-06-01

    Mansonella perstans filariasis is widely present in Africa and equatorial America and its pathogenicity has been recently reconsidered. Effective treatment is lacking and there is no consensus on optimal therapeutic approach. We present the results of a new combination treatment against M. perstans filariasis. Two cases of M. perstans filariasis were treated with the combination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and thiabendazole. The treatment was able to significantly reduce microfilaria burden in a case and to achieve complete clearance of blood microfilariae in another case. PMID:18412041

  6. Delineation of BmSXP antibody V-gene usage from a lymphatic filariasis based immune scFv antibody library.

    PubMed

    Rahumatullah, Anizah; Ahmad, Azimah; Noordin, Rahmah; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-10-01

    Phage display technology is an important tool for antibody generation or selection. This study describes the development of a scFv library and the subsequent analysis of identified monoclonal antibodies against BmSXP, a recombinant antigen for lymphatic filariasis. The immune library was generated from blood of lymphatic filariasis infected individuals. A TA based intermediary cloning approach was used to increase cloning efficiency for the library construction process. A diverse immune scFv library of 10(8) was generated. Six unique monoclonal antibodies were identified from the 50 isolated clones against BmSXP. Analysis of the clones showed a bias for the IgHV3 and Vκ1 (45.5%) and IgHV2 and Vκ3 (27.3%) gene family. The most favored J segment for light chain is IgKJ1 (45.5%). The most favored D and J segment for heavy chain are IgHD6-13 (75%) and IgHJ3 (47.7%). The information may suggest a predisposition of certain V genes in antibody responses against lymphatic filariasis.

  7. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions.

  8. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions. PMID:24952286

  9. Applications of Self-Organising Map (SOM) for prioritisation of endemic zones of filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Murty, Upadhayula Suryanaryana; Rao, Mutheneni Srinivasa; Sriram, K; Rao, K Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Entomological and epidemiological data of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) was collected from 120 villages of four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Self-Organising Maps (SOMs), data-mining techniques, was used to classify and prioritise the endemic zones of filariasis. The results show that, SOMs classified all the villages into three major clusters by considering the data of Microfilaria (MF) rate, infection, infectivity rate and Per Man Hour (PMH). By considering the patterns of cluster, appropriate decision can be drawn for each parameter that is responsible for disease transmission of filariasis. Hence, SOM will certainly be a suitable tool for management of filariasis. The detailed application of SOM is discussed in this paper.

  10. Transmission models and management of lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Gambhir, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The planning and evaluation of parasitic control programmes are complicated by the many interacting population dynamic and programmatic factors that determine infection trends under different control options. A key need is quantification about the status of the parasite system state at any one given timepoint and the dynamic change brought upon that state as an intervention program proceeds. Here, we focus on the control and elimination of the vector-borne disease, lymphatic filariasis, to show how mathematical models of parasite transmission can provide a quantitative framework for aiding the design of parasite elimination and monitoring programs by their ability to support (1) conducting rational analysis and definition of endpoints for different programmatic aims or objectives, including transmission endpoints for disease elimination, (2) undertaking strategic analysis to aid the optimal design of intervention programs to meet set endpoints under different endemic settings and (3) providing support for performing informed evaluations of ongoing programs, including aiding the formation of timely adaptive management strategies to correct for any observed deficiencies in program effectiveness. The results also highlight how the use of a model-based framework will be critical to addressing the impacts of ecological complexities, heterogeneities and uncertainties on effective parasite management and thereby guiding the development of strategies to resolve and overcome such real-world complexities. In particular, we underscore how this approach can provide a link between ecological science and policy by revealing novel tools and measures to appraise and enhance the biological controllability or eradicability of parasitic diseases. We conclude by emphasizing an urgent need to develop and apply flexible adaptive management frameworks informed by mathematical models that are based on learning and reducing uncertainty using monitoring data, apply phased or sequential

  11. Modelling lymphatic filariasis transmission and control: modelling frameworks, lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Wilma A; Stone, Chris; de Vlas, Sake J

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical modelling provides a useful tool for policy making and planning in lymphatic filariasis control programmes, by providing trend forecasts based on sound scientific knowledge and principles. This is now especially true, in view of the ambitious target to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem globally by the year 2020 and the short remaining timeline to achieve this. To meet this target, elimination programmes need to be accelerated, requiring further optimization of strategies and tailoring to local circumstances. Insights from epidemiological transmission models provide a useful basis. Two general models of lymphatic filariasis transmission and control are nowadays in use to support decision-making, namely a population-based deterministic model (EPIFIL) and an individual-based stochastic model (LYMFASIM). Model predictions confirm that lymphatic filariasis transmission can be interrupted by annual mass drug administration (MDA), but this may need to be continued much longer than the initially suggested 4-6 years in areas with high transmission intensity or poor treatment coverage. However, the models have not been validated against longitudinal data describing the impact of MDA programmes. Some critical issues remain to be incorporated in one or both of the models to make predictions on elimination more realistic, including the possible occurrence of systematic noncompliance, the risk of emerging parasite resistance to anthelmintic drugs, and spatial heterogeneities. Rapid advances are needed to maximize the utility of models in decision-making for the ongoing ambitious lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes.

  12. Lymphoedema: Pathophysiology and management in resource-poor settings - relevance for lymphatic filariasis control programmes

    PubMed Central

    Vaqas, Babar; Ryan, Terence J

    2003-01-01

    Low cost reduction of morbidity in lymphoedema is an essential goal in the management of lymphatic filariasis. This review emphasises the role of movement and elevation, and refers to the literature on the effects of these on the venous and lymphatic system. The patient with lymphoedema becomes increasingly immobile and the affected limb is often in a permanently dependent position causing venous hypertension and resultant overloading of the failing lymphatics. The evidence that breathing exercises are important for reducing venous hypertension and inducing lymphatic flow is discussed. The contribution of a damaged epidermis to lymphatic failure is emphasised. Loss of barrier function encourages penetration of bacteria and stimulates repair mechanisms that generate cytokines, which, in turn lead to inflammation. Management programmes that improve the health of the epidermis play a part in reducing lymphatic load. In taking morbidity management of lymphoedema into the general health services there are benefits in promoting skin hygiene and self-help regimes that can ameliorate many diseases along with lymphoedema. PMID:12685942

  13. Stigma reduction and improved knowledge and attitudes towards filariasis using a comic book for children.

    PubMed

    el-Setouhy, Maged A; Rio, Francisco

    2003-04-01

    WHO has initiated a global program for lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination by year 2020. A comic book was designed to improve knowledge and attitudes of Egyptian school children, which included messages on the acceptability of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) and stigma reduction. Comic book administration significantly reduced the fear of the studied children from LF as a killer disease. It helped in positively changing the attitudes of the children towards Elephantiasis patients (p-value <.001). The comic book also reduced the number of children who had earlier stated that they would avoid someone with LF. Knowledge about the ability of treating and preventing LF was also significantly increased among the children after reading the comic book. Moreover, comic book reading helped in raising the awareness towards MDA as the method of choice in preventing LF. Most of the children liked the comic book and its contents. Importantly, 96.2% found this book easy to understand. Many of relatives and friends read the comic book within 2 weeks after distribution. A well-accepted comic book for children is a proven way to reduce stigma and increase knowledge about disease prevention and treatment.

  14. Lymphatic filariasis in the Karonga district of northern Malawi: a prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Ngwira, B M M; Jabu, C H; Kanyongoloka, H; Mponda, M; Crampin, A C; Branson, K; Alexander, N D E; Fine, P E M

    2002-03-01

    In Malawi, two main foci of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are known to exist: one in the south, in the Shire valley, and the other in the north, along the Songwe River, on the border with Tanzania. There have been no formal surveys in the Songwe area since the 1960s but an opportunity arose in 2000-2001 to map LF in this area, in the context of a leprosy survey that formed part of the follow-up of a large leprosy and tuberculosis vaccine trial. Overall 687 immunochromatographic (ICT) tests were carried out. Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia was found in > 25% of adults in each of the 12 villages sampled (four in the Songwe area and eight in the rest of the Karonga district), with village prevalences varying from 28%-58%. Of the 685 adult male residents of the Songwe area who were each given full-body clinical examinations, 80 (11.7%) were identified as cases of hydrocele. Lymphoedema was found in seven (1.0%) of these adult males and in 29 (3.7%) of the 769 adult female residents of the Songwe area who were also examined. Microfilariae were detected in 33 (30.8%) of the 107 thick smears of night-blood samples that were made from individuals with positive ICT cards. The W. bancrofti infection focus in Karonga district is therefore wider than was previously known. This has important implications for the implementation and eventual impact of LF-control activities in this area.

  15. Filariasis in sub-Saharan immigrants attended in a health area of southern Spain: clinical and epidemiological findings.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Fernando; Cabezas-Fernández, Ma Teresa; Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Cabeza-Barrera, Ma Isabel; Vázquez-Villegas, José; Soriano-Pérez, Manuel J

    2015-02-01

    Filariasis is still an endemic disease in several countries worldwide. Patients with mansonellosis result in only relatively mild symptoms, but these infections could produce many visits to health care providers. In Spain, this infection is imported due to the increase of immigrant population reaching our country during last years. The health area of the Hospital of Poniente has a rate of immigrants around to 20%, with a high percentage coming from sub-Saharan countries, being Mansonella perstans the main filarial infection in the majority of cases. In the protocol for the immigrants, it has been included the diagnosis of filarial infections in order to treat them. This manuscript describes epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with this kind of infection. PMID:23881533

  16. Malathion Resistance Status and Mutations in Acetylcholinesterase Gene (Ace) in Japanese Encephalitis and Filariasis Vectors from Endemic Area in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Brij Ranjan; Gore, Milind

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are endemic in estern part of Uttar Pradesh in India and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). JE vaccination and mass drug administration for JE and LF management is being undertaken respectively. In addition to this, indoor residual spraying and fogging are used for the control of mosquito vectors. Organophosphate resistance in mosquito is dependent on alteration in acetylcholinesterase (Ace) gene. Hence, it is important to evaluate organophosphate resistance in Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (JE vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LF vector). The current study showed the presence of resistant populations and F331W mutation in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and G119S mutation in Cx. quinquefasciatus insensitive Ace genes. Resistant populations of these two vectors increase the chances of spreading of resistance in the natural population and may cause failure of intervention programs that include organophosphates against these two vectors in future.

  17. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu district.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1991-01-01

    A total of 2552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum-Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this State. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed. The study will fill the gap in our knowledge of filariasis in this part of Nigeria.

  18. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    PubMed

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases. PMID:25682995

  19. [Serpiginous calcifications in breast filariasis: A descriptor not included in the BI-RADS classification system].

    PubMed

    Mora-Encinas, J P; Martín-Martín, B; Martín-Martín, L; Mora-Monago, R

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis is a parasitic disease with a benign course caused by nematodes. Filariasis is endemic in some tropical regions, and immigration has made it increasingly common in some centers in Spain. The death of the parasites can lead to calcifications that are visible in mammograms; these calcifications have specific characteristics and should not be confused with those arising in other diseases. However, the appearance of calcifications due to filariasis is not included in the most common systems used for the classification of calcifications on mammograms (BI-RADS), and this can lead to confusion. In this article, we discuss the need to update classification systems and warn radiologists about the appearance of these calcifications to ensure their correct diagnosis and avoid confusion with other diseases.

  20. Are we nearly there yet? Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Neal D E

    2015-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis has been targeted for elimination by 2020, and a threshold of 65% coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) has been adopted by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). A recent review by Babu and Babu of 36 studies of MDA for lymphatic filariasis in India found that coverage, defined as receipt of tablets, ranged from 48.8 to 98.8%, while compliance, defined as actual ingestion of tablets, was 22% lower on average. Moreover, the denominator for these coverage figures is the eligible, rather than total, population. By contrast, the 65% threshold, in the original modelling study, refers to ingestion of tablets in the total population. This corresponds to GPELF's use of 'epidemiological drug coverage' as a trigger for the Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS), which indicate whether to proceed to post-MDA surveillance. The existence of less strict definitions of 'coverage' should not lead to premature TAS that could impair MDA's sustainability.

  1. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Poole, Catherine B; Tanner, Nathan A; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

  2. Future prospects and challenges of vaccines against filariasis.

    PubMed

    Babayan, Simon A; Allen, J E; Taylor, D W

    2012-05-01

    Filarial infections remain a major public health and socio-economic problem across the tropics, despite considerable effort to reduce disease burden or regionally eliminate the infection with mass drug administration programmes. The sustainability of these programmes is now open to question owing to a range of issues, not least of which is emerging evidence for drug resistance. Vaccination, if developed appropriately, remains the most cost-effective means of long-term disease control. The rationale for the feasibility of vaccination against filarial parasites including onchocerciasis (river blindness, Onchocerca volvulus) and lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi) is founded on evidence from both humans and animal models for the development of protective immunity. Nonetheless, enormous challenges need to be faced in terms of overcoming parasite-induced suppression without inducing pathology as well as the need to both recognize and tackle evolutionary and ecological obstacles to successful vaccine development. Nonetheless, new technological advances in addition to systems biology approaches offer hope that optimal immune responses can be induced that will prevent infection, disease and/or transmission. PMID:22150082

  3. Filariasis in Africa--treatment challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Hoerauf, A; Pfarr, K; Mand, S; Debrah, A Y; Specht, S

    2011-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are parasitic nematode infections that are responsible for a major disease burden in the African continent. Disease symptoms are induced by the immune reactions of the host, with lymphoedema and hydrocoele in LF, and dermatitis and ocular inflammation in onchocerciasis. Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus, the species causing LF and onchocerciasis in Africa, live in mutual symbiosis with Wolbachia endobacteria, which cause a major part of the inflammation leading to symptoms and are antibiotic targets for treatment. The standard microfilaricidal drugs ivermectin and albendazole are used in mass drug administration programmes, with the aim of interrupting transmission, with a consequent reduction in the burden of infection and, in some situations, leading to regional elimination of LF and onchocerciasis. Co-endemicity of Loa loa with W. bancrofti or O. volvulus is an impediment to mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole, owing to the risk of encephalopathy being encountered upon administration of ivermectin. Research into new treatment options is exploring several improved delivery strategies for the classic drugs or new antibiotic treatment regimens for anti-wolbachial chemotherapy. PMID:21722251

  4. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Poole, Catherine B; Tanner, Nathan A; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  5. Diagnosis of Brugian Filariasis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Catherine B.; Tanner, Nathan A.; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

  6. The NIH-NIAID Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Michelle L.; Griffiths, Kathryn G.; Williams, Steven A.; Kaplan, Ray M.; Moorhead, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    Filarial worms cause a variety of tropical diseases in humans; however, they are difficult to study because they have complex life cycles that require arthropod intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts. Research efforts in industrialized countries are further complicated by the fact that some filarial nematodes that cause disease in humans are restricted in host specificity to humans alone. This potentially makes the commitment to research difficult, expensive, and restrictive. Over 40 years ago, the United States National Institutes of Health–National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH-NIAID) established a resource from which investigators could obtain various filarial parasite species and life cycle stages without having to expend the effort and funds necessary to maintain the entire life cycles in their own laboratories. This centralized resource (The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center, or FR3) translated into cost savings to both NIH-NIAID and to principal investigators by freeing up personnel costs on grants and allowing investigators to divert more funds to targeted research goals. Many investigators, especially those new to the field of tropical medicine, are unaware of the scope of materials and support provided by the FR3. This review is intended to provide a short history of the contract, brief descriptions of the fiilarial species and molecular resources provided, and an estimate of the impact the resource has had on the research community, and describes some new additions and potential benefits the resource center might have for the ever-changing research interests of investigators. PMID:22140585

  7. Tandem antioxidant enzymes confer synergistic protective responses in experimental filariasis.

    PubMed

    Prince, P R; Madhumathi, J; Anugraha, G; Jeyaprita, P J; Reddy, M V R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-12-01

    Helminth parasites use antioxidant defence strategies for survival during oxidative stress due to free radicals in the host. Accordingly, tissue-dwelling filarial parasites counteract host responses by releasing a number of antioxidants. Targeting these redox regulation proteins together, would facilitate effective parasite clearance. Here, we report the combined effect of protective immune responses trigged by recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti thioredoxin (WbTRX) and thioredoxin peroxidase (WbTPX) in an experimental filarial model. The expression of WbTRX and WbTPX in different stages of the parasite and their cross-reactivity were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins and their protective efficacy were studied in animal models when immunized in single or cocktail mode. The antigens showed cross-reactive epitopes and induced high humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Further, parasite challenge against Brugia malayi L3 larvae in Mastomys coucha conferred significant protection of 57% and 62% against WbTRX and WbTPX respectively. The efficacy of L3 clearance was significantly higher (71%) (P <  0.001) when the antigens were immunized together, showing a synergistic effect in multiple-mode vaccination. Hence, the study suggests WbTRX and WbTPX to be attractive vaccine candidates when immunized together and provides a tandem block for parasite elimination in the control of lymphatic filariasis.

  8. Corallopyronin A - a promising antibiotic for treatment of filariasis.

    PubMed

    Schäberle, Till F; Schiefer, Andrea; Schmitz, Alexander; König, Gabriele M; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are diseases of severe morbidity that affect the poorest of the poor in the world. The diseases are caused by filarial nematodes that are transmitted by mosquitoes or biting blackflies and are endemic to more than 80 countries worldwide, mainly in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current control programs aim to eliminate the diseases by distributing antifilarial drugs. However, the primary effect of the drugs is to kill the microfilariae in the blood or skin, thus preventing uptake by the obligate insect vector. Since the adult worms live 10 years or longer, drug distribution requires many years of treatment, which is a heavy burden on the burgeoning health care systems. Sub-optimal response, possible resistance and inadequate population coverage lessen the chances for successful elimination in all endemic areas. The search for new drugs that could enhance elimination by permanently sterilizing or killing adult worms has identified the Wolbachia intracellular bacteria of filarial nematodes as a target. Depleting the obligate endosymbionts from the worms with doxycycline or rifampicin causes a permanent block in oogenesis, embryogenesis and development, and in slow death of the adult worms. These two antibiotics are suitable for individual drug administration, but caveats exist for their inclusion in broader drug administration programs. Here we review Wolbachia as targets for antifilarial drug discovery and highlight the natural product corallopyronin A as an effective drug that is currently being developed specifically for use against filarial nematodes.

  9. Screening Mosquito House Entry Points as a Potential Method for Integrated Control of Endophagic Filariasis, Arbovirus and Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ogoma, Sheila B.; Lweitoijera, Dickson W.; Ngonyani, Hassan; Furer, Benjamin; Russell, Tanya L.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Killeen, Gerry F.; Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. Methodology The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. Findings 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR)  = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01); Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. Significance This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria. PMID:20689815

  10. δ-Cadinene, Calarene and .δ-4-Carene from Kadsura heteroclita Essential Oil as Novel Larvicides Against Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are major vectors of important pathogens and parasites. Malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis and Japanese encephalitis cause millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is being challenging due to the development of pesticide resistance and negative environmental concerns. In this scenario, plants employed in traditional Asian medicine may be alternative sources of newer and effective mosquitocides. In this research, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of Kadsura heteroclita leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents (δ-Cadinene, Calarene and δ-4-Carene) against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of K. heteroclita contained 33 compounds. The major chemical components were δ-Cadinene (18.3%), Calarene (14.8%) and δ-4-Carene (12.5%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 102.86, 111.79 and 121.97 µg/mL. The three major constituents extracted from the K. heteroclita EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. δ-Cadinene, Calarene and δ-4-Carene appeared most effective against An. stephensi (LC50 = 8.23, 12.34 and 16.37 µg/mL, r espectively) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 9.03, 13.33 and 17.91 µg/mL), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50; = 9.86, 14.49 and 19.50 µg/mL). Overall, this study adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito. PMID:27151483

  11. Mapping of lymphatic filariasis: "to be (in English) or not to be".

    PubMed

    Carme, B

    2010-12-01

    Despite lack of supporting evidence from epidemiologic studies and/or confirmed case reports over the last 30 years, maps in non-specialist works on tropical medicine as well as in documents from specialized organizations (e.g. WHO) systematically include Congo and Gabon, two French-speaking countries, within the zone of endemic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. One certainty is that no cases were found in field studies carried out in these countries in the late 1970s and 1980s but unfortunately published only in French. Studies that we carried out in the Congo between 1982 and 1987 as part of the National Project on Onchocerciasis and Other Filarioses confirmed the presence of four types of human filariasis: onchocerciasis, loaiasis filarioses caused by Mansonella perstans and M. streptocerca. However, there were no confirmed cases of lymphatic filariosis (bancroftosis). Hopefully the WHO program aimed at the elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem will provide up-to-date data on the distribution and endemicity of filariasis in Central Africa. Achievement of this objective will depend not only on carrying out new field studies but also on taking into account past studies published in languages other than Shakespeare's. PMID:21520639

  12. Modelling of filariasis in East Java with Poisson regression and generalized Poisson regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnah

    2016-04-01

    Poisson regression has been used if the response variable is count data that based on the Poisson distribution. The Poisson distribution assumed equal dispersion. In fact, a situation where count data are over dispersion or under dispersion so that Poisson regression inappropriate because it may underestimate the standard errors and overstate the significance of the regression parameters, and consequently, giving misleading inference about the regression parameters. This paper suggests the generalized Poisson regression model to handling over dispersion and under dispersion on the Poisson regression model. The Poisson regression model and generalized Poisson regression model will be applied the number of filariasis cases in East Java. Based regression Poisson model the factors influence of filariasis are the percentage of families who don't behave clean and healthy living and the percentage of families who don't have a healthy house. The Poisson regression model occurs over dispersion so that we using generalized Poisson regression. The best generalized Poisson regression model showing the factor influence of filariasis is percentage of families who don't have healthy house. Interpretation of result the model is each additional 1 percentage of families who don't have healthy house will add 1 people filariasis patient.

  13. A focus of lymphatic filariasis in a tea garden worker community of central Assam.

    PubMed

    Khan, A M; Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Mahanta, J

    2004-10-01

    A survey for lymphatic filariasis was conducted among tea garden workers of central Assam. Of the 656 night blood samples examined, 31 were found positive for Wuchereria bancrofti parasite (microfilaria rate 4.7%). Microfilaria rate was higher in male (7.3%) than females (2.1%). Culex quinquefasciatus was incriminated as vector mosquito. PMID:15907073

  14. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. PMID:26995063

  15. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors.

  16. Complex Ecological Dynamics and Eradicability of the Vector Borne Macroparasitic Disease, Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Manoj; Michael, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Background The current global efforts to control the morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases affecting developing countries—such as HIV/AIDS, polio, tuberculosis, malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)—have led to an increasing focus on the biological controllability or eradicability of disease transmission by management action. Here, we use an age-structured dynamical model of lymphatic filariasis transmission to show how a quantitative understanding of the dynamic processes underlying infection persistence and extinction is key to evaluating the eradicability of this macroparasitic disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the persistence and extinction dynamics of lymphatic filariasis by undertaking a numerical equilibrium analysis of a deterministic model of parasite transmission, based on varying values of the initial L3 larval density in the system. The results highlighted the likely occurrence of complex dynamics in parasite transmission with three major outcomes for the eradicability of filariasis. First, both vector biting and worm breakpoint thresholds are shown to be complex dynamic entities with values dependent on the nature and magnitude of vector-and host specific density-dependent processes and the degree of host infection aggregation prevailing in endemic communities. Second, these thresholds as well as the potential size of the attractor domains and hence system resilience are strongly dependent on peculiarities of infection dynamics in different vector species. Finally, the existence of multiple stable states indicates the presence of hysteresis nonlinearity in the filariasis system dynamics in which infection thresholds for infection invasion are lower but occur at higher biting rates than do the corresponding thresholds for parasite elimination. Conclusions/Significance The variable dynamic nature of thresholds and parasite system resilience reflecting both initial conditions and vector species

  17. Seventh meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: reaching the vision by scaling up, scaling down, and reaching out

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the 7th meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF), Washington DC, November 18–19, 2012. The theme, “A Future Free of Lymphatic Filariasis: Reaching the Vision by Scaling Up, Scaling Down and Reaching Out”, emphasized new strategies and partnerships necessary to reach the 2020 goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public-health problem. PMID:24450283

  18. Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis) Elimination: A public health success and development opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, David

    2003-01-01

    Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, launched following World Health Assembly Resolution 50.29 (WHA 50.29), has been facilitated in its progress by new research findings, drug donations, the availability of diagnostic tools, disability management strategies to help those already suffering and the development of partnerships. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization of annual treatment with a two-drug combination has proved safe. Discussion Using different approaches in several countries the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been demonstrated to be feasible during earlier decades. These successes have been largely overlooked. However, the programme progress since 2000 has been remarkable – upscaling rapidly from 2 million treatments in 2000 to approximately 60 million in 2002. Around 34 countries had active programmes at the end of 2002. It is anticipated that there will be further expansion – but this will be dependent on additional resources becoming available. The programme also provides significant opportunities for other disease control programmes to deliver public health benefits on a large scale. Few public health programmes have upscaled so rapidly and so cost-effectively (<$0.03/treatment in some Asian settings) – one country treating 9–10 million people in a day (Sri Lanka). The LF programme is arguably the most effective pro-poor public health programme currently operating which is based on country commitment and partnerships supported by a global programme and alliance. Tables are provided to summarize programme characteristics, the benefits of LF elimination, opportunities for integration with other programmes and relevance to the Millennium Development Goals. Summary Lymphatic filariasis elimination is an "easy-to-do" inexpensive health intervention that provides considerable "beyond filariasis" benefits, exemplifies partnership and is easily evaluated. The success in global health

  19. A Comprehensive, Model-Based Review of Vaccine and Repeat Infection Trials for Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C. Paul; Evans, Holly; Larsen, Sasha E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Filarial worms cause highly morbid diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. Since the 1940s, researchers have conducted vaccine trials in 27 different animal models of filariasis. Although no vaccine trial in a permissive model of filariasis has provided sterilizing immunity, great strides have been made toward developing vaccines that could block transmission, decrease pathological sequelae, or decrease susceptibility to infection. In this review, we have organized, to the best of our ability, all published filaria vaccine trials and reviewed them in the context of the animal models used. Additionally, we provide information on the life cycle, disease phenotype, concomitant immunity, and natural immunity during primary and secondary infections for 24 different filaria models. PMID:23824365

  20. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu District.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1992-08-01

    A total of 2,552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this state. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed.

  1. A comprehensive, model-based review of vaccine and repeat infection trials for filariasis.

    PubMed

    Morris, C Paul; Evans, Holly; Larsen, Sasha E; Mitre, Edward

    2013-07-01

    SUMMARY Filarial worms cause highly morbid diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. Since the 1940s, researchers have conducted vaccine trials in 27 different animal models of filariasis. Although no vaccine trial in a permissive model of filariasis has provided sterilizing immunity, great strides have been made toward developing vaccines that could block transmission, decrease pathological sequelae, or decrease susceptibility to infection. In this review, we have organized, to the best of our ability, all published filaria vaccine trials and reviewed them in the context of the animal models used. Additionally, we provide information on the life cycle, disease phenotype, concomitant immunity, and natural immunity during primary and secondary infections for 24 different filaria models.

  2. Multidimensional complexities of filariasis control in an era of large-scale mass drug administration programmes: a can of worms.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Hopkins, Adrian; Bradley, Mark H; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of control and elimination programmes by mass drug administration (MDA) targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades has resulted in significantly reduced prevalence and intensity of infection, with some areas interrupting transmission. However, given that these infections are often co-endemic and the drugs (either ivermectin alone or combined with albendazole) also impact on soil transmitted helminths (STH), the importance of this, in terms of reaching the global goals has not been assessed. The additional problem posed by Loa loa, where ivermectin cannot be safely administered due to the risk of serious adverse events compounds this situation and has left populations drug naïve and an alternative strategy to eliminate LF is yet to be initiated at scale. Here, we present a series of operational research questions, which must be addressed if the effectiveness of integrated control of filarial and helminth infections is to be understood for the endgame. This is particularly important in the diverse and dynamic epidemiological landscape, which has emerged as a result of the long-term large-scale mass drug administration (or not). There is a need for a more holistic approach to address these questions. Different programmes should examine this increased complexity, given that MDA has multiple impacts, drugs are given over different periods, and programmes have different individual targets. PMID:25128408

  3. In search of a potential diagnostic tool for molecular characterization of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohd; Adnan, Mohd; Khan, Saif; Al-Shammari, Eyad; Mustafa, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic disease and is caused by the parasites Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti), Brugia malayi (B. malayi) and Brugia timori (B. timori). In the present study, Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite has been used. Previously, it has been reported that the S. cervi shares some common proteins and antigenic determinants with that of human filarial parasite. The larval stages of filarial species usually cannot be identified by classical morphology. Hence, molecular characterization allows the identification of the parasites throughout all their developmental stages. The genomic DNA of S. cervi adult were isolated and estimated spectrophotometrically for the quantitative presence of DNA content. Screening of DNA sequences from filarial DNA GenBank and Expressed Sequence Tags (EST's) were performed for homologous sequences and then multiple sequence alignment was executed. The conserved sequences from multiple sequence alignment were used for In Silico primer designing. The successfully designed primers were used further in PCR amplifications. Therefore, in search of a promising diagnostic tool few genes were identified to be conserved in the human and bovine filariasis and these novel primers deigned may help to develop a promising diagnostic tool for identification of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751881

  4. Are we nearly there yet? Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Neal D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis has been targeted for elimination by 2020, and a threshold of 65% coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) has been adopted by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). A recent review by Babu and Babu of 36 studies of MDA for lymphatic filariasis in India found that coverage, defined as receipt of tablets, ranged from 48.8 to 98.8%, while compliance, defined as actual ingestion of tablets, was 22% lower on average. Moreover, the denominator for these coverage figures is the eligible, rather than total, population. By contrast, the 65% threshold, in the original modelling study, refers to ingestion of tablets in the total population. This corresponds to GPELF's use of ‘epidemiological drug coverage’ as a trigger for the Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS), which indicate whether to proceed to post-MDA surveillance. The existence of less strict definitions of ‘coverage’ should not lead to premature TAS that could impair MDA's sustainability. PMID:25575555

  5. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  6. Diversity and transmission competence in lymphatic filariasis vectors in West Africa, and the implications for accelerated elimination of Anopheles-transmitted filariasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). The strategy adopted is based on the density dependent phenomenon of Facilitation, which hypothesizes that in an area where the vector species transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti are Anopheles mosquitoes, it is feasible to eliminate LF using Mass Drug Administration (MDA) because of the inability of Anopheles species to transmit low-density microfilaraemia. Even though earlier studies have shown Anopheles species can exhibit the process of Facilitation in West Africa, observations point towards the process of Limitation in certain areas, in which case vector control is recommended. Studies on Anopheles species in West Africa have also shown genetic differentiation, cryptic taxa and speciation, insecticide resistance and the existence of molecular and chromosomal forms, all of which could influence the vectorial capacity of the mosquitoes and ultimately the elimination goal. This paper outlines the uniqueness of LF vectors in West Africa and the challenges it poses to the 2020 elimination goal, based on the current MDA strategies. PMID:23151383

  7. Incidental Diagnosis of Filariasis in Superficial Location by FNAC: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Pratima; Jha, Aditi; Chauhan, Nidhi; Chand, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Filariasis, transmitted by the bite of various species of mosquito, is a common disease of tropical belt of the world. In South East Asia, including India, it is a major public health problem. The parasite is primarily confined to Lymphatic channel or lymph nodes where it can remain viable for more than two decades. The most common presentation of the disease is asymptomatic/ subclinical microfilaremia, Hydrocele, acute adeno-lymphangitis (ADL) and chronic lymphatic disease. However, the disease may rarely present as superficial swellings at unusual sites. Incidental findings of microfilaria on fine needle aspiration cytology in these situations, helps in prompt recognition of the disease. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidental diagnosis of Filariasis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), done for swellings in superficial locations over last ten years at our institute. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 10 years from April 2003 to March 2013 on the cases where FNAC was carried out on swellings in superficial locations of the body. Twenty cases of filariasis were diagnosed on routine FNAC material obtained from various superficial sites. Their data was retrieved and analyzed. Results: Among the 20 cases diagnosed as filariasis on FNAC, six cases involved lymph nodes, six involved testiculo-scrotal region, three cases of thyroid swelling, soft tissue swelling in three cases and breast lump in two cases. On FNA smears, microfilariae were seen in all 20 cases, eggs in three cases, adult female worm in two cases and adult male worm in one case. Adherence of inflammatory cells and macrophages to microfilariae was noticed in 4 cases. Eosinophilia was present in seven cases. Microfilaremia was present in only three cases. Causative agent was Wuchereria bancrofti in all cases. Conclusion: Although not so common, filariasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of

  8. Filaria monitoring visualization system: a geographical information system-based application to manage lymphatic filariasis in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Suryanaryana Murty; Mutheneni, Srinivasa Rao; Kumaraswamy, Sriram; Kadiri, Madhusudhan Rao; Pabbisetty, Sampath Kumar; Yellepeddi, Venkata Suryanarayana Murthy

    2012-05-01

    Among various public health diseases, filariasis constitutes a major public health problem in India, wherein an estimated 553.7 million people are at risk of infection. The aim of this article is to present a spatial mapping and analysis of filariasis data over a 3-year period (2004-2007) from Karimnagar, Chittoor, East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The data include epidemiological and entomological studies (i.e., infection rate, infectivity rate, mosquito per man hour, and microfilaria rate). These parameters were customized on Geographical Information System (GIS) platform and developed filaria monitoring visualization system (FMVS) for identifying the endemic/risk areas of filariasis among these four districts. GIS map for filariasis transmission from the study areas was created and stratified into different spatial entities like low, medium, and high risk zones. On the basis of the data and FMVS maps, it was demonstrated that filariasis remained unevenly distributed within the districts. Balancing the intervention coverage in different villages with overall mass drug administration and continued promotion of the proper use of control measures are necessary for further reduction of filarial cases in these districts.

  9. A case study of risk factors for lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Central Africa. We studied the epidemiology of LF in an endemic village in the Republic of Congo. Methods Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia (ICT card test) and microfilaremia (night blood smears). The following factors were investigated: sex, age, bed net, latrines, source of water, uptake of anthelmintic drugs, hunting/fishing activities, and occasionally sleeping in the bush. Mixed multivariate logistic regression models were used. Results 134 of 774 subjects aged ≥ 5 years (17.3%) had W. bancrofti antigenemia and 41 (5.3%) had microfilaremia (mf). Infection rates increased with age up to roughly 20 years and remained stable thereafter. Multivariate analysis of antigenemia demonstrated an increased risk for males (OR = 2.0 [1.3-3.0]) and for people who hunt or fish (OR = 1.5 [1.0-2.4]) and a protective effect of latrines (OR = 0.5 [0.4-0.8]). Among males, those hunting or fishing at night had an increased risk for antigenemia (OR = 1.9 [1.1-3.5]), and use of latrines was protective (OR = 0.5 [0.3-0.9]). For females, bed nets were protective (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]), and there was a strong household effect (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.24). When mf was used as the dependent variable, males had a higher risk for infection (OR = 5.4 [2.1-13.4]), latrines had a protective effect (OR = 0.4 [0.1-0.9]) and there was a marked household effect (ICC = 0.49). Conclusions Age, sex, and occupation-dependent exposure to mosquitoes were important risk factors for infection with W. bancrofti in this study. It is likely that men often acquire infection in high transmission areas outside of the village, while children and women are infected in areas with lower transmission inside or near the village. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these findings apply to other areas in Central Africa. PMID:24984769

  10. On the Thermal Stability of the Diethylcarbamazine-Fortified Table Salt Used in the Control of Lymphatic Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Sara B; da Silva, Cecília C P; de Oliveira, Yara S; Mendonça, Jorge S; Boechat, Nubia; Ellena, Javier; Ayala, Alejandro P

    2016-08-01

    Diethylcarbamazine, administered as a water-soluble citrate salt, has been used for more than 50 years as the first-line drug in the treatment of lymphatic filariasis. Mass drug administration programs have been successful in reducing microfilaremia and providing important collateral deworming benefits. One of these initiatives is based on the addition of diethylcarbamazine citrate to table salt. The fortified salt retaining the efficacy of the drug in reducing microfilaremia, but there is little information about its behavior above room temperature. In this study, the thermal stability of diethylcarbamazine, as a free base and a citrate salt, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry under different conditions. Diethylcarbamazine does not release hazardous degradation substances above its melting point. It was also confirmed that this drug is stable at normal cooking temperatures, even when dry heat cooking methods, such as baking or grilling, are considered. However, if the drug is formulated as a salt, as in the case of the citrate, special attention needs to be given to the degradation substances of the counter ion. PMID:27397435

  11. Prospects, drawbacks and future needs of xenomonitoring for the endpoint evaluation of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs in Africa.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Patricia N; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2016-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori parasitic worms and transmitted by Culex, Anopheles, Aedes and Mansonia mosquitoes. Mass drug administration (MDA) to reduce the infection levels in the human population is the key component of LF elimination programs. However, the potential of the use of vector control is gaining recognition as a tool that can complement MDA. The method of monitoring the parasites in mosquito vectors is known as xenomonitoring. Monitoring of vectors for filarial larvae is an important assessment tool for LF elimination programs. Xenomonitoring has the advantage of giving a real-time estimate of disease, because the pre-patent period may take months after infection in humans. It is a non-invasive sensitive tool for assessing the presence of LF in endemic areas. The aim of this review is to discuss the prospects, challenges and needs of xenomonitoring as a public health tool, in the post-MDA evaluation activities of national LF elimination programs. PMID:26822601

  12. Post-Mass Drug Administration Transmission Assessment Survey for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in La Ciénaga, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Blount, Stephen; Gonzalez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The Dominican Republic is one of four remaining countries in the Americas with lymphatic filariasis (LF). Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine was conducted in La Ciénaga, an impoverished urban barrio in Santo Domingo, from 2004 to 2006. Eight years after the last MDA, a transmission assessment survey (TAS) was conducted in November-December 2014 to determine if LF transmission remains absent. Of 815 first and second grade primary school students (mean age: 6.51 years; range 5-9) tested by immunochromatographic test (ICT), zero (0.0%) were positive. This is below the TAS critical cutoff of nine, indicating that the area "passed" TAS and that transmission remains interrupted in La Ciénaga. Importantly, this also provides evidence that three rounds of effective (> 65% coverage) MDA, likely aided by environmental improvements and periodic school-based albendazole monotherapy MDA, achieved interruption of LF transmission from a relatively low-transmission setting.

  13. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  14. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell (Zingiberaceae) essential oil: an eco-friendly tool against malaria, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors?

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Arivoli, Subramanian; Tennyson, Samuel; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of terms of public health relevance, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The continuous and indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides for the control of mosquito vectors has resulted in the development of resistance and negative impacts on non-target organisms and the environment. Therefore, there is a need for development of effective mosquito control tools. In this study, the larvicidal and repellent activity of Zingiber nimmonii rhizome essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the Z. nimmonii EO contained at least 33 compounds. Major constituents were myrcene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and α-cadinol. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 41.19, 44.46, and 48.26 μg/ml, respectively. Repellency bioassays at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) of Z. nimmonii EO gave 100 % protection up to 120, 150, and 180 min. against An. stephensi, followed by Ae. aegypti (90, 120, and 150 min) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (60, 90, and 120 min). Furthermore, the EO was safer towards two non-target aquatic organisms, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values of 3241.53 and 9250.12 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides and repellent from Zingiberaceae plants against malaria, dengue, and filariasis mosquito vectors. PMID:26792432

  15. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  16. Lymphatic filariasis transmission risk map of India, based on a geo-environmental risk model.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Raju, Konuganti Hari Kishan; Subramanian, Swaminathan; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2013-09-01

    The strategy adopted by a global program to interrupt transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is mass drug administration (MDA) using chemotherapy. India also followed this strategy by introducing MDA in the historically known endemic areas. All other areas, which remained unsurveyed, were presumed to be nonendemic and left without any intervention. Therefore, identification of LF transmission risk areas in the entire country has become essential so that they can be targeted for intervention. A geo-environmental risk model (GERM) developed earlier was used to create a filariasis transmission risk map for India. In this model, a Standardized Filariasis Transmission Risk Index (SFTRI, based on geo-environmental risk variables) was used as a predictor of transmission risk. The relationship between SFTRI and endemicity (historically known) of an area was quantified by logistic regression analysis. The quantified relationship was validated by assessing the filarial antigenemia status of children living in the unsurveyed areas through a ground truth study. A significant positive relationship was observed between SFTRI and the endemicity of an area. Overall, the model prediction of filarial endemic status of districts was found to be correct in 92.8% of the total observations. Thus, among the 190 districts hitherto unsurveyed, as many as 113 districts were predicted to be at risk, and the remaining at no risk. The GERM developed on geographic information system (GIS) platform is useful for LF spatial delimitation on a macrogeographic/regional scale. Furthermore, the risk map developed will be useful for the national LF elimination program by identifying areas at risk for intervention and for undertaking surveillance in no-risk areas.

  17. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis among the Nicobarese of Nicobar district - epidemiology, vector dynamics & prospects of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Shriram, A.N.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Vijayachari, P.

    2015-01-01

    In India diurnally subperiodic filariasis (DspWB) is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Studies undertaken at different points of time indicate that this form of filariasis is restricted to a small region in Nancowry group of islands where it is transmitted by mosquito Downsiomyia nivea, a day biting mosquito. Studies on prevalence, distribution, and assessment of endemicity status, vector incrimination, bioecology, host seeking behaviour, population dynamics of the vector, transmission dynamics and clinical epidemiology indicate the prevalence and persistence of this infection in the Nancowry group of islands with perennial transmission. There was no control programme in these islands, until the National programme to eliminate filariasis was launched in 2004. Eight rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) + albendazole have been completed. Despite this, microfilaria prevalence remains at above one per cent, the level identified for initiating transmission assessment survey to decide on continuation of MDA further. This necessitates adjunct measures to the ongoing MDA programme in these islands. The vector control options could be an adjunct measure, but the vector is a forest dweller with a unique bio-ecology, therefore, not a technically feasible option. Use of DEC fortified salt for six months to one year could hasten the process of elimination. Although administration of DEC-fortified salt is simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for evolving operationally realistic strategy. Such a strategy requires commitment of all sections of the society, a distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt in the Nancowry islands. Here we discuss the plan of action to serve the indigenous communities and operationalizing DEC fortified salt strategy through an inter-sectoral approach involving multiple stakeholders. PMID:26139777

  18. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis among the Nicobarese of Nicobar district - epidemiology, vector dynamics & prospects of elimination.

    PubMed

    Shriram, A N; Krishnamoorthy, K; Vijayachari, P

    2015-05-01

    In India diurnally subperiodic filariasis (DspWB) is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Studies undertaken at different points of time indicate that this form of filariasis is restricted to a small region in Nancowry group of islands where it is transmitted by mosquito Downsiomyia nivea, a day biting mosquito. Studies on prevalence, distribution, and assessment of endemicity status, vector incrimination, bioecology, host seeking behaviour, population dynamics of the vector, transmission dynamics and clinical epidemiology indicate the prevalence and persistence of this infection in the Nancowry group of islands with perennial transmission. There was no control programme in these islands, until the National programme to eliminate filariasis was launched in 2004. Eight rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) + albendazole have been completed. Despite this, microfilaria prevalence remains at above one per cent, the level identified for initiating transmission assessment survey to decide on continuation of MDA further. This necessitates adjunct measures to the ongoing MDA programme in these islands. The vector control options could be an adjunct measure, but the vector is a forest dweller with a unique bio-ecology, therefore, not a technically feasible option. Use of DEC fortified salt for six months to one year could hasten the process of elimination. Although administration of DEC-fortified salt is simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for evolving operationally realistic strategy. Such a strategy requires commitment of all sections of the society, a distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt in the Nancowry islands. Here we discuss the plan of action to serve the indigenous communities and operationalizing DEC fortified salt strategy through an inter-sectoral approach involving multiple stakeholders. PMID:26139777

  19. Diurnally subperiodic filariasis among the Nicobarese of Nicobar district - epidemiology, vector dynamics & prospects of elimination.

    PubMed

    Shriram, A N; Krishnamoorthy, K; Vijayachari, P

    2015-05-01

    In India diurnally subperiodic filariasis (DspWB) is prevalent only in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Studies undertaken at different points of time indicate that this form of filariasis is restricted to a small region in Nancowry group of islands where it is transmitted by mosquito Downsiomyia nivea, a day biting mosquito. Studies on prevalence, distribution, and assessment of endemicity status, vector incrimination, bioecology, host seeking behaviour, population dynamics of the vector, transmission dynamics and clinical epidemiology indicate the prevalence and persistence of this infection in the Nancowry group of islands with perennial transmission. There was no control programme in these islands, until the National programme to eliminate filariasis was launched in 2004. Eight rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) + albendazole have been completed. Despite this, microfilaria prevalence remains at above one per cent, the level identified for initiating transmission assessment survey to decide on continuation of MDA further. This necessitates adjunct measures to the ongoing MDA programme in these islands. The vector control options could be an adjunct measure, but the vector is a forest dweller with a unique bio-ecology, therefore, not a technically feasible option. Use of DEC fortified salt for six months to one year could hasten the process of elimination. Although administration of DEC-fortified salt is simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective, challenges are to be tackled for evolving operationally realistic strategy. Such a strategy requires commitment of all sections of the society, a distribution mechanism that ensures the use of DEC-fortified salt in the Nancowry islands. Here we discuss the plan of action to serve the indigenous communities and operationalizing DEC fortified salt strategy through an inter-sectoral approach involving multiple stakeholders.

  20. Lymphatic filariasis: disease outbreaks in military deployments from World War II.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Melrose, Wayne

    2005-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is the second most common parasitic disease worldwide, after malaria. It should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for military personnel returning from disease-endemic areas. Numerous outbreaks of LF have been reported in military deployments from World War II. In contrast to the presentation of LF in indigenous populations, which often involves such uncommon complications as elephantiasis and hydrocele, the clinical presentation of LF in military personnel can vary widely and is often vague and nondescript. Common symptoms are pain and swelling of the genitalia, closely followed by lymphangitis of the arms and legs. All three species produce similar disease.

  1. Breast Filariasis Diagnosed by Real Time Sonographic Imaging: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sherwani, Poonam; Singhal, Shweta; Kumar, Nidhi; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Anand, Rama; Pathania, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a palpable subcutaneous nodule in the areolar region of the left breast. Sonomammographic examination revealed 2 cystic lesions showing typical "filarial dance" as vigorous twirling movement of multiple curvilinear echoes with mixed red blue color Doppler signals that was non-rhythmic, nonpulsatile, and the characteristic pulse Doppler trace due to irregular worm movement. Real time sonographic demonstration of these typical features is pathognomonic for filariasis, especially in endemic areas and treatment should be initiated without delay on the basis of ultrasound. PMID:27110331

  2. A case report of Brugian filariasis outside an endemic area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yokmek, S; Warunyuwong, W; Rojanapanus, S; Jiraamornimit, C; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

    2013-12-01

    A 2-year-old boy living outside the endemic area of lymphatic filariasis in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, developed a high fever. To investigate the cause of his presenting symptoms, blood was collected and microfilariae were detected and identified as Brugia malayi using thick blood smear staining. The sources of the infection were investigated. Microfilariae from two domestic cats residing in the boy's village were detected and identified as B. pahangi using a high-resolution melting real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The possible sources of this cryptic infection are discussed.

  3. Assessing numbers and faces: a prerequisite for improving access to lymphatic filariasis morbidity care.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Fürst, Thomas; Addiss, David G; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-06-01

    Concerted efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis worldwide have registered success; multiple rounds of mass drug administration have led to the interruption of transmission in many previously endemic areas. However, the management of patients with established clinical disease (e.g., lymphoedema, hydrocoele and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis) has not been addressed sufficiently. Two recent studies from Malawi underscore the need for accurate epidemiological and clinical data, and comprehensive morbidity assessments across various domains of daily life. Addressing these issues will guide the implementation of programmes to improve access to treatment and disability prevention for affected individuals in Malawi and beyond.

  4. Filariasis in the labour population of a tea estate in Upper Assam.

    PubMed

    Dutta, P; Gogoi, B K; Chelleng, P K; Bhattacharyya, D R; Khan, S A; Goswami, B K; Mahanta, J

    1995-06-01

    Preliminary random and mass blood surveys undertaken between 2000-0100 h in a tea garden of Upper Assam revealed more than 8 per cent positivity for microfilaria (mf) of Wuchereria bancrofti. The mf carriers were considerably high among males (73) as compared to females (48). Culex quinquefasciatus was incriminated as a vector with man hour density of 68.5 in human dwellings (indoors). The detection of mf in children who had never moved from the area and filaria larvae in vector mosquitoes collected from human dwellings indicate that indigenous transmission is going on in the garden and that filariasis has become a local health problem. PMID:7672834

  5. A Review of Factors That Influence Individual Compliance with Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Krentel, Alison; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The success of programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) depends in large part on their ability to achieve and sustain high levels of compliance with mass drug administration (MDA). This paper reports results from a comprehensive review of factors that affect compliance with MDA. Methodology/Principal Findings Papers published between 2000 and 2012 were considered, and 79 publications were included in the final dataset for analysis after two rounds of selection. While results varied in different settings, some common features were associated with successful programs and with compliance by individuals. Training and motivation of drug distributors is critically important, because these people directly interact with target populations, and their actions can affect MDA compliance decisions by families and individuals. Other important programmatic issues include thorough preparation of personnel, supplies, and logistics for implementation and preparation of the population for MDA. Demographic factors (age, sex, income level, and area of residence) are often associated with compliance by individuals, but compliance decisions are also affected by perceptions of the potential benefits of participation versus the risk of adverse events. Trust and information can sometimes offset fear of the unknown. While no single formula can ensure success MDA in all settings, five key ingredients were identified: engender trust, tailor programs to local conditions, take actions to minimize the impact of adverse events, promote the broader benefits of the MDA program, and directly address the issue of systematic non-compliance, which harms communities by prolonging their exposure to LF. Conclusions/Significance This review has identified factors that promote coverage and compliance with MDA for LF elimination across countries. This information may be helpful for explaining results that do not meet expectations and for developing remedies for ailing MDA programs. Our

  6. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W

    2008-08-13

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  7. Zoonotic Brugia pahangi filariasis in a suburbia of Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lian Huat; Fong, Mun Yik; Mahmud, Rohela; Muslim, Azdayanti; Lau, Yee Ling; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2011-01-01

    Five local Malaysian patients with clinical manifestations consistent with lymphatic filariasis were referred to our medical centre between 2003 and 2006. Although no microfilariae (mf) were detected in their nocturnal blood samples, all were diagnosed to have lymphatic filariasis on the basis of clinical findings and positive serology results. PCR on their blood samples revealed that two of the patients were infected with Brugia pahangi, an animal filarial worm hitherto not known to cause human disease in the natural environment. All the patients were successfully treated with anti-filarial drugs: four patients were treated with a combination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole, and one with doxycycline. Four of them were residents of Petaling Jaya, a residential suburbia located 10 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The fifth patient was a frequent visitor of the suburbia. This suburbia has no history or record of B. malayi infection. The most likely vector of the worm was Armigeres subalbatus as extensive entomological surveys within the suburbia revealed only adult females of this mosquito species were infected with B. pahangi larvae. Wild monkeys caught in the suburbia were free from B. pahangi mf, but domestic cats were mf positive. This suggests that infected cats might be the source of the zoonotic infection in the suburbia.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dengue and Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors along an Altitudinal Transect in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Kreß, Aljoscha; Müller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapidly increasing temperatures in the mountain region of Nepal and recent reports of dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases from mountainous areas of central Nepal prompted us to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the vectors of these two diseases along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a longitudinal study in four distinct physiographical regions of central Nepal from September 2011 to February 2012. We used BG-Sentinel and CDC light traps to capture adult mosquitoes. We found the geographical distribution of the dengue virus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus along our study transect to extend up to 1,310 m altitude in the Middle Mountain region (Kathmandu). The distribution of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus extended up to at least 2,100 m in the High Mountain region (Dhunche). Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the physiographical region and month of collection on the abundance of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus only. BG-Sentinel traps captured significantly higher numbers of A. aegypti than CDC light traps. The meteorological factors temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had significant effects on the mean number of A. aegypti per BG-Sentinel trap. Temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of the number of C. quinquefasciatus per CDC light trap. Dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases had previously been reported from all vector positive areas except Dhunche which was free of known lymphatic filariasis cases. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that dengue virus vectors have already established stable populations up to the Middle Mountains of Nepal, supporting previous studies, and report for the first time the distribution of lymphatic filariasis vectors up to the High Mountain region of this country. The findings of our study should contribute to a better planning and scaling-up of mosquito

  9. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC₅₀) = 22.44 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC₅₀ = 25.77 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 27.83 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  10. Historic accounts of Mansonella parasitaemias in the South Pacific and their relevance to lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts today.

    PubMed

    Crainey, J Lee; Ribeiro da Silva, Túllio Romão; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2016-03-01

    There are two species of filarial parasites with sheathless microfilariae known to commonly cause parasitaemias in humans: Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. In most contemporary accounts of the distribution of these parasites, neither is usually considered to occur anywhere in the Eastern Hemisphere. However, Sir Patrick Manson, who first described both parasite species, recorded the existence of sheathless sharp-tailed Mansonella ozzardi-like parasites occurring in the blood of natives from New Guinea in each and every version of his manual for tropical disease that he wrote before his death in 1922. Manson's reports were based on his own identifications and were made from at least two independent blood sample collections that were taken from the island. Pacific region Mansonella perstans parasitaemias were also later (in 1923) reported to occur in New Guinea and once before this (in 1905) in Fiji. Although Mansonella-parasitaemias are generally regarded as benign, they are thought to be of public health importance because they can affect the epidemiological monitoring of other filarial diseases. In this article, we reviewed the historic literature concerning Pacific-origin Mansonella-parasitaemias in an attempt to explain how, despite repeated reports of Pacific-region Mansonella-parasitaemias, by as early as the 1970s, the WHO had arrived at the present-day view that Wuchereria bancrofti is the only cause of filarial parasitaemias in Papua New Guinea. We have also evaluated the evidence supporting the contemporary existence of Pacific-area parasitaemia-causing Mansonella parasites and assessed the relevance such parasites could have for present-day lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts in the region.

  11. Historic accounts of Mansonella parasitaemias in the South Pacific and their relevance to lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts today.

    PubMed

    Crainey, J Lee; Ribeiro da Silva, Túllio Romão; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2016-03-01

    There are two species of filarial parasites with sheathless microfilariae known to commonly cause parasitaemias in humans: Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi. In most contemporary accounts of the distribution of these parasites, neither is usually considered to occur anywhere in the Eastern Hemisphere. However, Sir Patrick Manson, who first described both parasite species, recorded the existence of sheathless sharp-tailed Mansonella ozzardi-like parasites occurring in the blood of natives from New Guinea in each and every version of his manual for tropical disease that he wrote before his death in 1922. Manson's reports were based on his own identifications and were made from at least two independent blood sample collections that were taken from the island. Pacific region Mansonella perstans parasitaemias were also later (in 1923) reported to occur in New Guinea and once before this (in 1905) in Fiji. Although Mansonella-parasitaemias are generally regarded as benign, they are thought to be of public health importance because they can affect the epidemiological monitoring of other filarial diseases. In this article, we reviewed the historic literature concerning Pacific-origin Mansonella-parasitaemias in an attempt to explain how, despite repeated reports of Pacific-region Mansonella-parasitaemias, by as early as the 1970s, the WHO had arrived at the present-day view that Wuchereria bancrofti is the only cause of filarial parasitaemias in Papua New Guinea. We have also evaluated the evidence supporting the contemporary existence of Pacific-area parasitaemia-causing Mansonella parasites and assessed the relevance such parasites could have for present-day lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts in the region. PMID:26972389

  12. Mass drug administration against filariasis in India: perceptions and practices in a rural community in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Aswathy, S; Beteena, K; Leelamoni, K

    2009-10-01

    In India, annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) based on diethylcarbamazine and albendazole are used to control filariasis, which is a major public-health problem. In December 2007/January 2008, a few weeks after one such MDA, a household survey was conducted in the Ernakulam district of Kerala to evaluate coverage and compliance. After one member aged >14 years from each of 599 households was interviewed, coverage of the last MDA was estimated to be 77.0% and compliance only 39.6%. Most (67.4%) of the interviewees were not aware of the term 'mass drug administration' but 20.9% of the others thought that MDA prevented the occurrence of filariasis. Most (62.3%) of those interviewed said that they obtained information about MDA from television or radio programmes and/or newspapers and most (66.3%) considered MDA to be useful (only 5.0% said that MDA were not useful, the other interviewees saying that they did not know whether MDA were useful or not). Those who had not ingested the tablets given to them in the last MDA said that they were fearful of the drugs (39.4% of the non-compliers), were too ill to take the drugs (22.5%) or had misconceptions about the aims of the MDA (12.5%). Only 2.7% of the interviewees who had ingested the distributed tablets reported adverse effects and these were mild (fever, drowsiness, swelling/oedema and/or vomiting) and only occurred within 24 h of tablet ingestion. In a univariate analysis, individual compliance in the last MDA was found to be positively associated with perceived benefits to the individual (P<0.001), the perceived usefulness of MDA (P=0.001) and certain study wards within the panchayat (P=0.032). It therefore appears that communication exercises targeted at the areas with relatively low compliance and designed to improve perceptions of the benefits and usefulness of MDA against filariasis could be the key to a successful control programme. PMID:19825283

  13. Application of geographical information system for lymphatic filariasis and malaria control in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okorie, P N

    2014-06-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is defined as an information system used to capture, store, edit, retrieve, analyze and visualize geographically referenced data. The use of GIS is one technology that is very useful in the prevention and control of Vector Borne Diseases (VBDs) such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and malaria which cause high morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. This paper focuses on how the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) can be harnessed for surveillance, prevention and control of LF and malaria in Nigeria. GIS can be used as an operational tool to assist with resource allocation, as a monitoring and evaluation tool and as a tool to investigate various research projects on spatial aspects of LF and malaria epidemiology. This paper provides information on the benefits and potential of using GIS as a tool for the national malaria and LF control programmes with particular reference to Nigeria.

  14. Recurrent Hemorrhagic Pericardial Effusion and Tamponade due to Filariasis Successfully Treated with Ivermectin and Albendazole.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Sachan, Mohit; Saraf, Sameer; Verma, Chandra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Filariasis presenting with pericardial effusion with tamponade is rare. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who was admitted with severe dyspnea and chest pain since 2 days. Echocardiogram showed massive pericardial effusion with tamponade. Pericardial fluid aspiration drained 1.2 L of hemorrhagic fluid. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. She was treated with diethyl carbamazine and discharged. Six weeks later, she presented again with massive pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was done. Cytology examination revealed microfilaria of W. bancrofti. This time she was treated with ivermectin and albendazole and cured. Hemorrhagic effusion resolved completely. Though relatively uncommon, tropical diseases must always be considered in the etiological diagnosis of recurrent pericardial effusion. PMID:26240733

  15. Toxicity of some plant extracts against vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Hasaballah, Ahmed I

    2015-04-01

    Many insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex pipiens, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants extracts against C. pipiens larvae. The toxic effects of both ethanolic and petroleum ether plant extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions against 3rd instar larvae of C. pipiens. Forty ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of 10 plants namely Echinochloa stagninum, Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes, Rhizophora mucronata, Cichorium intybus, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Azadirachta indica, Rosmarinus officinalis and Nigella sativa. On the basis of LC50, the toxic effect of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction and the extract concentrations. The petroleum ether extraction was more effective against mosquito as compared with ethanolic extraction. The most effective plant extract was A. indica followed by Ph. australis, N. sativa, C. intybus, R. officinalis, O. basilicum, O. majorana, E. stagninum, Rh. Mucronata and E. crassipes. PMID:26012233

  16. Biology and control of Taeniorhynchus (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald, the chief vector of rural filariasis in Ceylon

    PubMed Central

    Antonipulle, P.; David, H. V.; Karunaratne, M. D. R.

    1958-01-01

    Residual spraying of DDT for the control of Taeniorhynchus (Mansonioides) uniformis, the mosquito vector of rural filariasis in Ceylon, was carried out in Induruwa, a village on the west coast of the island. The results showed that the insecticide retained its effectiveness for a period of 4-6 months. During the course of this investigation, various observations were made on the behaviour of T. (M.) uniformis. Its host plants, day-time resting-places, feeding habits, and response to light—particularly moonlight—were recorded. An increase in T. (M.) uniformis prevalence was observed to coincide with the onset of the north-east and south-west monsoons, when the paddy-fields are inundated and become overgrown with Isachne australis, the most common aquatic plant in the area and a favourite breeding-place of this mosquito species. PMID:13585075

  17. Burden of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in an area of low endemicity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Netto, Maria José; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Medeiros, Zulma

    2016-11-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has two main components: interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and managing morbidity and preventing disability. However, interventions to prevent and manage LF-related disabilities in endemic communities have been of limited extent. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of morbidity and its correlation with filarial infection, thereby filling a gap that existed regarding the data on morbidity in Brazil. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria was investigated using the thick smear technique. Information on parasitosis-related clinical manifestations was obtained using a questionnaire applied by community health agents with previous training and capacitation to know about and identify the disease. To analyze correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used with the corresponding statistical significance test. 23,673 individuals were investigated: 323 presented microfilaremia (1.36%) and 741 (3.13%) had clinical complaints that were attributable to LF. Acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) was the most prevalent condition (2.2%). Lymphedema, ADLA and chyluria were more commonly reported among female patients. There were positive associations between all the clinical complaints reported and filarial infection. Hydrocele presented the most strongly positive association (r=0.699; p<0.001). The present study showed that there is an association between clinical condition reported and the rate of infection among people living in an area of low endemicity for LF. It contributes data that might provide support for healthcare systems and thus optimize disease management, through incorporating surveillance measures directed towards preventing disability and reducing the psychosocial and economic impact of the disease on poor populations living in areas endemic for LF.

  18. Burden of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in an area of low endemicity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Netto, Maria José; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Medeiros, Zulma

    2016-11-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has two main components: interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and managing morbidity and preventing disability. However, interventions to prevent and manage LF-related disabilities in endemic communities have been of limited extent. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of morbidity and its correlation with filarial infection, thereby filling a gap that existed regarding the data on morbidity in Brazil. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria was investigated using the thick smear technique. Information on parasitosis-related clinical manifestations was obtained using a questionnaire applied by community health agents with previous training and capacitation to know about and identify the disease. To analyze correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used with the corresponding statistical significance test. 23,673 individuals were investigated: 323 presented microfilaremia (1.36%) and 741 (3.13%) had clinical complaints that were attributable to LF. Acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) was the most prevalent condition (2.2%). Lymphedema, ADLA and chyluria were more commonly reported among female patients. There were positive associations between all the clinical complaints reported and filarial infection. Hydrocele presented the most strongly positive association (r=0.699; p<0.001). The present study showed that there is an association between clinical condition reported and the rate of infection among people living in an area of low endemicity for LF. It contributes data that might provide support for healthcare systems and thus optimize disease management, through incorporating surveillance measures directed towards preventing disability and reducing the psychosocial and economic impact of the disease on poor populations living in areas endemic for LF. PMID:27427218

  19. An ELISA kit with two detection modes for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Wongkamchai, S; Satimai, W; Loymek, S; Nochot, H; Boitano, J J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost antifilarial immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 detection kit for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis. The kit was designed to be used by minimally trained personnel without the constraints of expensive laboratory equipment. We provide a description of the development and validation of a single-serum-dilution based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit with ready-to-use reagents for measuring antifilarial IgG4 antibodies. The kit was tested on residents in Brugia malayi-endemic areas in southern Thailand. Detection was performed by naked-eye observation of the resultant colour of the immunological reactivity. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess the reproducibility of the results. Long-term stability was measured over a 6-month period. Sensitivity of the test kit was 97% when compared with microfilariae detection in thick blood smears. Specificity was 98.7% based on the sera of 57 patients living outside the endemic areas who were infected with other parasites and 100 parasite-free subjects. All positive CVs were < 10%. The test kit was remarkably stable over 6 months. Field validation was performed by the detection of antifilarial IgG4 in 4365 serum samples collected from residents of brugian filariasis-endemic areas and compared with outcome colours of the test samples by the naked eye. Subsequent ELISA evaluation of these results using an ELISA reader indicated high agreement by the kappa statistic. These results demonstrate that the test kit is efficient and useful for public health laboratories as an alternative tool for the diagnosis of lymphatic filarial infection.

  20. Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the ado people of benue state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omudu, Edward Agbo; Ochoga, Jennifer Ochanya

    2011-01-01

    As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients.

  1. A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Wijegunawardana, Asha D.; Premakumara, Welmillage D. Y.; Perera, Samudrika N.; Settinayake, Sunil; Miller, J. Phillip; Weil, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. Methodology and Principal Findings Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of Culex mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA <2%, antibody in school children <2%, and filarial DNA in mosquitoes <0.25%. Community Mf and CFA prevalence rates ranged from 0–0.9% and 0–3.4%, respectively. Infection rates were significantly higher in males and lower in people who denied prior treatment. Antibody rates in school children exceeded 2% in 10 study sites; the area that had the highest community and school CFA rates also had the highest school antibody rate (6.9%). Filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas. Conclusions Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of

  2. Efficacy and safety of drug combinations in the treatment of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Annette

    2007-08-01

    This review concerns the efficacy and safety of combinations of various drugs, including albendazole (ALB), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), ivermectin (IVM), mebendazole and praziquantel (PZQ). There were no significant pharmacokinetic interactions when ALB-PZQ, ALB-DEC, ALB-IVM or ALB-IVM-PZQ were co-administered. ALB did not add to the cure rate of PZQ in the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium. ALB and DEC in combination and alone were ineffective against S. haematobium infections. No combinations (ALB-PZQ, ALB-IVM and ALB-DEC) were superior to ALB against Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infections, whilst IVM, but not PZQ or DEC, added to the effect of ALB in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura. Results with ALB added to single-drug therapy with IVM or DEC against lymphatic filariasis were inconclusive, but DEC and IVM in combination appeared to be superior to DEC or IVM alone. None of the drug combinations against lymphatic filariasis showed more adverse reactions than single-drug therapy. In onchocerciasis patients, ALB and IVM were safe in those also infected with lymphatic filariasis, but were not superior to IVM alone. Existing policies are based on limited knowledge. Well conducted, comparative, randomised controlled studies would greatly aid in the future use of these drug combinations.

  3. Efficacy and safety of drug combinations in the treatment of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Annette

    2007-08-01

    This review concerns the efficacy and safety of combinations of various drugs, including albendazole (ALB), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), ivermectin (IVM), mebendazole and praziquantel (PZQ). There were no significant pharmacokinetic interactions when ALB-PZQ, ALB-DEC, ALB-IVM or ALB-IVM-PZQ were co-administered. ALB did not add to the cure rate of PZQ in the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium. ALB and DEC in combination and alone were ineffective against S. haematobium infections. No combinations (ALB-PZQ, ALB-IVM and ALB-DEC) were superior to ALB against Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infections, whilst IVM, but not PZQ or DEC, added to the effect of ALB in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura. Results with ALB added to single-drug therapy with IVM or DEC against lymphatic filariasis were inconclusive, but DEC and IVM in combination appeared to be superior to DEC or IVM alone. None of the drug combinations against lymphatic filariasis showed more adverse reactions than single-drug therapy. In onchocerciasis patients, ALB and IVM were safe in those also infected with lymphatic filariasis, but were not superior to IVM alone. Existing policies are based on limited knowledge. Well conducted, comparative, randomised controlled studies would greatly aid in the future use of these drug combinations. PMID:17481681

  4. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis.

    PubMed

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Stoicescu, Kristen; Reddy, Maryada Venkatarami; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection. This has substantially reduced the incidence of the infection in several parts of the world. However, a prophylactic vaccine would be more effective in preventing future infections and will supplement the mass chemotherapy efforts. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine available currently to prevent this infection. Molecules expressed on the surface of the parasite are potential candidates for vaccine development as they are exposed to the host immune system. In this study we show that the large extracellular loop of tetraspanin (TSP LEL), a protein expressed on the cuticle of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti is a potential vaccine candidate. Our results showed that BmTSP LEL is expressed on the surface of B. malayi infective third stage larvae (L3) and sera from human subjects who are putatively immune to lymphatic filariasis carry high titer of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies against BmTSP LEL and WbTSP LEL. We also showed that these antibodies in the sera of human subjects can participate in the killing of B. malayi L3 in an antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity mechanism. Vaccination trials in mice showed that close to 64% protection were achieved against challenge infections with B. malayi L3. Immunized animals showed high titer of anti-WbTSP LEL IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies in the sera and IFN-γ secreting cells in the spleen. Onchocerca volvulus another filarial parasite also expresses TSP LEL. Cross-reactivity studies showed that IgG1 antibody in the sera of endemic normal subjects, recognize OvTSP LEL. Similarly, anti-OvTSP LEL antibodies in the sera of subjects who are immune to O. volvulus were also shown to cross-react with rWbTSP LEL and rBmTSP LEL. These findings thus suggested that rTSP LEL can be developed as a potential vaccine candidate against multiple filarial infections

  5. Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis)

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was

  6. Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Goli Penchala; Naidu, M L

    2012-01-01

    At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug 'Nityananda Rasa' 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found

  7. Vaccination with intestinal tract antigens does not induce protective immunity in a permissive model of filariasis.

    PubMed

    Morris, C Paul; Torrero, Marina N; Larson, David; Evans, Holly; Shi, Yinghui; Cox, Rachel T; Mitre, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Antigens obtained from the intestinal tract of filarial nematodes have been proposed as potential safe and effective vaccine candidates. Because they may be 'hidden' from the immune response during natural infection, yet accessible by antibodies induced by vaccination, intestinal antigens may have a low potential for eliciting allergic responses when vaccinating previously infected individuals. Despite prior promising data, vaccination with intestinal antigens has yet to be tested in a permissive model of filariasis. In this study we investigated the efficacy of vaccination with filarial intestinal antigens in the permissive Litomosoides sigmodontis BALB/c model of filariasis, and we evaluated the extent to which these antigens are recognized by the immune system during and after infection. Infected BALB/c mice developed lower IgG antibody responses to soluble intestinal antigens (GutAg) than to soluble antigens of whole worms (LsAg). Similarly, GutAg induced less proliferation and less production of IL-4 and IFNγ from splenocytes of infected mice than LsAg. In contrast to these differences, active infection resulted in equivalent levels of circulating GutAg-specific IgE and LsAg-specific IgE levels. Consistent with this, basophil activation, as assessed by flow cytometric staining of intracellular basophil IL-4 expression, was equivalent in response to GutAg and LsAg. Vaccination with GutAg adsorbed to CpG/alum induced GutAg specific IgG1 and IgG2A production, with GutAg specific IgG titers greater than 5-fold higher than those measured in previously infected animals. Despite this response to GutAg vaccination, vaccinated mice harbored similar parasite burdens 8 weeks post infection when compared to non-vaccinated controls. These studies demonstrate that soluble antigens obtained from the intestinal tracts of L. sigmodontis have some qualities of 'hidden' antigens, but they still sensitize mice to allergic reactions and fail to protect against future infection

  8. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Z.; Nikolić, A.; Lavadinović, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulović, O.; Milošević, B.; Stevanović, G.; Ofori-Belić, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlović, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  9. Cessation of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Zanzibar in 2006: Was Transmission Interrupted?

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Thomas, Brent; Ame, Shaali; Ali, Said Mohammed; Cano, Jorge; Escalada, Alba Gonzalez; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA) for 4–6 years. In 2006, Zanzibar stopped MDA against LF after five rounds of MDA revealed no microfilaraemic individuals during surveys at selected sentinel sites. We asked the question if LF transmission was truly interrupted in 2006 when MDA was stopped. Methodology/Principal Findings In line with ongoing efforts to shrink the LF map, we performed the WHO recommended transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in January 2012 to verify the absence of LF transmission on the main Zanzibar islands of Unguja and Pemba. Altogether, 3275 children were tested on both islands and 89 were found to be CFA positive; 70 in Pemba and 19 in Unguja. The distribution of schools with positive children was heterogeneous with pronounced spatial variation on both islands. Based on the calculated TAS cut-offs of 18 and 20 CFA positive children for Pemba and Unguja respectively, we demonstrated that transmission was still ongoing in Pemba where the cut-off was exceeded. Conclusions Our findings indicated ongoing transmission of LF on Pemba in 2012. Moreover, we presented evidence from previous studies that LF transmission was also active on Unguja shortly after stopping MDA in 2006. Based on these observations the government of Zanzibar decided to resume MDA against LF on both islands in 2013. PMID:25816287

  10. Understanding the relationship between prevalence of microfilariae and antigenaemia using a model of lymphatic filariasis infection

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Gunawardena, Shamini; Njeri Wamae, Claire; Cano, Jorge; Brooker, Simon J.; Deirdre Hollingsworth, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that affects impoverished communities. Rapid diagnostic tests of antigenaemia are a practical alternative to parasitological tests of microfilaraemia for mapping and surveillance. However the relationship between these two methods of measuring burden has previously been difficult to interpret. Methods A statistical model of the distribution of worm burden and microfilariae (mf) and resulting antigenaemic and mf prevalence was developed and fitted to surveys of two contrasting sentinel sites undergoing interventions. The fitted model was then used to explore the relationship in various pre- and post-intervention scenarios. Results The model had good quantitative agreement with the data and provided estimates of the reduction in mf output due to treatment. When extrapolating the results to a range of prevalences there was good qualitative agreement with published data. Conclusions The observed relationship between antigenamic and mf prevalence is a natural consequence of the relationship between prevalence and intensity of adult worms and mf production. The method described here allows the estimation of key epidemiological parameters and consequently gives insight into the efficacy of an intervention programme. PMID:26822604

  11. Epidemiological screening of lymphatic filariasis among immigrants using dipstick colloidal dye immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wan Omar, A; Sulaiman, O; Yusof, S; Ismail, G; Fatmah, M S; Rahmah, N; Khairul, A A

    2001-07-01

    We have recently reported that a dipstick colloidal dye immunoassay (DIA) that detect parasite antigens in human serum is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of active infection of lymphatic filariasis. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (RbBmCAg) labelled with a commercial dye, palanil navy blue was used to detect filarial antigenemia among Indonesian and Bangladeshi immigrant workers (N= 630) at oil palm estates at Hulu Trengganu District, Peninsular Malaysia. Microfilaremia with Brugia malayi were detected in 51 (8.10 %) individuals, of which 42 (6.67 %) were among the Indonesians and 9 (1.98 %) among the Bangladeshis. Microfilaremia with Wuchereria bancrofti were detected in 33 (5.24 %) individuals of which 15 (2.38 %) were among the Indonesians and 18 (2.86 %) among the Bangladeshis workers. The DIA detected 96 (15.24 %) antigenemic cases which comprise of all the microfilaremic cases and 15 (2.38 %) amicrofilaremic cases. The amicrofilaremic cases with filarial antigenemia consisted of 9 (1. 43 %) Indonesians and 6 (0.95%) Bangladeshis. We have used 6 ul of the RbBmCAg and diluted (1:10) patients' sera per dipstick which make the DIA reagent conservative. The DIA is a rapid test and can be read in approximate 2 hours.. Additionally, coloured dots developed in the DIA can be qualitatively assessed visually for intensity. The DIA does not require sophisticated equipment or radioactivity, and therefore suitable for field application.

  12. How Effective is Integrated Vector Management Against Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis Where the Diseases Are Transmitted by the Same Vector?

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Chitnis, Nakul

    2014-01-01

    Background The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0) for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs) and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites) were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control. Conclusions/Significance Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple) interventions required for malaria with the long duration

  13. COMMUNITY MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION FOR CONTROL OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN RURAL AND URBAN TANZANIA.

    PubMed

    Kisoka, William J; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowsky; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Simonsen, Paul E; Mushi, Declare L

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is one of several neglected tropical diseases with severely disabling and stigmatizing manifestations that are referred to as 'neglected diseases of poverty'. It is a mosquito-borne disease found endemically and exclusively in low-income contexts where, concomitantly, general public health care is often deeply troubled and fails to meet the basic health needs of impoverished populations. This presents particular challenges for the implementation of mass drug administration (MDA), which currently is the principal means of control and eventual elimination. Several MDA programmes face the dilemma that they are unable to attain and maintain the required drug coverage across target groups. In recognition of this, a qualitative study was conducted in the Morogoro and Lindi regions of Tanzania to gain an understanding of community experiences with, and perceptions of, the MDA campaign implemented in 2011 by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme. The study revealed a wide variation of perceptions and experiences regarding the aim, rationale and justification of MDA. There were positive sentiments about the usefulness of the drugs, but many study participants were sceptical about the manner in which MDA is implemented. People were particularly disappointed with the limited attempts by implementers to share information and mobilize residents. In addition, negative sentiments towards MDA for lymphatic filariasis reflected a general feeling of desertion and marginalization by the health care system and political authorities. However, the results suggest that if the communities are brought on board with genuine respect for their integrity and informed self-determination, there is scope for major improvements in community support for MDA-based control activities. PMID:25790081

  14. Repurposing of approved drugs from the human pharmacopoeia to target Wolbachia endosymbionts of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Umareddy, Indira; Townson, Simon; Specht, Sabine; Pfarr, Kenneth; Hoerauf, Achim; Altmeyer, Ralf; Taylor, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA). The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL) Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs) for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases. PMID:25516838

  15. Socio-environmental variables and transmission risk of lymphatic filariasis in central and northern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Manhenje, Isabel; Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2013-05-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in Mozambique, where it is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti with Culex quinquefasciatus as the main vector. It affects approximately 10% of the population (2 million) with about 16 million at risk. Prevalence rates in 40 out of 65 districts that together comprise the four endemic provinces Niassa, Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Zambezia were analysed with the aim of elucidating the socio-environmental variables influencing the transmission. The levels of prevalence were divided into six ranks and certain climatic, environmental and social factors were considered independent variables. A climadiagram was created and the LF risk and the water budget-based index were calculated for each district. Factors influencing the risk of the overall transmission and that of the provincial levels were established by discriminant analysis. The results show that LF transmission increased with mean maximum temperature and decreased with altitude. The almost constant annual temperature (especially in the tropical area), altitude, general economic conditions and predominant crop production (rice) were found to be responsible for the abundance and presence of the vector. However, despite the presence of the vector in the hinterland, presence and survival of the parasite were not found to be favoured there. The transmission risk was found to be highest in Zambezia, and consequently also the prevalence, while the situation in Niassa was the opposite. The conclusion is that temperature, altitude and the development/poverty index (particularly in the urban areas) have to be considered as transmission risk factors for LF in Mozambique. The extent of rice culturing probably also plays a role with respect to this infection.

  16. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

    2015-02-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode.

  17. Effect of water resource development and management on lymphatic filariasis, and estimates of populations at risk.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, Tobias E; Keiser, Jennifer; Caldas De Castro, Marcia; Bos, Robert; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2005-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease overwhelmingly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, which is transmitted by various mosquito species. Here, we present a systematic literature review with the following objectives: (i) to establish global and regional estimates of populations at risk of LF with particular consideration of water resource development projects, and (ii) to assess the effects of water resource development and management on the frequency and transmission dynamics of the disease. We estimate that globally, 2 billion people are at risk of LF. Among them, there are 394.5 million urban dwellers without access to improved sanitation and 213 million rural dwellers living in close proximity to irrigation. Environmental changes due to water resource development and management consistently led to a shift in vector species composition and generally to a strong proliferation of vector populations. For example, in World Health Organization (WHO) subregions 1 and 2, mosquito densities of the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus were up to 25-fold higher in irrigated areas when compared with irrigation-free sites. Although the infection prevalence of LF often increased after the implementation of a water project, there was no clear association with clinical symptoms. Concluding, there is a need to assess and quantify changes of LF transmission parameters and clinical manifestations over the entire course of water resource developments. Where resources allow, integrated vector management should complement mass drug administration, and broad-based monitoring and surveillance of the disease should become an integral part of large-scale waste management and sanitation programs, whose basic rationale lies in a systemic approach to city, district, and regional level health services and disease prevention.

  18. Repurposing auranofin as a lead candidate for treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Bulman, Christina A; Bidlow, Chelsea M; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Alberto A; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K C; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R; Knudsen, Giselle M; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A

    2015-02-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  19. Repurposing Auranofin as a Lead Candidate for Treatment of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    Bulman, Christina A.; Bidlow, Chelsea M.; Lustigman, Sara; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Williams, David; Rascón, Jr, Alberto A.; Tricoche, Nancy; Samje, Moses; Bell, Aaron; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, K. C.; Supakorndej, Nonglak; Supakorndej, Prasit; Wolfe, Alan R.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Chen, Steven; Wilson, Chris; Ang, Kean-Hooi; Arkin, Michelle; Gut, Jiri; Franklin, Chris; Marcellino, Chris; McKerrow, James H.; Debnath, Anjan; Sakanari, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae) can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s) of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode. PMID:25700363

  20. Periodic mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine for the control of filariasis in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, John F.; Siliga, Nofo; Tompkins, Harry; Jones, Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    Filariasis surveys made during 1962-63 in 5 villages in American Samoa among persons over 5 years of age gave an elephantiasis rate of 3.4%, a microfilarial rate of 26% and a median microfilarial rate (MfD50) of 29. These rates were somewhat higher than those found in surveys made in the same villages among villagers of the same ages some 20 years previously. A mass treatment programme with diethylcarbamazine was then decided on. Preliminary treatment with a single total regimen of 72 mg of the drug per kg of body weight, given in 12 doses of 6 mg/kg, was administered in several villages over a period of 6 months. Among villagers of all ages at the end of 3 years, the microfilarial rate was 7.3% and the MfD50 value was 2. These results appeared to be inadequate for a successful control programme and a periodic mass treatment project of 2 or more regimens of 72 mg/kg to be administered every 2 years was instituted on the Island of Tutuila, to be continued until considered no longer necessary. Surveys made 2 years after the second mass treatment in the villages of Amouli, Amanave, Onenoa, Tula, Alao, Utumea and Alofau, in which 1407 persons were examined, showed that 3 villages were negative for microfilariae, that the average microfilarial rate in all 7 villages was 0.4% and that the MfD50 was 1. These villages were also negative in intensive mosquito surveys for infective-stage larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti. It is suggested that interruption of transmission has been observed in the 3 villages negative for both microfilariae and infective-stage larvae and that, if favourable surveys continue, eradication programmes should be established. PMID:4396819

  1. Shrinking the Lymphatic Filariasis Map of Ethiopia: Reassessing the Population at Risk through Nationwide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Ashenafi; Cano, Jorge; Deribe, Kebede; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Shafi, Oumer; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.; Kebede, Amha; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated. Methodology/Principal Finding A two-stage cluster purposive sampling was used to conduct a community-based cross-sectional survey for an integrated mapping of LF and podoconiosis, in seven regional states and two city administrations. Two communities in each woreda were purposely selected using the World Health Organization (WHO) mapping strategy for LF based on sampling 100 individuals per community and two purposely selected communities per woreda. Overall, 130 166 people were examined in 1315 communities in 658 woredas. In total, 140 people were found to be positive for circulating LF antigen by immunochromatographic card test (ICT) in 89 communities. Based on WHO guidelines, 75 of the 658 woredas surveyed in the nine regions were found to be endemic for LF with a 2016 projected population of 9 267 410 residing in areas of active disease transmission. Combining these results with other data it is estimated that 11 580 010 people in 112 woredas will be exposed to infection in 2016. Conclusions We have conducted nationwide mapping of LF in Ethiopia and demonstrated that the number of people living in LF endemic areas is 60% lower than current estimates. We also showed that integrated mapping of multiple NTDs is feasible and cost effective and if properly planned, can be quickly achieved at national scale. PMID:26539700

  2. Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS) to Define Endpoints for Lymphatic Filariasis Mass Drug Administration: A Multicenter Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Deming, Michael; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Bougma, Windtaré R.; Dorkenoo, Améyo M.; El-Setouhy, Maged; Fischer, Peter U.; Gass, Katherine; Gonzalez de Peña, Manuel; Mercado-Hernandez, Leda; Kyelem, Dominique; Lammie, Patrick J.; Flueckiger, Rebecca M.; Mwingira, Upendo J.; Noordin, Rahmah; Offei Owusu, Irene; Ottesen, Eric A.; Pavluck, Alexandre; Pilotte, Nils; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Samarasekera, Dilhani; Schmaedick, Mark A.; Settinayake, Sunil; Simonsen, Paul E.; Supali, Taniawati; Taleo, Fasihah; Torres, Melissa; Weil, Gary J.; Won, Kimberly Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment. To test the value and practicality of these guidelines, a multicenter operational research trial was undertaken in 11 countries covering various geographic and epidemiological settings. Methodology The TAS was conducted twice in each EU with TAS-1 and TAS-2 approximately 24 months apart. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) formed the basis of the TAS survey design but specific EU characteristics defined the survey site (school or community), eligible population (6–7 year olds or 1st–2nd graders), survey type (systematic or cluster-sampling), target sample size, and critical cutoff (a statistically powered threshold below which transmission is expected to be no longer sustainable). The primary diagnostic tools were the immunochromatographic (ICT) test for W. bancrofti EUs and the BmR1 test (Brugia Rapid or PanLF) for Brugia spp. EUs. Principal Findings/Conclusions In 10 of 11 EUs, the number of TAS-1 positive cases was below the critical cutoff, indicating that MDA could be stopped. The same results were found in the follow-up TAS-2, therefore, confirming the previous decision outcome. Sample sizes were highly sex and age-representative and closely matched the target value after factoring in estimates of non-participation. The TAS was determined to be a practical and effective evaluation tool for stopping MDA although its validity for longer-term post-MDA surveillance

  3. Surgical Treatment of Genital Manifestations of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Speare, Rick; Thomas, Gail; Graves, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Genital manifestations of lymphatic filariasis (genital LF) are a significant cause of disfigurement and disability in the developing world. Surgery is the standard treatment; however, definitive publications are lacking and best practice remains unclear. An exhaustive search strategy using keyword and subject headings was applied to Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus. Additionally citation lists, Google and Google Scholar, archives of relevant journals and websites were searched systematically. Studies with data on one or more human patient(s) who underwent surgery for genital LF were included. Articles were screened and data extracted by the first author with data verification by the second author. Fifty-seven studies were included: 18 series of ablative surgery, four series of non-ablative surgery and 35 case reports. Poor study quality, heterogeneous case definitions, lack of severity grading and limited follow-up precluded meta-analysis. Two series of simple hydrocelectomies performed in resource-limited settings reported early complication rates of 3.0-3.5 % using eversion and 5-7 % using excision, with recurrence of 7 % and 3-5 %, respectively. Complications were minimal for single-surgeon series and greater (12-18 %) when scrotal reconstruction was performed. There is little useful evidence for lymphatic bypass procedures in genital LF. Under-recognition of atypical manifestation of genital LF leads to potentially unnecessary surgeries. Surgery for genital LF is safe in resource-limited settings; however, more well-designed studies with better follow-up are needed. Research priorities include validation of case definitions and severity grading systems, and solutions to improve post-operative follow-up in resource-limited settings.

  4. Lymphatic filariasis: a method to identify subclinical lower limb change in PNG adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Susan; Melrose, Wayne; Warner, Jeffrey; Buttner, Petra; Ward, Leigh

    2011-07-01

    Lymphedema related to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling condition that commonly manifests in adolescence. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected, in age and sex-matched groups, using the Binax ICT rapid card test for filarial antigen were recruited to the study. None of the participants had overt signs of lymphedema. Lymphedema assessment measures were used to assess lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and joint range of motion (goniometry). The mean tonometric measurements from the left, right, and dominant posterior thighs were significantly larger in participants with LF compared to participants who had tested negative for LF (p = 0.005, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively) indicating increased tissue compressibility in those adolescents with LF. ROC curve analysis to define optimal cut-off of the tonometry measurements indicated that at 3.5, sensitivity of this potential screening test is 100% (95%-CI = 86.3%, 100%) and specificity is 21.4% (95%-CI = 8.3%, 41.0%). It is proposed that this cut-off can be used to indicate tissue change characteristic of LF in an at-risk population of PNG adolescents. Further longitudinal research is required to establish if all those with tissue change subsequently develop lymphedema. However, thigh tonometry to identify early tissue change in LF positive adolescents may enable early intervention to minimize progression of lymphedema and prioritization of limited resources to those at greatest risk of developing lifetime morbidity. PMID:21811644

  5. Impact of Education Campaign on Community-Based Vector Control in Hastening the Process of Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandha, B.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and…

  6. Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis and Treatment Effectiveness of Albendazole/ Ivermectin in Individuals with HIV Co-infection in Southwest-Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maganga, Lucas; Clowes, Petra; Maboko, Leonard; Hoerauf, Achim; Makunde, Williams H.; Haule, Antelmo; Mviombo, Prisca; Pitter, Bettina; Mgeni, Neema; Mabuye, Joseph; Kowuor, Dickens; Mwingira, Upendo; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Annual mass treatment with ivermectin and albendazole is used to treat lymphatic filariasis in many African countries, including Tanzania. In areas where both diseases occur, it is unclear whether HIV co-infection reduces treatment success. Methodology In a general population study in Southwest Tanzania, individuals were tested for HIV and circulating filarial antigen, an indicator of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm burden, before the first and after 2 consecutive rounds of anti-filarial mass drug administration. Principle Findings Testing of 2104 individuals aged 0–94 years before anti-filarial treatment revealed a prevalence of 24.8% for lymphatic filariasis and an HIV-prevalence of 8.9%. Lymphatic filariasis was rare in children, but prevalence increased in individuals above 10 years, whereas a strong increase in HIV was only seen above 18 years of age. The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in adults above 18 years was 42.6% and 41.7% (p = 0.834) in HIV-negatives and–positives, respectively. Similarly, the HIV prevalence in the lymphatic filariasis infected (16.6%) and uninfected adult population (17.1%) was nearly the same. Of the above 2104 individuals 798 were re-tested after 2 rounds of antifilarial treatment. A significant reduction in the prevalence of circulating filarial antigen from 21.6% to 19.7% was found after treatment (relative drop of 8.8%, McNemar´s exact p = 0.036). Furthermore, the post-treatment reduction of CFA positivity was (non-significantly) larger in HIV-positives than in HIV-negatives (univariable linear regression p = 0.154). Conclusion/Significance In an area with a high prevalence for both diseases, no difference was found between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals regarding the initial prevalence of lymphatic filariasis. A moderate but significant reduction in lymphatic filariasis prevalence and worm burden was demonstrated after two rounds of treatment with albendazole and ivermectin. Treatment effects were

  7. Assessing density dependence in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis: uptake and development of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae in the vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Stolk, W A; Van Oortmarssen, G J; Subramanian, S; Das, P K; Borsboom, G J J M; Habbema, J D F; de Vlas, S J

    2004-03-01

    Understanding density dependence in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis is essential for assessing the prospects of elimination. This study seeks to quantify the relationship between microfilaria (Mf) density in human blood and the number of third stage (L3) larvae developing in the mosquito vectors Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) after blood-feeding. Two types of curves are fitted to previously published data. Fitting a linearized power curve through the data allows for correction for measurement error in human Mf counts. Ignoring measurement error leads to overestimation of the strength of density dependence; the degree of overestimation depends on the accuracy of measurement of Mf density. For use in mathematical models of transmission of lymphatic filariasis, a hyperbolic saturating function is preferable. This curve explicitly estimates the Mf uptake and development at lowest Mf densities and the average maximum number of L3 that can develop in mosquitoes. This maximum was estimated at 23 and 4 for Ae. polynesiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. PMID:15009446

  8. Coverage of, and compliance with, mass drug administration under the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in India: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Babu, Bontha V; Babu, Gopalan R

    2014-09-01

    India's mass drug administration (MDA) programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (PELF) covers all 250 endemic districts, but compliance with treatment is not adequate for the programme to succeed in eradicating this neglected tropical disease. The objective of our study was to systematically review published studies on the coverage of and compliance with MDA under the PELF in India. We searched several databases-PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, CINAHL/EBSCO, Web of Knowledge (including Web of Science) and OVID-and by applying selection criteria identified a total of 36 papers to include in the review. Overall MDA coverage rates varied between 48.8% and 98.8%, while compliance rates ranged from 20.8% to 93.7%. The coverage-compliance gap is large in many MDA programmes. The effective level of compliance, ≥65%, was reported in only 10 of a total of 31 MDAs (5 of 20 MDAs in rural areas and 2 of 12 MDAs in urban areas). The review has identified a gap between coverage and compliance, and potentially correctable causes of this gap. These causes need to be addressed if the Indian programme is to advance towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

  9. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas. PMID:27363044

  10. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas.

  11. Regulatory T-cell neutralization in mice during filariasis helps in parasite clearance by enhancing T helper type 17-mediated pro-inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Manisha; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Verma, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Mrigank; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2016-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis leads to profound impairment of parasite-specific T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses and significantly increases the expression of regulatory networks and regulatory effectors like transforming growth factor-β, CD25, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR) and regulatory T (Treg) cells, which together play an important role in immunosuppression. While Treg cells suppress the activity of effector cells, monocyte dysfunction, characterized by an alternatively activated immunoregulatory phenotype, is one hypothesis that explains the lack of an antigen-specific T-cell response in infected individuals. In the present study, we administered neutralizing antibodies against the Treg cell-associated markers CD25 and GITR and observed its effects on filaria-induced immunosuppression. Our results show that administration of anti-CD25 and anti-GITR in infected animals not only arrested the accumulation of Treg cells and reduced arginase activity, but also led to an increase in the percentages of Th17 cells in the secondary lymphoid organs of mice. Elevated levels of interferon-γ and decreased levels of interleukin-10 were also noted in the culture supernatants of mouse splenocytes that were treated with neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, treatment with neutralizing antibodies enhanced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase on host macrophages and CD40 on host dendritic cells with concomitant decreased expression of alternative activation markers Arg1, Ym1 and Fizz1, which together lead to reduced parasite burden in treated animals. In summary, administration of neutralizing antibodies helps in breaking the regulatory network in mice and limits parasite-induced immunosuppression at the earliest host-parasite interface.

  12. Maintaining effective mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis through in-process monitoring in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2007 Sierra Leone has conducted mass drug administration (MDA) for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) implemented by unpaid community health volunteers (CHVs). Other health campaigns such as Mother and Child Health Weeks (MCHW) pay for services to be implemented at community level and these persons are then known as community health workers (CHWs). In 2010, the LF MDA in the 12 districts of the Southern, Northern and Eastern Provinces un-expectantly coincided with universal distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs) during the MCHW. In-process monitoring of LF MDA was performed to ensure effective coverage was attained in hard to reach sites (HTR) in both urban and rural locations where vulnerable populations reside. Methods Independent monitors interviewed individuals eligible for LF MDA and tallied those who recalled having taken ivermectin and albendazole, calculated program coverage and reported results daily by phone. Monitoring of coverage in HTR sites in the 4 most rapidly urbanizing towns was performed after 4 weeks of LF MDA and again after 8 weeks throughout all 12 districts. End process monitoring was performed in randomly selected HTR sites not previously sampled throughout all 12 districts and compared to coverage calculated from the pre-MDA census and reported treatments. Results Only one town had reached effective program coverage (≥80%) after 4 weeks following which CHWs were recruited for LF MDA in all district headquarter towns. After 8 weeks only 4 of 12 districts had reached effective coverage so LF MDA was extended for a further month in all districts. By 12 weeks effective program coverage had been reached in all districts except Port Loko and there was no significant difference between those interviewed in communities versus households or by sex. Effective epidemiological coverage (≥65%) was reported in all districts and overall was significantly higher in males versus females. Conclusions

  13. Molecular Xenomonitoring Using Mosquitoes to Map Lymphatic Filariasis after Mass Drug Administration in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Schmaedick, Mark A.; Koppel, Amanda L.; Pilotte, Nils; Torres, Melissa; Williams, Steven A.; Dobson, Stephen L.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Won, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have dramatically reduced lymphatic filariasis (LF) incidence in many areas around the globe, including American Samoa. As infection rates decline and MDA programs end, efficient and sensitive methods for detecting infections are needed to monitor for recrudescence. Molecular methods, collectively termed ‘molecular xenomonitoring,’ can identify parasite DNA or RNA in human blood-feeding mosquitoes. We tested mosquitoes trapped throughout the inhabited islands of American Samoa to identify areas of possible continuing LF transmission after completion of MDA. Methodology/Principle Findings Mosquitoes were collected using BG Sentinel traps from most of the villages on American Samoa's largest island, Tutuila, and all major villages on the smaller islands of Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. Real-time PCR was used to detect Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in pools of ≤20 mosquitoes, and PoolScreen software was used to infer territory-wide prevalences of W. bancrofti DNA in the mosquitoes. Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was found in mosquitoes from 16 out of the 27 village areas sampled on Tutuila and Aunu'u islands but none of the five villages on the Manu'a islands of Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u. The overall 95% confidence interval estimate for W. bancrofti DNA prevalence in the LF vector Ae. polynesiensis was 0.20–0.39%, and parasite DNA was also detected in pools of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes (Finlaya) spp. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest low but widespread prevalence of LF on Tutuila and Aunu'u where 98% of the population resides, but not Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Molecular xenomonitoring can help identify areas of possible LF transmission, but its use in the LF elimination program in American Samoa is limited by the need for more efficient mosquito collection methods and a better understanding of the relationship between prevalence of W. bancrofti DNA in mosquitoes and infection and

  14. Community-wide distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets can halt transmission of lymphatic filariasis in southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank O; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M; Nkwocha, Omeni; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Rakers, Lindsay; Mosher, Aryc; Patterson, Amy; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Ukaga, Chinyere N; Njoku, Chidiebere; Nwodu, Kenrick; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S

    2013-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in rural southeastern Nigeria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Potential coinfection with Loa loa in this area has prevented use of ivermectin in the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for LF elimination because of potential severe adverse L. loa-related reactions. This study determined if long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution programs for malaria would interrupt LF transmission in such areas, without need for MDA. Monthly entomologic monitoring was conducted in sentinel villages before and after LLIN distribution to all households and all age groups (full coverage) in two districts, and to pregnant women and children less than five years of age in the other two districts. No change in human LF microfilaremia prevalence was observed, but mosquito studies showed a statistically significant decrease in LF infection and infectivity with full-coverage LLIN distribution. We conclude that LF transmission can be halted in southeastern Nigeria by full-coverage LLIN distribution, without MDA. PMID:23939708

  15. Community-wide distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets can halt transmission of lymphatic filariasis in southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank O; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M; Nkwocha, Omeni; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Rakers, Lindsay; Mosher, Aryc; Patterson, Amy; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Ukaga, Chinyere N; Njoku, Chidiebere; Nwodu, Kenrick; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S

    2013-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in rural southeastern Nigeria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Potential coinfection with Loa loa in this area has prevented use of ivermectin in the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for LF elimination because of potential severe adverse L. loa-related reactions. This study determined if long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution programs for malaria would interrupt LF transmission in such areas, without need for MDA. Monthly entomologic monitoring was conducted in sentinel villages before and after LLIN distribution to all households and all age groups (full coverage) in two districts, and to pregnant women and children less than five years of age in the other two districts. No change in human LF microfilaremia prevalence was observed, but mosquito studies showed a statistically significant decrease in LF infection and infectivity with full-coverage LLIN distribution. We conclude that LF transmission can be halted in southeastern Nigeria by full-coverage LLIN distribution, without MDA.

  16. [An epidemiological study of human filariasis : loaiasis, dipetalonemiasis, tetrapetalonemiasis, in Douala fisherman of the river Wouri estuary (Cameroon) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ripert, C; Tchamfong Njabo, R; Same Ekobo, A

    1980-10-30

    The aim of the study is to establish the prevalence of loaiasis, dipetalonemiasis, tetrapetalonemiasis, with particular emphasis on T. streptocerca infection. Eight small villages located close to Douala in the mangrove area of the Wouri estuary are visited and 788 dermic scarification prints stained with Böhmer hematoxylin are examined. Microfilariae belonging to the species L. loa are found in 11,2 p. 100 of the prints, D. perstans mirofilariae are found in 23,2 p. 100 and T. streptocerca in 6,9 p. 100. The prevalence of filariasis and the parasitic load are higher in male than in female. The older the inhabitants are, the more heavily infected they are found. Except for pruritus and craw-craw associating a filarial infection with characteristic symptoms seems to be difficult in this study.

  17. Community-Wide Distribution of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Can Halt Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M.; Nkwocha, Omeni; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Rakers, Lindsay; Mosher, Aryc; Patterson, Amy; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwoke, Bertram E. B.; Ukaga, Chinyere N.; Njoku, Chidiebere; Nwodu, Kenrick; Obasi, Andrew; Miri, Emmanuel S.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in rural southeastern Nigeria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Potential coinfection with Loa loa in this area has prevented use of ivermectin in the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy for LF elimination because of potential severe adverse L. loa-related reactions. This study determined if long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution programs for malaria would interrupt LF transmission in such areas, without need for MDA. Monthly entomologic monitoring was conducted in sentinel villages before and after LLIN distribution to all households and all age groups (full coverage) in two districts, and to pregnant women and children less than five years of age in the other two districts. No change in human LF microfilaremia prevalence was observed, but mosquito studies showed a statistically significant decrease in LF infection and infectivity with full-coverage LLIN distribution. We conclude that LF transmission can be halted in southeastern Nigeria by full-coverage LLIN distribution, without MDA. PMID:23939708

  18. Surgical management of morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis: the usefulness of a standardized international clinical classification of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Capuano, G P; Capuano, C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results.

  19. Ambient temperature effects on the extrinsic incubation period of Wuchereria bancrofti in Aedes polynesiensis: implications for filariasis transmission dynamics and distribution in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Lardeux, F; Cheffort, J

    2001-06-01

    Temperature effects on development of the human filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Filaridea: Onchocercidae) in the main Pacific vector Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) are analysed in relation to ambient climatic conditions. A statistical model of the extrinsic cycle duration as a function of temperature is described and used to distinguish three patterns of W. bancrofti transmission dynamics: continuous, fluctuating and discontinuous, occurring from north to south geographically among French Polynesian archipelagos. In the northerly Marquesas Islands (8-11 degrees S) filariasis transmission is continuous and very active, facilitated by perennially high temperatures combined with constantly high rates of man-vector contact. In the southerly Australes Islands (21-28 degrees S) filariasis transmission is seasonally discontinuous and, during the cooler months (May-September), the model predicts virtually no transmission because the cycle duration exceeds the life expectancy of the vector. In the Society Islands (16-18 degrees S), between the Marquesas and Australes, transmission is predicted to be intermediate as expected from their latitude, with seasonally fluctuating transmission potential. In the Tuamotu Islands (also geographically intermediate: 14-23 degrees S), with theoretically perennial transmission potential, transmission occurs only intermittently, being limited by other human and environmental factors whereby man-vector contact is confined to seasonal agricultural situations. Generally, among French Polynesian archipelagos where Aedes polynesiensis is the vector, the transmission potential for W. bancrofti and resulting disease manifestations of lymphatic filariasis in humans are correlated with ambient temperature due to the degree of southern latitude. PMID:11434550

  20. The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF6) was held 1-3 June, 2010 in Seoul, Korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. The year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first GAELF meeting, in 2000, and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. The theme of the meeting, "Half-time in LF Elimination: Teaming Up with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)," reflected significant integration of LF elimination programmes into a comprehensive initiative to control NTDs. Presentations on LF epidemiology, treatment, research, and programmes highlighted both accomplishments and remaining challenges. The WHO strategy to interrupt LF transmission is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) using two-drug combinations. After mapping the geographic distribution of LF, MDA is implemented for ≥ 5 years, followed by a period of post-MDA surveillance, and, ultimately, verification of LF elimination. Morbidity management further reduces disease burden. Of 81 countries considered LF-endemic in 2000, 52 (64.2%) have begun MDA; 10 (12.3%) others with low-level transmission are unlikely to require MDA. In 2008, ~695 million people were offered treatment (51.7% of the at-risk population); ~496 million participated. Approximately 22 million people have been protected from LF infection and disease, with savings of ~US $24.2 billion. Morbidity management programmes have been implemented in 27 (33.3%) countries. Significant challenges to LF elimination remain. These include: initiating MDA in the remaining 19 countries that require it; achieving full geographic coverage in countries where MDA has started; finding alternative strategies to address the problem of Loa loa co-endemicity in Central Africa; developing strategies to treat urban populations; initiating and sustaining MDA in settings of armed conflict; developing refined guidelines and procedures for

  1. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    for An. gambiae s.s., and least for An. arabiensis, leading to current predominance of the latter. Due to differences in biology and vectorial capacity of the An. gambiae s.l. complex the change in sibling species composition will have important implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in the study area. PMID:22681999

  2. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal.

  3. A mathematical model for long-term effect of diethylcarbamazine-albendazole mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasman, H.; Supali, T.; Supriatna, A. K.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis disease. The human population is divided into susceptible, latent, acute and chronic subpopulations. Treatment is carried out within the scheme of mass drug administration (MDA) by giving the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) to all individuals. In the model, we assume that the treatments have direct killing effect to microfilariae, increase of immune-mediated effect. The treated individuals are assumed to remain susceptible to the disease. This is due to the fact that the treatment is only partially effective against macrofilaria. Simulations of the model reveals that DEC-ALB treatment does give significant reduction of acute and chronic compartments at the end of the treatment period and slow down the growth after the treatment before eventually tend to the endemic state. It showed that repeated treatment during MDA is effective to decrease the transmission. This suggests that terminating MDA program after a long period of its application may still effective in controlling the disease.

  4. The effects of size and synthesis methods of gold nanoparticle-conjugated MαHIgG4 for use in an immunochromatographic strip test to detect brugian filariasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabizah Makhsin, Siti; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Noordin, Rahmah; Dyana Zakaria, Nor; Chun, Tan Soo

    2012-12-01

    This study describes the properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with sizes of 20, 30 and 40 nm, which were synthesized using citrate reduction or seeding-growth methods. Likewise, the conjugation of these AuNPs to mouse anti-human IgG4 (MαHIgG4) was evaluated for an immunochromatographic (ICG) strip test to detect brugian filariasis. The morphology of the AuNPs was studied based on the degree of ellipticity (G) of the transmission electron microscopy images. The AuNPs produced using the seeding-growth method showed lower ellipticity (G ≤ 1.11) as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (G ≤ 1.18). Zetasizer analysis showed that the AuNPs that were synthesized using the seeding-growth method were almost monodispersed with a lower polydispersity index (PDI; PDI≤0.079), as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (PDI≤0.177). UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed a red-shift of the absorbance spectra after the reaction with MαHIgG4, which indicated that the AuNPs were successfully conjugated. The optimum concentration of the BmR1 recombinant antigen that was immobilized on the surface of the ICG strip on the test line was 1.0 mg ml-1. When used with the ICG test strip assay and brugian filariasis serum samples, the conjugated AuNPs-MαHIgG4 synthesized using the seeding-growth method had faster detection times, as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method. The 30 nm AuNPs-MαHIgG4, with an optical density of 4 from the seeding-growth method, demonstrated the best performance for labelling ICG strips because it displayed the best sensitivity and the highest specificity when tested with serum samples from brugian filariasis patients and controls.

  5. A Community-Based Study of Factors Associated with Continuing Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Leogane, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Alexis; Won, Kimberly Y.; McClintock, Shannon K.; Donovan, Catherine V.; Laney, Sandra J.; Williams, Steven A.; Pilotte, Nils; Streit, Thomas G.; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V. E.; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus) and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire); overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05). A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems to be linked to

  6. Distribution, prevalence, and relative risk of filariasis in dogs from the State of Washington (1997-1999).

    PubMed

    Theis, J H; Stevens, F; Law, M

    2001-01-01

    Using antigen capture and filter tests, 6,078 dogs throughout the state of Washington were examined for filariasis between July 1, 1997 and October 31, 1999. In western Washington, 791 males and 901 females examined were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had traveled out of the state; 6/791 (0.8%) males and 7/901 (0.8%) females were infected with Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis), and one (0.1%) male and one (0.1%) female were infected with Dipetalonema reconditum (D. reconditum). There were also 392 males and 362 females examined that were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had not traveled out of western Washington. One (0.1%) female was infected with D. immitis, and two (0.5%) males and one (0.2%) female were infected with D. reconditum. In eastern Washington, 707 males and 826 females examined were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had traveled out of the state; 9/707 (1.0%) males and 4/826 (0.5%) females were infected with D. immitis, and no D. reconditum was found. There were also 376 males and 412 females examined that were outdoors, not on prophylaxis, and had not traveled out of the state. Three (0.8%) males and three (0.7%) females had D. immitis. One (0.2%) female had D. reconditum. Distribution of D. immitis-infected, nontravel dogs in eastern Washington was only found between 120 degrees and 119 degrees west longitude in the communities of Richland, Moses Lake, Okanogan, and Omak. Enzootic transmission of D. immitis and D. reconditum is occurring in both eastern and western Washington. PMID:11450834

  7. Filariasis in the Igwun River Basin, Nigeria: an epidemiological and clinical study with a note on the vectors.

    PubMed

    Udonsi, J K

    1988-02-01

    In a cross-sectional, epidemiological and parasitological study of human filariasis, 845 individuals were examined in settlements along the Igwun Basin, Imo State, Nigeria. Four different filarial nematode species were identified. Two hundred and fifty-six (30.3%) of the individuals examined were positive for Onchocerca volvulus, 113 (13.4%) for Mansonella perstans, 76 (9.6%) for Wuchereria bancrofti and 77 (9.1%) for Loa loa. Microfilarial rates increased with age of individuals and showed a tendency towards higher prevalence rates in males than in females. The intensity of O. volvulus infection was high, with the highest microfilarial density of 44 mf mg-1 snip which occurred in the 40-49-year-old individuals. In W. bancrofti and L. loa infections, infections of over 1000 mf 20 ml-1 blood were recorded in 15.8% and 19.5% of individuals, respectively. Observed clinical signs were associated with inflammatory, lympho-obstructive and ocular manifestations. In M. perstans infections all clinical cases were inflammatory. In W. bancrofti, 44.4% of clinical cases were inflammatory, and lympho-obstructive manifestations consisted of 23.8% chyluria, 12.7% hydrocele and 19.1% elephantiasis. In L. loa infections all clinical cases were inflammatory with indications of Calabar swellings. In O. volvulus infections 23.5% of clinical cases were inflammatory, while 76.5% showed ocular manifestations. The absence of blindness despite high O. volvulus infection rates was remarkable. The presence of potential insect vectors and the occurrence of clinical signs are indications of active transmissions.

  8. Evaluating the Burden of Lymphedema Due to Lymphatic Filariasis in 2005 in Khurda District, Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Victoria; Little, Kristen; Wiegand, Ryan; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 1.1 billion people worldwide are at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF), and the global burden of LF-associated lymphedema is estimated at 16 million affected people, yet country-specific estimates are poor. Methodology/Principal Findings A house-to-house morbidity census was conducted to assess the burden and severity of lymphedema in a population of 1,298,576 persons living in the LF-endemic district of Khurda in Odisha State, India. The burden of lymphedema in Khurda is widespread geographically, and 1.3% (17,036) of the total population report lymphedema. 51.3% of the patients reporting lymphedema were female, mean age 49.4 years (1–99). Early lymphedema (Dreyer stages 1 & 2) was reported in two-thirds of the patients. Poisson regression analysis was conducted in order to determine risk factors for advanced lymphedema (Dreyer stages 4–7). Increasing age was significantly associated with advanced lymphedema, and persons 70 years and older had a prevalence three times greater than individuals ages 15–29 (aPR: 3.21, 95% CI 2.45, 4.21). The number of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes reported in the previous year was also significantly associated with advanced lymphedema (aPR 4.65, 95% CI 2.97–7.30). This analysis is one of the first to look at potential risk factors for advanced lymphedema using morbidity census data from an entire district in Odisha State, India. Significance These data highlight the magnitude of lymphedema in LF-endemic areas and emphasize the need to develop robust estimates of numbers of individuals with lymphedema in order to identify the extent of lymphedema management services needed in these regions. PMID:27548382

  9. Predicting the Current and Future Potential Distributions of Lymphatic Filariasis in Africa Using Maximum Entropy Ecological Niche Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infection presence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with five predictive environmental/climatic and demographic variables, and a maximum entropy niche modelling method to construct the first ecological niche maps describing potential distribution and burden of LF in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against climate projections made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA models for 2050 under A2a and B2a scenarios to simulate the likely distribution of LF under future climate and population changes. We predict a broad geographic distribution of LF in Africa extending from the west to the east across the middle region of the continent, with high probabilities of occurrence in the Western Africa compared to large areas of medium probability interspersed with smaller areas of high probability in Central and Eastern Africa and in Madagascar. We uncovered complex relationships between predictor ecological niche variables and the probability of LF occurrence. We show for the first time that predicted climate change and population growth will expand both the range and risk of LF infection (and ultimately disease) in an endemic region. We estimate that populations at risk to LF may range from 543 and 804 million currently, and that this could rise to between 1.65 to 1.86 billion in the future depending on the climate scenario used and thresholds applied to signify infection presence. PMID:22359670

  10. A community-based study of factors associated with continuing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alexis; Won, Kimberly Y; McClintock, Shannon K; Donovan, Catherine V; Laney, Sandra J; Williams, Steven A; Pilotte, Nils; Streit, Thomas G; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V E; Lammie, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus) and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire); overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05). A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems to be linked to

  11. Secondary mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti-definition of transmission foci in low-prevalence settings.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Naomi; Washington, Charles H; Lovegrove, Maribeth; Grady, Caroline; Milord, Marie Denise; Streit, Thomas; Lammie, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    To eliminate Lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that any area with infection prevalence greater than or equal to 1% (denoted by presence of microfilaremia or antigenemia) should receive mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs for at least five consecutive rounds. Areas of low-antigen prevalence (< 1%) are thought to pose little risk for continued transmission of LF. Five low-antigen prevalence communes in Haiti, characterized as part of a national survey, were further assessed for transmission in this study. An initial evaluation of schoolchildren was performed in each commune to identify antigen-positive children who served as index cases for subsequent community surveys conducted among households neighboring the index cases. Global positioning system (GPS) coordinates and immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for filarial antigenemia were collected on approximately 1,600 persons of all ages in the five communes. The relationship between antigen-positive cases in the community and distance from index cases was evaluated using multivariate regression techniques and analyses of spatial clustering. Community surveys demonstrated higher antigen prevalence in three of the five communes than was observed in the original mapping survey; autochthonous cases were found in the same three communes. Regression techniques identified a significantly increased likelihood of being antigen-positive when living within 20 meters of index cases when controlling for age, gender, and commune. Spatial clustering of antigen-positive cases was observed in some, but not all communes. Our results suggest that localized transmission was present even in low-prevalence settings and suggest that better surveillance methods may be needed to detect microfoci of LF transmission. PMID:23071849

  12. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase-a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  13. Minocycline as a re-purposed anti-Wolbachia macrofilaricide: superiority compared with doxycycline regimens in a murine infection model of human lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Raman; Jayoussi, Ghaith Al; Tyrer, Hayley E.; Gamble, Joanne; Hayward, Laura; Guimaraes, Ana F.; Davies, Jill; Waterhouse, David; Cook, Darren A. N.; Myhill, Laura J.; Clare, Rachel H.; Cassidy, Andrew; Steven, Andrew; Johnston, Kelly L.; Ford, Louise; Turner, Joseph D.; Ward, Stephen A.; Taylor, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are parasitic helminth diseases, which cause severe morbidities such as elephantiasis, skin disease and blindness, presenting a major public health burden in endemic communities. The anti-Wolbachia consortium (A·WOL: http://www.a-wol.com/) has identified a number of registered antibiotics that target the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia, delivering macrofilaricidal activity. Here we use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis to rationally develop an anti-Wolbachia chemotherapy by linking drug exposure to pharmacological effect. We compare the pharmacokinetics and anti-Wolbachia efficacy in a murine Brugia malayi model of minocycline versus doxycycline. Doxycycline exhibits superior PK in comparison to minocycline resulting in a 3-fold greater exposure in SCID mice. Monte-Carlo simulations confirmed that a bi-daily 25–40 mg/Kg regimen is bioequivalent to a clinically effective 100–200 mg/day dose for these tetracyclines. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that minocycline depletes Wolbachia more effectively than doxycycline (99.51% vs. 90.35%) after 28 day 25 mg/Kg bid regimens with a more potent block in microfilarial production. PK/PD analysis predicts that minocycline would be expected to be 1.7 fold more effective than doxycycline in man despite lower exposure in our infection models. Our findings warrant onward clinical investigations to examine the clinical efficacy of minocycline treatment regimens against lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. PMID:26996237

  14. An Evaluation of Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration 2006 for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Prajapati, PB; Saxena, Deepak; Kavishwar, Abhay B; Kurian, George

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8%) was much below the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made. PMID:19966995

  15. Increasing Coverage in Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in an Urban Setting: a Study of Malindi Town, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njomo, Doris W.; Mukoko, Dunstan A.; Nyamongo, Nipher K.; Karanja, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65–80%. Methods To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs) were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. Results and Discussion The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental) while in the third (control), usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control) sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. Conclusion The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental sites and

  16. Ecological Meta-Analysis of Density-Dependent Processes in the Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis: Survival of Infected Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Edwin; Snow, lucy c.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2009-01-01

    The survival rate of infected vectors represents one of the fundamental components that influence the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases. Despite the occurrence of a number of studies investigating mosquito survival after infection with filarial worms, there remains conflicting evidence from both laboratory and field experiments as to the existence and mechanism for parasite-induced mortality among filarial mosquitoes. Here, we used a mixed effects meta-analytical framework to combine the data from all available vector–human host blood feeding experiments to evaluate the evidence for the impact of parasite load on the mortality rates of the three major lymphatic filariasis transmitting mosquito genera, Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles mosquitoes, over the extrinsic incubation period of parasitic infection. The results show that, despite the application of this approach, or in the case of Anopheles using a convention fixed effects logistic regression analysis supplemented with additional survival analysis of longitudinal data, no strong association between mortality rate and microfilariae (mf) uptake for either of the three mosquito genera is apparent in the combined data. Instead, a key finding is that study effects played a more crucial role in determining the levels of mortality observed in these experimental studies. This was most revealing in the case of Culex, given that the largest single study in terms of both the number of data points and range of mf intensities, in contrast to smaller studies, showed a significant positive association between mf intensity and mortality, indicating that in this genus at least, the detrimental effect of infection may be manifested only at the highest mf intakes. Although no density dependence in vector mortality was also observed for Aedes, possibly because of the use of restricted human mf intensity range in previous studies, an intriguing finding was that a significantly higher overall mortality was observed for

  17. Programmatic Use of Molecular Xenomonitoring at the Level of Evaluation Units to Assess Persistence of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Samarasekera, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Punchihewa, Manjula W.; Dassanayaka, Tharanga D. M.; P. K. D, Gamini; Ford, Ethan; Ranasinghe, Udaya S. B.; Henderson, Ralph H.; Weil, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka’s Anti Filariasis Campaign distributed 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA with DEC plus albendazole) to all endemic regions in the country from 2002–2006. Post-MDA surveillance results have generally been encouraging. However, recent studies have documented low level persistence of Wuchereria bancrofti in Galle district based on comprehensive surveys that include molecular xenomonitoring (MX, detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes) results. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the use of MX in large evaluation units (EUs) and to field test different mosquito sampling schemes. Methodology/Principal Findings Galle district (population 1.1 million) was divided into two EUs. These included a coastal EU with known persistent LF and an inland EU with little persistent LF. Mosquitoes were systematically sampled from ~300 trap locations in 30 randomly selected clusters (health administrative units) per EU. Approximately 28,000 Culex quinquefasciatus were collected with gravid traps and tested for filarial DNA by qPCR. 92/625 pools (14.7%) from the coastal EU and 8/583 pools (1.4%) from the inland EU were positive for filarial DNA. Maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) for filarial DNA rates were essentially the same when the same number of mosquito pools were collected and tested from 75, 150, or 300 trap sites (range 0.61–0.78% for the coastal EU and 0.04–0.07% for the inland EU). The ability to use a smaller number of trap sites reduces the cost and time required for mosquito sampling. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest there is widespread persistence of W. bancrofti infection in the coastal Galle EU 8 years after the last round of MDA in 2006, and this is consistent with other data from the district. This study has shown that MX can be used by national programs to assess and map the persistence of W. bancrofti at the level of large EUs in areas with Culex transmission. PMID:27196431

  18. [Report of four clinical cases of filariasis in Alto Nanay, Loreto].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Herrera, Javier; Arróspide-Velasco, Nancy; Gutierrez-González, Sonia; Celis-Salinas, Juan C; Huamaní-Solano, Daniel; Loza-Hermenegildo, Luis; Elgegren-Lao, Julio; Armas-Montes, José; Baca-Pérez, Juan; Cabezas, César

    2013-07-01

    This study describes the clinical, parasitological and laboratory findings of four patients who lived in the district of Alto Nanay, Maynas, Loreto, Peru and were infected with Mansonella ozzardi microfilariae. Clinical examinations by ophthalmologists, cardiologists and nephrologists were performed. In case 1, the presence of 2 subcutaneous lumps was the most important finding, one at dorsal level and the other in the lower third of the left leg; in case 2, there was a sensation of tingling or coldness in the legs; in case 3, an associated chronic hepatitis B infection was found, and in case 4, a large lump was detected in the left lumbar region. All 4 patients were infected with Mansonella ozzardi and had eosinophilia, 3 of them in percentages of 20%. The lump found in case 4 was due to a herniation of bowel content. Further clinical studies and an evaluation of the actual pathogenic effect of microfilariae are to be performed. A study of the genetic diversity of filariae in the Peruvian Amazon would also be important. PMID:24100830

  19. Hematuria without chyluria: It could still be due to filarial etiology

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Vijaya Lakshmi; Sen, Manodeep; Dash, Nihar Ranjan; Bansal, R; Kumar, Manoj; Maurya, Anand Kumar

    2016-01-01

    There are few reports of “microfilaria in the urine.” We report an elderly woman with gross hematuria who was being investigated for urinary tract tuberculosis. Three consecutive urine samples showed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. However, she did not have chyluria. Treatment with diethylcarbamazine cleared up the hematuria within 3 days. Chyluria, hematuria, and hematochyluria are problems of Bancroftian filariasis reported worldwide. The literature review was made to present a simplified way for management. PMID:27722105

  20. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone.

  1. Basophils help establish protective immunity induced by irradiated larval vaccination for filariasis.

    PubMed

    Torrero, Marina N; Morris, C Paul; Mitre, Blima K; Hübner, Marc P; Fox, Ellen M; Karasuyama, Hajime; Mitre, Edward

    2013-08-12

    Basophils are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the immune response toward helminths. In this study, we evaluated the role of basophils in vaccine-mediated protection against filariae, tissue-invasive parasitic nematodes responsible for diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. Protective immunity and immunological responses were assessed in BALB/c mice vaccinated with irradiated L3 stage larvae and depleted of basophils with weekly injections of anti-CD200R3 antibody. Depletion of basophils after administration of the vaccination regimen but before challenge infection did not alter protective immunity. In contrast, basophil depletion initiated prior to vaccination and continued after challenge infection significantly attenuated the protective effect conferred by vaccination. Vaccine-induced cellular immune responses to parasite antigen were substantially decreased in basophil-depleted mice, with significant decreases in CD4(+) T-cell production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IFN-γ. Interestingly, skin mast cell numbers, which increased significantly after vaccination with irradiated L3 larvae, were unchanged after vaccination in basophil-depleted mice. These findings demonstrate that basophils help establish the immune responses responsible for irradiated L3 vaccine protection.

  2. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  3. An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration Compliance Against Filariasis of Tikamgarh District of Madhya Pradesh-A Household-Based Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep; Patel, Meena; Kushwah, Sugriv Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: To study the coverage and compliance of MDA in Tikamgarh district during the campaign in April 2010. Materials and Methods: The activities under MDA involved administration of DEC tablets to eligible population from endemic area by health staff and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) functionaries referred as drug distributors (DD) make house-to-house visits on select dates in 2010. DEC was administered to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) with the instruction to ingest the tablet preferably on the spot. Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Tikamgarh district identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2010 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban clusters of Tikamgarh district; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Four clusters, each comprising 30 households from Tikamgarh endemic district, yielded an eligible population of 641. The coverage rate was 607 (94.6% of eligible) with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89.9% with a gap of 10.1% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (85.2%) was just above the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made. PMID:24479075

  4. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies. PMID:26122577

  5. Mapping, Bayesian Geostatistical Analysis and Spatial Prediction of Lymphatic Filariasis Prevalence in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest to control or eradicate the major neglected tropical diseases. Accurate modelling of the geographic distributions of parasitic infections will be crucial to this endeavour. We used 664 community level infection prevalence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with eight environmental variables, altitude and population density, and a multivariate Bayesian generalized linear spatial model that allows explicit accounting for spatial autocorrelation and incorporation of uncertainty in input data and model parameters, to construct the first spatially-explicit map describing LF prevalence distribution in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against predictions made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA climate models for 2050 to predict the likely distributions of LF under future climate and population changes. We show that LF prevalence is strongly influenced by spatial autocorrelation between locations but is only weakly associated with environmental covariates. Infection prevalence, however, is found to be related to variations in population density. All associations with key environmental/demographic variables appear to be complex and non-linear. LF prevalence is predicted to be highly heterogenous across Africa, with high prevalences (>20%) estimated to occur primarily along coastal West and East Africa, and lowest prevalences predicted for the central part of the continent. Error maps, however, indicate a need for further surveys to overcome problems with data scarcity in the latter and other regions. Analysis of future changes in prevalence indicates that population growth rather than climate change per se will represent the dominant factor in the predicted increase/decrease and spread of LF on the continent. We indicate that these results could play an important role in aiding the development of strategies that are best able to achieve the goals of parasite elimination locally and globally in a manner that may also account

  6. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-03-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), first introduced in 1947, was shown to have strong efficacy and safety for treatment of human lymphatic filariasis, which is caused mostly by a species Wuchereria bancrofti. Many studies to optimize the dosage and treatment schedule of DEC followed, and, based on the results, control programs with various regimens were implemented in different endemic areas/countries. By the mid 1970s, with endorsement by the WHO Expert Committee on Filariasis (3rd report, 1974), the standard DEC regimen for W. bancrofti infection in mass treatment had been established in principle: a total dose of 72 mg/kg of body weight given in 12 divided doses, once weekly or monthly, at 6 mg/kg each. Not long after the committee report, the efficacy of annual single-dose treatment at 6 mg/kg, which is only one twelfth of the WHO-recommended dose in a year, was reported effective in French Polynesia (study period: 1973-78), and later in Samoa (study period: 1979-81). These results were published between 1978 and 1985 in the Bulletin of WHO but received little attention. In the mid 1980s, the efficacy of ivermectin, the first-choice drug for onchocerciasis, against lymphatic filariae came to light. Since the effect at a single dose was remarkable, and often better than DEC, it was predicted that the newly introduced drug would replace DEC. Treatment experiments with ivermectin increased quickly in number. Meanwhile, annual single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC at 6 mg/kg was under scrutiny in Samoa and Fiji. In the early 1990s, the Samoan study, which covered the entire population of 160,000 with 3 annual MDAs, reported a significant reduction in microfilaria (mf) prevalence and mean mf density, while in Fiji, the efficacy of 5 rounds of annual MDA (total dose, 30 mg/kg) was shown to be as effective as 28 multi-dose MDA spread over 2 years (6 weekly plus 22 monthly treatments at 5 mg/kg; total dose, 140 mg/kg). Several additional studies carried out in

  7. Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2015-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to

  8. Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2015-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to

  9. Lymphedema secondary to filariasis

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.C.; Humphrey, G.B.; Basmadjian, G.

    1985-03-01

    A 1-year-old immunodeficient boy developed brawny edema of the left foot. Lymphoscintigraphy revealed no evidence of left inguinal activity following pedal injection of Tc-99m-Sn phosphate. Over the next two months, the patient developed lymphedema on the right and repeat scintigraphy demonstrated no movement of isotope from the dorsum of either foot. Subsequent studies identified microfilaria in a nocturnal blood smear, which were thought to represent Brugia beaveri acquired by mosquito transmission in Oklahoma.

  10. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), first introduced in 1947, was shown to have strong efficacy and safety for treatment of human lymphatic filariasis, which is caused mostly by a species Wuchereria bancrofti. Many studies to optimize the dosage and treatment schedule of DEC followed, and, based on the results, control programs with various regimens were implemented in different endemic areas/countries. By the mid 1970s, with endorsement by the WHO Expert Committee on Filariasis (3rd report, 1974), the standard DEC regimen for W. bancrofti infection in mass treatment had been established in principle: a total dose of 72 mg/kg of body weight given in 12 divided doses, once weekly or monthly, at 6 mg/kg each. Not long after the committee report, the efficacy of annual single-dose treatment at 6 mg/kg, which is only one twelfth of the WHO-recommended dose in a year, was reported effective in French Polynesia (study period: 1973-78), and later in Samoa (study period: 1979-81). These results were published between 1978 and 1985 in the Bulletin of WHO but received little attention. In the mid 1980s, the efficacy of ivermectin, the first-choice drug for onchocerciasis, against lymphatic filariae came to light. Since the effect at a single dose was remarkable, and often better than DEC, it was predicted that the newly introduced drug would replace DEC. Treatment experiments with ivermectin increased quickly in number. Meanwhile, annual single-dose mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC at 6 mg/kg was under scrutiny in Samoa and Fiji. In the early 1990s, the Samoan study, which covered the entire population of 160,000 with 3 annual MDAs, reported a significant reduction in microfilaria (mf) prevalence and mean mf density, while in Fiji, the efficacy of 5 rounds of annual MDA (total dose, 30 mg/kg) was shown to be as effective as 28 multi-dose MDA spread over 2 years (6 weekly plus 22 monthly treatments at 5 mg/kg; total dose, 140 mg/kg). Several additional studies carried out in

  11. [Lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment survey in schools three years after stopping mass drug treatment with albendazole and ivermectin in the 7 endemic districts in Togo].

    PubMed

    Dorkenoo, A M; Sodahlon, Y K; Bronzan, R N; Yakpa, K; Sossou, E; Ouro-Medeli, A; Teko, M; Seim, A; Mathieu, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the level of transmission of lymphatic filariasis three years after stopping mass drug treatment in the 7 endemic districts in Togo. The survey was conducted in 2012 in Togo's 7 endemic districts grouped into four evaluation units (EU) using the WHO-recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS) protocol. Children aged 6-7 years were screened for Wuchereria bancofti antigen using the immunochromatographic card (ICT) method. A cluster sampling method was used to select eligible children in schools as the net primary-school enrolment ratio is greater than or equal to 75% in each of the four EUs. The number of children and schools to be selected in each EU, the randomization list for the selection of these children and the critical cut-off number of positive cases not to exceed were automatically generated using the Survey Sample Builder (SSB) tool, (NTD Support Center, Atlanta, Ga, USA). For confirmation, positive cases were subsequently tested for microfilaremia using nocturnal thick blood smear and for filarial antigen using Og4C3 antigen ELISA (TropBio ELISA Kit®, Townsville, Queensland, Australia). An EU is considered to have passed the test successfully (it is assumed that transmission can no longer be sustained), when the number of positive cases is below the critical cut-off number set by the SSB, which is roughly equivalent to 2% prevalence. Of the 1 706 children surveyed in Kpendjal-Tone's EU, 1 549 in Binah-Doufelgou's EU, 1 550 in Kozah's EU and the 1 575 in Amou-Haho's EU, 8 (0.46%), 1 (0.08%), 0 (0.00%) and 4 (0.25%) ICT positive cases respectively were detected. The number of positive ICT tests was well below 18, the critical cut number for each of the 4 EUs. All 13 ICT positive cases tested negative for nocturnal microfilaremia and Og4C3 ELISA. We conclude that all four EU passed the TAS with success, and the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti is no longer likely to be sustained in the 7 endemic districts in Togo

  12. Toxicity of seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and its impact on predation efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Ayyappan, Suganya; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 1.4 billion people in 73 countries worldwide are threatened by lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic infection that leads to a disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Filariasis is vectored by mosquitoes, with special reference to the genus Culex. The main control tool against mosquito larvae is represented by treatments with organophosphates and insect growth regulators, with negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective larvicidals against mosquito vectors. In this research, we attempted a reply to the following question: do green-synthesized nanoparticles affect predation rates of copepods against mosquito larvae? We proposed a novel method of seaweed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the frond extract of Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The toxicity of the seaweed extract and silver nanoparticles was assessed against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Then, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus against larval instars of C. quinquefasciatus in a nanoparticle-contaminated water environment. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, the LC₅₀ values of the C. scalpelliformis extract against C. quinquefasciatus were 31.38 ppm (I), 46.49 ppm (II), 75.79 ppm (III), 102.26 ppm (IV), and 138.89 ppm (pupa), while LC₅₀ of silver nanoparticles were 3.08 ppm, (I), 3.49 ppm (II), 4.64 ppm (III), 5.86 ppm (IV), and 7.33 ppm (pupa). The predatory efficiency of the copepod M. longisetus in the control treatment was 78 and 59% against I and II instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. In a nanoparticle-contaminated environment, predation efficiency was 84 and 63%, respectively. Predation was higher against first instar larvae over other instars

  13. [Lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment survey in schools three years after stopping mass drug treatment with albendazole and ivermectin in the 7 endemic districts in Togo].

    PubMed

    Dorkenoo, A M; Sodahlon, Y K; Bronzan, R N; Yakpa, K; Sossou, E; Ouro-Medeli, A; Teko, M; Seim, A; Mathieu, E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the level of transmission of lymphatic filariasis three years after stopping mass drug treatment in the 7 endemic districts in Togo. The survey was conducted in 2012 in Togo's 7 endemic districts grouped into four evaluation units (EU) using the WHO-recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS) protocol. Children aged 6-7 years were screened for Wuchereria bancofti antigen using the immunochromatographic card (ICT) method. A cluster sampling method was used to select eligible children in schools as the net primary-school enrolment ratio is greater than or equal to 75% in each of the four EUs. The number of children and schools to be selected in each EU, the randomization list for the selection of these children and the critical cut-off number of positive cases not to exceed were automatically generated using the Survey Sample Builder (SSB) tool, (NTD Support Center, Atlanta, Ga, USA). For confirmation, positive cases were subsequently tested for microfilaremia using nocturnal thick blood smear and for filarial antigen using Og4C3 antigen ELISA (TropBio ELISA Kit®, Townsville, Queensland, Australia). An EU is considered to have passed the test successfully (it is assumed that transmission can no longer be sustained), when the number of positive cases is below the critical cut-off number set by the SSB, which is roughly equivalent to 2% prevalence. Of the 1 706 children surveyed in Kpendjal-Tone's EU, 1 549 in Binah-Doufelgou's EU, 1 550 in Kozah's EU and the 1 575 in Amou-Haho's EU, 8 (0.46%), 1 (0.08%), 0 (0.00%) and 4 (0.25%) ICT positive cases respectively were detected. The number of positive ICT tests was well below 18, the critical cut number for each of the 4 EUs. All 13 ICT positive cases tested negative for nocturnal microfilaremia and Og4C3 ELISA. We conclude that all four EU passed the TAS with success, and the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti is no longer likely to be sustained in the 7 endemic districts in Togo

  14. Molecular systematics of filarial parasites, with an emphasis on groups of medical and veterinary importance, and its relevance for epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro

    2009-09-01

    Filarial parasites are members of the Phylum Nemata that comprise several species of medical and veterinary importance. Among the human diseases caused by members of this group of nematodes are river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, which afflict millions of people in the tropics. These diseases not only have an impact on the health of the people affected but also bear a great socioeconomic burden. Despite their relevance, the systematics of the filarial parasites is not well understood yet, and additional molecular phylogenetic studies are required to comprehend the evolution of these parasites. Identifying the patterns of evolution of these parasites will be of relevance in preventing emerging zoonoses. The present review examines the information about the molecular systematics of filarial parasites available in the literature and evaluates the relevance of the different directions of future research. Furthermore, it is also intended to highlight the relevance of molecular systematic studies in the molecular epidemiology research area.

  15. Construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment against Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 antigen for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kamatchi, R; Charumathi, J; Ravishankaran, R; Kaliraj, P; Meenakshisundaram, S

    2016-01-01

    Global programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF) require mapping, monitoring and evaluation using filarial antigen diagnostic kits. To meet this objective, a functional single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) specific for filarial Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 (Wb-SXP-1) antigen was constructed for the diagnosis of active filarial infection, an alternative to the production of complete antibodies using hybridomas. The variable heavy chain (VH) and the variable light chain (kappa) (Vκ) genes were amplified from the mouse hybridoma cell line and were linked together with a flexible linker by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv construct (Vκ-Linker-VH) was expressed as a fusion protein with N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) without the addition of reducing agents. Immunoblotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyse the antigen binding affinity of purified ScFv. The purified ScFv was found to recognize recombinant and native Wb-SXP-1 antigen in microfilariae (Mf)-positive patient sera. The affinity of ScFv was comparable with that of the monoclonal antibody. The development of recombinant ScFv to replace monoclonal antibody for detection of filarial antigen was achieved. The recombinant ScFv was purified, on-column refolded and its detection ability validated using field samples.

  16. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping of lymphatic filariasis endemic areas of Gampaha District, Sri Lanka based on epidemiological and entomological screening.

    PubMed

    Wijegunawardana, N D A D; Gunawardene, Y I N Silva; Manamperi, Aresha; Senarathne, H; Abeyewickreme, W

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a site directed geographic information system (GIS) map of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka as a guide for targeted control activities. Epidemiological and entomological screening of LF was carried out in nine pre-identified endemic areas in Gampaha District, using night blood screening and pool-screening PCR-ELISA. In total, 1,073 subjects (286 children, 787 adults) from 9 sites were examined. Positive cases were detected at 2 sites, with prevalence rates of 0.5% (Hekiththa) and 3.4% (Peliyagoda); the prevalence of microfilaria (mf) among adult Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes surveyed was 30%. The overall prevalence of mosquitoes with L1-L2 larvae of W. bancrofti ranged from 0% to 8.31% using dissection and point estimates of infection prevalence, and ranged from 0 to 32.4% using PCR-ELISA. The largest number of human cases was found at altitudes of 2.5-3.5 min highly populated areas, where transmission appears to have taken place. Questionnaires indicated that limited community awareness of LF may be a reason for the fairly static infection prevalent among the local population. The GIS mapping of LF cases shows a considerable prevalence of LF and marked variability by geographic site in Gampaha.

  17. Impact of education campaign on community-based vector control in hastening the process of elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Nandha, B; Krishnamoorthy, K

    2012-08-01

    Globally mosquito-borne lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by 2020. Towards this goal, the scope of community-based vector control as a supplementary strategy to mass drug administration (MDA) was assessed through an intensive education campaign and evaluated using pre- and post-educational surveys in an intervention and comparison village in Tamil Nadu, South India. Environmental and entomological indicators for breeding sites and mosquito density were examined before and after the intervention. Significant (P < 0.05) increase in knowledge was observed in intervention area with regard to transmission and control of LF. Relative change between intervention and comparison villages before and after intervention was also significant (z = >1.96). Multiple mosquito control and personal protection methods were in use during the post-intervention assessment and was evident from the significantly (P < 0.05) higher average score. Breeding sources declined significantly (P < 0.05) in the intervention village with a significant relative change (z = 4.32). Significant reduction in per man-hour indoor resting density of mosquitoes was observed in the intervention area compared to baseline. The per capita cost for reducing 87% of the mosquito density was $ 0.32 indicating the effectiveness of community-based approach. The usefulness of this strategy in the elimination of LF is discussed. PMID:21724963

  18. Climate Change Influences on the Global Potential Distribution of the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, Vector of West Nile Virus and Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Elaagip, Arwa H.; Kenawy, Mohamed A.; Ayres, Constância F. J.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Soliman, Doaa E.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid emergence of most vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be associated with range expansion of vector populations. Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 is a potential vector of West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, and lymphatic filariasis. We estimated the potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus under both current and future climate conditions. The present potential distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed high suitability across low-latitude parts of the world, reflecting the current distribution of the species. Suitable conditions were identified also in narrow zones of North Africa and Western Europe. Model transfers to future conditions showed a potential distribution similar to that under present-day conditions, although with higher suitability in southern Australia. Highest stability with changing climate was between 30°S and 30°N. The areas present high agreement among diverse climate models as regards distributional potential in the future, but differed in anticipating potential for distribution in North and Central Africa, southern Asia, central USA, and southeastern Europe. Highest disparity in model predictions across representative concentration pathways (RCPs) was in Saudi Arabia and Europe. The model predictions allow anticipation of changing distributional potential of the species in coming decades. PMID:27695107

  19. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-05-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  20. Construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment against Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 antigen for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kamatchi, R; Charumathi, J; Ravishankaran, R; Kaliraj, P; Meenakshisundaram, S

    2016-01-01

    Global programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF) require mapping, monitoring and evaluation using filarial antigen diagnostic kits. To meet this objective, a functional single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) specific for filarial Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 (Wb-SXP-1) antigen was constructed for the diagnosis of active filarial infection, an alternative to the production of complete antibodies using hybridomas. The variable heavy chain (VH) and the variable light chain (kappa) (Vκ) genes were amplified from the mouse hybridoma cell line and were linked together with a flexible linker by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv construct (Vκ-Linker-VH) was expressed as a fusion protein with N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) without the addition of reducing agents. Immunoblotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyse the antigen binding affinity of purified ScFv. The purified ScFv was found to recognize recombinant and native Wb-SXP-1 antigen in microfilariae (Mf)-positive patient sera. The affinity of ScFv was comparable with that of the monoclonal antibody. The development of recombinant ScFv to replace monoclonal antibody for detection of filarial antigen was achieved. The recombinant ScFv was purified, on-column refolded and its detection ability validated using field samples. PMID:26693887

  1. Factors associated with the performance and cost-effectiveness of using lymphatic filariasis transmission assessment surveys for monitoring soil-transmitted helminths: a case study in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer L; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Assefa, Liya; Nikolay, Birgit; Njenga, Sammy M; Kihara, Jimmy; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Brooker, Simon J

    2015-02-01

    Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) for lymphatic filariasis have been proposed as a platform to assess the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) on soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). This study used computer simulation and field data from pre- and post-MDA settings across Kenya to evaluate the performance and cost-effectiveness of the TAS design for STH assessment compared with alternative survey designs. Variations in the TAS design and different sample sizes and diagnostic methods were also evaluated. The district-level TAS design correctly classified more districts compared with standard STH designs in pre-MDA settings. Aggregating districts into larger evaluation units in a TAS design decreased performance, whereas age group sampled and sample size had minimal impact. The low diagnostic sensitivity of Kato-Katz and mini-FLOTAC methods was found to increase misclassification. We recommend using a district-level TAS among children 8-10 years of age to assess STH but suggest that key consideration is given to evaluation unit size.

  2. The Impact of Two Semiannual Treatments with Albendazole Alone on Lymphatic Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Community-Based Study in the Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Chesnais, Cédric B.; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U.; Majewski, Andrew C.; Weil, Gary J.; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis. PMID:25758650

  3. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping of lymphatic filariasis endemic areas of Gampaha District, Sri Lanka based on epidemiological and entomological screening.

    PubMed

    Wijegunawardana, N D A D; Gunawardene, Y I N Silva; Manamperi, Aresha; Senarathne, H; Abeyewickreme, W

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a site directed geographic information system (GIS) map of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka as a guide for targeted control activities. Epidemiological and entomological screening of LF was carried out in nine pre-identified endemic areas in Gampaha District, using night blood screening and pool-screening PCR-ELISA. In total, 1,073 subjects (286 children, 787 adults) from 9 sites were examined. Positive cases were detected at 2 sites, with prevalence rates of 0.5% (Hekiththa) and 3.4% (Peliyagoda); the prevalence of microfilaria (mf) among adult Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes surveyed was 30%. The overall prevalence of mosquitoes with L1-L2 larvae of W. bancrofti ranged from 0% to 8.31% using dissection and point estimates of infection prevalence, and ranged from 0 to 32.4% using PCR-ELISA. The largest number of human cases was found at altitudes of 2.5-3.5 min highly populated areas, where transmission appears to have taken place. Questionnaires indicated that limited community awareness of LF may be a reason for the fairly static infection prevalent among the local population. The GIS mapping of LF cases shows a considerable prevalence of LF and marked variability by geographic site in Gampaha. PMID:23077834

  4. The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme and the Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme on soil-transmitted helminthiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Massa, Khalid; Magnussen, Pascal; Sheshe, Amir; Ntakamulenga, Robert; Ndawi, Benedict; Olsen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (LFEP) and the National Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme (NSSCP) on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was evaluated. In September 2004, before mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP in October, the prevalence and intensity of STH were recorded in 228 pupils in one primary school. After 8 months, all available pupils were re-examined, and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm had decreased from 0.9 to 0.7% (P=0.84), from 4.8 to 0.7% (P=0.004) and from 45.6 to 11.9% (P<0.001), respectively. Overall, 81.2% of the schoolchildren stated that they were treated by the LFEP in October 2004. After the 8 months follow-up, pupils were treated with praziquantel and albendazole by the present project (substitute for the NSSCP). After another 4 months (at 12 months follow-up), the prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced to 4.8% (P=0.003), while the prevalence of T. trichiura was reduced to 0.3% (P=0.54) and the prevalence of A. lumbricoides remained unchanged. Mass co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP had a significant effect on STH, which was further amplified by treatment with praziquantel and albendazole 4 months later.

  5. Factors Associated with the Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Using Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Surveys for Monitoring Soil-Transmitted Helminths: A Case Study in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Assefa, Liya; Nikolay, Birgit; Njenga, Sammy M.; Kihara, Jimmy; Mwandawiro, Charles S.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) for lymphatic filariasis have been proposed as a platform to assess the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) on soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). This study used computer simulation and field data from pre- and post-MDA settings across Kenya to evaluate the performance and cost-effectiveness of the TAS design for STH assessment compared with alternative survey designs. Variations in the TAS design and different sample sizes and diagnostic methods were also evaluated. The district-level TAS design correctly classified more districts compared with standard STH designs in pre-MDA settings. Aggregating districts into larger evaluation units in a TAS design decreased performance, whereas age group sampled and sample size had minimal impact. The low diagnostic sensitivity of Kato-Katz and mini-FLOTAC methods was found to increase misclassification. We recommend using a district-level TAS among children 8–10 years of age to assess STH but suggest that key consideration is given to evaluation unit size. PMID:25487730

  6. The "filarial dance" is not characteristic of filariasis: observations of "dancing megasperm" on high-resolution sonography in patients from nonendemic areas mimicking the filarial dance and a proposed mechanism for this phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Adejolu, Margaret; Sidhu, Paul S

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this series was to show that the sonographic appearance described as the "filarial dance" is not characteristic of filariasis but occurs in nonendemic areas as a manifestation of epididymal obstruction. An experienced observer documented cases after initial observation of the filarial dance in routine clinical practice using high-frequency linear array transducers. The filarial dance was described as excessive to-and-fro movement of echogenic particles within a prominent epididymis and graded 1 to 4 according to the extent and distribution of the abnormality. The country of birth, exposure to filarial infection or travel to a filarial-endemic area, previous scrotal surgery including vasectomy, any previous or current scrotal inflammatory disease, and any congenital testicular abnormalities were recorded. Over a 10-year period, sonographic appearances consistent with the filarial dance were observed in 18 patients (bilateral in 6). The mean patient age was 47.7 (range, 28-91) years. The abnormality was graded in the 24 affected testes as follows: grade 1, n = 3; grade 2, n = 8; grade 3, n = 8; and grade 4, n = 5. No patient had a history of filariasis or travel to an endemic area. Six of 18 patients (33.3%) had bilateral vasectomies; 5 (27.8%) had a history of epididymo-orchitis in the ipsilateral testis; 3 (16.7%) had previous scrotal surgery; and 4 (22.2%) had no relevant urologic history. We have described a sonographic appearance identical to the filarial dance in men with no history of filarial infection. Most had previous scrotal surgery or infection, suggesting that the filarial dance may not always be due to movement of filarial worms. The unifying condition in patients with filariasis and our patients is lymphatic obstruction, likely the underlying cause of the appearance in both groups.

  7. Imported Dengue Fever: an important reemerging disease.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Malachi; Shetty, Avinash K

    2009-11-01

    Fever in a returned traveler from the tropics often poses a diagnostic challenge to the emergency department physician because of the potential for serious morbidity and mortality associated with certain infections such as falciparum malaria and dengue. We report a case of imported dengue fever in a 15-year-old adolescent boy acquired during a recent travel to Guatemala. Dengue fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of global importance. The majority of US residents with dengue become infected during travel to tropical areas. In recent years, dengue has remerged in US tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is underreported in the United States along the Mexican border. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, control, and prevention of this important global reemerging infectious disease are reviewed. Clinicians should include dengue in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness in children who have recently returned from dengue endemic areas.

  8. DNA vaccine encoding the moonlighting protein Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) leads to partial protection in a mouse model of human filariasis.

    PubMed

    Steisslinger, Vera; Korten, Simone; Brattig, Norbert W; Erttmann, Klaus D

    2015-10-26

    River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. We report that in a laboratory model for filariasis, immunization with Ov-GAPDH led to a significant reduction of adult worm load and microfilaraemia in BALB/c mice after challenge infection with the filarial parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice were either vaccinated with Ov-GAPDH.DNA plasmid (Ov-pGAPDH.DNA) alone or in combination with recombinantly expressed Ov-GAPDH protein (Ov-rGAPDH). During the following challenge infection of immunized and control mice with L. sigmodontis, those formulations which included the DNA plasmid, led to a significant reduction of adult worm loads (up to 57% median reduction) and microfilaraemia (up to 94% reduction) in immunized animals. In a further experiment, immunization with a mixture of four overlapping, synthetic Ov-GAPDH peptides (Ov-GAPDHpept), with alum as adjuvant, did not significantly reduce worm loads. Our results indicate that DNA vaccination with Ov-GAPDH has protective potential against filarial challenge infection in the mouse model. This suggests a transfer of the approach into the cattle Onchocerca ochengi model, where it is possible to investigate the effects of this vaccination in the context of a natural host-parasite relationship. PMID:26320419

  9. What Is Needed to Eradicate Lymphatic Filariasis? A Model-Based Assessment on the Impact of Scaling Up Mass Drug Administration Programs

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, Randee J.; Stone, Christopher M.; Steinmann, Peter; Tanner, Marcel; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease for which more than a billion people in 73 countries are thought to be at-risk. At a global level, the efforts against LF are designed as an elimination program. However, current efforts appear to aim for elimination in some but not all endemic areas. With the 2020 goal of elimination looming, we set out to develop plausible scale-up scenarios to reach global elimination and eradication. We predict the duration of mass drug administration (MDA) necessary to reach local elimination for a variety of transmission archetypes using an existing model of LF transmission, estimate the number of treatments required for each scenario, and consider implications of rapid scale-up. Methodology We have defined four scenarios that differ in their geographic coverage and rate of scale-up. For each scenario, country-specific simulations and calculations were performed that took into account the pre-intervention transmission intensity, the different vector genera, drug regimen, achieved level of population coverage, previous progress toward elimination, and potential programmatic delays due to mapping, operations, and administration. Principal Findings Our results indicate that eliminating LF by 2020 is unlikely. If MDA programs are drastically scaled up and expanded, the final round of MDA for LF eradication could be delivered in 2028 after 4,159 million treatments. However, if the current rate of scale-up is maintained, the final round of MDA to eradicate LF may not occur until 2050. Conclusions/Significance Rapid scale-up of MDA will decrease the amount of time and treatments required to reach LF eradication. It may also propel the program towards success, as the risk of failure is likely to increase with extended program duration. PMID:26451729

  10. Assessing Lymphatic Filariasis Data Quality in Endemic Communities in Ghana, Using the Neglected Tropical Diseases Data Quality Assessment Tool for Preventive Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Yirenkyi, Eric; Otchere, Joseph; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Ameme, Donne K.; Sackey, Samuel; Ahorlu, Collins; Wilson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The activities of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis have been in operation since the year 2000, with Mass Drug Administration (MDA) undertaken yearly in disease endemic communities. Information collected during MDA–such as population demographics, age, sex, drugs used and remaining, and therapeutic and geographic coverage–can be used to assess the quality of the data reported. To assist country programmes in evaluating the information reported, the WHO, in collaboration with NTD partners, including ENVISION/RTI, developed an NTD Data Quality Assessment (DQA) tool, for use by programmes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the tool and assess the quality of data reported in some endemic communities in Ghana. Methods A cross sectional study, involving review of data registers and interview of drug distributors, disease control officers, and health information officers using the NTD DQA tool, was carried out in selected communities in three LF endemic Districts in Ghana. Data registers for service delivery points were obtained from District health office for assessment. The assessment verified reported results in comparison with recounted values for five indicators: number of tablets received, number of tablets used, number of tablets remaining, MDA coverage, and population treated. Furthermore, drug distributors, disease control officers, and health information officers (at the first data aggregation level), were interviewed, using the DQA tool, to determine the performance of the functional areas of the data management system. Findings The results showed that over 60% of the data reported were inaccurate, and exposed the challenges and limitations of the data management system. The DQA tool is a very useful monitoring and evaluation (M&E) tool that can be used to elucidate and address data quality issues in various NTD control programmes. PMID:27028010

  11. Progress and Impact of 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis on Reducing the Burden of Filarial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, K. D.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, with mass drug administration (MDA) as the core strategy of the programme. After completing 13 years of operations through 2012 and with MDA in place in 55 of 73 endemic countries, the impact of the MDA programme on microfilaraemia, hydrocele and lymphedema is in need of being assessed. Methodology/Principal findings During 2000–2012, the MDA programme made remarkable achievements – a total of 6.37 billion treatments were offered and an estimated 4.45 billion treatments were consumed by the population living in endemic areas. Using a model based on empirical observations of the effects of treatment on clinical manifestations, it is estimated that 96.71 million LF cases, including 79.20 million microfilaria carriers, 18.73 million hydrocele cases and a minimum of 5.49 million lymphedema cases have been prevented or cured during this period. Consequently, the global prevalence of LF is calculated to have fallen by 59%, from 3.55% to 1.47%. The fall was highest for microfilaraemia prevalence (68%), followed by 49% in hydrocele prevalence and 25% in lymphedema prevalence. It is estimated that, currently, i.e. after 13 years of the MDA programme, there are still an estimated 67.88 million LF cases that include 36.45 million microfilaria carriers, 19.43 million hydrocele cases and 16.68 million lymphedema cases. Conclusions/Significance The MDA programme has resulted in significant reduction of the LF burden. Extension of MDA to all at-risk countries and to all regions within those countries where MDA has not yet reached 100% geographic coverage is imperative to further reduce the number of microfilaraemia and chronic disease cases and to reach the global target of interrupting transmission of LF by 2020. PMID:25412180

  12. Interleukin-10- and Transforming Growth Factor β-Independent Regulation of CD8+ T Cells Expressing Type 1 and Type 2 Cytokines in Human Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is known to be associated with diminished CD4+ Th1 and elevated CD4+ Th2 responses to parasite-specific antigens. The roles of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells in immune responses to filarial infections are not well defined. To study the roles of CD8+ T cells expressing type 1, type 2, and type 17 cytokines in filarial infections, we examined the frequencies of these cells in clinically asymptomatic, patently infected (INF) individuals, directly ex vivo and in response to parasite or nonparasite antigens; these frequencies were compared with the results for individuals with filarial lymphedema (i.e., clinical pathology [CP]) and those without active infection or pathology (i.e., endemic normal [EN]). INF individuals exhibited significant decreases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and interleukin-22 (IL-22) at baseline and/or in response to filarial antigens, compared with CP and EN individuals. In contrast, the same individuals exhibited significant increases in the frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IL-21, compared with CP and/or EN individuals. Curative treatment resulted in significantly increased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing IL-2 and significantly decreased frequencies of CD8+ T cells expressing type 2 cytokines. Finally, the regulation of these responses appears to be independent of IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), since blockade of IL-10 or TGF-β signaling did not significantly alter the frequencies of type 1 or type 2 cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells. Our findings suggest that alterations in the frequencies of cytokine-expressing CD8+ T cells are characteristic features of lymphatic filarial infections. PMID:25253667

  13. DNA vaccine encoding the moonlighting protein Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) leads to partial protection in a mouse model of human filariasis.

    PubMed

    Steisslinger, Vera; Korten, Simone; Brattig, Norbert W; Erttmann, Klaus D

    2015-10-26

    River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. We report that in a laboratory model for filariasis, immunization with Ov-GAPDH led to a significant reduction of adult worm load and microfilaraemia in BALB/c mice after challenge infection with the filarial parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice were either vaccinated with Ov-GAPDH.DNA plasmid (Ov-pGAPDH.DNA) alone or in combination with recombinantly expressed Ov-GAPDH protein (Ov-rGAPDH). During the following challenge infection of immunized and control mice with L. sigmodontis, those formulations which included the DNA plasmid, led to a significant reduction of adult worm loads (up to 57% median reduction) and microfilaraemia (up to 94% reduction) in immunized animals. In a further experiment, immunization with a mixture of four overlapping, synthetic Ov-GAPDH peptides (Ov-GAPDHpept), with alum as adjuvant, did not significantly reduce worm loads. Our results indicate that DNA vaccination with Ov-GAPDH has protective potential against filarial challenge infection in the mouse model. This suggests a transfer of the approach into the cattle Onchocerca ochengi model, where it is possible to investigate the effects of this vaccination in the context of a natural host-parasite relationship.

  14. Remote sensing and geochemical investigations of selected surface processes in Egypt and Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombie, Mary Katherine

    This thesis consists of three studies of surface processes on Earth: 1. Age and isotopic constraints of pluvial episodes in the Western Desert of Egypt. North Africa has undergone drastic climatic change over the past several hundred thousand years. Timing of humid intervals called pluvials was investigated by uranium- series disequilibrium dating of travertines from the Kurkur Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. Stable oxygen isotopes of the travertines were used in equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation calculations indicating the Kurkur travertines have δ18O values similar to ancient Western Desert groundwaters (~[- ]11/perthous). The ages of the of the travertines correspond to times of monsoonal maxima, eustatic sea level high stands and interglacial maxima. Increased precipitation, recharge of Western Desert groundwaters, and resultant travertine deposition are interpreted to be consequences of Milankovitch cycle forcing, through enhanced Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoons during periods of enhanced northern summer insolation. 2. Identification of soil moisture as an environmental risk factor for filariasis in Egypt. Bancroftian filariasis is a deforming illness transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex. pipiens) and caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (WHO technical report 821; Neva and Brown, 1994). Environmental variables, such as humidity, play an important role in the transmission cycle of filariasis. Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to model the surface soil moisture conditions of the southern Nile Delta region of Egypt as a proxy for environmental humidity. Filariasis infection rates were found to be negligible for areas with low surface soil moisture availability (>20%). Variable infection rates were observed for regions with higher surface soil moisture content, possibly due to anthropogenic influences such as insect control and the use of anti- filarial drugs. 3. Monitoring of Pb aerosol fallout in the vicinity of the Glover smelter, Southeastern

  15. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  16. Importing biological materials.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P

    2001-05-01

    This overview discusses critical issues regarding importing of restricted biological materials along with criteria for handling these materials. Guidelines for importing non-restricted biological materials are also covered. Recommendations are given for packaging biological materials for export, and finally, the necessary steps for obtaining an import permit application are outlined. PMID:18429071

  17. Python import replacement

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-01

    SmartImport.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module importer. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module imports in massively parallel contexts.

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rosângela M R; Souto, Antonio; Eiras, Alvaro E; Regis, Lêda

    2007-06-01

    An ovitrap (BR-OVT) based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:17612774

  19. Sustainable urban development and human health: septic tank as a major breeding habitat of mosquito vectors of human diseases in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, B E; Nduka, F O; Okereke, O M; Ehighibe, O C

    1993-02-01

    Septic tank mosquitoes in Abia State University Okigwe, south-eastern Nigeria were studied using exit traps between November 1988 and April 1989. The results were revealing and striking. Apart from the common septic tank mosquitoes, Culex p. quinquefasciatus, Cu. cinereus and Aedes aegypti, which have been previously commonly found breeding in ammonia and nitrate-rich waters of latrines and septic tanks, the other species, Cu. horridus, Cu. tigripes and Aedes vittatus, have not been commonly reported as colonizing septic tanks in Nigeria. Three out of these six mosquito species observed are vectors of human diseases: Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus are vectors of Yellow fever and Cu. p. quinquefasciatus is a potential vector of Bancroftian filariasis and a world-wide vector of various arboviruses. The fact that these mosquito vectors are able to breed in highly polluted waters of septic tanks during the harsh dry months when most surface water bodies are dry is epidemiologically important. The breeding of these mosquito vectors of human diseases around human dwellings indicates an intense man-vector contact creating a high level risk to the crowded urban population. The public health implications of this urbanization/modernization problem and solutions are discussed. PMID:8508215

  20. Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Daibin; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Yu, Jing; Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP) in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM), which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) tool to the genome sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait. PMID:26484540

  1. Sustainable urban development and human health: septic tank as a major breeding habitat of mosquito vectors of human diseases in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, B E; Nduka, F O; Okereke, O M; Ehighibe, O C

    1993-02-01

    Septic tank mosquitoes in Abia State University Okigwe, south-eastern Nigeria were studied using exit traps between November 1988 and April 1989. The results were revealing and striking. Apart from the common septic tank mosquitoes, Culex p. quinquefasciatus, Cu. cinereus and Aedes aegypti, which have been previously commonly found breeding in ammonia and nitrate-rich waters of latrines and septic tanks, the other species, Cu. horridus, Cu. tigripes and Aedes vittatus, have not been commonly reported as colonizing septic tanks in Nigeria. Three out of these six mosquito species observed are vectors of human diseases: Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus are vectors of Yellow fever and Cu. p. quinquefasciatus is a potential vector of Bancroftian filariasis and a world-wide vector of various arboviruses. The fact that these mosquito vectors are able to breed in highly polluted waters of septic tanks during the harsh dry months when most surface water bodies are dry is epidemiologically important. The breeding of these mosquito vectors of human diseases around human dwellings indicates an intense man-vector contact creating a high level risk to the crowded urban population. The public health implications of this urbanization/modernization problem and solutions are discussed.

  2. Molecular characterization and evaluation of Onchocerca volvulus-secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) as a putative vaccine candidate on endemic population of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, Natarajan; Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Ansel Vishal, Lawrance; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-09-01

    Filarial parasites infected nearly 160 million of the global population with onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and further, a billion of people are estimated to be at risk of infection, rendering them among the most prevalent infectious agents in the world today. Given the complexity of their life cycle and the immune evasion mechanisms of these organisms, development of a vaccine remains to be a long-term challenge. Though a number of immunodominant antigens have been characterized, the presence of homologous proteins in humans or the allelic variants are some of the major drawbacks. One of the extensively studied vaccine candidates is abundant larval transcripts (ALT) family of proteins for the following properties: highly regulated expression, abundance, excreted-secreted product of infective stage larvae, and essentially for parasite establishment and survival in the host. In the present study, stage-specific expression of secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) was identified; an ALT orthologue from Onchocerca volvulus was cloned, expressed, and purified as a recombinant protein. Immunogenicity of OvSLAP1 was demonstrated with sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from endemic regions of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. OvSLAP1 antibodies were predominated by IgG1 and IgG2 in endemic normal (EN) and chronic pathology (CP) subjects. It has also induced marked cellular response as observed by lymphoproliferation assay. The study revealed that OvSLAP1 can segregate humoral (EN mean optical density (OD) = 0.87 ± 0.035, CP mean OD = 0.59 ± 0.029) and cellular (EN mean stimulation index (SI) = 5.87 ± 0.167, CP mean SI = 3.5 ± 0.134) immune responses between EN and CP individuals (P < 0.001), signifying its prophylactic ability and vitality for protection from filarial infections in endemic population. PMID:23828189

  3. Studies of Anopheles gambiae s.l (Diptera: Culicidae) exhibiting different vectorial capacities in lymphatic filariasis transmission in the Gomoa district, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two lymphatic filariasis endemic communities Mampong and Hwida in Ghana have been regularly monitored for impact on transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin. After six MDAs even though the ABR for Mampong was 55883/person/year and that of Hwida was 2494/person/year, they both had ATPs of 15.21 infective larvae/person/year. Interestingly the human microfilaraemia levels had reduced significantly from 14% to 0% at Mampong and 12% to 3% at Hwida. In an attempt to understand this anomaly, we collected mosquitoes over a 5-month period using human landing catches to determine the species composition, the number of cibarial teeth, the lengths and widths of the cibarium and the cibarial dome of the vector populations. Results Out of 2553 mosquitoes caught at Mampong, 42.6% were An. gambiae s.l. All 280 identified further by PCR were An. gambiae s.s (275 M and 5 S molecular forms). At Hwida, 112 mosquitoes were obtained; 67 (59.8%) were An. gambiae s.l, comprised of 40 (59.7%) An. melas, 24 (35.8%) An. gambiae s.s (17 and 5 M and S molecular forms respectively) and 3 (4.5%) unidentified. The mean number of teeth for An. melas was 14.1 (median = 14, range = 12-15), An. gambiae s.s., 15.7 (median = 15, range = 13-19) M form 15.5 (median = 15 range = 13-19) and S form 16 (median = 16, range 15-17). The observed differences in teeth numbers were significantly different between An. melas and An. gambiae s.s (p = 0.004), and the M form (p = 0.032) and the S form (p = 0.002). Conclusions In this study, An. gambiae s.s was the main vector at Mampong and was found to possess significantly more cibarial teeth than An. melas, the principal vector at Hwida. We postulate that the different impact observed after 6 MDAs may be due to An. gambiae s.s exhibiting 'facilitation' at Mampong and at Hwida An. melas the main vector exhibits 'limitation'. Thus it may be necessary to compliment MDA with vector control to achieve

  4. Rapid community identification, pain and distress associated with lymphoedema and adenolymphangitis due to lymphatic filariasis in resource-limited communities of North-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B; Akogun, M K; Apake, E; Kale, O O

    2011-09-01

    Identification of communities with people that could benefit from adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphoedema morbidity management within Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes (NLFEP) in many African countries is a major challenge to programme managers. Another challenge is advocating for proportionate allocation of funds to alleviating the suffering that afflicted people bear. In this study we developed a rapid qualitative technique of identifying communities where morbidity management programme could be situated and documenting the pain and distress that afflicted persons endure. Estimates given by health personnel and by community resource persons were compared with systematic household surveys for the number of persons with lymphoedema of the lower limb. Communities in Northeastern Nigeria, with the largest number of lymphoedema cases were selected and a study of local knowledge, physical, psychosocial burden and intervention-seeking activities associated with the disease documented using an array of techniques (including household surveys, key informant interviews, group discussions and informal conversations). Health personnel gave a more accurate estimate of the number of lymphoedema patients in their communities than either the community leader or the community directed ivermectin distributor (CDD). Community members with lymphoedema preferred to confide in health personnel from other communities. The people had a well developed local vocabulary for lymphoedema and are well aware of the indigenous transmission theories. Although the people associated the episodic ADL attacks with the rains which were more frequent at that period they did not associate the episodes with gross lymphoedema. There were diverse theories about lymphoedema causation with heredity, accidental stepping on charmed objects and organisms, breaking taboos. The most popular belief about causation, however, is witchcraft (60.9%). The episodic attacks are dreaded by the afflicted, since

  5. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Drabo, François; Ouedraogo, Hamado; Bougma, Roland; Bougouma, Clarisse; Bamba, Issouf; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Barrett, Laura; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Palmer, Stephanie; Chu, Brian; Toubali, Emily; Zhang, Yaobi

    2016-01-01

    Background Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF) mass drug administration (MDA) for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls) were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0–1.8%) in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.6%) and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0–4.2 epg). Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9–6.1%) and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3–26.6 epg). A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS). In this assessment, 351 children aged 6–7 years and 345 children aged 10–14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–2.1%)) and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0–4.1%)) of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values. Conclusions/Significance Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also

  6. Emergy and Its Importance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy is an important quantity needed for public policy analysis that is based on a complex methodology. The intent of this Environmental Research Brief is to define emergy and its importance in a manner that is accessible to everyone with at least a high school education. Emer...

  7. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  8. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  9. Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2014-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Adults were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following lethal dose (LD)₅₀ and LD₉₀ values: A. stephensi had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 18

  10. Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2014-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Adults were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following lethal dose (LD)₅₀ and LD₉₀ values: A. stephensi had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 18

  11. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Tali; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Little, Kristen; Prakash, Aishya; Patra, Inakhi; Rout, Jonathan; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF), 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema. Methodology/Principal Findings Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender), their family members (eight groups), community members (four groups) and program volunteers (four groups) who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector. Conclusions/Significance Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF. PMID:26849126

  12. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control. PMID:24802866

  13. Ecological Drivers of Mansonella perstans Infection in Uganda and Patterns of Co-endemicity with Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Vounatsou, Penelope; Onapa, Ambrose W.; Utzinger, Jürg; Pedersen, Erling M.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mansonella perstans is a widespread, but relatively unknown human filarial parasite transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Although it is found in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, only few studies have been carried out to deepen the understanding of its ecology, epidemiology, and health consequences. Hence, knowledge about ecological drivers of the vector and parasite distribution, integral to develop spatially explicit models for disease prevention, control, and elimination strategies, is limited. Methodology We analyzed data from a comprehensive nationwide survey of M. perstans infection conducted in 76 schools across Uganda in 2000–2003, to identify environmental drivers. A suite of Bayesian geostatistical regression models was fitted, and the best fitting model based on the deviance information criterion was utilized to predict M. perstans infection risk for all of Uganda. Additionally, we investigated co-infection rates and co-distribution with Wuchereria bancrofti and Plasmodium spp. infections observed at the same survey by mapping geographically overlapping areas. Principal Findings Several bioclimatic factors were significantly associated with M. perstans infection levels. A spatial Bayesian regression model showed the best fit, with diurnal temperature range, normalized difference vegetation index, and cattle densities identified as significant covariates. This model was employed to predict M. perstans infection risk at non-sampled locations. The level of co-infection with W. bancrofti was low (0.3%), due to limited geographic overlap. However, where the two infections did overlap geographically, a positive association was found. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first geostatistical risk map for M. perstans in Uganda. We confirmed a widespread distribution of M. perstans, and identified important potential drivers of risk. The results provide new insight about the ecologic preferences of this otherwise poorly known filarial

  14. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

  15. Import and nuclear size

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2012-01-01

    The size of a cell’s nucleus is usually proportional to the size of the cell itself. How are the two linked? The answer lies, at least in part, in the import of one or more cytoplasmic cargoes into the nucleus. PMID:21107417

  16. Importance of controls

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.

    1995-08-01

    The importance of NO{sub x} boiler control methods is outlined: the following topics are discussed: boiler problems; environmental problems; NO{sub x} control methods; low excess air control; low NO{sub x} burners; flue gas recirculation; staged air combustion; fuel reburning; switching/dual fuels; selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Final recommendations are presented.

  17. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was

  18. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was

  19. [Diagnosing imported helminthiasis].

    PubMed

    Pardo, Javier; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Galindo, Inmaculada; Belhassen, Moncef; Cordero, Miguel; Muro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in cases of imported helminthiasis in Spain because of two complementary causes: immigration and international travel. Although the prevalence of helminthiasis is high in the immigrant population, the risk of transmission to the Spanish population is low. In this review, we provide clues to aid in the diagnosis of the helminthiasis, highlighting the geographic characteristics, clinical findings and analytical results of the most frequent types. The low sensitivity of the classic parasitological diagnostic test, mainly in tissue helminthiasis, is described. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the common serological methods for detecting related circulating antigens and antibodies are presented. Certain molecular methods used in the diagnosis of imported helminthiasis and the best strategies for screening of this condition are discussed.

  20. Delirium: is sleep important?

    PubMed

    Watson, Paula L; Ceriana, Piero; Fanfulla, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    Delirium and poor sleep quality are common and often co-exist in hospitalised patients. A link between these disorders has been hypothesised but whether this link is a cause-and-effect relationship or simply an association resulting from shared mechanisms is yet to be determined. Potential shared mechanisms include: abnormalities of neurotransmitters, tissue ischaemia, inflammation and sedative exposure. Sedatives, while decreasing sleep latency, often cause a decrease in slow wave sleep and stage rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and therefore may not provide the same restorative properties as natural sleep. Mechanical ventilation, an important cause of sleep disruption in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, may lead to sleep disruption not only from the discomfort of the endotracheal tube but also as a result of ineffective respiratory efforts and by inducing central apnoea events if not properly adjusted for the patient's physiologic needs. When possible, efforts should be made to optimise the patient-ventilator interaction to minimise sleep disruptions.

  1. The importance of Spratling.

    PubMed

    Fine, E J; Fine, D L; Sentz, L

    1994-01-01

    William P. Spratling made important contributions to American epileptology at the beginning of this century. He was the first medical superintendent of Craig Colony for Epileptics from 1893 to 1908, cofounder and president of the National Association for the Study of Epilepsy, and first editor of its scholarly journal, Transactions. During his tenure at Craig Colony, Spratling established standards for safe and humane public care of epileptics. He started the first American residency training program emphasizing epileptology. Spratling conducted the first American multicenter research on the causes of death in epilepsy. The dosage of bromide therapy, which he empirically determined, remains correct. In his book Epilepsy and Its Treatment, Spratling substantiated the cortical origin theory of epilepsy developed by Jackson and Gowers. He was the first American to postulate and investigate a biochemical etiology of generalized seizures in the absence of anatomic lesions. Despite signal accomplishments, his untimely, tragic death may explain why he remains obscure.

  2. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Africa.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Paul E; Onapa, Ambrose W; Asio, Santa Maria

    2011-09-01

    Mansonella perstans is a vector-borne human filarial nematode, transmitted by tiny blood-sucking flies (biting midges). It is widespread in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and also occurs in parts of Central and South America. Despite the commonness of this parasite very few studies have been carried out on its epidemiology and on the morbidity resulting from it, and only few thorough drug trials have been conducted to look for effective and suitable drugs and drug regimens for treatment and control. Here, we review currently available knowledge on M. perstans infections in Africa, including documented aspects of biology, vectors, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, morbidity and treatment. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for more research on this widespread but greatly neglected infection in order to properly assess its public health significance and as a background for identifying and recommending optimal means and strategies for treatment and control. PMID:20152790

  3. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  4. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere.

  5. Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

  6. 27 CFR 478.112 - Importation by a licensed importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Importation § 478.112 Importation by a licensed importer. (a) No firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition shall... the Director has authorized the importation of the firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition. (b)(1) An application for a permit, ATF Form 6—Part I, to import or bring a firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition...

  7. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event-, or activity-based), cognitive loads, and processing overlaps. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research. PMID:25018743

  8. Importance sampling : promises and limitations.

    SciTech Connect

    West, Nicholas J.; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2010-04-01

    Importance sampling is an unbiased sampling method used to sample random variables from different densities than originally defined. These importance sampling densities are constructed to pick 'important' values of input random variables to improve the estimation of a statistical response of interest, such as a mean or probability of failure. Conceptually, importance sampling is very attractive: for example one wants to generate more samples in a failure region when estimating failure probabilities. In practice, however, importance sampling can be challenging to implement efficiently, especially in a general framework that will allow solutions for many classes of problems. We are interested in the promises and limitations of importance sampling as applied to computationally expensive finite element simulations which are treated as 'black-box' codes. In this paper, we present a customized importance sampler that is meant to be used after an initial set of Latin Hypercube samples has been taken, to help refine a failure probability estimate. The importance sampling densities are constructed based on kernel density estimators. We examine importance sampling with respect to two main questions: is importance sampling efficient and accurate for situations where we can only afford small numbers of samples? And does importance sampling require the use of surrogate methods to generate a sufficient number of samples so that the importance sampling process does increase the accuracy of the failure probability estimate? We present various case studies to address these questions.

  9. Externalities of oil imports revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, R.

    1980-09-01

    A re-analysis of the externalities associated with oil imports reaffirms the major findings of an earlier study: (1) The current externalities of oil imports are large even after several favorable assumptions are made, including the existence of a large buffer stock and enlightened monetary and fiscal policy. (2) The large externalities of oil imports call for increased domestic supplies, including conservation, if they are cost-effective and based on marginal social costs. (3) A corrective public policy could involve oil-import taxes and the subsidization of new domestic energy sources without large government externalities. 20 references.

  10. Medically important mosquitoes in the rubber plantation belt of central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jomon K V; Valamparampil T T

    2014-07-01

    Entomological surveys were carried out in the rubber plantation belt of Kerala to record mosquito fauna. Samples were collected from 23 randomly selected localities using standard methods for a period of three years, from Feb- ruary 2008 to January 2011. Thirty-two species belonging to nine genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Heizmannia, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia were recorded. Many of the recorded species were medically im- portant as potential vectors of dengue fever, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, malaria and filariasis.

  11. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Wild Caught Anopheles Mosquitoes from Dak Nong Province, Vietnam Using Culture and DNA Fingerprint

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chung Thuy; Aujoulat, Fabien; Veas, Francisco; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbiota of Anopheles midgut can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Investigation on the bacterial biodiversity in Anopheles, and specifically on the identification of bacteria that might be used in malaria transmission blocking approaches, has been mainly conducted on malaria vectors of Africa. Vietnam is an endemic country for both malaria and Bancroftian filariasis whose parasitic agents can be transmitted by the same Anopheles species. No information on the microbiota of Anopheles mosquitoes in Vietnam was available previous to this study. Method The culture dependent approach, using different mediums, and culture independent (16S rRNA PCR – TTGE) method were used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity in the abdomen of 5 Anopheles species collected from Dak Nong Province, central-south Vietnam. Molecular methods, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to characterize the microbiota. Results and Discussion The microbiota in wild-caught Anopheles was diverse with the presence of 47 bacterial OTUs belonging to 30 genera, including bacterial genera impacting Plasmodium development. The bacteria were affiliated with 4 phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, the latter being the dominant phylum. Four bacterial genera are newly described in Anopheles mosquitoes including Coxiella, Yersinia, Xanthomonas, and Knoellia. The bacterial diversity per specimen was low ranging from 1 to 4. The results show the importance of pairing culture and fingerprint methods to better screen the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. Conclusion Sampled Anopheles species from central-south Vietnam contained a diverse bacterial microbiota that needs to be investigated further in order to develop new malaria control approaches. The combination of both culture and DNA fingerprint methods allowed a thorough and complementary screening of the bacterial community in Anopheles mosquitoes. PMID:25747513

  12. The medical importance of riceland mosquitoes and their control using alternatives to chemical insecticides.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Lacey, C M

    1990-06-01

    The medical importance, ecology and control of riceland mosquitoes using alternative strategies is reviewed. Over 135 pest and vector anopheline and culicine mosquito species found in association with riceland habitats and their medical importance are presented. Malaria and Japanese encephalitis are the two most serious human diseases transmitted by riceland mosquitoes, but they have been incriminated as vectors of dozens of arboviruses and other parasites and pathogens including the causal agents of West Nile and Rift Valley Fevers and lymphatic filariasis. Control of vector and pest mosquitoes using chemical pesticides has generated several problems including: insecticide resistance, safety risks for humans and domestic animals, and other environmental concerns. These problems and the high cost and sustainability of programs based predominantly on conventional insecticides have stimulated increased interest in integrated control measures in ricelands. The integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for mosquito control, also known as integrated vector control (IVC), is an ecologically based approach that may involve several complementary interventions used in combination or singly. Environmental management, and chemical, biological and mechanical control, comprise the elements of IVC proposed for use in or near riceland habitats. Some of the elements of environmental management include the use of intermittent irrigation; flushing of fields; use of rice cultivars that require less water; shifting of planting schedules to avoid optimal mosquito breeding conditions; relocation of communities or use of dry belt farming around them; and zooprophylaxis and other personal protection methods, especially use of insecticide-impregnated bed nets. Biological control agents that have been used successfully in rice fields include several species of larvivorous fish, a mermithid nematode (Romanomermis culicivorax), a fungus (Lagenidium giganteum) and bacteria (Bacillus

  13. Nuclear Import of Yeast Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Burcoglu, Julianne; Zhao, Liang; Enenkel, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    Proteasomes are highly conserved protease complexes responsible for the degradation of aberrant and short-lived proteins. In highly proliferating yeast and mammalian cells, proteasomes are predominantly nuclear. During quiescence and cell cycle arrest, proteasomes accumulate in granules in close proximity to the nuclear envelope/ER. With prolonged quiescence in yeast, these proteasome granules pinch off as membraneless organelles, and migrate as stable entities through the cytoplasm. Upon exit from quiescence, the proteasome granules clear and the proteasomes are rapidly transported into the nucleus, a process reflecting the dynamic nature of these multisubunit complexes. Due to the scarcity of studies on the nuclear transport of mammalian proteasomes, we summarised the current knowledge on the nuclear import of yeast proteasomes. This pathway uses canonical nuclear localisation signals within proteasomal subunits and Srp1/Kap95, and the canonical import receptor, named importin/karyopherin αβ. Blm10, a conserved 240 kDa protein, which is structurally related to Kap95, provides an alternative import pathway. Two models exist upon which either inactive precursor complexes or active holo-enzymes serve as the import cargo. Here, we reconcile both models and suggest that the import of inactive precursor complexes predominates in dividing cells, while the import of mature enzymes mainly occurs upon exit from quiescence. PMID:26262643

  14. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted with organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial control agents. Indoors residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have strong negative effects on human health and the environment. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. In this review, I focus on characterization, effectiveness, and non-target effects of mosquitocidal nanoparticles synthesized using botanical products (mosquitocidal nanoparticles, MNP). The majority of plant-fabricated MNP are silver ones. The synthesis of MNP is usually confirmed by UV-visualization spectroscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Interestingly, plant-synthesized metal nanoparticles have been reported as effective ovicides, larvicides, pupicides, adulticides, and oviposition deterrents against different mosquito species of medical and veterinary importance. Few parts per million of different MNP are highly toxic against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the filariasis mosquito Culex quiquefasciatus. However, despite the growing number of evidences about the effectiveness of MNP, moderate efforts have been carried out to shed light on their possible non-target effects against mosquito's natural enemies and other aquatic organisms. In the final section, particular attention was dedicated to this issue. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists are highlighted.

  15. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted with organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial control agents. Indoors residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have strong negative effects on human health and the environment. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. In this review, I focus on characterization, effectiveness, and non-target effects of mosquitocidal nanoparticles synthesized using botanical products (mosquitocidal nanoparticles, MNP). The majority of plant-fabricated MNP are silver ones. The synthesis of MNP is usually confirmed by UV-visualization spectroscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Interestingly, plant-synthesized metal nanoparticles have been reported as effective ovicides, larvicides, pupicides, adulticides, and oviposition deterrents against different mosquito species of medical and veterinary importance. Few parts per million of different MNP are highly toxic against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the filariasis mosquito Culex quiquefasciatus. However, despite the growing number of evidences about the effectiveness of MNP, moderate efforts have been carried out to shed light on their possible non-target effects against mosquito's natural enemies and other aquatic organisms. In the final section, particular attention was dedicated to this issue. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists are highlighted. PMID:26541154

  16. 27 CFR 478.112 - Importation by a licensed importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statement describing such intended use; or (C) If an unserviceable firearm (other than a machine gun) being... the importation. (Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0005; paragraphs (c) and (d) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  17. 27 CFR 478.112 - Importation by a licensed importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... statement describing such intended use; or (C) If an unserviceable firearm (other than a machine gun) being... the importation. (Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0005; paragraphs (c) and (d) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  18. 27 CFR 478.112 - Importation by a licensed importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement describing such intended use; or (C) If an unserviceable firearm (other than a machine gun) being... the importation. (Paragraph (b) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0005; paragraphs (c) and (d) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  19. Semantic bifurcated importance field visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Eric; Petrov, Plamen

    2007-04-01

    While there are many good ways to map sensual reality to two dimensional displays, mapping non-physical and possibilistic information can be challenging. The advent of faster-than-real-time systems allow the predictive and possibilistic exploration of important factors that can affect the decision maker. Visualizing a compressed picture of the past and possible factors can assist the decision maker summarizing information in a cognitive based model thereby reducing clutter and perhaps related decision times. Our proposed semantic bifurcated importance field visualization uses saccadic eye motion models to partition the display into a possibilistic and sensed data vertically and spatial and semantic data horizontally. Saccadic eye movement precedes and prepares decision makers before nearly every directed action. Cognitive models for saccadic eye movement show that people prefer lateral to vertical saccadic movement. Studies have suggested that saccades may be coupled to momentary problem solving strategies. Also, the central 1.5 degrees of the visual field represents 100 times greater resolution that then peripheral field so concentrating factors can reduce unnecessary saccades. By packing information according to saccadic models, we can relate important decision factors reduce factor dimensionality and present the dense summary dimensions of semantic and importance. Inter and intra ballistics of the SBIFV provide important clues on how semantic packing assists in decision making. Future directions of SBIFV are to make the visualization reactive and conformal to saccades specializing targets to ballistics, such as dynamically filtering and highlighting verbal targets for left saccades and spatial targets for right saccades.

  20. Status of Onchocerciasis Transmission after More Than a Decade of Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in Central Nigeria: Challenges in Coordinating the Stop MDA Decision

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Darin S.; Alphonsus, Kal; Umaru, Jon; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel; Mafuyai, Hayward; Gonzales-Peralta, Carlos; Adamani, William; Pede, Elias; Umbugadu, Christopher; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Richards, Frank O.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken in five onchocerciasis/lymphatic filariasis (LF) co-endemic local government areas (LGAs) in Plateau and Nasarawa, Nigeria. Annual MDA with ivermectin had been given for 17 years, 8 of which were in combination with albendazole. In 2008, assessments indicated that LF transmission was interrupted, but that the MDA had to continue due to the uncertain status of onchocerciasis transmission. Accordingly, assessments to determine if ivermectin MDA for onchocerciasis could be stopped were conducted in 2009. Methods We evaluated nodule, microfilarial (mf) skin snip, and antibody (IgG4 response to OV16) prevalence in adults and children in six sentinel sites where baseline data from the 1990s were available. We applied the 2001 WHO criteria for elimination of onchocerciasis that defined transmission interruption as an infection rate of <0.1% in children (using both skin snip and OV16 antibody) and a rate of infective (L3) blackflies of <0.05%. Results Among adult residents in sentinel sites, mean mf prevalence decreased by 99.37% from the 1991–1993 baseline of 42.95% (64/149) to 0.27% (2/739) in 2009 (p<0.001). The OV16 seropositivity of 3.52% (26/739) among this same group was over ten times the mf rate. No mf or nodules were detected in 4,451 children in sentinel sites and ‘spot check’ villages, allowing the exclusion of 0.1% infection rate with 95% confidence. Seven OV16 seropositives were detected, yielding a seroprevalence of 0.16% (0.32% upper 95%CI). No infections were detected in PCR testing of 1,568 Simulium damnosum s.l. flies obtained from capture sites around the six sentinel sites. Conclusion Interruption of transmission of onchocerciasis in these five LGAs is highly likely, although the number of flies caught was insufficient to exclude 0.05% with 95% confidence (upper CI 0.23%). We suggest that ivermectin MDA could be stopped in these LGAs if similar results are seen in neighboring districts. PMID:25233351

  1. The Importance of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of our lesson in this module is for you to become acquainted with the importance of es- tablishing and maintaining a shared vision of positive professional interpersonal relationship practices among all stakeholders on your campus. This module introduces the use of administrative tools designed to help you document and measure progress…

  2. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  3. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  4. US importer and distributor requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2005-06-01

    A medical device manufacturer who exports products to the United States (US) may risk success in this activity by not being aware of US importer and distributor requirements. This article discusses the requirements and actions that nonUS manufacturers should take to ensure these requirements are met.

  5. US importer and distributor requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2005-06-01

    A medical device manufacturer who exports products to the United States (US) may risk success in this activity by not being aware of US importer and distributor requirements. This article discusses the requirements and actions that nonUS manufacturers should take to ensure these requirements are met. PMID:15984543

  6. "The Most Important Nine Months."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhine, Samuel A.

    1983-01-01

    "The Most Important Nine Months of Your Life" is a program that zeroes in on causes and prevention of birth defects. Program content and instructional strategies are discussed. Topics covered include: birth defects, genetic causes of birth defects, errors during development, environmental influences, and development. Includes list of preventive…

  7. Writing: Importance, Development, and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Gillespie, Amy; McKeown, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine why writing is important, how it develops, and effective writing practices. We situate the 5 articles in this special issue of "Reading and Writing" in this literature, providing a context for the contribution of each paper.

  8. Imported communicable diseases in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, K T

    1984-04-01

    Most communicable diseases in Singapore have been brought under control and some eliminated. In recent years, an increasing proportion of the reported cases turned out to be imported. Between the period 1977 and 1982, 96% of malaria, 44% of paratyphoid, 32% of typhoid, 20% of leprosy, 11% of acute viral hepatitis, 7% of dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever and 7% of cholera were imported. About 10% of the notified tuberculosis cases were non-residents while all the sporadic cases of poliomyelitis (except in 1977) and diphtheria (except in 1982) were contracted outside Singapore. The majority of the infections originated from Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The main groups of population with imported infections were local residents who travelled to the endemic areas without taking adequate preventive measures, foreign contract workers, and foreign seeking medical treatment in Singapore. Whether or not these imported cases would spread the infection to others in the community and cause epidemics depend on the virulence of the pathogen introduced, the susceptibility of the population and the environmental conditions which favour transmission of infection. Measures taken to reduce the risk of transmission include provision of a high standard of environmental sanitation, epidemiological surveillance to detect and eliminate the focus of infection; maintenance of a high level of herd immunity through immunisation; health education of the medical practitioners and of the public on the need for personal prophylaxis when travelling overseas; and screening of foreign contract workers and returning residents in special situations.

  9. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  10. When is protein binding important?

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development.

  11. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic.

  12. The strategic importance of data.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John; Markell, Peter; Stone, John

    2010-02-01

    Two factors--accountability for care and an increased adoption of interoperable electronic health records (EHRs)--will significantly increase the importance of data for healthcare organizations. These factors have significant data ramifications in four areas: payment reform, data use policies, IT strategy, and data management. As data become a strategic asset, healthcare finance executives will need to become significant contributors to their organizations' EHR initiatives and data management strategies. PMID:20178239

  13. Importance of Engineering History Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Fumio

    It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.

  14. Important plasma problems in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example there are ultra strong magnetic fields in neutron stars) relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynold`s numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. I will describe one of the more exciting examples. I will attempt to convey the excitement I felt when I was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics, which have not been so easily resolved. In fact a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. I will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma-astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynold`s-number MHD dynamos.

  15. Important material considerations in INTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A number of important material-related problems were identified and analyzed during the Phase-I study for INTOR. The first wall and divertor collector plate are subjected to severe normal and off-normal conditions. A melt layer is predicted to develop in a bare stainless steel wall under plasma disruptions. Graphite tiles will not melt but they introduce other serious uncertainties into the design. The design strategy for the divertor collector plate focused on separating the surface and high heat flux problems and on utilizing a novel mechanical design concept for attaching tungsten tiles to a stainless steel (or copper) heat sink.

  16. Imported skin diseases in dermatology.

    PubMed

    James, W D

    2001-11-01

    Millions of afflicted people suffer from conditions which Japanese dermatologists may rarely encounter. Many of our patients travel extensively either as part of work-related business trips or during vacationing. From three to ten percent of travelers experience skin, hair or nail disorders. With worldwide travel heightening exposure to the causative agents, there is an increasing likelihood that a patient with leishmaniasis, Boutonneuse fever, onchocerciasis, loaiasis, dengue fever, cutaneous larva migrans or other recently acquired skin conditions from a far away land will visit your office for diagnosis and treatment. The clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options for such imported tropical diseases will be discussed.

  17. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  18. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  19. The importance of being informed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganova, Tamara

    2013-04-01

    "Science needs a lot of inspiration and that is why it is very important to draw the students` inspiration because it is the inspiration that is the future of science." For 10 years on students, teachers, parents and citizens harmonize knowledge and skills, competencies and energy, renewable ideas and shared experience on the topic "Climate change" at our High School of Humanitarian "St. st. Cyril and Methodius". During the last 3 years we have been doing our utmost to encourage the students from our school to participate actively in different eco projects such as: 8 workshops and 2 conferences, 63 multimedia lessons in ecology, geography, world and personality; 15 interactive art lessons through the Forum-theatre, 7 photo exhibitions and 29 exhibitions on the topic "The Archives of the Planet Speak", 5 roundtable workshops, 19 eco-races, 7 scenarios of decision taking, 12 open lessons, 26 discussions, 5 scientific lectures given by professors from V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, 9 questionnaires, 17 practical lessons and experiments held in the classroom, 13 training and 11 ecological campaigns named - "It depends on You", "Striped Rug - Colourful Beans", "Let`s Plant Life", "Saving Energy between Nations", "Save Today to Have Tomorrow", "Grey Is Not Fashionable" etc. Numerous meetings were held with representatives of NGOs, the Regional Inspectorate of Education, the Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water Safety, V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, V. Tarnovo Municipality and other communities. Students and university students were organized around the core activity of renewable energy sources, presenting scientific and creative activities such as models, presentations, poems, essays, drawing posters and more. Students under the guidance of a teacher in geography studied history, current treatment processes and phenomena, the signs of expression, the similarities and differences between different parts of the country and other parts

  20. Loneliness: Clinical Import and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J.; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President’s Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation of maladaptive social cognition. We review assessments of loneliness and build on this meta-analysis to discuss the efficacy of various treatments for loneliness. With the advances made over the past 5 years in the identification of the psychobiological and pharmaceutical mechanisms associated with loneliness and maladaptive social cognition, there is increasing evidence for the potential efficacy of integrated interventions that combine (social) cognitive behavioral therapy with short-term adjunctive pharmacological treatments. PMID:25866548

  1. Loneliness: clinical import and interventions.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-03-01

    In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President's Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation of maladaptive social cognition. We review assessments of loneliness and build on this meta-analysis to discuss the efficacy of various treatments for loneliness. With the advances made over the past 5 years in the identification of the psychobiological and pharmaceutical mechanisms associated with loneliness and maladaptive social cognition, there is increasing evidence for the potential efficacy of integrated interventions that combine (social) cognitive behavioral therapy with short-term adjunctive pharmacological treatments.

  2. Terminology, the importance of defining.

    PubMed

    van Mil, J W Foppe; Henman, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision. This commentary explores the reasons for different interpretations of words and concepts in pharmaceutical care and pharmacy practice research. Reasons for this variation can be found in language, culture, profession and may also depend on developments over time. A list of words is provided where the authors think that currently multiple interpretations are possible. To make sure that the reader understands the essence, it seems imperative that authors include a definition of the topics that they actually study in their papers, and that they clearly cite existing definitions or refer to collections of definitions such as existing glossaries. It is important that presenters, authors and reviewers of pharmacy practice papers pay more attention to this aspect of describing studies. PMID:27073076

  3. Important Norwegian crude assays updated

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A

    1990-03-12

    New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

  4. The importance of strategic space.

    PubMed

    Power, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Does anyone own exclusive space in the journey to create a community-based primary healthcare system? What is the role of public health in this important work? This response to the lead paper explores the unique contribution that public health professionals make in transforming our primary healthcare system, focusing on some of the excellent work that is currently happening in Nova Scotia as examples of how public health and primary healthcare are collaborating and each contributing to this exciting journey. Public health does not need to wait to be invited to the party! It has a responsibility to fulfill the mandate that has been given to it and, in doing so, is contributing greatly to positively impacting on the determinants of health.

  5. The importance of being informed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganova, Tamara

    2013-04-01

    "Science needs a lot of inspiration and that is why it is very important to draw the students` inspiration because it is the inspiration that is the future of science." For 10 years on students, teachers, parents and citizens harmonize knowledge and skills, competencies and energy, renewable ideas and shared experience on the topic "Climate change" at our High School of Humanitarian "St. st. Cyril and Methodius". During the last 3 years we have been doing our utmost to encourage the students from our school to participate actively in different eco projects such as: 8 workshops and 2 conferences, 63 multimedia lessons in ecology, geography, world and personality; 15 interactive art lessons through the Forum-theatre, 7 photo exhibitions and 29 exhibitions on the topic "The Archives of the Planet Speak", 5 roundtable workshops, 19 eco-races, 7 scenarios of decision taking, 12 open lessons, 26 discussions, 5 scientific lectures given by professors from V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, 9 questionnaires, 17 practical lessons and experiments held in the classroom, 13 training and 11 ecological campaigns named - "It depends on You", "Striped Rug - Colourful Beans", "Let`s Plant Life", "Saving Energy between Nations", "Save Today to Have Tomorrow", "Grey Is Not Fashionable" etc. Numerous meetings were held with representatives of NGOs, the Regional Inspectorate of Education, the Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water Safety, V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, V. Tarnovo Municipality and other communities. Students and university students were organized around the core activity of renewable energy sources, presenting scientific and creative activities such as models, presentations, poems, essays, drawing posters and more. Students under the guidance of a teacher in geography studied history, current treatment processes and phenomena, the signs of expression, the similarities and differences between different parts of the country and other parts

  6. Importance of Preserving Raw Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nagihara, S.; Williams, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Our effort to make the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) data, acquired from 1969 to 1977, readily available to current and future researchers, as reported in this session last year, has made us realize some potentially serious problems that may be common to legacy scientific data. One such problem was the loss of key information contained in the original data. This happened (a) when the original investigators thought it was enough to archive only the data of interest to contemporary researchers; (b) when the data were reformatted to make them readily decipherable to current researchers by someone who did not fully understand the details of the data, thus introducing incorrectly translated information; (c) when errors associated with reading of the original data were not corrected; and (d) simply due to a programming error in reformatting. The only sure way to avoid such a problem is to archive the raw experimental data in addition to the processed data, even though they may not be readily decipherable to most current researchers. For such raw data to be useful, it is also important that complete metadata necessary to interpret the raw data be preserved.

  7. Important issues in occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Banks, D E; Tarlo, S M

    2000-01-01

    Although there has been a dramatic increase in awareness about the contributions of the work environment to asthma, many aspects of this illness remain to be explored in further detail. This article focuses on issues that need to be better understood. Data are reported that describe newly recognized agents in the workplace that have been shown in a sophisticated manner to induce asthma. In addition, data that further describe the mechanisms of occupational asthma and information regarding the management of occupational asthma are given. Important problems yet to be resolved include whether those who develop occupational asthma from different agents are likely to have different outcomes, whether screening is likely to have a significant effect on the outcome (and, if so, what is the best approach to screening), and identification of a clear definition of the role of immunologic-mediated parameters as they relate to the initiation of asthma attributable to low molecular weight agents and patient outcome. There is little information about "safe" levels of exposure that protect all workers. Data (such as underlying specific immunologic or genetic markers) are lacking that might aid in predicting which workers are likely to be sensitized by low molecular weight agents. This abbreviated list of unresolved issues makes the study of occupational asthma a fertile field for research.

  8. Toxigenic fungi: which are important?

    PubMed

    Pitt, J I

    2000-01-01

    Growth of commonly occurring filamentous fungi in foods may result in production of mycotoxins, which can cause a variety of ill effects in humans, from allergic responses to immunosuppression and cancer. According to experts, five kinds of mycotoxins are important in human health around the world: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, certain trichothecenes, and zearalenone. These toxins are produced by only a few species of fungi, in a limited range of commodities. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in peanuts, maize and some other nuts and oilseeds. Ochratoxin A is a kidney toxin and probable carcinogen. It is produced by Penicillium verrucosum in cereal grains in cold climates, by A. carbonarius in grapes, wines and vine fruits, and by A. ochraceus sometimes in coffee beans. Fumonisins, which may cause oesophageal cancer, are formed by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, but only in maize. Trichothecenes are highly immunosuppressive and zearalenone causes oestrogenic effects; both are produced by F. graminearum and related species. Current reporting probably underestimates the effect of mycotoxins as a cause of human mortality. PMID:11204142

  9. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  10. Van Allen Discovery Most Important

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1959-01-01

    The first step toward the exploration of space occurred approximately 22 months ago as a part of the International Geophysical Year. In the short interval since October, 1957, the new tools of research, the satellite and the space rocket, have produced two unexpected results of fundamental scientific importance. First, instruments placed in the Explorer satellites by James A. Van Allen have revealed the existence of layers of energetic particles in the outer atmosphere. This discovery constitutes the most significant research achievement of the IGY satellite program. The layers may provide the explanation for the aurora and other geophysical phenomena, and they will also influence the design of vehicles for manned space flight, whose occupants must be shielded against their harmful biological effects. Second, the shape of the earth has been determined very accurately with the aid of data from the first Vanguard. As a result of this investigation, we have found that our planet tends toward the shape of a pear, with its stem at the North Pole. This discovery may produce major changes in our ideas on the interior structure of the earth.

  11. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain.

  12. Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2013-02-01

    Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm(-1) double in case of NH(2) group of a primary amine (N-H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm(-1) very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O-H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm(-1) was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm

  13. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Koudou, Benjamin; Chounna Ndongmo, Patrick W.; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice R.; Fovennso, Bridget Adzemye; Tayong, Dizzle Bita; Fombad, Fanny Fri; Fischer, Peter U.; Enyong, Peter I.; Bockarie, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunochromatographic card test (ICT) is a tool to map the distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti. In areas highly endemic for loaisis in DRC and Cameroon, a relationship has been envisaged between high L. loa microfilaria (Mf) loads and ICT positivity. However, similar associations have not been demonstrated from other areas with contrasting levels of L. loa endemicity. This study investigated the cross-reactivity of ICT when mapping lymphatic filariasis (LF) in areas with contrasting endemicity levels of loiasis and mansonellosis in Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and intensity of W. bancrofti, L. loa and M. perstans was carried out in 42 villages across three regions (East, North-west and South-west) of the Cameroon rainforest domain. Diurnal blood was collected from participants for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) by ICT and assessment of Mf using a thick blood smear. Clinical manifestations of LF were also assessed. ICT positives and patients clinically diagnosed with lymphoedema were further subjected to night blood collection for the detection of W. bancrofti Mf. Overall, 2190 individuals took part in the study. Overall, 24 individuals residing in 14 communities were tested positive by ICT, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% in the South-west to 2.1% in the North-west. Lymphoedema were diagnosed in 20 individuals with the majority of cases found in the North-west (11/20), and none of them were tested positive by ICT. No Mf of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with a positive ICT result or clinical lymphoedema. Positive ICT results were strongly associated with high L. loa Mf intensity with 21 subjects having more than 8,000 L. loa Mf ml/blood (Odds ratio = 15.4; 95%CI: 6.1–39.0; p < 0.001). Similarly, a strong positive association (Spearman’s rho = 0.900; p = 0.037) was observed between the prevalence of L. loa and ICT positivity by area

  14. [Important issues of biological safety].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biological security raises alarm due to the real growth of biological threats. Biological security includes a wide scope of problems, the solution of which becomes a part of national security as a necessary condition for the constant development of the country. A number of pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, exotic Ebola and Lassa viruses causing hemorrhagic fever,rotaviruses causing acute intestinal diseases, etc. were first discovered in the last century. Terrorist actions committed in the USA in 2001 using the anthrax pathogen made the problem of biological danger even more important. In Russian Federation, biological threats are counteracted through the united state policy being a part of general state security policy. The biological Security legislation of Russian Federation is chiefly based on the 1992 Federal Law on Security. On the basis of cumulated experience, the President of Russia ratified Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond on 4 December, 2003. The document determines the main directions and stages of the state development in the area of chemical and biological security. The Federal target program Russian Federation's National Program for Chemical and Biological Security is being developed, and its development is to be completed soon in order to perfect the national system for biological security and fulfill Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond, ratified by the President. The new global strategy for control over infectious diseases, presented in the materials of Saint Petersburg summit of the Group of Eight, as well as the substantive part of its elements in Sanitary International Standards, are to a large degree an acknowledgement of the Russian Federation's experience and the algorithm for fighting extremely dangerous infections. This Russia's experience has

  15. Importance of macroprolactinemia in hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Kasum, M; Pavičić-Baldani, D; Stanić, P; Orešković, S; Sarić, J-M; Blajić, J; Juras, J

    2014-12-01

    occur in patients with conventional symptoms of hyperprolactinemia who cannot be differentiated from patients with true hyperprolactinemia. These symptoms are mainly attributed to excess levels of monomeric prolactin, and this is of concern. The diagnosis of macroprolactinemia is misleading and inappropriate. A multitude of physiological, pharmacological and pathological causes, including stress, prolactinomas, hypothyroidism, renal and hepatic failure, intercostal nerve stimulation and polycystic ovary disease, can contribute to increased levels of monomeric prolactin. It is important for patients with elevated monomeric prolactin levels to undergo routine evaluation to identify the exact pathological state and introduce adequate treatment, regardless of the presence of macroprolactin. In addition, macroprolactinemia occasionally occurs due to macroprolactin associated with pituitary adenomas, with biological activity of macroprolactin comparable with that of monomeric prolactin. In cases when excess macroprolactin occurs with clinical manifestations of hyperprolactinemia, macroprolactinemia should be regarded as a pathological biochemical variant of hyperprolactinemia. An individualized approach to the management of such patients with macroprolactinemia may be necessary, and pituitary imaging, dopamine treatment and prolonged follow-up should be applied.

  16. [Important issues of biological safety].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biological security raises alarm due to the real growth of biological threats. Biological security includes a wide scope of problems, the solution of which becomes a part of national security as a necessary condition for the constant development of the country. A number of pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, exotic Ebola and Lassa viruses causing hemorrhagic fever,rotaviruses causing acute intestinal diseases, etc. were first discovered in the last century. Terrorist actions committed in the USA in 2001 using the anthrax pathogen made the problem of biological danger even more important. In Russian Federation, biological threats are counteracted through the united state policy being a part of general state security policy. The biological Security legislation of Russian Federation is chiefly based on the 1992 Federal Law on Security. On the basis of cumulated experience, the President of Russia ratified Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond on 4 December, 2003. The document determines the main directions and stages of the state development in the area of chemical and biological security. The Federal target program Russian Federation's National Program for Chemical and Biological Security is being developed, and its development is to be completed soon in order to perfect the national system for biological security and fulfill Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond, ratified by the President. The new global strategy for control over infectious diseases, presented in the materials of Saint Petersburg summit of the Group of Eight, as well as the substantive part of its elements in Sanitary International Standards, are to a large degree an acknowledgement of the Russian Federation's experience and the algorithm for fighting extremely dangerous infections. This Russia's experience has

  17. 7 CFR 996.7 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.7 Importer. Importer means a person who engages in the importation of foreign produced peanuts into the United States....

  18. 7 CFR 996.7 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.7 Importer. Importer means a person who engages in the importation of foreign produced peanuts into the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 996.7 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.7 Importer. Importer means a person who engages in the importation of foreign produced peanuts into the United States....

  20. Retroperitoneal Cyst: An Uncommon Presentation of Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Senthil; Galodha, Saurabh; Saxena, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal parasitic cysts are rare. Here we report about a middle aged male patient from rural north India with a recent onset of central abdominal retroperitoneal lump, pain, and fever. After surgical resection due to diagnostic uncertainty, at histopathology, it turned out be a filarial cyst. After receiving a course of diethylcarbamazine, the patient is asymptomatic at 4 months' follow-up.

  1. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412... Agreement Import Requirements § 10.412 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a... subpart, the importer: (1) Must have records that explain how the importer came to the conclusion that...

  2. 19 CFR 10.805 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.805 Section 10.805... Agreement Import Requirements § 10.805 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a claim for... information. (b) Information provided by exporter or producer. The fact that the importer has made a claim...

  3. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765... Agreement Import Requirements § 10.765 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a claim for... information. (b) Information provided by exporter or producer. The fact that the importer has made a claim...

  4. 7 CFR 1208.10 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.10 Importer. Importer means any person importing 20,000 pounds or more of processed...

  5. 7 CFR 1208.10 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1208.10 Importer. Importer means any person importing 20,000 pounds or more of processed...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.12 Importer. Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.12 Importer. Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.12 Importer. Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.12 Importer. Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the...

  10. Antibody determination in the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in man

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, S.; Ismail, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    The levels of IgG and IgE antibodies reacting with somatic antigens of adult Setaria digitata and Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae were determined in sera of 90 patients with Bancroftian filariasis and 379 non-filarial subjects. Antibodies reacting with adult antigens and with soluble microfilarial antigens were seen in both microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic patients. Antibodies reacting with surface antigens of W. bancrofti microfilariae were seen only in amicrofilaraemic subjects. IgE antibodies were detected with the adult antigen only in both microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic patients. The absolute levels of IgG antibodies were significantly higher than those of IgE antibodies. It is concluded that the determination of serum antibodies reacting with adult antigens is suitable for the diagnosis of both the microfilaraemic and amicrofilaraemic phases of infection, and the determination of antibody to microfilarial surface antigens is applicable in patients with clinically evident disease. PMID:7032737

  11. Population dynamics of anthropophilic mosquitoes during the northeast monsoon season in the malaria epidemic zone of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, M S; Kulasekera, R; Srikrishnaraj, K A; Ramasamy, R

    1994-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a major health problem in Sri Lanka. Human biting mosquitoes were collected during the night (18.00-06.00 hours) at Nikawehera village, in the malaria endemic intermediate rainfall zone of the country. Collections were made at monthly intervals in the period October 1991 to April 1992, which included the main rainy season due to the northeast monsoon (October-January). Thirteen Anopheles, eleven Culex, three Aedes, three Mansonia and one Armigeres species were identified, including known vectors of malaria, Bancroftian filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever. Mosquito human-biting rates were highest in December. The main malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies showed peak biting between 18.00 and 23.00 hours whereas the predominant culicines Culex fuscocephala and Cx quinquefasciatus preferred to bite after midnight. In 1991-92 the prevalence of some species of anophelines at Nikawehera differed markedly from that observed in 1990-91 and the possible reasons are discussed.

  12. Temporal variations in biting density and rhythm of Culex quinquefasciatus in tea agro-ecosystem of Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, B; Handique, R; Dutta, P; Narain, K; Mahanta, J

    1999-12-01

    Temporal changes in the biting density and host-seeking periodicity of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of bancroftian filariasis, were studied for two years in the tea agro-ecosystem of Assam, India. Average biting density of the vector varied from 0.8/hour in December to 13.3/hour in March. Minimum temperature was found to have a limiting effect on the biting density of the vector mosquitos. Multiple regression analysis showed that the rainfall and minimum temperature were significant factors influencing biting density of this vector mosquito. The biting rhythm of Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be nocturnal with two distinct peak periods of biting activity. The first peak was around 19.00 to 20.00 hours and the second peak period was around 22.00 to 23.00 hours. Biting activity however was seen throughout the night with declining trend as the night proceeded. PMID:10928380

  13. 7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United States....

  14. 7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United States....

  15. 9 CFR 93.704 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... person may import a hedgehog or tenrec into the United States unless it is accompanied by an import... port of first arrival of the date of arrival at least 72 hours before the hedgehog or tenrec arrives in the United States. (b) Import permit required. Any person who desires to import a hedgehog or...

  16. 9 CFR 93.704 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... person may import a hedgehog or tenrec into the United States unless it is accompanied by an import... port of first arrival of the date of arrival at least 72 hours before the hedgehog or tenrec arrives in the United States. (b) Import permit required. Any person who desires to import a hedgehog or...

  17. 9 CFR 93.704 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... person may import a hedgehog or tenrec into the United States unless it is accompanied by an import... port of first arrival of the date of arrival at least 72 hours before the hedgehog or tenrec arrives in the United States. (b) Import permit required. Any person who desires to import a hedgehog or...

  18. 9 CFR 93.704 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... person may import a hedgehog or tenrec into the United States unless it is accompanied by an import... port of first arrival of the date of arrival at least 72 hours before the hedgehog or tenrec arrives in the United States. (b) Import permit required. Any person who desires to import a hedgehog or...

  19. 9 CFR 93.704 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... person may import a hedgehog or tenrec into the United States unless it is accompanied by an import... port of first arrival of the date of arrival at least 72 hours before the hedgehog or tenrec arrives in the United States. (b) Import permit required. Any person who desires to import a hedgehog or...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.121 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.121 Importer. Importer means a person that imports imported dairy products into... handles dairy products outside of the United States for sale in the United States, and who is listed...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.121 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.121 Importer. Importer means a person that imports imported dairy products into... handles dairy products outside of the United States for sale in the United States, and who is listed...

  2. 7 CFR 996.7 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.7 Importer. Importer means a person who engages in the importation of foreign produced peanuts into the United States....

  3. 7 CFR 996.7 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.7 Importer. Importer means a person who engages in the importation of foreign produced peanuts into the United States....

  4. 7 CFR 1260.117 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1260.117 Section 1260.117 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.117 Importer. Importer means any person who imports...

  5. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585...-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who makes a claim for preferential tariff treatment under § 10.583(b) of this subpart: (1) Will...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1230.609 Section 1230.609 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.609 Importer. The term Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United States....

  7. 7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1230.12 Section 1230.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Importer. Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the...

  8. 19 CFR 10.849 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.849 Section 10.849... through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2006 § 10.849 Importer obligations. (a) General. An importer who... importer has made a claim for duty-free treatment or prepared a declaration of compliance based...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1218.9 Section 1218.9 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.9 Importer. Importer... importer of record for such blueberries....

  10. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer associations. 1219.58 Section 1219.58... Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to receive assessment funds and any proceeds from the investment of such funds only if such importer association is:...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importer associations. 1219.58 Section 1219.58... Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to receive assessment funds and any proceeds from the investment of such funds only if such importer association is:...

  12. 7 CFR 1150.121 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.121 Importer. Importer means a person that imports imported dairy products into... handles dairy products outside of the United States for sale in the United States, and who is listed...

  13. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  14. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for differentiation between Thai and Myanmar strains of Wuchereria bancrofti

    PubMed Central

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Junpee, Alisa; Poovorawan, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by mosquito-transmitted filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. The Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program in Thailand has reduced the prevalence of nocturnally subperiodic W. bancrofti (Thai strain), mainly transmitted by the Ochlerotatus (Aedes) niveus group in Thailand to 0.57/100,000 population. However, it is estimated that more than one million Myanmar migrants with high prevalence of bancroftian filariasis have settled in the large urban cities of Thailand. These infected migrants carry the nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti (Myanmar strain) which has Culex quinquefasciatus as the main mosquito vector. Although transmissions of the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti by the Thai Cx. quinquefasciatus has never been reported, previous study showed that Cx. quinquefasciatus could nurture the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti to the infective stage. Thus, the potential now exists for a re-emergence of bancroftian filariasis in Thailand. The present study was undertaken in an attempt to differentiate between the Thai and Myanmar strains of W. bancrofti. Methods The microfilarial periodicity of Thai and the Myanmar strains of W. bancrofti were determined. Comparative morphology and morphometry of microfilariae and a study of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed. The Nei's genetic distance was calculated, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Results The Thai strain of W. bancrofti was nocturnally subperiodic, and the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti was nocturnally periodic. The body length, cephalic space length, and cephalic space width of the Thai strain of W. bancrofti were significantly larger than those of the Myanmar strain of W. bancrofti (p < 0.05). However, an overlapping mean of these parameters made it impractical for field application. RAPD-PCR profiles showed specific

  15. 19 CFR 12.17 - Importation restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.17 Importation restricted. The importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins,...

  16. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  18. 19 CFR 12.17 - Importation restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.17 Importation restricted. The importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins,...

  19. 19 CFR 12.17 - Importation restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.17 Importation restricted. The importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins,...

  20. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if...

  1. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if...

  2. Predicting the importance of current papers.

    SciTech Connect

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how well one can predict the importance of a current paper (a paper that is recently published in the literature). We look at three factors--journal importance, reference importance and author reputation. Citation-based measures of importance are used for all variables. We find that journal importance is the best predictor (explaining 22.3% out of a potential 29.1% of the variance in the data), and that this correlation value varies significantly by discipline. Journal importance is a better predictor of citation in Computer Science than in any other discipline. While the finding supports the present policy of using journal impact statistics as a surrogate for the importance of current papers, it calls into question the present policy of equally weighting current documents in text-based analyses. We suggest that future researchers take into account the expected importance of a document when attempting to describe the cognitive structure of a field.

  3. 7 CFR 1219.58 - Importer associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.58 Importer associations. (a) An association of avocado importers is eligible to...

  4. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Alison; Hogg, Thomas Lanyon; Warriner, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor–cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. PMID:27284042

  5. 22 CFR 123.2 - Import jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Attorney General (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Import jurisdiction. 123.2 Section 123.2... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.2 Import jurisdiction. The Department of State regulates the temporary import...

  6. 22 CFR 123.2 - Import jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Attorney General (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Import jurisdiction. 123.2 Section 123.2... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.2 Import jurisdiction. The Department of State regulates the temporary import...

  7. 22 CFR 123.2 - Import jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Attorney General (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Import jurisdiction. 123.2 Section 123.2... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.2 Import jurisdiction. The Department of State regulates the temporary import...

  8. 50 CFR 216.12 - Prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.12 Prohibited importation. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subparts C and D of this part 216, it is unlawful for any person to import any marine mammal or marine mammal...

  9. 50 CFR 216.12 - Prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.12 Prohibited importation. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subparts C and D of this part 216, it is unlawful for any person to import any marine mammal or marine mammal...

  10. 75 FR 62692 - Dairy Import Licensing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA65 Dairy Import Licensing Program... the historical license reduction provisions of the Dairy Import Licensing Program, 7 CFR part 6, for a... ongoing changes in the markets for cheese and other dairy products subject to import...

  11. 50 CFR 216.12 - Prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.12 Prohibited importation. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subparts C and D of this part 216, it is unlawful for any person to import any marine mammal or marine mammal...

  12. 50 CFR 216.12 - Prohibited importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.12 Prohibited importation. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subparts C and D of this part 216, it is unlawful for any person to import any marine mammal or marine mammal...

  13. 40 CFR 273.70 - Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Imports. 273.70 Section 273.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Import Requirements § 273.70 Imports. Persons managing universal waste that...

  14. 7 CFR 996.6 - Importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.6 Importation. Importation means the arrival of foreign produced peanuts at a port-of-entry with the intent to enter...

  15. 7 CFR 996.6 - Importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.6 Importation. Importation means the arrival of foreign produced peanuts at a port-of-entry with the intent to enter...

  16. Biological control of red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Imported Fire Ants (IFA), the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and the Black Imported Fire Ant, S. richteri Forel, were introduced into the United States in the early 1900s and currently inhabit over 320 million acres in the southern United States and Puerto Rico. Red ...

  17. 7 CFR 1209.8 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.8 Importer. Importer means any person who imports, on average, over 500,000 pounds of...

  18. 7 CFR 1209.8 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.8 Importer. Importer means any person who imports, on average, over 500,000 pounds of...

  19. 7 CFR 1209.8 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.8 Importer. Importer means any person who imports, on average, over 500,000 pounds of...

  20. 7 CFR 1209.8 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.8 Importer. Importer means any person who imports, on average, over 500,000 pounds of...

  1. 7 CFR 1209.8 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209.8 Importer. Importer means any person who imports, on average, over 500,000 pounds of...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.14 Importer. Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term includes a person...

  3. 7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.14 Importer. Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term includes a person...

  4. 7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.14 Importer. Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term includes a person...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.19 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1205.19 Section 1205.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.19 Importer. The term importer means any...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.310 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1205.310 Section 1205.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.310 Importer. Importer means many person who enters,...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.314 Importer. Importer means any person who imports watermelons into the United States as a principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.314 Importer. Importer means any person who imports watermelons into the United States as a principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.314 Importer. Importer means any person who imports watermelons into the United States as a principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.314 Importer. Importer means any person who imports watermelons into the United States as a principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.314 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.314 Importer. Importer means any person who imports watermelons into the United States as a principal or as an agent, broker, or consignee...

  12. 7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who imports for sale honey or honey products into the United States as a principal or as an...

  13. 7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who imports for sale honey or honey products into the United States as a principal or as an...

  14. 7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who imports for sale honey or honey products into the United States as a principal or as an...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who imports for sale honey or honey products into the United States as a principal or as an...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.13 Importer. Importer means any person importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum...

  17. 7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.13 Importer. Importer means any person importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.13 Importer. Importer means any person importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.13 Importer. Importer means any person importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.13 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.13 Importer. Importer means any person importing more than 1,000 bushels of grain sorghum; or 5,000 tons of sorghum...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.9 Importer. Importer means any person who imports fresh or processed blueberries into the United States as a principal or...

  2. 7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.9 Importer. Importer means any person who imports fresh or processed blueberries into the United States as a principal or...

  3. 7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.9 Importer. Importer means any person who imports fresh or processed blueberries into the United States as a principal or...

  4. 7 CFR 1218.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.9 Importer. Importer means any person who imports fresh or processed blueberries into the United States as a principal or...

  5. 7 CFR 1212.11 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... person who imports for sale honey or honey products into the United States as a principal or as an...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.14 Importer. Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term includes a person...

  7. 7 CFR 996.6 - Importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.6 Importation. Importation means the arrival of foreign produced peanuts at a port-of-entry with the intent to enter the peanuts into channels of commerce of the United States....

  8. 7 CFR 996.6 - Importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.6 Importation. Importation means the arrival of foreign produced peanuts at a port-of-entry with the intent to enter the peanuts into channels of commerce of the United States....

  9. 7 CFR 996.6 - Importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.6 Importation. Importation means the arrival of foreign produced peanuts at a port-of-entry with the intent to enter the peanuts into channels of commerce of the United States....

  10. 7 CFR 1207.312 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.312 Importer. Importer means any person who imports tablestock, frozen or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans, or seed potatoes into the...

  11. 7 CFR 1207.312 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.312 Importer. Importer means any person who imports tablestock, frozen or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans, or seed potatoes into the...

  12. 7 CFR 1207.312 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.312 Importer. Importer means any person who imports tablestock, frozen or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans, or seed potatoes into the...

  13. 7 CFR 1207.312 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.312 Importer. Importer means any person who imports tablestock, frozen or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans, or seed potatoes into the...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.312 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.312 Importer. Importer means any person who imports tablestock, frozen or processed potatoes for ultimate consumption by humans, or seed potatoes into the...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.14 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.14 Importer. Importer means any person who imports Hass avocados into the United States. The term includes a person...

  16. 7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal period...

  17. 7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal period...

  18. 7 CFR 1214.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing Christmas trees into the United States in a fiscal period...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  1. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  2. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.9 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.9 Importer. Importer means any person importing 500,000 or more pounds of mangos into the United States in a calendar year as...

  4. 9 CFR 327.11 - Receipts to importers for import product samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receipts to importers for import... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.11 Receipts to importers for import product samples. In order that importers may be assured that samples of foreign products collected...

  5. Mitochondrial protein import: modification of sulfhydryl groups of the inner mitochondrial membrane import machinery in Solanum tuberosum inhibits protein import.

    PubMed

    von Stedingk, E M; Pavlov, P F; Grinkevich, V A; Glaser, E

    1997-12-01

    Protein import into mitochondria involves several components of the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes as well as molecular chaperones located inside mitochondria. Here, we have investigated the effect of sulfhydryl group reagents on import of the in vitro transcribed/translated precursor of the F1 beta subunit of the ATP synthase (pF1 beta) into Solanum tuberosum mitochondria. We have used a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT), a membrane-permeant alkylating agent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), a non-permeant alkylating agent, 3-(N-maleimidopropionyl)biocytin (MPB), an SH-group specific agent and cross-linker 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) as well as an oxidizing cross-linker, copper sulfate. DTT stimulated the mitochondrial protein import, whereas NEM, MPB, DTNB and Cu2+ were inhibitory. Inhibition by Cu2+ could be reversed by addition of DTT. The efficiency of inhibition was higher in energized mitochondrial than in non-energized. We have dissected the effect of the SH-group reagents on binding, unfolding and transport of the precursor into mitochondria. Our results demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of NEM, DTNB and Cu2+ on the efficiency of import was not due to the interaction of the SH-group reagents with import receptors. Modification of pF1 beta with NEM prior to the import resulted in stimulation of import, whereas DTNB and Cu2+ were inhibitory. NEM, MPB, DTNB and Cu2+ inhibited import of the NEM-modified pF1 beta into intact mitochondria. Import of pF1 beta through a receptor-independent bypass-route as well as import into mitoplasts were sensitive to DTT, NEM, MPB, DTNB and Cu2+ in a similar manner as import into mitochondria. As MPB does not cross the inner membrane, these results indicated that redox and conformational status of SH groups located on the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane were essential for protein import.

  6. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that prefer Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import. PMID:26388889

  7. Rapid nuclear import of short nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mai; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2016-10-01

    Exogenous short-chain nucleic acids undergo rapid import into the nucleus. Fluorescence-labeled dT1-13 DNA microinjected into the cytoplasm domain of a HeLa cell was rapidly imported into the nucleus domain within 1min. This is much more rapid than what has been observed for intracellular diffusion of small molecules. In contrast, import of longer nucleic acids with a length of over 30nt into the nucleus was suppressed.

  8. Rapid nuclear import of short nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mai; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2016-10-01

    Exogenous short-chain nucleic acids undergo rapid import into the nucleus. Fluorescence-labeled dT1-13 DNA microinjected into the cytoplasm domain of a HeLa cell was rapidly imported into the nucleus domain within 1min. This is much more rapid than what has been observed for intracellular diffusion of small molecules. In contrast, import of longer nucleic acids with a length of over 30nt into the nucleus was suppressed. PMID:27597250

  9. 31 CFR 592.306 - Importing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant into whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being imported as having...

  10. 31 CFR 592.306 - Importing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant into whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being imported as having...

  11. 31 CFR 592.306 - Importing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant into whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being imported as having...

  12. 31 CFR 592.306 - Importing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant into whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being imported as having...

  13. 31 CFR 592.306 - Importing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions... a Participant into whose territory a shipment of rough diamonds is being imported as having...

  14. Imported infectious diseases and surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Yoshida, Makiko; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Tada, Yuki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Surveillance of imported infectious diseases is important because of the need for early detection of outbreaks of international concern as well as information of risk to the travelers. This paper attempts to review how the Japanese surveillance system deals with imported infectious diseases and reviews the trend of these diseases. The cases of acquired infection overseas were extracted from the surveillance data in 1999-2008. The incidence and rate of imported cases of a series of infectious diseases with more than one imported case were observed by the year of diagnosis and place of acquired infection. During the period 10,030 cases that could be considered to be imported infectious diseases were identified. Shigellosis ranked as the most common imported disease, followed by amebiasis, malaria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, typhoid fever, dengue fever, hepatitis A, giardiasis, cholera, and paratyphoid fever. The annual trends of these diseases always fluctuated but not every change was investigated. The study reveals that the situation of imported infectious diseases can be identified in the current Japanese surveillance system with epidemiologic features of both temporal and geographic distribution of cases of imported infectious diseases. However, further timely investigation for unusual increase in infectious diseases is needed. PMID:18984479

  15. Imported infectious diseases and surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Yoshida, Makiko; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Tada, Yuki; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-11-01

    Surveillance of imported infectious diseases is important because of the need for early detection of outbreaks of international concern as well as information of risk to the travelers. This paper attempts to review how the Japanese surveillance system deals with imported infectious diseases and reviews the trend of these diseases. The cases of acquired infection overseas were extracted from the surveillance data in 1999-2008. The incidence and rate of imported cases of a series of infectious diseases with more than one imported case were observed by the year of diagnosis and place of acquired infection. During the period 10,030 cases that could be considered to be imported infectious diseases were identified. Shigellosis ranked as the most common imported disease, followed by amebiasis, malaria, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, typhoid fever, dengue fever, hepatitis A, giardiasis, cholera, and paratyphoid fever. The annual trends of these diseases always fluctuated but not every change was investigated. The study reveals that the situation of imported infectious diseases can be identified in the current Japanese surveillance system with epidemiologic features of both temporal and geographic distribution of cases of imported infectious diseases. However, further timely investigation for unusual increase in infectious diseases is needed.

  16. 7 CFR 57.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs. 57.920 Section 57.920 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.920 Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs. Each...

  17. 19 CFR 133.24 - Restrictions on articles accompanying importer and mail importations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on articles accompanying importer and... accompanying importer and mail importations. (a) Detention. Articles accompanying an importer and mail... given in the following manner: (1) Articles accompanying importer. When the articles are carried...

  18. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy on imported products, importers, and... GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.3 Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers. (a) This policy states the Commission's views as to imported...

  19. 75 FR 76253 - Dairy Import Licensing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    .... Summary of public comments: The Secretary published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (75 FR 62692... Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA70 Dairy Import Licensing Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA... Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program 7 CFR part 6, by suspending the provisions with...

  20. 40 CFR 273.70 - Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Persons managing universal waste that is imported from an OECD country as specified in 40 CFR 262.58(a)(1... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports. 273.70 Section 273.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  1. 21 CFR 821.4 - Imported devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 821.4 Imported devices. For purposes of this part, the importer of a tracked device shall be considered the manufacturer and shall be required...

  2. 9 CFR 93.807 - Other importations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.807 Other importations. (a) Elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, and tapirs are exempt from the regulations in this part... or bedding materials with any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir imported into...

  3. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  4. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  5. 9 CFR 93.807 - Other importations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.807 Other importations. (a) Elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, and tapirs are exempt from the regulations in this part... or bedding materials with any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir imported into...

  6. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  7. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  8. 9 CFR 93.807 - Other importations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.807 Other importations. (a) Elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, and tapirs are exempt from the regulations in this part... or bedding materials with any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir imported into...

  9. 9 CFR 93.807 - Other importations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.807 Other importations. (a) Elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, and tapirs are exempt from the regulations in this part... or bedding materials with any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir imported into...

  10. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit. (a) An elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir shall not be imported into the United States... export an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir to the United States; (2) The name and address...

  11. 9 CFR 93.807 - Other importations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.807 Other importations. (a) Elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, and tapirs are exempt from the regulations in this part... or bedding materials with any elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir imported into...

  12. 10 CFR 431.404 - Imported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported equipment. 431.404 Section 431.404 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.404 Imported equipment. (a) Under sections 331 and 345 of the Act,...

  13. 21 CFR 821.4 - Imported devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported devices. 821.4 Section 821.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 821.4 Imported devices. For purposes of...

  14. Empirically Assessing the Importance of Computer Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William M.

    2013-01-01

    This research determines which computer skills are important for entry-level accountants, and whether some skills are more important than others. Students participated before and after internships in public accounting. Longitudinal analysis is also provided; responses from 2001 are compared to those from 2008-2009. Responses are also compared to…

  15. 27 CFR 1.20 - Importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importers. 1.20 Section 1.20 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Required § 1.20 Importers. No person, except pursuant to a basic permit issued under the Act, shall:...

  16. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat....

  17. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat....

  18. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat....

  19. 21 CFR 821.4 - Imported devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 821.4 Imported devices. For purposes of this part, the importer of a tracked device shall be considered the manufacturer and shall be required...

  20. 9 CFR 98.4 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.4 Import permit. (a) Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless accompanied by an...

  1. 9 CFR 98.4 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.4 Import permit. (a) Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless accompanied by an...

  2. 9 CFR 98.4 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.4 Import permit. (a) Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless accompanied by an...

  3. 9 CFR 98.4 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.4 Import permit. (a) Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless accompanied by an...

  4. 9 CFR 98.4 - Import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.4 Import permit. (a) Except as provided in subpart B of this part, an animal embryo shall not be imported into the United States unless accompanied by an...

  5. 10 CFR 431.404 - Imported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported equipment. 431.404 Section 431.404 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.404 Imported equipment. (a) Under sections 331 and 345 of the Act,...

  6. New CFC import quotas irk producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, M.

    1994-03-02

    European chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) producers have slammed a decision by the European Commission to allow increased imports of CFCs, saying it contradicts efforts to cut CFC production and use in the European Union (EU). Eif Atochem (Paris) says that by allowing higher CFC imports the commission is undermining all the efforts to meet the requirements of the Copenhagen protocol on CFC emissions.

  7. 7 CFR 926.15 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.15 Importer. Importer means any person who causes cranberries or cranberry products produced outside the United States to be brought into the United States with the intent of entering the cranberries...

  8. 7 CFR 926.15 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.15 Importer. Importer means any person who causes cranberries or cranberry products produced outside the United States to be brought into the United States with the intent of entering the cranberries...

  9. 7 CFR 926.15 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.15 Importer. Importer means any person who causes cranberries or cranberry products produced outside the United States to be brought into the United States with the intent of entering the cranberries...

  10. 7 CFR 926.15 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.15 Importer. Importer means any person who causes cranberries or cranberry products produced outside the United States to be brought into the United States with the intent of entering the cranberries...

  11. 7 CFR 926.15 - Importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.15 Importer. Importer means any person who causes cranberries or cranberry products produced outside the United States to be brought into the United States with the intent of entering the cranberries...

  12. Modeling Imports in a Keynesian Expenditure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses several issues that instructors of introductory macroeconomics courses should consider when introducing imports in the Keynesian expenditure model. The analysis suggests that the specification of the import function should partially, if not completely, be the result of a simple discussion about the spending and import…

  13. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  14. Importing Mitochondrial Proteins: Machineries and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; Koehler, Carla M.; Milenkovic, Dusanka; Lithgow, Trevor; Pfanner, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and must be imported across one or both mitochondrial membranes. There is an amazingly versatile set of machineries and mechanisms, and at least four different pathways, for the importing and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins. The translocases that catalyze these processes are highly dynamic machines driven by the membrane potential, ATP, or redox reactions, and they cooperate with molecular chaperones and assembly complexes to direct mitochondrial proteins to their correct destinations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the importing and sorting of mitochondrial proteins and their contributions to mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:19703392

  15. Hospital Contracts: Important Issues for Medical Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosolio, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with hospitals and outpatient medical facilities have always been an important part of the business model for private medical practices. As healthcare delivery to patients has evolved in the United States (much of it driven by the new government mandates, regulations, and the Affordable Care Act), the delivery of such services is becoming more and more centered on the hospital or institutional setting, thus making contractual relationships with hospitals even more important for medical practices. As a natural outgrowth of this relationship, attention to hospital contracts is becoming more important.

  16. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing filarial arm cysts

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nishi; Bansal, Cherry; Sharma, Richa; Irfan, Sumaiya

    2013-01-01

    Filariasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas and is endemic in regions of India. Lymphatic filariasis in India is caused mainly by two species of nematodes: Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, which invade the human lymphatic system. We report two cases of superficial cystic lesions of the upper limb revealed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) to be clinically unsuspected filariasis. Despite similar aetiologies, both cases revealed variations in aspirate nature, smear morphology and peripheral blood findings. FNA provides definitive diagnosis and is an important tool for diagnosing soft tissue swellings owing to filariasis. PMID:23687368

  17. Pressure ulcer management: the importance of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M; Cook, A; Rimmasch, H; Bender, S; Voss, A

    2000-08-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. Nutrition assessment techniques and nutritional interventions for patients at risk for developing a pressure ulcer or who currently have pressure ulcers are essential components of quality patient care.

  18. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa.

  19. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to floss daily, brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste twice daily and visit your dentist at ... you've been sick. Choose a toothpaste with fluoride. This can reduce tooth decay by as much ...

  20. Local anesthetics: dentistry's most important drugs.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1994-12-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Horace Wells opened the door to local anesthetics. Since then, many advances have been made in pain control. The development of dentistry's most important drugs is highlighted here.