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Sample records for imprinted igf2 expression

  1. Monotreme IGF2 expression and ancestral origin of genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Killian, J K; Nolan, C M; Stewart, N; Munday, B L; Andersen, N A; Nicol, S; Jirtle, R L

    2001-08-15

    IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and M6P/IGF2R (mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) are imprinted in marsupials and eutherians but not in birds. These results along with the absence of M6P/IGF2R imprinting in the egg-laying monotremes indicate that the parental imprinting of fetal growth-regulatory genes may be unique to viviparous mammals. In this investigation, we have cloned IGF2 from two monotreme mammals, the platypus and echidna, to further investigate the origin of imprinting. We report herein that like M6P/IGF2R, IGF2 is not imprinted in monotremes. Thus, although IGF2 encodes for a highly conserved growth factor in chordates, it is only imprinted in therian mammals. These findings support a concurrent origin of IGF2 and M6P/IGF2R imprinting in the late Jurassic/early Cretaceous period. The absence of imprinting in monotremes, despite apparent interparental conflicts over maternal-offspring exchange, argues that a fortuitous congruency of genetic and epigenetic events may have limited the phylogenetic breadth of genomic imprinting to therian mammals. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 291:205-212, 2001.

  2. Tissue specificity and variability of imprinted IGF2 expression in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Giannoukakis, N.; Rouleau, G.; Polychronakos, C.

    1994-09-01

    Parental genomic imprinting refers to the phenomenon where expression of a gene copy depends on the sex of the parent from which it is derived. The human insulin-like growth factor II gene, IGF2, is parentally imprinted with the paternal gene copy exclusively expressed in fetal and term placenta as well as in fetal kidney. In mice, imprinted IGF2 expression is tissue-specific. In a preliminary approach to investigate tissue-specific IGF2 imprinting in humans, we evaluated allele-specific expression in four samples of umbilical cord blood leukocytes of fetuses found to imprint IGF2 in placenta. IGF2 mRNA transcripts from the gene copy transmitted from each parent were distinguished using a transcribed ApaI polymorphism by performing reverse transcription-PCR on total RNA from cord blood leukocytes. Postnatal peripheral blood was examined using the same method. Of 77 informative individuals, 68 expressed both IGF2 copies, but 9 individuals showed unambiguous monoallelic expression. Two individuals from each category were screened again and the results were identical. These data indicate that imprinted IGF2 expression is tissue-specific and show variability of IGF2 imprinting among individuals. This variability may be genetic. We are in the process of screening large pedigrees to test this hypothesis.

  3. Promoter-specific expression and imprint status of marsupial IGF2.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Jessica M; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pask, Andrew J; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2012-01-01

    In mice and humans, IGF2 has multiple promoters to maintain its complex tissue- and developmental stage-specific imprinting and expression. IGF2 is also imprinted in marsupials, but little is known about its promoter region. In this study, three IGF2 transcripts were isolated from placental and liver samples of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Each transcript contained a unique 5' untranslated region, orthologous to the non-coding exons derived from promoters P1-P3 in the human and mouse IGF2 locus. The expression of tammar IGF2 was predominantly from the P2 promoter, similar to humans. Expression of IGF2 was higher in pouch young than in the adult and imprinting was highly tissue and developmental-stage specific. Interestingly, while IGF2 was expressed throughout the placenta, imprinting seemed to be restricted to the vascular, trilaminar region. In addition, IGF2 was monoallelically expressed in the adult mammary gland while in the liver it switched from monoalleleic expression in the pouch young to biallelic in the adult. These data suggest a complex mode of IGF2 regulation in marsupials as seen in eutherian mammals. The conservation of the IGF2 promoters suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians, and have been selectively maintained for at least 160 million years.

  4. Promoter-Specific Expression and Imprint Status of Marsupial IGF2

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Jessica M.; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pask, Andrew J.; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B.

    2012-01-01

    In mice and humans, IGF2 has multiple promoters to maintain its complex tissue- and developmental stage-specific imprinting and expression. IGF2 is also imprinted in marsupials, but little is known about its promoter region. In this study, three IGF2 transcripts were isolated from placental and liver samples of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. Each transcript contained a unique 5' untranslated region, orthologous to the non-coding exons derived from promoters P1–P3 in the human and mouse IGF2 locus. The expression of tammar IGF2 was predominantly from the P2 promoter, similar to humans. Expression of IGF2 was higher in pouch young than in the adult and imprinting was highly tissue and developmental-stage specific. Interestingly, while IGF2 was expressed throughout the placenta, imprinting seemed to be restricted to the vascular, trilaminar region. In addition, IGF2 was monoallelically expressed in the adult mammary gland while in the liver it switched from monoalleleic expression in the pouch young to biallelic in the adult. These data suggest a complex mode of IGF2 regulation in marsupials as seen in eutherian mammals. The conservation of the IGF2 promoters suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians, and have been selectively maintained for at least 160 million years. PMID:22848567

  5. Genomic Imprinting of IGF2 Is Maintained in Infantile Hemangioma despite its High Level of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Boscolo, Elisa; Mulliken, John B; Bischoff, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    Hemangioma, the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by rapid growth and slow regression. Increased mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been detected in the proliferating phase by cDNA microarray analysis, but the underlying mechanism causing the increase remains unknown. Here, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, we show that IGF2 is highly expressed in both proliferating and involuting phase hemangioma, but is not detectable in other vascular lesions such as pyogenic granuloma, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, or in normal infant skin. Loss of imprinting of the Igf2 gene has been associated with IGF2 overexpression in a variety of childhood tumors. To determine if loss of imprinting and consequent bi-allelic expression might contribute to the increased expression of IGF2, we examined the genomic imprinting status of Igf2 in 48 individual hemangiomas. We determined allele-specific Igf2 expression using reverse transcriptase–PCR combined with analysis of an Apa I–sensitive restriction fragment length polymorphism. Similar to heterozygous normal skin controls, all 15 informative hemangiomas showed uniform mono-allelic expression of Igf2. Therefore, loss of imprinting is not involved in the increased expression of IGF2 in infantile hemangioma. PMID:15706404

  6. Expressed alleles of imprinted IGF2, DLK1 and MEG3 colocalize in 3D-preserved nuclei of porcine fetal cells.

    PubMed

    Lahbib-Mansais, Yvette; Barasc, Harmonie; Marti-Marimon, Maria; Mompart, Florence; Iannuccelli, Eddie; Robelin, David; Riquet, Juliette; Yerle-Bouissou, Martine

    2016-10-01

    To explore the relationship between spatial genome organization and gene expression in the interphase nucleus, we used a genomic imprinting model, which offers parental-specific gene expression. Using 3D FISH in porcine fetal liver cells, we compared the nuclear organization of the two parental alleles (expressed or not) of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a paternally imprinted gene located on chromosome 2. We investigated whether its nuclear positioning favors specific locus associations. We also tested whether IGF2 is implicated in long-range chromatin trans-associations as previously shown in the mouse model species for its reciprocal imprinted gene H19. We focused on the 3D position of IGF2 alleles, with respect to their individual chromosome 2 territories. The paternally expressed allele was tagged with nascent RNA. There were no significant differences in the position of the two alleles (p = 0.06). To determine long-range chromatin trans-interactions, we chose 12 genes, some of which are known to be imprinted in mammalian model species and belong to a network of imprinted genes (i.e. SLC38A4, DLK1, MEG3, and ZAC1). We screened them and ABCG2, OSBP2, OSBPL1, RPL32, NF1, ZAR1, SEP15, GPC3 for associations with IGF2 in liver cells. All imprinted genes tested showed an association with IGF2. The DLK1/MEG3 locus showed the highest rate of colocalization. This gene association was confirmed by 3D FISH (in 20 % of the nuclei analyzed), revealing also the close proximity of chromosomes 2 and 7 (in 60 % of nuclei). Furthermore, our observations showed that the expressed paternal IGF2 allele is involved in this association. This IGF2-(DLK1/MEG3) association also occurred in a high percentage of fetal muscle cells (36 % of nuclei). Finally, we showed that nascent IGF2, DLK1 and MEG3 RNAs can associate in pairs or in a three-way combination. Our results show that trans-associations occur between three imprinted genes IGF2, DLK1 and MEG3 both in fetal liver

  7. Relaxation of IGF2 imprinting in Wilms tumours associated with specific changes in IGF2 methylation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M J; Taniguchi, T; Jhee, A; Kerr, N; Reeve, A E

    1999-12-09

    Relaxation of IGF2 imprinting occurs in Wilms tumours and many other cancers, but the mechanism of loss of imprinting (LOI) remains unknown. To investigate the role of altered DNA methylation in LOI, we examined the pattern of methylation of the human insulin-IGF2 region in Wilms tumours and the normal kidney. The analysis included regions homologous to three 'differentially methylated regions' of the mouse Igf2 gene (dmrs 0, 1 and 2). In tumours displaying normal IGF2 imprinting, and in the normal kidney, maternal allele-specific DNA methylation was identified spanning exons 2 and 3. This region is homologous to dmr 0, a site of maternal-specific differential methylation in the mouse. In Wilms tumours with relaxed imprinting or 11p15.5 LOH this region was unmethylated. No other differential methylation was identified. In particular, two sites of paternal methylation in the mouse (dmrs 1 and 2), and all three imprinted IGF2 promoters were not methylated in the kidney or in Wilms tumours. We postulate that LOI in Wilms tumours is associated with loss of maternal allele-specific methylation from a region located upstream of the imprinted IGF2 promoters. This region may contain cis acting sequences that coordinately influence imprinting.

  8. Analysis of imprinted IGF2/H19 gene methylation and expression in normal fertilized and parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells of pigs.

    PubMed

    Uh, Kyung-Jun; Park, Chi-Hun; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Woo; Roh, Sangho; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Shin, Taeyoung; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2014-06-10

    To determine whether the genomic imprinting can be maintained during the process of embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation from pig blastocysts, mRNA and DNA methylation at the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region in putative ES cells derived from in vitro fertilized (IVF) and parthenogenetic (PG) embryos were investigated. In the present study, one IVF- and three PG ES-like cell lines were established and analyzed for cellular characteristics such as pluripotent marker expression and differentiation capacity. The results showed that these putative ES cells derived from pig blastocysts fulfilled the general "stemness" criteria. The expression of the H19 gene was significantly greater in PG blastocysts than IVF blastocysts, but there were greater amounts of IGF2 in IVF than PG blastocysts. Of these putative ES cell lines, one PG line had less H19 gene expression than a IVF ES cell line while the other two PG lines had much greater expression of the H19 gene than the IVF line. In contrast, the IGF2 gene was upregulated in the same PG cell line relative to the other two PG cell lines and transcript abundance was similar to IVF ES-like cells. Despite the variable amounts of mRNA among the PG cell lines, the IGF2/H19 gene had a differentially methylated region (DMR) 3 was typically un-methylated in all PG cells, and hemi-methylated in the IVF cells. These findings indicated that the mRNA of H19 and IGF2 genes is susceptible to in vitro environments during the process of ES cell derivation from blastocysts but DNA methylation status at this region was well maintained. These altered gene expressions may not be associated with the methylation of the imprinting control region at this locus. Therefore, with their uni-parental genotype, the pluripotent differentiation potentials of PG ES cells could be a valuable tool for understanding genomic imprinting in embryonic development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential genomic imprinting regulates paracrine and autocrine roles of IGF2 in mouse adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrón, S. R.; Radford, E. J.; Domingo-Muelas, A.; Kleine, I.; Ramme, A.; Gray, D.; Sandovici, I.; Constancia, M.; Ward, A.; Menheniott, T. R.; Ferguson-Smith, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is implicated in the control of gene dosage in neurogenic niches. Here we address the importance of Igf2 imprinting for murine adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in vivo. In the SVZ, paracrine IGF2 is a cerebrospinal fluid and endothelial-derived neurogenic factor requiring biallelic expression, with mutants having reduced activation of the stem cell pool and impaired olfactory bulb neurogenesis. In contrast, Igf2 is imprinted in the hippocampus acting as an autocrine factor expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) solely from the paternal allele. Conditional mutagenesis of Igf2 in blood vessels confirms that endothelial-derived IGF2 contributes to NSC maintenance in SVZ but not in the SGZ, and that this is regulated by the biallelic expression of IGF2 in the vascular compartment. Our findings indicate that a regulatory decision to imprint or not is a functionally important mechanism of transcriptional dosage control in adult neurogenesis. PMID:26369386

  10. Relaxation of IGF2/H19 imprinting in Wilms tumour is associated with a switch in DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, A.E.; Taniguchi, T.; Sullivan, M.J.; Ogawa, O.

    1994-09-01

    We and others have recently shown that the normal imprinting of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is disrupted in Wilms tumor. The process of relaxation of IGF2 imprinting leads to the activation of transcription of the normally silent maternally inherited IGF2 allele such that both alleles of the IGF2 gene are transcribed. Relaxation of IGF2 imprinting has also been detected as a constitutional event in patients with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrom and a patient with gigantism and Wilms tumor. We have now shown that in Wilms tumors in which imprinting is relaxed, IGF2 is transcribed from the maternal allele and there is a concomitant transcriptional inactivation of the H19 maternal allele. Furthermore, the patterns of methylation of the IGF2 and H19 gene are reversed on the maternal chromosome. Relaxation of imprinting in Wilms tumors appear, therefore, to be associated with a switch in gene expression and methylation at the IGF2/H19 locus. The data supports the notion of a disrupted IGF2/H19 imprinting switch in Wilms tumor.

  11. Activation of an imprinted Igf 2 gene in mouse somatic cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Eversole-Cire, P; Ferguson-Smith, A C; Sasaki, H; Brown, K D; Cattanach, B M; Gonzales, F A; Surani, M A; Jones, P A

    1993-01-01

    The mouse insulin-like growth factor II gene (Igf 2), located on distal chromosome 7, is parentally imprinted such that the paternal allele is expressed while the maternal allele is transcriptionally silent. We derived a cell line from a mouse embryo maternally disomic and paternally deficient for distal chromosome 7 (MatDi7) to determine the stability of gene repression in culture. MatDi7 cells maintained Igf2 in a repressed state even after immortalization, except for one randomly picked clone which spontaneously expressed the gene. Igf 2 was expressed in a cell culture derived from a normal littermate; this expression was growth regulated, with Igf 2 mRNA levels increasing in the stationary phase of growth. Analysis of the methylation status of 28 sites distributed over 10 kb of the gene did not show consistent differences associated with expression level in the normal and MatDi7 cell lines, and the CpG island in the Igf 2 promoter remained unmethylated in all of the cell lines. Only with an oncogenically transformed cell line did the promoter become extensively methylated. We attempted to derepress the imprinted gene in MatDi7 cells by treatments known to alter gene expression. Expression of the Igf 2 allele in MatDi7 cells was increased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or bromodeoxyuridine, agents known to change DNA methylation patterns or chromatin conformation. Treatment of the cells with 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, calcium ionophore, heat shock, cold shock, or sodium butyrate did not result in increases in the levels of Igf 2 expression. It seems likely that the mechanism of the Igf 2 imprint involves subtle changes in the methylation or chromatin conformation of the gene which are affected by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and bromodeoxyuridine. Images PMID:8336727

  12. Allelic switching of the imprinted IGF2R gene in cloned bovine fetuses and calves.

    PubMed

    Suteevun-Phermthai, T; Curchoe, C L; Evans, A C; Boland, E; Rizos, D; Fair, T; Duffy, P; Sung, L Y; Du, F; Chaubal, S; Xu, J; Wechayant, T; Yang, X; Lonergan, P; Parnpai, R; Tian, X C

    2009-11-01

    Cloned animals often suffer from loss of development to term and abnormalities, typically classified under the umbrella term of Large Offspring Syndrome (LOS). Cattle are an interesting species to study because of the relatively greater success rate of nuclear transfer in this species compared with all species cloned to date. The imprinted insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF2R; mannose-6-phosphate) gene was chosen to investigate aspects of fetal growth and development in cloned cattle in the present study. IGF2R gene expression patterns in identical genetic clones of several age groups were assessed in day 25, day 45, and day 75 fetuses as well as spontaneously aborted fetuses, calves that died shortly after birth and healthy cloned calves using single stranded conformational polymorphism gel electrophoresis. A variable pattern of IGF2R allelic expression in major organs such as the brain, cotyledon, heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney and intercotyledon was observed using a G/A transition in the 3'UTR of IGF2R. IGF2R gene expression was also assessed by real time RT-PCR and found to be highly variable among the clone groups. Proper IGF2R gene expression is necessary for survival to term, but is most likely not a cause of early fetal lethality or an indicator of postnatal fitness. Contrary to previous reports of the transmission of imprinting patterns from somatic donor cells to cloned animals within organs in the same cloned animal the paternal allele of IGF2R can be imprinted in one tissue while the maternal allele is imprinted in another tissue. This observation has never been reported in any species in which imprinting has been studied.

  13. Loss of imprinting of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene in esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ronghua; DeCoteau, John F; Geyer, C Ronald; Gao, Mei; Cui, Hengmi; Casson, Alan G

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate loss of imprinting (LOI) and expression of the IGF2 gene in matched esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma tissues, we studied a prospective cohort of 77 patients who underwent esophageal resection between 1998 and 2003. IGF2 imprinting status was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) following ApaI digestion, and quantitative PCR was used to evaluate IGF2 expression, which was correlated with clinicopathologic findings, disease-free and overall survival. In total, 32% (14/44) of informative tissues showed loss of IGF2 imprinting, with a strong correlation between the tumor and normal esophageal epithelia (Kappa = 0.89, P < 0.01). Normal epithelia with LOI had increased expression of IGF2 [median: 2.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-5.06] compared with imprinted normal epithelia (median: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.85-1.39) (P = 0.03). In contrast, tumors with LOI had significantly reduced IGF2 expression (median: 1.87, 95% CI: 0.53-5.21) compared with normally imprinted tumors (median: 6.79, 95% CI: 3.39-15.89) (P = 0.016). Patients below the age of 65 years with normally imprinted tumors had significantly reduced 5 year disease-free survival (DFS) (24%) compared with patients whose tumors had LOI for IGF2 (55%) (P = 0.03). Cox regression analysis showed that IGF2 overexpression was associated with significantly reduced disease-free survival (P = 0.04). We conclude that in a subgroup of younger patients, loss of IGF2 imprinting was associated with improved outcome following esophageal resection. Expression of IGF2 in esophageal adenocarcinoma and normal esophageal epithelia depended on imprinting status and tissue type, suggesting novel molecular regulatory mechanisms in esophageal tumorigenesis.

  14. A transcriptional insulator at the imprinted H19/Igf2 locus

    PubMed Central

    Kaffer, Christopher R.; Srivastava, Madhulika; Park, Kye-Yoon; Ives, Elizabeth; Hsieh, Sandra; Batlle, Juan; Grinberg, Alexander; Huang, Sing-Ping; Pfeifer, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Igf2 and H19 exhibit parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression. H19 is expressed from the maternal chromosome and Igf2 from the paternal. The two genes share enhancer elements and monoallelic expression of both genes is dependent on cis-acting sequences upstream of the H19 promoter. In this work we examine the mechanisms by which this region silences the maternal Igf2 allele and we demonstrate that deletion of this region can result in high levels of activation of both H19 and Igf2 from a single chromosome. Moreover, by inserting this cis element between a promoter and its enhancer at a heterologous position, we demonstrate that the sequences carry both insulator activity and the ability to be stably imprinted. We also characterize the insulator in vitro and show that it is neither enhancer nor promoter specific. PMID:10921905

  15. Developmental profile of H19 differentially methylated domain (DMD) deletion alleles reveals multiple roles of the DMD in regulating allelic expression and DNA methylation at the imprinted H19/Igf2 locus.

    PubMed

    Thorvaldsen, Joanne L; Fedoriw, Andrew M; Nguyen, Son; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2006-02-01

    The differentially methylated domain (DMD) of the mouse H19 gene is a methylation-sensitive insulator that blocks access of the Igf2 gene to shared enhancers on the maternal allele and inactivates H19 expression on the methylated paternal allele. By analyzing H19 DMD deletion alleles H19DeltaDMD and H19Delta3.8kb-5'H19 in pre- and postimplantation embryos, we show that the DMD exhibits positive transcriptional activity and is required for H19 expression in blastocysts and full activation of H19 during subsequent development. We also show that the DMD is required to establish Igf2 imprinting by blocking access to shared enhancers when Igf2 monoallelic expression is initiated in postimplantation embryos and that the single remaining CTCF site of the H19DeltaDMD allele is unable to provide this function. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that sequence outside of the DMD can attract some paternal-allele-specific CpG methylation 5' of H19 in preimplantation embryos, although this methylation is not maintained during postimplantation in the absence of the DMD. Finally, we report a conditional allele floxing the 1.6-kb sequence deleted from the H19DeltaDMD allele and demonstrate that the DMD is required to maintain repression of the maternal Igf2 allele and the full activity of the paternal Igf2 allele in neonatal liver.

  16. Ancestral TCDD exposure promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of imprinted gene Igf2: Methylation status and DNMTs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Xi; Liu, Yanan; Xie, Qunhui; Sun, Yawen; Chen, Jingshan; Leng, Ling; Yan, Huan; Zhao, Bin; Tang, Naijun

    2015-12-01

    Ancestral TCDD exposure could induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes, which may be mediated in part by imprinted gene inheritance. The aim of our study was to evaluate the transgenerational effects of ancestral TCDD exposure on the imprinted gene insulin-like growth factor-2 (Igf2) in rat somatic tissue. TCDD was administered daily by oral gavage to groups of F0 pregnant SD rats at dose levels of 0 (control), 200 or 800 ng/kg bw during gestation day 8-14. Animal transgenerational model of ancestral exposure to TCDD was carefully built, avoiding sibling inbreeding. Hepatic Igf2 expression of the TCDD male progeny was decreased concomitantly with hepatic damage and increased activities of serum hepatic enzymes both in the F1 and F3 generation. Imprinted Control Region (ICR) of Igf2 manifested a hypermethylated pattern, whereas methylation status in the Differentially Methylated Region 2 (DMR2) showed a hypomethylated manner in the F1 generation. These epigenetic alterations in these two regions maintained similar trends in the F3 generation. Meanwhile, the expressions of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) changed in a non-monotonic manner both in the F1 and F3 generation. This study provides evidence that ancestral TCDD exposure may promote epigenetic transgenerational alterations of imprinted gene Igf2 in adult somatic tissue.

  17. More than insulator: multiple roles of CTCF at the H19-Igf2 imprinted domain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Purnima; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Szabó, Piroska E.

    2012-01-01

    CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor)-mediated insulation at the H19-Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted domain is a classic example for imprinted gene regulation. DNA methylation difference in the imprinting control region (ICR) is inherited from the gametes and subsequently determines parental allele-specific enhancer blocking and imprinted expression in the soma. Recent genetic studies showed that proper monoallelic enhancer blocking at the H19-Igf2 ICR is critical for development. Strict biallelic insulation at this locus causes perinatal lethality, whereas leaky biallelic insulation results in smaller size but no lethality. Apart from enhancer blocking, CTCF is also the master organizer of chromatin composition in the maternal allele along this imprinted domain, affecting not only histone tail covalent modifications but also those in the histone core. Additionally, CTCF binding in the soma protects the maternal allele from de novo DNA methylation. CTCF binding is not involved in the establishment of the gametic marks at the ICR, but it slightly delays de novo methylation in the maternally inherited ICR allele in prospermatogonia. This review focuses on the developmental and epigenetic consequences of CTCF binding at the H19-Igf2 ICR. PMID:23087708

  18. Expression of KCNQ1OT1, CDKN1C, H19, and PLAGL1 and the methylation patterns at the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2 imprinting control regions is conserved between human and bovine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a loss-of-imprinting pediatric overgrowth syndrome. The primary features of BWS include macrosomia, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. Secondary features that are frequently observed in BWS patients are hypoglycemia, nevus flammeus, polyhydramnios, visceromegaly, hemihyperplasia, cardiac malformations, and difficulty breathing. BWS is speculated to occur primarily as the result of the misregulation of imprinted genes associated with two clusters on chromosome 11p15.5, namely the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2. A similar overgrowth phenotype is observed in bovine and ovine as a result of embryo culture. In ruminants this syndrome is known as large offspring syndrome (LOS). The phenotypes associated with LOS are increased birth weight, visceromegaly, skeletal defects, hypoglycemia, polyhydramnios, and breathing difficulties. Even though phenotypic similarities exist between the two syndromes, whether the two syndromes are epigenetically similar is unknown. In this study we use control Bos taurus indicus X Bos taurus taurus F1 hybrid bovine concepti to characterize baseline imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation status of imprinted domains known to be misregulated in BWS. This work is intended to be the first step in a series of experiments aimed at determining if LOS will serve as an appropriate animal model to study BWS. Results The use of F1 B. t. indicus x B. t. taurus tissues provided us with a tool to unequivocally determine imprinted status of the regions of interest in our study. We found that imprinting is conserved between the bovine and human in imprinted genes known to be associated with BWS. KCNQ1OT1 and PLAGL1 were paternally-expressed while CDKN1C and H19 were maternally-expressed in B. t. indicus x B. t. taurus F1 concepti. We also show that in bovids, differential methylation exists at the KvDMR1 and H19/IGF2 ICRs. Conclusions Based on these findings we conclude that the imprinted gene expression of

  19. Microdeletions in the human H19 DMR result in loss of IGF2 imprinting and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sparago, Angela; Cerrato, Flavia; Vernucci, Maria; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Riccio, Andrea

    2004-09-01

    The overgrowth- and tumor-associated Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome results from dysregulation of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15.5. Here we show that inherited microdeletions in the H19 differentially methylated region (DMR) that abolish two CTCF target sites cause this disease. Maternal transmission of the deletions results in hypermethylation of the H19 DMR, biallelic IGF2 expression, H19 silencing and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, indicative of loss of function of the IGF2-H19 imprinting control element.

  20. Long-range DNase I hypersensitivity mapping reveals the imprinted Igf2r and Air promoters share cis-regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Pauler, Florian M.; Stricker, Stefan H.; Warczok, Katarzyna E.; Barlow, Denise P.

    2005-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms restrict the expression of imprinted genes to one parental allele in diploid cells. At the Igf2r/Air imprinted cluster on mouse chromosome 17, paternal-specific expression of the Air noncoding RNA has been shown to silence three genes in cis: Igf2r, Slc22a2, and Slc22a3. By an unbiased mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) in a 192-kb region flanking Igf2r and Air, we identified 21 DHS, of which nine mapped to evolutionarily conserved sequences. Based on the hypothesis that silencing effects of Air would be directed towards cis regulatory elements used to activate genes, DHS are potential key players in the control of imprinted expression. However, in this 192-kb region only the two DHS mapping to the Igf2r and Air promoters show parental specificity. The remaining 19 DHS were present on both parental alleles and, thus, have the potential to activate Igf2r on the maternal allele and Air on the paternal allele. The possibility that the Igf2r and Air promoters share the same cis-acting regulatory elements, albeit on opposite parental chromosomes, was supported by the similar expression profiles of Igf2r and Air in vivo. These results refine our understanding of the onset of imprinted silencing at this cluster and indicate the Air noncoding RNA may specifically target silencing to the Igf2r promoter. PMID:16204191

  1. A Cis-acting locus determines the polymorphic parental imprinting of the human IGF2R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Polychronakos, C.

    1994-09-01

    The murine gene encoding the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF2R) is parentally imprinted in the mouse with exclusive maternal expression, but most humans express both gene copies. We have reported preferential expression of the maternal copy in approximately 17% of normal human pre-term placenta samples and in 50% of the kidneys of Wilms` tumor patients. Thus, IGF2R imprinting appears to be a polymorphic trait that may predispose to cancer. We explored the possibility that imprinting is associated with sequence variations of the imprinted domain itself (cis-acting locus). We studied 9 subjects with imprinted IGF2R expression that were informative for parental origin. These subjects were heterozygous for a transcribed CA repeat at the 3{prime}UTR of the gene, used for the study of the parental origin of mRNA transcripts. The two most common alleles, A162 and A164 (names refer to size in bp), were analyzed. In all cases the preferentially transcribed allele was maternal (p=0.002). In all 8 cases in which A164 was present, it was of paternal origin and was repressed (p=0.008), while A162 was maternal and preferentially expressed in 8/9 cases. Parental origin of A162 and A164 was random in individuals with biallelic expression. PCR amplification of genomic DNA after digestion with the methylation-sensitive enzyme HpaII revealed biallelic methylation at the 3{prime}UTR in both imprinting and non-imprinting individuals, making it unlikely that the imprint-controlling element (ICE) is located there. Polymorphic IGF2R imprinting depends on a cis-acting locus, at linkage disequilibrium with, but probably distinct from, our 3{prime}UTR marker. Biallelic expression in many subjects with a paternal A164 suggests that the frequency of the imprintable ICE is much lower than that of A164. Alternatively, the cis-locus is necessary but not sufficient and input in trans is additionally required for paternal-germline specific IGF2R repression.

  2. The Impact of First Trimester Phthalate and Phenol Exposure on IGF2/H19 Genomic Imprinting and Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Jessica; Binder, Alexandra; McElrath, Thomas F.; Michels, Karin B.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting leads to parent-of-origin specific gene expression and is determined by epigenetic modification of genes. The paternally expressed gene insulin-like growth-factor 2 (IGF2) is located about ∼100 kb from the maternally expressed non-coding gene H19 on human chromosome 11, and both genes play major roles in embryonic and placental growth. Given adverse gestational environments can influence DNA methylation patterns in extra-embryonic tissues, we hypothesized that prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alters H19 and IGF2 methylation in placenta. Our study was restricted to a total of 196 women co-enrolled in the Predictors of Preeclampsia Study and the Harvard Epigenetic Birth Cohort. First trimester urine concentrations of 8 phenols and 11 phthalate metabolites were measured and used to characterize EDC exposure profiles. We assessed methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) by pyrosequencing of H19, IGF2DMR0, and IGF2DMR2 and correlated values with phenol and phthalate metabolites. We also assessed overall expression and allele-specific expression of H19 and IGF2. We found several significant associations between DNA methylation and additive biomarker measurements. A significant decrease in H19 methylation was associated with high level of the sum (Σ) of phthalate metabolites and metabolites of low molecular weight (LMW) phthalates. Σphthalate and LMW phthalate concentrations were inversely associated with IGF2DMR0 methylation values. Variation in methylation was not associated with changes in allele-specific expression. However increased deviation of allele-specific expression of H19 was associated with Σ di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites and high molecular weight phthalates. Neither methylation nor expression of these imprinted regions had a significant impact on birth length or birth weight. Overall, our study provides new insight into an epigenetic mechanism that occurs following EDC exposure. PMID

  3. Humanized H19/Igf2 locus reveals diverged imprinting mechanism between mouse and human and reflects Silver–Russell syndrome phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Stella K.; Freschi, Andrea; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Thorvaldsen, Joanne L.; Luense, Lacey J.; Weller, Angela H.; Berger, Shelley L.; Cerrato, Flavia; Riccio, Andrea; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals, such that they are expressed in a monoallelic, parent-of-origin–specific manner. These genes are regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), cis-regulatory elements that exhibit allele-specific differential DNA methylation. Although genomic imprinting is conserved in mammals, ICRs are genetically divergent across species. This raises the fundamental question of whether the ICR plays a species-specific role in regulating imprinting at a given locus. We addressed this question at the H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted locus, the misregulation of which is associated with the human imprinting disorders Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). We generated a knock-in mouse in which the endogenous H19/Igf2 ICR (mIC1) is replaced by the orthologous human ICR (hIC1) sequence, designated H19hIC1. We show that hIC1 can functionally replace mIC1 on the maternal allele. In contrast, paternally transmitted hIC1 leads to growth restriction, abnormal hIC1 methylation, and loss of H19 and Igf2 imprinted expression. Imprint establishment at hIC1 is impaired in the male germ line, which is associated with an abnormal composition of histone posttranslational modifications compared with mIC1. Overall, this study reveals evolutionarily divergent paternal imprinting at IC1 between mice and humans. The conserved maternal imprinting mechanism and function at IC1 demonstrates the possibility of modeling maternal transmission of hIC1 mutations associated with BWS in mice. In addition, we propose that further analyses in the paternal knock-in H19+/hIC1 mice will elucidate the molecular mechanisms that may underlie SRS. PMID:27621468

  4. [Effect of recombinant adenovirus Ad-DT-A in targeted therapy for malignant cancer cell lines with loss of IGF2 imprinting].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-qin; He, Bang-shun; Zhu, Chan; Qu, Li-li; Xu, Xiong-fei; Wang, Shu-kui

    2011-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of IGF2 imprinting system in target gene therapy for tumors. The mouse H19 enhancer, DMD and promoter H19 were amplified by PCR from mouse genomic DNA and then cloned into the plasmid pDC312. The EGFP and DT-A fragments were amplified by PCR and cloned into the recombinant plasmid, and then the shuttle plasmid were transfected into HEK293 cells together with the adenoviral vector Ad5, namely, Ad-EGFP and Ad-DT-A. Adenovirus hexon gene expression was applied to confirm the presence of adenovirus infections. The effect of the IGF2 imprinting system was tested by fluorescence microscopy. RT-PCR and Western blotting after transfection of the recombinant adenoviral vectors into cancer cells were used to show loss of IGF2 imprinting (LOI) and maintenance of IGF2 imprinting (MOI), respectively. The anti-tumor effect was assessed by MTT and flow cytometry after the HCT-8 (LOI). Human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (MOI) and human normal gastric epithelial GES-1 (MOI) cell line were transfected with Ad-DT-A in vitro. The anti-tumor effect was detected by injecting the Ad-DT-A in nude mice carrying HCT-8 tumors. The expression of EGFP protein, DT-A mRNA and DT-A protein were seen to be positive only in the HCT-8 tumor cell line. Infection with Ad-DT-A resulted in obviously growth inhibition in HCT-8 cells (75.4 ± 6.4)% compared with that in the control group, and increased the percentage of apoptosis in the HCT-8 cells (20.8 ± 5.9)%. The anti-tumor effect was further confirmed by injecting the recombinant adenoviruses in HCT-8 tumor-bearing nude mice, and the results showed that the Ad-DT-A inhibited the tumor growth, with on inhibition rate of 36.4%. The recombinant adenoviruses carrying IGF2 imprinting system and DT-A gene have been successfully constructed, while Ad-DT-A can effectively kill the tumor cells showing loss of IGF2 imprinting. It might play an important role in future target gene therapy against malignant tumors based on loss of

  5. Characterization of the IGF2 Imprinted Gene Methylation Status in Bovine Oocytes during Folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Anelise dos Santos; Guimarães, Ana Luíza Silva; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes; Franco, Maurício Machaim

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation reprogramming occurs during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Sex-specific DNA methylation patterns at specific CpG islands controlling imprinted genes are acquired during this window of development. Characterization of the DNA methylation dynamics of imprinted genes acquired by oocytes during folliculogenesis is essential for understanding the physiological and genetic aspects of female gametogenesis and to determine the parameters for oocyte competence. This knowledge can be used to improve in vitro embryo production (IVP), specifically because oocyte competence is one of the most important aspects determining the success of IVP. Imprinted genes, such as IGF2, play important roles in embryo development, placentation and fetal growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the DNA methylation profile of the CpG island located in IGF2 exon 10 in oocytes during bovine folliculogenesis. The methylation percentages in oocytes from primordial follicles, final secondary follicles, small antral follicles, large antral follicles, MII oocytes and spermatozoa were 73.74 ± 2.88%, 58.70 ± 7.46%, 56.00 ± 5.58%, 65.77 ± 5.10%, 56.35 ± 7.45% and 96.04 ± 0.78%, respectively. Oocytes from primordial follicles showed fewer hypomethylated alleles (15.5%) than MII oocytes (34.6%) (p = 0.039); spermatozoa showed only hypermethylated alleles. Moreover, MII oocytes were less methylated than spermatozoa (p<0.001). Our results showed that the methylation pattern of this region behaves differently between mature oocytes and spermatozoa. However, while this region has a classical imprinted pattern in spermatozoa that is fully methylated, it was variable in mature oocytes, showing hypermethylated and hypomethylated alleles. Furthermore, our results suggest that this CpG island may have received precocious reprogramming, considering that the hypermethylated pattern was already found in growing oocytes from primordial follicles. These results may contribute to

  6. Epigenetic consequences of artificial reproductive technologies to the bovine imprinted genes SNRPN, H19/IGF2, and IGF2R.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lawrence C; Therrien, Jacinthe; Filion, France; Bressan, Fabiana; Meirelles, Flávio V

    2015-01-01

    Animal breeders have made widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies to accelerate genetic improvement programs aimed at obtaining more, better and cheaper food products. Selection approaches have traditionally focused on Mendel's laws of inheritance using parental phenotypic characteristics and quantitative genetics approaches to choose the best parents for the next generation, regardless of their gender. However, apart from contributing DNA sequence variants, male and female gametes carry parental-specific epigenetic marks that play key roles during pre- and post-natal development and growth of the offspring. We herein review the epigenetic anomalies that are associated with artificial reproductive technologies in current use in animal breeding programs. For instance, we demonstrate that bovine embryos and fetuses derived by in vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer show epigenetic anomalies in the differentially methylated regions controlling the expression of some imprinted genes. Although these genomic imprinting errors are undetected in the somatic tissues after birth, further research is warranted to examine potential germ cell transmission of epimutations and the potential risks of reproducing cattle using artificial reproductive technologies.

  7. The IGF2 Locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 is vital to embryo development. The IGF2 locus covers approximately 150-kb genomic region on human chromosome 11, containing two imprinted genes, IGF2 and H19, sha...

  8. Gene therapy for colorectal cancer by adenovirus-mediated siRNA targeting CD147 based on loss of the IGF2 imprinting system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Chen, Jie; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Wang, Feng; Ying, Houqun; Liu, Xian; Lin, Kang; Peng, Hongxin; Xie, Hongguang; Wang, Shukui

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is an epigenetic abnormality phenomenon in CRC. Recently observed association of CRC with cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) could provide a novel approach for gene therapy. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of using adenovirus‑mediated siRNA targeting CD147 based on the IGF2 LOI system for targeted gene therapy of CRC. A novel adenovirus-mediated siRNA targeting CD147, rAd-H19-CD147mirsh, which was driven by the IGF2 imprinting system, was constructed. The results showed that the EGFP expression was detected only in the IGF2 LOI cell lines (HT-29 and HCT-8), but that no EGFP was produced in cell lines with maintenance of imprinting (MOI) (HCT116). Moreover, rAd-H19-CD147mirsh significantly inhibited the expression of CD147, decreased cell viability and invasive ability, and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs only in the LOI cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, mice bearing HT-29 xenografted tumors, which received intratumoral administration of the rAd-H19-CD147mirsh, showed significantly reduced tumor growth and enhanced survival. We conclude that recombinant adenovirus-mediated siRNA targeting CD147 based on the IGF2 LOI system inhibited the growth of the LOI cells in vitro and in vivo, which would provide a novel approach for targeted CRC gene therapy.

  9. Genomic Imprinting of the M6P/IGF2 Receptor: A Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    embryonic growth and development. They also are involved in cancer because their functional haploid state makes them vulnerable to being either inactivated or...Breast Cancer, Genomic Imprinting, M6P/IGF2R, Tumor Suppressor, 7 Imprinting Evolution I_16._PRICECODE 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...tissues not available for our analysis. However, recent experimental evidence from our laboratory, based on a detailed analysis of the evolution of

  10. Long-range chromatin interactions at the mouse Igf2/H19 locus reveal a novel paternally expressed long non-coding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Court, Franck; Baniol, Marion; Hagege, Hélène; Petit, Julie Sandrine; Lelay-Taha, Marie-Noëlle; Carbonell, Françoise; Weber, Michael; Cathala, Guy; Forne, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Parental genomic imprinting at the Igf2/H19 locus is controlled by a methylation-sensitive CTCF insulator that prevents the access of downstream enhancers to the Igf2 gene on the maternal chromosome. However, on the paternal chromosome, it remains unclear whether long-range interactions with the enhancers are restricted to the Igf2 promoters or whether they encompass the entire gene body. Here, using the quantitative chromosome conformation capture assay, we show that, in the mouse liver, the endodermal enhancers have low contact frequencies with the Igf2 promoters but display, on the paternal chromosome, strong interactions with the intragenic differentially methylated regions 1 and 2. Interestingly, we found that enhancers also interact with a so-far poorly characterized intergenic region of the locus that produces a novel imprinted long non-coding transcript that we named the paternally expressed Igf2/H19 intergenic transcript (PIHit) RNA. PIHit is expressed exclusively from the paternal chromosome, contains a novel discrete differentially methylated region in a highly conserved sequence and, surprisingly, does not require an intact ICR/H19 gene region for its imprinting. Altogether, our data reveal a novel imprinted domain in the Igf2/H19 locus and lead us to propose a model for chromatin folding of this locus on the paternal chromosome. PMID:21478171

  11. Identification of transgenic cloned dairy goats harboring human lactoferrin and methylation status of the imprinted gene IGF2R in their lungs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y L; Zhang, G M; Wan, Y J; Jia, R X; Li, P Z; Han, L; Wang, F; Huang, M R

    2015-09-22

    Dairy goat is a good model for production of transgenic proteins in milk using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, animals produced from SCNT are often associated with lung deficiencies. We recently produced six transgenic cloned dairy goats harboring the human lactoferrin gene, including three live transgenic clones and three deceased transgenic clones that died from respiratory failure during the perinatal period. Imprinted genes are important regulators of lung growth, and may be subjected to faulty reprogramming. In the present study, first, microsatellite analysis, PCR, and DNA sequence identification were conducted to confirm that these three dead kids were genetically identical to the transgenic donor cells. Second, the CpG island methylation profile of the imprinted insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF2R) gene was assessed in the lungs of the three dead transgenic kids and the normally produced kids using bisulfite sequencing PCR. In addition, the relative mRNA level of IGF2R was also determined by real-time PCR. Results showed that the IGF2R gene in the lungs of the dead cloned kids showed abnormal hypermethylation and higher mRNA expression levels than the control, indicating that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming is one of the important factors in the death of transgenic cloned animals.

  12. IGF2 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    IGF2 is a member of the insulin family of polypeptide growth factors that is involved in development and growth. The IGF2 gene is an imprinted gene and is expressed only from the paternally inherited allele. It is a candidate gene for eating disorders. There is a read-through, INS-IGF2, which aligns to this gene at the 3' region and to the upstream INS gene at the 5' region. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding either the same or different isoform, have been found for this gene. IGF2 is influenced by placental lactogen and may play a role in fetal development.

  13. In vitro lead exposure changes DNA methylation and expression of IGF2 and PEG1/MEST.

    PubMed

    Nye, Monica D; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic processes, such as changes in DNA methylation, likely mediate the link between environmental exposures in utero and altered gene expression. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that regulate imprinted genes may be especially vulnerable to environmental exposures since imprinting is established and maintained largely through DNA methylation, resulting in expression from only one parental chromosome. We used the human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK-293, to investigate the effects of exposure to physiologically relevant doses of lead acetate (Pb) on the methylation status of nine imprinted gene DMRs. We assessed mean methylation after seventy-two hours of Pb exposure (0-25 μg/dL) using bisulfite pyrosequencing. The PEG1/MEST and IGF2 DMRs had maximum methylation decreases of 9.6% (20 μg/dL; p<0.005) and 3.8% (25 μg/dL; p<0.005), respectively. Changes at the MEG3 DMRs had a maximum decrease in methylation of 2.9% (MEG3) and 1.8% (MEG3-IG) at 5 μg/dL Pb, but were not statistically significant. The H19, NNAT, PEG3, PLAGL1, and SGCE/PEG10 DMRs showed a less than 0.5% change in methylation, across the dose range used, and were deemed non-responsive to Pb in our model. Pb exposure below reportable/actionable levels increased expression of PEG1/MEST concomitant with decreased methylation. These results suggest that Pb exposure can stably alter the regulatory capacity of multiple imprinted DMRs.

  14. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

    PubMed

    Bebbere, Daniela; Bauersachs, Stefan; Fürst, Rainer W; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Reichenbach, Myriam; Medugorac, Ivica; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Wolf, Eckhard; Ledda, Sergio; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus) carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term) and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle) differed significantly (P<0.05) from endodermal tissues (liver, lung). The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001) from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest changes in IGF2R

  15. LOI of IGF2 is associated with esophageal cancer and linked to methylation status of IGF2 DMR.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Fan, H; He, X; Zhang, J; Xie, W

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, IGF2 mRNA expression was examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in 46 esophageal cancer cases. LOI of IGF2 was detected in informative samples, which were determined as heterozygote with ApaI polymorphism in exon 9 of IGF2 by PCR-RFLP and RT-PCR-RFLP. Methylation status of IGF2 DMR in informative samples was analyzed by sodium bisulfite treatment and PCR and the following cloning sequencing. The results showed that there was over-expression of IGF2 mRNA in tumor tissues (T) compared to their matched normal tissues (N) (P < 0.05). The expression level of IGF2 in tumor tissues was associated with pathological grades (P < 0.05), but proved irrelevant to clinical stages (P > 0.05). Of all informative samples, 21% (5/24) of cases showed there were IGF2 LOI; however, there was IGF2 LOI in the tumor tissue and not in its matched normal tissue in a special case. Methylation level of IGF2 DMR was average 29.7% in normal imprinting samples and 50.6% (P < 0.01) in IGF2 LOI separate samples. These data suggested that IGF2 may participate in carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer through its over-expression. IGF2 LOI may be one of the factors that lead to overexpression of IGF2 and may be at least partly due to aberrant methylation of IGF2 DMR in esophageal cancer.

  16. Embryonic IGF2 Expression Is Not Associated with Offspring Size among Populations of a Placental Fish

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Matthew; Travis, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In organisms that provision young between fertilization and birth, mothers and their developing embryos are expected to be in conflict over embryonic growth. In mammalian embryos, the expression of Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) plays a key role in maternal-fetal interactions and is thought to be a focus of maternal-fetal conflict. Recent studies have suggested that IGF2 is also a focus of maternal-fetal conflict in placental fish in the family Poeciliidae. However, whether the expression of IGF2 influences offspring size, the trait over which mothers and embryos are likely to be in conflict, has not been assessed in a poeciliid. We tested whether embryonic IGF2 expression varied among four populations of a placental poeciliid that display large and consistent differences in offspring size at birth. We found that IGF2 expression varied significantly among embryonic stages with expression being 50% higher in early stage embryos than late stage embryos. There were no significant differences among populations in IGF2 expression; small differences in expression between population pairs with different offspring sizes were comparable in magnitude to those between population pairs with the same offspring sizes. Our results indicate that variation in IGF2 transcript abundance does not contribute to differences in offspring size among H. formosa populations. PMID:23029026

  17. Relative IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues from diabetic swine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, C.K.; Leaman, D.W.; White, M.E.; Ramsay, T.G. )

    1990-02-26

    Fourteen pregnant, crossbred gilts were utilized in this study. Seven gilts were injected with alloxan (50 mg/kg) at day 75 of gestation to induce diabetes. Gilts underwent caesarean section on day 105 of gestation. Samples were collected from maternal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, uterus and endometrium; and from fetal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, placenta, liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain and spleen. Tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression. Samples were pooled and total RNA was isolated using the guanidine isothiocynate method. Total mRNA was analyzed by dot blot hybridization. Blots were probed with {sup 32}P-cDNA for porcine IGF-1 and rat IGF-2. IGF-1 gene expression in maternal tissues was unaffected by diabetes. Maternal diabetes increased IGF-2 mRNA in maternal adipose tissue but exhibited no effect in muscle or uterus. Expression of IGF-2 by maternal endometrium was decreased by diabetes. Maternal diabetes induced an increase in IGF-1 gene expression in muscle and placenta while causing an increase in IGF-2 expression in fetal liver and placenta. IGF-2 mRNA was lower in lung from fetuses of diabetic mothers than in controls. These results suggest that maternal diabetes alters IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in specific tissues and differential regulation of these genes appears to exist in the mother and developing fetus.

  18. P53 Mutation and Epigenetic Imprinted IGF2/H19 Gene Analysis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Amniotic Fluid, Amnion, Endometrium, and Wharton's Jelly.

    PubMed

    Phermthai, Tatsanee; Pokathikorn, Puttachart; Wichitwiengrat, Suparat; Thongbopit, Sasiprapa; Tungprasertpol, Kittima; Julavijitphong, Suphakde

    2017-09-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are promising cells for medical therapy. In in vitro expansion, MSC can give rise to progeny with genomic and epigenomic alterations, resulting in senescence, loss of terminal differentiation, and transformation to cancer. However, MSC genome protects its genetic instability by a guardian function of the P53 tumor suppressor gene and epigenetic balance system during MSC culture. Mutations of P53 and epigenetic alterations have been reported to disrupt the quality and quantity of MSC and initiate tumorigenesis. We monitor P53 and epigenetic changes in MSC derived from amniotic fluid (AF-MSC), amnion membrane (AM-MSC), endometrium (EM-MSC), and Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSC) by the missense mutation analysis of the P53 gene and the expression levels of P53, and epigenetic insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19-imprinted genes. Our work demonstrates a variation of P53 expression among different MSC types. AF-MSC has a high P53 expression level with retaining a stability of P53 expression throughout a long culture period, whereas EM-MSC and WJ-MSC showed variation of P53 gene expression during culture. Epigenetic analysis showed a stable H19 expression pattern in AF-MSC, AM-MSC, and EM-MSC culture, whereas H19 expression fluctuated in WJ-MSC culture. We conclude that gene instability can be found during in vitro MSC expansion. With awareness to MSC quality and safety in MSC transformation risk, P53 mutation and IGF2 and H19-imprinted gene analysis should be applied to monitor in therapeutic-grade MSC. We also demonstrated that AF-MSC is one of the most interesting MSC for medical therapy because of its high genomic stability and epigenetic fidelity.

  19. Intragenic DNA methylation status down-regulates bovine IGF2 gene expression in different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Sun, Yu-Jia; Cao, Xiu-Kai; Li, Ming-Xun; Wang, Jing; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-25

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in mammals and has an essential and important role in muscle development. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a fetal growth and differentiation factor that plays an important role in muscle growth and in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of IGF2 and the methylation pattern on the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the last exon of IGF2 in six tissues with two different developmental stages. The DNA methylation pattern was compared using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis indicated that IGF2 has a broad tissue distribution and the adult bovine group showed significant lower mRNA expression levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the DNA methylation level analysis showed that the adult bovine group exhibited a significantly higher DNA methylation levels than that in the fetal bovine group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results indicate that IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status of the IGF2 DMR during the two developmental stages. Our results suggest that the methylation pattern in this DMR may be a useful parameter to investigate as a marker-assisted selection for muscle developmental in beef cattle breeding program and as a model for studies in other species.

  20. Paxillin-dependent regulation of IGF2 and H19 gene cluster expression

    PubMed Central

    Marášek, Pavel; Dzijak, Rastislav; Studenyak, Irina; Fišerová, Jindřiška; Uličná, Lívia; Novák, Petr; Hozák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Paxillin (PXN) is a focal adhesion protein that has been implicated in signal transduction from the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been shown to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. When inside the nucleus, paxillin promotes cell proliferation. Here, we introduce paxillin as a transcriptional regulator of IGF2 and H19 genes. It does not affect the allelic expression of the two genes; rather, it regulates long-range chromosomal interactions between the IGF2 or H19 promoter and a shared distal enhancer on an active allele. Specifically, paxillin stimulates the interaction between the enhancer and the IGF2 promoter, thus activating IGF2 gene transcription, whereas it restrains the interaction between the enhancer and the H19 promoter, downregulating the H19 gene. We found that paxillin interacts with cohesin and the mediator complex, which have been shown to mediate long-range chromosomal looping. We propose that these interactions occur at the IGF2 and H19 gene cluster and are involved in the formation of loops between the IGF2 and H19 promoters and the enhancer, and thus the expression of the corresponding genes. These observations contribute to a mechanistic explanation of the role of paxillin in proliferation and fetal development. PMID:26116569

  1. IGF2 expression is a marker for paraganglionic/SIF cell differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hedborg, F.; Ohlsson, R.; Sandstedt, B.; Grimelius, L.; Hoehner, J. C.; Pählman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. Observations in the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome suggest that sympathetic embryonal cells with an abundant expression of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) may be involved in the genesis of low-malignant infant neuroblastomas. We have therefore compared the cell type-specific IGF2 expression of the human sympathetic nervous system during early development with that of neuroblastoma. An abundant expression in normal sympathetic tissue was specific to extra-adrenal chromaffin cells, ie, paraganglia and small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells, whereas sympathetic neuronal cells were IGF2-negative. A subpopulation of neuroblastomas expressed IGF2, which correlated with an early age at diagnosis, an extra-adrenal tumor origin, and severe hemodynamic signs of catecholamine secretion. Histologically IGF2-expressing tumors displayed a lobular growth pattern, and expression was restricted to the most mature and least proliferative cells. Typically, these cells were morphologically and histochemically similar to paraganglia/SIF cells and formed distinct ring-like zones in the center of the lobules around a core of apoptosis-like tumor cells. The similarities found between IGF2-expressing neuroblastoma cells and paraganglia/SIF cells in terms of histological features, anatomical origin, and age-dependent growth suggest a paraganglionic/SIF cell lineage of most infant tumors and also of extra-adrenal tumors diagnosed after infancy. Furthermore, since paraganglia/SIF cells undergo postnatal involution, the same cellular mechanism may be responsible for spontaneous regression in infant neuroblastoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 p839-a Figure 4 PMID:7717451

  2. Subtle Decreases in DNA Methylation and Gene Expression at the Mouse Igf2 Locus Following Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Effects of a Methyl-Supplemented Diet

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Chris; Johnson, Thomas E; Larson, Colin; Leakey, Tatiana I; Siegfried, Rachel N; Rafferty, Tonya M; Cooney, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6J (B6) mice are susceptible to in utero growth retardation and a number of morphological malformations following prenatal alcohol exposure, while DBA/2J (D2) mice are relatively resistant. We have previously shown that genomic imprinting may play a role in differential sensitivity between B6 and D2 (Downing and Gilliam 1999). The best characterized mechanism mediating genomic imprinting is differential DNA methylation. In the present study we examined DNA methylation and gene expression, in both embryonic and placental tissue, at the mouse Igf2 locus following in utero ethanol exposure. We also examined the effects of a methyl-supplemented diet on methylation and ethanol teratogenesis. In embryos from susceptible B6 mice, we found small decreases in DNA methylation at four CpG sites in one of the differentially methylated regions of the Igf2 locus; only one of the four sites showed a statistically significant decrease. We observed no significant decreases in methylation in placentae. All Igf2 transcripts showed approximately 1.5 fold decreases following intrauterine alcohol exposure. Placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet before pregnancy and throughout gestation brought methylation back up to control levels. Methyl-supplementation also resulted in lower prenatal mortality, greater prenatal growth, and decreased digit malformations; it dramatically reduced vertebral malformations. Thus, while prenatal alcohol had only small effects on DNA methylation at the Igf2 locus, placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet partially ameliorated ethanol teratogenesis. PMID:20705422

  3. Subtle decreases in DNA methylation and gene expression at the mouse Igf2 locus following prenatal alcohol exposure: effects of a methyl-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Downing, Chris; Johnson, Thomas E; Larson, Colin; Leakey, Tatiana I; Siegfried, Rachel N; Rafferty, Tonya M; Cooney, Craig A

    2011-02-01

    C57BL/6J (B6) mice are susceptible to in utero growth retardation and a number of morphological malformations following prenatal alcohol exposure, while DBA/2J (D2) mice are relatively resistant. We have previously shown that genomic imprinting may play a role in differential sensitivity between B6 and D2. The best-characterized mechanism mediating genomic imprinting is differential DNA methylation. In the present study we examined DNA methylation and gene expression, in both embryonic and placental tissue, at the mouse Igf2 locus following in utero ethanol exposure. We also examined the effects of a methyl-supplemented diet on methylation and ethanol teratogenesis. In embryos from susceptible B6 mice, we found small decreases in DNA methylation at four CpG sites in one of the differentially methylated regions of the Igf2 locus; only one of the four sites showed a statistically significant decrease. We observed no significant decreases in methylation in placentae. All Igf2 transcripts showed approximately 1.5-fold decreases following intrauterine alcohol exposure. Placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet before pregnancy and throughout gestation brought methylation back up to control levels. Methyl supplementation also resulted in lower prenatal mortality, greater prenatal growth, and decreased digit malformations; it dramatically reduced vertebral malformations. Thus, although prenatal alcohol had only small effects on DNA methylation at the Igf2 locus, placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet partially ameliorated ethanol teratogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete Biallelic Insulation at the H19/Igf2 Imprinting Control Region Position Results in Fetal Growth Retardation and Perinatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Singh, Purnima; Tsark, Walter M. K.; Szabó, Piroska E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI)2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI)2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI)2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI)2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line. Methodology/Principal Findings We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI)2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI)2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI)2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission. Conclusions/Significance In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development

  5. Ox-LDL upregulates CRP expression through the IGF2 pathway in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Hu, Yan-Wei; Zhao, Jia-Yi; Ma, Xin; Wu, Shao-Guo; Lu, Jing-Bo; Hu, Ya-Rong; Wang, Yan-Chao; Gao, Ji-Juan; Sha, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2015-04-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant protein that not only plays a predictive role in determining atherogenesis risk but also represents an active participant in atherogenesis onset and progression. Moreover, an increasing number of studies have reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) plays a significant role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of Ox-LDL on CRP expression remains unclear. THP-1 macrophages were treated with 0, 25, 50, or 100 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 48 h, or 50 μg/mL of Ox-LDL for 0, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. We found that Ox-LDL markedly increased insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and CRP mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages. Treatment with Ox-LDL increased CRP protein expression, and this effect was completely abolished by siRNA-mediated silencing of IGF2 in THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, treatment with pcDNA3.1-IGF2 significantly enhanced CRP protein expression in Ox-LDL-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. CRP expression is upregulated by Ox-LDL through the IGF2 pathway in THP-1 macrophages.

  6. Transcription factor ZBED6 mediates IGF2 gene expression by regulating promoter activity and DNA methylation in myoblasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were up regulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels wer...

  7. Sexual differences of imprinted genes' expression levels.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohammad; Kim, Hana; Kim, Joomyeong

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, genomic imprinting has evolved as a dosage-controlling mechanism for a subset of genes that play critical roles in their unusual reproduction scheme involving viviparity and placentation. As such, many imprinted genes are highly expressed in sex-specific reproductive organs. In the current study, we sought to test whether imprinted genes are differentially expressed between the two sexes. According to the results, the expression levels of the following genes differ between the two sexes of mice: Peg3, Zim1, Igf2, H19 and Zac1. The expression levels of these imprinted genes are usually greater in males than in females. This bias is most obvious in the developing brains of 14.5-dpc embryos, but also detected in the brains of postnatal-stage mice. However, this sexual bias is not obvious in 10.5-dpc embryos, a developmental stage before the sexual differentiation. Thus, the sexual bias observed in the imprinted genes is most likely attributable by gonadal hormones rather than by sex chromosome complement. Overall, the results indicate that several imprinted genes are sexually different in terms of their expression levels, and further suggest that the transcriptional regulation of these imprinted genes may be influenced by unknown mechanisms associated with sexual differentiation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of imprinted gene expression following superovulation.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Amanda L; McGraw, Serge; Lopes, Flavia L; Niles, Kirsten M; Landry, Mylène; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2014-05-05

    Although assisted reproductive technologies increase the risk of low birth weight and genomic imprinting disorders, the precise underlying causes remain unclear. Using a mouse model, we previously showed that superovulation alters the expression of imprinted genes in the placenta at 9.5days (E9.5) of gestation. Here, we investigate whether effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting persisted at later stages of development and assess the surviving fetuses for growth and morphological abnormalities. Superovulation, followed by embryo transfer at E3.5, as compared to spontaneous ovulation (controls), resulted in embryos of normal size and weight at 14.5 and 18.5days of gestation. The normal monoallelic expression of the imprinted genes H19, Snrpn and Kcnq1ot1 was unaffected in either the placentae or the embryos from the superovulated females at E14.5 or E18.5. However, for the paternally expressed imprinted gene Igf2, superovulation generated placentae with reduced production of the mature protein at E9.5 and significantly more variable mRNA levels at E14.5. We propose that superovulation results in the ovulation of abnormal oocytes with altered expression of imprinted genes, but that the coregulated genes of the imprinted gene network result in modulated expression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The IGF2 intronic miR-483 selectively enhances transcription from IGF2 fetal promoters and enhances tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingzhu; Roth, Anna; Yu, Min; Morris, Robert; Bersani, Francesca; Rivera, Miguel N.; Lu, Jun; Shioda, Toshihiro; Vasudevan, Shobha; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Diederichs, Sven; Haber, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a developmentally regulated and maternally imprinted gene, is frequently overexpressed in pediatric cancers. Although loss of imprinting (LOI) at fetal promoters contributes to increased IGF2 in tumors, the magnitude of IGF2 expression suggests the involvement of additional regulatory mechanisms. A microRNA (miRNA) screen of primary Wilms' tumors identified specific overexpression of miR-483-5p, which is embedded within the IGF2 gene. Unexpectedly, the IGF2 mRNA itself is transcriptionally up-regulated by miR-483-5p. A nuclear pool of miR-483-5p binds directly to the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of fetal IGF2 mRNA, enhancing the association of the RNA helicase DHX9 to the IGF2 transcript and promoting IGF2 transcription. Ectopic expression of miR-483-5p in IGF2-dependent sarcoma cells is correlated with increased tumorigenesis in vivo. Together, these observations suggest a functional positive feedback loop of an intronic miRNA on transcription of its host gene. PMID:24298054

  10. Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acid during pregnancy modulates DNA methylation at IGF2/H19 imprinted genes and growth of infants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Biessy, Carine; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Sly, Peter D.; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Rivera, Juan; Herceg, Zdenko

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes is regarded as a highly plausible explanation for linking dietary exposures in early life with the onset of diseases during childhood and adulthood. We sought to test whether prenatal dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during pregnancy may modulate epigenetic states at birth. This study was based on a randomized intervention trial conducted in Mexican pregnant women supplemented daily with 400 mg of DHA or a placebo from gestation week 18–22 to parturition. We applied quantitative profiling of DNA methylation states at IGF2 promoter 3 (IGF2 P3), IGF2 differentially methylated region (DMR), and H19 DMR in cord blood mononuclear cells of the DHA-supplemented group (n = 131) and the control group (n = 130). In stratified analyses, DNA methylation levels in IGF2 P3 were significantly higher in the DHA group than the control group in preterm infants (P = 0.04). We also observed a positive association between DNA methylation levels and maternal body mass index; IGF2 DMR methylation was higher in the DHA group than the control group in infants of overweight mothers (P = 0.03). In addition, at H19 DMR, methylation levels were significantly lower in the DHA group than the control group in infants of normal weight mothers (P = 0.01). Finally, methylation levels at IGF2/H19 imprinted regions were associated with maternal BMI. These findings suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may be modulated by DHA, with potential impacts on child growth and development. PMID:25293351

  11. CTCF-dependent chromatin bias constitutes transient epigenetic memory of the mother at the H19-Igf2 imprinting control region in prospermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Singh, Purnima; Tsai, Shirley Y; Oates, Nathan; Spalla, Alexander; Spalla, Claudio; Brown, Lucy; Rivas, Guillermo; Larson, Garrett; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Szabó, Piroska E

    2010-11-24

    Genomic imprints-parental allele-specific DNA methylation marks at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes-are erased and reestablished in germ cells according to the individual's sex. Imprint establishment at paternally methylated germ line DMRs occurs in fetal male germ cells. In prospermatogonia, the two unmethylated alleles exhibit different rates of de novo methylation at the H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) depending on parental origin. We investigated the nature of this epigenetic memory using bisulfite sequencing and allele-specific ChIP-SNuPE assays. We found that the chromatin composition in fetal germ cells was biased at the ICR between the two alleles with the maternally inherited allele exhibiting more H3K4me3 and less H3K9me3 than the paternally inherited allele. We determined genetically that the chromatin bias, and also the delayed methylation establishment in the maternal allele, depended on functional CTCF insulator binding sites in the ICR. Our data suggest that, in primordial germ cells, maternally inherited allele-specific CTCF binding sets up allele-specific chromatin differences at the ICR. The erasure of these allele-specific chromatin marks is not complete before the process of de novo methylation imprint establishment begins. CTCF-dependent allele-specific chromatin composition imposes a maternal allele-specific delay on de novo methylation imprint establishment at the H19/Igf2 ICR in prospermatogonia.

  12. An isocorydine derivative (d-ICD) inhibits drug resistance by downregulating IGF2BP3 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Chao; Chen, Lijuan; Fang, Tao; Li, Hong; Tian, Hua; Liu, Junxi; Chen, Taoyang; Jiang, Guoping; Xie, Haiyang; Cui, Ying; Yao, Ming; Li, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    In our previous studies, we reported that CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs) were chemoresistant in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and that isocorydine treatment decreased the percentage of CD133+ CSCs. Here, we found that a derivative of isocorydine (d-ICD) inhibited HCC cell growth, particularly among the CD133+ subpopulation, and rendered HCC cells more sensitive to sorafenib treatment. d-ICD inhibited IGF2BP3 expression in a time-dependent manner, and IGF2BP3 expression negatively correlated with d-ICD-induced growth suppression. IGF2BP3 overexpression enriched the CD133+ CSC subpopulation in HCC, enhanced tumor sphere formation and suppressed the cytotoxic effects of sorafenib and doxorubicin. The expression of drug resistance-related genes, including ABCB1 and ABCG2, and the CSC marker CD133 expression was increased after IGF2BP3 overexpression. The significance of these observations was underscored by our findings that high IGF2BP3 expression predicted poor survival in a cohort of 236 patients with HCC and positively correlated with ABCG2 and CD133 expression in vivo. These results suggested that the d-ICD may inhibit HCC cells growth by IGF2BP3 decrease and that IGF2BP3 may serve as a therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:26327240

  13. Increased hepatic Igf2 gene expression involves C/EBPβ in TCDD-induced teratogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiaoliang; Li, Tingting; Liu, Caixia; Zhao, Yanyan

    2011-11-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widespread environmental contaminant for reproductive toxicity that was suggested to be linked to growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) has great effects on the control of fetal growth. We hypothesize it might participate in the TCDD-induced toxic events. The expression of Igf2 in TCDD-induced fetal rat and rat hepatoma BRL-3A cells was monitored by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to identify the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) responsive element in the Igf2 P3-promoter. The transcriptional activity of the Igf2 P3-promoter was detected by luciferase assay. Pregnant rats exposed to TCDD showed a modest incidence of fetal death, fetal growth restriction and fetal malformation. The levels of Igf2 mRNA and IGF2 protein were elevated in TCDD-exposed fetal liver. Temporal expression of Igf2 was also induced by TCDD in BRL-3A cells. A C/EBPβ responsive element was identified at position -743 to -732 of the Igf2 P3-promoter, and its binding was enhanced by TCDD exposure through upregulation of the C/EBPβ protein. The transcriptional activity of the Igf2 P3-promoter was also augmented by TCDD. Our results showed that TCDD may induce Igf2 gene expression through the transactivation of C/EBPβ, which may be linked to the developmental effects of TCDD in rats.

  14. Transcription Factor ZBED6 Mediates IGF2 Gene Expression by Regulating Promoter Activity and DNA Methylation in Myoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Liang-Zhi; Lai, Xin-Sheng; Li, Ming-Xun; Sun, Yu-Jia; Li, Cong-Jun; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2014-04-01

    Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were upregulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels were negatively associated with the methylation status in beef cattle (P < 0.05). A luciferase assay for the IGF2 intron 3 and P3 promoter showed that the mutant-type 439 A-SNP-pGL3 in driving reporter gene transcription is significantly higher than that of the wild-type 439 G-SNP-pGL3 construct (P < 0.05). An over-expression assay revealed that ZBED6 regulate IGF2 expression and promote myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of ZBED6 led to IGF2 expression change in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that ZBED6 inhibits IGF2 activity and expression via a G to A transition disrupts the interaction. Thus, we propose that ZBED6 plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation.

  15. Enhanced sensitivity to IGF-II signaling links loss of imprinting of IGF2 to increased cell proliferation and tumor risk

    PubMed Central

    Kaneda, Atsushi; Wang, Chiaochun J.; Cheong, Raymond; Timp, Winston; Onyango, Patrick; Wen, Bo; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Ohlsson, Rolf; Andraos, Rita; Pearson, Mark A.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Longo, Dan L.; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Levchenko, Andre; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    Loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor-II gene (IGF2), leading to abnormal activation of the normally silent maternal allele, is a common human epigenetic population variant associated with a 5-fold increased frequency of colorectal neoplasia. Here, we show first that LOI leads specifically to increased expression of proliferation-related genes in mouse intestinal crypts. Surprisingly, LOI(+) mice also have enhanced sensitivity to IGF-II signaling, not simply increased IGF-II levels, because in vivo blockade with NVP-AEW541, a specific inhibitor of the IGF-II signaling receptor, showed reduction of proliferation-related gene expression to levels half that seen in LOI(−) mice. Signal transduction assays in microfluidic chips confirmed this enhanced sensitivity with marked augmentation of Akt/PKB signaling in LOI(+) cells at low doses of IGF-II, which was reduced in the presence of the inhibitor to levels below those found in LOI(−) cells, and was associated with increased expression of the IGF1 and insulin receptor genes. We exploited this increased IGF-II sensitivity to develop an in vivo chemopreventive strategy using the azoxymethane (AOM) mutagenesis model. LOI(+) mice treated with AOM showed a 60% increase in premalignant aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation over LOI(−) mice. In vivo IGF-II blockade with NVP-AEW541 abrogated this effect, reducing ACF to a level 30% lower even than found in exposed LOI(−) mice. Thus, LOI increases cancer risk in a counterintuitive way, by increasing the sensitivity of the IGF-II signaling pathway itself, providing a previously undescribed epigenetic chemoprevention strategy in which cells with LOI are “IGF-II addicted” and undergo reduced tumorigenesis in the colon upon IGF-II pathway blockade. PMID:18087038

  16. Enhanced sensitivity to IGF-II signaling links loss of imprinting of IGF2 to increased cell proliferation and tumor risk.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Atsushi; Wang, Chiaochun J; Cheong, Raymond; Timp, Winston; Onyango, Patrick; Wen, Bo; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Ohlsson, Rolf; Andraos, Rita; Pearson, Mark A; Sharov, Alexei A; Longo, Dan L; Ko, Minoru S H; Levchenko, Andre; Feinberg, Andrew P

    2007-12-26

    Loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor-II gene (IGF2), leading to abnormal activation of the normally silent maternal allele, is a common human epigenetic population variant associated with a 5-fold increased frequency of colorectal neoplasia. Here, we show first that LOI leads specifically to increased expression of proliferation-related genes in mouse intestinal crypts. Surprisingly, LOI(+) mice also have enhanced sensitivity to IGF-II signaling, not simply increased IGF-II levels, because in vivo blockade with NVP-AEW541, a specific inhibitor of the IGF-II signaling receptor, showed reduction of proliferation-related gene expression to levels half that seen in LOI(-) mice. Signal transduction assays in microfluidic chips confirmed this enhanced sensitivity with marked augmentation of Akt/PKB signaling in LOI(+) cells at low doses of IGF-II, which was reduced in the presence of the inhibitor to levels below those found in LOI(-) cells, and was associated with increased expression of the IGF1 and insulin receptor genes. We exploited this increased IGF-II sensitivity to develop an in vivo chemopreventive strategy using the azoxymethane (AOM) mutagenesis model. LOI(+) mice treated with AOM showed a 60% increase in premalignant aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation over LOI(-) mice. In vivo IGF-II blockade with NVP-AEW541 abrogated this effect, reducing ACF to a level 30% lower even than found in exposed LOI(-) mice. Thus, LOI increases cancer risk in a counterintuitive way, by increasing the sensitivity of the IGF-II signaling pathway itself, providing a previously undescribed epigenetic chemoprevention strategy in which cells with LOI are "IGF-II addicted" and undergo reduced tumorigenesis in the colon upon IGF-II pathway blockade.

  17. Let-7b Regulates Myoblast Proliferation by Inhibiting IGF2BP3 Expression in Dwarf and Normal Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shumao; Luo, Wen; Ye, Yaqiong; Bekele, Endashaw J.; Nie, Qinghua; Li, Yugu; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    The sex-linked dwarf chicken is caused by the mutation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene and characterized by shorter shanks, lower body weight, smaller muscle fiber diameter and fewer muscle fiber number. However, the precise regulatory pathways that lead to the inhibition of skeletal muscle growth in dwarf chickens still remain unclear. Here we found a let-7b mediated pathway might play important role in the regulation of dwarf chicken skeletal muscle growth. Let-7b has higher expression in the skeletal muscle of dwarf chicken than in normal chicken, and the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), which is a translational activator of IGF2, showed opposite expression trend to let-7b. In vitro cellular assays validated that let-7b directly inhibits IGF2BP3 expression through binding to its 3′UTR region, and the protein level but not mRNA level of IGF2 would be reduced in let-7b overexpressed chicken myoblast. Let-7b can inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell cycle arrest in chicken myoblast through let-7b-IGF2BP3-IGF2 signaling pathway. Additionally, let-7b can also regulate skeletal muscle growth through let-7b-GHR-GHR downstream genes pathway, but this pathway is non-existent in dwarf chicken because of the deletion mutation of GHR 3′UTR. Notably, as the loss binding site of GHR for let-7b, let-7b has enhanced its binding and inhibition on IGF2BP3 in dwarf myoblast, suggesting that the miRNA can balance its inhibiting effect through dynamic regulate its binding to target genes. Collectively, these results not only indicate that let-7b can inhibit skeletal muscle growth through let-7b-IGF2BP3-IGF2 signaling pathway, but also show that let-7b regulates myoblast proliferation by inhibiting IGF2BP3 expression in dwarf and normal chickens. PMID:28736533

  18. Generation of Five Human Lactoferrin Transgenic Cloned Goats Using Fibroblast Cells and Their Methylation Status of Putative Differential Methylation Regions of IGF2R and H19 Imprinted Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanyan; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Yang; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce transgenic cloned mammalian, including transgenic goats which may produce Human Lactoferrin (hLF). However, success percentage of SCNT is low, because of gestational and neonatal failure of transgenic embryos. According to the studies on cattle and mice, DNA methylation of some imprinted genes, which plays a vital role in the reprogramming of embryo in NT maybe an underlying mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings Fibroblast cells were derived from the ear of a two-month-old goat. The vector expressing hLF was constructed and transfected into fibroblasts. G418 selection, EGFP expression, PCR, and cell cycle distribution were applied sequentially to select transgenic cells clones. After NT and embryo transfer, five transgenic cloned goats were obtained from 240 cloned transgenic embryos. These transgenic goats were identified by 8 microsatellites genotyping and southern blot. Of the five transgenic goats, 3 were lived after birth, while 2 were dead during gestation. We compared differential methylation regions (DMR) pattern of two paternally imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2R) of the ear tissues from the lived transgenic goats, dead transgenic goats, and control goats from natural reproduction. Hyper-methylation pattern appeared in cloned aborted goats, while methylation status was relatively normal in cloned lived goats compared with normal goats. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we generated five hLF transgenic cloned goats by SCNT. This is the first time the DNA methylation of lived and dead transgenic cloned goats was compared. The results demonstrated that the methylation status of DMRs of H19 and IGF2R were different in lived and dead transgenic goats and therefore this may be potentially used to assess the reprogramming status of transgenic cloned goats. Understanding the pattern of gene imprinting may be useful to improve cloning techniques in future. PMID:24204972

  19. Effect of in ovo folic acid injection on hepatic IGF2 expression and embryo growth of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Zhi, Lihui; Shen, Jing; Li, Shizhao; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like factor 2 (IGF2) plays an important role in embryonic growth process by modulating intermediary metabolism and cell proliferation. Folic acid is involved in one carbon metabolism and contributes to DNA methylation which is related to gene expression. The purpose of this study was to explore whether folic acid could regulate IGF2 expression via epigenetic mechanism and further promote embryonic growth of new-hatched broilers. In the present study, 360 fertile eggs were selected and randomly assigned to four treatments. On 11 embryonic day of incubation (E11), 0, 50, 100 and 150 μg folic acid were injected into eggs respectively. After hatched, growth performance of broilers were calculated. Hepatic IGF2 expression, methylation level and chromatin structure of promoter region were analyzed. Results have showed that IGF2 expression was up-regulated in 150 μg folic acid group (P < 0.05) and other two dose of folic acid did not affect gene expression (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, methylation level of IGF2 promoter were lower in 100 and 150 μg groups, which was consistent with lower expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) (P < 0.05). What's more, chromatin looseness of IGF2 promoter was higher in 150 μg group than control group (P < 0.05). Further, birth weight (BW), liver and bursa index of new-hatched chickens in 150 μg folic acid group were higher than the other groups (P < 0.05). There were positive correlations between hepatic IGF2 expression and BW and organs index (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data have demonstrated that 150 μg folic acid injection on E11 could up-regulate IGF2 expression by modulating DNA hypomethylation and improving chromatin accessibility in the gene promoter region, and ulteriorly facilitate embryonic growth and organ development of broilers.

  20. Overexpression of IGF2R and IGF1R mRNA in SCNT-produced goats survived to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Xing, Baosong; Xu, Yinxue; Cheng, Yong; Liu, Honglin; Du, Miao

    2007-08-01

    The procedure of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is likely to affect the expression level of growth-related genes especially imprinting genes. In this study, expressions of growth-related genes including three imprinting genes (H19, IGF2, and IGF2R) and four non-imprinting genes (IGF1, IGF1R, GHR, and GHSR) in adult nuclear transferred (NT) goats were investigated by real-time PCR. The expressions of these genes in adult clones were found largely normal, but IGF2R and IGF1R were more highly expressed in cloned goats than in non-NT goats (P < 0.01). Analysis on mono-allelic expression pattern of imprinting genes indicated that mono-allelic expression patterns of H19 and IGF2 in cloned goats were similar to that in non-NT goats. In addition, the sequence of goat IGF2 gene and the putative amino acid sequence were obtained. The 986 nucleotide cDNA of goat IGF2 gene contained an open-reading frame of 540 nucleotides coding for 179 amino acids. Both cDNA sequence and amino acid sequence of IGF2 in goat showed their higher homology with that in sheep than in cattle; the partial cDNA fragments of H19, IGF2R, GHSR, IGF1R, and GHR in goat were also cloned and sequenced, which shared higher sequence identities with those in sheep than in cattle.

  1. Zygote donor nitrogen metabolism and in vitro embryo culture perturbs in utero development and IGF2R expression in ovine fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Powell, K; Rooke, J A; McEvoy, T G; Ashworth, C J; Robinson, J J; Wilmut, I; Young, L E; Sinclair, K D

    2006-11-01

    Tests were made of the effects of altering nitrogen metabolism in zygote donor ewes on fetal development and expression of the gene encoding the type II insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF2R) following the transfer of ovine embryos cultured from these zygotes, either in the absence or presence of serum. Zygotes, recovered from superovulated ewes (32 on a urea supplemented (30 g urea/kg) diet (high N) and 32 on a control diet (low N)) 36 h after intrauterine AI using semen from a single sire, were cultured for 5 days in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) media either with BSA and amino acids (SOF-) or with 10% (v/v) steer serum (SOF+). In total, 166 embryos, including 30 in vivo controls, were transferred singly at day 6 post-AI to synchronous recipients and the products of conception recovered at day 125 of gestation. Elevated plasma urea concentrations in zygote donors were associated with accelerated early embryo development, low pregnancy rates (16%) for embryos from the high N, SOF+ treatment, and significantly influenced fetal development and the expression of IGF2R in the fetal heart at day 125 of gestation. Importantly, the culture of sheep zygotes under serum-free conditions led to a high incidence of aberrant conceptus development and IGF2R expression. Consequently, maternal nitrogen metabolism prior to zygote recovery and in vitro culture can influence fetal development and the expression of an imprinted gene following embryo transfer, and these data support the notion that environmental effects on the follicle-enclosed oocyte may contribute to the etiology of the Large Offspring Syndrome.

  2. Genotype-Epigenotype Interaction at the IGF2 DMR.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan K; Erginer, Erin; Huang, Zhiqing; Visco, Zachary; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-08-28

    Paternally expressed Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF2) encodes a gene whose protein product functions as a potent growth mitogen. Overexpression of IGF2 has been implicated in a wide number of disorders and diseases. IGF2 is regulated in part by differential methylation of the two parentally derived alleles. The differentially methylated region (DMR) located upstream of the imprinted promoters of IGF2 exhibits plasticity under environmental stress and is hypomethylated in several types of cancer. Through bisulfite pyrosequencing and confirmation by nucleotide sequencing, we discovered a CpG to CpC transversion that results in hypomethylation of one of the three CpGs comprising this DMR. The presence of the polymorphism introduces a genetic rather than an environmentally-driven epigenetic source of hypomethylation that is additive to non-genetic sources.

  3. Alteration in Expression and Methylation of IGF2/H19 in Placenta and Umbilical Cord Blood Are Associated with Macrosomia Exposed to Intrauterine Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Li; Liu, Xinyue; Wei, Yumei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Macrosomia is one of the most common complications in gestational diabetes mellitus. Insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 are two of the imprinted candidate genes that are involved in fetal growth and development. Change in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 has been proved to be an early event related to the programming of metabolic profile, including macrosomia and small for gestational age in offspring. Here we hypothesize that alteration in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 is associated with macrosomia induced by intrauterine hyperglycemia. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group) compared to normal glucose tolerance group (NGT group) both in umbilical cord blood and placenta, while the expression of H19 is significant lower in GDM group in umbilical cord blood. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in normal glucose tolerance with macrosomia group (NGT-M) compared to normal glucose tolerance with normal birthweight group (NGT-NBW group) both in placenta and umbilical cord blood. A model with interaction term of gene expression of IGF2 and H19 found that IGF2 and the joint action of IGF2 and H19 in placenta showed significantly relationship with GDM/NGT and GDM-NBW/NGT-NBW. A borderline significant association was seen among IGF2 and H19 in cord blood and GDM-M/NGT-M. The methylation level at different CpG sites of insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 in umbilical cord blood was also significantly different among groups. Based on the multivariable linear regression analysis, the methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 / H19 is closely related to birth weight and intrauterine hyperglycemia. We confirmed the existence of alteration in DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia and reported a

  4. Association of maternal and nutrient supply line factors with DNA methylation at the imprinted IGF2/H19 locus in multiple tissues of newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Loke, Yuk Jing; Galati, John C; Morley, Ruth; Joo, Eric Ji-Hoon; Novakovic, Boris; Li, Xin; Weinrich, Blaise; Carson, Nicole; Ollikainen, Miina; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Andronikos, Roberta; Aziz, Nur Khairunnisa Abdul; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic events are crucial for early development, but can be influenced by environmental factors, potentially programming the genome for later adverse health outcomes. The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 locus is crucial for prenatal growth and the epigenetic state at this locus is environmentally labile. Recent studies have implicated maternal factors, including folate intake and smoking, in the regulation of DNA methylation at this locus, although data are often conflicting in the direction and magnitude of effect. Most studies have focused on single tissues and on one or two differentially-methylated regions (DMRs) regulating IGF2/H19 expression. In this study, we investigated the relationship between multiple shared and non-shared gestational/maternal factors and DNA methylation at four IGF2/H19 DMRs in five newborn cell types from 67 pairs of monozygotic and 49 pairs of dizygotic twins. Data on maternal and non-shared supply line factors were collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and DNA methylation was measured via mass spectrometry using Sequenom MassArray EpiTyper analysis. Our exploratory approach showed that the site of umbilical cord insertion into the placenta in monochorionic twins has the strongest positive association with methylation in all IGF2/H19 DMRs (p<0.05). Further, evidence for tissue- and locus-specific effects were observed, emphasizing that responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero cannot be generalized across genes and tissues, potentially accounting for the lack of consistency in previous findings. Such complexity in responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero has implications for all epigenetic studies investigating the developmental origins of health and disease.

  5. Association of maternal and nutrient supply line factors with DNA methylation at the imprinted IGF2/H19 locus in multiple tissues of newborn twins

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Yuk Jing; Galati, John C; Morley, Ruth; Joo, Eric Ji-Hoon; Novakovic, Boris; Li, Xin; Weinrich, Blaise; Carson, Nicole; Ollikainen, Miina; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Andronikos, Roberta; Aziz, Nur Khairunnisa Abdul; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic events are crucial for early development, but can be influenced by environmental factors, potentially programming the genome for later adverse health outcomes. The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 locus is crucial for prenatal growth and the epigenetic state at this locus is environmentally labile. Recent studies have implicated maternal factors, including folate intake and smoking, in the regulation of DNA methylation at this locus, although data are often conflicting in the direction and magnitude of effect. Most studies have focused on single tissues and on one or two differentially-methylated regions (DMRs) regulating IGF2/H19 expression. In this study, we investigated the relationship between multiple shared and non-shared gestational/maternal factors and DNA methylation at four IGF2/H19 DMRs in five newborn cell types from 67 pairs of monozygotic and 49 pairs of dizygotic twins. Data on maternal and non-shared supply line factors were collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and DNA methylation was measured via mass spectrometry using Sequenom MassArray EpiTyper analysis. Our exploratory approach showed that the site of umbilical cord insertion into the placenta in monochorionic twins has the strongest positive association with methylation in all IGF2/H19 DMRs (p < 0.05). Further, evidence for tissue- and locus-specific effects were observed, emphasizing that responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero cannot be generalized across genes and tissues, potentially accounting for the lack of consistency in previous findings. Such complexity in responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero has implications for all epigenetic studies investigating the developmental origins of health and disease. PMID:23917818

  6. Abnormal expression of DNA methyltransferases and genomic imprinting in cloned goat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yongjie; Deng, Mingtian; Zhang, Guomin; Ren, Caifang; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful way to produce cloned animals. However, SCNT animals exhibit DNA methylation and genomic imprinting abnormalities. These abnormalities may be due to the faulty epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. To investigate the consequence of SCNT on the genomic imprinting and global methylation in the donor cells, growth patterns and apoptosis of cloned goat fibroblast cells (CGFCs) at passage 7 were determined. Growth patterns in CGFCs were similar to the controls; however, the growth rate in log phase was lower and apoptosis in CGFCs were significantly higher (P < 0.01). In addition, quantitative expression analysis of three DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) and two imprinted genes (H19, IGF2R) was conducted in CGFCs: Dnmt1 and Dnmt3b expression was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and H19 expression was decreased sixfold (P < 0.01); however, the expression of Dnmt3a was unaltered and IGF2R expression was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Finally, we used bisulfite sequencing PCR to compare the DNA methylation patterns in differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of H19 and IGF2R. The DMRs of H19 (P < 0.01) and IGF2R (P < 0.01) were both highly methylated in CGFCs. These results indicate that the global genome might be hypomethylated. Moreover, there is an aberrant expression of imprinted genes and DMR methylation in CGFCs.

  7. ZBED6, a Novel Transcription Factor Derived from a Domesticated DNA Transposon Regulates IGF2 Expression and Muscle Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Jacob D.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Wallerman, Ola; Larhammar, Martin; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wang, Li; Saenz-Vash, Veronica; Gnirke, Andreas; Lindroth, Anders M.; Barrés, Romain; Yan, Jie; Strömberg, Sara; De, Sachinandan; Pontén, Fredrik; Lander, Eric S.; Carr, Steven A.; Zierath, Juleen R.; Kullander, Klas; Wadelius, Claes; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Andersson, Göran; Hjälm, Göran; Andersson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    A single nucleotide substitution in intron 3 of IGF2 in pigs abrogates a binding site for a repressor and leads to a 3-fold up-regulation of IGF2 in skeletal muscle. The mutation has major effects on muscle growth, size of the heart, and fat deposition. Here, we have identified the repressor and find that the protein, named ZBED6, is previously unknown, specific for placental mammals, and derived from an exapted DNA transposon. Silencing of Zbed6 in mouse C2C12 myoblasts affected Igf2 expression, cell proliferation, wound healing, and myotube formation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing using C2C12 cells identified about 2,500 ZBED6 binding sites in the genome, and the deduced consensus motif gave a perfect match with the established binding site in Igf2. Genes associated with ZBED6 binding sites showed a highly significant enrichment for certain Gene Ontology classifications, including development and transcriptional regulation. The phenotypic effects in mutant pigs and ZBED6-silenced C2C12 myoblasts, the extreme sequence conservation, its nucleolar localization, the broad tissue distribution, and the many target genes with essential biological functions suggest that ZBED6 is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation, and growth. PMID:20016685

  8. Genomic Imprinting of the M6P/IGF2 Receptor: A Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals, Ltd., Cheshire, Wiedemann, Prader - Willi , and Angelman syndromes, as Safetyfedicinem well as the evidence implicating genomic...34imprint marks" are reestablished sociated with regional maternal and paternal UPD on for the next generation. chromosome 15 include the Prader - Willi ...3 Prader - Willi and Angelman Syndromes sion to offspring results in AS. These PWS and AS microdeletion results support the IC hypothesis, but a Two

  9. HMGA1P7-pseudogene regulates H19 and Igf2 expression by a competitive endogenous RNA mechanism

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Marco; Forzati, Floriana; Marfella, Marianna; Pellecchia, Simona; Arra, Claudio; Terracciano, Luigi; Fusco, Alfredo; Esposito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that pseudogene transcripts can function as competing endogenous RNAs, and thereby can also contribute to cancer when dysregulated. We have recently identified two pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7 for the HMGA1 gene whose overexpression has a critical role in cancer progression. These pseudogenes work as competitive endogenous RNA decoys for HMGA1 and other cancer related genes suggesting their role in carcinogenesis. Looking for new HMGA1 pseudogene ceRNAs, we performed RNA sequencing technology on mouse embryonic fibroblasts deriving from transgenic mice overexpressing HMGA1P7. Here, we report that HMGA1P7 mRNA sustains the H19 and Igf2 overexpression by acting as miRNA decoy. Lastly, the expression of HMGA1P7 was significantly correlated with H19 and IGF2 levels in human breast cancer thereby suggesting a role for HMGA1P7 deregulation in this neoplasia. PMID:27874091

  10. Faithful expression of imprinted genes in donor cells of SCNT cloned pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxu; Yuan, Lin; Sui, Tingting; Song, Yuning; Lv, Qingyan; Wang, Anfeng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2015-07-22

    To understand if the genomic imprinting status of the donor cells is altered during the process of SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer), cloned pigs were produced by SCNT using PEF (porcine embryonic fibroblast) and P-PEF (parthenogenetic-PEF) cells as donors. Then, the gene expression and methylation patterns of H19, IGF2, NNAT and MEST were compared between PEF vs. C-PEF (cloned-PEF), P-PEF vs. CP-PEF (cloned-P-PEF), respectively. Taken together, the results revealed that there was no significant difference in the expression of imprinted genes and conserved genomic imprints between the donor and cloned cells.

  11. Prenatal ethanol exposure and placental hCG and IGF2 expression.

    PubMed

    Joya, X; Salat-Batlle, J; Velezmoro-Jáuregui, G; Clavé, S; Garcia-Algar, O; Vall, O

    2015-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the main cause of preventable non-genetic mental retardation. Diagnosis of prenatal exposure to ethanol (PEE) is based on questionnaires and biomarkers in perinatal matrices. Early diagnosis of FASD is important to mitigate secondary disabilities that will arise later in life. It is important to identify biomarkers related to cellular damage caused by PEE. The main objective was to identify novel candidate biomarkers from placental tissue using an in vitro model of exposure to ethanol and to support it in placental tissue obtained from pregnancies with PEE assessed by fatty acid esters in meconium samples. First, hormone production was examined using two different human trophoblast cell lines, JEG3 and BeWo. Viable cell count by exclusion method was analyzed and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) were quantified by Western blot and ELISA. Second, these techniques were used in protein lysates from human placentas from pregnancies with and without exposure to ethanol. Both trophoblast cell lines showed a decrease in cell viability accompanied with apoptosis activation after a chronic ethanol treatment. Moreover, we showed an increase in the secretion of hCG and IGF2 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, this increase was also observed in a set of human placenta tissue from fetuses exposed prenatally to ethanol. Ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes placenta cell damage, so altering its normal function. The specific hCG and IGF2 release pattern is a candidate surrogated biomarker of the damage due to PEE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of imprinted messenger RNA expression in deceased transgenic cloned goats.

    PubMed

    Jia, R X; Zhou, Z R; Zhang, G M; Wang, L Z; Fan, Y X; Wan, Y J; Zhang, Y L; Wang, Z Y; Wang, F

    2016-01-29

    Genomic imprinting is an important epigenetic mechanism that has vital effects on fetal growth and development. We observed the differences in four tissues (heart, spleen, liver, and kidney) from dead transgenic cloned goats using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Eight imprinted genes in the tissues of dead transgenic cloned and normal goats were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. H&E staining results from the abortion group indicated the lack of obvious morphological changes in heart and spleen tissues, while inflammatory cell infiltration and glomerular nephritis characteristics were observed in liver and kidney tissues, respectively. Compared to the control group, CDKN1C, H19, IGF2R, and SNRPN were significantly (P < 0.05) overexpressed in the heart tissue of the abortion group, while XIST was significantly reduced. In the liver tissues, CDKN1C and DLK1 expression decreased, while GNAS, H19, IGF2R, PEG3, and XIST expression increased significantly. In the spleen tissues, DLK1 expression increased, while GNAS, H19, IGF2R, PEG3, SNRPN, and XIST expression decreased. In the kidney tissues, CDKN1C, DLK1, GNAS, IGF2R, and PEG3 expression increased, while H19 and XIST expression decreased. The overall expression of imprinted genes was abnormal in different tissues of transgenic cloned goats, and the degree of abnormal genomic imprinting was more severe in the abortion group compared to the death and control groups. These results suggest that abnormal expression of imprinted genes may cause developmental defects in transgenic cloned goats. Moreover, abnormal epigenetic modifications may affect the reprogramming of transgenic donor cells.

  13. Allelic gene expression imbalance of bovine IGF2, LEP and CCL2 genes in liver, kidney and pituitary.

    PubMed

    Olbromski, R; Siadkowska, E; Zelazowska, B; Zwierzchowski, L

    2013-02-01

    Allelic expression imbalance (AEI) is an important genetic factor being the cause of differences in phenotypic traits that can be heritable. Studying AEI can be useful in searching for factors that modulate gene expression and help to understand molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes. Although it was commonly recognized in many species and we know many genes show allelic expression imbalance, this phenomena was not studied on a larger scale in cattle. Using the pyrosequencing method we analyzed a set of 29 bovine genes in order to find those that have preferential allelic expression. The study was conducted in three tissues: liver, pituitary and kindey. Out of the studied group of genes 3 of them-LEP (leptin), IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2), CCL2 (chemokine C-C motif ligand 2) showed allelic expression imbalance.

  14. Embryos aggregation improves development and imprinting gene expression in mouse parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guang-Yu; Song, Si-Hang; Wang, Zhen-Dong; Shan, Zhi-Yan; Sun, Rui-Zhen; Liu, Chun-Jia; Wu, Yan-Shuang; Li, Tong; Lei, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Mouse parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (PgESCs) could be applied to study imprinting genes and are used in cell therapy. Our previous study found that stem cells established by aggregation of two parthenogenetic embryos at 8-cell stage (named as a2 PgESCs) had a higher efficiency than that of PgESCs, and the paternal expressed imprinting genes were observably upregulated. Therefore, we propose that increasing the number of parthenogenetic embryos in aggregation may improve the development of parthenogenetic mouse and imprinting gene expression of PgESCs. To verify this hypothesis, we aggregated four embryos together at the 4-cell stage and cultured to the blastocyst stage (named as 4aPgB). qPCR detection showed that the expression of imprinting genes Igf2, Mest, Snrpn, Igf2r, H19, Gtl2 in 4aPgB were more similar to that of fertilized blastocyst (named as fB) compared to 2aPgB (derived from two 4-cell stage parthenogenetic embryos aggregation) or PgB (single parthenogenetic blastocyst). Post-implantation development of 4aPgB extended to 11 days of gestation. The establishment efficiency of GFP-a4 PgESCs which derived from GFP-4aPgB is 62.5%. Moreover, expression of imprinting genes Igf2, Mest, Snrpn, notably downregulated and approached the level of that in fertilized embryonic stem cells (fESCs). In addition, we acquired a 13.5-day fetus totally derived from GFP-a4 PgESCs with germline contribution by 8-cell under zona pellucida (ZP) injection. In conclusion, four embryos aggregation improves parthenogenetic development, and compensates imprinting genes expression in PgESCs. It implied that a4 PgESCs could serve as a better scientific model applied in translational medicine and imprinting gene study.

  15. Effect of developmental dioxin exposure on methylation and expression of specific imprinted genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Somm, Emmanuel; Stouder, Christelle; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an endocrine disruptor affecting the reproductive system in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TCDD administered to pregnant mice at two different doses (2-10 ng/kg/day), on imprinted genes in the male offspring. The degree of methylation and the mRNA expression of Snrpn, Peg3 and Igf2r were analyzed in the sperm, skeletal muscle and liver. TCDD administration (10 ng/kg/day) decreased the sperm count in the male offspring. It did not affect methylation but increased mRNA expression of Snrpn, Peg3, Igf2r and Air ncRNA. In muscle and liver, TCDD (10 ng/kg/day) induced increases in methylation and decreases in mRNA expression of Igf2r. These results show that the robust effects of TCDD on the mRNA expression of Snrpn, Peg3 and Igf2r genes in the sperm and of Igf2r in the muscle and liver are unrelated to changes in methylation in their respective genes.

  16. Induced DNA demethylation can reshape chromatin topology at the IGF2-H19 locus

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoko; Nativio, Raffaella; Murrell, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Choriocarcinomas are embryonal tumours with loss of imprinting and hypermethylation at the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)-H19 locus. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-AzaCdR) is an approved epigenetic cancer therapy. However, it is not known to what extent 5-AzaCdR influences other epigenetic marks. In this study, we set out to determine whether 5-AzaCdR treatment can reprogram the epigenomic organization of the IGF2-H19 locus in a choriocarcinoma cancer cell line (JEG3). We found that localized DNA demethylation at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) induced by 5-AzaCdR, reduced IGF2, increased H19 expression, increased CTCF and cohesin recruitment and changed histone modifications. Furthermore chromatin accessibility was increased locus-wide and chromatin looping topography was altered such that a CTCF site downstream of the H19 enhancers switched its association with the CTCF site upstream of the IGF2 promoters to associate with the ICR. We identified a stable chromatin looping domain, which forms independently of DNA methylation. This domain contains the IGF2 gene and is marked by a histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation block between CTCF site upstream of the IGF2 promoters and the Centrally Conserved Domain upstream of the ICR. Together, these data provide new insights into the responsiveness of chromatin topography to DNA methylation changes. PMID:23585276

  17. Retrograde fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22) signaling regulates insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) expression for activity-dependent synapse stabilization in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Terauchi, Akiko; Johnson-Venkatesh, Erin M; Bullock, Brenna; Lehtinen, Maria K; Umemori, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Communication between pre- and postsynaptic cells promotes the initial organization of synaptic specializations, but subsequent synaptic stabilization requires transcriptional regulation. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22), a target-derived presynaptic organizer in the mouse hippocampus, induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) for the stabilization of presynaptic terminals. FGF22 is released from CA3 pyramidal neurons and organizes the differentiation of excitatory nerve terminals formed onto them. Local application of FGF22 on the axons of dentate granule cells (DGCs), which are presynaptic to CA3 pyramidal neurons, induces IGF2 in the DGCs. IGF2, in turn, localizes to DGC presynaptic terminals and stabilizes them in an activity-dependent manner. IGF2 application rescues presynaptic defects of Fgf22-/- cultures. IGF2 is dispensable for the initial presynaptic differentiation, but is required for the following presynaptic stabilization both in vitro and in vivo. These results reveal a novel feedback signal that is critical for the activity-dependent stabilization of presynaptic terminals in the mammalian hippocampus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12151.001 PMID:27083047

  18. Epigenetic mutations of the imprinted IGF2-H19 domain in Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS): results from a large cohort of patients with SRS and SRS-like phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Bartholdi, D; Krajewska-Walasek, M; Ounap, K; Gaspar, H; Chrzanowska, K H; Ilyana, H; Kayserili, H; Lurie, I W; Schinzel, A; Baumer, A

    2009-03-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterised by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. Loss of DNA methylation at the telomeric imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) on 11p15 is an important cause of SRS. We studied the methylation pattern at the H19-IGF2 locus in 201 patients with suspected SRS. In an attempt to categorise the patients into different subgroups, we developed a simple clinical scoring system with respect to readily and unambiguously assessable clinical features. In a second step, the relationship between clinical score and epigenetic status was analysed. The scoring system emerged as a powerful tool for identifying those patients with both a definite SRS phenotype and carrying an epimutation at 11p15. 53% of the 201 patients initially enrolled fulfilled the criteria for SRS and about 40% of them exhibited an epimutation at the H19-IGF2 locus. Methylation defects were restricted to patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SRS. Patients carrying epimutations had a more severe phenotype than either the SRS patients with mUPD7 or the idiopathic SRS patients. The majority of patients with methylation abnormalities showed hypomethylation at both the H19 and IGF2 genes. However, we also identified SRS patients where hypomethylation was restricted to either the H19 or the IGF2 gene. Interestingly, we detected epimutations in siblings of normal parents, most likely reflecting germ cell mosaicism in the fathers. In one family, we identified an epimutation in an affected father and his likewise affected daughter.

  19. Ox-LDL Upregulates IL-6 Expression by Enhancing NF-κB in an IGF2-Dependent Manner in THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Chao; Hu, Yan-Wei; Sha, Yan-Hua; Gao, Ji-Juan; Ma, Xin; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhao, Jia-Yi; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Lu, Jing-Bo; Huang, Chuan; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is well established as a vital factor in determining the risk of coronary heart disease and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, accumulating evidences have shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can promote IL-6 expression in macrophages. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of how ox-LDL upregulates IL-6 expression remains largely unexplained. We found that the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IL-6 was upregulated at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner when treated with 0, 25, 50, or 100 μg/mL of ox-LDL for 48 h in THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, overexpression of IGF2 significantly upregulated NF-κB and IL-6 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. However, the upregulation of NF-κB and IL-6 expressions induced by ox-LDL were significantly abolished by IGF2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) in THP-1 macrophages. Further studies indicated the upregulation of IL-6 induced by ox-LDL could be abolished when treated with NF-κB siRNA in THP-1 macrophages. Ox-LDL might upregulate IL-6 in the cell and its secretion via enhancing NF-κB in an IGF2-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages.

  20. Restricted development of mouse triploid fetuses with disorganized expression of imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Wataru; Takahashi, Masashi; Kawahara, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic species commonly contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. The diploid state appears to be advantageous for mammals because it enables sexual reproduction and facilitates genetic recombination. Nonetheless, the effects of DNA ploidy on mammalian ontogeny have yet to be understood. The present study shows phenotypic features and expression patterns of imprinted genes in tripronucleate diandric and digynic triploid (DAT and DGT) mouse fetuses on embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). Measurement of crown-rump length revealed that the length of DGT fetuses (1.87 ± 0.13 mm; mean ± standard error of the mean) was much smaller than that of diploid fetuses (4.81 ± 0.05 mm). However, no significant difference was observed in the crown-rump length between diploid and DAT fetuses (3.86 ± 0.43 mm). In DGT fetuses, the expression level of paternally expressed genes, Igf2, Dlk1, Ndn, and Peg3, remained significantly reduced and that of maternally expressed genes, Igf2r and Grb10, increased. Additionally, in DAT fetuses, the Igf2 mRNA expression level was approximately twice that in diploid fetuses, as expected. These results provide the first demonstration that imprinted genes in mouse triploid fetuses show distinctive expression patterns independent of the number of parental-origin haploid sets. These data suggest that both DNA ploidy and asymmetrical functions of parental genomes separately influence mammalian ontogeny.

  1. Decreased IDE and IGF2 expression but increased Aβ40 in the cerebral cortex of mouse pups by early life lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Yang, Guojun; Wang, Yueying; Qiao, Mingwu; Zhang, Pingan; Shao, Jianfeng; Yang, Guoyu

    2016-03-01

    As the abbreviation of plumbum and a chemical symbol for lead, Pb produces neurotoxic effects, which result into an impairment of learning and memory and other neurological dysfunctions. However, the mechanism of neurotoxicity of Pb exposure is unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on expression of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE),insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and beta amyloid protein 40 (Aβ40) in the cerebral cortex of mice offspring. Lead exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Lead acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% groups respectively. On the 21st postnatal day, On the PND21, the learning and memory ability were tested by water maze test and the Pb levels were also determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The expression of IDE, IGF2 and Aβ40 in cerebral cortex was examined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting. The lead levels in blood and cerebral cortex of all lead exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). In water maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% lead exposure groups were worse than that of the control group (P<0.05).The expression of IDE and IGF2 was decreased, but Aβ40 was increased in lead exposed groups than that of the control group (P<0.05). The decreased expression of IDE and IGF2 and increased expression of Aβ40 in the cerebral cortex of pups may contribute to the neurotoxicity associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  2. Integrin α11 regulates IGF2 expression in fibroblasts to enhance tumorigenicity of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chang-Qi; Popova, Svetlana N.; Brown, Ewan R. S.; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Navab, Roya; Shih, Warren; Li, Ming; Lu, Ming; Jurisica, Igor; Penn, Linda Z.; Gullberg, Donald; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2007-01-01

    Integrin α11 (ITGA11/α11) is localized to stromal fibroblasts and commonly overexpressed in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We hypothesized that stromal α11 could be important for the tumorigenicity of NSCLC cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts established from wild-type (WT) and Itga11-deficient [knockout (KO)] mice were tested for their tumorigenicity in immune-deficient mice when implanted alone or coimplanted with the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. A549 coimplanted with the fibroblasts showed a markedly enhanced tumor growth rate compared with A549, WT, or KO, which alone formed only small tumors. Importantly, the growth was significantly greater for A549+WT compared with A549+KO tumors. Reexpression of human α11 cDNA in KO cells rescued a tumor growth rate to that comparable with the A549+WT tumors. These findings were validated in two other NSCLC cell lines, NCI-H460 and NCI-H520. Gene expression profiling indicated that IGF2 mRNA expression level was >200 times lower in A549+KO compared with A549+WT tumors. Stable short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) down-regulation of IGF2 in WT (WTshIGF2) fibroblasts resulted in a decreased growth rate of A549+WTshIGF2, compared with A549+WT tumors. The results indicate that α11 is an important stromal factor in NSCLC and propose a paradigm for carcinoma–stromal interaction indirectly through interaction between the matrix collagen and stromal fibroblasts to stimulate cancer cell growth. PMID:17600088

  3. [Imprinting genes and it's expression in Arabidopsis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Xu, Pei-Zhou; Yang, Hua; Wu, Xian-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to the phenomenon that the expression of a gene copy depends on its parent of origin. The Arabidopsis imprinted FIS (Fertilisation-independent seed) genes, mea, fis2, and fie, play essential roles in the repression of central cell and the regulation of early endosperm development. fis mutants display two phenotypes: autonomous diploid endosperm development when fertilization is absent and un-cellularised endosperm formation when fertilization occurs. The FIS Polycomb protein complex including the above three FIS proteins catalyzes histone H3 K27 tri-methylation on target loci. DME (DEMETER), a DNA glycosylase, and AtMET1 (Methyltransferase1), a DNA methyltransferase, are involved in the regulation of imprinted expression of both mea and fis2. This review summarizes the studies on the Arabidopsis imprinted FIS genes and other related genes. Recent works have shown that the insertion of transposons may affect nearby gene expression, which may be the main driving force behind the evolution of genomic imprinting. This summary covers the achievements on Arabidopsis imprinted genes will provide important information for studies on genomic imprinting in the important crops such as rice and maize.

  4. 11p15 ICR1 Partial Deletions Associated with IGF2/H19 DMR Hypomethylation and Silver-Russell Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abi Habib, Walid; Brioude, Frederic; Azzi, Salah; Salem, Jennifer; Das Neves, Cristina; Personnier, Claire; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Keren, Boris; Le Bouc, Yves; Harbison, Madeleine D; Netchine, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The 11p15 region harbors the IGF2/H19 imprinted domain, implicated in fetal and postnatal growth. Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by fetal and postnatal growth failure, and is caused principally by hypomethylation of the 11p15 imprinting control region 1 (ICR1). However, the mechanisms leading to ICR1 hypomethylation remain unknown. Maternally inherited genetic defects affecting the ICR1 domain have been associated with ICR1 hypermethylation and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (an overgrowth syndrome, the clinical and molecular mirror of SRS), and paternal deletions of IGF2 enhancers have been detected in four SRS patients. However, no paternal deletions of ICR1 have ever been associated with hypomethylation of the IGF2/H19 domain in SRS. We screened for new genetic defects within the ICR1 in a cohort of 234 SRS patients with hypomethylated IGF2/H19 domain. We report deletions close to the boundaries of ICR1 on the paternal allele in one familial and two sporadic cases of SRS with ICR1 hypomethylation. These deletions are associated with hypomethylation of the remaining CBS, and decreased IGF2 expression. These results suggest that these regions are most likely required to maintain methylation after fertilization. We estimate these anomalies to occur in about 1% of SRS cases with ICR1 hypomethylation.

  5. H19 Antisense RNA Can Up-Regulate Igf2 Transcription by Activation of a Novel Promoter in Mouse Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Duputié, Anne; Antoine, Etienne; Aptel, Nathalie; Milligan, Laura; Carbonell, Françoise; Lelay-Taha, Marie-Noëlle; Piette, Jacques; Weber, Michaël; Montarras, Didier; Pinset, Christian; Dandolo, Luisa; Forné, Thierry; Cathala, Guy

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), that we named the 91H RNA (i.e. antisense H19 transcript), is overexpressed in human breast tumours and contributes in trans to the expression of the Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene on the paternal chromosome. Our preliminary experiments suggested that an H19 antisense transcript having a similar function may also be conserved in the mouse. In the present work, we further characterise the mouse 91H RNA and, using a genetic complementation approach in H19 KO myoblast cells, we show that ectopic expression of the mouse 91H RNA can up-regulate Igf2 expression in trans despite almost complete unmethylation of the Imprinting-Control Region (ICR). We then demonstrate that this activation occurs at the transcriptional level by activation of a previously unknown Igf2 promoter which displays, in mouse tissues, a preferential mesodermic expression (Pm promoter). Finally, our experiments indicate that a large excess of the H19 transcript can counteract 91H-mediated Igf2 activation. Our work contributes, in conjunction with other recent findings, to open new horizons to our understanding of Igf2 gene regulation and functions of the 91H/H19 RNAs in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:22662250

  6. Copy number variations alter methylation and parallel IGF2 overexpression in adrenal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Helene Myrtue; How-Kit, Alexandre; Guerin, Carole; Castinetti, Frederic; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; De Micco, Catherine; Daunay, Antoine; Taieb, David; Van Loo, Peter; Besse, Celine; Kristensen, Vessela N; Hansen, Lise Lotte; Barlier, Anne; Sebag, Frederic; Tost, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of insulin growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a hallmark of adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Previous studies investigating the IGF2/H19 locus have mainly focused on a single molecular level such as genomic alterations or altered DNA methylation levels and the causal changes underlying IGF2 overexpression are still not fully established. In the current study, we analyzed 62 tumors of the adrenal gland from patients with Conn's adenoma (CA, n=12), pheochromocytomas (PCC, n=10), adrenocortical benign tumors (ACBT, n=20), and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC, n=20). Gene expression, somatic copy number variation of chr11p15.5, and DNA methylation status of three differential methylated regions of the IGF2/H19 locus including the H19 imprinting control region were integratively analyzed. IGF2 overexpression was found in 85% of the ACCs and 100% of the PCCs compared to 23% observed in CAs and ACBTs. Copy number aberrations of chr11p15.5 were abundant in both PCCs and ACCs but while PCCs retained a diploid state, ACCs were frequently tetraploid (7/19). Loss of either a single allele or loss of two alleles of the same parental origin in tetraploid samples resulted in a uniparental disomy-like genotype. These copy number changes correlated with hypermethylation of the H19 ICR suggesting that the lost alleles were the unmethylated maternal alleles. Our data provide conclusive evidence that loss of the maternal allele correlates with IGF2 overexpression in adrenal tumors and that hypermethylation of the H19 ICR is a consequence thereof. PMID:26400872

  7. Differential expression of imprinted genes in normal and IUGR human placentas.

    PubMed

    Diplas, Andreas I; Lambertini, Luca; Lee, Men-Jean; Sperling, Rhoda; Lee, Yin Leng; Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia

    2009-05-16

    Genomic imprinting refers to silencing of one parental allele in the zygotes of gametes depending upon the parent of origin. Loss of imprinting (LOI) is the gain of function from the silent allele that can have a maximum effect of doubling the gene dosage. LOI may play a significant role in the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Using placental tissue from ten normal and seven IUGR pregnancies, we conducted a systematic survey of the expression of a panel of 74 "putatively" imprinted genes using quantitative RT-PCR. We found that 52/74 ( approximately 70%) of the genes were expressed in human placentas. Nine of the 52 (17%) expressed genes were significantly differentially expressed between normal and IUGR placentas; five were upregulated (PHLDA2, ILK2, NNAT, CCDC86, PEG10) and four downregulated (PLAGL1, DHCR24, ZNF331, CDKAL1). We also assessed LOI profile of 14 imprinted genes in 14 normal and 24 IUGR placentas using a functional and sensitive assay developed in our laboratory. Little LOI was observed in any placentas for five of the genes (PEG10, PHLDA2, MEG3, EPS15, CD44). With the 149 heterozygosities examined, 40 (26.8%) exhibited LOI >3%. Some genes exhibited frequent LOI in placentas regardless of the disease status (IGF2, TP73, MEST, SLC22A18, PEG3), while others exhibited LOI only in IUGR placentas (PLAGL1, DLK1, H19, SNRPN). Importantly, there was no correlation between gene expression and LOI profile. Our study suggests that genomic imprinting may play a role in IUGR pathogenesis, but mechanisms other than LOI may contribute to dysregulation of imprinted genes.

  8. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues.

    PubMed

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K; Rivas, Manuel A; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S; Kukurba, Kim R; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Burchard, Esteban G; Seibold, Max A; MacArthur, Daniel G; Montgomery, Stephen B; Zaitlen, Noah A; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-07-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. © 2015 Baran et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  10. Effects of endocrine disruptors on imprinted gene expression in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun-Rim; Iqbal, Khursheed; Tran, Diana A; Rivas, Guillermo E; Singh, Purnima; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Szabó, Piroska E

    2011-07-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) are synthetic chemicals that resemble natural hormones and are known to cause epigenetic perturbations. EDs have profound effects on development and fertility. Imprinted genes had been identified as susceptible loci to environmental insults by EDs because they are functionally haploid, and because the imprints undergo epigenetic resetting between generations. To screen for possible epigenetic perturbations caused by EDs at imprinted loci, we treated pregnant mice daily between 8.5 and 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), bisphenol A (BPA), vinclozolin (VZ), or control oil vehicle. After isolating RNA from the placenta, yolk sac, amnion, head, body, heart, liver, lung, stomach, and intestines of 13.5 dpc embryos we measured the allele-specific expression of 38 imprinted transcripts using multiplex single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) assays. In this representative data set we identified only a small number of transcripts that exhibited a substantial relaxation of imprinted expression with statistical significance: Slc22a18 with 10% relaxation in the embryo after BPA treatment; Rtl1as with 11 and 16% relaxation in the lung and placenta, respectively after BPA treatment; and Rtl1 with 12% relaxation in the yolk sac after DEHP treatment. Additionally, the standard deviation of allele-specificity increased in various organs after ED treatment for several transcripts including Igf2r, Rasgrf1, Usp29, Slc38a4, and Xist. Our data suggest that the maintenance of strongly biased monoallelic expression of imprinted genes is generally insensitive to EDs in the 13.5 dpc embryo and extra-embryonic organs, but is not immune to those effects.

  11. Effects of endocrine disruptors on imprinted gene expression in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Diana A; Rivas, Guillermo E; Singh, Purnima; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2011-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) are synthetic chemicals that resemble natural hormones and are known to cause epigenetic perturbations. EDs have profound effects on development and fertility. Imprinted genes had been identified as candidate susceptibility loci to environmental insults because they are functionally haploid, and because the imprints undergo epigenetic resetting between generations. To screen for possible epigenetic perturbations caused by EDs at imprinted loci, we treated pregnant mice daily between 8.5 and 12.5 days post coitum (dpc) with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), bisphenol A (BPA), vinclozolin (VZ) or control oil vehicle. After isolating RNA from the placenta, yolk sac, amnion, head, body, heart, liver, lung, stomach and intestines of 13.5 dpc embryos we measured the allele-specific expression of 39 imprinted transcripts using multiplex single nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) assays. In this representative data set we identified only a small number of transcripts that exhibited a substantial relaxation of imprinted expression with statistical significance: Slc22a18 with 10% relaxation in the embryo after BPA treatment; Rtl1as with 11 and 16% relaxation in the lung and placenta, respectively after BPA treatment; and Rtl1 with 12% relaxation in the yolk sac after DEHP treatment. Additionally, the standard deviation of allele-specificity increased in various organs after ED treatment for several transcripts including Igf2r, Rasgrf1, Usp29, Slc38a4 and Xist. Our data suggest that the maintenance of strongly biased monoallelic expression of imprinted genes is generally insensitive to EDs in the 13.5 dpc embryo and extra-embryonic organs, but is not immune to those effects. PMID:21636974

  12. Butyrate induced IGF2 activation correlated with distinct chromatin landscapes due to histone modification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histone modification has emerged as a very important mechanism regulating the transcriptional status of the genome. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone controlling various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 and H19 are reciprocally regulated imprinted ...

  13. Altered expression of the imprinted transcription factor PLAGL1 deregulates a network of genes in the human IUGR placenta

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Petazzi, Paolo; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Esteller, Manel; Monk, David

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is the epigenetic process that results in monoallelic expression of genes depending on parental origin. These genes are known to be critical for placental development and fetal growth in mammals. Aberrant epigenetic profiles at imprinted loci, such as DNA methylation defects, are surprisingly rare in pregnancies with compromised fetal growth, while variations in transcriptional output from the expressed alleles of imprinted genes are more commonly reported in pregnancies complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To determine if PLAGL1 and HYMAI, two imprinted transcripts deregulated in Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus, are involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. This revealed that despite appropriate maternal methylation at the shared PLAGL1/HYMAI promoter, there was a loss of correlation between PLAGL1 and HYMAI expression in IUGR. This incongruity was due to higher HYMAI expression in IUGR gestations, coupled with PLAGL1 down-regulation in placentas from IUGR girls, but not boys. The PLAGL1 protein is a zinc-finger transcription factor that has been shown to be a master coordinator of a genetic growth network in mice. We observe PLAGL1 binding to the H19/IGF2 shared enhancers in placentae, with significant correlations between PLAGL1 levels with H19 and IGF2 expression levels. In addition, PLAGL1 binding and expression also correlate with expression levels of metabolic regulator genes SLC2A4, TCF4 and PPARγ1. Our results strongly suggest that fetal growth can be influenced by altered expression of the PLAGL1 gene network in human placenta. PMID:24993786

  14. Addiction to the IGF2-ID1-IGF2 circuit for maintenance of the breast cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, K; Shimamura, T; Kimura, N; Murayama, T; Matsubara, D; Kanauchi, H; Niida, A; Shimizu, S; Nishioka, K; Tsuji, E-i; Yano, M; Sugano, S; Shimono, Y; Ishii, H; Saya, H; Mori, M; Akashi, K; Tada, K-i; Ogawa, T; Tojo, A; Miyano, S; Gotoh, N

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has important roles for tumorigenesis, but how it regulates cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains largely unclear. We identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a key target of NF-κB activated by HER2/HER3 signaling to form tumor spheres in breast cancer cells. The IGF2 receptor, IGF1 R, was expressed at high levels in CSC-enriched populations in primary breast cancer cells. Moreover, IGF2-PI3K (IGF2-phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase) signaling induced expression of a stemness transcription factor, inhibitor of DNA-binding 1 (ID1), and IGF2 itself. ID1 knockdown greatly reduced IGF2 expression, and tumor sphere formation. Finally, treatment with anti-IGF1/2 antibodies blocked tumorigenesis derived from the IGF1Rhigh CSC-enriched population in a patient-derived xenograft model. Thus, NF-κB may trigger IGF2-ID1-IGF2-positive feedback circuits that allow cancer stem-like cells to appear. Then, they may become addicted to the circuits. As the circuits are the Achilles' heels of CSCs, it will be critical to break them for eradication of CSCs. PMID:27546618

  15. Genomic Imprinting Mechanisms in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ideraabdullah, Folami Y.; Vigneau, Sebastien; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a form of epigenetic gene regulation that results in expression from a single allele in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. This form of monoallelic expression affects a small but growing number of genes and is essential to normal mammalian development. Despite extensive studies and some major breakthroughs regarding this intriguing phenomenon, we have not yet fully characterized the underlying molecular mechanisms of genomic imprinting. This is in part due to the complexity of the system in that the epigenetic markings required for proper imprinting must be established in the germline, maintained throughout development, and then erased before being re-established in the next generation’s germline. Furthermore, imprinted gene expression is often tissue or stage-specific. It has also become clear that while imprinted loci across the genome seem to rely consistently on epigenetic markings of DNA methylation and/or histone modifications to discern parental alleles, the regulatory activities underlying these markings vary among loci. Here, we discuss different modes of imprinting regulation in mammals and how perturbations of these systems result in human disease. We focus mostly on the mechanism of genomic imprinting mediated by insulators as is present at the H19/Igf2 locus, and by non-coding RNA present at the Igf2r and Kcnq1 loci. In addition to imprinting mechanisms at autosomal loci, what is known about imprinted X-chromosome inactivation and how it compares to autosomal imprinting is also discussed. Overall, this review summarizes the many years of imprinting research, while pointing out exciting new discoveries that further elucidate the mechanism of genomic imprinting, and speculating on areas that require further investigation. PMID:18778719

  16. Genomic imprinting mechanisms in mammals.

    PubMed

    Ideraabdullah, Folami Y; Vigneau, Sebastien; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2008-12-01

    Genomic imprinting is a form of epigenetic gene regulation that results in expression from a single allele in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. This form of monoallelic expression affects a small but growing number of genes and is essential to normal mammalian development. Despite extensive studies and some major breakthroughs regarding this intriguing phenomenon, we have not yet fully characterized the underlying molecular mechanisms of genomic imprinting. This is in part due to the complexity of the system in that the epigenetic markings required for proper imprinting must be established in the germline, maintained throughout development, and then erased before being re-established in the next generation's germline. Furthermore, imprinted gene expression is often tissue or stage-specific. It has also become clear that while imprinted loci across the genome seem to rely consistently on epigenetic markings of DNA methylation and/or histone modifications to discern parental alleles, the regulatory activities underlying these markings vary among loci. Here, we discuss different modes of imprinting regulation in mammals and how perturbations of these systems result in human disease. We focus on the mechanism of genomic imprinting mediated by insulators as is present at the H19/Igf2 locus, and by non-coding RNA present at the Igf2r and Kcnq1 loci. In addition to imprinting mechanisms at autosomal loci, what is known about imprinted X-chromosome inactivation and how it compares to autosomal imprinting is also discussed. Overall, this review summarizes many years of imprinting research, while pointing out exciting new discoveries that further elucidate the mechanism of genomic imprinting, and speculating on areas that require further investigation.

  17. The hepatic Igf2/H19 locus is not altered in 1-day old pups born to obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low protein diet containing adequate folic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gong et al. (Epigenetics, 2010) found, using diets low in folic acid, that compared to an 18% protein diet a 9% protein diet fed to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in increased Igf2 and H19 gene expression in the liver of day 0 male offspring. In addition DNA methylation in the Imprinting Cont...

  18. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  19. Epigenetic and genetic mechanisms of abnormal 11p15 genomic imprinting in Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes.

    PubMed

    Demars, J; Le Bouc, Y; El-Osta, A; Gicquel, C

    2011-01-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process depending on the genetics of the fetus, the availability of nutrients to the fetus, maternal nutrition and various growth factors and hormones of maternal, fetal and placental origin. The IGF system, and more particularly IGF2, is one of the most important endocrine and paracrine growth systems regulating fetal and placental growth (reviewed in [1]). The IGF2 gene is regulated by genomic imprinting and is expressed only from the paternally-inherited allele in most tissues during fetal development and after birth. Imprinted genes are tightly regulated and are therefore particularly susceptible to changes, including environmental and nutritional changes. Dysregulation of a cluster of imprinted genes, including the IGF2 gene within the 11p15 region, results in two fetal growth disorders (Silver-Russell and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes) with opposite growth phenotypes. Those two syndromes are model imprinting disorders to decipher the regulation of genomic imprinting.

  20. mRNA expression of CDH3, IGF2BP3, and BIRC5 in biliary brush cytology specimens is a useful adjunctive tool of cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Hee Jin; Kim, Jean A; Lim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chang Whan; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although advances have been made in diagnostic tools, the distinction between malignant and benign biliary strictures still remains challenging. Intraductal brush cytology is a convenient and safe method that is used for the diagnosis of biliary stricture, but, low sensitivity limits its usefulness. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness of mRNA expression levels of target genes in brush cytology specimens combined with cytology for the diagnosis of malignant biliary stricture. Immunohistochemistry for cadherin 3 (CDH3), p53, insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3), homeobox B7 (HOXB7), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) was performed in 4 benign and 4 malignant bile duct tissues. Through endoscopic or interventional radiologic procedures, brush cytology specimens were prospectively obtained in 21 and 35 paitents with biliary strictures. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expressions levels of 5 genes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry for CDH3, p53, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 all showed positive staining in malignant tissues in contrast to benign tissues, which were negative. In the brush cytology specimens, the mRNA expression levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, HOXB7, and BIRC5 were significantly higher in cases of malignant biliary stricture compared with cases of benign stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001). The receiver-operating characteristic curves of these 4 mRNAs demonstrated that mRNA expression levels are useful for the prediction of malignant biliary stricture (P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.002). The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for malignant biliary stricture were 57.1% and 100% for cytology, 57.1% and 64.3% for CDH3, 76.2% and 100% for IGF2BP3, 71.4% and 57.1% for HOXB7, and 76.2% and 64.3% for BIRC5. When cytology was combined with the mRNA levels of CDH3, IGF2BP3, or BIRC5, the

  1. Placenta Imprinted Gene Expression Association of Infant Neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Marsit, Carmen J.; Lambertini, Luca; Maccani, Matthew A.; Koestler, Devin C.; Houseman, E. Andres; Padbury, James F.; Lester, Barry M.; Chen, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify links between altered gene imprinting in the placenta and infant neurobehavioral profiles. Study design We used qRT-PCR to examine the expression of 22 imprinted candidate genes in a series of 106 term human primary placenta tissues and associated that expression with summary scores from the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales performed on the corresponding infants. Clustering of the expression data was used to define distinct classes of expression. Results Significant associations were identified between classes of expression and the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales quality of movement (P=0.02) and handling (P=0.006) scores. Multivariable regression demonstrated an independent effect of imprinted gene expression profile on these neurobehavioral scores after controlling for confounders. Conclusion These results suggest that alterations in imprinted gene expression in the placenta are associated with infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our results suggest a role for the placenta and genomic imprinting in the placenta beyond intrauterine growth regulation. PMID:22153677

  2. IGF2/H19 hypomethylation in a patient with very low birthweight, preocious pubarche and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is an imprinted gene, which has an important role in fetal growth as established in mice models. IGF2 is downregulated through hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region (DMR) in Silver Russell syndrome (SRS), characterised by growth restriction. We have previously reported that severe pre- and post-natal growth restriction associated with insulin resistance and precocious pubarche in a woman without body asymmetry or other SRS features resulted from a balanced translocation affecting the regulation of her IGF2 gene expression. We hypothesised that severe pre- and post-natal growth restriction associated with insulin resistance and precocious pubarche in the absence of SRS are also caused by downregulation of IGF2 through hypomethylation, gene mutation or structural chromosomal abnormalities. Methods We performed routine karyotyping, IGF2 gene sequencing and investigated DNA methylation of the IGF2 differentially methylated region (DMR)0 and H19 DMR using pyrosequencing, in four women selected for very low birth weight (<−3 SDS for gestational age), precocious pubarche, short adult stature (<−2 SDS), and insulin resistance (defined as HOMA-IS < 80%); and compared their methylation results to those of 95 control subjects. Results We identified a 20 year old woman with severe hypomethylation at both DMRs. She was the smallest at birth (birthweight SDS,-3.9), and had the shortest adult height (143 cm). The patient was diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome at the age of 15 years, and had impaired fasting glucose in the presence of a low BMI (19.2 kg/m2). Conclusions Our case of growth restriction, premature pubarche and insulin resistance in the absence of body asymmetry or other features of SRS adds to the expanding phenotype of IGF2/H19 methylation abnormalities. Further studies are needed to confirm whether growth restriction in association with premature pubarche and insulin resistance

  3. Aberrant genomic imprinting in rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Akihisa; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Wolf, Don P

    2006-03-01

    Genomic imprinting involves modification of a gene or a chromosomal region that results in the differential expression of parental alleles. Disruption or inappropriate expression of imprinted genes is associated with several clinically significant syndromes and tumorigenesis in humans. Additionally, abnormal imprinting occurs in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in clonally derived animals. Imprinted gene expression patterns in primate ESCs are largely unknown, despite the clinical potential of the latter in the cell-based treatment of human disease. Because of the possible implications of abnormal gene expression to cell or tissue replacement therapies involving ESCs, we examined allele specific expression of four imprinted genes in the rhesus macaque. Genomic and complementary DNA from embryos and ESC lines containing useful single nucleotide polymorphisms were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based amplification and sequence analysis. In blastocysts, NDN expression was variable indicating abnormal or incomplete imprinting whereas IGF2 and SNRPN were expressed exclusively from the paternal allele and H19 from the maternal allele as expected. In ESCs, both NDN and SNRPN were expressed from the paternal allele while IGF2 and H19 showed loss of imprinting and biallelic expression. In differentiated ESC progeny, these expression patterns were maintained. The implications of aberrant imprinted gene expression to ESC differentiation in vitro and on ESC-derived cell function in vivo after transplantation are unknown.

  4. Involvement of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in development of human tooth germ - an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kero, Darko; Cigic, Livia; Medvedec Mikic, Ivana; Galic, Tea; Cubela, Mladen; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2016-07-02

    Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) is a peptide hormone essential for prenatal growth and development. IGF-2 exerts its mitogenic effects via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R), and is eliminated by binding to Insulin-Like Growth Receptor 2 (IGF-2R). IGF-2 is also negatively regulated by Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN), a phosphatase mutated in various tumors. Not much is known about the interplay between these factors during human odontogenesis. In this study, expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN were analyzed by double immunofluorescence in incisor human tooth germs during the foetal period of development between the 7(th) and 20(th) gestational week. Throughout the investigated period, IGF-2 was mostly expressed in enamel organ, whereas mild to moderate expression of PTEN could be seen in dental papilla and parts of enamel organ. Expression of IGF-1R was ubiquitous and displayed strong intensity throughout the entire enamel organ. In contrast, expression of IGF-2R had rather erratic pattern in enamel organ and dental papilla alike. Expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in highly proliferative cervical loops, as well as in differentiating pre-ameloblasts and pre-odontoblasts of cusp tip region during the early and late bell stages when enamel organ acquires definitive shape, indicate importance of these factors in crown morphogenesis of human incisor. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in temporo-spatial patterning of basic cellular processes (proliferation, differentiation) during normal tooth development. They are also relevant for improving knowledge of molecular basis of human odontogenesis.

  5. Involvement of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in development of human tooth germ – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Darko; Cigic, Livia; Medvedec Mikic, Ivana; Galic, Tea; Cubela, Mladen; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) is a peptide hormone essential for prenatal growth and development. IGF-2 exerts its mitogenic effects via Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF-1R), and is eliminated by binding to Insulin-Like Growth Receptor 2 (IGF-2R). IGF-2 is also negatively regulated by Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN), a phosphatase mutated in various tumors. Not much is known about the interplay between these factors during human odontogenesis. In this study, expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN were analyzed by double immunofluorescence in incisor human tooth germs during the foetal period of development between the 7th and 20th gestational week. Throughout the investigated period, IGF-2 was mostly expressed in enamel organ, whereas mild to moderate expression of PTEN could be seen in dental papilla and parts of enamel organ. Expression of IGF-1R was ubiquitous and displayed strong intensity throughout the entire enamel organ. In contrast, expression of IGF-2R had rather erratic pattern in enamel organ and dental papilla alike. Expression patterns of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in highly proliferative cervical loops, as well as in differentiating pre-ameloblasts and pre-odontoblasts of cusp tip region during the early and late bell stages when enamel organ acquires definitive shape, indicate importance of these factors in crown morphogenesis of human incisor. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and PTEN in temporo-spatial patterning of basic cellular processes (proliferation, differentiation) during normal tooth development. They are also relevant for improving knowledge of molecular basis of human odontogenesis. PMID:27326759

  6. IGF2 DNA methylation is a modulator of newborn’s fetal growth and development

    PubMed Central

    St-Pierre, Julie; Hivert, Marie-France; Perron, Patrice; Poirier, Paul; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight. DNA methylation variability at the IGF2 gene locus has been previously reported but its consequences on fetal growth and development are still mostly unknown in normal pediatric population. We collected one hundred placenta biopsies from 50 women with corresponding maternal and cord blood samples and measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes using standardized procedures. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation and IGF2 circulating levels were assessed using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and ELISA, respectively. Placental IGF2 (DMR0 and DMR2) DNA methylation levels were correlated with newborn’s fetal growth indices, such as weight, and with maternal IGF2 circulating concentration at the third trimester of pregnancy, whereas H19 (DMR) DNA methylation levels were correlated with IGF2 levels in cord blood. The maternal genotype of a known IGF2/H19 polymorphism (rs2107425) was associated with birth weight. Taken together, we showed that IGF2/H19 epigenotype and genotypes independently account for 31% of the newborn’s weight variance. No association was observed with maternal diabetic status, glucose concentrations or prenatal maternal body mass index. This is the first study showing that DNA methylation at the IGF2/H19 genes locus may act as a modulator of IGF2 newborn’s fetal growth and development within normal range. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation could represent a cornerstone in linking birth weight and fetal metabolic programming of late onset obesity. PMID:22907587

  7. IGF2 DNA methylation is a modulator of newborn's fetal growth and development.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Julie; Hivert, Marie-France; Perron, Patrice; Poirier, Paul; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight. DNA methylation variability at the IGF2 gene locus has been previously reported but its consequences on fetal growth and development are still mostly unknown in normal pediatric population. We collected one hundred placenta biopsies from 50 women with corresponding maternal and cord blood samples and measured anthropometric indices, blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes using standardized procedures. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation and IGF2 circulating levels were assessed using sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing and ELISA, respectively. Placental IGF2 (DMR0 and DMR2) DNA methylation levels were correlated with newborn's fetal growth indices, such as weight, and with maternal IGF2 circulating concentration at the third trimester of pregnancy, whereas H19 (DMR) DNA methylation levels were correlated with IGF2 levels in cord blood. The maternal genotype of a known IGF2/H19 polymorphism (rs2107425) was associated with birth weight. Taken together, we showed that IGF2/H19 epigenotype and genotypes independently account for 31% of the newborn's weight variance. No association was observed with maternal diabetic status, glucose concentrations or prenatal maternal body mass index. This is the first study showing that DNA methylation at the IGF2/H19 genes locus may act as a modulator of IGF2 newborn's fetal growth and development within normal range. IGF2/H19 DNA methylation could represent a cornerstone in linking birth weight and fetal metabolic programming of late onset obesity.

  8. Imprinted gene expression in fetal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, L; Marsit, C J; Sharma, P; Maccani, M; Ma, Y; Hu, J; Chen, J

    2012-06-01

    Experimental studies showed that genomic imprinting is fundamental in fetoplacental development by timely regulating the expression of the imprinted genes to overlook a set of events determining placenta implantation, growth and embryogenesis. We examined the expression profile of 22 imprinted genes which have been linked to pregnancy abnormalities that may ultimately influence childhood development. The study was conducted in a subset of 106 placenta samples, overrepresented with small and large for gestational age cases, from the Rhode Island Child Health Study. We investigated associations between imprinted gene expression and three fetal development parameters: newborn head circumference, birth weight, and size for gestational age. Results from our investigation show that the maternally imprinted/paternally expressed gene ZNF331 inversely associates with each parameter to drive smaller fetal size, while paternally imprinted/maternally expressed gene SLC22A18 directly associates with the newborn head circumference promoting growth. Multidimensional Scaling analysis revealed two clusters within the 22 imprinted genes which are independently associated with fetoplacental development. Our data suggest that cluster 1 genes work by assuring cell growth and tissue development, while cluster 2 genes act by coordinating these processes. Results from this epidemiologic study offer solid support for the key role of imprinting in fetoplacental development.

  9. IGF2BP3 modulates the interaction of invasion-associated transcripts with RISC

    PubMed Central

    Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J.; Uren, Philip J.; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M.; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C.; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D.; Toloue, Masoud M.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Penalva, Luiz O.F.; Sanford, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy. But its role(s) in pathogenesis remain enigmatic. Here, we interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches we identify 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and miRNA binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. PMID:27210763

  10. Regulation of imprinted gene expression in Arabidopsis endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Shin, Juhyun; Uzawa, Rie; Silva, Pedro; Cohen, Stephanie; Bauer, Matthew J.; Hashimoto, Meryl; Kirkbride, Ryan C.; Harada, John J.; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Imprinted genes are expressed primarily or exclusively from either the maternal or paternal allele, a phenomenon that occurs in flowering plants and mammals. Flowering plant imprinted gene expression has been described primarily in endosperm, a terminal nutritive tissue consumed by the embryo during seed development or after germination. Imprinted expression in Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm is orchestrated by differences in cytosine DNA methylation between the paternal and maternal genomes as well as by Polycomb group proteins. Currently, only 11 imprinted A. thaliana genes are known. Here, we use extensive sequencing of cDNA libraries to identify 9 paternally expressed and 34 maternally expressed imprinted genes in A. thaliana endosperm that are regulated by the DNA-demethylating glycosylase DEMETER, the DNA methyltransferase MET1, and/or the core Polycomb group protein FIE. These genes encode transcription factors, proteins involved in hormone signaling, components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway, regulators of histone and DNA methylation, and small RNA pathway proteins. We also identify maternally expressed genes that may be regulated by unknown mechanisms or deposited from maternal tissues. We did not detect any imprinted genes in the embryo. Our results show that imprinted gene expression is an extensive mechanistically complex phenomenon that likely affects multiple aspects of seed development. PMID:21257907

  11. Curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Binqiang; Zhao, Yingmei; Liang, Tao; Ye, Xuxiao; Li, Zuowei; Yan, Dongliang; Fu, Qiang; Li, Yonghui

    2017-03-26

    We have previously reported that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development in a rat bladder carcinogenesis model. In this study, we report that curcumin inhibits urothelial tumor development by suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Curcumin inhibits IGF2 expression at the transcriptional level and decreases the phosphorylation levels of IGF1R and IRS-1 in bladder cancer cells and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced urothelial tumor tissue. Ectopic expression of IGF2 and IGF1R, but not IGF1, in bladder cancer cells restored this process, suggesting that IGF2 is a target of curcumin. Moreover, introduction of constitutively active AKT1 abolished the inhibitory effect of curcumin on cell proliferation, migration, and restored the phosphorylation levels of 4E-BP1 and S6K1, suggesting that curcumin functions via suppressing IGF2-mediated AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In summary, our results reveal that suppressing IGF2 and IGF2-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of action of curcumin. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer caused by aberrant activation of IGF2, which are useful for translational application of curcumin.

  12. Adaptation of nutrient supply to fetal demand in the mouse involves interaction between the Igf2 gene and placental transporter systems

    PubMed Central

    Constância, Miguel; Angiolini, Emily; Sandovici, Ionel; Smith, Paul; Smith, Rachel; Kelsey, Gavin; Dean, Wendy; Ferguson-Smith, Anne; Sibley, Colin P.; Reik, Wolf; Fowden, Abigail

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian fetus is unique in its dependence during gestation on the supply of maternal nutrients through the placenta. Maternal supply and fetal demand for nutrients need to be fine tuned for healthy growth and development of the fetus along its genetic trajectory. An altered balance between supply and demand can lead to deviations from this trajectory with long-term consequences for health. We have previously shown that in a knockout lacking the imprinted placental-specific Igf2 transcript (P0), growth of the placenta is compromised from early gestation but fetal growth is normal until late gestation, suggesting functional adaptation of the placenta to meet the fetal demands. Here, we show that placental transport of glucose and amino acids are increased in the Igf2 P0+/- null and that this up-regulation of transport occurs, at least in part, through increased expression of the transporter genes Slc2a3 and Slc38a4, the imprinted member of the System A amino acid transporter gene family. Decreasing fetal demand genetically by removal of fetal Igf2 abolished up-regulation of both transport systems and reduced placental System A amino acid transport activity and expression of Slc38a2 in late gestation. Our results provide direct evidence that the placenta can respond to fetal demand signals through regulation of expression of specific placental transport systems. Thus, crosstalk between an imprinted growth demand gene (Igf2) and placental supply transporter genes (Slc38a4, Slc38a2, and Slc2a3) may be a component of the genetic control of nutrient supply and demand during mammalian development. PMID:16365304

  13. Imprinted gene expression in hybrids: perturbed mechanisms and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J B; Oakey, R J; Feil, R

    2014-08-01

    Diverse mechanisms contribute to the evolution of reproductive barriers, a process that is critical in speciation. Amongst these are alterations in gene products and in gene dosage that affect development and reproductive success in hybrid offspring. Because of its strict parent-of-origin dependence, genomic imprinting is thought to contribute to the aberrant phenotypes observed in interspecies hybrids in mammals and flowering plants, when the abnormalities depend on the directionality of the cross. In different groups of mammals, hybrid incompatibility has indeed been linked to loss of imprinting. Aberrant expression levels have been reported as well, including imprinted genes involved in development and growth. Recent studies in humans emphasize that genetic diversity within a species can readily perturb imprinted gene expression and phenotype as well. Despite novel insights into the underlying mechanisms, the full extent of imprinted gene perturbation still remains to be determined in the different hybrid systems. Here we review imprinted gene expression in intra- and interspecies hybrids and examine the evolutionary scenarios under which imprinting could contribute to hybrid incompatibilities. We discuss effects on development and reproduction and possible evolutionary implications.

  14. Imprinted gene expression in hybrids: perturbed mechanisms and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, J B; Oakey, R J; Feil, R

    2014-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms contribute to the evolution of reproductive barriers, a process that is critical in speciation. Amongst these are alterations in gene products and in gene dosage that affect development and reproductive success in hybrid offspring. Because of its strict parent-of-origin dependence, genomic imprinting is thought to contribute to the aberrant phenotypes observed in interspecies hybrids in mammals and flowering plants, when the abnormalities depend on the directionality of the cross. In different groups of mammals, hybrid incompatibility has indeed been linked to loss of imprinting. Aberrant expression levels have been reported as well, including imprinted genes involved in development and growth. Recent studies in humans emphasize that genetic diversity within a species can readily perturb imprinted gene expression and phenotype as well. Despite novel insights into the underlying mechanisms, the full extent of imprinted gene perturbation still remains to be determined in the different hybrid systems. Here we review imprinted gene expression in intra- and interspecies hybrids and examine the evolutionary scenarios under which imprinting could contribute to hybrid incompatibilities. We discuss effects on development and reproduction and possible evolutionary implications. PMID:24619185

  15. Comparisons of mRNA expression for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) type 2 receptor (IGF2R) and IGF-1 in small ovarian follicles between cattle selected and not selected for twin ovulations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both IGF-1 and -2 stimulate ovarian follicular cell proliferation and antral follicle development. Actions of IGF-1 and -2 are mediated through the IGF type 1 receptor, whereas binding of IGF-2 to the IGF2R results in its degradation. Information on the role of IGF2R in regulating bovine follicula...

  16. Physical mapping of the IGF2 locus in the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Lawton, B R; Obergfell, C; O'Neill, R J; O'Neill, M J

    2007-01-01

    The South American opossum Monodelphis domestica has been a model organism for marsupials for many years and has recently been the subject of a large-scale genome sequencing effort that will provide the foundation for comparative studies of gene function and regulation. Genomic imprinting is one mechanism of gene regulation that has received increasing attention due to the impact of imprinting defects on development and disease. We have mapped the imprinted insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene of M. domestica as a first step in understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved in genomic imprinting in this marsupial.

  17. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is associated with differential expression of imprinted genes and DNA methyltranfereases in muscle of beef cattle offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Lan, X; Radunz, A E; Khatib, H

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy is a major determinant of the fetal developmental competence and may induce long-lasting epigenetic changes to the offspring. Imprinted genes have important roles in fetal programming, growth, and development. There are, however, limited data available on the influence of maternal diet on the expression of imprinted genes in beef cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal diet during pregnancy on the expression of 5 imprinted genes and 3 DNA methyltransferase genes in longissimus dorsi muscle from Angus calves. A total of 36 Angus-cross cows were inseminated to a single sire and on Day 135 of gestation they were randomly assigned to either low-starch (haylage) or high-starch (corn silage) diets. Diets were initially formulated to provide isocaloric and isonitrogenous intake. The H19, MEG8, IGF2R, and DNMT3a genes showed differential expression in longissimus dorsi muscle in calves between the diet groups. Given that high-starch diet is a source of energy for muscle growth and feed conversion efficiency in postnatal development, the mechanisms by which this diet affected expression of imprinted genes should be further explored.

  18. GH indirectly enhances the regeneration of transgenic zebrafish fins through IGF2a and IGF2b.

    PubMed

    Nornberg, Bruna Félix; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Figueiredo, Márcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The somatotropic axis, composed essentially of the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), is the main regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates. However, these protein hormones are also involved in various other major physiological processes. Although the importance of IGFs in mechanisms involving tissue regeneration has already been established, little is known regarding the direct effects of GH in these processes. In this study, we used a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model, which overexpresses GH from the beta-actin constitutive promoter. The regenerative ability of the caudal fin was assessed after repeated amputations, as well as the expression of genes related to the GH/IGF axis. The results revealed that GH overexpression increased the regenerated area of the caudal fin in transgenic fish after the second amputation. Transgenic fish also presented a decrease in gene expression of the GH receptor (ghrb), in opposition to the increased expression of the IGF1 receptors (igf1ra and igf1rb). These results suggest that transgenic fish have a higher sensitivity to IGFs than to GH during fin regeneration. With respect to the different IGFs produced locally, a decrease in igf1a expression and a significant increase in both igf2a and igf2b expression was observed, suggesting that igf1a is not directly involved in fin regeneration. Overall, the results revealed that excess GH enhances fin regeneration in zebrafish through igf2a and igf2b expression, acting indirectly on this major physiological process.

  19. Bovine DNA methylation imprints are established in an oocyte size-specific manner, which are coordinated with the expression of the DNMT3 family proteins.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Alan M; O'Shea, Lynne C; Fair, Trudee

    2012-03-01

    A subset of genes, known as imprinted genes, is present in the mammalian genome. Genomic imprinting governs the monoallelic expression of these genes, depending on whether the gene was inherited from the sperm or the egg. This parent-of-origin specific gene expression is generally dependent on the epigenetic modification, DNA methylation, and the DNA methylation status of CpG dinucleotides residing in loci known as differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The enzymatic machinery responsible for the addition of methyl (-CH(3)) groups to the cytosine residue in the CpG dinucleotides are known as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Correct establishment and maintenance of methylation patterns at imprinted genes has been associated with placental function and regulation of embryonic/fetal development. Much work has been carried out on imprinted genes in mouse and human; however, little is known about the methylation dynamics in the bovine oocyte. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize the establishment of methylation at maternally imprinted genes in bovine growing oocytes and to determine if the expression of the bovine DNMTs-DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3L-was coordinated with DNA methylation during oocyte development. To this end, a panel of maternally imprinted genes was selected (SNRPN, MEST, IGF2R, PEG10, and PLAGL1) and putative DMRs for MEST, IGF2R, PEG10, and PLAGL1 were identified within the 5' regions for each gene; the SNRPN DMR has been reported previously. Conventional bisulfite sequencing revealed that methylation marks were acquired at all five DMRs investigated in an oocyte size-dependent fashion. This was confirmed for a selection of genes using pyrosequencing analysis. Furthermore, mRNA expression and protein analysis revealed that DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3L are also present in the bovine oocyte during its growth phase. This study demonstrates for the first time that an increase in bovine imprinted gene DMR methylation occurs during

  20. Parental imprinting regulates insulin-like growth factor signaling: a Rosetta Stone for understanding the biology of pluripotent stem cells, aging and cancerogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, M Z; Shin, D-M; Schneider, G; Ratajczak, J; Kucia, M

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, solid evidence has accumulated that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2) regulate many biological processes in normal and malignant cells. Recently, more light has been shed on the epigenetic mechanisms regulating expression of genes involved in IGF signaling (IFS) and it has become evident that these mechanisms are crucial for initiation of embryogenesis, maintaining the quiescence of pluripotent stem cells deposited in adult tissues (for example, very-small embryonic-like stem cells), the aging process, and the malignant transformation of cells. The expression of several genes involved in IFS is regulated at the epigenetic level by imprinting/methylation within differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which regulate their expression from paternal or maternal chromosomes. The most important role in the regulation of IFS gene expression is played by the Igf-2-H19 locus, which encodes the autocrine/paracrine mitogen IGF-2 and the H19 gene, which gives rise to a non-coding RNA precursor of several microRNAs that negatively affect cell proliferation. Among these, miR-675 has recently been demonstrated to downregulate expression of the IGF-1 receptor. The proper imprinting of DMRs at the Igf-2-H19 locus, with methylation of the paternal chromosome and a lack of methylation on the maternal chromosome, regulates expression of these genes so that Igf-2 is transcribed only from the paternal chromosome and H19 (including miR-675) only from the maternal chromosome. In this review, we will discuss the relevance of (i) proper somatic imprinting, (ii) erasure of imprinting and (iii) loss of imprinting within the DMRs at the Igf-2-H19 locus to the expression of genes involved in IFS, and the consequences of these alternative patterns of imprinting for stem cell biology.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 2 stimulates steroidogenesis and mitosis of bovine granulosa cells through the IGF1 receptor: role of follicle-stimulating hormone and IGF2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J; Aad, P Y

    2007-07-01

    Little is known regarding the role of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and the regulation of the IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) during follicular development. Granulosa cells were collected from small (1-5 mm) and large (8-22 mm) bovine follicles and were treated with IGF2 for 1-2 days in serum-free medium, and steroid production, cell proliferation, specific (125)I-IGF2 binding, and gene expression were quantified. IGF2 increased both estradiol and progesterone production by granulosa cells, and cells from large follicles were more responsive to the effects of IGF2 than those from small follicles. Abundance of aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA was stimulated by IGF2 and IGF1. The effective dose (ED(50)) of IGF2 stimulating 50% of the maximal estradiol production was 63 ng/ml for small follicles and 12 ng/ml for large follicles, and these values were not affected by FSH. The ED(50) of IGF2 for progesterone production was 20 ng/ml for both small and large follicles. IGF2 also increased proliferation of granulosa cells by 2- to 3-fold, as determined by increased cell numbers and (3)H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. Treatment with IGF1R antibodies reduced the stimulatory effect of IGF2 and IGF1 on estradiol production and cell proliferation. Specific receptors for (125)I-IGF2 existed in granulosa cells, and 2-day treatment with estradiol, FSH, or cortisol had no significant effect on specific (125)I-IGF2 binding. Also, FSH treatment of small- and large-follicle granulosa cells had no effect on IGF2R mRNA levels, whereas IGF1 decreased IGF2R mRNA and specific (125)I-IGF2 binding. Granulosa cell IGF2R mRNA abundance was 3-fold greater in small than in large follicles. These findings support the hypothesis that both IGF2 and its receptor may play a role in granulosa cell function during follicular development. In particular, increased free IGF1 in developing follicles may decrease synthesis of IGF2R, thereby allowing for more IGF2 to be bioavailable (free) for induction of

  2. IGF2 stimulates fetal growth in a sex and organ dependent manner.

    PubMed

    White, Veronica; Jawerbaum, Alicia; Mazzucco, Maria Belen; Gauster, Martin; Desoye, Gernot; Hiden, Ursula

    2017-09-14

    IGF2 is a key determinant of fetal growth, and altered expression of IGF2 is implicated in fetal growth disorders and maternal metabolic derangements including gestational diabetes. Here we studied how increased levels of IGF2 in late pregnancy affect fetal growth. We employed a rat model of repeated intra-fetal IGF2 administration in late pregnancy, i.e. during GD19-GD21, and measured the consequences on fetal organ weight and expression of insulin/IGF-axis components. IGF2 treatment tended to increase fetal weight, but only weight increase of fetal stomach reached significance (+33±9%; P<0.01). Sex dependent data analysis revealed a sexual dimorphism of IGF2 action: In male fetuses, IGF2 administration significantly increased fetal weight (+13±3%; P<0.05) and weight of fetal stomach (+42±10%; P<0.01), intestine (+26±5%; P<0.05), liver (+13±4%; P<0.05) and pancreas (+25±8%; P<0.05). Weights of heart, lungs and kidneys were unchanged. In female fetuses, IGF2 increased only stomach weight (+26±9%; P<0.05). Furthermore, gene expression of insulin/IGF-axis in heart, lungs, liver and stomach was more sensitive towards IGF2 treatment in male than in female fetuses. Data suggest that elevated circulating IGF2 in late pregnancy predominantly stimulates organ growth of the digestive system, and male fetuses are more susceptible towards the IGF2 effects than female fetuses.Pediatric Research accepted article preview online, 14 September 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.221.

  3. Administration of growth hormone and nandrolone decanoate alters mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor subunits as well as of the GH receptor, IGF-1, and IGF-2 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Johansson, Jenny; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), especially among young adults, is of major concern. Among AAS users it is common to combine the AAS nandrolone decanoate (ND), with intake of growth hormone (GH) and a connection between gonadal steroids and the GH system has been suggested. Both AAS and GH affect functions in the brain, for example those associated with the hypothalamus and pituitary, and several GH actions are mediated by growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The GABAergic system is implicated in actions induced by AAS and previous studies have provided evidence for a link between GH and GABAB receptors in the brain. Our aim was to examine the impact of AAS administration and a subsequent administration of GH, on the expression of GABAB receptors and important GH mediators in rat brain. The aim was to investigate the CNS effects of a high-dose ND, and to study if a low, but physiological relevant, dose of GH could reverse the ND-induced effects. In the present study, male rats were administered a high dose of ND every third day during three weeks, and subsequently the rats were given recombinant human GH (rhGH) during ten days. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze gene expression in hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. In the pituitary gland, the expression of GABAB receptor subunits was affected differently by the steroid treatment; the GABAB1 mRNA expression was decreased whereas a distinct elevation of the GABAB2 expression was found. Administration of ND also caused a decrease of GHR, IGF-1, and IGF-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary while the corresponding expression in the hypothalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala was unaffected. The rhGH administration did not alter the GABAB2 expression but increased the GABAB1 gene expression in the hypothalamus as compared to the AAS treated group. These results

  4. Two Isoforms of the RNA Binding Protein, Coding Region Determinant-binding Protein (CRD-BP/IGF2BP1), Are Expressed in Breast Epithelium and Support Clonogenic Growth of Breast Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Fakhraldeen, Saja A; Clark, Rod J; Roopra, Avtar; Chin, Emily N; Huang, Wei; Castorino, John; Wisinski, Kari B; Kim, TaeWon; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Alexander, Caroline M

    2015-05-22

    CRD-BP/IGF2BP1 has been characterized as an "oncofetal" RNA binding protein typically highly expressed in embryonic tissues, suppressed in normal adult tissues, but induced in many tumor types. In this study, we show that adult breast tissues express ubiquitous but low levels of CRD-BP protein and mRNA. Although CRD-BP mRNA expression is induced in breast tumor cells, levels remain ∼1000-fold lower than in embryonic tissues. Despite low expression levels, CRD-BP is required for clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells. We reveal that because the most common protein isoform in normal adult breast and breast tumors has an N-terminal deletion (lacking two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains) and is therefore missing antibody epitopes, CRD-BP expression has been under-reported by previous studies. We show that a CRD-BP mutant mouse strain retains expression of the shorter transcript (ΔN-CRD-BP), which originates in intron 2, suggesting that the impact of complete ablation of this gene in mice is not yet known. Either the full-length CRD-BP or the N-terminally truncated version can rescue the clonogenicity of CRD-BP knockdown breast cancer cells, suggesting that clonogenic function is served by either CRD-BP isoform. In summary, although CRD-BP expression levels are low in breast cancer cells, this protein is necessary for clonogenic activity.

  5. IGF-2 is necessary for Retinoblastoma-mediated enhanced adaptation after small bowel resection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Pamela M.; Sun, Raphael C.; Sommovilla, Josh; Diaz-Miron, Jose; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we have demonstrated that genetically disrupting retinoblastoma protein (Rb) expression in enterocytes results in taller villi, mimicking resection-induced adaption responses. Rb deficiency also results in elevated IGF-2 expression in villus enterocytes. We propose that postoperative disruption of Rb results in enhanced adaptation which is driven by IGF-2. Methods Inducible, intestine-specific Rb-null mice (iRbIKO) and wild-type littermates (WT) underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection (SBR) at 7–9 weeks of age. They were then were given tamoxifen on POD 4–6, and harvested on POD 28. The experiment was then repeated on double knockouts of both IGF-2 and Rb (IGF-2 null/iRbIKO). Results iRbIKO mice demonstrated enhanced resection-induced adaptive villus growth after SBR and increased IGF-2 mRNA in ileal villus enterocytes compared to their WT littermates. In the IGF-2 null/iRbIKO double knockout mice, there was no additional villus growth beyond what was expected of normal resection-induced adaptation. Conclusions Adult mice in which Rb is inducibly deleted from the intestinal epithelium following SBR have augmented adaptive growth. IGF-2 expression is necessary for enhanced adaptation associated with acute intestinal Rb deficiency. PMID:25002022

  6. IGF2/H19 hypomethylation is tissue, cell, and CpG site dependent and not correlated with body asymmetry in adolescents with Silver-Russell syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kannenberg, Kai; Weber, Karin; Binder, Cathrin; Urban, Christina; Kirschner, Hans-Joachim; Binder, Gerhard

    2012-09-18

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth failure and frequent body asymmetry. Half of the patients with SRS carry a DNA hypomethylation of the imprinting center region 1 (ICR1) of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 locus, and the clinical phenotype is most severe in these patients. We aimed to elucidate the epigenetic basis of asymmetry in SRS and the cellular consequences of the ICR1 hypomethylation. The ICR1 methylation status was analyzed in blood and in addition in buccal smear probes and cultured fibroblasts obtained from punch biopsies taken from the two body halves of 5 SRS patients and 3 controls. We found that the ICR1 hypomethylation in SRS patients was stronger in blood leukocytes and oral mucosa cells than in fibroblasts. ICR1 CpG sites were affected differently. The severity of hypomethylation was not correlated to body asymmetry. IGF2 expression and IGF-II secretion of fibroblasts were not correlated to the degree of ICR1 hypomethylation. SRS fibroblasts responded well to stimulation by recombinant human IGF-I or IGF-II, with proliferation rates comparable with controls. Clonal expansion of primary fibroblasts confirmed the complexity of the cellular mosaicism. We conclude that the ICR1 hypomethylation SRS is tissue, cell, and CpG site specific. The correlation of the ICR1 hypomethylation to IGF2 and H19 expression is not strict, may depend on the investigated tissue, and may become evident only in case of more severe methylation defects. The body asymmetry in juvenile SRS patients is not related to a corresponding ICR1 hypomethylation gradient, rendering more likely an intrauterine origin of asymmetry. Overall, it may be instrumental to consider not only the ICR1 methylation status as decisive for IGF2/H19 expression regulation.

  7. Germline and somatic imprinting in the nonhuman primate highlights species differences in oocyte methylation.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Clara Y; Chng, Keefe; Ng, Shilen; Chew, Siew Boom; Chan, Louiza; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C

    2015-05-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism resulting in parental allele-specific gene expression. Defects in normal imprinting are found in cancer, assisted reproductive technologies, and several human syndromes. In mouse models, germline-derived DNA methylation is shown to regulate imprinting. Though imprinting is largely conserved between mammals, species- and tissue-specific domains of imprinted expression exist. Using the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) to assess primate-specific imprinting, we present a comprehensive view of tissue-specific imprinted expression and DNA methylation at established imprinted gene clusters. For example, like mouse and unlike human, macaque IGF2R is consistently imprinted, and the PLAGL1, INPP5F transcript variant 2, and PEG3 imprinting control regions are not methylated in the macaque germline but acquire this post-fertilization. Methylome data from human early embryos appear to support this finding. These suggest fundamental differences in imprinting control mechanisms between primate species and rodents at some imprinted domains, with implications for our understanding of the epigenetic programming process in humans and its influence on disease.

  8. IGF-2R-Gαq signaling and cardiac hypertrophy in the low-birth-weight lamb

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kimberley C. W.; Tosh, Darran N.; Zhang, Song; McMillen, I. Caroline; Duffield, Jaime A.; Brooks, Doug A.

    2015-01-01

    The cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF-2R) can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in a heterotrimeric G protein receptor-coupled manner involving αq (Gαq) or αs (Gαs). We have previously shown increased left ventricular weight and cardiac IGF-2 and IGF-2R gene expression in low-birth-weight (LBW) compared with average-birth-weight (ABW) lambs. Here, we have investigated the cardiac expression of IGF-2 gene variants, the degree of histone acetylation, and the abundance of proteins in the IGF-2R downstream signaling pathway in ABW and LBW lambs. Samples from the left ventricle of ABW and LBW lambs were collected at 21 days of age. There was increased phospho-CaMKII protein with decreased HDAC 4 abundance in the LBW compared with ABW lambs. There was increased GATA 4 and decreased phospho-troponin I abundance in LBW compared with ABW lambs, which are markers of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and impaired or reduced contractility, respectively. There was increased histone acetylation of H3K9 at IGF-2R promoter and IGF-2R intron 2 differentially methylated region in the LBW lamb. In conclusion, histone acetylation of IGF-2R may lead to increased IGF-2R mRNA expression and subsequently mediate Gαq signaling early in life via CaMKII, resulting in an increased risk of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular disease in adult life. PMID:25632020

  9. Long non-coding RNA Igf2as controls hepatocellular carcinoma progression through the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Han; Guo, Chun-Guang; Qiu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Xin-Lei; Dong, Qi; Wang, Yu-Kun

    2017-09-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve an important role in numerous human diseases, including cancer. Abnormal expression of lncRNAs has been associated with a number of tumor types; however, the underlying mechanisms through which lncRNA functions have yet to be elucidated. The present study primarily focuses on insulin-like growth factor 2 antisense 1 (Igf2as), a lncRNA reported to be differentially expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the level of Igf2as in HCC cells and tissues. Flow cytometry was used to determine the level of cell apoptosis following Igf2as suppression and western blot analysis was used to identify altered protein expression levels. The results demonstrated that Igf2as was upregulated in HCC cells and tissues, and that the inhibition of Igf2as using a targeted small interfering RNA (si-Igf2as), significantly decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Western blot analysis identified that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling pathway was inhibited in cells transfected with si-Igf2as. In addition, cell migration was markedly reduced by the knockdown of Igf2as. These results suggest that lncRNA Igf2as may control hepatocellular progression primarily through the regulation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

  10. Pericentral hepatocytes produce IGF-2 to promote liver regeneration during special injuries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junlai; Hu, Xiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinqi; Wang, Lu; Wang, Binbin; Peng, Wenbo; Yang, Cuiwei; Li, Zhijie; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yue J; Li, Chuanjiang; Li, Xiajun; Yan, Fang; Wang, Yunfang; Shang, Changzhen; Wang, Xin; Chen, Tao; Huang, Pengyu

    2017-06-27

    Liver regeneration happens after various types of injuries. Unlike the well-studied liver regeneration caused by partial hepatectomy, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that liver regeneration during other injuries may result from some unknown mechanism. In this study, we found that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) was drastically induced following the liver injuries caused by tyrosinemia or long-term treatments of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). However, it was not observed during the early phase of acute liver injuries after partial hepatectomy or single treatment of CCl4 . Remarkably, most of IGF-2 expressing hepatocytes were located at the histological area around the central vein of liver lobule after the liver injuries caused either in Fah-deficient mice or in CCl4 chronically treated mice. Hepatocyte proliferation in vivo was significantly promoted by the induced IGF-2 over-expression, which could be inhibited by AAV-delivered IGF-2 shRNAs or linsitinib, an inhibitor of IGF-2 signaling. Proliferating hepatocytes in vivo responded to IGF-2 via both insulin receptor and IGF-1 receptor. IGF-2 also significantly promoted DNA synthesis of primary hepatocytes in vitro. More interestingly, the significantly induced IGF-2 was also found to co-localize with glutamine synthetase in the region enriched with proliferating hepatocytes for the liver samples from patients with liver fibrosis. IGF-2 is produced by pericentral hepatocytes to promote hepatocyte proliferation and repair tissue damage in the setting of chronic liver injury, which is distinct from the signaling that occurs after partial hepatectomy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. IGF2BP3 Modulates the Interaction of Invasion-Associated Transcripts with RISC.

    PubMed

    Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J; Uren, Philip J; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D; Toloue, Masoud M; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Penalva, Luiz O F; Sanford, Jeremy R

    2016-05-31

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy, but its role(s) in pathogenesis remains enigmatic. We interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches, we have identified 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transgenerational impaired male fertility with an Igf2 epigenetic defect in the rat are induced by the endocrine disruptor p,p'-DDE.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Wu, Nanxiang; Wang, Simeng; Gao, Ming; Song, Peng; Lou, Jianlin; Tan, Yufeng; Liu, Kecheng

    2014-11-01

    What are the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the transgenerational effect of p,p'-DDE on male fertility? Impaired male fertility with an Igf2 epigenetic defect is transgenerationally inherited upon exposure of p,p'-DDE. p,p'-Dichlorodiphenoxydichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) is one of the primary metabolite products of the ancestral organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenoxytrichloroethane. As it is a known anti-androgen endocrine disruptor, it could cause harmful effects on the male reproductive system. Pregnant rats (F0) were administered with p,p'-DDE or corn oil at the critical time of testis development, i.e. from gestation days 8 to 15. Male and female rats of the F1 generation were mated with each other to produce F2 progeny. To reveal whether the transgenerational phenotype is produced by the maternal or paternal line, F3 progeny were generated by intercrossing control (C) and treated (DDE) males and females of the F2 generation according to the following groups: (i) C♂-C♀, (ii) DDE♂-DDE♀, (iii) DDE♂-C♀ and (iv) C♂-DDE♀. Mature sperm and testes were collected from male offspring of the F1-F3 generations for the examination of male fertility parameters, i.e. sperm count and motility, testis histology and apoptosis. Expression of the imprinted genes, H19 and Igf2, was detected by real-time PCR. Igf2 DMR2 methylation was analyzed by bisulfite genomic sequencing. Upon exposure of p,p'-DDE, the male F1 generation showed impaired male fertility and altered imprinted gene expression caused by Igf2 DMR2 hypomethylation. These defects were transferred to the F3 generation through the male germline. This study has examined the effect of p,p'-DDE only on the sperm number and motility and the possible mechanism of Igf2 DMR2 methylation in vivo and thus has some limitations. Further investigation is necessary to focus on the epigenetic effects of p,p'-DDE at the genome level and to include a more detailed semen quality analysis including sperm morphology

  13. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M; Howard, Jonathan M; Contreras, Jorge R; Fernando, Thilini R; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Basso, Giuseppe; Pigazzi, Martina; Sanford, Jeremy R; Rao, Dinesh S

    2016-04-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia-rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease.

  14. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Contreras, Jorge R.; Fernando, Thilini R.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Rao, Dinesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia–rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26974154

  15. Disrupted imprinting status at the H19 differentially methylated region is associated with the resorbed embryo phenotype in rats.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Shilpa; Saxena, Madhurima; D'Souza, Ryan; Balasinor, N H

    2010-01-01

    Igf2, an imprinted gene that is paternally expressed in embryos, encodes an embryonic growth factor. An important regulator of Igf2 expression is methylation of the H19 differentially methylated region (DMR). A significant association has been observed between sperm methylation status at the H19 DMR and post-implantation loss. In addition, tamoxifen treatment has been shown to increase post-implantation loss and reduce DNA methylation at the H19 DMR in rat spermatozoa. Because this DMR is a primary DMR transmitting epigenetic imprint information from the gametes to the embryo, the aim of the present study was to determine the imprinting status of H19 DMR in post-implantation normal and resorbed embryos (F(1)) and to compare it with the H19 DMR in the spermatozoa of the respective sires. Analysis of the H19 DMR revealed methylation errors in resorbed embryo that were also observed in their sires' spermatozoa in the control and tamoxifen-treated groups. Expression analysis of the reciprocally imprinted genes Igf2 and H19 showed significant downregulation of Igf2 protein without any effect on H19 transcript levels in the resorbed embryos. The results indicate an association between disrupted imprinting status at the H19 DMR in resorbed embryos and the spermatozoa from their respective sires regardless of treatment, implying a common mechanism of resorption. The results demonstrate transmission of methylation errors at the Igf2-H19 locus through the paternal germline to the subsequent generation, emphasising the role of paternal factors during embryogenesis.

  16. Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) Potentiates BMP-9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Jiayi; He, Bai-Cheng; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Wenli; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Wagner, Eric R; Luo, Jinyong; Tang, Min; Wietholt, Christian; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Su, Yuxi; Liu, Bo; Kim, Stephanie H; He, Connie J; Hu, Yawen; Shen, Jikun; Rastegar, Farbod; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Gao, Jian-Li; Zhou, Jian-Zhong; Reid, Russell R; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Deng, Zhong-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) as one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Here we investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) on BMP-9-induced bone formation. We have found that endogenous IGF-2 expression is low in MSCs. Expression of IGF-2 can potentiate BMP-9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of later markers. IGF-2 has been shown to augment BMP-9-induced ectopic bone formation in the stem cell implantation assay. In perinatal limb explant culture assay, IGF-2 enhances BMP-9-induced endochondral ossification, whereas IGF-2 itself can promote the expansion of the hypertropic chondrocyte zone of the cultured limb explants. Expression of the IGF antagonists IGFBP3 and IGFBP4 leads to inhibition of the IGF-2 effect on BMP-9-induced ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Mechanistically, IGF-2 is further shown to enhance the BMP-9-induced BMPR-Smad reporter activity and Smad1/5/8 nuclear translocation. PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 abolishes the IGF-2 potentiation effect on BMP-9-mediated osteogenic signaling and can directly inhibit BMP-9 activity. These results demonstrate that BMP-9 crosstalks with IGF-2 through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combination of BMP-9 and IGF-2 may be explored as an effective bone-regeneration agent to treat large segmental bony defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20499340

  17. Expression profile and transcription factor binding site exploration of imprinted genes in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Christine; Paulsen, Martina; Kielbasa, Szymon; Walter, Jörn; Vingron, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, imprinted genes are regulated by an epigenetic mechanism that results in parental origin-specific expression. Though allele-specific regulation of imprinted genes has been studied for several individual genes in detail, little is known about their overall tissue-specific expression patterns and interspecies conservation of expression. Results We performed a computational analysis of microarray expression data of imprinted genes in human and mouse placentae and in a variety of adult tissues. For mouse, early embryonic stages were also included. The analysis reveals that imprinted genes are expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues for both species. Overall, the relative tissue-specific expression levels of orthologous imprinted genes in human and mouse are not highly correlated. However, in both species distinctive expression profiles are found in tissues of the endocrine pathways such as adrenal gland, pituitary, pancreas as well as placenta. In mouse, the placental and embryonic expression patterns of imprinted genes are highly similar. Transcription factor binding site (TFBS) prediction reveals correlation of tissue-specific expression patterns and the presence of distinct TFBS signatures in the upstream region of human imprinted genes. Conclusion Imprinted genes are broadly expressed pre- and postnatally and do not exhibit a distinct overall expression pattern when compared to non-imprinted genes. The relative expression of most orthologous gene pairs varies significantly between human and mouse suggesting rapid species-specific changes in gene regulation. Distinct expression profiles of imprinted genes are confined to certain human and mouse hormone producing tissues, and placentae. In contrast to the overall variability, distinct expression profiles and enriched TFBS signatures are found in human and mouse endocrine tissues and placentae. This points towards an important role played by imprinted gene regulation in these tissues. PMID

  18. Perinatal high methyl donor alters gene expression in IGF system in male offspring without altering DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Amarger, Valérie; Giudicelli, Fanny; Pagniez, Anthony; Parnet, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of a protein restriction and a supplementation with methyl donor nutrients during fetal and early postnatal life on the expression and epigenetic state of imprinted genes from the IGF system. Materials & methods: Pregnant female rats were fed a protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with methyl donor. Results: Gene expression of the Igf2, H19, Igf1, Igf2r and Plagl1 genes in the liver of male offspring at birth and weaning was strongly influenced by maternal diet. Whereas the methylation profiles of the Igf2, H19 and Igf2r genes were remarkably stable, DNA methylation of Plagl1 promoter was slightly modified. Conclusion: DNA methylation of most, but not all, imprinted gene regulatory regions was resistant to methyl group nutritional supply. PMID:28344827

  19. Perinatal high methyl donor alters gene expression in IGF system in male offspring without altering DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Amarger, Valérie; Giudicelli, Fanny; Pagniez, Anthony; Parnet, Patricia

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a protein restriction and a supplementation with methyl donor nutrients during fetal and early postnatal life on the expression and epigenetic state of imprinted genes from the IGF system. Pregnant female rats were fed a protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with methyl donor. Gene expression of the Igf2, H19, Igf1, Igf2r and Plagl1 genes in the liver of male offspring at birth and weaning was strongly influenced by maternal diet. Whereas the methylation profiles of the Igf2, H19 and Igf2r genes were remarkably stable, DNA methylation of Plagl1 promoter was slightly modified. DNA methylation of most, but not all, imprinted gene regulatory regions was resistant to methyl group nutritional supply.

  20. Allelic expression of mammalian imprinted genes in a matrotrophic lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Oliver W; Brandley, Matthew C; Belov, Katherine; Thompson, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    Genomic imprinting is a process that results in the differential expression of genes depending on their parent of origin. It occurs in both plants and live-bearing mammals, with imprinted genes typically regulating the ability of an embryo to manipulate the maternal provision of nutrients. Genomic imprinting increases the potential for selection to act separately on paternally and maternally expressed genes, which increases the number of opportunities that selection can facilitate embryonic control over maternal nutrient provision. By looking for imprinting in an independent matrotrophic lineage, the viviparous lizard Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii (Scincidae), we test the hypothesis that genomic imprinting facilitates the evolution of substantial placental nutrient transport to embryos (matrotrophy). We sequenced transcriptomes from the embryonic component of lizard placentae to determine whether there are parent-of-origin differences in expression of genes that are imprinted in mammals. Of these genes, 19 had sufficiently high expression in the lizard to identify polymorphisms in transcribed sequences. We identified bi-allelic expression in 17 genes (including insulin-like growth factor 2), indicating that neither allele was imprinted. These data suggest that either genomic imprinting has not evolved in this matrotrophic skink or, if it has, it has evolved in different genes to mammals. We outline how these hypotheses can be tested. This study highlights important differences between mammalian and reptile pregnancy and the absence of any shared imprinting genes reflects fundamental differences in the way that pregnancy has evolved in these two lineages.

  1. The role and interaction of imprinted genes in human fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Gudrun E; Ishida, Miho; Demetriou, Charalambos; Al-Olabi, Lara; Leon, Lydia J; Thomas, Anna C; Abu-Amero, Sayeda; Frost, Jennifer M; Stafford, Jaime L; Chaoqun, Yao; Duncan, Andrew J; Baigel, Rachel; Brimioulle, Marina; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Apostolidou, Sophia; Aggarwal, Reena; Whittaker, John C; Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Regan, Lesley; Monk, David; Stanier, Philip

    2015-03-05

    Identifying the genetic input for fetal growth will help to understand common, serious complications of pregnancy such as fetal growth restriction. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process that silences one parental allele, resulting in monoallelic expression. Imprinted genes are important in mammalian fetal growth and development. Evidence has emerged showing that genes that are paternally expressed promote fetal growth, whereas maternally expressed genes suppress growth. We have assessed whether the expression levels of key imprinted genes correlate with fetal growth parameters during pregnancy, either early in gestation, using chorionic villus samples (CVS), or in term placenta. We have found that the expression of paternally expressing insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), its receptor IGF2R, and the IGF2/IGF1R ratio in CVS tissues significantly correlate with crown-rump length and birthweight, whereas term placenta expression shows no correlation. For the maternally expressing pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member 2 (PHLDA2), there is no correlation early in pregnancy in CVS but a highly significant negative relationship in term placenta. Analysis of the control of imprinted expression of PHLDA2 gave rise to a maternally and compounded grand-maternally controlled genetic effect with a birthweight increase of 93/155 g, respectively, when one copy of the PHLDA2 promoter variant is inherited. Expression of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) in term placenta is significantly negatively correlated with head circumference. Analysis of the paternally expressing delta-like 1 homologue (DLK1) shows that the paternal transmission of type 1 diabetes protective G allele of rs941576 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in significantly reduced birth weight (-132 g). In conclusion, we have found that the expression of key imprinted genes show a strong correlation with fetal growth and that for both genetic and genomics data analyses, it

  2. The role and interaction of imprinted genes in human fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gudrun E.; Ishida, Miho; Demetriou, Charalambos; Al-Olabi, Lara; Leon, Lydia J.; Thomas, Anna C.; Abu-Amero, Sayeda; Frost, Jennifer M.; Stafford, Jaime L.; Chaoqun, Yao; Duncan, Andrew J.; Baigel, Rachel; Brimioulle, Marina; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Apostolidou, Sophia; Aggarwal, Reena; Whittaker, John C.; Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H.; Regan, Lesley; Monk, David; Stanier, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the genetic input for fetal growth will help to understand common, serious complications of pregnancy such as fetal growth restriction. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process that silences one parental allele, resulting in monoallelic expression. Imprinted genes are important in mammalian fetal growth and development. Evidence has emerged showing that genes that are paternally expressed promote fetal growth, whereas maternally expressed genes suppress growth. We have assessed whether the expression levels of key imprinted genes correlate with fetal growth parameters during pregnancy, either early in gestation, using chorionic villus samples (CVS), or in term placenta. We have found that the expression of paternally expressing insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), its receptor IGF2R, and the IGF2/IGF1R ratio in CVS tissues significantly correlate with crown–rump length and birthweight, whereas term placenta expression shows no correlation. For the maternally expressing pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member 2 (PHLDA2), there is no correlation early in pregnancy in CVS but a highly significant negative relationship in term placenta. Analysis of the control of imprinted expression of PHLDA2 gave rise to a maternally and compounded grand-maternally controlled genetic effect with a birthweight increase of 93/155 g, respectively, when one copy of the PHLDA2 promoter variant is inherited. Expression of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) in term placenta is significantly negatively correlated with head circumference. Analysis of the paternally expressing delta-like 1 homologue (DLK1) shows that the paternal transmission of type 1 diabetes protective G allele of rs941576 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in significantly reduced birth weight (−132 g). In conclusion, we have found that the expression of key imprinted genes show a strong correlation with fetal growth and that for both genetic and genomics data analyses

  3. Global assessment of imprinted gene expression in the bovine conceptus by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Hagen, Darren E.; Wang, Juanbin; Elsik, Christine G.; Ji, Tieming; Siqueira, Luiz G.; Hansen, Peter J.; Rivera, Rocío M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parental-allele-specific gene expression. Approximately 150 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and mice but less than 30 have been described as imprinted in cattle. For the purpose of de novo identification of imprinted genes in bovine, we determined global monoallelic gene expression in brain, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and placenta of day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 conceptuses using RNA sequencing. To accomplish this, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify parent-specific single nucleotide polymorphism alleles after filtering adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing sites. We identified 53 genes subject to monoallelic expression. Twenty three are genes known to be imprinted in the cow and an additional 7 have previously been characterized as imprinted in human and/or mouse that have not been reported as imprinted in cattle. Of the remaining 23 genes, we found that 10 are uncharacterized or unannotated transcripts located in known imprinted clusters, whereas the other 13 genes are distributed throughout the bovine genome and are not close to any known imprinted clusters. To exclude potential cis-eQTL effects on allele expression, we corroborated the parental specificity of monoallelic expression in day 86 Bos taurus taurus × Bos taurus taurus conceptuses and identified 8 novel bovine imprinted genes. Further, we identified 671 candidate A-to-I RNA editing sites and describe random X-inactivation in day 15 bovine extraembryonic membranes. Our results expand the imprinted gene list in bovine and demonstrate that monoallelic gene expression can be the result of cis-eQTL effects. PMID:27245094

  4. Global assessment of imprinted gene expression in the bovine conceptus by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Hagen, Darren E; Wang, Juanbin; Elsik, Christine G; Ji, Tieming; Siqueira, Luiz G; Hansen, Peter J; Rivera, Rocío M

    2016-07-02

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parental-allele-specific gene expression. Approximately 150 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and mice but less than 30 have been described as imprinted in cattle. For the purpose of de novo identification of imprinted genes in bovine, we determined global monoallelic gene expression in brain, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and placenta of day ∼105 Bos taurus indicus × Bos taurus taurus F1 conceptuses using RNA sequencing. To accomplish this, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify parent-specific single nucleotide polymorphism alleles after filtering adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing sites. We identified 53 genes subject to monoallelic expression. Twenty three are genes known to be imprinted in the cow and an additional 7 have previously been characterized as imprinted in human and/or mouse that have not been reported as imprinted in cattle. Of the remaining 23 genes, we found that 10 are uncharacterized or unannotated transcripts located in known imprinted clusters, whereas the other 13 genes are distributed throughout the bovine genome and are not close to any known imprinted clusters. To exclude potential cis-eQTL effects on allele expression, we corroborated the parental specificity of monoallelic expression in day 86 Bos taurus taurus × Bos taurus taurus conceptuses and identified 8 novel bovine imprinted genes. Further, we identified 671 candidate A-to-I RNA editing sites and describe random X-inactivation in day 15 bovine extraembryonic membranes. Our results expand the imprinted gene list in bovine and demonstrate that monoallelic gene expression can be the result of cis-eQTL effects.

  5. IGF2R Genetic Variants, Circulating IGF2 Concentrations and Colon Cancer Risk in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Vidal, Adriana C.; Skaar, David; Millikan, Robert C.; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.; Jirtle, Randy; Keku, Temitope

    2012-01-01

    The Mannose 6 Phosphate/Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-2 (IGF2R) encodes a type-1 membrane protein that modulates availability of the potent mitogen, IGF2. We evaluated the associations between IGF2R non-synonymous genetic variants (c.5002G>A, Gly1619Arg(rs629849), and c.901C>G, Leu252Val(rs8191754)), circulating IGF2 levels, and colon cancer (CC) risk among African American and White participants enrolled in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study (NCCCS). Generalized linear models were used to compare circulating levels of IGF2 among 298 African American and 518 White controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of IGF2R genetic variants and CC risk. Women homozygous for the IGF2R c.5002 G>A allele, had higher mean levels of circulating IGF2, 828 (SD=321) ng/ml compared to non-carriers, 595 (SD=217) ng/ml (p-value=0.01). This pattern was not apparent in individuals homozygous for the IGF2R c.901 C>G variant. Whites homozygous for the IGF2R c.901 C>G variant trended towards a higher risk of CC, OR=2.2 [95% CI(0.9–5.4)], whereas carrying the IGF2R c.5002 G>A variant was not associated with CC risk. Our findings support the hypothesis that being homozygous for the IGF2R c.5002 G>A modulates IGF2 circulating levels in a sex-specific manner, and while carrying the IGF2R c.901 C>G may increase cancer risk, the mechanism may not involve modulation of circulating IGF2. PMID:22377707

  6. De novo IGF2 mutation on the paternal allele in a patient with Silver-Russell syndrome and ectrodactyly.

    PubMed

    Yamoto, Kaori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Nakagawa, Norio; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Hasegawa, Tatsuji; Fujisawa, Yasuko; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    Although paternally expressed IGF2 is known to play a critical role in placental and body growth, only a single mutation has been found in IGF2. We identified, through whole-exome sequencing, a de novo IGF2 indel mutation leading to frameshift (NM_000612.5:c.110_117delinsAGGTAA, p.(Leu37Glnfs*31)) in a patient with Silver-Russell syndrome, ectrodactyly, undermasculinized genitalia, developmental delay, and placental hypoplasia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mutation resided on the paternal allele by sequencing the long PCR product harboring the mutation- and methylation-sensitive SmaI and SalI sites before and after SmaI/SalI digestion. The results, together with the previous findings in four cases from a single family with a paternally inherited IGF2 nonsense mutation and those in patients with variable H19 differentially methylated region epimutations leading to compromised IGF2 expression, suggest that the whole phenotype of this patient is explainable by the IGF2 mutation, and that phenotypic severity is primarily determined by the IGF2 expression level in target tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Frequent changes in expression profile and accelerated sequence evolution of duplicated imprinted genes in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yichun; Liu, Shao-Lun; Adams, Keith L

    2014-07-01

    Eukaryotic genomes have large numbers of duplicated genes that can evolve new functions or expression patterns by changes in coding and regulatory sequences, referred to as neofunctionalization. In flowering plants, some duplicated genes are imprinted in the endosperm, where only one allele is expressed depending on its parental origin. We found that 125 imprinted genes in Arabidopsis arose from gene duplication events during the evolution of the Brassicales. Analyses of 46 gene pairs duplicated by an ancient whole-genome duplication (alpha WGD) indicated that many imprinted genes show an accelerated rate of amino acid changes compared with their paralogs. Analyses of microarray expression data from 63 organ types and developmental stages indicated that many imprinted genes have expression patterns restricted to flowers and/or seeds in contrast to their broadly expressed paralogs. Assays of expression in orthologs from outgroup species revealed that some imprinted genes have acquired an organ-specific expression pattern restricted to flowers and/or seeds. The changes in expression pattern and the accelerated sequence evolution in the imprinted genes suggest that some of them may have undergone neofunctionalization. The imprinted genes MPC, HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS6 (HDG6), and HDG3 are particularly interesting cases that have different functions from their paralogs. This study indicates that a large number of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis are evolutionarily recent duplicates and that many of them show changes in expression profiles and accelerated sequence evolution. Acquisition of imprinting is a mode of duplicate gene divergence in plants that is more common than previously thought.

  8. Brain-expressed imprinted genes and adult behaviour: the example of Nesp and Grb10.

    PubMed

    Dent, Claire L; Isles, Anthony R

    2014-02-01

    Imprinted genes are defined by their parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression. Although the epigenetic mechanisms regulating imprinted gene expression have been widely studied, their functional importance is still unclear. Imprinted genes are associated with a number of physiologies, including placental function and foetal growth, energy homeostasis, and brain and behaviour. This review focuses on genomic imprinting in the brain and on two imprinted genes in particular, Nesp and paternal Grb10, which, when manipulated in animals, have been shown to influence adult behaviour. These two genes are of particular interest as they are expressed in discrete and overlapping neural regions, recognised as key "imprinting hot spots" in the brain. Furthermore, these two genes do not appear to influence placental function and/or maternal provisioning of offspring. Consequently, by understanding their behavioural function we may begin to shed light on the evolutionary significance of imprinted genes in the adult brain, independent of the recognised role in maternal care. In addition, we discuss the potential future directions of research investigating the function of these two genes and the behavioural role of imprinted genes more generally.

  9. Evidence that Igf2 down-regulation in postnatal tissues and up-regulation in malignancies is driven by transcription factor E2f3

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Julian C.; Baron, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is an important fetal growth factor. Its expression is dramatically down-regulated in multiple organs after birth but is frequently up-regulated in cancers. The mechanisms that drive down-regulation of IGF2 in postnatal tissues or the up-regulation in malignancy are unclear. We found evidence that E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) drives these changes in expression. E2f3 mRNA expression, protein expression, and binding to the Igf2 promoter all decreased with age postnatally in multiple mouse organs. In late juvenile hepatocytes, restoration of high E2f3 expression restored high Igf2 expression, indicating a causal relationship, but this induction did not occur in fetal hepatocytes, which already have high E2f3 and Igf2 expression. Transient expression of E2f3 in both HEK293 cells and in late juvenile hepatocytes were able to activate reporter constructs containing the mouse Igf2 promoter P2, which includes consensus E2F-binding sites. In humans, microarray data revealed declines in E2F3 and IGF2 expression with age similar to the mouse. In addition, E2F3-overexpressing human prostate and bladder cancers showed increased IGF2 expression, and levels of E2F3 and IGF2 mRNA in these cancers were positively correlated. Taken together, the findings suggest that down-regulation of E2f3 with age helps drive the dramatic decline in Igf2 expression in postnatal organs, and E2F3 overexpression in human cancers induces IGF2 overexpression. PMID:23530192

  10. The Arabidopsis thaliana MEDEA Polycomb group protein controls expression of PHERES1 by parental imprinting.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Claudia; Page, Damian R; Gagliardini, Valeria; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2005-01-01

    The maternally expressed Arabidopsis thaliana Polycomb group protein MEDEA (MEA) controls expression of the MADS-box gene PHERES1 (PHE1). Here, we show that PHE1 is mainly paternally expressed but maternally repressed and that this maternal repression of PHE1 breaks down in seeds lacking maternal MEA activity. Because Polycomb group proteins control parental imprinting in mammals as well, the independent recruitment of similar protein machineries for the imprinting of genes is a notable example of convergent evolution.

  11. STAT3-mediated IGF-2 secretion in the tumour microenvironment elicits innate resistance to anti-IGF-1R antibody

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Sun; Kang, Ju-Hee; Boo, Hye-Jin; Hwang, Su-Jung; Hong, Sungyoul; Lee, Su-Chan; Park, Young-Jun; Chung, Tae-Moon; Youn, Hyewon; Mi Lee, Seung; Jae Kim, Byoung; Chung, June-Key; Chung, Yeonseok; William, William N.; Kee Shin, Young; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Oh, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Young

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major impediment in medical oncology. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of the tumour microenvironment (TME) to innate resistance, to molecularly targeted therapies. In this study, we investigate the role of TME in resistance to cixutumumab, an anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody that has shown limited clinical efficacy. We show that treatment with cixutumumab accelerates tumour infiltration of stromal cells and metastatic tumour growth, and decreases overall survival of mice. Cixutumumab treatment stimulates STAT3-dependent transcriptional upregulation of IGF-2 in cancer cells and recruitment of macrophages and fibroblasts via paracrine IGF-2/IGF-2R activation, resulting in the stroma-derived CXCL8 production, and thus angiogenic and metastatic environment. Silencing IGF-2 or STAT3 expression in cancer cells or IGF-2R or CXCL8 expression in stromal cells significantly inhibits the cancer–stroma communication and vascular endothelial cells' angiogenic activities. These findings suggest that blocking the STAT3/IGF-2/IGF-2R intercellular signalling loop may overcome the adverse consequences of anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody-based therapies. PMID:26465273

  12. IGF-2R-Gαq signaling and cardiac hypertrophy in the low-birth-weight lamb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Tosh, Darran N; Zhang, Song; McMillen, I Caroline; Duffield, Jaime A; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2015-04-01

    The cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF-2R) can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in a heterotrimeric G protein receptor-coupled manner involving αq (Gαq) or αs (Gαs). We have previously shown increased left ventricular weight and cardiac IGF-2 and IGF-2R gene expression in low-birth-weight (LBW) compared with average-birth-weight (ABW) lambs. Here, we have investigated the cardiac expression of IGF-2 gene variants, the degree of histone acetylation, and the abundance of proteins in the IGF-2R downstream signaling pathway in ABW and LBW lambs. Samples from the left ventricle of ABW and LBW lambs were collected at 21 days of age. There was increased phospho-CaMKII protein with decreased HDAC 4 abundance in the LBW compared with ABW lambs. There was increased GATA 4 and decreased phospho-troponin I abundance in LBW compared with ABW lambs, which are markers of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and impaired or reduced contractility, respectively. There was increased histone acetylation of H3K9 at IGF-2R promoter and IGF-2R intron 2 differentially methylated region in the LBW lamb. In conclusion, histone acetylation of IGF-2R may lead to increased IGF-2R mRNA expression and subsequently mediate Gαq signaling early in life via CaMKII, resulting in an increased risk of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Methylation Status of H19/IGF2 Differentially Methylated Region in in vitro Human Blastocysts Donated by Healthy Couples

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshan-Horeh, Marzieh; Abolhassani, Farid; Jafarpour, Farnoosh; Moini, Ashraf; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Ostadhosseini, Somayyeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: Imprinted genes are a unique subset of few genes that have been differentially methylated region (DMR) in a parental origin-dependent manner during gametogenesis, and these genes are highly protected during pre-implantation epigenetic reprogramming. Several studies have shown that the particular vulnerability of imprinting genes during suboptimal pre- and peri-conception micro-environments often is occurred by assisted reproduction techniques (ART). This study investigated the methylation status of H19/IGF2 DMR at high-quality expanding/expanded human blastocysts donated by healthy individuals to evaluate the risks linked to ART. Method: Methylation levels of H19/IGF2 DMR were analyzed by bisulfite conversion and sequencing at 18 CpG sites (CpGs) located in this region. Result: The overall percentage of methylated CpGs and the proportion of hyper-methylated clones of H19/IGF2 DMR in analyzed blastocysts were 37.85±4.87% and 43.75±5.1%, respectively. For validation of our technique, the corresponding methylation levels of peripheral human lymphocytes were defined (49.52±1.86% and 50%, respectively). Conclusion: Considering the absence of in vivo- produced human embryos, it is not possible to conclude that the methylation found in H19/IGF2 DMR is actually normal or abnormal. Regarding the possible risks associated with ART, the procedures should be optimized in order to at least reduce some of the epigenetic risks. PMID:27432596

  14. Association between birth weight and DNA methylation of IGF2, glucocorticoid receptor and repetitive elements LINE-1 and Alu.

    PubMed

    Burris, Heather H; Braun, Joe M; Byun, Hyang-Min; Tarantini, Letizia; Mercado, Adriana; Wright, Rosalind J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M

    2013-06-01

    We examined the association between birth weight and methylation in the imprinted IGF/H19 loci, the nonimprinted gene NR3C1 and repetitive element DNA (LINE-1 and Alu). We collected umbilical cord venous blood from 219 infants born in Mexico City (Mexico) as part of a prospective birth cohort study and analyzed DNA methylation using pyrosequencing. Birth weight was not associated with DNA methylation of the regions studied. One of the CpG dinucleotides in the IGF2 imprinting control region (ICR)1 includes a potential C-T SNP. Among individuals with an absence of methylation at this site, probably due to a paternally inherited T allele, birth weight was associated with mean methylation status of both IGF2 ICR1 and ICR2. However, this association would not have survived adjustment for multiple testing. While we did not detect an association between DNA methylation and birth weight, our study suggests a potential gene-epigene interaction between a T allele in the IGF2 ICR1 and methylation of ICRs of IGF2, and fetal growth.

  15. Functional evolution of IGF2:IGF2R domain 11 binding generates novel structural interactions and a specific IGF2 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Frago, Susana; Nicholls, Ryan D.; Strickland, Madeleine; Hughes, Jennifer; Williams, Christopher; Garner, Lee; Maclean, Rory; Rezgui, Dellel; Prince, Stuart N.; Zaccheo, Oliver J.; Ebner, Daniel; Sanegre, Sabina; Yu, Sheng; Buffa, Francesca M.; Crump, Matthew P.; Hassan, Andrew Bassim

    2016-01-01

    Among the 15 extracellular domains of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R), domain 11 has evolved a binding site for IGF2 to negatively regulate ligand bioavailability and mammalian growth. Despite the highly evolved structural loops of the IGF2:domain 11 binding site, affinity-enhancing AB loop mutations suggest that binding is modifiable. Here we examine the extent to which IGF2:domain 11 affinity, and its specificity over IGF1, can be enhanced, and we examine the structural basis of the mechanistic and functional consequences. Domain 11 binding loop mutants were selected by yeast surface display combined with high-resolution structure-based predictions, and validated by surface plasmon resonance. We discovered previously unidentified mutations in the ligand-interacting surface binding loops (AB, CD, FG, and HI). Five combined mutations increased rigidity of the AB loop, as confirmed by NMR. When added to three independently identified CD and FG loop mutations that reduced the koff value by twofold, these mutations resulted in an overall selective 100-fold improvement in affinity. The structural basis of the evolved affinity was improved shape complementarity established by interloop (AB-CD) and intraloop (FG-FG) side chain interactions. The high affinity of the combinatorial domain 11 Fc fusion proteins functioned as ligand-soluble antagonists or traps that depleted pathological IGF2 isoforms from serum and abrogated IGF2-dependent signaling in vivo. An evolved and reengineered high-specificity M6P/IGF2R domain 11 binding site for IGF2 may improve therapeutic targeting of the frequent IGF2 gain of function observed in human cancer. PMID:27140600

  16. Lack of imprinting of the human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Propping, P.; Wolf, H.K.

    1996-04-09

    The term genomic imprinting has been used to refer to the differential expression of genetic material depending on whether it has come from the male or female parent. In humans, the chromosomal region 11p15.5 has been shown to contain 2 imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2). The gene for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), which is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology, is also located in this area. In the present study, we have examined the imprinting status of the DRD4 gene in brain tissue of an epileptic patient who was heterozygous for a 12 bp repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the DRD4 gene. We show that both alleles are expressed in equivalent amounts. We therefore conclude that the DRD4 gene is not imprinted in the human brain. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Detection of Imprinted Genes by Single-Cell Allele-Specific Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Federico A; Stamoulis, Georgios; Garieri, Marco; Falconnet, Emilie; Ribaux, Pascale; Borel, Christelle; Antonarakis, Stylianos E

    2017-03-02

    Genomic imprinting results in parental-specific gene expression. Imprinted genes are involved in the etiology of rare syndromes and have been associated with common diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Standard RNA bulk cell sequencing applied to whole-tissue samples has been used to detect imprinted genes in human and mouse models. However, lowly expressed genes cannot be detected by using RNA bulk approaches. Here, we report an original and robust method that combines single-cell RNA-seq and whole-genome sequencing into an optimized statistical framework to analyze genomic imprinting in specific cell types and in different individuals. Using samples from the probands of 2 family trios and 3 unrelated individuals, 1,084 individual primary fibroblasts were RNA sequenced and more than 700,000 informative heterozygous single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were genotyped. The allele-specific coverage per gene of each SNV in each single cell was used to fit a beta-binomial distribution to model the likelihood of a gene being expressed from one and the same allele. Genes presenting a significant aggregate allelic ratio (between 0.9 and 1) were retained to identify of the allelic parent of origin. Our approach allowed us to validate the imprinting status of all of the known imprinted genes expressed in fibroblasts and the discovery of nine putative imprinted genes, thereby demonstrating the advantages of single-cell over bulk RNA-seq to identify imprinted genes. The proposed single-cell methodology is a powerful tool for establishing a cell type-specific map of genomic imprinting. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of genomic imprinting by quantitative allele-specific expression by Pyrosequencing(®).

    PubMed

    McKeown, Peter C; Fort, Antoine; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a parent-of-origin phenomenon whereby gene expression is restricted to the allele inherited from either the maternal or paternal parent. It has been described from flowering plants and eutherian mammals and may have evolved due to parental conflicts over resource allocation. In mammals, imprinted genes are responsible for ensuring correct rates of embryo development and for preventing parthenogenesis. The molecular basis of imprinting depends upon the presence of differential epigenetic marks on the alleles inherited from each parent, although in plants the exact mechanisms that control imprinting are still unclear in many cases. Recent studies have identified large numbers of candidate imprinted genes from Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants (see Chap. 7 by Köhler and colleagues elsewhere in this volume) providing the tools for more thorough investigation into how imprinted gene networks (IGNs) are regulated. Analysis of genomic imprinting in animals has revealed important information on how IGNs are regulated during development, which often involves intermediate levels of imprinting. In some instances, small but significant changes in the degree of parental bias in gene expression have been linked to developmental traits, livestock phenotypes, and human disease. As some of the imprinted genes recently reported from plants show differential rather than complete (binary) imprinting, there is a clear need for tools that can quantify the degree of allelic expression bias occurring at a transcribed locus. In this chapter, we describe the use of Quantification of Allele-Specific Expression by Pyrosequencing(®) (QUASEP) as a tool suitable for this challenge. We describe in detail the factors which ensure that a Pyrosequencing(®) assay will be suitable for giving robust QUASEP and the problems which may be encountered during the study of imprinted genes by Pyrosequencing(®), with particular reference to our work in A. thaliana and in cattle

  19. Placental expression of imprinted genes varies with sampling site and mode of delivery

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, A.B.; Tunster, S.J.; Savory, N.; Holmes, A.; Beasley, J.; Parveen, S.A.R.; Penketh, R.J.A.; John, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Imprinted genes, which are monoallelically expressed by virtue of an epigenetic process initiated in the germline, are known to play key roles in regulating fetal growth and placental development. Numerous studies are investigating the expression of these imprinted genes in the human placenta in relation to common complications of pregnancy such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. This study aimed to determine whether placental sampling protocols or other factors such as fetal sex, gestational age and mode of delivery may influence the expression of imprinted genes predicted to regulate placental signalling. Methods Term placentas were collected from Caucasian women delivering at University Hospital of Wales or Royal Gwent Hospital within two hours of delivery. Expression of the imprinted genes PHLDA2, CDKN1C, PEG3 and PEG10 was assayed by quantitative real time PCR. Intraplacental gene expression was analysed (N = 5). Placental gene expression was compared between male (N = 11) and female (N = 11) infants, early term (N = 8) and late term (N = 10) deliveries and between labouring (N = 13) and non-labouring (N = 21) participants. Results The paternally expressed imprinted genes PEG3 and PEG10 were resilient to differences in sampling site, fetal sex, term gestational age and mode of delivery. The maternally expressed imprinted gene CDKN1C was elevated over 2-fold (p < 0.001) in placenta from labouring deliveries compared with elective caesarean sections. In addition, the maternally expressed imprinted gene PHLDA2 was elevated by 1.8 fold (p = 0.01) in samples taken at the distal edge of the placenta compared to the cord insertion site. Conclusion These findings support the reinterpretation of existing data sets on these genes in relation to complications of pregnancy and further reinforce the importance of optimising and unifying placental collection protocols for future studies. PMID:26162698

  20. Associations Between Paternally Transmitted Fetal IGF2 Variants and Maternal Circulating Glucose Concentrations in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Clive J.; Seear, Rachel V.; Wingate, Dianne L.; Manico, Lucy; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Dunger, David B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that polymorphic variation in the paternally transmitted fetal IGF2 gene is associated with maternal glucose concentrations in the third trimester of pregnancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 17 haplotype tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IGF2 gene region were genotyped in 1,160 mother/partner/offspring trios from the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study (n = 845 trios) and the retrospective Cambridge Wellbeing Study (n = 315 trios) (3,480 samples in total). Associations were tested between inferred parent-of-origin fetal alleles, z scores of maternal glucose concentrations 60 min. after an oral glucose load performed at week 28 of pregnancy, and offspring birth weights. RESULTS Using the minimum P value test, paternally transmitted fetal IGF2 polymorphisms were associated with maternal glucose concentrations; specifically, paternally transmitted fetal rs6578987 (P = 0.006), rs680 (P = 0.01), rs10770125 (P = 0.0002), and rs7924316 (P = 0.01) alleles were associated with increased maternal glucose concentrations in the third trimester of pregnancy and placental IGF-II contents at birth (P = 0.03). In contrast, there were no associations between maternal glucose concentrations and maternal or maternally transmitted fetal IGF2 genotypes. CONCLUSIONS Polymorphic variation in paternally transmitted fetal IGF2 is associated with increased maternal glucose concentrations in pregnancy and could potentially alter the risk of gestational diabetes in the mother. The association may be at least partially mediated by changes in placental IGF2 expression. PMID:21926269

  1. Epigenetic and genetic alterations of the imprinting disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Hidenobu; Higashimoto, Ken

    2013-07-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that leads to parent-specific differential expression of a subset of genes. Most imprinted genes form clusters, or imprinting domains, and are regulated by imprinting control regions. As imprinted genes have an important role in growth and development, aberrant expression of imprinted genes due to genetic or epigenetic abnormalities is involved in the pathogenesis of human disorders, or imprinting disorders. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a representative imprinting disorder characterized by macrosomia, macroglossia and abdominal wall defects, and exhibits a predisposition to tumorigenesis. The relevant imprinted chromosomal region in BWS is 11p15.5, which consists of two imprinting domains, IGF2/H19 and CDKN1C/KCNQ1OT1. BWS has five known causative epigenetic and genetic alterations: loss of methylation (LOM) at KvDMR1, gain of methylation (GOM) at H19DMR, paternal uniparental disomy, CDKN1C mutations and chromosomal rearrangements. Opposite methylation defects, GOM and LOM, at H19DMR are known to cause clinically opposite disorders: BWS and Silver-Russell syndrome, respectively. Interestingly, a recent study discovered that loss of function or gain of function of CDKN1C also causes clinically opposite disorders, BWS and IMAGe (intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies) syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, several clinical studies have suggested a relationship between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and the risk of imprinting disorders, along with the existence of trans-acting factors that regulate multiple imprinted differentially methylated regions. In this review, we describe the latest knowledge surrounding the imprinting mechanism of 11p15.5, in addition to epigenetic and genetic etiologies of BWS, associated childhood tumors, the effects of ART and multilocus hypomethylation disorders.

  2. Gene expression profile in cerebrum in the filial imprinting of domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Katagiri, Sachiko; Izawa, Ei-Ichi; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Takano, Tatsuya; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2008-06-15

    In newly hatched chicks, gene expression in the brain has previously been shown to be up-regulated following filial imprinting. By applying cDNA microarrays containing 13,007 expressed sequence tags, we examined the comprehensive gene expression profiling of the intermediate medial mesopallium in the chick cerebrum, which has been shown to play a key role in filial imprinting. We found 52 up-regulated genes and 6 down-regulated genes of at least 2.0-fold changes 3h after the training of filial imprinting, compared to the gene expression of the dark-reared chick brain. The up-regulated genes are known to be involved in a variety of pathways, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, nuclear function, cell metabolism, RNA binding, endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi function, synaptic function, ion channel, and transporter. In contrast, fewer genes were down-regulated in the imprinting, coinciding with the previous data that the total RNA synthesis increased associated with filial imprinting. Our data suggests that the filial imprinting involves the modulation of multiple signaling pathways.

  3. Association of chromosome arm 16q loss with loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor-II in Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mummert, Stephanie K; Lobanenkov, Victor A; Feinberg, Andrew P

    2005-06-01

    The most common known molecular defect in Wilms tumor (WT) of the kidney, the most frequent solid tumor of childhood, is loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor-II gene (IGF2), which involves activation of the normally silent maternal allele of the gene and hypermethylation of a differentially methylated region upstream of the H19 gene. Hypermethylation impairs binding of the insulator protein CTCF, allowing activation of IGF2 by an enhancer shared between IGF2 and H19. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 16q22.1 is found in 15% of WTs, and 16q22.1 harbors CTCF, raising the possibility that reduced CTCF could lead to LOI of IGF2 in some cases. We hypothesized that there is an association between LOH of 16q and LOI of IGF2 in WT. In 40 WTs examined, LOH of 16q was found in five, one of which also showed LOH of 11p15. All of the remaining four tumors showed LOI of IGF2, compared to 13 of 32 WTs without LOH of 16q or 11p (P = 0.040). When published data not previously analyzed in this manner were included, 6 of 6 tumors with 16q LOH (and without LOH of 11p) showed LOI of IGF2, compared to 24 of 52 without LOH (P = 0.015). Thus, a genetic (16q LOH) and an epigenetic (LOI of IGF2) alteration in WT are linked, the first such association described. Finally, haploinsufficiency of CTCF may be the basis of this association, given that CTCF expression in tumors with 16q LOH was 48% that of tumors without LOH.

  4. IGF2-derived miR-483 mediated oncofunction by suppressing DLC-1 and associated with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yangyang; Yang, Zhe; Wu, Shaogen; Cao, Wangsen; Cui, Isabelle H.; Yu, Chenggong

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that IGF2 plays an important role in various human malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hsa-miR-483 is located within intron 7 of the IGF2 locus. However, the mechanism by which increased IGF2 induces carcinogenesis remains largely elusive. DLC-1 has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether miR-483 transcription is IGF2-dependent, identifying the functional target of miR-483, and evaluating whether tissue and serum miR-483-3p or miR-483-5p levels are associated with CRC. Our results showed that sequences upstream miR-483 had undetectable promoter activity and levels of IGF2, miR-483-3p, and miR-483-5p were synchronously increased in CRC tissues. Positive correlations between IGF2 and miR-483-3p (r=0.4984, ***p<0.0001), and between IGF2 and miR-483-5p (r=0.6659, ***p<0.0001) expression were found. In addition, patients with CRC had a significantly higher serum miR-483-5p level (*p<0.05) compared to normal controls. DLC-1 expression was decreased in colorectal cancer tissues and diminished through transient transfection with miR-483-3p. Our results suggest that IGF2 may exert its oncofunction, at least partly, through its parasitic miR-483 which suppressed DLC-1 in CRC cells. Thus, miR-483 might serve as a new target for therapy and a potential biomarker for the detection of colorectal cancer. PMID:27366946

  5. Differential neuronal vulnerability identifies IGF-2 as a protective factor in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Allodi, Ilary; Comley, Laura; Nichterwitz, Susanne; Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Benitez, Julio Aguila; Cao, Ming; Corti, Stefania; Hedlund, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The fatal disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the loss of somatic motor neurons leading to muscle wasting and paralysis. However, motor neurons in the oculomotor nucleus, controlling eye movement, are for unknown reasons spared. We found that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) was maintained in oculomotor neurons in ALS and thus could play a role in oculomotor resistance in this disease. We also showed that IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), which mediates survival pathways upon IGF binding, was highly expressed in oculomotor neurons and on extraocular muscle endplate. The addition of IGF-2 induced Akt phosphorylation, glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation and β-catenin levels while protecting ALS patient motor neurons. IGF-2 also rescued motor neurons derived from spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients from degeneration. Finally, AAV9::IGF-2 delivery to muscles of SOD1G93A ALS mice extended life-span by 10%, while preserving motor neurons and inducing motor axon regeneration. Thus, our studies demonstrate that oculomotor-specific expression can be utilized to identify candidates that protect vulnerable motor neurons from degeneration. PMID:27180807

  6. Expression of imprinted genes in placenta is associated with infant neurobehavioral development

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benjamin B; Kappil, Maya; Lambertini, Luca; Armstrong, David A; Guerin, Dylan J; Sharp, Andrew J; Lester, Barry M; Chen, Jia; Marsit, Carmen J

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting disorders often exhibit delayed neurobehavioral development, suggesting this unique mechanism of epigenetic regulation plays a role in mental and neurological health. While major errors in imprinting have been linked to adverse health outcomes, there has been little research conducted on how moderate variability in imprinted gene expression within a population contributes to differences in neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly at birth. Here, we profiled the expression of 108 known and putative imprinted genes in human placenta samples from 615 infants assessed by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS). Data reduction identified 10 genes (DLX5, DHCR24, VTRNA2-1, PHLDA2, NPAP1, FAM50B, GNAS-AS1, PAX8-AS1, SHANK2, and COPG2IT1) whose expression could distinguish between newborn neurobehavioral profiles derived from the NNNS. Clustering infants based on the expression pattern of these genes identified 2 groups of infants characterized by reduced quality of movement, increased signs of asymmetrical and non-optimal reflexes, and increased odds of demonstrating increased signs of physiologic stress and abstinence. Overall, these results suggest that common variation in placental imprinted gene expression is linked to suboptimal performance on scales of neurological functioning as well as with increased signs of physiologic stress, highlighting the central importance of the control of expression of these genes in the placenta for neurobehavioral development. PMID:26198301

  7. The nucleotides responsible for the direct physical contact between the chromatin insulator protein CTCF and the H19 imprinting control region manifest parent of origin-specific long-distance insulation and methylation-free domains

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Vinod; Mariano, Piero; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Mattsson, Anita; Lobanenkov, Victor; Heuchel, Rainer; Ohlsson, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    The repression of the maternally inherited Igf2 allele has been proposed to depend on a methylation-sensitive chromatin insulator organized by the 11 zinc finger protein CTCF at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR). Here we document that point mutations of the nucleotides in physical contact with CTCF within the endogenous H19 ICR lead to loss of CTCF binding and Igf2 imprinting only when passaged through the female germline. This effect is accompanied by a significant loss of methylation protection of the maternally derived H19 ICR. Because CTCF interacts with other imprinting control regions, it emerges as a central factor responsible for interpreting and propagating gamete-derived epigenetic marks and for organizing epigenetically controlled expression domains. PMID:12629040

  8. Expression of delta-like 1 homologue and insulin-like growth factor 2 through epigenetic regulation of the genes during development of mouse molar.

    PubMed

    Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer; Skalleberg, Natalie; Landin, Maria A; Khuu, Cuong; Risnes, Steinar; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) are two of six well-studied mouse imprinted gene clusters that are paternally expressed. Their expression is also linked to their maternally expressed non-coding RNAs, encoded by Gene trap locus 2 (Gtl2) and Imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19), co-located as imprinted gene clusters. Using deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays and real-time RT-PCR analysis we showed Dlk1 and Gtl2 to exhibit a time-course of expression during tooth development that was similar to that of Igf2 and H19. Western blot analysis of proteins encoded by Dlk1 and Igf2 suggested that the levels of these proteins reflected those of the corresponding mRNAs. Immunohistochemical studies of DLK1 in murine molars detected the protein in both epithelial and mesenchymal regions, in developing cusp mesenchyme, and in newly synthesized enamel and dentin tubules. IGF2 protein was detected primarily at prenatal stages, suggesting that it may be active before birth. Analysis of methylation of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands in both Dlk1 and Igf2 suggested the presence of an increasing fraction of hypermethylated bases with increasing time of development. The increased levels of hypermethylation coincided both with the diminished levels of expression of Dlk1 and Igf2 and with decreased levels of DLK1 and IGF2 proteins in the tooth germ, suggesting that their expression is regulated via methylation of CpG islands present in these genes.

  9. Superovulation alters the expression of imprinted genes in the midgestation mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Amanda L; Lopes, Flavia L; Darricarrère, Nicole; Martel, Josée; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2008-06-01

    Imprinted genes play important roles in embryonic growth and development as well as in placental function. Many imprinted genes acquire their epigenetic marks during oocyte growth, and this period may be susceptible to epigenetic disruption following hormonal stimulation. Superovulation has been shown to affect growth and development of the embryo, but an effect on imprinted genes has not been shown in postimplantation embryos. In the present study, we examined the effect of superovulation/in vivo development or superovulation/3.5dpc (days post-coitum) embryo transfer on the allelic expression of Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1 and H19 in embryos and placentas at 9.5 days of gestation. Superovulation followed by in vivo development resulted in biallelic expression of Snrpn and H19 in 9.5dpc placentas while Kcnq1ot1 was not affected; in the embryos, there was normal monoallelic expression of the three imprinted genes. We did not observe significant DNA methylation perturbations in the differentially methylated regions of Snrpn or H19. Superovulation followed by embryo transfer at 3.5dpc resulted in biallelic expression of H19 in the placenta. The expression of an important growth factor closely linked to H19, Insulin-like growth factor-II, was increased in the placenta following superovulation with or without embryo transfer. These results show that both maternally and paternally methylated imprinted genes were affected, suggesting that superovulation compromises oocyte quality and interferes with the maintenance of imprinting during preimplantation development. Our findings contribute to the evidence that mechanisms for maintaining imprinting are less robust in trophectoderm-derived tissues, and have clinical implications for the screening of patients following assisted reproduction.

  10. The origin and evolution of genomic imprinting and viviparity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Renfree, Marilyn B.; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is widespread in eutherian mammals. Marsupial mammals also have genomic imprinting, but in fewer loci. It has long been thought that genomic imprinting is somehow related to placentation and/or viviparity in mammals, although neither is restricted to mammals. Most imprinted genes are expressed in the placenta. There is no evidence for genomic imprinting in the egg-laying monotreme mammals, despite their short-lived placenta that transfers nutrients from mother to embryo. Post natal genomic imprinting also occurs, especially in the brain. However, little attention has been paid to the primary source of nutrition in the neonate in all mammals, the mammary gland. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) play an important role as imprinting control centres in each imprinted region which usually comprises both paternally and maternally expressed genes (PEGs and MEGs). The DMR is established in the male or female germline (the gDMR). Comprehensive comparative genome studies demonstrated that two imprinted regions, PEG10 and IGF2-H19, are conserved in both marsupials and eutherians and that PEG10 and H19 DMRs emerged in the therian ancestor at least 160 Ma, indicating the ancestral origin of genomic imprinting during therian mammal evolution. Importantly, these regions are known to be deeply involved in placental and embryonic growth. It appears that most maternal gDMRs are always associated with imprinting in eutherian mammals, but emerged at differing times during mammalian evolution. Thus, genomic imprinting could evolve from a defence mechanism against transposable elements that depended on DNA methylation established in germ cells. PMID:23166401

  11. Targeted therapy of osteosarcoma with radiolabeled monoclonal antibody to an insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF2R).

    PubMed

    Geller, David S; Morris, Jonathan; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Kahn, Mani; Zhang, Wendong; Piperdi, Sajida; Park, Amy; Koirala, Pratistha; Guzik, Hillary; Hall, Charles; Hoang, Bang; Yang, Rui; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathan; Gorlick, Richard; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-12-01

    Osteosarcoma overall survival has plateaued around 70%, without meaningful improvements in over 30years. Outcomes for patients with overt metastatic disease at presentation or who relapse are dismal. In this study we investigated a novel osteosarcoma therapy utilizing radioimmunotherapy (RIT) targeted to IGF2R, which is widely expressed in OS. Binding efficiency of the Rhenium-188((188)Re)-labeled IGF2R-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) to IGF2R on OS17 OS cells was assessed with Scatchard plot analysis. Biodistribution studies were performed in heterotopic murine osteosarcoma xenografts. Tumor growth was compared over a 24-day period post-treatment between mice randomized to receive (188)Re-labeled IGF2R-specific murine mAb MEM-238 ((188)Re-MEM-238) or one of three controls: (188)Re-labeled isotype control mAb, unlabeled MEM-238, or no treatment. Results demonstrate that the radioimmunoconjugate had a high binding constant to IGF2R. Both (188)Re-MEM-238 and the isotype control had similar initial distribution in normal tissue. After 48h (188)Re-MEM-238 exhibited a 1.8 fold selective uptake within tumor compared to the isotype control (p=0.057). Over 24days, the tumor growth ratio was suppressed in animals treated with RIT compared to unlabeled and untreated controls (p=0.005) as demonstrated by a 38% reduction of IGF2R expressing osteosarcoma cells in the RIT group (p=0.002). In conclusion, given the lack of new effective therapies in osteosarcoma, additional investigation into this target is warranted. High expression of IGF2R on osteosarcoma tumors, paired with the specificity and in vivo anti-cancer activity of (188)Re-labeled IGF2R-specific mAb suggests that IGF2R may represent a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of osteosarcoma. This targeted approach offers the benefits of being independent of a specific pathway, a resistance mechanism, and/or an inherent biologic tumor trait and therefore is relevant to all OS tumors that express IGF2R. Copyright

  12. MicroRNA-150 functions as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma by targeting IGF2BP1.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Pan, Su; Kang, Mingyang; Dong, Rongpeng; Zhao, Jianwu

    2016-04-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with high morbidity in young adults and adolescents. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is involved in OS occurrence and development. miR-150 has been recently widely studied in many cancers, but not including OS. This study is aimed to investigate the expression and biological role of miR-150 in OS. Here, we found that miR-150 expression was consistently downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines compared with the matched adjacent normal tissues and human normal osteoblast cells (NHOst), and its expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Functional study showed that restoration of miR-150 expression in OS cells could inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis in vitro as well as suppressed tumor growth of OS in vivo. Mechanistically, IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 1(IGF2BP1) was confirmed to act as a direct target of miR-150, and the IGF2BP1 mRNA expression was inversely correlated with the level of miR-150 in OS tissues. In addition, downregulation of endogenous IGF2BP1 exhibited similar effects of overexpression of miR-150. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-150 functions as a tumor suppressor in OS partially by targeting IGF2BP1.

  13. RNA-FISH to analyze allele-specific expression.

    PubMed

    Braidotti, G

    2001-01-01

    One of the difficulties associated with the analysis of imprinted gene expression is the need to distinguish RNA synthesis occurring at the maternal vs the paternally inherited copy of the gene. Most of the techniques used to examine allele-specific expression exploit naturally occurring polymorphisms and measure steady-state levels of RNA isolated from a pool of cells. Hence, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) an be exploited in a heterozygote, by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)- based procedure, to analyze maternal vs paternal gene expression. The human IGF2R gene was analyzed in this way. Smrzka et al. (1) were thus able to show that the IGF2R gene possesses a hemimethylated, intronic CpG island analogous to the mouse imprinting box. However, IGF2R mRNA was detected that possessed the RFLP from both the maternal and paternal alleles in all but one of the 70 lymphoblastoid samples. (The one monoallelic sample reactivated its paternal allele with continued cell culturing.) It was concluded that monoallelic expression of the human gene is a polymorphic trait occurring in a small minority of all tested samples (reviewed in refs. 2,3). Although this is a sound conclusion, the question remains: Is the human IGF2R gene imprinted?

  14. Using RNA sequencing for identifying gene imprinting and random monoallelic expression in human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Metsalu, Tauno; Viltrop, Triin; Tiirats, Airi; Rajashekar, Balaji; Reimann, Ene; Kõks, Sulev; Rull, Kristiina; Milani, Lili; Acharya, Ganesh; Basnet, Purusotam; Vilo, Jaak; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Peters, Maire; Haller-Kikkatalo, Kadri; Salumets, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Given the possible critical importance of placental gene imprinting and random monoallelic expression on fetal and infant health, most of those genes must be identified, in order to understand the risks that the baby might meet during pregnancy and after birth. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to introduce a workflow and tools for analyzing imprinted and random monoallelic gene expression in human placenta, by applying whole-transcriptome (WT) RNA sequencing of placental tissue and genotyping of coding DNA variants in family trios. Ten family trios, each with a healthy spontaneous single-term pregnancy, were recruited. Total RNA was extracted for WT analysis, providing the full sequence information for the placental transcriptome. Parental and child blood DNA genotypes were analyzed by exome SNP genotyping microarrays, mapping the inheritance and estimating the abundance of parental expressed alleles. Imprinted genes showed consistent expression from either parental allele, as demonstrated by the SNP content of sequenced transcripts, while monoallelically expressed genes had random activity of parental alleles. We revealed 4 novel possible imprinted genes (LGALS8, LGALS14, PAPPA2 and SPTLC3) and confirmed the imprinting of 4 genes (AIM1, PEG10, RHOBTB3 and ZFAT-AS1) in human placenta. The major finding was the identification of 4 genes (ABP1, BCLAF1, IFI30 and ZFAT) with random allelic bias, expressing one of the parental alleles preferentially. The main functions of the imprinted and monoallelically expressed genes included: i) mediating cellular apoptosis and tissue development; ii) regulating inflammation and immune system; iii) facilitating metabolic processes; and iv) regulating cell cycle. PMID:25437054

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Signaling via Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (Gsk-3) Regulates DNA Methylation of Imprinted Loci*

    PubMed Central

    Popkie, Anthony P.; Zeidner, Leigh C.; Albrecht, Ashley M.; D'Ippolito, Anthony; Eckardt, Sigrid; Newsom, David E.; Groden, Joanna; Doble, Bradley W.; Aronow, Bruce; McLaughlin, K. John; White, Peter; Phiel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) isoforms, Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β, are constitutively active, largely inhibitory kinases involved in signal transduction. Underscoring their biological significance, altered Gsk-3 activity has been implicated in diabetes, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of both Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reduced expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a2, causing misexpression of the imprinted genes Igf2, H19, and Igf2r and hypomethylation of their corresponding imprinted control regions. Treatment of wild-type embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells with the Gsk-3 inhibitor, lithium, phenocopies the DNA hypomethylation at these imprinted loci. We show that inhibition of Gsk-3 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated activation of Akt also results in reduced DNA methylation at these imprinted loci. Finally, we find that N-Myc is a potent Gsk-3-dependent regulator of Dnmt3a2 expression. In summary, we have identified a signal transduction pathway that is capable of altering the DNA methylation of imprinted loci. PMID:21047779

  16. The effects of maternal anxiety during pregnancy on IGF2/H19 methylation in cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, T; Novakovic, B; Meyer, B; Rzehak, P; Vuillermin, P; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Burgner, D; Saffery, R; Ryan, J; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Carlin, John B; Allen, Katie J; Tang, Mimi L; Saffery, Richard; Ranganathan, Sarath; Burgner, David; Dwyer, Terry; Jachno, Kim; Sly, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that maternal mental health in pregnancy can influence fetal development. The imprinted genes, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19, are involved in fetal growth and each is regulated by DNA methylation. This study aimed to determine the association between maternal mental well-being during pregnancy and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of IGF2 (DMR0) and the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR) in newborn offspring. Maternal depression, anxiety and perceived stress were assessed at 28 weeks of pregnancy in the Barwon Infant Study (n=576). DNA methylation was measured in purified cord blood mononuclear cells using the Sequenom MassArray Platform. Maternal anxiety was associated with a decrease in average ICR methylation (Δ=−2.23% 95% CI=−3.68 to −0.77%), and across all six of the individual CpG units in anxious compared with non-anxious groups. Birth weight and sex modified the association between prenatal anxiety and infant methylation. When stratified into lower (⩽3530 g) and higher (>3530 g) birth weight groups using the median birth weight, there was a stronger association between anxiety and ICR methylation in the lower birth weight group (Δ=−3.89% 95% CI=−6.06 to −1.72%), with no association in the higher birth weight group. When stratified by infant sex, there was a stronger association in female infants (Δ=−3.70% 95% CI=−5.90 to −1.51%) and no association in males. All the linear regression models were adjusted for maternal age, smoking and folate intake. These findings show that maternal anxiety in pregnancy is associated with decreased IGF2/H19 ICR DNA methylation in progeny at birth, particularly in female, low birth weight neonates. ICR methylation may help link poor maternal mental health and adverse birth outcomes, but further investigation is needed. PMID:27023171

  17. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) cohort.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Murtha, Amy; Wang, Frances; Huang, Zhiqing; Bernal, Autumn; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-02-06

    Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene. We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR), and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR). Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m². Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003). At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among newborns from obese mothers, but a larger study

  18. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene. Methods We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR), and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR). Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. Results Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003). At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among newborns from obese

  19. Frequency and timing of loss of imprinting at 11p13 and 11p15 in Wilms' tumor development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Keith W; Power, Frances; Moore, Beth; Charles, Adrian K; Malik, Karim T A

    2008-07-01

    Epigenetic changes occur frequently in Wilms' tumor (WT), especially loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2/H19 at 11p15. Our previous results have identified imprinted transcripts (WT1-AS and AWT1) from the WT1 locus at 11p13 and showed LOI of these in some WTs. In this article, we set out to test the relationship between LOI at 11p13 and 11p15 and their timing in WT progression relative to other genetic changes. We found a higher level (83%) of 11p13 LOI in WT than of 11p15 LOI (71%). There was no correlation between methylation levels at the 11p13 and 11p15 differentially methylated regions or between allelic expression of WT1-AS/AWT1 and IGF2. Interestingly, retention of normal imprinting at 11p13 was associated with a small group of relatively late-onset, high-stage WTs. An examination of genetic and epigenetic alterations in nephrogenic rests, which are premalignant WT precursors, showed that LOI at both 11p13 and 11p15 occurred before either 16q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or 7p LOH. This suggests that these LOH events are very unlikely to be a cause of LOI but that LOH may act by potentiating the effects of overexpression of IGF2 and/or WT1-AS/AWT1 that result from LOI.

  20. MicroRNA Let-7b inhibits keratinocyte migration in cutaneous wound healing by targeting IGF2BP2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhong, Julia Li; Hou, Ning; Sun, Yaolan; Ma, Benting; Nisar, Muhammad Farrukh; Teng, Yan; Tan, Zhaoli; Chen, Keping; Wang, Youliang; Yang, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Wound healing is a complex process which involves proliferation and migration of keratinocyte for closure of epidermal injuries. A member of microRNA family, let-7b, has been expressed in mammalian skin, but its exact role in keratinocyte migration is still not in knowledge. Here, we showed that let-7b regulates keratinocyte migration by targeting the insulin-like growth factor IGF2BP2. Overexpression of let-7b led to reduced HaCaT cell migration, while knockdown of let-7b resulted in enhanced migration. Furthermore, let-7b was decreased during wound healing in wild-type mice, which led us to construct the transgenic mice with overexpression of let-7b in skin. The re-epithelialization of epidermis of let-7b transgenic mice was reduced during wound healing. Using bioinformatics prediction software and a reporter gene assay, we found that IGF2BP2 was a target of let-7b, which contributes to keratinocyte migration. Introduction of an expression vector of IGF2BP2 also rescued let-7b-induced migration deficiency, which confirms that IGF2BP2 is an important target for let-7b regulation. Our findings suggest that let-7b significantly delayed the re-epithelialization possibly due to reduction of keratinocyte migration and restraints IGF2BP2 during skin wound healing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 5‑Azacytidine inhibits human rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth by downregulating insulin‑like growth factor 2 expression and reactivating the H19 gene product miR‑675, which negatively affects insulin‑like growth factors and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tarnowski, Maciej; Tkacz, Marta; Czerewaty, Michał; Poniewierska-Baran, Agata; Grymuła, Katarzyna; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2015-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and 1 (IGF1) and insulin (INS) promote proliferation of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells by interacting with the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and the insulin receptor (INSR). Loss of imprinting (LOI) by DNA hypermethylation at the differentially methylated region (DMR) for the IGF2‑H19 locus is commonly observed in RMS cells and results in an increase in the expression of proliferation-promoting IGF2 and downregulation of proliferation-inhibiting non-coding H19 miRNAs. One of these miRNAs, miR‑675, has been reported in murine cells to be a negative regulator of IGF1R expression. To better address the role of IGF2 and 1, as well as INS signaling in the pathogenesis of RMS and the involvement of LOI at the IGF2‑H19 locus, we employed the DNA demethylating agent 5‑azacytidine (AzaC). We observed that AzaC‑mediated demethylation of the DMR at the IGF2‑H19 locus resulted in downregulation of IGF2 and an increase in the expression of H19. This epigenetic change resulted in a decrease in RMS proliferation due to downregulation of IGF2 and, IGF1R expression in an miR‑675‑dependent manner. Interestingly, we observed that miR‑675 not only inhibited the expression of IGF1R in a similar manner in human and murine cells, but we also observed its negative effect on the expression of the INSR. These results confirm the crucial role of LOI at the IGF2‑H19 DMR in the pathogenesis of RMS and are relevant to the development of new treatment strategies.

  2. Allele-specific H3K79 Di- versus trimethylation distinguishes opposite parental alleles at imprinted regions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Purnima; Han, Li; Rivas, Guillermo E; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Nicholson, Thomas B; Larson, Garrett P; Chen, Taiping; Szabó, Piroska E

    2010-06-01

    Imprinted gene expression corresponds to parental allele-specific DNA CpG methylation and chromatin composition. Histone tail covalent modifications have been extensively studied, but it is not known whether modifications in the histone globular domains can also discriminate between the parental alleles. Using multiplex chromatin immunoprecipitation-single nucleotide primer extension (ChIP-SNuPE) assays, we measured the allele-specific enrichment of H3K79 methylation and H4K91 acetylation along the H19/Igf2 imprinted domain. Whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac displayed a paternal-specific enrichment at the paternally expressed Igf2 locus, H3K79me3 was paternally biased at the maternally expressed H19 locus, including the paternally methylated imprinting control region (ICR). We found that these allele-specific differences depended on CTCF binding in the maternal ICR allele. We analyzed an additional 11 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and found that, in general, H3K79me3 was associated with the CpG-methylated alleles, whereas H3K79me1, H3K79me2, and H4K91ac enrichment was specific to the unmethylated alleles. Our data suggest that allele-specific differences in the globular histone domains may constitute a layer of the "histone code" at imprinted genes.

  3. Early embryonic failure: Expression and imprinted status of candidate genes on human chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.S.; Bennett, P.R.; Moore, G.E.

    1994-09-01

    Two cases of maternal uniparental (hetero)disomy for human chromosome 21 (mUPD21) have been identified in a systematic search for UPD in 23 cases of early embryonic failure (EEF). Bi-parental origin of the other chromosome pairs was confirmed using specific VNTR probes or dinucleotide repeat analysis. Both maternally and paternally derived isochromosomes 21q have previously been identified in two individuals with normal phenotypes. Full UPD21 has a different mechanism of origin than uniparental isochromosome 21q and its effect on imprinted genes and phenotypic outcome will therefore not necessarily be the same. EEF associated with mUPD21 suggests that developmentally important genes on HSA 21 may be imprinted such that they are only expressed from either the maternally or paternally derived alleles. We have searched for monoallelic expression of candidate genes on HSA 21 in human pregnancy (CBS, IFNAR, COL6A1) using intragenic DNA polymorphisms. These genes were chosen either because their murine homologues lie in imprinted regions or because they are potentially important in embryogenesis. Once imprinted candidate genes have been identified, their methylation status and expression in normal, early embryonic failure and uniparental disomy 21 pregnancies will be studied. At the same time, a larger number of cases of EEF are being examined to further investigate the incidence of UPD21 in this group.

  4. Ammonium accumulation and use of mineral oil overlay do not alter imprinting establishment at three key imprinted genes in mouse oocytes grown and matured in a long-term follicle culture.

    PubMed

    Anckaert, Ellen; Adriaenssens, Tom; Romero, Sergio; Smitz, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Imprinted genes are differentially methylated during gametogenesis to allow parent-of-origin-specific monoallelic expression. Follicle culture under oil overlay has been associated with altered imprinting establishment in mouse oocytes. We previously demonstrated normal imprinting establishment at four key imprinted genes in mouse oocytes grown and matured in a long-term in vitro follicle culture system without oil overlay. Ammonium (300 microM) has been linked to aberrant imprinting in in vitro preimplantation embryo culture. Compared to culture without oil, mineral oil overlay during follicle culture led to a dramatic increase in ammonia levels in culture medium: mean ammonia levels were, respectively, 39 and 290 microM at Day 4 of culture, 73 and 465 microM at Day 8, and 101 and 725 microM at Day 12 (P < 0.0001). Mineral oil overlay and high ammonia levels (comparable to the follicle culture system for which aberrant imprinting was previously described) during follicle culture did not affect follicle survival, metaphase II (MII) rate, or MII oocyte diameter. Bisulphite sequencing revealed that high levels of ammonia and mineral oil overlay during follicle culture did not alter the methylation status of differentially methylated regions of three key imprinted genes (Snrpn, Igf2r, and H19) in MII oocytes. In the current culture setup, ammonium accumulation and mineral oil overlay during follicle culture do not induce aberrant imprinting establishment at the studied regulatory sequences in mouse oocytes.

  5. A Loss-Of-Function Splice Acceptor Variant in IGF2 is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Josep M; Liao, Rachel G; Bell, Avery; Dymek, Zachary; Estrada, Karol; Tukiainen, Taru; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Hanson, Robert L; Walford, Geoffrey A; Moran, Ignasi; Chen, Ling; Agarwala, Vineeta; Ordoñez-Sánchez, María Luisa; Rodríguez-Guillen, Rosario; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Segura-Kato, Yayoi; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Centeno-Cruz, Federico; Barajas-Olmos, Francisco; Caulkins, Lizz; Puppala, Sobha; Fontanillas, Pierre; Williams, Amy; Bonàs-Guarch, Sílvia; Hartl, Chris; Ripke, Stephan; Tooley, Katherine; Lane, Jacqueline; Zerrweck, Carlos; Martínez-Hernández, Angélica; Córdova, Emilio J; Mendoza-Caamal, Elvia; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; González-Villalpando, María E; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Muñoz-Hernández, Liliana; Gómez-Velasco, Donaji; Alvirde, Ulises; Henderson, Brian E; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loic; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Riba, Laura; Harden, Maegan; Platform, Broad Genomics; Gabriel, Stacey; Abboud, Hanna E; Cortes, Maria L; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Soberon, Xavier; Curran, Joanne E; Jenkinson, Christopher P; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Lehman, Donna M; Hanis, Craig L; Bell, Graeme I; Boehnke, Michael; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Saxena, Richa; MacArthur, Daniel; Ferrer, Jorge; McCarroll, Steven A; Torrents, David; Knowler, William C; Baier, Leslie J; Burtt, Noel; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Haiman, Christopher A; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Flannick, Jason; Jacobs, Suzanne B R; Orozco, Lorena; Altshuler, David; Florez, Jose C

    2017-08-24

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects more than 415 million people worldwide and its costs to the health care system continue to rise. To identify common or rare genetic variation with potential therapeutic implications for T2D, we analyzed and replicated genome-wide protein coding variation in a total of 8,227 individuals with T2D and 12,966 individuals without T2D of Latino descent. We identified a novel genetic variant in the IGF2 gene associated with ∼20% reduced risk for T2D. This variant, which has an allele frequency of 17% in the Mexican population but is rare in Europe, prevents splicing between IGF2 exons 1 and 2. We show in vitro and in human liver and adipose tissue that the variant is associated with a specific, allele-dosage dependent reduction in expression of IGF2 isoform 2. In individuals who do not carry the protective allele, expression of IGF2 isoform 2 in adipose is positively correlated with both incidence of T2D and increased plasma glycated hemoglobin in individuals without T2D, providing support that the protective effects are mediated by reductions in IGF2 isoform 2. Broad phenotypic examination of carriers of the protective variant revealed no association with other disease states or impaired reproductive health. These findings suggest that reducing IGF2 isoform 2 expression in relevant tissues has potential as a new therapeutic strategy for T2D, also beyond the Latin-American population, with no major adverse effects on health or reproduction. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Expression of Ki-67 as proliferation biomarker in imprint smears of endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Konstantinos, Kosmas; Marios, Stamoulas; Anna, Marouga; Nikolaos, Kavantzas; Efstratios, Patsouris; Paulina, Athanassiadou

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Ki-67 in type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinomas as well as normal endometrium in imprint smears and to correlate the results with clinicopathologic parameters of primary untreated endometrial cancer patients. During a 29-month period, 255 patients were evaluated with entometrial imprint cytology. Endometrial samples freshly resected from women who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy were studied. One hundred twenty-six patients had endometrial carcinoma and 129 cases were diagnosed as normal endometrium. The expression of Ki-67 was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Positive staining was correlated with increased stage, grade and lymph node metastases. High expression was more frequent in type II than type I endometrial adenocarcinoma and high-grade endometrial carcinoma had higher proportions of Ki-67 positive immunostaining compared with low-grade carcinoma. Proliferative endometrium showed high Ki-67 expression level, even higher than those of grade 1 and type I. On the other hand, secretory endometrium Ki-67 positive cells were markedly diminished and even disappeared. Completely negative staining was found to be related to atrophic endometrium. Immunocytochemical findings from Ki-67 stain, in addition to cytomorphologic features, appeared to be useful for the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma in endometrial cytology with imprint smears. High Ki-67 expression correlates with morphologic features of aggressiveness and the expression pattern of Ki-67 correspond to the expected cyclic/atrophic pattern in normal endometrium.

  7. Tissue-specific expression of antisense and sense transcripts at the imprinted Gnas locus.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Vu, T H; Zeng, Z L; Nguyen, B T; Hayward, B E; Bonthron, D T; Hu, J F; Hoffman, A R

    2000-11-01

    The mouse Gnas gene encodes an important signal transduction protein, the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein, G(s). In humans, partial deficiency of G(s)alpha, the alpha subunit of G(s), results in the hormone-resistance syndrome pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a. The mouse Gnas (and the human GNAS1) locus is transcribed from three promoter regions. Transcripts from P1, which encode Nesp55, are derived from the maternal allele only. Transcripts from P2 encode Xlalphas and are derived only from the paternal allele, while transcripts from P3 encode the alpha subunit and are from both parental alleles. The close proximity of reciprocal imprinting suggests the presence of important putative imprinting elements in this region. In this report, we demonstrate that the reciprocal imprinting occurs in normal tissues of interspecific (Mus spretus x C57BL/6) mice. Transcripts from P1 are most abundant in CNS (pons and medulla) in contrast to the more ubiquitous expression from P2 and P3. In the P1-P2 genomic region, we have identified an antisense transcript that starts 2.2 kb upstream of the P2 exon and spans the P1 region. While the P1 transcript is derived from the maternal allele, the P1-antisense (Gnas-as) is derived only from the paternal allele in most but not all tissues. Although both the Nesp55 region and the Gnas-as transcripts are present in cerebral cortex, adrenal, and spleen, Gnas-as is abundant in some tissues in which transcription from the Nesp55 region is negligible. Furthermore, the Nesp55 region transcripts remain strictly imprinted in tissues that lack Gnas-as. Our results suggest that multiple imprinting elements, including the unique Gnas-as, regulate the allelic expression of the Nesp55 region sense transcript. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Coadaptation in mother and infant regulated by a paternally expressed imprinted gene.

    PubMed Central

    Curley, James P.; Barton, Sheila; Surani, Azim; Keverne, Eric B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how a targeted mutation of a paternally expressed imprinted gene regulates multiple aspects of foetal and post-natal development including placental size, foetal growth, suckling and post-natal growth, weaning age and puberty onset. This same mutation in a mother impairs maternal reproductive success with reduced maternal care, reduced maternal food intake during pregnancy, and impaired milk let-down, which in turn reduces infant growth and delays weaning and onset of puberty. The significance of these coadaptive traits being synchronized in mother and offspring by the same paternally expressed imprinted gene ensures that offspring that have extracted 'good' maternal nurturing will themselves be both well provisioned and genetically predisposed towards 'good' mothering. PMID:15306355

  9. Negative uterine asynchrony retards early equine conceptus development and upregulation of placental imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Charlotte; de Ruijter-Villani, Marta; Stout, Tom A E

    2017-09-01

    Placental imprinted genes appear to be sensitive indicators of an inappropriate pre-implantation environment. This study examined the effects of negative uterine asynchrony after embryo transfer (ET) on early horse embryo development, and yolk-sac membrane expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and equine specific placental imprinted genes. Day 8 embryos were transferred to recipient mares on day 8 (synchronous) or day 3 (asynchronous) after ovulation, and conceptuses were recovered 6 or 11 days later (day 14 or 19 of development). Day 14 conceptuses recovered from an asynchronous uterus had a smaller embryonic disc, in which primitive streak development was visibly retarded compared to conceptuses from a synchronous uterus. Similarly, length, somite number and organogenesis were retarded in day 19 embryos after asynchronous ET. Maternal (GRB10, H19, IGF2R, PHLDA2) and paternal (IGF2, INSR, PEG3, PEG10, DIO3, NDN, SNRPN) imprinted genes and DNMTs (DNMT1, 3A and 3B) were all up-regulated between day 14 and 19 of pregnancy and, for most, mRNA expression was higher in synchronous than asynchronous day 19 yolk-sac membrane. Expression of the paternally imprinted gene HAT1 increased between day 14 and 19 of pregnancy, but was not affected by the asynchrony. Conceptus development and upregulation of DNMTs and imprinted genes were delayed rather than dysregulated after transfer into a negatively asynchronous uterus. We propose that this ability to 'reset' conceptus development to uterine stage is an adaptation that explains why horse embryos are unusually tolerant of asynchrony after ET. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic imprinting syndromes and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Derek Hock Kiat; Maher, Eamonn Richard

    2010-01-01

    Genomic imprinting represents a form of epigenetic control of gene expression in which one allele of a gene is preferentially expressed according to the parent-of-origin of the allele. Genomic imprinting plays an important role in normal growth and development. Disruption of imprinting can result in a number of human imprinting syndromes and predispose to cancer. In this chapter, we describe a number of human imprinting syndromes to illustrate the concepts of genomic imprinting and how loss of imprinting of imprinted genes their relationship to human neoplasia.

  11. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Effects of Sex Chromosome Imprinting in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Bernardo; Branco, Alan T.; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Hartl, Daniel L.; Meiklejohn, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Imprinting is well-documented in both plant and animal species. In Drosophila, the Y chromosome is differently modified when transmitted through the male and female germlines. Here, we report genome-wide gene expression effects resulting from reversed parent-of-origin of the X and Y chromosomes. We found that hundreds of genes are differentially expressed between adult male Drosophila melanogaster that differ in the maternal and paternal origin of the sex chromosomes. Many of the differentially regulated genes are expressed specifically in testis and midgut cells, suggesting that sex chromosome imprinting might globally impact gene expression in these tissues. In contrast, we observed much fewer Y-linked parent-of-origin effects on genome-wide gene expression in females carrying a Y chromosome, indicating that gene expression in females is less sensitive to sex chromosome parent-of-origin. Genes whose expression differs between females inheriting a maternal or paternal Y chromosome also show sex chromosome parent-of-origin effects in males, but the direction of the effects on gene expression (overexpression or underexpression) differ between the sexes. We suggest that passage of sex chromosome chromatin through male meiosis may be required for wild-type function in F1 progeny, whereas disruption of Y-chromosome function through passage in the female germline likely arises because the chromosome is not adapted to the female germline environment. PMID:24318925

  12. ZFP57 maintains the parent-of-origin-specific expression of the imprinted genes and differentially affects non-imprinted targets in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Riso, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Marco; Kukreja, Harpreet; Anvar, Zahra; Verde, Gaetano; Sparago, Angela; Acurzio, Basilia; Lad, Shraddha; Lonardo, Enza; Sankar, Aditya; Helin, Kristian; Feil, Robert; Fico, Annalisa; Angelini, Claudia; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Riccio, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    ZFP57 is necessary for maintaining repressive epigenetic modifications at Imprinting control regions (ICRs). In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), ZFP57 binds ICRs (ICRBS) and many other loci (non-ICRBS). To address the role of ZFP57 on all its target sites, we performed high-throughput and multi-locus analyses of inbred and hybrid mouse ESC lines carrying different gene knockouts. By using an allele-specific RNA-seq approach, we demonstrate that ZFP57 loss results in derepression of the imprinted allele of multiple genes in the imprinted clusters. We also find marked epigenetic differences between ICRBS and non-ICRBS suggesting that different cis-acting regulatory functions are repressed by ZFP57 at these two classes of target loci. Overall, these data demonstrate that ZFP57 is pivotal to maintain the allele-specific epigenetic modifications of ICRs that in turn are necessary for maintaining the imprinted expression over long distances. At non-ICRBS, ZFP57 inactivation results in acquisition of epigenetic features that are characteristic of poised enhancers, suggesting that another function of ZFP57 in early embryogenesis is to repress cis-acting regulatory elements whose activity is not yet required. PMID:27257070

  13. The human GNAS1 gene is imprinted and encodes distinct paternally and biallelically expressed G proteins.

    PubMed

    Hayward, B E; Kamiya, M; Strain, L; Moran, V; Campbell, R; Hayashizaki, Y; Bonthron, D T

    1998-08-18

    The GNAS1 gene encodes the alpha subunit of the G protein Gs, which couples receptor binding by several hormones to activation of adenylate cyclase. Null mutations of GNAS1 cause pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia, in which hormone resistance occurs in association with a characteristic osteodystrophy. The observation that PHP Ia almost always is inherited maternally has led to the suggestion that GNAS1 may be an imprinted gene. Here, we show that, although Gsalpha expression (directed by the promoter upstream of exon 1) is biallelic, GNAS1 is indeed imprinted in a promoter-specific fashion. We used parthenogenetic lymphocyte DNA to screen by restriction landmark genomic scanning for loci showing differential methylation between paternal and maternal alleles. This screen identified a region that was found to be methylated exclusively on a maternal allele and was located approximately 35 kb upstream of GNAS1 exon 1. This region contains three novel exons that are spliced into alternative GNAS1 mRNA species, including one exon that encodes the human homologue of the large G protein XLalphas. Transcription of these novel mRNAs is exclusively from the paternal allele in all tissues examined. The differential imprinting of separate protein products of GNAS1 therefore may contribute to the anomalous inheritance of PHP Ia.

  14. The human GNAS1 gene is imprinted and encodes distinct paternally and biallelically expressed G proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Bruce E.; Kamiya, Mamoru; Strain, Lisa; Moran, Veronica; Campbell, Roderick; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bonthron, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The GNAS1 gene encodes the α subunit of the G protein Gs, which couples receptor binding by several hormones to activation of adenylate cyclase. Null mutations of GNAS1 cause pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia, in which hormone resistance occurs in association with a characteristic osteodystrophy. The observation that PHP Ia almost always is inherited maternally has led to the suggestion that GNAS1 may be an imprinted gene. Here, we show that, although Gsα expression (directed by the promoter upstream of exon 1) is biallelic, GNAS1 is indeed imprinted in a promoter-specific fashion. We used parthenogenetic lymphocyte DNA to screen by restriction landmark genomic scanning for loci showing differential methylation between paternal and maternal alleles. This screen identified a region that was found to be methylated exclusively on a maternal allele and was located ≈35 kb upstream of GNAS1 exon 1. This region contains three novel exons that are spliced into alternative GNAS1 mRNA species, including one exon that encodes the human homologue of the large G protein XLαs. Transcription of these novel mRNAs is exclusively from the paternal allele in all tissues examined. The differential imprinting of separate protein products of GNAS1 therefore may contribute to the anomalous inheritance of PHP Ia. PMID:9707596

  15. Variation in the IGF2 gene promoter region is associated with intramuscular fat content in porcine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ozlem; Hamill, Ruth M; Davey, Grace; McBryan, Jean; Mullen, Anne Maria; Gispert, Marina; Sweeney, Torres

    2012-04-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) and subcutaneous fat (back fat-BF) are two of the major fat depots in livestock. A QTN located in the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) has been associated with a desirable reduction in BF depth in pigs. Given that the lipid metabolism of intramuscular adipocytes differs from that of subcutaneous fat adipocytes, this study aimed to search for genetic variation in the IGF2 gene that may be associated with IMF, as well as BF, in diverse pig breeds. Four proximal promoter regions of the IGF2 gene were characterised and the association of IGF2 genetic variation with IMF and BF was assessed. Six promoter SNPs were identified in four promoter regions (P1-P4; sequence coverage 945, 866, 784 and 864 bp, respectively) in phenotypically diverse F1 cross populations. Three promoter SNPs were subsequently genotyped in three pure breeds (Pietrain = 98, Duroc = 99 and Large White = 98). All three SNPs were >95% monomorphic in the Pietrain and Duroc breeds but minor alleles were at moderate frequencies in the Large White breed. These SNPs were linked and one was located in a putative transcription factor binding site. Five haplotypes were inferred and three combined diplotypes tested for association with IMF and BF in the Large White. As expected haplotype 1 (likely in LD with the beneficial QTN allele) was superior for BF level. In contrast, the heterozygote diplotype of the most common haplotypes (1 and 2) was associated with higher IMF and marbling scores compared to either homozygote. Gene expression analysis of divergent animals showed that IGF2 was 1.89 fold up-regulated in muscle with higher compared to lower IMF content. These findings suggest that genetic variation in the promoter region of the IGF2 gene is associated with IMF content in porcine skeletal muscle and that greater expression of the IGF2 gene is associated with higher IMF content.

  16. Modulation of IGF2BP1 by long non-coding RNA HCG11 suppresses apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via MAPK signaling transduction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yantian; Zheng, Yuanwen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Tao

    2017-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy of the liver. HCG11 is a member of long non‑coding family, upregulation of which in HCC was proved by our previous study. In the present study, the role of HCG11 in the development of HCC was detected by focusing on the interaction between HCG11 and its target protein insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1). The expression status of HCG11 and IGF2BP1 was first investigated with clinical HCC samples. Then the expressions of HCG11 and IGF2BP1 were both inhibited in the human HCC cell line HepG2 and the cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis potential of HepG2 cells were assessed. At molecular level, the expression levels of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, p21 and cleaved caspase-3 were also determined to explain the pathways involved in the function of HCG11 in the progression of HCC. Expression of HCG11 and IGF2BP1 were significantly higher in HCC tissues than those in para-tumor tissues. Knockdown of both indicators led to decreased cell viability, proliferation, and migration ability in HepG2 cells while the cell apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest were induced after knockdown of HCG11 and IGF2BP1. In addition, suppressed activity of HCG11 and IGF2BP1 blocked the phosphorylation of anti-apoptosis factors, including ERK, JNK and p38 while the mitochondrial apoptosis in HCC cells was initiated by activation of p21 and cleaved caspase-3. HCG11 exerted its effect on HCC via interaction with IGF2BP1, leading to activation of MAPK signaling, which eventually promoted the progression of HCC.

  17. Imprinting defects at human 14q32 locus alters gene expression and is associated with the pathobiology of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jingmin; Li, Lihua; Sarver, Anne E.; Pope, Emily A.; Varshney, Jyotika; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Spector, Logan; Largaespada, David A.; Steer, Clifford J.; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy affecting children and adolescents. Although several genetic predisposing conditions have been associated with osteosarcoma, our understanding of its pathobiology is rather limited. Here we show that, first, an imprinting defect at human 14q32-locus is highly prevalent (87%) and specifically associated with osteosarcoma patients < 30 years of age. Second, the average demethylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the 14q32-locus varied significantly compared to genome-wide demethylation. Third, the 14q32-locus was enriched in both H3K4-me3 and H3K27-me3 histone modifications that affected expression of all imprinted genes and miRNAs in this region. Fourth, imprinting defects at 14q32 - DMRs are present in triad DNA samples from affected children and their biological parents. Finally, imprinting defects at 14q32-DMRs were also observed at higher frequencies in an Rb1/Trp53 mutation-induced osteosarcoma mouse model. Further analysis of normal and tumor tissues from a Sleeping Beauty mouse model of spontaneous osteosarcoma supported the notion that these imprinting defects may be a key factor in osteosarcoma pathobiology. In conclusion, we demonstrate that imprinting defects at the 14q32 locus significantly alter gene expression, may contribute to the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma, and could be predictive of survival outcomes. PMID:26802029

  18. Altered imprinted gene expression and methylation patterns in mid-gestation aborted cloned porcine fetuses and placentas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Dongxu; Han, Yang; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Li, Zhanjun

    2014-11-01

    To determine the expression patterns of imprinted genes and their methylation status in aborted cloned porcine fetuses and placentas. RNA and DNA were prepared from fetuses and placentas that were produced by SCNT and controls from artificial insemination. The expression of 18 imprinted genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR). Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was conducted to determine the methylation status of PRE-1 short interspersed repetitive element (SINE), satellite DNA and H19 differentially methylated region 3 (DMR3). The weight, imprinted gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were compared between the mid-gestation aborted and normal control samples. The results showed hypermethylation of PRE-1 and satellite sequences, the aberrant expression of imprinted genes, and the hypomethylation of H19 DMR3 occurred in mid-gestation aborted fetuses and placentas. Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) showed a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than did normal controls because of the incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the donor cells. Altered expression of imprinted genes and the hypermethylation profile of the repetitive regions (PRE-1 and satellite DNA) may be associated with defective development and early abortion of cloned pigs, emphasizing the importance of epigenetics during pregnancy and implications thereof for patient-specific embryonic stem cells for human therapeutic cloning and improvement of human assisted reproduction.

  19. The rs11705701 G>A Polymorphism of IGF2BP2 is Associated With IGF2BP2 mRNA and Protein Levels in the Visceral Adipose Tissue - A Link to Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A.; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Smetanina, Svetlana A.; Bel'chikova, Larisa N.; Suplotova, Lyudmila A.; Shestakova, Marina V.; Nosikov, Valery V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) regulates translation of IGF2, a growth factor that plays a key role in controlling fetal growth and organogenesis including adipogenesis and pancreatic development. In Caucasians, the rs4402960 G>T polymorphism of IGF2BP2 has been shown to predispose to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in multiple populations. In this study, we tested whether rs4402960 G>T and rs11705701 G>A contribute to the development of T2D in a Russian population. METHODS: Both markers were genotyped in Russian diabetic (n = 1,470) and non-diabetic patients (n = 1,447) using a Taqman allele discrimination assay. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk of developing T2D was calculated using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, hypertension, obesity, and body mass index (BMI). Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to test genotype-phenotype correlations, and adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, obesity, and BMI. Expression of IGF2BP2 in the visceral adipose tissue was quantified using real-time PCR. The content of IGF2BP2 protein and both its isoforms (p58 and p66) in the adipose tissue was measured using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant association between rs4402960 and T2D. Whereas, allele A of rs11705701 was associated with higher T2D risk (OR = 1.19, p < 0.001). Diabetic and non-diabetic carriers of genotype TT (rs4402960) had significantly increased HOMA-IR (p = 0.033 and p = 0.031, respectively). Non-diabetic patients homozygous for AA (rs11705701) had higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.04), lower HOMA-β (p = 0.012), and reduced 2-h insulin levels (p = 0.016). Non-obese individuals (diabetic and non-diabetic) homozygous for either AA (rs11705701) or TT (rs4402960) had higher levels of IGF2BP2 mRNA in the adipose tissue than other IGF2BP2 variants. Also, allele A of rs11705701 was associated with reduced amounts of the short isoform (p58) and increased levels of

  20. The oncogenic triangle of HMGA2, LIN28B and IGF2BP1 antagonizes tumor-suppressive actions of the let-7 family

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Bianca; Bley, Nadine; Müller, Simon; Glaß, Markus; Misiak, Danny; Lederer, Marcell; Vetter, Martina; Strauß, Hans-Georg; Thomssen, Christoph; Hüttelmaier, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-suppressive let-7 microRNA family targets various oncogene-encoding mRNAs. We identify the let-7 targets HMGA2, LIN28B and IGF2BP1 to form a let-7 antagonizing self-promoting oncogenic triangle. Surprisingly, 3′-end processing of IGF2BP1 mRNAs is unaltered in aggressive cancers and tumor-derived cells although IGF2BP1 synthesis was proposed to escape let-7 attack by APA-dependent (alternative polyadenylation) 3′ UTR shortening. However, the expression of the triangle factors is inversely correlated with let-7 levels and promoted by LIN28B impairing let-7 biogenesis. Moreover, IGF2BP1 enhances the expression of all triangle factors by recruiting the respective mRNAs in mRNPs lacking AGO proteins and let-7 miRNAs. This indicates that the downregulation of let-7, largely facilitated by LIN28B upregulation, and the protection of let-7 target mRNAs by IGF2BP1-directed shielding in mRNPs synergize in enhancing the expression of triangle factors. The oncogenic potential of this triangle was confirmed in ovarian cancer (OC)-derived ES-2 cells transduced with let-7 targeting decoys. In these, the depletion of HMGA2 only diminishes tumor cell growth under permissive conditions. The depletion of LIN28B and more prominently IGF2BP1 severely impairs tumor cell viability, self-renewal and 2D as well as 3D migration. In conclusion, this suggests the targeting of the HMGA2-LIN28B-IGF2BP1 triangle as a promising strategy in cancer treatment. PMID:26917013

  1. miR-372 suppresses tumour proliferation and invasion by targeting IGF2BP1 in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Huang, Mingjie; Kong, Lingbao; Li, Yong

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate proteins and mRNAs for degradation or translational suppression. Up to now, the role of miR-372 in renal cell carcinoma has remained unknown; in this study, we have aimed to reveal its functional importance in this tumour. qRT-PCR was performed to measure expression levels of miR-372 in renal cell carcinoma cell lines and tissues. CCK-8 and an invasion assay were performed to measure its functional role. Luciferase assays, qRT-PCR and western blotting were performed to discover miR-372's target gene. We demonstrated that miRNA-372 was down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma cell lines and tissue specimens; its over-expression inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, we showed that miRNA-372 repressed insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) expression by directly interacting with its putative binding site at the 3'-UTR. Furthermore, ectopic expression of IGF2BP1 significantly reversed suppression of cell proliferation and invasion caused by miR-372 over-expression. Our data indicated that miR-372 seemed to function as a tumour suppressor in renal cell carcinoma progression by inhibiting the IGF2BP1 expression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Visualizing Changes in Cdkn1c Expression Links Early-Life Adversity to Imprint Mis-regulation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Van de Pette, Mathew; Abbas, Allifia; Feytout, Amelie; McNamara, Gráinne; Bruno, Ludovica; To, Wilson K; Dimond, Andrew; Sardini, Alessandro; Webster, Zoe; McGinty, James; Paul, Eleanor J; Ungless, Mark A; French, Paul M W; Withers, Dominic J; Uren, Anthony; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Merkenschlager, Matthias; John, Rosalind M; Fisher, Amanda G

    2017-01-31

    Imprinted genes are regulated according to parental origin and can influence embryonic growth and metabolism and confer disease susceptibility. Here, we designed sensitive allele-specific reporters to non-invasively monitor imprinted Cdkn1c expression in mice and showed that expression was modulated by environmental factors encountered in utero. Acute exposure to chromatin-modifying drugs resulted in de-repression of paternally inherited (silent) Cdkn1c alleles in embryos that was temporary and resolved after birth. In contrast, deprivation of maternal dietary protein in utero provoked permanent de-repression of imprinted Cdkn1c expression that was sustained into adulthood and occurred through a folate-dependent mechanism of DNA methylation loss. Given the function of imprinted genes in regulating behavior and metabolic processes in adults, these results establish imprinting deregulation as a credible mechanism linking early-life adversity to later-life outcomes. Furthermore, Cdkn1c-luciferase mice offer non-invasive tools to identify factors that disrupt epigenetic processes and strategies to limit their long-term impact.

  3. Imp2 regulates GBM progression by activating IGF2/PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Qingchun; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Fengbo; Gao, Haijun; Lei, Ting; Li, Peiwen; Liu, Pengfei; Zheng, Xu; Hu, Xitong; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Zhenfeng; Sayari, Arash J; Shen, Jia; Huang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM) are the most frequently occurring malignant brain cancers. Treatment for GBM consists of surgical resection and subsequent adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Despite this, GBM patient survival is limited to 12–15 months, and researchers are continually trying to develop improved therapy options. Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (Imp2) is known to be upregulated in many cancers and is known to regulate the signaling activity of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). However, relatively little is known about its role in malignant development of GBM. In this study, we first found Imp2 is upregulated in GBM tissues by using clinical samples and public database search. Studies with loss and gain of Imp2 expression in in vitro GBM cell culture system demonstrated the role of Imp2 in promoting GBM cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additionally, our results show that Imp2 regulates the activity of IGF2, which further activates PI3K/Akt signaling, thereby to promote GBM malignancy. Inhibition of Imp2 was also found to sensitize GBM to temozolomide treatment. These observations add to the current knowledge of GBM biology, and may prove useful in development of more effective GBM therapy. PMID:25719943

  4. Imp2 regulates GBM progression by activating IGF2/PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qingchun; Wang, Lijun; Yu, Fengbo; Gao, Haijun; Lei, Ting; Li, Peiwen; Liu, Pengfei; Zheng, Xu; Hu, Xitong; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Zhenfeng; Sayari, Arash J; Shen, Jia; Huang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas multiforme (GBM) are the most frequently occurring malignant brain cancers. Treatment for GBM consists of surgical resection and subsequent adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Despite this, GBM patient survival is limited to 12-15 months, and researchers are continually trying to develop improved therapy options. Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (Imp2) is known to be upregulated in many cancers and is known to regulate the signaling activity of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). However, relatively little is known about its role in malignant development of GBM. In this study, we first found Imp2 is upregulated in GBM tissues by using clinical samples and public database search. Studies with loss and gain of Imp2 expression in in vitro GBM cell culture system demonstrated the role of Imp2 in promoting GBM cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additionally, our results show that Imp2 regulates the activity of IGF2, which further activates PI3K/Akt signaling, thereby to promote GBM malignancy. Inhibition of Imp2 was also found to sensitize GBM to temozolomide treatment. These observations add to the current knowledge of GBM biology, and may prove useful in development of more effective GBM therapy.

  5. Abnormal expression of the imprinted gene Phlda2 in cloned bovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Guillomot, M; Taghouti, G; Constant, F; Degrelle, S; Hue, I; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Jammes, H

    2010-06-01

    Cloning in mammals suffers from high rates of pregnancy losses associated with abnormal placentation, mainly placentomegaly, leading to fetal death. Placental growth is dependent on the regulated expression of many genes of which imprinted genes play a fundamental role. Among them, the Phlda2 gene is expressed from the maternal allele and acts to limit placental growth in mouse and human. Here we used Northern blots, quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization to analyze the expression patterns of bovine PHLDA2 and to compare its expression levels in normal and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) placentas over a range of gestational stages. PHLDA2 is not expressed in extra-embryonic tissues before d32 of gestation but the level of expression increases throughout pregnancy until term in the placental villi collected from pregnancy obtained by artificial insemination (AI). At all stages of pregnancy, PHLDA2 mRNA are specifically localized in the trophoblast mononucleated cells contrasting with lack of expression in the binucleated cells and uterine tissues. In SCNT placentas, a similar pattern of expression was observed during early pregnancy. In contrast the level of expression is significantly reduced around d200 of gestation in the placental villi from pathological clones. The reduced expression of PHLDA2 was obvious particularly in the placental villi anchored within the uterine crypts with expression confined to the trophoblast of the chorionic plate. Altogether, these results highlight a similarity in expression patterns for PHLDA2 bovine and human where expression is localized to the trophoblast throughout pregnancy and parallels the continuous growth of the placenta. Moreover, the lack of expression in the fetal villi from oversized bovine cloned placenta is consistent with the function of PHLDA2 in restraining placental growth and underlines an aberrant expression of this gene after somatic cloning.

  6. Maternally imprinted microRNAs are differentially expressed during mouse and human lung development

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew E.; Moschos, Sterghios A.; Perry, Mark M.; Barnes, Peter J.; Lindsay, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of non-coding genes that regulate the translation of target mRNA. More than 300 miRNAs have now been discovered in humans, although the function of most is still unknown. A highly sensitive, semi-quantitative RT-PCR method was utilised to reveal the differential expression of a number of miRNAs during the development of both mouse and human lung. Of note was the upregulation in neonatal mouse and fetal human lung of a maternally imprinted miRNA cluster located at human chromosome 14q32.21 (mouse chromosome 12F2), which includes the miR-154 and miR-335 families and is situated within the Gtl2-Dio3 domain. Conversely, several miRNAs were upregulated in adult compared to neonatal/fetal lung including miR-29a and miR-29b. Differences in the spatial expression patterns of miR-154, miR-29a and miR-26a was demonstrated using in situ hybridisation of mouse neonatal and adult tissue using miRNA-specific LNA probes. Interestingly, miR-154 appeared to be localised to the stroma of fetal but not adult lungs. The overall expression profile was similar for mouse and human tissue suggesting evolutionary conservation of miRNA expression during lung development and demonstrating the importance of maternally imprinted miRNAs in the developmental process. PMID:17191223

  7. Differential methylation status of IGF2-H19 locus does not affect the fertility of crossbred bulls but some of the CTCF binding sites could be potentially important.

    PubMed

    Jena, Subas C; Kumar, Sandeep; Rajput, Sandeep; Roy, Bhaskar; Verma, Arpana; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Mohanty, Tushar K; De, Sachinandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Datta, Tirtha K

    2014-04-01

    Associations between abnormal methylation of spermatozoan DNA with male infertility have been sought in recent years to identify a molecular explanation of differential spermatozoan function. The present work was undertaken to investigate the methylation profile of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the IGF2-H19 locus of Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred bull spermatozoa. Bulls having more than at least 100 insemination records over a period of 12 years were classified into two groups of five bulls each belonging to low- and high-fertility groups. The IGF2 and H19 DMR sequences in B. indicus cattle were observed to be in absolute homology with B. taurus cattle. The DNA of crossbred bull spermatozoa was isolated, bisulfite treated, and amplified for specific DMR regions using methylation-change-specific primers. The overall degree of methylation at IGF2-H19 DMRs was not found to be significantly different among two groups of bulls. The sixth CTCF binding site (CCCTC) identified in H19 DMR, however, had a significant methylation difference between the high- and low-fertility bulls. It was concluded that alteration of the methylation levels at IGF2-H19 DMRs might not be responsible for the fertility difference of crossbred bulls, although the role played by the specific CTCF binding sites at this locus, which could influence IGF2 expression during spermatogenesis and early embryonic development, deserves further attention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Aberrant methylation of imprinted genes is associated with negative hormone receptor status in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Timothy M; Barault, Ludovic; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Harris, Holly R; Binder, Alexandra M; Valente, Allyson L; Shriver, Craig D; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes enables monoallelic expression according to parental origin, and its disruption is implicated in many cancers and developmental disorders. The expression of hormone receptors is significant in breast cancer as they are indicators of cancer cell growth rate and determine response to endocrine therapies. We investigated the frequency of aberrant events and variation in DNA methylation at nine imprinted sites in invasive breast cancer and examined the association with estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast tissue and blood from patients with invasive breast cancer (n=38) and benign breast disease (n=30) were compared to those from healthy individuals (n=36), matched to the cancer patients by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, BMI, menopausal status, and familial history of cancer. DNA methylation and allele-specific expression were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Tumor-specific methylation changes at IGF2 DMR2 were observed in 59% of cancer patients, IGF2 DMR0 in 38%, DIRAS3 DMR in 36%, GRB10 ICR in 23%, PEG3 DMR in 21%, MEST ICR in 19%, H19 ICR in 18%, KvDMR in 8%, and SNRPN/SNURF ICR in 4%. Variation of methylation was significantly greater in breast tissue from cancer patients than healthy individuals and benign breast disease. Aberrant methylation of three or more sites was significantly associated with negative estrogen-alpha (Fisher’s Exact Test, p=0.02) and progesterone-A (p=0.02) receptor status. Aberrant events and increased variation of imprinted gene DNA methylation therefore appear to be frequent in invasive breast cancer and are associated with negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, without loss of monoallelic expression. PMID:25560175

  9. Paternal BPA exposure in early life alters Igf2 epigenetic status in sperm and induces pancreatic impairment in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhenxing; Xia, Wei; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-11-04

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors in utero appears to alter epigenetics in the male germ-line and subsequently promote adult-onset disease in subsequent generations. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent endocrine disruptor in environment, has been shown to alter epigenetic modification and result in glucose intolerance in adulthood. However, whether fetal exposure to BPA can induce epigenetic modification and phenotypic changes in their subsequent offspring are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to BPA in early life induced glucose intolerance in the offspring through male germ line, and the underlying epigenetic molecular basis. F0 pregnant SD rats were received corn oil or 40 μg/kg/day of BPA during gestation and lactation. F1 male rats were maintained to generate F2 offspring by mating with untreated female rats. Both the F1 rats after weaning and the F2 offspring were not received any other treatments. Our results showed that male F2 offspring in the BPA group exhibited glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased expression of Igf2 and associated hypermethylation of Igf2 were observed in islets of male F2 offspring. In addition, similar effects were observed in female F2 animals, but the effects were more pronounced in males. Moreover, abnormal expression and methylation of Igf2 was observed in sperm of adult F1 male rats, indicating that epigenetic modification in germ cells can be partly progressed to the next generation. Overall, our study suggests that BPA exposure during early life can result in generational transmission of glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction in the offspring through male germ line, which is associated with hypermethylation of Igf2 in islets. The changes of epigenetics in germ cells may contribute to this generational transmission.

  10. Dynamic regulatory interactions of Polycomb group genes: MEDEA autoregulation is required for imprinted gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Baroux, Célia; Gagliardini, Valeria; Page, Damian R; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2006-05-01

    The imprinted Arabidopsis Polycomb group (PcG) gene MEDEA (MEA), which is homologous to Enhancer of Zeste [E(Z)], is maternally required for normal seed development. Here we show that, unlike known mammalian imprinted genes, MEA regulates its own imprinted expression: It down-regulates the maternal allele around fertilization and maintains the paternal allele silent later during seed development. Autorepression of the maternal MEA allele is direct and independent of the MEA-FIE (FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM) PcG complex, which is similar to the E(Z)-ESC (Extra sex combs) complex of animals, suggesting a novel mechanism. A complex network of cross-regulatory interactions among the other known members of the MEA-FIE PcG complex implies distinct functions that are dynamically regulated during reproduction.

  11. Dynamic regulatory interactions of Polycomb group genes: MEDEA autoregulation is required for imprinted gene expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Baroux, Célia; Gagliardini, Valeria; Page, Damian R.; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2006-01-01

    The imprinted Arabidopsis Polycomb group (PcG) gene MEDEA (MEA), which is homologous to Enhancer of Zeste [E(Z)], is maternally required for normal seed development. Here we show that, unlike known mammalian imprinted genes, MEA regulates its own imprinted expression: It down-regulates the maternal allele around fertilization and maintains the paternal allele silent later during seed development. Autorepression of the maternal MEA allele is direct and independent of the MEA–FIE (FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM) PcG complex, which is similar to the E(Z)–ESC (Extra sex combs) complex of animals, suggesting a novel mechanism. A complex network of cross-regulatory interactions among the other known members of the MEA–FIE PcG complex implies distinct functions that are dynamically regulated during reproduction. PMID:16651654

  12. Non-coding transcripts in the H19 imprinting control region mediate gene silencing in transgenic Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Stefan; Smits, Guillaume; Fraser, Peter; Reik, Wolf; Paro, Renato

    2007-11-01

    The imprinting control region (ICR) upstream of H19 is the key regulatory element conferring monoallelic expression on H19 and Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2). Epigenetic marks in the ICR regulate its interaction with the chromatin protein CCCTC-binding factor and with other control factors to coordinate gene silencing in the imprinting cluster. Here, we show that the H19 ICR is biallelically transcribed, producing both sense and antisense RNAs. We analyse the function of the non-coding transcripts in a Drosophila transgenic system in which the H19 upstream region silences the expression of a reporter gene. We show that knockdown of H19 ICR non-coding RNA (ncRNA) by RNA interference leads to the loss of reporter gene silencing. Our results are, to the best of our knowledge, the first to show that ncRNAs in the H19 ICR are functionally significant, and also indicate that they have a role in regulating gene expression and perhaps epigenetic marks at the H19/Igf2 locus.

  13. Tissue-, sex- and age-specific DNA methylation of rat glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter and insulin like growth factor 2 imprinting control region.

    PubMed

    Agba, Ogechukwu Brenda; Lausser, Ludwig; Huse, Klaus; Bergmeier, Christoph; Jahn, Niels; Groth, Marco; Bens, Martin; Sahm, Arne; Gall, Maria; Witte, Otto W; Kestler, Hans A; Schwab, Matthias; Platzer, Matthias

    2017-09-15

    Tissue-, sex- and age-specific epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are largely unknown. Changes in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and imprinting control region (ICR) of IGF2 and H19 genes during the lifespan are particularly interesting since these genes are susceptible to epigenetic modifications by prenatal stress or malnutrition. They are important regulators of development and aging. Methylation changes of NR3C1 affect glucocorticoid receptor expression, which is associated with stress sensitivity and stress-related diseases predominantly occurring during aging. Methylation changes of IGF2/H19 affect growth trajectory and nutrient use with risk of metabolic syndrome. Using a locus-specific approach, we characterized DNA methylation patterns of different Nr3c1 promoters and Igf2/H19 ICR in seven tissues of rats at 3, 9 and 24 months of age. We found a complex pattern of locus-, tissue-, sex- and age-specific DNA methylation. Tissue-specific methylation was most prominent at the shores of the Nr3c1 CpG island (CGI). Sex-specific differences in methylation peaked at 9 months. During aging, Nr3c1 predominantly displayed hypomethylation mainly in females and at shores, whereas hypermethylation occurred within the CGI. Igf2/H19 ICR exhibited age-related hypomethylation occurring mainly in males. Methylation patterns of Nr3c1 in the skin correlated with those in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Skin may serve as proxy for methylation changes in central parts of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and hence for vulnerability to stress- and age-associated diseases. Thus, we provide in-depth insight into the complex DNA methylation changes of rat Nr3c1 and Igf2/H19 during aging that are tissue- and sex-specific. Copyright © 2017, Physiological Genomics.

  14. ZENK expression in a restricted forebrain area correlates negatively with preference for an imprinted stimulus.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, Christine; Husemann, Pamela; Lieshoff, Carsten; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2006-07-15

    Sexual imprinting is an early learning process by which young birds acquire the characteristics of a potential sexual partner. The physiological basis of this learning process is an irreversible reduction of dendritic spines in two forebrain areas, the LNM (lateral nido-mesopallium) and the MNM (medial nido-mesopallium). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these two brain areas are activated if the imprinted stimulus is presented to the adult bird after the end of the sensitive period. One group of zebra finch males was reared by their own parents. These birds, as adults, showed an exclusive preference for their own species in choice tests between a zebra finch and a Bengalese finch female. If exposed as adults to a zebra finch female, LNM and MNM showed lower activation, as measured by ZENK expression, compared to males exposed to a Bengalese finch female. A second group was reared by Bengalese finches and was exposed at day 100 to a zebra finch female for 1 week. As shown earlier, this regime leads to mixed choices, the birds are courting Bengalese and zebra finch females with a fixed ratio (preference score). If these birds were exposed to a zebra finch female as adults, the ZENK expression within LNM was much higher compared to group 1, and it showed a strong tendency to correlate negatively with the preference score: Birds with higher zebra finch preference showed lower activation compared to those with a low zebra finch and a high Bengalese finch preference. We propose that higher ZENK activation in group 2 is due to the rearing by a foster species which may result in a more complex neuronal network. The negative relation between activation and preference score may be explained by special properties of the LNM and MNM networks.

  15. Transgenerational pancreatic impairment with Igf2/H19 epigenetic alteration induced by p,p'-DDE exposure in early life.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-05

    The hypothesis of fetal origins indicates that exposures in early development could induce epigenetic modifications in the male germ-line, affecting the susceptibility of adult-onset disease for generations. p,p'-DDE, the primary metabolite of persistent organochlorine pesticide DDT, is highly correlated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and a strong contributing factor to type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational impaired male fertility with sperm Igf2 hypomethylation. It is still unknown whether this germline epigenetic defect would affect the somatic tissue endocrine pancreas. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to p,p'-DDE from gestation day 8 to 15. The F1 male offspring were mated with female to produce F2 progeny. F3 generation was obtained by intercrossing the control and treated male and female of F2 generation and divided as C♂-C♀, DDE♂-DDE♀, DDE♂-C♀ and C♂-DDE♀. Results indicated that F1 offspring in p,p'-DDE group exhibited impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), abnormal insulin secretion, β-cell dysfunction and altered Igf2 and H19 expression induced by Igf2/H19 hypomethylation, which could be transferred to the F3 offspring through the male germ line. IGT and abnormal insulin secretion were more obvious in males than those in females. Ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational pancreatic impairment with Igf2/H19 epigenetic defect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Destabilizing the interplay between miR-1275 and IGF2BPs by Tamarix articulata and quercetin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shaalan, Yasmin M; Handoussa, H; Youness, R A; Assal, R A; El-Khatib, A H; Linscheid, M W; El Tayebi, H M; Abdelaziz, A I

    2017-08-18

    Insulin-like growth factor-2 binding proteins (IGF2BPs) are oncogenic RNA-binding proteins, highly up-regulated in HCC, and were recently validated as direct targets of the tumour suppressor miR-1275. It is worth noting that around 47% of FDA approved anticancer drugs are derived from plants. Modulation by miRNAs and their cellular signalling cascades could constitute new pathways by which these phytochemicals exert their effects. This study aimed to investigate the potential use of Tamarix articulata, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in HCC and how these phytochemicals could epigenetically modulate the IGF axis using their impact on miR-1275. T. articulata ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the viability of Huh-7 cells compared to control cells. Treatment with T. articulata ethyl acetate fraction, quercetin and EGCG significantly enhanced miR-1275, while suppressed IGF2BP1 and IGF2BP3 mRNA expression levels. In summary, T. articulata, quercetin and EGCG have important implications for HCC molecular-targeted therapy through destabilizing the interplay between miR-1275 and the IGF axis.

  17. Genomic Imprinting in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Denise P.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals and results in a monoallelic, parental-specific expression pattern. Most of these genes are located in clusters that are regulated through the use of insulators or long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). To distinguish the parental alleles, imprinted genes are epigenetically marked in gametes at imprinting control elements through the use of DNA methylation at the very least. Imprinted gene expression is subsequently conferred through lncRNAs, histone modifications, insulators, and higher-order chromatin structure. Such imprints are maintained after fertilization through these mechanisms despite extensive reprogramming of the mammalian genome. Genomic imprinting is an excellent model for understanding mammalian epigenetic regulation. PMID:24492710

  18. Evidence for possible involvement of IGF type II receptors (IGF2R) in regulating growth of two concomitant dominant follicles in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regulation of multiple ovulations in monotocous species such as cattle is not well understood. Gene expression of the FSH receptor (FSHR) in granulosa (GC), and LH receptor (LHR) and IGF2R in GC and theca (TC) cells, as well as estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels in follicular fluid (FF) wer...

  19. RNA-Seq Analyses Identify Frequent Allele Specific Expression and No Evidence of Genomic Imprinting in Specific Embryonic Tissues of Chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Abasht, Behnam

    2017-09-20

    Epigenetic and genetic cis-regulatory elements in diploid organisms may cause allele specific expression (ASE) - unequal expression of the two chromosomal gene copies. Genomic imprinting is an intriguing type of ASE in which some genes are expressed monoallelically from either the paternal allele or maternal allele as a result of epigenetic modifications. Imprinted genes have been identified in several animal species and are frequently associated with embryonic development and growth. Whether genomic imprinting exists in chickens remains debatable, as previous studies have reported conflicting evidence. Albeit no genomic imprinting has been reported in the chicken embryo as a whole, we interrogated the existence or absence of genomic imprinting in the 12-day-old chicken embryonic brain and liver by examining ASE in F1 reciprocal crosses of two highly inbred chicken lines (Fayoumi and Leghorn). We identified 5197 and 4638 ASE SNPs, corresponding to 18.3% and 17.3% of the genes with a detectable expression in the embryonic brain and liver, respectively. There was no evidence detected of genomic imprinting in 12-day-old embryonic brain and liver. While ruling out the possibility of imprinted Z-chromosome inactivation, our results indicated that Z-linked gene expression is partially compensated between sexes in chickens.

  20. Genomic Imprinting and the Expression of Affect in Angelman Syndrome: What's in the Smile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Horsler, Kate; Berg, Katy; Bellamy, Gail; Dick, Katie; Griffiths, Emily

    2007-01-01

    Background: Kinship theory (or the genomic conflict hypothesis) proposes that the phenotypic effects of genomic imprinting arise from conflict between paternally and maternally inherited alleles. A prediction arising for social behaviour from this theory is that imbalance in this conflict resulting from a deletion of a maternally imprinted gene,…

  1. Genomic Imprinting and the Expression of Affect in Angelman Syndrome: What's in the Smile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Horsler, Kate; Berg, Katy; Bellamy, Gail; Dick, Katie; Griffiths, Emily

    2007-01-01

    Background: Kinship theory (or the genomic conflict hypothesis) proposes that the phenotypic effects of genomic imprinting arise from conflict between paternally and maternally inherited alleles. A prediction arising for social behaviour from this theory is that imbalance in this conflict resulting from a deletion of a maternally imprinted gene,…

  2. Elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates visual imprinting in chicks.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiko; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sugiyama, Hayato; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2012-12-01

    With the aim of elucidating the neural mechanisms of early learning, we studied the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in visual imprinting in birds. The telencephalic neural circuit connecting the visual Wulst and intermediate medial mesopallium is critical for imprinting, and the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), situated at the center of this circuit, has a key role in regulating the activity of the circuit. We found that the number of BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo was elevated during the critical period, particularly at its onset, on the day of hatching (P0). After imprinting training on P1, BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo increased in number, and tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkB was observed. BDNF infusion into the HDCo at P1 induced imprinting, even with a weak training protocol that does not normally induce imprinting. In contrast, K252a, an antagonist of Trk, inhibited imprinting. Injection of BDNF at P7, after the critical period, did not elicit imprinting. These results suggest that BDNF promotes the induction of imprinting through TrkB exclusively during the critical period. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Mitochondrial Dysfunction in an Imprinting Center Deletion Mouse Model of Prader–Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Puya G.; Su, Hailing; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Fan, Weiwei; Coskun, Pinar E.; Nalbandian, Angèle; Knoblach, Susan; Resnick, James L.; Hoffman, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11–15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity, and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. We focused our attention on the genes associated with energy metabolism and found that there were 95 and 66 mitochondrial genes differentially expressed in PWS muscle and brain, respectively. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes in the brain, heart, liver, and muscle were assessed. We found the enzyme activities of the cardiac mitochondrial complexes II‫III were up‐regulated in the PWS imprinting center deletion mice compared to the wild‐type littermates. These studies suggest that differential gene expression, especially of the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of PWS. PMID:24127921

  4. The Tnfrh1 (Tnfrsf23) gene is weakly imprinted in several organs and expressed at the trophoblast-decidua interface

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lorraine; Wei, Michelle; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Tycko, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background The Tnfrh1 gene (gene symbol Tnfrsf23) is located near one end of a megabase-scale imprinted region on mouse distal chromosome 7, about 350 kb distant from the nearest known imprinting control element. Within 20 kb of Tnfrh1 is a related gene called Tnfrh2 (Tnfrsf22) These duplicated genes encode putative decoy receptors in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Although other genes in this chromosomal region show conserved synteny with genes on human Chr11p15.5, there are no obvious human orthologues of Tnfrh1 or Tnfrh2. Results We analyzed Tnfrh1 for evidence of parental imprinting, and characterized its tissue-specific expression. Tnfrh1 mRNA is detectable in multiple adult and fetal tissues, with highest expression in placenta, where in situ hybridization reveals a distinctive population of Tnfrh1-positive cells in maternal decidua, directly beneath the trophoblast giant cells. In offspring of interspecific mouse crosses, Tnfrh1 shows a consistent parent-of-origin-dependent allelic expression bias, with relative repression, but not silencing, of the paternal allele in several organs including fetal liver and adult spleen. Conclusions Genes preferentially expressed in the placenta are predicted to evolve rapidly, and Tnfrh1 appears to be an example of this phenomenon. In view of its strong expression in cells at the fetal-maternal boundary, Tnfrh1 warrants further study as a gene that might modulate immune or trophic interactions between the invasive placental trophoblast and the maternal decidua. The preferential expression of Tnfrh1 from the maternal allele indicates weak functional imprinting of this locus in some tissues. PMID:12102730

  5. Genomic imprinting and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Swales, A K E; Spears, N

    2005-10-01

    Genomic imprinting is the parent-of-origin specific gene expression which is a vital mechanism through both development and adult life. One of the key elements of the imprinting mechanism is DNA methylation, controlled by DNA methyltransferase enzymes. Germ cells undergo reprogramming to ensure that sex-specific genomic imprinting is initiated, thus allowing normal embryo development to progress after fertilisation. In some cases, errors in genomic imprinting are embryo lethal while in others they lead to developmental disorders and disease. Recent studies have suggested a link between the use of assisted reproductive techniques and an increase in normally rare imprinting disorders. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of genomic imprinting and the factors that influence them are important in assessing the safety of these techniques.

  6. Gene structure, DNA methylation, and imprinted expression of the human SNRPN gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, C.C.; Jong, T.C.; Filbrandt, M.M.

    1996-02-01

    The human SNRPN (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N) gene is one of a gene family that encode proteins involved in pre-mRNA splicing and maps to the smallest deletion region involved in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) within chromosome 15q11-q13. Paternal only expression of SNRPN has previously been demonstrated by use of cell lines from PWS patients (maternal allele only) and Angelman syndrome (AS) patients (paternal allele only). We have characterized two previously unidentified 5{prime} exons of the SNRPN gene and demonstrate that exons -1 and 0 are included in the full-length transcript. This gene is expressed in a wide range of somatic tissues and at high, approximately equal levels in all regions of the brain. Both the first exon of SNRPN (exon -1) and the putative transcription start site are embedded within a CpG island. This CpG island is extensively methylated on the repressed maternal allele and is unmethylated on the expressed paternal allele, in a wide range of fetal and adult somatic cells. This provides a quick and highly reliable diagnostic assay for PWS and AS, which is based on DNA-methylation analysis that has been tested on >100 patients in a variety of tissues. Conversely, several CpG sites {approximately}22 kb downstream of the transcription start site in intron 5 are preferentially methylated on the expressed paternal allele in somatic tissues and male germ cells, whereas these same sites are unmethylated in fetal oocytes. These findings are consistent with a key role for DNA methylation in the imprinted inheritance and subsequent gene expression of the human SNRPN gene. 59 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Chromatin Regulators of Genomic Imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Jamie R.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in which genes are expressed monoallelically in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. Each chromosome is imprinted with its parental identity. Here we will discuss the nature of this imprinting mark. DNA methylation has a well-established central role in imprinting, and the details of DNA methylation dynamics and the mechanisms that target it to imprinted loci are areas of active investigation. However, there is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is not solely responsible for imprinted expression. At the same time, there is growing appreciation for the contributions of post-translational histone modifications to the regulation of imprinting. The integration of our understanding of these two mechanisms is an important goal for the future of the imprinting field. PMID:24345612

  8. [Genomic imprinting and human pathology].

    PubMed

    Polívková, Z

    2005-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic form of regulation of gene expression. Imprinted genes are transcribed from one allele of specific parental origin. Such genes are normally involved in embryonic growth and behavioral development. Deregulation of imprinted genes has been observed in a number of human diseases as gestation trophoblastic disease, Prader-Willi, Angelmann and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes and plays significant role in the carcinogenesis. Review of recent knowledge on mechanism and regulation of imprinting is presented in this paper.

  9. DNA methylation dynamics at imprinted genes during bovine pre-implantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Alan M; Magee, David A; O'Shea, Lynee C; Forde, Niamh; Beltman, Marijke E; Mamo, Solomon; Fair, Trudee

    2015-03-10

    In mammals, maternal differentially methylated regions (DMRs) acquire DNA methylation during the postnatal growth stage of oogenesis, with paternal DMRs acquiring DNA methylation in the perinatal prospermatagonia. Following fusion of the male and female gametes, it is widely accepted that murine DNA methylation marks at the DMRs of imprinted genes are stable through embryogenesis and early development, until they are reprogrammed in primordial germ cells. However, the DNA methylation dynamics at DMRs of bovine imprinted genes during early stages of development remains largely unknown. The objective of this investigation was to analyse the methylation dynamics at imprinted gene DMRs during bovine embryo development, from blastocyst stage until implantation. To this end, pyrosequencing technology was used to quantify DNA methylation at DMR-associated CpG dinucleotides of six imprinted bovine genes (SNRPN, MEST, IGF2R, PLAGL1, PEG10 and H19) using bisulfite-modified genomic DNA isolated from individual blastocysts (Day 7); ovoid embryos (Day 14); filamentous embryos (Day 17) and implanting conceptuses (Day 25). For all genes, the degree of DNA methylation was most variable in Day 7 blastocysts compared to later developmental stages (P < 0.05). Furthermore, mining of RNA-seq transcriptomic data and western blot analysis revealed a specific window of expression of DNA methylation machinery genes (including DNMT3A, DNMT3B, TRIM28/KAP1 and DNMT1) and proteins (DNMT3A, DNMT3A2 and DNMT3B) by bovine embryos coincident with imprint stabilization. The findings of this study suggest that the DNA methylation status of bovine DMRs might be variable during the early stages of embryonic development, possibly requiring an active period of imprint stabilization.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of Newborns' imprinted genes related to gestational growth: patterning by parental race/ethnicity and maternal socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    King, Katherine; Murphy, Susan; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-07-01

    Children born to parents with lower income and education are at risk for obesity and later-life risk of common chronic diseases, and epigenetics has been hypothesised to link these associations. However, epigenetic targets are unknown. We focus on a cluster of well-characterised genomically imprinted genes because their monoallelic expression is regulated by DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs), are critical in fetal growth, and DNA methylation patterns at birth have been associated with increased risk of birth weight extremes and overweight status or obesity in early childhood. We measured DNA methylation at DMRs regulating genomically imprinted domains (IGF2/H19, DLK1/MEG3, NNAT and PLAGL1) using umbilical cord blood leucocytes from 619 infants recruited in Durham, North Carolina in 2010-2011. We examined differences in DNA methylation levels by race/ethnicity of both parents, and the role that maternal socioeconomic status (SES) may play in the association between race/ethnic epigenetic differences. Unadjusted race/ethnic differences only were evident for DMRs regulating MEG3 and IGF2; race/ethnic differences persisted in IGF2/H19 and NNAT after accounting for income and education. Results suggest that parental factors may not only influence DNA methylation, but also do so in ways that vary by DMR. Findings support the hypothesis that epigenetics may link the observed lower SES during the prenatal period and poor outcomes such as low birth weight; lower birth weight has previously been associated with adult-onset chronic diseases and conditions that include cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity and some cancers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Differential regulation of genomic imprinting by TET proteins in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lizhi; Mao, Shi-Qing; Ray, Chelsea; Zhang, Yu; Bell, Fong T.; Ng, Sheau-Fang; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Xiajun

    2015-01-01

    TET proteins have been found to play an important role in active demethylation at CpG sites in mammals. There are some reports implicating their functions in removal of DNA methylation imprint at the imprinted regions in the germline. However, it is not well established whether TET proteins can also be involved in demethylation of DNA methylation imprint in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we report that loss of TET proteins caused significant increase in DNA methylation at the Igf2-H19 imprinted region in ES cells. We also observed variable increase in DNA methylation at the Peg1 imprinted region in the ES clones devoid of TET proteins, in particular in the differentiated ES cells. By contrast, we did not observe significant increase of DNA methylation imprint at the Peg3, Snrpn and Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted regions in ES cells lacking TET proteins. Interestingly, loss of TET proteins did not result in significant increase of DNA methylation imprint at the Igf2-H19 and Peg1 imprinted regions in the embryoid bodies (EB). Therefore, TET proteins seem to be differentially involved in maintaining DNA methylation imprint at a subset of imprinted regions in ES cells and EBs. PMID:26397890

  12. H19 Imprinting Control Region Methylation Requires an Imprinted Environment Only in the Male Germ Line ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gebert, Claudia; Kunkel, David; Grinberg, Alexander; Pfeifer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The 2.4-kb H19 imprinting control region (H19ICR) is required to establish parent-of-origin-specific epigenetic marks and expression patterns at the Igf2/H19 locus. H19ICR activity is regulated by DNA methylation. The ICR is methylated in sperm but not in oocytes, and this paternal chromosome-specific methylation is maintained throughout development. We recently showed that the H19ICR can work as an ICR even when inserted into the normally nonimprinted alpha fetoprotein locus. Paternal but not maternal copies of the ICR become methylated in somatic tissue. However, the ectopic ICR remains unmethylated in sperm. To extend these findings and investigate the mechanisms that lead to methylation of the H19ICR in the male germ line, we characterized novel mouse knock-in lines. Our data confirm that the 2.4-kb element is an autonomously acting ICR whose function is not dependent on germ line methylation. Ectopic ICRs become methylated in the male germ line, but the timing of methylation is influenced by the insertion site and by additional genetic information. Our results support the idea that DNA methylation is not the primary genomic imprint and that the H19ICR insertion is sufficient to transmit parent-of-origin-dependent DNA methylation patterns independent of its methylation status in sperm. PMID:20038532

  13. Structure and functional analysis of the IGF-II/IGF2R interaction

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James; Delaine, Carlie; Zaccheo, Oliver J; Siebold, Christian; Gilbert, Robert J; van Boxel, Gijs; Denley, Adam; Wallace, John C; Hassan, A Bassim; Forbes, Briony E; Jones, E Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development and normal growth require exquisite control of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). In mammals the extracellular region of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor has gained an IGF-II-binding function and is termed type II IGF receptor (IGF2R). IGF2R sequesters IGF-II; imbalances occur in cancers and IGF2R is implicated in tumour suppression. We report crystal structures of IGF2R domains 11–12, 11–12–13–14 and domains 11–12–13/IGF-II complex. A distinctive juxtaposition of these domains provides the IGF-II-binding unit, with domain 11 directly interacting with IGF-II and domain 13 modulating binding site flexibility. Our complex shows that Phe19 and Leu53 of IGF-II lock into a hydrophobic pocket unique to domain 11 of mammalian IGF2Rs. Mutagenesis analyses confirm this IGF-II ‘binding-hotspot', revealing that IGF-binding proteins and IGF2R have converged on the same high-affinity site. PMID:18046459

  14. Fluid shear promotes chondrosarcoma cell invasion by activating matrix metalloproteinase 12 via IGF-2 and VEGF signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P; Chen, S-H; Hung, W-C; Paul, C; Zhu, F; Guan, P-P; Huso, DL; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A; Konstantopoulos, K

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow in and around the tumor tissue is a physiologically relevant mechanical signal that regulates intracellular signaling pathways throughout the tumor. Yet, the effects of interstitial flow and associated fluid shear stress on the tumor cell function have been largely overlooked. Using in vitro bioengineering models in conjunction with molecular cell biology tools, we found that fluid shear (2 dyn/cm2) markedly upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) expression and its activity in human chondrosarcoma cells. MMP-12 expression is induced in human chondrocytes during malignant transformation. However, the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 expression and its potential role in human chondrosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. We discovered that fluid shear stress induces the synthesis of insulin growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) B and D, which in turn transactivate MMP-12 via PI3-K, p38 and JNK signaling pathways. IGF-2-, VEGF-B- or VEGF-D-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells display markedly higher migratory and invasive potentials in vitro, which are blocked by inhibiting MMP-12, PI3-K, p38 or JNK activity. Moreover, recombinant human MMP-12 or MMP-12 overexpression can potentiate chondrosarcoma cell invasion in vitro and the lung colonization in vivo. By reconstructing and delineating the signaling pathway regulating MMP-12 activation, potential therapeutic strategies that interfere with chondrosarcoma cell invasion may be identified. PMID:25435370

  15. Diseases associated with genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Jon F; Úbeda, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is the phenomenon where the expression of a locus differs between the maternally and paternally inherited alleles. Typically, this manifests as transcriptional silencing of one of the alleles, although many genes are imprinted in a tissue- or isoform-specific manner. Diseases associated with imprinted genes include various cancers, disorders of growth and metabolism, and disorders in neurodevelopment, cognition, and behavior, including certain major psychiatric disorders. In many cases, the disease phenotypes associated with dysfunction at particular imprinted loci can be understood in terms of the evolutionary processes responsible for the origin of imprinting. Imprinted gene expression represents the outcome of an intragenomic evolutionary conflict, where natural selection favors different expression strategies for maternally and paternally inherited alleles. This conflict is reasonably well understood in the context of the early growth effects of imprinted genes, where paternally inherited alleles are selected to place a greater demand on maternal resources than are maternally inherited alleles. Less well understood are the origins of imprinted gene expression in the brain, and their effects on cognition and behavior. This chapter reviews the genetic diseases that are associated with imprinted genes, framed in terms of the evolutionary pressures acting on gene expression at those loci. We begin by reviewing the phenomenon and evolutionary origins of genomic imprinting. We then discuss diseases that are associated with genetic or epigenetic defects at particular imprinted loci, many of which are associated with abnormalities in growth and/or feeding behaviors that can be understood in terms of the asymmetric pressures of natural selection on maternally and paternally inherited alleles. We next described the evidence for imprinted gene effects on adult cognition and behavior, and the possible role of imprinted genes in the etiology of certain

  16. Dynamic Expression of Imprinted Genes Associates with Maternally Controlled Nutrient Allocation during Maize Endosperm Development[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Mingming; Yang, Ruolin; Li, Guosheng; Chen, Hao; Laurie, John; Ma, Chuang; Wang, Dongfang; Yao, Yingyin; Larkins, Brian A.; Sun, Qixin; Yadegari, Ramin; Wang, Xiangfeng; Ni, Zhongfu

    2013-01-01

    In angiosperms, the endosperm provides nutrients for embryogenesis and seed germination and is the primary tissue where gene imprinting occurs. To identify the imprintome of early developing maize (Zea mays) endosperm, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of whole kernels at 0, 3, and 5 d after pollination (DAP) and endosperms at 7, 10, and 15 DAP, using B73 by Mo17 reciprocal crosses. We observed gradually increased expression of paternal transcripts in 3- and 5-DAP kernels. In 7-DAP endosperm, the majority of the genes tested reached a 2:1 maternal versus paternal ratio, suggesting that paternal genes are nearly fully activated by 7 DAP. A total of 116, 234, and 63 genes exhibiting parent-specific expression were identified at 7, 10, and 15 DAP, respectively. The largest proportion of paternally expressed genes was at 7 DAP, mainly due to the significantly deviated parental allele expression ratio of these genes at this stage, while nearly 80% of the maternally expressed genes (MEGs) were specific to 10 DAP and were primarily attributed to sharply increased expression levels compared with the other stages. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the imprinted genes suggested that 10-DAP endosperm-specific MEGs are involved in nutrient uptake and allocation and the auxin signaling pathway, coincident with the onset of starch and storage protein accumulation. PMID:24058158

  17. Imprinting evolution and human health.

    PubMed

    Das, Radhika; Hampton, Daniel D; Jirtle, Randy L

    2009-01-01

    Genomic imprinting results in parent-of-origin-dependent, monoallelic expression of genes. The functional haploid state of these genes has far-reaching consequences. Not only has imprinting been implicated in accelerating mammalian speciation, there is growing evidence that it is also involved in the pathogenesis of several human conditions, particularly cancer and neurological disorders. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms govern the parental allele-specific silencing of imprinted genes, and many theories have attempted to explain the driving force for the evolution of this unique form of gene control. This review discusses the evolution of imprinting in Therian mammals, and the importance of imprinted genes in human health and disease.

  18. G Allele of the IGF2 ApaI Polymorphism Is Associated With Judo Status.

    PubMed

    Itaka, Toshio; Agemizu, Kenichiro; Aruga, Seiji; Machida, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    Itaka, T, Agemizu, K, Aruga, S, and Machida, S. G allele of the IGF2 ApaI polymorphism is associated with judo status. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2043-2048, 2016-Previous studies have reported that the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) ApaI polymorphism is associated with body mass index, fat mass, and grip strength. Competitive judo requires high levels of strength and power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the IGF2 ApaI and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and judo status. The subjects were 156 male judo athletes from a top-level university in Japan. They were divided into 3 groups based on their competitive history: international-level athletes, national-level athletes, and others. Genomic DNA was extracted from the saliva of each athlete, and the maximal isometric strength of the trunk muscles and handgrip strength were measured. Genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect IGF2 (rs680) and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) (rs1815739) gene polymorphisms. The genotype frequencies of the 2 gene polymorphisms were compared among the 3 groups of judo athletes and controls. International-level judo athletes showed a higher frequency of the GG + GA genotype of the IGF2 gene than that of the national-level athletes and others. There was an inverse linear correlation between the frequency of the IGF2 AA genotype and level of judo performance (p = 0.041). Back muscle strength relative to height and weight was higher in subjects with the GG + GA genotype than in those with the AA genotype. Conversely, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism was not associated with judo status. Additionally, no differences were found in back muscle or handgrip strength among the ACTN3 genotypes. In conclusion, the results indicate that the IGF2 gene polymorphism may be associated with judo status.

  19. [Neurobiology of imprinting].

    PubMed

    Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2012-06-01

    Imprinting is an example of learning and memory acquisition in infancy. In the case of precocial birds, such as geese, ducks, and chickens, the baby birds learn the characteristics of the first moving object that they see within a critical period, and they imprint on it and follow it around. We analyzed the neural basis of this behavior in order to understand the neural mechanism of learning and memory in infancy. Information pertaining to a visual imprinting stimulus is recognized and processed in the visual Wulst, a region that corresponds to the mammalian visual cortex. It is then transmitted to the posterior region of the telencephalon, followed by the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), periventricular region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDPe), and finally, the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. Memory is stored in the IMM. After imprint training, plastic changes are observed in the visual Wulst as well as in the neurons of this circuit. HDCo cells, located at the center of this circuit, express N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors containing the NMDA receptor (NR) 2B subunit; the expression of this receptor increased after the imprint training. Inhibition of this receptor in the cells of the HDCo region leads to failure of imprinting and inactivation of this circuit. Thus, NMDA receptors bearing the NR2B subunit play a critical role in plastic changes in this circuit and in induction of imprinting.

  20. Imprinting on chromosome 20: tissue-specific imprinting and imprinting mutations in the GNAS locus.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Gavin

    2010-08-15

    The GNAS locus on chromosome 20q13.11 is the archetypal complex imprinted locus. It comprises a bewildering array of alternative transcripts determined by differentially imprinted promoters which encode distinct proteins. It also provides the classic example of tissue-specific imprinted gene expression, in which the canonical GNAS transcript coding for Gsalpha is expressed predominantly from the maternal allele in a set of seemingly unrelated tissues. Functionally, this rather obscure imprinting is nevertheless of considerable clinical significance, as it dictates the nature of the disease caused by inactivating mutations in Gsalpha, with end organ hormone resistance specifically on maternal transmission (pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a, PHP1a). In addition, there is a bona fide imprinting disorder, PHP1b, which is caused specifically by DNA methylation defects in the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that determine tissue-specific monoallelic expression of GNAS. Although the genetic defect in PHP1a and the disrupted imprinting in PHP1b both essentially result in profound reduction of Gsalpha activity in tissues with monoallelic GNAS expression, and despite a growing awareness of the overlap in these two conditions, there are important pathophysiological differences between the two whose basis is not fully understood. PHP1b is one of the only imprinted gene syndromes in which cis-acting mutations have been discovered that disrupt methylation of germline-derived imprint marks; such imprinting mutations in GNAS are helping to provide important new insights into the mechanisms of imprinting establishment generally.

  1. MicroRNA-129-1 acts as tumour suppressor and induces cell cycle arrest of GBM cancer cells through targeting IGF2BP3 and MAPK1.

    PubMed

    Kouhkan, Fatemeh; Mobarra, Naser; Soufi-Zomorrod, Mina; Keramati, Farid; Hosseini Rad, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Tavakoli, Rezvan; Hajarizadeh, Athena; Ziaei, Said; Lahmi, Reyhaneh; Hanif, Hamed; Soleimani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-129-1 (miR-129-1) seems to behave as a tumour suppressor since its decreased expression is associated with different tumours such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is the most common form of brain tumours originating from glial cells. The impact of miR-129-1 downregulation on GBM pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated. MiR-129-1 was overexpressed in GBM cells, and its effect on proliferation was investigated by cell cycle assay. MiR-129-1 predicted targets (CDK6, IGF1, HDAC2, IGF2BP3 and MAPK1) were also evaluated by western blot and luciferase assay. Restoration of miR-129-1 reduced cell proliferation and induced G1 accumulation, significantly. Several functional assays confirmed IGF2BP3, MAPK1 and CDK6 as targets of miR-129-1. Despite the fact that IGF1 expression can be suppressed by miR-129-1, through 3'-untranslated region complementary sequence, we could not find any association between IGF1 expression and GBM. MiR-129-1 expression inversely correlates with CDK6, IGF2BP3 and MAPK1 in primary clinical samples. This is the first study to propose miR129-1 as a negative regulator of IGF2BP3 and MAPK1 and also a cell cycle arrest inducer in GBM cells. Our data suggests miR-129-1 as a potential tumour suppressor and presents a rationale for the use of miR-129-1 as a novel strategy to improve treatment response in GBM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Genomic imprinting and environmental disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Jirtle, R L; Sander, M; Barrett, J C

    2000-03-01

    Genomic imprinting is one of the most intriguing subtleties of modern genetics. The term "imprinting" refers to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The presence of imprinted genes can cause cells with a full parental complement of functional autosomal genes to specifically express one allele but not the other, resulting in monoallelic expression of the imprinted loci. Genomic imprinting plays a critical role in fetal growth and behavioral development, and it is regulated by DNA methylation and chromatin structure. This paper summarizes the Genomic Imprinting and Environmental Disease Susceptibility Conference held 8-10 October 1998 at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. The conference focused on the importance of genomic imprinting in determining susceptibility to environmentally induced diseases. Conference topics included rationales for imprinting: parental antagonism and speciation; methods for imprinted gene identification: allelic message display and monochromosomal mouse/human hybrids; properties of the imprinted gene cluster human 11p15.5 and mouse distal 7; the epigenetics of X-chromosome inactivation; variability in imprinting: imprint erasure, non-Mendelian inheritance ratios, and polymorphic imprinting; imprinting and behavior: genetics of bipolar disorder, imprinting in Turner syndrome, and imprinting in brain development and social behavior; and aberrant methylation: methylation and chromatin structure, methylation and estrogen exposure, methylation of tumor-suppressor genes, and cancer susceptibility. Environmental factors are capable of causing epigenetic changes in DNA that can potentially alter imprint gene expression and that can result in genetic diseases including cancer and behavioral disorders. Understanding the contribution of imprinting to the regulation of gene expression will be an important step in evaluating environmental influences on human health and disease.

  3. Leukocyte DNA as Surrogate for the Evaluation of Imprinted Loci Methylation in Mammary Tissue DNA

    PubMed Central

    Barault, Ludovic; Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Harris, Holly R.; Valente, Allyson L.; Shriver, Craig D.; Michels, Karin B.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in identifying surrogate tissues to identify epimutations in cancer patients since primary target tissues are often difficult to obtain. Methylation patterns at imprinted loci are established during gametogenesis and post fertilization and their alterations have been associated with elevated risk of cancer. Methylation at several imprinted differentially methylated regions (GRB10 ICR, H19 ICR, KvDMR, SNRPN/SNURF ICR, IGF2 DMR0, and IGF2 DMR2) were analyzed in DNA from leukocytes and mammary tissue (normal, benign diseases, or malignant tumors) from 87 women with and without breast cancer (average age of cancer patients: 53; range: 31–77). Correlations between genomic variants and DNA methylation at the studied loci could not be assessed, making it impossible to exclude such effects. Methylation levels observed in leukocyte and mammary tissue DNA were close to the 50% expected for monoallellic methylation. While no correlation was observed between leukocyte and mammary tissue DNA methylation for most of the analyzed imprinted genes, Spearman's correlations were statistically significant for IGF2 DMR0 and IGF2 DMR2, although absolute methylation levels differed. Leukocyte DNA methylation levels of selected imprinted genes may therefore serve as surrogate markers of DNA methylation in cancer tissue. PMID:23409079

  4. DNA methylation in the IGF2 intragenic DMR is re-established in a sex-specific manner in bovine blastocysts after somatic cloning.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Claudia; Wrenzycki, Christine; Herrmann, Doris; Gröger, Daniela; Thiel, Janina; Reinhardt, Richard; Lehrach, Hans; Hajkova, Petra; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Carnwath, Joseph W; Niemann, Heiner

    2009-07-01

    The recent identification of an intragenic differentially methylated region (DMR) within the last exon of the bovine Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene provides a diagnostic tool for in-depth investigation of bovine imprinting and regulatory mechanisms which are active during embryo development. Here, we used bisulfite sequencing to compare sex-specific DNA methylation patterns within this DMR in bovine blastocysts produced in vivo, by in vitro fertilization and culture, SCNT, androgenesis or parthenogenesis. In in vivo derived embryos, DNA methylation was removed from this intragenic DMR after fertilization, but partially replaced by the time the embryo reached the blastocyst stage. Among embryos developing in vivo, the level of DNA methylation was significantly lower in female than in male blastocysts. This sexual dimorphism was also found between parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos, and followed the donor cell sex in SCNT derived blastocysts and is evidence for correct methylation reprogramming in SCNT embryos.

  5. H19 controls reactivation of the imprinted gene network during muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Clémence; Monnier, Paul; Louault, Yann; Benard, Matthieu; Gabory, Anne; Dandolo, Luisa

    2016-03-15

    The H19 locus controls fetal growth by regulating expression of several genes from the imprinted gene network (IGN). H19 is fully repressed after birth, except in skeletal muscle. Using loss-of-function H19(Δ3) mice, we investigated the function of H19 in adult muscle. Mutant muscles display hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with increased Igf2 and decreased myostatin (Mstn) expression. Many imprinted genes are expressed in muscle stem cells or satellite cells. Unexpectedly, the number of satellite cells was reduced by 50% in H19(Δ3) muscle fibers. This reduction occurred after postnatal day 21, suggesting a link with their entry into quiescence. We investigated the biological function of these mutant satellite cells in vivo using a regeneration assay induced by multiple injections of cardiotoxin. Surprisingly, despite their reduced number, the self-renewal capacity of these cells is fully retained in the absence of H19. In addition, we observed a better regeneration potential of the mutant muscles, with enhanced expression of several IGN genes and genes from the IGF pathway.

  6. A Targetable GATA2-IGF2 Axis Confers Aggressiveness in Lethal Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Samuel J.; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Quinn, S. Aidan; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Lujambio, Amaia; Williams, Estrelania; Sun, Xiaochen; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Lee, Albert; Readhead, Ben; Chen, Xintong; Galsky, Matthew; Esteve, Berta; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Dudley, Joel T.; Rabadan, Raul; Silva, Jose M.; Hoshida, Yujin; Lowe, Scott W.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease. PMID:25670080

  7. Evolution and function of genomic imprinting in plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jessica A.; Zilberman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting, an inherently epigenetic phenomenon defined by parent of origin-dependent gene expression, is observed in mammals and flowering plants. Genome-scale surveys of imprinted expression and the underlying differential epigenetic marks have led to the discovery of hundreds of imprinted plant genes and confirmed DNA and histone methylation as key regulators of plant imprinting. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of imprinted plant genes are unknown, and the evolutionary forces shaping plant imprinting remain rather opaque. Here, we review the mechanisms of plant genomic imprinting and discuss theories of imprinting evolution and biological significance in light of recent findings. PMID:26680300

  8. Imprinted Genes and Satellite Loci Are Differentially Methylated in Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Clones

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Jie; Lin, Chiao-Chieh; Shen, Perng-Chih; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Liu, Shyh-Shyan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In mammals, genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming systems exist in primordial germ cells and zygotes. These reprogramming systems play crucial roles in regulating genome functions during critical stages of embryonic development, and they confer the stability of gene expression during mammalian development. The frequent unexpected loss of progeny from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an ongoing problem. In this study, we used six cloned bovines (named NT-1 to NT-6), which were created by ear fibroblast nuclear transfer and displayed short life spans with multiple organ defects, as an experimental model. We focus here on three imprinted genes (IGF2, H19, and XIST) and four satellite loci (Satellite I, Satellite II, Art2, and VNTR) to investigate their methylation changes. The results revealed that aberrant methylation frequently occurred in the analyzed imprinted genes, but not in the satellite loci, of the cloned bovines. After the bovine fibroblast cells were treated with the 5-aza-2(′)-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc) demethylation agent, the methylation percentages of the XIST and H19 putative differentially methylated region (DMR) were significantly decreased (XIST, p<0.01; H19, p<0.05) followed by an increase in their mRNA expression levels (p<0.01). Furthermore, we found that five short-lived cloned bovines (NT-1 to NT-5) exhibited more severe aberrant methylation changes in the three imprinted genes examined than the little longer-lived clone (NT-6) compared with wild-type (WT) cows. Our data suggest that the reprogramming of the methylation-controlled regions between the imprinted genes and satellite loci are differences and may be involved with additional mechanisms that need further elucidation. PMID:23961768

  9. Differential Differences in Methylation Status of Putative Imprinted Genes among Cloned Swine Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Jie; Cheng, Winston T. K.; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Chou; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification in the mammalian genome that regulates crucial aspects of gene function. Mammalian cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) often results in gestational or neonatal failure with only a small proportion of manipulated embryos producing live births. Many of the embryos that survive to term later succumb to a variety of abnormalities that are likely due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Aberrant methylation patterns of imprinted genes in cloned cattle and mice have been elucidated, but few reports have analyzed the cloned pig genome. Four surviving cloned sows that were created by ear fibroblast nuclear transfer, each with a different life span and multiple organ defects, such as heart defects and bone growth delay, were used as epigenetic study materials. First, we identified four putative differential methylation regions (DMR) of imprinted genes in the wild-type pig genome, including two maternally imprinted loci (INS and IGF2) and two paternally imprinted loci (H19 and IGF2R). Aberrant DNA methylation, either hypermethylation or hypomethylation, commonly appeared in H19 (45% of imprinted loci hypermethylated vs. 30% hypomethylated), IGF2 (40% vs. 0%), INS (50% vs. 5%), and IGF2R (15% vs. 45%) in multiple tissues from these four cloned sows compared with wild-type pigs. Our data suggest that aberrant epigenetic modifications occur frequently in the genome of cloned swine. Even with successful production of cloned swine that avoid prenatal or postnatal death, the perturbation of methylation in imprinted genes still exists, which may be one of reason for their adult pathologies and short life. Understanding the aberrant pattern of gene imprinting would permit improvements in future cloning techniques. PMID:22393450

  10. Bioluminescence imaging of c-fos gene expression accompanying filial imprinting in the newly hatched chick brain.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Iikubo, Eiji; Hirose, Naoki; Kitajima, Takaaki; Katagiri, Sachiko; Kawamori, Ai; Fujii-Taira, Ikuko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J

    2010-06-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is a powerful tool for examining gene expression in living animals. Previously, we reported that exogenous DNA could be successfully delivered into neurons in the newly hatched chick brain using electroporation. Here, we show the in vivo bioluminescence imaging of c-fos promoter activity and its upregulation, which is associated with filial imprinting. The upregulation of c-fos gene expression correlated with both the strength of the chicks' approach activity to the training object and the acquisition of memory. The present technique should be a powerful tool for analyzing the time changes in neural activity of certain brain areas in real-time during memory formation, using brains of living animals.

  11. Epigenetics and imprinting in human disease.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Jennifer M; Jiang, Connie; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2014-01-01

    Most genes are expressed from both parental chromosomes; however, a small number of genes in mammals are imprinted and expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. These imprinted genes play an important role in embryonic and extraembryonic growth and development, as well as in a variety of processes after birth. Many imprinted genes are clustered in the genome with the establishment and maintenance of imprinted gene expression governed by complex epigenetic mechanisms. Dysregulation of these epigenetic mechanisms as well as genomic mutations at imprinted gene clusters can lead to human disease.

  12. Imprinted expression of UBE3A in non-neuronal cells from a Prader–Willi syndrome patient with an atypical deletion

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Hsiao, Jack S.; Chen, Pin-Fang; Glatt-Deeley, Heather; De Smith, Adam J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Lalande, Marc; Chamberlain, Stormy J.

    2014-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two neurodevelopmental disorders most often caused by deletions of the same region of paternally inherited and maternally inherited human chromosome 15q, respectively. AS is a single gene disorder, caused by the loss of function of the ubiquitin ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene, while PWS is still considered a contiguous gene disorder. Rare individuals with PWS who carry atypical microdeletions on chromosome 15q have narrowed the critical region for this disorder to a 108 kb region that includes the SNORD116 snoRNA cluster and the Imprinted in Prader–Willi (IPW) non-coding RNA. Here we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a PWS patient with an atypical microdeletion that spans the PWS critical region. We show that these iPSCs express brain-specific portions of the transcripts driven by the PWS imprinting center, including the UBE3A antisense transcript (UBE3A-ATS). Furthermore, UBE3A expression is imprinted in most of these iPSCs. These data suggest that UBE3A imprinting in neurons only requires UBE3A-ATS expression, and no other neuron-specific factors. These data also suggest that a boundary element lying within the PWS critical region prevents UBE3A-ATS expression in non-neural tissues. PMID:24363065

  13. Maternally Expressed Gene 3, an imprinted non-coding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xun; Gejman, Roger; Mahta, Ali; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A.; Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Louis, David N.; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Meningiomas are common tumors, representing 15-25% of all central nervous system tumors. NF2 gene inactivation on chromosome 22 has been shown as an early event in tumorigenesis; however, few factors underlying tumor growth and progression have been identified. Chromosomal abnormalities of 14q32 are often associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression; therefore it has been proposed that an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor is present at this locus. MEG3 is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 that encodes a non-coding RNA with an anti-proliferative function. We found that MEG3 mRNA is highly expressed in normal arachnoidal cells. However, MEG3 is not expressed in the majority of human meningiomas or the human meningioma cell lines IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN. There is a strong association between loss of MEG3 expression and tumor grade. Allelic loss at the MEG3 locus is also observed in meningiomas, with increasing prevalence in higher grade tumors. In addition, there is an increase in CpG methylation within the promoter and the imprinting control region of MEG3 gene in meningiomas. Functionally, MEG3 suppresses DNA synthesis in both IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cells by approximately 60% in BrdU incorporation assays. Colony-forming efficiency assays show that MEG3 inhibits colony formation in CH157-MN cells by approximately 80%. Furthermore, MEG3 stimulates p53-mediated transactivation in these cell lines. Therefore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that MEG3, which encodes a non-coding RNA, may be a tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 14q32 involved in meningioma progression via a novel mechanism. PMID:20179190

  14. A search for imprinted quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, A.; Llewellyn, B.; Schieken, R.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies have generally provided strong evidence that maternal effects are a much more important determinant of birth weight than the genes of the fetus. In the past, these findings have been interpreted as reflecting a genetically determined maternal constraint on fetal growth. However, the recognition that the expression of a gene can be influenced by its parental origin has provided an alternative explanation for apparent maternal effects. In the mouse, a growing number of imprinted genes have been identified which can profoundly influence birth weight or body size including IGF-1, IGF-2, and their respective receptor loci. To determine whether any of the loci are QTLs for body size in man, we have used parental typing data to classify dizygotic twins according to their identity by descent (IBD) for polymorphic markers at or near the candidate loci. The contrast between the correlations of DZ pairs sharing both alleles IBD and no alleles IBD can provide evidence for a candidate gene effect while the contrast between twins sharing one maternal or one paternal allele IBD can provide evidence for any effect of imprinting that may exist at the locus. Finally, the inclusion of data on MZ twins in an overall analysis permits the resolution of the imprinting and marker gene effects from other sources of genetic and environmental variation. We have applied this model to birth weight data on 181 pairs of twins who were classified according to their allele sharing at the IGF-1 locus. In keeping with other observations, the data show no evidence that the IGF-1 locus is imprinted in man. Although our results are consistent with the possibility that this locus may account for 15-20% of the genetic variation, the apparent effect is not statistically significant. Partitioned twin analysis appears to be a useful method for detecting the effects of specific candidate gene on continuously distributed traits.

  15. Genomic imprinting and human disease.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Feil, Robert

    2010-09-20

    In many epigenetic phenomena, covalent modifications on DNA and chromatin mediate somatically heritable patterns of gene expression. Genomic imprinting is a classical example of epigenetic regulation in mammals. To date, more than 100 imprinted genes have been identified in humans and mice. Many of these are involved in foetal growth and deve lopment, others control behaviour. Mono-allelic expression of imprinted genes depends on whether the gene is inherited from the mother or the father. This remarkable pattern of expression is controlled by specialized sequence elements called ICRs (imprinting control regions). ICRs are marked by DNA methylation on one of the two parental alleles. These allelic marks originate from either the maternal or the paternal germ line. Perturbation of the allelic DNA methylation at ICRs is causally involved in several human diseases, including the Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes, associated with aberrant foetal growth. Perturbed imprinted gene expression is also implicated in the neuro-developmental disorders Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. Embryo culture and human-assisted reproduction procedures can increase the occurrence of imprinting-related disorders. Recent research shows that, besides DNA methylation, covalent histone modifications and non-histone proteins also contribute to imprinting regulation. The involvement of imprinting in specific human pathologies (and in cancer) emphasizes the need to further explore the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  16. The Diagnostic Value of IGF-2 and the IGF/IGFBP-3 System in Silver-Russell Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas; Weber, Karin; Ferrand, Nawfel; Schweizer, Roland

    2017-07-04

    Recently, we have described a family of 4 members presenting with intrauterine and postnatal growth failure, low IGF-2 levels, and signs of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) who carried a genomic IGF2 mutation. Here, we assess the value of IGF-2 in relation to SRS. We collected data from 48 SRS children and 48 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) seen at our center. The SRS children were 4.6 ± 2.0 years of age, and the SGA children were 4.8 ± 1.8 years of age. All patients were prepubertal and growth hormone naive. An 11p15 ICR1 loss of methylation (11p15LOM) was present in 22, maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (upd(7)mat) in 7, and IGF2 genomic mutation (IGF2mut) in 3 patients. Growth factors were measured by in-house radioimmunoassays. The median IGF-2 standard deviation scores (SDSs) were: IGF2mut -1.75, upd(7)mat -1.69, nonsyndromic SGA -1.52, 11p15LOM -0.61, and clinical (tested negative) -0.55. The median IGF-2:IGF-1 concentration ratio was 2.57 in IGF2mut compared to 5.44 in 11p15LOM (p = 0.036), 7.84 in clinical, and 7.98 in upd(7)mat. Upd(7)mat patients had significantly lower IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 SDSs than patients with 11p15LOM (p ≤ 0.002). Serum IGF-2 in combination with IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 can add to the clinical signs of SRS patients and help to perform targeted genetic testing. Further studies are needed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Expression of messenger RNAs for insulin-like growth factors and their receptors in bovine fetuses at early gestation from embryos produced in vivo or in vitro.

    PubMed

    Farin, C E; Alexander, J E; Farin, P W

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro embryo production on physical development and levels of expression of mRNAs for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ligands (IGF1, IGF2), their receptors (IGF1R, IGF2R), and IGF binding protein-2 (IGFBP2) in bovine fetuses during early gestation. In vivo embryos were recovered from superovulated Holstein cows. For production of embryos in vitro, Holstein oocytes were matured, fertilized, and subsequently cultured in M199 with 10% serum to 168 hpi. On Day 70 of gestation, fetuses (in vivo, n = 14; in vitro, n = 13) were recovered, serum samples collected, and physical measurements recorded. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to determine the levels of expression of mRNAs for IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, and IGF2R in fetal liver and skeletal muscle. Western blots were used to assess levels of IGFBP2 in fetal serum. Fetal body weight did not differ with treatment; however, production of embryos in vitro was associated with decreased crown-nose length and a tendency for increased paired kidney weight, which became significant when expressed on a per bodyweight basis. There was no effect of treatment on levels of IGFBP2 in fetal serum. Levels of IGF1 mRNA in fetal liver were decreased (P < 0.001) in the in vitro group. Levels of IGF2R mRNA in both liver and skeletal muscle were also decreased (P < 0.01) in fetuses from the in vitro group. In summary, fetuses at Day 70 of gestation from embryos produced in vitro had shortened crown-nose length and increased kidney weight on a per bodyweight basis, as well as decreased expression of mRNAs for IGF1 in liver and IGF2R in both liver and skeletal muscle, compared with fetuses from embryos produced in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro embryo culture was associated with subtle changes in fetal development as well as altered expression of both imprinted and non-imprinted genes.

  18. Growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription-related gene expression differs in lung of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Sun, Yan-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Wan, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhong, Bu-Shuai; Wang, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a promising technique to produce mammalian transgenic clones. Only a small proportion of manipulated embryos, however, can develop into viable offspring. The abnormal growth and development of cloned animals, furthermore, are accompanied by aberrant lung development. Our objective was to investigate molecular background of lung developmental problems in transgenic (random insertion of exogenous DNA) cloned goats. We examined expression of 15 genes involved in growth regulation, imprinting, and epigenetic transcription in lung tissue of deceased transgenic cloned and normal goats of various ages. Compared with normal goats of the same age from conventional reproduction, expression of 13 genes (BMP4, FGF10, GHR, HGFR, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, H19, CDKNIC, PCAF, MeCP2, HDAC1, and Dnmt3b) decreased in transgenic cloned goats that died at or shortly after birth; Expression of eight genes (FGF10, PDGFR, RABP, VEGF, PCAF, HDAC1, MeCP2, and Dnmt3b) decreased in fetal death of transgenic cloned goats. Expression of two epigenetic transcription genes (PCAF and Dnmt3b) decreased in disease death of transgenic cloned goats (1-4 months old). Disruptions in gene expression might be associated with the high neonatal mortality in transgenic cloned animals. These findings have implications in understanding the low efficiency of transgenic cloning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High IGF2 and FGFR3 are associated with tumour progression in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, but EGFR and FGFR3 mutations are a rare event.

    PubMed

    Rüping, Katinka; Altendorf-Hofmann, Annelore; Chen, Yuan; Kampmann, Eric; Gibis, Sebastian; Lindner, Lars; Katenkamp, Detlef; Petersen, Iver; Knösel, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcomas (formerly known as malignant fibrous histiocytomas) are recognised by the actual WHO classification as an undifferentiated, unclassifiable category of pleomorphic sarcomas which show no definable line of differentiation and are still a diagnosis of exclusion. Therefore, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic options of these tumours are urgently needed. Three hundred and twenty-seven spindle cell tumours of a German consultation and reference centre of soft tissue tumours consisting of 200 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS), 45 low-grade sarcomas (10 low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas, 32 low-grade myofibroblastic sarcomas and three myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas) and 82 tumours of the fasciitis family were revisited. The specimens were analysed immunohistochemically with distinct markers including tyrosine kinases and expression correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, mutational analysis was performed on specimens with high expression of EGFR and FGFR3. At the protein level high IGF2 expression was observed in 86 %, FGFR3 (69 %), PDGFRA (62 %), PDGFRB (39 %), FGFR1 (8 %), EGFR (5 %), KDR/VEGFR2 (3 %), ALK (0 %) and high Ki67 (63 %) in UPS. High expressions of IGF2 and FGFR3 are significantly correlated with a higher grading (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively) and a high Ki67 index (p = 0.017 and p = 0.001, respectively). No mutations were found in the hot spots of tumour specimens with a high expression of EGFR gene (exons 18-21) and FGFR3 gene (exons 7, 10 and 15). High expressions of IGF2 and FGFR3 are significantly associated with tumour progression, grading and Ki67 and might classify a subgroup of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. These markers might guide targeted therapies in these neoplasms.

  20. [Parental genomic imprinting in plants: significance for reproduction].

    PubMed

    Jullien, Pauline E; Berger, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Parental genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon causing the expression of a gene from one of the two parental alleles. Imprinting has been identified in plants and mammals. Recent evidence shows that DNA methylation and histone modifications are responsible for this parent-of-origin dependent expression of imprinted genes. We review the mechanisms and functions of imprinting in plants. We further describe the significance of imprinting for reproduction and discuss potential models for its evolution.

  1. Genomic imprinting and the expression of affect in Angelman syndrome: what's in the smile?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Chris; Horsler, Kate; Berg, Katy; Bellamy, Gail; Dick, Katie; Griffiths, Emily

    2007-06-01

    Kinship theory (or the genomic conflict hypothesis) proposes that the phenotypic effects of genomic imprinting arise from conflict between paternally and maternally inherited alleles. A prediction arising for social behaviour from this theory is that imbalance in this conflict resulting from a deletion of a maternally imprinted gene, as in Angelman syndrome (AS), will result in a behavioural phenotype that should evidence behaviours that increase access to maternally provided social resources (adult contact). Observation of the social behaviour of children with AS (n = 13), caused by a deletion at 15q11-q13, and a matched comparison group (n = 10) was undertaken for four hours in a socially competitive setting and the effect of adult attention on child behaviours and the effect of child smiling on adult behaviours evaluated using group comparisons and observational lag sequential analyses. The AS group smiled more than the comparison group in all settings, which had different levels of adult attention, and more when the level of adult attention was high. Smiling by children with AS evoked higher levels of adult attention, eye contact and smiling both than by chance and in comparison to other children and this effect was sustained for 30 s to 50 s. Smiling by children with AS was frequently preceded by child initiated contact toward the adult. The results are consistent with a kinship theory explanation of the function of heightened levels of sociability and smiling in Angelman syndrome and provide support for an emotion signalling interpretation of the mechanism by which smiling accesses social resources. Further research on other behaviours characteristic of Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes warrant examination from this perspective.

  2. The Kcnq1ot1 Long Non-Coding RNA Affects Chromatin Conformation and Expression of Kcnq1, but Does Not Regulate Its Imprinting in the Developing Heart

    PubMed Central

    Korostowski, Lisa; Sedlak, Natalie; Engel, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Although many of the questions raised by the discovery of imprinting have been answered, we have not yet accounted for tissue- or stage-specific imprinting. The Kcnq1 imprinted domain exhibits complex tissue-specific expression patterns co-existing with a domain-wide cis-acting control element. Transcription of the paternally expressed antisense non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 silences some neighboring genes in the embryo, while others are unaffected. Kcnq1 is imprinted in early cardiac development but becomes biallelic after midgestation. To explore this phenomenon and the role of Kcnq1ot1, we used allele-specific assays and chromosome conformational studies in wild-type mice and mice with a premature termination mutation for Kcnq1ot1. We show that Kcnq1 imprinting in early heart is established and maintained independently of Kcnq1ot1 expression, thus excluding a role for Kcnq1ot1 in repressing Kcnq1, even while silencing other genes in the domain. The exact timing of the mono- to biallelic transition is strain-dependent, with the CAST/EiJ allele becoming activated earlier and acquiring higher levels than the C57BL/6J allele. Unexpectedly, Kcnq1ot1 itself also switches to biallelic expression specifically in the heart, suggesting that tissue-specific loss of imprinting may be common during embryogenesis. The maternal Kcnq1ot1 transcript is shorter than the paternal ncRNA, and its activation depends on an alternative transcriptional start site that bypasses the maternally methylated promoter. Production of Kcnq1ot1 on the maternal chromosome does not silence Cdkn1c. We find that in later developmental stages, however, Kcnq1ot1 has a role in modulating Kcnq1 levels, since its absence leads to overexpression of Kcnq1, an event accompanied by an aberrant three-dimensional structure of the chromatin. Thus, our studies reveal regulatory mechanisms within the Kcnq1 imprinted domain that operate exclusively in the heart on Kcnq1, a gene crucial for heart development and function

  3. Metabolic hormones regulate basal and growth hormone-dependent igf2 mRNA level in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes: effects of insulin, glucagon, dexamethasone, and triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Pierce, A L; Dickey, J T; Felli, L; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    2010-03-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. Circulating Igfs are produced by the liver. In mammals, Igf1 mediates the postnatal growth-promoting effects of growth hormone (Gh), whereas Igf2 stimulates fetal and placental growth. Hepatic Igf2 production is not regulated by Gh in mammals. Little is known about the regulation of hepatic Igf2 production in nonmammalian vertebrates. We examined the regulation of igf2 mRNA level by metabolic hormones in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes. Gh, insulin, the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Dex), and glucagon increased igf2 mRNA levels, whereas triiodothyronine (T(3)) decreased igf2 mRNA levels. Gh stimulated igf2 mRNA at physiological concentrations (0.25x10(-9) M and above). Insulin strongly enhanced Gh stimulation of igf2 at low physiological concentrations (10(-11) M and above), and increased basal igf2 (10(-8) M and above). Dex stimulated basal igf2 at concentrations comparable to those of stressed circulating cortisol (10(-8) M and above). Glucagon stimulated basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at supraphysiological concentrations (10(-7) M and above), whereas T(3) suppressed basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at the single concentration tested (10(-7) M). These results show that igf2 mRNA level is highly regulated in salmon hepatocytes, suggesting that liver-derived Igf2 plays a significant role in salmon growth physiology. The synergistic regulation of igf2 by insulin and Gh in salmon hepatocytes is similar to the regulation of hepatic Igf1 production in mammals.

  4. Genomic imprinting and dermatological disease.

    PubMed

    Millington, G W M

    2006-09-01

    Imprinting is the process whereby genetic alleles responsible for a phenotype are derived from one parent only. It is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting from DNA methylation or modification of protruding histones. When imprinted genes are disrupted, syndromes with characteristic patterns of inheritance and multisystem phenotype occur. Those detailed in this article have some quite characteristic cutaneous features and patterns of inheritance. These diseases include Beckwith-Wiedmann, Silver-Russell, Prader-Willi, McCune-Albright and Angelman syndromes, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, and progressive osseous heteroplasia. In the case of Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, hypomelanosis of Ito and dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis, imprinting may play a part in the inheritance. With neurofibromatosis type 1, a nonimprinted condition, the expression of the phenotype could be affected by interaction with imprinted gene loci. Imprinted genes could also play a part in the polygenetic inheritance of more common diseases also, as atopic eczema and psoriasis may have predominantly maternal and paternal modes of transmission, respectively.

  5. MiR-216b is involved in pathogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma through HBx-miR-216b-IGF2BP2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F-y; Zhou, S-j; Deng, Y-l; Zhang, Z-y; Zhang, E-l; Wu, Z-b; Huang, Z-y; Chen, X-p

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the expression status of miRNA-216b in familial hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the correlation between miRNA-216b expression and pathogenesis, as well as the progression of HCC. The expression profile of miRNAs in plasma of peripheral blood between HCC patients with HCC family history and healthy volunteers without HCC family history was determined by microarray. Using real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression in paired tissues from 150 patients with HCC, miR-216b was selected as its expression value in HCC patients was significantly lower compared with healthy volunteers. Next, miR-216b expression and the clinicopathological features of HCC were evaluated. The effect of miR-216b expression on tumor cells was investigated by regulating miR-216b expression in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we explored mRNA targets of miR-216b. In 150 HCC, 37 (75%) tumors showed reduced miR-216b expression comparing with their adjacent liver tissues. The decreased expression of miR-216b was significantly correlated with tumor volume (P=0.044), HBV infection (P=0.026), HBV DNA quantitative (P=0.001) and vascular invasion (P=0.032). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall rates after liver resection in low expression and high expression groups of miR-216b are 62% and 54%, 25% and 20%, respectively. MiR-216b overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and miR-216b inhibition did the opposite. The expression of hepatitis B virus x protein (HBx) has tight correlation with downregulation of miR-216b. Furthermore, miR-216b downregulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) and exerted its tumor-suppressor function through inhibition of protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling downstream of IGF2. MiR-216b inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC by regulating IGF2BP2 and it is regulated by HBx. PMID:25741595

  6. Antagonist Xist and Tsix co-transcription during mouse oogenesis and maternal Xist expression during pre-implantation development calls into question the nature of the maternal imprint on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Deuve, Jane Lynda; Bonnet-Garnier, Amélie; Beaujean, Nathalie; Avner, Philip; Morey, Céline

    2015-01-01

    During the first divisions of the female mouse embryo, the paternal X-chromosome is coated by Xist non-coding RNA and gradually silenced. This imprinted X-inactivation principally results from the apposition, during oocyte growth, of an imprint on the X-inactivation master control region: the X-inactivation center (Xic). This maternal imprint of yet unknown nature is thought to prevent Xist upregulation from the maternal X (X(M)) during early female development. In order to provide further insight into the X(M) imprinting mechanism, we applied single-cell approaches to oocytes and pre-implantation embryos at different stages of development to analyze the expression of candidate genes within the Xic. We show that, unlike the situation pertaining in most other cellular contexts, in early-growing oocytes, Xist and Tsix sense and antisense transcription occur simultaneously from the same chromosome. Additionally, during early development, Xist appears to be transiently transcribed from the X(M) in some blastomeres of late 2-cell embryos concomitant with the general activation of the genome indicating that X(M) imprinting does not completely suppress maternal Xist transcription during embryo cleavage stages. These unexpected transcriptional regulations of the Xist locus call for a re-evaluation of the early functioning of the maternal imprint on the X-chromosome and suggest that Xist/Tsix antagonist transcriptional activities may participate in imprinting the maternal locus as described at other loci subject to parental imprinting.

  7. THADA fusion is a mechanism of IGF2BP3 activation and IGF1R signaling in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Panebianco, Federica; Kelly, Lindsey M.; Liu, Pengyuan; Zhong, Shan; Dacic, Sanja; Wang, Xiaosong; Singhi, Aatur D.; Dhir, Rajiv; Chiosea, Simion I.; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Bhargava, Rohit; Dabbs, David; Trivedi, Sumita; Gandhi, Manoj; Diaz, Rachel; Wald, Abigail I.; Carty, Sally E.; Ferris, Robert L.; Lee, Adrian V.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer development is driven by known point mutations or gene fusions found in ∼90% of cases, whereas driver mutations in the remaining tumors are unknown. The insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) plays an important role in cancer, yet the mechanisms of its activation in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Using whole-transcriptome and whole-genome analyses, we identified a recurrent fusion between the thyroid adenoma-associated (THADA) gene on chromosome 2 and the LOC389473 gene on chromosome 7 located 12 kb upstream of the IGF2BP3 gene. We show that THADA fusion to LOC389473 and other regions in the vicinity does not result in the formation of a chimeric protein but instead leads to strong overexpression of the full-length IGF2BP3 mRNA and protein, increased IGF2 translation and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling via PI3K and MAPK cascades, and promotion of cell proliferation, invasion, and transformation. THADA fusions and IGF2BP3 overexpression are found in ∼5% of thyroid cancers that lack any other driver mutations. We also find that strong IGF2BP3 overexpression via gene fusion, amplification, or other mechanisms occurs in 5 to 15% of several other cancer types. Finally, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that growth of IGF2BP3-driven cells and tumors may be blocked by IGF1R inhibition, raising the possibility that IGF2BP3 overexpression in cancer cells may predict an anti-IGF1R benefit. PMID:28193878

  8. THADA fusion is a mechanism of IGF2BP3 activation and IGF1R signaling in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Federica; Kelly, Lindsey M; Liu, Pengyuan; Zhong, Shan; Dacic, Sanja; Wang, Xiaosong; Singhi, Aatur D; Dhir, Rajiv; Chiosea, Simion I; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Bhargava, Rohit; Dabbs, David; Trivedi, Sumita; Gandhi, Manoj; Diaz, Rachel; Wald, Abigail I; Carty, Sally E; Ferris, Robert L; Lee, Adrian V; Nikiforova, Marina N; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2017-02-28

    Thyroid cancer development is driven by known point mutations or gene fusions found in ∼90% of cases, whereas driver mutations in the remaining tumors are unknown. The insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) plays an important role in cancer, yet the mechanisms of its activation in cancer cells remain poorly understood. Using whole-transcriptome and whole-genome analyses, we identified a recurrent fusion between the thyroid adenoma-associated (THADA) gene on chromosome 2 and the LOC389473 gene on chromosome 7 located 12 kb upstream of the IGF2BP3 gene. We show that THADA fusion to LOC389473 and other regions in the vicinity does not result in the formation of a chimeric protein but instead leads to strong overexpression of the full-length IGF2BP3 mRNA and protein, increased IGF2 translation and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling via PI3K and MAPK cascades, and promotion of cell proliferation, invasion, and transformation. THADA fusions and IGF2BP3 overexpression are found in ∼5% of thyroid cancers that lack any other driver mutations. We also find that strong IGF2BP3 overexpression via gene fusion, amplification, or other mechanisms occurs in 5 to 15% of several other cancer types. Finally, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that growth of IGF2BP3-driven cells and tumors may be blocked by IGF1R inhibition, raising the possibility that IGF2BP3 overexpression in cancer cells may predict an anti-IGF1R benefit.

  9. Genomic matrix attachment region and chromosome conformation capture quantitative real time PCR assays identify novel putative regulatory elements at the imprinted Dlk1/Gtl2 locus.

    PubMed

    Braem, Caroline; Recolin, Bénédicte; Rancourt, Rebecca C; Angiolini, Christopher; Barthès, Pauline; Branchu, Priscillia; Court, Franck; Cathala, Guy; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Forné, Thierry

    2008-07-04

    We previously showed that genomic imprinting regulates matrix attachment region activities at the mouse Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) locus and that these activities are functionally linked to neighboring differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Here, we investigate the similarly structured Dlk1/Gtl2 imprinted domain and show that in the mouse liver, the G/C-rich intergenic germ line-derived DMR, a sequence involved in domain-wide imprinting, is highly retained within the nuclear matrix fraction exclusively on the methylated paternal copy, reflecting its differential function on that chromosome. Therefore, not only "classical" A/T-rich matrix attachment region (MAR) sequences but also other important regulatory DNA elements (such as DMRs) can be recovered from genomic MAR assays following a high salt treatment. Interestingly, the recovery of one A/T-rich sequence (MAR4) from the "nuclear matrix" fraction is strongly correlated with gene expression. We show that this element possesses an intrinsic activity that favors transcription, and using chromosome conformation capture quantitative real time PCR assays, we demonstrate that the MAR4 interacts with the intergenic germ line-derived DMR specifically on the paternal allele but not with the Dlk1/Gtl2 promoters. Altogether, our findings shed a new light on gene regulation at this locus.

  10. Birth weight, working memory and epigenetic signatures in IGF2 and related genes: a MZ twin study.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Goldberg, Ximena; Leza, Juan Carlos; González-Pinto, Ana; Nenadic, Igor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disruptions caused by obstetric complications play a role in the etiology of several phenotypes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases and cognitive dysfunctions. Importantly, it has been noticed that epigenetic processes occurring early in life may mediate these associations. Here, DNA methylation signatures at IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and IGF2BP1-3 (IGF2-binding proteins 1-3) were examined in a sample consisting of 34 adult monozygotic (MZ) twins informative for obstetric complications and cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression analysis of twin data was implemented to test for associations between methylation levels and both birth weight (BW) and adult working memory (WM) performance. Familial and unique environmental factors underlying these potential relationships were evaluated. A link was detected between DNA methylation levels of two CpG sites in the IGF2BP1 gene and both BW and adult WM performance. The BW-IGF2BP1 methylation association seemed due to non-shared environmental factors influencing BW, whereas the WM-IGF2BP1 methylation relationship seemed mediated by both genes and environment. Our data is in agreement with previous evidence indicating that DNA methylation status may be related to prenatal stress and later neurocognitive phenotypes. While former reports independently detected associations between DNA methylation and either BW or WM, current results suggest that these relationships are not confounded by each other.

  11. Birth Weight, Working Memory and Epigenetic Signatures in IGF2 and Related Genes: A MZ Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Alemany, Silvia; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Goldberg, Ximena; Leza, Juan Carlos; González-Pinto, Ana; Nenadic, Igor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disruptions caused by obstetric complications play a role in the etiology of several phenotypes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases and cognitive dysfunctions. Importantly, it has been noticed that epigenetic processes occurring early in life may mediate these associations. Here, DNA methylation signatures at IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and IGF2BP1-3 (IGF2-binding proteins 1-3) were examined in a sample consisting of 34 adult monozygotic (MZ) twins informative for obstetric complications and cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression analysis of twin data was implemented to test for associations between methylation levels and both birth weight (BW) and adult working memory (WM) performance. Familial and unique environmental factors underlying these potential relationships were evaluated. A link was detected between DNA methylation levels of two CpG sites in the IGF2BP1 gene and both BW and adult WM performance. The BW-IGF2BP1 methylation association seemed due to non-shared environmental factors influencing BW, whereas the WM-IGF2BP1 methylation relationship seemed mediated by both genes and environment. Our data is in agreement with previous evidence indicating that DNA methylation status may be related to prenatal stress and later neurocognitive phenotypes. While former reports independently detected associations between DNA methylation and either BW or WM, current results suggest that these relationships are not confounded by each other. PMID:25171170

  12. Comprehensive analysis of imprinted genes in maize reveals allelic variation for imprinting and limited conservation with other species.

    PubMed

    Waters, Amanda J; Bilinski, Paul; Eichten, Steven R; Vaughn, Matthew W; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Gehring, Mary; Springer, Nathan M

    2013-11-26

    In plants, a subset of genes exhibit imprinting in endosperm tissue such that expression is primarily from the maternal or paternal allele. Imprinting may arise as a consequence of mechanisms for silencing of transposons during reproduction, and in some cases imprinted expression of particular genes may provide a selective advantage such that it is conserved across species. Separate mechanisms for the origin of imprinted expression patterns and maintenance of these patterns may result in substantial variation in the targets of imprinting in different species. Here we present deep sequencing of RNAs isolated from reciprocal crosses of four diverse maize genotypes, providing a comprehensive analysis that allows evaluation of imprinting at more than 95% of endosperm-expressed genes. We find that over 500 genes exhibit statistically significant parent-of-origin effects in maize endosperm tissue, but focused our analyses on a subset of these genes that had >90% expression from the maternal allele (69 genes) or from the paternal allele (108 genes) in at least one reciprocal cross. Over 10% of imprinted genes show evidence of allelic variation for imprinting. A comparison of imprinting in maize and rice reveals that 13% of genes with syntenic orthologs in both species exhibit conserved imprinting. Genes that exhibit conserved imprinting between maize and rice have elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratios compared with other imprinted genes, suggesting a history of more rapid evolution. Together, these data suggest that imprinting only has functional relevance at a subset of loci that currently exhibit imprinting in maize.

  13. A novel mutation in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain results in a loss of MIMT1 expression and causes abortions and stillbirths in cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Venhoranta, Heli; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; McKay, Stephanie D; Flyckt, Antti; Taponen, Juhani; Schnabel, Robert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Szczerbal, Izabela; Lohi, Hannes; Fries, Ruedi; Taylor, Jeremy F; Switonski, Marek; Andersson, Magnus

    2010-11-30

    Congenital malformations resulting in late abortions and stillbirths affect the economic wellbeing of producers and the welfare of cattle in breeding programs. An extremely high incidence of stillbirths of "half-sized" calves of normal karyotype and uninflated lungs was diagnosed in the progeny of the Finnish Ayrshire (Bos taurus) bull--YN51. No other visible anatomical abnormalities were apparent in the stillborn calves. We herein describe the positional identification of a 110 kb microdeletion in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain that results in a loss of paternal MIMT1 expression and causes late term abortion and stillbirth in cattle. Using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip we performed a genome-wide half-sib linkage analysis that identified a 13.3 Mb associated region on BTA18 containing the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain. Within this cluster we found a 110 kb microdeletion that removes a part of the non-protein coding MER1 repeat containing imprinted transcript 1 gene (MIMT1). To confirm the elimination of gene expression in calves inheriting this deletion, we examined the mRNA levels of the three maternally imprinted genes within the PEG3 domain, in brain and cotyledon tissue collected from eight fetuses sired by the proband. None of the fetuses that inherited the microdeletion expressed MIMT1 in either tissue. The mutation, when inherited from the sire, is semi-lethal for his progeny with an observed mortality rate of 85%. The survival of 15% is presumably due to the incomplete silencing of maternally inherited MIMT1 alleles. We designed a PCR-based assay to confirm the existence of the microdeletion in the MIMT1 region that can be used to assist cattle breeders in preventing the stillbirths.

  14. A Novel Mutation in the Maternally Imprinted PEG3 Domain Results in a Loss of MIMT1 Expression and Causes Abortions and Stillbirths in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Venhoranta, Heli; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; McKay, Stephanie D.; Flyckt, Antti; Taponen, Juhani; Schnabel, Robert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Szczerbal, Izabela; Lohi, Hannes; Fries, Ruedi; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Switonski, Marek; Andersson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations resulting in late abortions and stillbirths affect the economic wellbeing of producers and the welfare of cattle in breeding programs. An extremely high incidence of stillbirths of “half-sized” calves of normal karyotype and uninflated lungs was diagnosed in the progeny of the Finnish Ayrshire (Bos taurus) bull - YN51. No other visible anatomical abnormalities were apparent in the stillborn calves. We herein describe the positional identification of a 110 kb microdeletion in the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain that results in a loss of paternal MIMT1 expression and causes late term abortion and stillbirth in cattle. Using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip we performed a genome-wide half-sib linkage analysis that identified a 13.3 Mb associated region on BTA18 containing the maternally imprinted PEG3 domain. Within this cluster we found a 110 kb microdeletion that removes a part of the non-protein coding MER1 repeat containing imprinted transcript 1 gene (MIMT1). To confirm the elimination of gene expression in calves inheriting this deletion, we examined the mRNA levels of the three maternally imprinted genes within the PEG3 domain, in brain and cotyledon tissue collected from eight fetuses sired by the proband. None of the fetuses that inherited the microdeletion expressed MIMT1 in either tissue. The mutation, when inherited from the sire, is semi-lethal for his progeny with an observed mortality rate of 85%. The survival of 15% is presumably due to the incomplete silencing of maternally inherited MIMT1 alleles. We designed a PCR-based assay to confirm the existence of the microdeletion in the MIMT1 region that can be used to assist cattle breeders in preventing the stillbirths. PMID:21152099

  15. The PEG13-DMR and brain-specific enhancers dictate imprinted expression within the 8q24 intellectual disability risk locus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic imprinting is the epigenetic marking of genes that results in parent-of-origin monoallelic expression. Most imprinted domains are associated with differentially DNA methylated regions (DMRs) that originate in the gametes, and are maintained in somatic tissues after fertilization. This allelic methylation profile is associated with a plethora of histone tail modifications that orchestrates higher order chromatin interactions. The mouse chromosome 15 imprinted cluster contains multiple brain-specific maternally expressed transcripts including Ago2, Chrac1, Trappc9 and Kcnk9 and a paternally expressed gene, Peg13. The promoter of Peg13 is methylated on the maternal allele and is the sole DMR within the locus. To determine the extent of imprinting within the human orthologous region on chromosome 8q24, a region associated with autosomal recessive intellectual disability, Birk-Barel mental retardation and dysmorphism syndrome, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of allelic expression and DNA methylation of genes mapping within an approximately 2 Mb region around TRAPPC9. Results Utilizing allele-specific RT-PCR, bisulphite sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture (3C) we show the reciprocal expression of the novel, paternally expressed, PEG13 non-coding RNA and maternally expressed KCNK9 genes in brain, and the biallelic expression of flanking transcripts in a range of tissues. We identify a tandem-repeat region overlapping the PEG13 transcript that is methylated on the maternal allele, which binds CTCF-cohesin in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments and possesses enhancer-blocker activity. Using 3C, we identify mutually exclusive approximately 58 and 500 kb chromatin loops in adult frontal cortex between a novel brain-specific enhancer, marked by H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, with the KCNK9 and PEG13 promoters which we propose regulates brain-specific expression. Conclusions We have characterised the molecular

  16. mRNA levels of imprinted genes in bovine in vivo oocytes, embryos and cross species comparisons in humans, mice and pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty-six confirmed imprinted genes in the bovine were quantified in in vivo produced oocytes and embryos. Eighteen were detectable and their transcriptional abundance were categorized into five patterns: largely decreased (MEST and PLAGL1); first decreased and then increased (CDKN1C and IGF2R); p...

  17. Placental programming of anxiety in adulthood revealed by Igf2-null models.

    PubMed

    Mikaelsson, Mikael Allan; Constância, Miguel; Dent, Claire L; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Humby, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Imprinted, maternally silenced insulin-like growth factor-2 is expressed in both the foetus and placenta and has been shown to have roles in foetal and placental development in animal models. Here we compared mice engineered to be null for the placenta-specific P0 transcript (insulin-like growth factor-2-P0 KO) to mice with disruptions of all four insulin-like growth factor-2 transcripts, and therefore null for insulin-like growth factor-2 in both placenta and foetus (insulin-like growth factor-2-total KO). Both models lead to intrauterine growth restriction but dissociate between a situation where there is an imbalance between foetal demand and placental supply of nutrients (the insulin-like growth factor-2-P0 KO) and one where demand and supply is more balanced (the insulin-like growth factor-2-total KO). Increased reactivity to anxiety-provoking stimuli is manifested later in life only in those animals where there is a mismatch between placental supply and foetal demand for nutrients during gestation. Our findings further distinguish placental dysfunction from intrauterine growth restriction and reveal a role for the placenta in long-term programming of emotional behaviour.

  18. Expression patterns of long noncoding RNAs from Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted region and the potential mechanisms of Gtl2 activation during blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengbin; Yu, Changwei; Tian, Yijun; Zeng, Tiebo; Cui, Wei; Mager, Jesse; Wu, Qiong

    2015-07-31

    The function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cell differentiation and development have begun to be revealed in recent years. However, the expression pattern and mechanisms regulating lncRNAs are largely unknown during mammalian preimplantation development. LncRNAs expressed from Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted region have been linked to pluripotency of induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). In this study we show that these lncRNAs (Gtl2, Rian and Mirg) are first expressed at the morula stage and gradually restricted to the inner cell mass (ICM) as the embryo differentiates into the blastocyst. Analysis of DNA methylation at IG-DMR and Gtl2-DMR showed no change during preimplantation while the presence of the activating histone modification H3K4me3 increased significantly from 8-cell to blastocyst stage, which may explain the expression activation. Additionally, knockdown of transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) in blastocyst reduced the expression of Gtl2, indicating pluripotency factors regulate transcription of these lncRNAs. This study provides the spatiotemporal expression and dynamic changes of lncRNAs from Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted region in mouse preimplantation stage embryos and offers insight into the potential mechanisms responsible for Gtl2 activation.

  19. Linking Hematopoietic Differentiation to Co-Expressed Sets of Pluripotency-Associated and Imprinted Genes and to Regulatory microRNA-Transcription Factor Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Mohamed; Trumm, Johannes; Spaniol, Christian; Sethi, Riccha; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.; Fuellen, Georg; Paulsen, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of cell pluripotency, differentiation, and reprogramming are regulated by complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs) including monoallelically-expressed imprinted genes. Besides transcriptional control, epigenetic modifications and microRNAs contribute to cellular differentiation. As a model system for studying the capacity of cells to preserve their pluripotency state and the onset of differentiation and subsequent specialization, murine hematopoiesis was used and compared to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a control. Using published microarray data, the expression profiles of two sets of genes, pluripotent and imprinted, were compared to a third set of known hematopoietic genes. We found that more than half of the pluripotent and imprinted genes are clearly upregulated in ESCs but subsequently repressed during hematopoiesis. The remaining genes were either upregulated in hematopoietic progenitors or in differentiated blood cells. The three gene sets each consist of three similarly behaving gene groups with similar expression profiles in various lineages of the hematopoietic system as well as in ESCs. To explain this co-regulation behavior, we explored the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms of pluripotent and imprinted genes and their regulator/target miRNAs in six different hematopoietic lineages. Therewith, lineage-specific transcription factor (TF)-miRNA regulatory networks were generated and their topologies and functional impacts during hematopoiesis were analyzed. This led to the identification of TF-miRNA co-regulatory motifs, for which we validated the contribution to the cellular development of the corresponding lineage in terms of statistical significance and relevance to biological evidence. This analysis also identified key miRNAs and TFs/genes that might play important roles in the derived lineage networks. These molecular associations suggest new aspects of the cellular regulation of the onset of cellular differentiation and

  20. Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harden, Maegan V; Newton, Lucy A; Lloyd, Russell C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2006-11-01

    Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system.

  1. The Importance of Imprinting in the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Jennifer M.; Moore, Gudrun E.

    2010-01-01

    As a field of study, genomic imprinting has grown rapidly in the last 20 years, with a growing figure of around 100 imprinted genes known in the mouse and approximately 50 in the human. The imprinted expression of genes may be transient and highly tissue-specific, and there are potentially hundreds of other, as yet undiscovered, imprinted transcripts. The placenta is notable amongst mammalian organs for its high and prolific expression of imprinted genes. This review discusses the development of the human placenta and focuses on the function of imprinting in this organ. Imprinting is potentially a mechanism to balance parental resource allocation and it plays an important role in growth. The placenta, as the interface between mother and fetus, is central to prenatal growth control. The expression of genes subject to parental allelic expression bias has, over the years, been shown to be essential for the normal development and physiology of the placenta. In this review we also discuss the significance of genes that lack conservation of imprinting between mice and humans, genes whose imprinted expression is often placental-specific. Finally, we illustrate the importance of imprinting in the postnatal human in terms of several human imprinting disorders, with consideration of the brain as a key organ for imprinted gene expression after birth. PMID:20617174

  2. Transcriptomic imprints of adaptation to fresh water: parallel evolution of osmoregulatory gene expression in the Alewife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velotta, Jonathan P.; Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Ginzburg, Samuel; Kang, Lin; Czesny, Sergiusz J.; O'Neill, Rachel J.; McCormick, Stephen; Michalak, Pawel; Schultz, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative approaches in physiological genomics offer an opportunity to understand the functional importance of genes involved in niche exploitation. We used populations of Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) to explore the transcriptional mechanisms that underlie adaptation to fresh water. Ancestrally anadromous Alewives have recently formed multiple, independently derived, landlocked populations, which exhibit reduced tolerance of saltwater and enhanced tolerance of fresh water. Using RNA-seq, we compared transcriptional responses of an anadromous Alewife population to two landlocked populations after acclimation to fresh (0 ppt) and saltwater (35 ppt). Our results suggest that the gill transcriptome has evolved in primarily discordant ways between independent landlocked populations and their anadromous ancestor. By contrast, evolved shifts in the transcription of a small suite of well-characterized osmoregulatory genes exhibited a strong degree of parallelism. In particular, transcription of genes that regulate gill ion exchange has diverged in accordance with functional predictions: freshwater ion-uptake genes (most notably, the ‘freshwater paralog’ of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit) were more highly expressed in landlocked forms, whereas genes that regulate saltwater ion secretion (e.g. the ‘saltwater paralog’ of NKAα) exhibited a blunted response to saltwater. Parallel divergence of ion transport gene expression is associated with shifts in salinity tolerance limits among landlocked forms, suggesting that changes to the gill's transcriptional response to salinity facilitate freshwater adaptation.

  3. Transcriptomic imprints of adaptation to fresh water: parallel evolution of osmoregulatory gene expression in the Alewife.

    PubMed

    Velotta, Jonathan P; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Ginzburg, Samuel; Kang, Lin; Czesny, Sergiusz; O'Neill, Rachel J; McCormick, Stephen D; Michalak, Pawel; Schultz, Eric T

    2017-02-01

    Comparative approaches in physiological genomics offer an opportunity to understand the functional importance of genes involved in niche exploitation. We used populations of Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) to explore the transcriptional mechanisms that underlie adaptation to fresh water. Ancestrally anadromous Alewives have recently formed multiple, independently derived, landlocked populations, which exhibit reduced tolerance of saltwater and enhanced tolerance of fresh water. Using RNA-seq, we compared transcriptional responses of an anadromous Alewife population to two landlocked populations after acclimation to fresh (0 ppt) and saltwater (35 ppt). Our results suggest that the gill transcriptome has evolved in primarily discordant ways between independent landlocked populations and their anadromous ancestor. By contrast, evolved shifts in the transcription of a small suite of well-characterized osmoregulatory genes exhibited a strong degree of parallelism. In particular, transcription of genes that regulate gill ion exchange has diverged in accordance with functional predictions: freshwater ion-uptake genes (most notably, the 'freshwater paralog' of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase α-subunit) were more highly expressed in landlocked forms, whereas genes that regulate saltwater ion secretion (e.g. the 'saltwater paralog' of NKAα) exhibited a blunted response to saltwater. Parallel divergence of ion transport gene expression is associated with shifts in salinity tolerance limits among landlocked forms, suggesting that changes to the gill's transcriptional response to salinity facilitate freshwater adaptation.

  4. Differential regulation of Igf1 and Igf2 mRNA levels in tilapia hepatocytes: effects of insulin and cortisol on GH sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Andrew L; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. In mammals, liver-derived endocrine Igf1 mediates the growth promoting effects of GH during postnatal life, whereas Igf2 stimulates placental and fetal growth and is not regulated by GH. Insulin enhances Igf1 production by the mammalian liver directly, and by increasing hepatocyte sensitivity to GH. We examined the regulation of igf1 and igf2 mRNA levels by GH, insulin, and cortisol, and the effects of insulin and cortisol on GH sensitivity in primary cultured hepatocytes of tilapia, a cichlid teleost. GH increased mRNA levels of both igf1 and igf2 in a concentration-related and biphasic manner over the physiological range, with a greater effect on igf2 mRNA level. Insulin increased basal igf2 mRNA level, and strongly increased GH-stimulated igf2 mRNA level, but slightly reduced basal igf1 mRNA level and did not affect GH-stimulated igf1 mRNA level. Cortisol inhibited GH stimulation of igf1, but increased GH stimulation of igf2 mRNA level. The synergistic effect of insulin and GH on igf2 mRNA level was confirmed in vivo. These results indicate that insulin and cortisol differentially modulate the response of igf1 and igf2 mRNA to GH in tilapia hepatocytes, and suggest that the regulation of liver Igf2 production differs between fish and mammals. Regulation of liver Igf2 production in fish appears to be similar to regulation of liver Igf1 production in mammals.

  5. Seed development and genomic imprinting in plants.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Claudia; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2005-01-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to an epigenetic phenomenon where the activity of an allele depends on its parental origin. Imprinting at individual genes has only been described in mammals and seed plants. We will discuss the role imprinted genes play in seed development and compare the situation in plants with that in mammals. Interestingly, many imprinted genes appear to control cell proliferation and growth in both groups of organisms although imprinting in plants may also be involved in the cellular differentiation of the two pairs of gametes involved in double fertilization. DNA methylation plays some role in the control of parent-of-origin-specific expression in both mammals and plants. Thus, although imprinting evolved independently in mammals and plants, there are striking similarities at the phenotypic and possibly also mechanistic level.

  6. Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome.

    PubMed

    Reik, W; Walter, J

    2001-01-01

    Genomic imprinting affects several dozen mammalian genes and results in the expression of those genes from only one of the two parental chromosomes. This is brought about by epigenetic instructions--imprints--that are laid down in the parental germ cells. Imprinting is a particularly important genetic mechanism in mammals, and is thought to influence the transfer of nutrients to the fetus and the newborn from the mother. Consistent with this view is the fact that imprinted genes tend to affect growth in the womb and behaviour after birth. Aberrant imprinting disturbs development and is the cause of various disease syndromes. The study of imprinting also provides new insights into epigenetic gene modification during development.

  7. Trichostatin A affects histone acetylation and gene expression in porcine somatic cell nucleus transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R P; Martí-Gutiérrez, N; Escorihuela, E; Moreno, R; Stojkovic, M

    2009-11-01

    Epigenetic aberrancies likely preclude correct and complete nuclear reprogramming after somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) and may underlie the observed reduced viability of cloned embryos. In the current study, we tested the effects of the histone deacetylase-inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on preimplantation development and on histone acetylation and the gene expression of nucleus transfer (NT) porcine (Sus scrofa) embryos. Our results showed that 5 nM TSA for 26 h after reconstitution resulted in embryos (NTTSA) that reached the blastocyst stage at a higher level (48.1% vs. 20.2%) and increased number of cells (105.0 vs. 75.3) than that of the control (NTC) embryos. In addition, and unlike the NTC embryos, the treated embryos displayed a global acetylated histone H4 at lysine 8 profile similar to the in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and cultured embryos during the preimplantation development. Finally, we determined that several transcription factors exert a dramatic amount of genetic control over pluripotency, including Oct4, Nanog, Cdx2, and Rex01, the imprinting genes Igf2 and Igf2r, and the histone deacetyltransferase gene Hdac2. The NT blastocysts showed similar levels of Oct4, Cdx2, and Hdac2 but lower levels of Nanog than those of the IVF blastocyst. However, the NTTSA blastocysts showed similar levels of Rex01, Igf2, and Igf2r as those of IVF blastocysts, whereas the NTC blastocysts showed significantly lower levels for those genes. Our results suggest that TSA improves porcine SCNT preimplantation development and affects the acetylated status of the H4K8, rendering acetylation levels similar to those of the IVF counterparts.

  8. High frequency of loss of heterozygosity at 11p15 and IGF2 overexpression is not associated with clinical outcome in childhood adrenocortical tumors positive for the R337H TP53 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Roberto; Cerrato, Flavia; Doghman, Mabrouka; Pianovski, Mara A.D.; Parise, Guilherme A.; Custódio, Gislaine; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Riccio, Andrea; Figueiredo, Bonald C.; Lalli, Enzo

    2008-01-01

    A germline TP53 R337H mutation is present in childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT) from southern Brazil. Other genetic alterations are also frequently found in these tumors. This study was designed to assess whether alterations of the 11p15 region exist in childhood ACT, accounting for IGF2 overexpression in these tumours, and how they are related to clinical outcome. Tumor DNA of 12 children with ACT (4 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) and from the blood of their parents was analyzed. All patients showed 11p15 LOH in the tumor. In contrast to the single case of paternal LOH, IGF2 was overexpressed in tumors with maternal allele loss. Our data show that 11p15 LOH is a widespread finding in childhood ACT not related with malignancy, contrarily to adult ACT. Alterations in the expression of other genes in the same region (e.g. CDKN1C) may contribute to ACT tumorigenesis. PMID:18786438

  9. Genomic imprinting in development, growth, behavior and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Plasschaert, Robert N.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Genes that are subject to genomic imprinting in mammals are preferentially expressed from a single parental allele. This imprinted expression of a small number of genes is crucial for normal development, as these genes often directly regulate fetal growth. Recent work has also demonstrated intricate roles for imprinted genes in the brain, with important consequences on behavior and neuronal function. Finally, new studies have revealed the importance of proper expression of specific imprinted genes in induced pluripotent stem cells and in adult stem cells. As we review here, these findings highlight the complex nature and developmental importance of imprinted genes. PMID:24757003

  10. Competition--a common motif for the imprinting mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, D P

    1997-01-01

    Imprinted genes, in contrast to the majority of mammalian genes, are able to restrict expression to one of the two parental alleles in somatic diploid cells. Although the silent allele of an imprinted gene appears to be transcriptionally repressed, it often bears little other resemblance to normal genes in an inactive state. The key to the imprinting mechanism may be a form of parental-specific expression-competition between cis-linked genes and not parental-specific expression versus repression. Thus, the imprinting mechanism may be better understood if the chromosomal region containing imprinted genes is viewed as 'active' on both parental chromosomes. PMID:9384569

  11. Genomic imprinting in development, growth, behavior and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Plasschaert, Robert N; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2014-05-01

    Genes that are subject to genomic imprinting in mammals are preferentially expressed from a single parental allele. This imprinted expression of a small number of genes is crucial for normal development, as these genes often directly regulate fetal growth. Recent work has also demonstrated intricate roles for imprinted genes in the brain, with important consequences on behavior and neuronal function. Finally, new studies have revealed the importance of proper expression of specific imprinted genes in induced pluripotent stem cells and in adult stem cells. As we review here, these findings highlight the complex nature and developmental importance of imprinted genes.

  12. Lead Exposure during Early Human Development and DNA Methylation of Imprinted Gene Regulatory Elements in Adulthood

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Murphy, Susan K.; Skaar, David; Nye, Monica; Vidal, Adriana C.; Cecil, Kim M.; Dietrich, Kim N.; Puga, Alvaro; Jirtle, Randy L.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2015-06-26

    Here, lead exposure during early development causes neurodevelopmental disorders by unknown mechanisms. Epidemiologic studies have focused recently on determining associations between lead exposure and global DNA methylation; however, such approaches preclude the identification of loci that may alter human disease risk. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal, postnatal, and early childhood lead exposure can alter the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that control the monoallelic expression of imprinted genes involved in metabolism, growth, and development. Questionnaire data and serial blood lead levels were obtained from 105 participants (64 females, 41 males) of the Cincinnati Lead Study from birth to 78 months. When participants were adults, we used Sequenom EpiTYPER assays to test peripheral blood DNA to quantify CpG methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at DMRs of 22 human imprinted genes. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear regression. Mean blood lead concentration from birth to 78 months was associated with a significant decrease in PEG3 DMR methylation (β = –0.0014; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0005, p = 0.002), stronger in males (β = –0.0024; 95% CI: –0.0038, –0.0009, p = 0.003) than in females (β = –0.0009; 95% CI: –0.0020, 0.0003, p = 0.1). Elevated mean childhood blood lead concentration was also associated with a significant decrease in IGF2/H19 (β = –0.0013; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0003, p = 0.01) DMR methylation, but primarily in females, (β = –0.0017; 95% CI: –0.0029, –0.0006, p = 0.005) rather than in males, (β = –0.0004; 95% CI: –0.0023, 0.0015, p = 0.7). Elevated blood lead concentration during the neonatal period was associated with higher PLAGL1/HYMAI DMR methylation regardless of sex (β = 0.0075; 95% CI: 0.0018, 0.0132, p = 0.01). The magnitude of associations between cumulative lead exposure and CpG methylation remained unaltered from 30 to 78 months. Our findings

  13. Lead Exposure during Early Human Development and DNA Methylation of Imprinted Gene Regulatory Elements in Adulthood

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yue; Xie, Changchun; Murphy, Susan K.; ...

    2015-06-26

    Here, lead exposure during early development causes neurodevelopmental disorders by unknown mechanisms. Epidemiologic studies have focused recently on determining associations between lead exposure and global DNA methylation; however, such approaches preclude the identification of loci that may alter human disease risk. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal, postnatal, and early childhood lead exposure can alter the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that control the monoallelic expression of imprinted genes involved in metabolism, growth, and development. Questionnaire data and serial blood lead levels were obtained from 105 participants (64 females, 41 males) of the Cincinnati Lead Study frommore » birth to 78 months. When participants were adults, we used Sequenom EpiTYPER assays to test peripheral blood DNA to quantify CpG methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes at DMRs of 22 human imprinted genes. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear regression. Mean blood lead concentration from birth to 78 months was associated with a significant decrease in PEG3 DMR methylation (β = –0.0014; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0005, p = 0.002), stronger in males (β = –0.0024; 95% CI: –0.0038, –0.0009, p = 0.003) than in females (β = –0.0009; 95% CI: –0.0020, 0.0003, p = 0.1). Elevated mean childhood blood lead concentration was also associated with a significant decrease in IGF2/H19 (β = –0.0013; 95% CI: –0.0023, –0.0003, p = 0.01) DMR methylation, but primarily in females, (β = –0.0017; 95% CI: –0.0029, –0.0006, p = 0.005) rather than in males, (β = –0.0004; 95% CI: –0.0023, 0.0015, p = 0.7). Elevated blood lead concentration during the neonatal period was associated with higher PLAGL1/HYMAI DMR methylation regardless of sex (β = 0.0075; 95% CI: 0.0018, 0.0132, p = 0.01). The magnitude of associations between cumulative lead exposure and CpG methylation remained unaltered from 30 to 78 months. Our

  14. Evolution and function of genomic imprinting in plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jessica A; Zilberman, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Genomic imprinting, an inherently epigenetic phenomenon defined by parent of origin-dependent gene expression, is observed in mammals and flowering plants. Genome-scale surveys of imprinted expression and the underlying differential epigenetic marks have led to the discovery of hundreds of imprinted plant genes and confirmed DNA and histone methylation as key regulators of plant imprinting. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of imprinted plant genes are unknown, and the evolutionary forces shaping plant imprinting remain rather opaque. Here, we review the mechanisms of plant genomic imprinting and discuss theories of imprinting evolution and biological significance in light of recent findings. © 2015 Rodrigues and Zilberman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chung, Sookja K.; Wang, Yang; Yip, Yim Ling; Law, Simon Y. K.; Chan, Kin Tak; Lee, Nikki P. Y.; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xu, Li Yan; Li, En Min; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Local interactions between cancer cells and stroma can produce systemic effects on distant organs to govern cancer progression. Here we show that IGF2 secreted by inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)-overexpressing oesophageal cancer cells instigates VEGFR1-positive bone marrow cells in the tumour macroenvironment to form pre-metastatic niches at distant sites by increasing VEGF secretion from cancer-associated fibroblasts. Cancer cells are then attracted to the metastatic site via the CXCL5/CXCR2 axis. Bone marrow cells transplanted from nude mice bearing Id1-overexpressing oesophageal tumours enhance tumour growth and metastasis in recipient mice, whereas systemic administration of VEGFR1 antibody abrogates these effects. Mechanistically, IGF2 regulates VEGF in fibroblasts via miR-29c in a p53-dependent manner. Analysis of patient serum samples showed that concurrent elevation of IGF2 and VEGF levels may serve as a prognostic biomarker for oesophageal cancer. These findings suggest that the Id1/IGF2/VEGF/VEGFR1 cascade plays a critical role in tumour-driven pathophysiological processes underlying cancer progression. PMID:28186102

  16. Intranasal siRNA administration reveals IGF2 deficiency contributes to impaired cognition in Fragile X syndrome mice

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Marta; Cheng, Yuyan; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Magistri, Marco; Martinez, Ana; Faghihi, Mohammad A.; Jope, Richard S.; Beurel, Eleonore

    2017-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory remain imprecisely understood, and restorative interventions are lacking. We report that intranasal administration of siRNAs can be used to identify targets important in cognitive processes and to improve genetically impaired learning and memory. In mice modeling the intellectual deficiency of Fragile X syndrome, intranasally administered siRNA targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), HDAC2, or HDAC3 diminished cognitive impairments. In WT mice, intranasally administered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) siRNA or HDAC4 siRNA impaired learning and memory, which was partially due to reduced insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) levels because the BDNF siRNA– or HDAC4 siRNA–induced cognitive impairments were ameliorated by intranasal IGF2 administration. In Fmr1–/– mice, hippocampal IGF2 was deficient, and learning and memory impairments were ameliorated by IGF2 intranasal administration. Therefore intranasal siRNA administration is an effective means to identify mechanisms regulating cognition and to modulate therapeutic targets. PMID:28352664

  17. Genomic imprinting as a probable explanation for variable intrafamilial phenotypic expression of an unusual chromosome 3 abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Fryburg, J.S.; Shashi, V.; Kelly, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    We present a 4 generation family in which an abnormal chromosome 3 with dup(3)(q25) segregated from great-grandmother to grandmother to son without phenotypic effect. The son`s 2 daughters have dysmorphic features, mild developmental delays and congenital heart disease. Both girls have the abnormal chr. 3 but are the only family members with the abnormality to have phenotypic effects. An unaffected son of the father has normal chromosomes. FISH with whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 14, 18, and 22 excluded these as the origin of the extra material. Chromosome 3-specific paint revealed a uniform pattern, suggesting that the extra material is from chromosome 3. Comparative genomic hybridization and DNA studies are pending. Possible explanations for the discordance in phenotypes between the 4th generation offspring and the first 3 generations include: an undetected rearrangement in the previous generations that is unbalanced in the two affected individuals; the chromosome abnormality may be a benign variant and unrelated to the phenotype; or, most likely, genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting is suggested by the observation that a phenotypic effect was only seen after the chromosome was inherited from the father. The mothers in the first two generations appear to have passed the abnormal chr. 3 on without effect. This is an opportunity to delineate a region of the human genome affected by paternal imprinting.

  18. Global demethylation in loss of imprinting subtype of Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Ludgate, Jackie L; Le Mée, Gwenn; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Rodger, Euan J; Weeks, Robert J; Reeve, Anthony E; Morison, Ian M

    2013-02-01

    Epigenetic abnormalities at the IGF2/H19 locus play a key role in the onset of Wilms tumor. These tumors can be classified into three molecular subtypes depending on the events occurring at this locus: loss of imprinting (LOI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH), or retention of imprinting (ROI). As IGF2 LOI is a consequence of aberrant methylation, we hypothesized that this subtype of Wilms tumors might display global abnormalities of methylation. We therefore analyzed the methylation status of satellite DNA, as a surrogate for global methylation in 50 Wilms tumor patients. Satellite methylation was quantified by a methylation-sensitive quantitative PCR. We confirmed hypomethylation of both satellite α (Sat α) and satellite 2 (Sat 2) DNA in Wilms tumor samples compared with normal kidney. In addition, we found that LOI tumors, unlike ROI or LOH ones, showed concordant hypomethylation of both Sat α and Sat 2 DNA. This would suggest that the LOI subtype of Wilms tumor, which unlike other subtypes results from an epimutation, has a global deregulation of methylation mechanisms.

  19. Mechanisms of activation of the paternally expressed genes by the Prader-Willi imprinting center in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes domains

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Shiri; Kaufman, Yotam; Ludwig, Guy; Razin, Aharon; Shemer, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The Prader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) imprinted domain is regulated by a bipartite imprinting control center (IC) composed of a sequence around the SNRPN promoter (PWS-IC) and a 880-bp sequence located 35 kb upstream (AS-IC). The AS-IC imprint is established during gametogenesis and confers repression upon PWS-IC on the maternal allele. Mutation at PWS-IC on the paternal allele leads to gene silencing across the entire PWS/AS domain. This silencing implies that PWS-IC functions on the paternal allele as a bidirectional activator. Here we examine the mechanism by which PWS-IC activates the paternally expressed genes (PEGs) using transgenes that include the PWS-IC sequence in the presence or absence of AS-IC and NDN, an upstream PEG, as an experimental model. We demonstrate that PWS-IC is in fact an activator of NDN. This activation requires an unmethylated PWS-IC in the gametes and during early embryogenesis. PWS-IC is dispensable later in development. Interestingly, a similar activation of a nonimprinted gene (APOA1) was observed, implying that PWS-IC is a universal activator. To decipher the mechanism by which PWS-IC confers activation of remote genes, we performed methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) array analysis on lymphoblast cell lines that revealed dispersed, rather than continued differential methylation. However, chromatin conformation capture (3c) experiments revealed a physical interaction between PWS-IC and the PEGs, suggesting that activation of PEGs may require their proximity to PWS-IC. PMID:22529396

  20. Possible role of IGF2 receptors in regulating selection of 2 dominant follicles in cattle selected for twin ovulations and births

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abundance of IGF-2 receptor (IGF2R), FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNA in granulosa cells (GCs) or theca cells (TCs) or both cells as well as estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and androstenedione concentrations in follicular fluid were compared in cows genetically selected (Twinner)...

  1. An Unexpected Function of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Imprinting Center in Maternal Imprinting in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mei-Yi; Jiang, Ming; Zhai, Xiaodong; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Wu, Ray-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon that some genes are expressed differentially according to the parent of origin. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are neurobehavioral disorders caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from paternal and maternal chromosome 15q11–q13, respectively. Imprinted genes at the PWS/AS domain are regulated through a bipartite imprinting center, the PWS-IC and AS-IC. The PWS-IC activates paternal-specific gene expression and is responsible for the paternal imprint, whereas the AS-IC functions in the maternal imprint by allele-specific repression of the PWS-IC to prevent the paternal imprinting program. Although mouse chromosome 7C has a conserved PWS/AS imprinted domain, the mouse equivalent of the human AS-IC element has not yet been identified. Here, we suggest another dimension that the PWS-IC also functions in maternal imprinting by negatively regulating the paternally expressed imprinted genes in mice, in contrast to its known function as a positive regulator for paternal-specific gene expression. Using a mouse model carrying a 4.8-kb deletion at the PWS-IC, we demonstrated that maternal transmission of the PWS-IC deletion resulted in a maternal imprinting defect with activation of the paternally expressed imprinted genes and decreased expression of the maternally expressed imprinted gene on the maternal chromosome, accompanied by alteration of the maternal epigenotype toward a paternal state spread over the PWS/AS domain. The functional significance of this acquired paternal pattern of gene expression was demonstrated by the ability to complement PWS phenotypes by maternal inheritance of the PWS-IC deletion, which is in stark contrast to paternal inheritance of the PWS-IC deletion that resulted in the PWS phenotypes. Importantly, low levels of expression of the paternally expressed imprinted genes are sufficient to rescue postnatal lethality and growth retardation in two PWS mouse models. These findings

  2. An unexpected function of the Prader-Willi syndrome imprinting center in maternal imprinting in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Yi; Jiang, Ming; Zhai, Xiaodong; Beaudet, Arthur L; Wu, Ray-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon that some genes are expressed differentially according to the parent of origin. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are neurobehavioral disorders caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from paternal and maternal chromosome 15q11-q13, respectively. Imprinted genes at the PWS/AS domain are regulated through a bipartite imprinting center, the PWS-IC and AS-IC. The PWS-IC activates paternal-specific gene expression and is responsible for the paternal imprint, whereas the AS-IC functions in the maternal imprint by allele-specific repression of the PWS-IC to prevent the paternal imprinting program. Although mouse chromosome 7C has a conserved PWS/AS imprinted domain, the mouse equivalent of the human AS-IC element has not yet been identified. Here, we suggest another dimension that the PWS-IC also functions in maternal imprinting by negatively regulating the paternally expressed imprinted genes in mice, in contrast to its known function as a positive regulator for paternal-specific gene expression. Using a mouse model carrying a 4.8-kb deletion at the PWS-IC, we demonstrated that maternal transmission of the PWS-IC deletion resulted in a maternal imprinting defect with activation of the paternally expressed imprinted genes and decreased expression of the maternally expressed imprinted gene on the maternal chromosome, accompanied by alteration of the maternal epigenotype toward a paternal state spread over the PWS/AS domain. The functional significance of this acquired paternal pattern of gene expression was demonstrated by the ability to complement PWS phenotypes by maternal inheritance of the PWS-IC deletion, which is in stark contrast to paternal inheritance of the PWS-IC deletion that resulted in the PWS phenotypes. Importantly, low levels of expression of the paternally expressed imprinted genes are sufficient to rescue postnatal lethality and growth retardation in two PWS mouse models. These findings

  3. What are imprinted genes doing in the brain?

    PubMed

    Davies, William; Isles, Anthony R; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S

    2008-01-01

    As evidence for the existence of brain-expressed imprinted genes accumulates, we need to address exactly what they are doing in this tissue, especially in terms of organisational themes and the major challenges posed by reconciling imprinted gene action in brain with current evolutionary theories attempting to explain the origin and maintenance of genomic imprinting. We are at the beginning of this endeavor and much work remains to be done but already it is clear that imprinted genes have the potential to influence diverse behavioral processes via multiple brain mechanisms. There are also grounds to believe that imprinting may contribute to risk of mental and neurological disease. As well as being a source of basic information about imprinted genes in the brain (e.g., via the newly established website, www.bgg.cardiff.ac.uk/imprinted_tables/index. html), we have used this chapter to identify and focus on a number of key questions. How are brain-expressed imprinted genes organised at the molecular and cellular levels? To what extent does imprinted action depend on neurodevelopmental mechanisms? Do imprinted gene effects interact with other epigenetic influences, especially early on in life? Are imprinted effects on adult behaviors adaptive or just epiphenomena? If they are adaptive, what areas of brain function and behavior might be sensitive to imprinted effects? These are big questions and, as shall become apparent, we need much more data, arising from interactions between behavioral neuroscientists, molecular biologists and evolutionary theorists, if we are to begin to answer them.

  4. What are imprinted genes doing in the brain?

    PubMed

    Davies, William; Isles, Anthony R; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S

    2007-01-01

    As evidence for the existence of brain-expressed imprinted genes accumulates, we need to address exactly what they are doing in this tissue, especially in terms of organizational themes and the major challenges posed by reconciling imprinted gene action in brain with current evolutionary theories attempting to explain the origin and maintenance of genomic imprinting. We are at the beginning of this endeavor and much work remains to be done but already it is clear that imprinted genes have the potential to influence diverse behavioral processes via multiple brain mechanisms. There are also grounds to believe that imprinting may contribute to risk of mental and neurological disease. As well as being a source of basic information about imprinted genes in the brain (e.g., via the newly established website, www.bgg.cardiff.ac.uk/imprinted_tables/index.html), we have used this chapter to identify and focus on a number of key questions. How are brain-expressed imprinted genes organised at the molecular and cellular levels? To what extent does imprinted action depend on neurodevelopmental mechanisms? Do imprinted gene effects interact with other epigenetic influences, especially early on in life? Are imprinted effects on adult behaviors adaptive or just epiphenomena? If they are adaptive, what areas of brain function and behavior might be sensitive to imprinted effects? These are big questions and, as shall become apparent, we need much more data, arising from interactions between behavioral neuroscientists, molecular biologists and evolutionary theorists, if we are to begin to answer them.

  5. In brief: genomic imprinting and imprinting diseases.

    PubMed

    Horsthemke, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process by which the male and the female germline confer different DNA methylation marks and histone modifications onto specific gene regions, so that one allele of an imprinted gene is active and the other one is silent. Since the dosage of imprinted genes is important for normal development, growth and behaviour, the loss or duplication of the active allele can cause disease.

  6. The X-linked imprinted gene family Fthl17 shows predominantly female expression following the two-cell stage in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shin; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Mise, Nathan; Kaseda, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kuniya; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Okabe, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Differences between male and female mammals are initiated by embryonic differentiation of the gonad into either a testis or an ovary. However, this may not be the sole determinant. There are reports that embryonic sex differentiation might precede and be independent of gonadal differentiation, but there is little molecular biological evidence for this. To test for sex differences in early-stage embryos, we separated male and female blastocysts using newly developed non-invasive sexing methods for transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein and compared the gene-expression patterns. From this screening, we found that the Fthl17 (ferritin, heavy polypeptide-like 17) family of genes was predominantly expressed in female blastocysts. This comprises seven genes that cluster on the X chromosome. Expression analysis based on DNA polymorphisms revealed that these genes are imprinted and expressed from the paternal X chromosome as early as the two-cell stage. Thus, by the time zygotic genome activation starts there are already differences in gene expression between male and female mouse embryos. This discovery will be important for the study of early sex differentiation, as clearly these differences arise before gonadal differentiation. PMID:20185572

  7. Association of in vitro fertilization with global and IGF2/H19 methylation variation in newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Loke, Y J; Galati, J C; Saffery, R; Craig, J M

    2015-04-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) and its subset intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), are widely used medical treatments for conception. There has been controversy over whether IVF is associated with adverse short- and long-term health outcomes of offspring. As with other prenatal factors, epigenetic change is thought to be a molecular mediator of any in utero programming effects. Most studies focused on DNA methylation at gene-specific and genomic level, with only a few on associations between DNA methylation and IVF. Using buccal epithelium from 208 twin pairs from the Peri/Postnatal Epigenetic Twin Study (PETS), we investigated associations between IVF and DNA methylation on a global level, using the proxies of Alu and LINE-1 interspersed repeats in addition to two locus-specific regulatory regions within IGF2/H19, controlling for 13 potentially confounding factors. Using multiple correction testing, we found strong evidence that IVF-conceived twins have lower DNA methylation in Alu, and weak evidence of lower methylation in one of the two IGF2/H19 regulatory regions and LINE-1, compared with naturally conceived twins. Weak evidence of a relationship between ICSI and DNA methylation within IGF2/H19 regulatory region was found, suggesting that one or more of the processes associated with IVF/ICSI may contribute to these methylation differences. Lower within- and between-pair DNA methylation variation was also found in IVF-conceived twins for LINE-1, Alu and one IGF2/H19 regulatory region. Although larger sample sizes are needed, our results provide additional insight to the possible influence of IVF and ICSI on DNA methylation. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date investigating the association of IVF and DNA methylation.

  8. Long-term effect of in vitro culture of mouse embryos with serum on mRNA expression of imprinting genes, development, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Gonzalez, Raúl; Moreira, Pedro; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Jiménez, Adela; Pérez-Crespo, Miriam; Ramírez, Miguel Angel; De Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    The long-term developmental and behavioral consequences of mammalian embryo culture are unknown. By altering the culture medium with the addition of FCS, we wanted to determine whether mouse embryos cultured under suboptimal conditions develop aberrant mRNA expression of imprinting genes at the blastocyst stage and whether fetal development, growth, and behavior of adult mice are affected. One-cell embryos obtained from superovulated female B6CBAF1 mice were cultured for 4 days in K+-modified simplex optimized medium in the presence of either 10% FCS or 1 g/liter BSA. After embryo transfer, born animals were submitted to several developmental and behavior tests. The mRNA expression of some imprinting genes was significantly affected in blastocysts cultured in the presence of FCS. Two of the eight measures of preweaning development and some specific measures of neuromotor development, such as the walking activity, were delayed in the group originated with FCS. After 34 weeks, the weight of female mice cultured in vitro in the presence of FCS was significantly higher than controls. In addition, the locomotion activity of mice was altered at 5 and 15 months. Anatomopathological and histological analysis of animals at 20 months of age showed some large organs and an increase in pathologies. We have found that mice derived from embryos cultured with FCS exhibited specific behavioral alterations in anxiety and displayed deficiencies in implicit memories. Our data indicate that long-term programming of postnatal development, growth, and physiology can be affected irreversibly during the preimplantation period of embryo development by suboptimal in vitro culture. PMID:15079084

  9. The tobacco-specific carcinogen-operated calcium channel promotes lung tumorigenesis via IGF2 exocytosis in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Hye-Jin; Min, Hye-Young; Jang, Hyun-Ji; Yun, Hye Jeong; Smith, John Kendal; Jin, Quanri; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Liu, Diane; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Behrens, Carmen; Lee, J. Jack; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Lee, Euni; Hong, Waun Ki; Lee, Ho-Young

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) binding to the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces Ca2+ signalling, a mechanism that is implicated in various human cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of NNK-mediated Ca2+ signalling in lung cancer formation. We show significant overexpression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in association with IGF-1R activation in human preneoplastic lung lesions in smokers. NNK induces voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-intervened calcium influx in airway epithelial cells, resulting in a rapid IGF2 secretion via the regulated pathway and thus IGF-1R activation. Silencing nAChR, α1 subunit of L-type VDCC, or various vesicular trafficking curators, including synaptotagmins and Rabs, or blockade of nAChR/VDCC-mediated Ca2+ influx significantly suppresses NNK-induced IGF2 exocytosis, transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Publicly available database reveals inverse correlation between use of calcium channel blockers and lung cancer diagnosis. Our data indicate that NNK disrupts the regulated pathway of IGF2 exocytosis and promotes lung tumorigenesis. PMID:27666821

  10. A human imprinting centre demonstrates conserved acquisition but diverged maintenance of imprinting in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome imprinting defects.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Karen A; DuBose, Amanda J; Futtner, Christopher R; Elmore, Michael D; Brannan, Camilynn I; Resnick, James L

    2006-02-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are caused by the loss of imprinted gene expression from chromosome 15q11-q13. Imprinted gene expression in the region is regulated by a bipartite imprinting centre (IC), comprising the PWS-IC and the AS-IC. The PWS-IC is a positive regulatory element required for bidirectional activation of a number of paternally expressed genes. The function of the AS-IC appears to be to suppress PWS-IC function on the maternal chromosome through a methylation imprint acquired during female gametogenesis. Here we have placed the entire mouse locus under the control of a human PWS-IC by targeted replacement of the mouse PWS-IC with the equivalent human region. Paternal inheritance of the human PWS-IC demonstrates for the first time that a positive regulatory element in the PWS-IC has diverged. These mice show postnatal lethality and growth deficiency, phenotypes not previously attributed directly to the affected genes. Following maternal inheritance, the human PWS-IC is able to acquire a methylation imprint in mouse oocytes, suggesting that acquisition of the methylation imprint is conserved. However, the imprint is lost in somatic cells, showing that maintenance has diverged. This maternal imprinting defect results in expression of maternal Ube3a-as and repression of Ube3a in cis, providing evidence that Ube3a is regulated by its antisense and creating the first reported mouse model for AS imprinting defects.

  11. Silencing of imprinted CDKN1C gene expression is associated with loss of CpG and histone H3 lysine 9 methylation at DMR-LIT1 in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Hidenobu; Nakagawachi, Tetsuji; Zhao, Wei; Higashimoto, Ken; Urano, Takeshi; Matsukura, Shiroh; Kitajima, Yoshihiko; Takeuchi, Makoto; Nakayama, Masahiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Miyazaki, Kohji; Joh, Keiichiro; Mukai, Tsunehiro

    2004-05-27

    The putative tumor suppressor CDKN1C is an imprinted gene at 11p15.5, a well-known imprinted region often deleted in tumors. The absence of somatic mutations and the frequent diminished expression in tumors would suggest that CDKN1C expression is regulated epigenetically. It has been, however, controversial whether the diminution is caused by imprinting disruption of the CDKN1C/LIT1 domain or by promoter hypermethylation of CDKN1C itself. To clarify this, we investigated the CpG methylation index of the CDKN1C promoter and the differentially methylated region of the LIT1 CpG island (differentially methylated region (DMR)-LIT1), an imprinting control region of the domain, and CDKN1C expression in esophageal cancer cell lines. CDKN1C expression was diminished in 10 of 17 lines and statistically correlated with the loss of methylation at DMR-LIT1 in all but three. However, there was no statistical correlation between CDKN1C promoter MI and CDKN1C expression. Furthermore, loss of CpG methylation was associated with loss of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation at DMR-LIT1. Histone modifications at CDKN1C promoter were not correlated with CDKN1C expression. The data suggested that the diminished CDKN1C expression is associated with the loss of methylation of CpG and H3K9 at DMR-LIT1, not by its own promoter CpG methylation, and is involved in esophageal cancer, implying that DMR-LIT1 epigenetically regulates CDKN1C expression not through histone modifications at CDKN1C promoter, but through that of DMR-LIT1.

  12. Demography, kinship, and the evolving theory of genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Van Cleve, Jeremy; Ubeda, Francisco; Wilkins, Jon F

    2011-07-01

    Genomic imprinting is the differential expression of an allele based on the parent of origin. Recent transcriptome-wide evaluations of the number of imprinted genes reveal complex patterns of imprinted expression among developmental stages and cell types. Such data demand a comprehensive evolutionary framework in which to understand the effect of natural selection on imprinted gene expression. We present such a framework for how asymmetries in demographic parameters and fitness effects can lead to the evolution of genomic imprinting and place recent theoretical advances in this framework. This represents a modern interpretation of the kinship theory, is well suited to studying populations with complex social interactions, and provides predictions which can be tested with forthcoming transcriptomic data. To understand the intricate phenotypic patterns that are emerging from the recent deluge of data, future investigations of genomic imprinting will require integrating evolutionary theory, transcriptomic data, developmental and functional genetics, and natural history.

  13. Imprinted genes and human disease: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Francisco; Wilkins, Jon F

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted genes have been associated with a wide range of diseases. Many of these diseases have symptoms that can be understood in the context of the evolutionary forces that favored imprinted expression at these loci. Modulation of perinatal growth and resource acquisition has played a central role in the evolution of imprinting and many of the diseases associated with imprinted genes involve some sort of growth or feeding disorder. In the first part of this chapter, we discuss the relationship between the evolution of imprinting and the clinical manifestations of imprinting-associated diseases. In the second half, we consider the variety of processes that can disrupt imprinted gene expression and function. We ask specifically if there is reason to believe that imprinted genes are particularly susceptible to deregulation-and whether a disruption of an imprinted gene is more likely to have deleterious consequences than a disruption of an unimprinted gene. There is more to a gene than its DNA sequence. C. H. Waddington used the term "epigenetic" to describe biological differences between tissues that result from the process of development. Waddington needed a new term to describe this variation which was neither the result of genotypic differences between the cells nor well described as phenotypic variation. We now understand that heritable modifications of the DNA--such as cytosine methylation--and aspects of chromatin structure--including histone modifications--are the mechanisms underlying what Waddington called the "epigenotype." Epigenetic modifications are established in particular cell lines during development and are responsible for the patterns of gene expression seen in different tissue types. In contemporary usage, the term epigenetic refers to heritable changes in gene expression that are not coded in the DNA sequence itself. In recent years, much attention has been paid to a particular type of epigenetic variation: genomic imprinting. In the case of

  14. Germline mutation in NLRP2 (NALP2) in a familial imprinting disorder (Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Esther; Lim, Derek; Pasha, Shanaz; Tee, Louise J; Rahman, Fatimah; Yates, John R W; Woods, C Geoffrey; Reik, Wolf; Maher, Eamonn R

    2009-03-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a fetal overgrowth and human imprinting disorder resulting from the deregulation of a number of genes, including IGF2 and CDKN1C, in the imprinted gene cluster on chromosome 11p15.5. Most cases are sporadic and result from epimutations at either of the two 11p15.5 imprinting centres (IC1 and IC2). However, rare familial cases may be associated with germline 11p15.5 deletions causing abnormal imprinting in cis. We report a family with BWS and an IC2 epimutation in which affected siblings had inherited different parental 11p15.5 alleles excluding an in cis mechanism. Using a positional-candidate gene approach, we found that the mother was homozygous for a frameshift mutation in exon 6 of NLRP2. While germline mutations in NLRP7 have previously been associated with familial hydatidiform mole, this is the first description of NLRP2 mutation in human disease and the first report of a trans mechanism for disordered imprinting in BWS. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that NLRP2 has a previously unrecognised role in establishing or maintaining genomic imprinting in humans.

  15. DHPLC-based method for DNA methylation analysis of differential methylated regions from imprinted genes.

    PubMed

    Couvert, P; Poirier, K; Carrié, A; Chalas, C; Jouannet, P; Beldjord, C; Bienvenu, T; Chelly, J; Kerjean, A

    2003-02-01

    The bisulfite genomic sequencing method is one of the most widely used techniques for methylation analysis in heterogeneous unbiased PCR, amplifying for both methylated and unmethylated alleles simultaneously. However, it requires labor-intensive and time-consuming cloning and sequencing steps. In the current study, we used a denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) procedure in a complementary way with the bisulfite genomic sequencing to analyze the methylation of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of imprinted genes. We showed reliable and reproducible results in distinguishing overall methylation profiles of DMRs regions of human SNRPN, H19, MEST/PEG1, LIT1, IGF2, TSSC5, WT1 antisense, and mouse H19, Mest/Peg1, Igf2R imprinted genes. These DHPLC profiles were in accordance with bisulfite genomic sequencing data and may serve as a type of "fingerprint," revealing the overall methylation status of DMRs associated with sample heterogeneity. We conclude that DHPLC analysis could be used to increase the throughput efficiency of methylation pattern analysis of imprinted genes after the bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA and unbiased PCR amplification.

  16. MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are associated with aberrant methylation of the IGF-2 gene in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huan; Deng, Zhonglei; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei; Su, Jiantang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between methylation status of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) gene and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms in bladder transitional cell carcinoma tissues in a Chinese population. The polymorphisms of the folate metabolism enzyme gene MTHFR were studied by restrictive fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). PCR-based methods of DNA methylation analysis were used to detect the CpG island methylation status of the IGF-2 gene. The association between the methylation status of the IGF-2 gene and clinical characteristics, as well as MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, was analyzed. Aberrant hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene was found in 68.3% bladder cancer tissues and 12.4% normal bladder tissues, respectively, while hypomethylation was not detected in almost all normal bladder tissues. The hypomethylation rate of the IGF-2 gene in cancer tissues was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without lymph node metastasis (46.3% vs 17.2%, P = 0.018). No association was found between aberrant DNA methylation and selected factors including sex, age, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and green tea consumption. After adjusting for potential confounding variables the variant allele of MTHFR C677T was found to be associated with hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene. Compared with wildtype CC, the odds ratio was 4.33 (95% CI=1.06-10.59) for CT and 4.95 (95% CI=1.18-12.74) for TT. MTHFR 677 CC and CT genotypes might be one of the reasons that cause abnormal hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene, and the aberrant CpG island hypomethylation of the IGF-2 gene may contribute to the genesis and progression of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. PMID:23554734

  17. MEDEA takes control of its own imprinting.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Philippe; Feil, Robert

    2006-02-10

    Genomic imprinting is an essential epigenetic process that controls the size of seeds in flowering plants. In Arabidopsis, DEMETER activates the maternal copy of the imprinted MEDEA Polycomb gene. In this issue of Cell, Gehring et al. (2006) demonstrate that this activation involves DNA demethylation of MEDEA by DEMETER. Remarkably, they also find that silencing of the paternal MEDEA allele is independent of DNA methylation and is controlled by maternal expression of MEDEA itself.

  18. Neural basis of imprinting behavior in chicks.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Sato, Katsushige; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks memorize the characteristics of the first moving object they encounter, and subsequently show a preference for it. This "imprinting" behavior is an example of infant learning and is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. Visual information of imprinting stimuli in chicks is first processed in the visual Wulst (VW), a telencephalic area corresponding to the mammalian visual cortex, congregates in the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo) cells, and transmitted to the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), a region similar to the mammalian association cortex. The imprinting memory is stored in the IMM, and activities of IMM neurons are altered by imprinting. Imprinting also induces functional and structural plastic changes of neurons in the circuit that links the VW and the IMM. Of these neurons, the activity of the HDCo cells is strongly influenced by imprinting. Expression and modulation of NR2B subunit-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the HDCo cells are crucial for plastic changes in this circuit as well as the process of visual imprinting. Thus, elucidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the plastic changes that occurred in the HDCo cells may provide useful knowledge about infant learning. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. The continuing quest to comprehend genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, N; Barton, S C; Kaneda, M; Hajkova, P; Surani, M A

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon of genomic imprinting in mammals showed that the parental genomes are functionally non-equivalent. Considerable advances have occurred in the field over the past 20 years, which has resulted in the identification and functional analysis of a number of imprinted genes the expression of which is determined by their parental origin. These genes belong to many diverse categories and they have been shown to regulate growth, complex aspects of mammalian physiology and behavior. Many aspects of the mechanism of imprinting have also been elucidated. However, the reasons for the evolution of genomic imprinting remain enigmatic. Further research is needed to determine if there is any relationship between the apparently diverse functions of imprinted genes in mammals, and their role in human diseases. It also remains to be seen what common features exist amongst the diverse imprinting control elements. The mechanisms involved in the erasure and re-establishment of imprints should provide deeper insights into epigenetic mechanisms of wide general interest.

  20. Genomic imprinting--insights from studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Smith, Anne; Lin, Shau-Ping; Tsai, Chen-En; Youngson, Neil; Tevendale, Maxine

    2003-02-01

    A subset of mammalian genes is controlled by genomic imprinting. This process causes a gene to be expressed from only one chromosome homologue depending on whether it originally came from the egg or the sperm. Parental origin-specific gene regulation is controlled by epigenetic modifications to DNA and chromatin. Genomic imprinting is therefore a useful model system to study the epigenetic control of genome function. Here we consider the value of the mouse as an experimental organism to address questions about the role of imprinted genes, about the regulation of mono-allelic gene expression and about the evolution of the imprinting function and mechanism.

  1. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ∼50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137–144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life. PMID:21807611

  2. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-10-01

    Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ~50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137-144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life.

  3. Characterization of differentially methylated regions in 3 bovine imprinted genes: a model for studying human germ-cell and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, T; Heinzmann, J; Wrenzycki, C; Zechner, U; Niemann, H; Haaf, T

    2011-01-01

    Correct imprinting is crucial for normal fetal and placental development in mammals. Experimental evidence in animal models and epidemiological studies in humans suggest that assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) can interfere with imprinted gene regulation in gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. Bos taurus is an agriculturally important species in which ARTs are commonly employed. Because this species exhibits a similar preimplantation development and gestation length as humans, it is increasingly being used as a model for human germ-cell and embryo development. However, in contrast to humans and mice, there is relatively little information on bovine imprinted genes. Here, we characterized the bovine intergenic IGF2-H19 imprinting control region (ICR) spanning approximately 3 kb. We identified a 300-bp differentially methylated region (DMR) approximately 6 kb upstream of the H19 promoter, containing a CpG island with CTCF-binding site and high sequence similarity with the human intergenic ICR. Additional differentially methylated CpG islands lie -6 kb to -3 kb upstream of the promoter, however these are less conserved. Both classical bisulfite sequencing and bisulfite pyrosequencing demonstrated complete methylation of the IGF2-H19 ICR in sperm, complete demethylation in parthenogenetic embryos having only the female genome, and differential methylation in placental and somatic tissues. In addition, we established pyrosequencing assays for the previously reported bovine SNRPN and PEG3 DMRs. The observed methylation patterns were consistent with genomic imprinting in all analyzed tissues/cell types. The identified IGF2-H19 ICR and the developed quantitative methylation assays may prove useful for further studies on the relationship between ARTs and imprinting defects in the bovine model. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Human imprinted retrogenes exhibit non-canonical imprint chromatin signatures and reside in non-imprinted host genes

    PubMed Central

    Monk, David; Arnaud, Philippe; Frost, Jennifer M.; Wood, Andrew J.; Cowley, Michael; Martin-Trujillo, Alejandro; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Iglesias Platas, Isabel; Camprubi, Cristina; Bourc’his, Deborah; Feil, Robert; Moore, Gudrun E.; Oakey, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Imprinted retrotransposed genes share a common genomic organization including a promoter-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) and a position within the intron of a multi-exonic ‘host’ gene. In the mouse, at least one transcript of the host gene is also subject to genomic imprinting. Human retrogene orthologues are imprinted and we reveal that human host genes are not imprinted. This coincides with genomic rearrangements that occurred during primate evolution, which increase the separation between the retrogene DMRs and the host genes. To address the mechanisms governing imprinted retrogene expression, histone modifications were assayed at the DMRs. For the mouse retrogenes, the active mark H3K4me2 was associated with the unmethylated paternal allele, while the methylated maternal allele was enriched in repressive marks including H3K9me3 and H4K20me3. Two human retrogenes showed monoallelic enrichment of active, but not of repressive marks suggesting a partial uncoupling of the relationship between DNA methylation and repressive histone methylation, possibly due to the smaller size and lower CpG density of these DMRs. Finally, we show that the genes immediately flanking the host genes in mouse and human are biallelically expressed in a range of tissues, suggesting that these loci are distinct from large imprinted clusters. PMID:21300645

  5. Sexual imprinting leads to lateralized and non-lateralized expression of the immediate early gene zenk in the zebra finch brain.

    PubMed

    Lieshoff, Carsten; Grosse-Ophoff, Jürgen; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2004-01-05

    Sexual imprinting is an early learning process by which young birds acquire the features of a potential sexual partner. The physiological basis of this learning process is an irreversible reduction of spine densities in two forebrain areas, the lateral neo- and hyperstriatum (LNH) and the medial neo- and hyperstriatum (MNH). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immediate early gene zenk, which has been shown frequently to play a role in plastic processes in the song system of zebra finches, may also be involved in the structural changes observed in these areas. The first exposure to a female after an isolation period enhances zenk expression in a variety of brain areas including LNH, MNH, and optic tectum. In contrast to earlier results, it was only the neostriatal part of LNH which showed an enhancement on first courtship, while exposure to a nestbox enhanced the label within the entire LNH area. Unexpectedly, the IEG expression was clearly lateralized in some layers of the optic tectum. Because lateralization occurred independent of the experimental condition, our study adds to recent results which also support the idea of a lateralized organization of the avian visual system.

  6. Model-based linkage analysis with imprinting for quantitative traits: ignoring imprinting effects can severely jeopardize detection of linkage.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Rao, D C

    2008-07-01

    Genes with imprinting (parent-of-origin) effects express differently when inheriting from the mother or from the father. Some genes for development and behavior in mammals are known to be imprinted. We developed parametric linkage analysis that accounts for imprinting effects for continuous traits, implementing it in MORGAN. To study misspecification of imprinting on linkage analysis, we simulated eight markers over a 35 cM region with phenotypes where imprinting contributes 0, 25, 50, and 75% of the variance of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) effect and analyzed them under all four models. Multipoint lod scores were computed and maximized over the same 35 cM region. Our most important finding is the dramatic lod score improvement under the correct imprinting model over the no-imprinting model. For data with minor QTL allele frequency 0.05, the correct model provided the highest lod scores with maximum expected lod scores over 4 in all settings. Ignoring imprinting provided the lowest lod scores with maximum expected lod scores between -9.9 and 2.4. In the extreme scenario, cases with max lod > or =3 from the correct imprinting model and max lod < or =-2 from the no-imprinting model occurred in 86% of replications. Models with misspecified imprinting produced lod scores intermediate between those with correct imprinting and with no imprinting. The effects of model misspecification were less pronounced for singlepoint analysis. Our multipoint results illustrate that ignoring true imprinting severely impairs detection of linkage and erroneously excludes genomic regions (with max lod <-2), whereas accounting for it can substantially improve linkage detection. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Neonatal imprinting predetermines the sexually dimorphic, estrogen-dependent expression of galanin in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Merchenthaler, I; Lennard, D E; López, F J; Negro-Vilar, A

    1993-01-01

    The incidence of colocalization of galanin (GAL) in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons is 4- to 5-fold higher in female than male rats. This fact and the finding that the degree of colocalization parallels estradiol levels during the estrous cycle suggest that GAL is an estrogen-inducible product in a subset of LHRH neurons. To analyze further this paradigm we evaluated the effects of gonadectomy and steroid replacement therapy in male and female rats. Ovariectomy resulted in a significant decrease in the number of cells colocalizing LHRH and GAL, whereas estradiol replacement to such animals restored the incidence of colocalization to that observed in controls. In males, however, estradiol treatment failed to enhance the incidence of colocalization of GAL and LHRH, indicating, therefore, that the colocalization of these peptides is gender-determined. This possibility--i.e., gender-specific determination of LHRH neurons coexpressing GAL--was evaluated by neonatal manipulation of hypothalamic steroid imprinting. As mentioned above, male rats did not respond to estrogen or testosterone by increasing GAL/LHRH colocalization as females did. Neonatally orchidectomized rats, whose hypothalami have not been exposed to testosterone during the critical period, when treated with estrogen in adulthood showed an increase in colocalization of GAL and LHRH similar to that seen in female animals. These observations indicate that the colocalization of LHRH/GAL is neonatally determined by an epigenetic mechanism that involves the testis. In summary, this sex difference in the incidence of colocalization of GAL and LHRH represents a unique aspect of sexual differentiation in that only certain phenotypic characteristics of a certain cellular lineage are dimorphic. The subpopulation of LHRH neurons that also produces GAL represents a portion of the LHRH neuronal system that is sexually differentiated and programed to integrate, under steroidal control, a network of

  8. Molecularly Imprinted Ionomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-05

    ion selective electrodes and ion selective optical sensors using a modified version of the molecular imprinting technique. The modification is a...materials may be the means to realize this goal. An additional application of metal ion imprinted polymers is as sensors . The ability to detect a...been shown to have dramatic effects on polymer properties. The benefits of ionic crosslinking on molecular imprinting are two-fold. First, ionic

  9. Epigenetic discordance at imprinting control regions in twins.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Miina; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2011-06-01

    Imprinting control regions are differentially methylated in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner and this methylation state is inherited through the germline. These regions control parent-specific monoallelic expression of their target genes. Genetically identical organisms show considerable variation in their epigenomes owing to environmental and stochastic influences creating fluctuations in phenotype. Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for imprinting disorders due to epigenetic changes at imprinting control regions are an example of phenotypic variation caused by extreme variations of the epigenome. Here, we discuss the within-pair epigenetic discordance at imprinted loci, both in phenotypically concordant and discordant monozygotic twin pairs.

  10. Evolution of genomic imprinting: insights from marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Hore, Timothy A; Shaw, Geoffrey; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Pask, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Parent-of-origin gene expression (genomic imprinting) is widespread among eutherian mammals and also occurs in marsupials. Most imprinted genes are expressed in the placenta, but the brain is also a favored site. Although imprinting evolved in therian mammals before the marsupial-eutherian split, the mechanisms have continued to evolve in each lineage to produce differences between the two groups in terms of the number and regulation of imprinted genes. As yet there is no evidence for genomic imprinting in the egg-laying monotreme mammals, although these mammals also form a placenta (albeit short-lived) and transfer nutrients from mother to embryo. Therefore, imprinting was not essential for the evolution of the placenta and its importance in nutrient transfer but the elaboration of imprinted genes in marsupials and eutherians is associated with viviparity. Here we review the recent analyses of imprinted gene clusters in marsupials and monotremes, which have served to shed light on the origin and evolution of imprinting mechanisms in mammals.

  11. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor alters the growth characteristics and genomic imprinting of mouse multipotent adult germline stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yoon Hee

    2010-03-10

    This study evaluated the essentiality of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for in vitro culture of established mouse multipotent adult germline stem (maGS) cell lines by culturing them in the presence of GDNF, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or both. We show that, in the absence of LIF, GDNF slows the proliferation of maGS cells and result in smaller sized colonies without any change in distribution of cells to different cell-cycle stages, expression of pluripotency genes and in vitro differentiation potential. Furthermore, in the absence of LIF, GDNF increased the expression of male germ-line genes and repopulated the empty seminiferous tubule of W/W{sup v} mutant mouse without the formation of teratoma. GDNF also altered the genomic imprinting of Igf2, Peg1, and H19 genes but had no effect on DNA methylation of Oct4, Nanog and Stra8 genes. However, these effects of GDNF were masked in the presence of LIF. GDNF also did not interfere with the multipotency of maGS cells if they are cultured in the presence of LIF. In conclusion, our results suggest that, in the absence of LIF, GDNF alters the growth characteristics of maGS cells and partially impart them some of the germline stem (GS) cell-like characteristics.

  12. Natural epigenetic polymorphisms lead to intraspecific variation in Arabidopsis gene imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Pignatta, Daniela; Erdmann, Robert M; Scheer, Elias; Picard, Colette L; Bell, George W; Gehring, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Imprinted gene expression occurs during seed development in plants and is associated with differential DNA methylation of parental alleles, particularly at proximal transposable elements (TEs). Imprinting variability could contribute to observed parent-of-origin effects on seed development. We investigated intraspecific variation in imprinting, coupled with analysis of DNA methylation and small RNAs, among three Arabidopsis strains with diverse seed phenotypes. The majority of imprinted genes were parentally biased in the same manner among all strains. However, we identified several examples of allele-specific imprinting correlated with intraspecific epigenetic variation at a TE. We successfully predicted imprinting in additional strains based on methylation variability. We conclude that there is standing variation in imprinting even in recently diverged genotypes due to intraspecific epiallelic variation. Our data demonstrate that epiallelic variation and genomic imprinting intersect to produce novel gene expression patterns in seeds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03198.001 PMID:24994762

  13. High frequency of loss of heterozygosity at 11p15 and IGF2 overexpression are not related to clinical outcome in childhood adrenocortical tumors positive for the R337H TP53 mutation.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Roberto; Cerrato, Flavia; Doghman, Mabrouka; Pianovski, Mara A D; Parise, Guilherme A; Custódio, Gislaine; Zambetti, Gerard P; Ribeiro, Raul C; Riccio, Andrea; Figueiredo, Bonald C; Lalli, Enzo

    2008-10-01

    A germline TP53 R337H mutation is present in childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT) from southern Brazil. Other genetic alterations are also frequently found in these tumors. This study was designed to assess whether alterations of the 11p15 region exist in childhood ACT, accounting for IGF2 overexpression in these tumors, and how they are related to clinical outcome. Tumor DNA of 12 children with ACT (4 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) and from the blood of their parents was analyzed. All patients showed 11p15 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the tumor. In contrast to the single case of paternal LOH, IGF2 was overexpressed in tumors with maternal allele loss. Our data show that 11p15 LOH is a widespread finding in childhood ACT not related with malignancy, contrary to adult ACT. Alterations in the expression of other genes in the same region (e.g., CDKN1C) may contribute to ACT tumorigenesis. (c)2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postnatal Changes in the Expression Pattern of the Imprinted Signalling Protein XLαs Underlie the Changing Phenotype of Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Newlaczyl, Anna U.; Nunn, Nicolas; Vlatković, Nikolina; Plagge, Antonius

    2012-01-01

    The alternatively spliced trimeric G-protein subunit XLαs, which is involved in cAMP signalling, is encoded by the Gnasxl transcript of the imprinted Gnas locus. XLαs deficient mice show neonatal feeding problems, leanness, inertia and a high mortality rate. Mutants that survive to weaning age develop into healthy and fertile adults, which remain lean despite elevated food intake. The adult metabolic phenotype can be attributed to increased energy expenditure, which appears to be caused by elevated sympathetic nervous system activity. To better understand the changing phenotype of Gnasxl deficient mice, we compared XLαs expression in neonatal versus adult tissues, analysed its co-localisation with neural markers and characterised changes in the nutrient-sensing mTOR1-S6K pathway in the hypothalamus. Using a newly generated conditional Gnasxl lacZ gene trap line and immunohistochemistry we identified various types of muscle, including smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, as the major peripheral sites of expression in neonates. Expression in all muscle tissues was silenced in adults. While Gnasxl expression in the central nervous system was also developmentally silenced in some midbrain nuclei, it was upregulated in the preoptic area, the medial amygdala, several hypothalamic nuclei (e.g. arcuate, dorsomedial, lateral and paraventricular nuclei) and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Furthermore, expression was detected in the ventral medulla as well as in motoneurons and a subset of sympathetic preganglionic neurons of the spinal cord. In the arcuate nucleus of Gnasxl-deficient mice we found reduced activity of the nutrient sensing mTOR1-S6K signalling pathway, which concurs with their metabolic status. The expression in these brain regions and the hypermetabolic phenotype of adult Gnasxl-deficient mice imply an inhibitory function of XLαs in energy expenditure and sympathetic outflow. By contrast, the neonatal phenotype of mutant mice appears to be due to a

  15. Characterization of Conserved and Nonconserved Imprinted Genes in Swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic imprinting results in the silencing of a subset of mammalian alleles due to parent-of-origin inheritance. Due to the nature of their expression patterns they play a critical role in placental and early embryonic development. In order to increase our understanding of imprinted genes specifi...

  16. [Epigenetic modification of the genetic material. Genomic imprinting and its significance for disease in human beings].

    PubMed

    Brøndum-Nielsen, K; Pedersen, M L

    2001-06-04

    Genomic imprinting is the epigenetic differential marking of maternally and paternally inherited alleles of specific genes or chromosomal subregions during gametogenesis, leading after fertilization to differential expression during development. Expression is thus monoallelic, with one parental allele being expressed, the other silenced. Imprinting implies the existence of a reversible imprinting signal, which is erased in the gonads to be reset according to the sex of the individual. Mutations in imprinted genes are not inherited in a regular Mendelian fashion. The number of identified imprinted genes is now around 35. Three congenital human disorders are known to be caused by errors in the expression pattern of imprinted genes: Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. A number of cancers are also caused by errors in imprinted genes.

  17. Expression and DNA methylation analysis of SNRPN in Prader-Willi patients

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, C.C.; Jong, M.T.C.; Driscoll, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The human SNRPN gene is one of a gene family that encode proteins involved in pre-mRNA splicing and maps to the Prader-Willi syndrome critical region in 15q11-q13. We have previously demonstrated functional imprinting of SNRPN, with absent expression in PWS skin fibroblasts and lymphoblasts. We now show a similar lack of expression in blood of PWS patients, which appear to correlate with DNA methylation of NotI sites in the 5{prime} region of the gene. RNA and DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) deletion patients to be used for RT-PCR with SNRPN gene-specific primers and DNA methylation analysis. Either no or highly reduced levels of SNRPN RT-PCR product were detected in nine PWS samples but was present in normals, AS patients, and one clinically typical PWS patient. Parent-of-origin DNA methylation imprints are also present within the SNRPN gene. PWS patients having only a maternal contribution of SNRPN have several NotI restriction sites near the transcription start site which are methylated, while these same sites are unmethylated on the paternal chromosome (i.e., AS samples). Several CpG sites approximately 22 kb downstream of the transcription start site are methylated preferentially on the paternal allele. These observations for human SNRPN are similar to those of the mouse imprinted gene Igf2r, which exhibits DNA methylation of a CpG island 27 kb from the transcription start site on the expressed allele, and DNA methylation in the promoter region of the repressed allele. We suggest that RT-PCR and/or DNA methylation analysis from blood of PWS patients may be the most accurate means of diagnosing classical PWS. These results further indicate a role for SNRPN in the pathogenesis of PWS, and may serve as a model to study other human imprinted genes.

  18. Oligonucleofide Imprinting in Aqueous Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-05

    imprint molecule for various organic and aqueous polymerization formulations (Table I). The polymer ...interactions (Table 1). Table 1. Polymer formulations used to imprint adenosine dimer 1. Molecularly imprinted polymer ( MIP ) using 1% dimer 1 as template ( MIP ... MIP P3 is compared to its rebinding with non- imprinted polymer P30. Cb is the amount of dimer rebound to the polymer . Cf is the

  19. Regulatory links between imprinted genes: evolutionary predictions and consequences.

    PubMed

    Patten, Manus M; Cowley, Michael; Oakey, Rebecca J; Feil, Robert

    2016-02-10

    Genomic imprinting is essential for development and growth and plays diverse roles in physiology and behaviour. Imprinted genes have traditionally been studied in isolation or in clusters with respect to cis-acting modes of gene regulation, both from a mechanistic and evolutionary point of view. Recent studies in mammals, however, reveal that imprinted genes are often co-regulated and are part of a gene network involved in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, a subset of imprinted genes acts in trans on the expression of other imprinted genes. Numerous studies have modulated levels of imprinted gene expression to explore phenotypic and gene regulatory consequences. Increasingly, the applied genome-wide approaches highlight how perturbation of one imprinted gene may affect other maternally or paternally expressed genes. Here, we discuss these novel findings and consider evolutionary theories that offer a rationale for such intricate interactions among imprinted genes. An evolutionary view of these trans-regulatory effects provides a novel interpretation of the logic of gene networks within species and has implications for the origin of reproductive isolation between species.

  20. Genomic imprinting and position-effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, V K; Sinclair, D A; Grigliatti, T A

    1999-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon in which the expression of a gene or chromosomal region depends on the sex of the individual transmitting it. The term imprinting was first coined to describe parent-specific chromosome behavior in the dipteran insect Sciara and has since been described in many organisms, including other insects, plants, fish, and mammals. In this article we describe a mini-X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster that shows genomic imprinting of at least three closely linked genes. The imprinting of these genes is observed as mosaic silencing when the genes are transmitted by the male parent, in contrast to essentially wild-type expression when the same genes are maternally transmitted. We show that the imprint is due to the sex of the parent rather than to a conventional maternal effect, differential mitotic instability of the mini-X chromosome, or an allele-specific effect. Finally, we have examined the effects of classical modifiers of position-effect variegation on the maintenance and the establishment of the imprint. Factors that modify position-effect variegation alter the somatic expression but not the establishment of the imprint. This suggests that chromatin structure is important in maintenance of the imprint, but a separate mechanism may be responsible for its initiation. PMID:10101173

  1. Regulatory links between imprinted genes: evolutionary predictions and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Manus M.; Cowley, Michael; Oakey, Rebecca J.; Feil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is essential for development and growth and plays diverse roles in physiology and behaviour. Imprinted genes have traditionally been studied in isolation or in clusters with respect to cis-acting modes of gene regulation, both from a mechanistic and evolutionary point of view. Recent studies in mammals, however, reveal that imprinted genes are often co-regulated and are part of a gene network involved in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, a subset of imprinted genes acts in trans on the expression of other imprinted genes. Numerous studies have modulated levels of imprinted gene expression to explore phenotypic and gene regulatory consequences. Increasingly, the applied genome-wide approaches highlight how perturbation of one imprinted gene may affect other maternally or paternally expressed genes. Here, we discuss these novel findings and consider evolutionary theories that offer a rationale for such intricate interactions among imprinted genes. An evolutionary view of these trans-regulatory effects provides a novel interpretation of the logic of gene networks within species and has implications for the origin of reproductive isolation between species. PMID:26842569

  2. Genomic imprinting and human psychology: cognition, behavior and pathology.

    PubMed

    Goos, Lisa M; Ragsdale, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted genes expressed in the brain are numerous and it has become clear that they play an important role in nervous system development and function. The significant influence of genomic imprinting during development sets the stage for structural and physiological variations affecting psychological function and behaviour, as well as other physiological systems mediating health and well-being. However, our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in behaviour lags far behind our understanding of their roles in perinatal growth and development. Knowledge of genomic imprinting remains limited among behavioral scientists and clinicians and research regarding the influence of imprinted genes on normal cognitive processes and the most common forms of neuropathology has been limited to date. In this chapter, we will explore how knowledge of genomic imprinting can be used to inform our study of normal human cognitive and behavioral processes as well as their disruption. Behavioural analyses of rare imprinted disorders, such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, provide insight regarding the phenotypic impact of imprinted genes in the brain, and can be used to guide the study of normal behaviour as well as more common but etiologically complex disorders such as ADHD and autism. Furthermore, hypotheses regarding the evolutionary development of imprinted genes can be used to derive predictions about their role in normal behavioural variation, such as that observed in food-related and social interactions.

  3. Alcohol, one-carbon nutrient intake, and risk of colorectal cancer according to tumor methylation level of IGF2 differentially methylated region.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Reiko; Wang, Molin; Qian, Zhi Rong; Baba, Yoshifumi; Yamauchi, Mai; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2014-12-01

    Although a higher consumption of alcohol, which is a methyl-group antagonist, was previously associated with colorectal cancer risk, mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that excess alcohol consumption might increase risk of colorectal carcinoma with hypomethylation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) differentially methylated region-0 (DMR0), which was previously associated with a worse prognosis. With the use of a molecular pathologic epidemiology database in 2 prospective cohort studies, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association between alcohol intake and incident colorectal cancer according to the tumor methylation level of IGF2 DMR0. Duplication-method Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression for competing risk data were used to compute HRs and 95% CIs. In addition, we investigated intakes of vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, methionine, and folate as exposures. During 3,206,985 person-years of follow-up, we identified 993 rectal and colon cancer cases with an available tumor DNA methylation status. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the consumption of ≥15 g alcohol/d was associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer with lower levels of IGF2 DMR0 methylation [within the first and second quartiles: HRs of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.24) and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.44, 3.07), respectively]. By contrast, alcohol consumption was not associated with cancer with higher levels of IGF2 DMR0 methylation. The association between alcohol and cancer risk differed significantly by IGF2 DMR0 methylation level (P-heterogeneity = 0.006). The association of vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate intakes with cancer risk did not significantly differ according to IGF2 DMR0 methylation level (P-heterogeneity > 0.2). Higher alcohol consumption was associated with risk of colorectal cancer with IGF2 DMR0 hypomethylation but not risk of cancer with high-level IGF2 DMR0 methylation. The association between alcohol

  4. Alcohol, one-carbon nutrient intake, and risk of colorectal cancer according to tumor methylation level of IGF2 differentially methylated region123456

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Reiko; Wang, Molin; Qian, Zhi Rong; Baba, Yoshifumi; Yamauchi, Mai; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Kim, Sun A; Inamura, Kentaro; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although a higher consumption of alcohol, which is a methyl-group antagonist, was previously associated with colorectal cancer risk, mechanisms remain poorly understood. Objective: We hypothesized that excess alcohol consumption might increase risk of colorectal carcinoma with hypomethylation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) differentially methylated region-0 (DMR0), which was previously associated with a worse prognosis. Design: With the use of a molecular pathologic epidemiology database in 2 prospective cohort studies, the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we examined the association between alcohol intake and incident colorectal cancer according to the tumor methylation level of IGF2 DMR0. Duplication-method Cox proportional cause-specific hazards regression for competing risk data were used to compute HRs and 95% CIs. In addition, we investigated intakes of vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, methionine, and folate as exposures. Results: During 3,206,985 person-years of follow-up, we identified 993 rectal and colon cancer cases with an available tumor DNA methylation status. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the consumption of ≥15 g alcohol/d was associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer with lower levels of IGF2 DMR0 methylation [within the first and second quartiles: HRs of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.24) and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.44, 3.07), respectively]. By contrast, alcohol consumption was not associated with cancer with higher levels of IGF2 DMR0 methylation. The association between alcohol and cancer risk differed significantly by IGF2 DMR0 methylation level (P-heterogeneity = 0.006). The association of vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate intakes with cancer risk did not significantly differ according to IGF2 DMR0 methylation level (P-heterogeneity > 0.2). Conclusions: Higher alcohol consumption was associated with risk of colorectal cancer with IGF2 DMR0 hypomethylation but not risk of cancer with high

  5. Determination of IGF-1 and IGF-2, their degradation products and synthetic analogues in urine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Delahaut, Philippe; Thevis, Mario

    2011-03-07

    Peptide analysis in doping controls by means of nano-UPLC coupled high resolution/high mass accuracy mass spectrometry provides the state-of-the-art technique in modern sports drug testing. The present study describes a recent application of this technique for the qualitative determination of different urinary insulin-like growth factor (IGF) related peptides. After simultaneous isolation by solid phase extraction and magnetic particle-based immunoaffinity purification, target analytes (IGF-1, IGF-2, Des1-3-IGF-1, R(3)-IGF-1 and longR(3)-IGF-1) were separated by nano-liquid chromatography prior to mass spectrometric detection. Endogenously produced IGF-1 and IGF-2, as well as the degradation product Des1-3-IGF-1, were frequently detected in urine samples from healthy volunteers in a concentration range of 20-400 pg mL(-1). The impact of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), being also present in urine, was potentially estimated by an additional ultrafiltration step in the sample preparation procedure. The synthetic analogue longR(3)-IGF-1, which is assumed to be subject to misuse by cheating athletes, was also analysed and detected in fortified urine samples. Besides the intact molecule, an N-terminally truncated degradation product Des1-10-longR(3)-IGF-1 was identified as the more stable target for doping controls using urine samples. The method was validated for qualitative purposes considering the parameters specificity, limit of detection (20-50 pg mL(-1)), recovery (10-35%), precision (<20%), linearity, robustness and stability.

  6. BACs as tools for the study of genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Tunster, S J; Van De Pette, M; John, R M

    2011-01-01

    Genomic imprinting in mammals results in the expression of genes from only one parental allele. Imprinting occurs as a consequence of epigenetic marks set down either in the father's or the mother's germ line and affects a very specific category of mammalian gene. A greater understanding of this distinctive phenomenon can be gained from studies using large genomic clones, called bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Here, we review the important applications of BACs to imprinting research, covering physical mapping studies and the use of BACs as transgenes in mice to study gene expression patterns, to identify imprinting centres, and to isolate the consequences of altered gene dosage. We also highlight the significant and unique advantages that rapid BAC engineering brings to genomic imprinting research.

  7. Allele-specific deposition of macroH2A1 in Imprinting Control Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, J H; Kim, J D; Chung, J H; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-01-13

    In the current study, we analyzed the deposition patterns of macroH2A1 at a number of different genomic loci located in X chromosome and autosomes. MacroH2A1 is preferentially deposited at methylated CpG CpG-rich regions located close to promoters. The macroH2A1 deposition patterns at the methylated CpG islands of several imprinted domains, including the Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) of Xist, Peg3, H19/Igf2 Igf2, Gtl2/Dlk1, and Gnas domains, show consistent allele-specificity towards inactive, methylated alleles. The macroH2A1 deposition levels at the ICRs and other Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) of these domains are also either higher or comparable to those observed at the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Overall, our results indicate that besides DNA methylation macroH2A1 is another epigenetic component in the chromatin of ICRs displaying differential association with two parental alleles.

  8. A cluster of oppositely imprinted transcripts at the Gnas locus in the distal imprinting region of mouse chromosome 2

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jo; Wroe, Stephanie F.; Wells, Christine A.; Miller, Howard J.; Bodle, Dorothy; Beechey, Colin V.; Williamson, Christine M.; Kelsey, Gavin

    1999-01-01

    Imprinted genes tend to occur in clusters. We have identified a cluster in distal mouse chromosome (Chr) 2, known from early genetic studies to contain both maternally and paternally imprinted, but unspecified, genes. Subsequently, one was identified as Gnas, which encodes a G protein α subunit, and there is clinical and biochemical evidence that the human homologue GNAS1, mutated in patients with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, is also imprinted. We have used representational difference analysis, based on parent-of-origin methylation differences, to isolate candidate imprinted genes in distal Chr 2 and found two oppositely imprinted genes, Gnasxl and Nesp. Gnasxl determines a variant G protein α subunit associated with the trans-Golgi network and Nesp encodes a secreted protein of neuroendocrine tissues. Gnasxl is maternally methylated in genomic DNA and encodes a paternal-specific transcript, whereas Nesp is paternally methylated with maternal-specific expression. Their reciprocal imprinting may offer insight into the distal Chr 2 imprinting phenotypes. Remarkably, Gnasxl, Nesp, and Gnas are all part of the same transcription unit; transcripts for Gnasxl and Nesp are alternatively spliced onto exon 2 of Gnas. This demonstrates an imprinting mechanism in which two oppositely imprinted genes share the same downstream exons. PMID:10097123

  9. Mechanisms and evolution of genomic imprinting in plants.

    PubMed

    Köhler, C; Weinhofer-Molisch, I

    2010-07-01

    Genomic imprinting, the allele-specific expression of a gene dependent on its parent-of-origin, has independently evolved in flowering plants and mammals. In mammals and flowering plants, imprinting occurs in the embryo as well as in embryo-nourishing tissues, the placenta and the endosperm, respectively, and it has been suggested that imprinted genes control the nutrient flow from the mother to the offspring ('kinship theory'). Alternatively, imprinting might have evolved as a by-product of a defense mechanism destined to control transposon activity in gametes ('defense hypothesis'). Recent studies provide substantial evidence for the 'defense hypothesis' by showing that imprinted genes in plants are located in the vicinity of transposon or repeat sequences, suggesting that the insertion of transposon or repeat sequences was a prerequisite for imprinting evolution. Transposons or repeat sequences are silenced by DNA methylation, causing silencing of neighboring genes in vegetative tissues. However, because of genome-wide DNA demethylation in the central cell, genes located in the vicinity of transposon or repeat sequences will be active in the central cell and the maternal alleles will remain unmethylated and active in the descendent endosperm, assuming an imprinted expression. Consequently, many imprinted genes are likely to have an endosperm-restricted function, or, alternatively, they have no functional role in the endosperm and are on the trajectory to convert to pseudogenes. Thus, the 'defense hypothesis' as well as 'kinship theory' together can explain the origin of genomic imprinting; whereas the first hypothesis explains how imprinting originates, the latter explains how imprinting is manifested and maintained.

  10. Variable imprinting of the MEST gene in human preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Huntriss, John D; Hemmings, Karen E; Hinkins, Matthew; Rutherford, Anthony J; Sturmey, Roger G; Elder, Kay; Picton, Helen M

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that expression and methylation of the imprinted paternally expressed gene 1/mesoderm-specific transcript homologue (PEG1/MEST) gene may be affected by assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and infertility. In this study, we sought to assess the imprinting status of the MEST gene in a large cohort of in vitro-derived human preimplantation embryos, in order to characterise potentially adverse effects of ART and infertility on this locus in early human development. Embryonic genomic DNA from morula or blastocyst stage embryos was screened for a transcribed AflIII polymorphism in MEST and imprinting analysis was then performed in cDNA libraries derived from these embryos. In 10 heterozygous embryos, MEST expression was monoallelic in seven embryos, predominantly monoallelic in two embryos, and biallelic in one embryo. Screening of cDNA derived from 61 additional human preimplantation embryos, for which DNA for genotyping was unavailable, identified eight embryos with expression originating from both alleles (biallelic or predominantly monoallelic). In some embryos, therefore, the onset of imprinted MEST expression occurs during late preimplantation development. Variability in MEST imprinting was observed in both in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection-derived embryos. Biallelic or predominantly monoallelic MEST expression was not associated with any one cause of infertility. Characterisation of the main MEST isoforms revealed that isoform 2 was detected in early development and was itself variably imprinted between embryos. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the largest expression study to date of genomic imprinting in human preimplantation embryos and reveals that for some imprinted genes, contrasting imprinting states exist between embryos. PMID:22763377

  11. Galectin-1 expression imprints a neurovascular phenotype in proliferative retinopathies and delineates responses to anti-VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Ridano, Magali E.; Subirada, Paula V.; Paz, María C.; Lorenc, Valeria E.; Stupirski, Juan C.; Gramajo, Ana L.; Luna, José D.; Croci, Diego O.; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Sánchez, María C.

    2017-01-01

    Neovascular retinopathies are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have been established as the mainstay of current treatment, clinical management of these diseases is still limited. As retinal impairment involves abnormal neovascularization and neuronal degeneration, we evaluated here the involvement of galectin-1 in vascular and non-vascular alterations associated with retinopathies, using the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. Postnatal day 17 OIR mouse retinas showed the highest neovascular profile and exhibited neuro-glial injury as well as retinal functional loss, which persisted until P26 OIR. Concomitant to VEGF up-regulation, galectin-1 was highly expressed in P17 OIR retinas and it was mainly localized in neovascular tufts. In addition, OIR induced remodelling of cell surface glycophenotype leading to exposure of galectin-1-specific glycan epitopes. Whereas VEGF returned to baseline levels at P26, increased galectin-1 expression persisted until this time period. Remarkably, although anti-VEGF treatment in P17 OIR improved retinal vascularization, neither galectin-1 expression nor non-vascular and functional alterations were attenuated. However, this functional defect was partially prevented in galectin-1-deficient (Lgals1−/−) OIR mice, suggesting the importance of targeting both VEGF and galectin-1 as non-redundant independent pathways. Supporting the clinical relevance of these findings, we found increased levels of galectin-1 in aqueous humor from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Thus, using an OIR model and human samples, we identified a role for galectin-1 accompanying vascular and non-vascular retinal alterations in neovascular retinopathies. PMID:28455954

  12. Galectin-1 expression imprints a neurovascular phenotype in proliferative retinopathies and delineates responses to anti-VEGF.

    PubMed

    Ridano, Magali E; Subirada, Paula V; Paz, María C; Lorenc, Valeria E; Stupirski, Juan C; Gramajo, Ana L; Luna, José D; Croci, Diego O; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Sánchez, María C

    2017-05-16

    Neovascular retinopathies are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have been established as the mainstay of current treatment, clinical management of these diseases is still limited. As retinal impairment involves abnormal neovascularization and neuronal degeneration, we evaluated here the involvement of galectin-1 in vascular and non-vascular alterations associated with retinopathies, using the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. Postnatal day 17 OIR mouse retinas showed the highest neovascular profile and exhibited neuro-glial injury as well as retinal functional loss, which persisted until P26 OIR. Concomitant to VEGF up-regulation, galectin-1 was highly expressed in P17 OIR retinas and it was mainly localized in neovascular tufts. In addition, OIR induced remodelling of cell surface glycophenotype leading to exposure of galectin-1-specific glycan epitopes. Whereas VEGF returned to baseline levels at P26, increased galectin-1 expression persisted until this time period. Remarkably, although anti-VEGF treatment in P17 OIR improved retinal vascularization, neither galectin-1 expression nor non-vascular and functional alterations were attenuated. However, this functional defect was partially prevented in galectin-1-deficient (Lgals1-/-) OIR mice, suggesting the importance of targeting both VEGF and galectin-1 as non-redundant independent pathways. Supporting the clinical relevance of these findings, we found increased levels of galectin-1 in aqueous humor from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Thus, using an OIR model and human samples, we identified a role for galectin-1 accompanying vascular and non-vascular retinal alterations in neovascular retinopathies.

  13. Genomic Imprinting in the Arabidopsis Embryo Is Partly Regulated by PRC2

    PubMed Central

    Raissig, Michael T.; Bemer, Marian; Baroux, Célia; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    Genomic imprinting results in monoallelic gene expression in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner and is regulated by the differential epigenetic marking of the parental alleles. In plants, genomic imprinting has been primarily described for genes expressed in the endosperm, a tissue nourishing the developing embryo that does not contribute to the next generation. In Arabidopsis, the genes MEDEA (MEA) and PHERES1 (PHE1), which are imprinted in the endosperm, are also expressed in the embryo; whether their embryonic expression is regulated by imprinting or not, however, remains controversial. In contrast, the maternally expressed in embryo 1 (mee1) gene of maize is clearly imprinted in the embryo. We identified several imprinted candidate genes in an allele-specific transcriptome of hybrid Arabidopsis embryos and confirmed parent-of-origin-dependent, monoallelic expression for eleven maternally expressed genes (MEGs) and one paternally expressed gene (PEG) in the embryo, using allele-specific expression analyses and reporter gene assays. Genetic studies indicate that the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) but not the DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1) is involved in regulating imprinted expression in the embryo. In the seedling, all embryonic MEGs and the PEG are expressed from both parents, suggesting that the imprint is erased during late embryogenesis or early vegetative development. Our finding that several genes are regulated by genomic imprinting in the Arabidopsis embryo clearly demonstrates that this epigenetic phenomenon is not a unique feature of the endosperm in both monocots and dicots. PMID:24339783

  14. Genomic imprinting in the Arabidopsis embryo is partly regulated by PRC2.

    PubMed

    Raissig, Michael T; Bemer, Marian; Baroux, Célia; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    Genomic imprinting results in monoallelic gene expression in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner and is regulated by the differential epigenetic marking of the parental alleles. In plants, genomic imprinting has been primarily described for genes expressed in the endosperm, a tissue nourishing the developing embryo that does not contribute to the next generation. In Arabidopsis, the genes MEDEA (MEA) and PHERES1 (PHE1), which are imprinted in the endosperm, are also expressed in the embryo; whether their embryonic expression is regulated by imprinting or not, however, remains controversial. In contrast, the maternally expressed in embryo 1 (mee1) gene of maize is clearly imprinted in the embryo. We identified several imprinted candidate genes in an allele-specific transcriptome of hybrid Arabidopsis embryos and confirmed parent-of-origin-dependent, monoallelic expression for eleven maternally expressed genes (MEGs) and one paternally expressed gene (PEG) in the embryo, using allele-specific expression analyses and reporter gene assays. Genetic studies indicate that the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) but not the DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1) is involved in regulating imprinted expression in the embryo. In the seedling, all embryonic MEGs and the PEG are expressed from both parents, suggesting that the imprint is erased during late embryogenesis or early vegetative development. Our finding that several genes are regulated by genomic imprinting in the Arabidopsis embryo clearly demonstrates that this epigenetic phenomenon is not a unique feature of the endosperm in both monocots and dicots.

  15. Imprinting in plants as a mechanism to generate seed phenotypic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fang; Settles, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Normal plant development requires epigenetic regulation to enforce changes in developmental fate. Genomic imprinting is a type of epigenetic regulation in which identical alleles of genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. Deep sequencing of transcriptomes has identified hundreds of imprinted genes with scarce evidence for the developmental importance of individual imprinted loci. Imprinting is regulated through global DNA demethylation in the central cell prior to fertilization and directed repression of individual loci with the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). There is significant evidence for transposable elements and repeat sequences near genes acting as cis-elements to determine imprinting status of a gene, implying that imprinted gene expression patterns may evolve randomly and at high frequency. Detailed genetic analysis of a few imprinted loci suggests an imprinted pattern of gene expression is often dispensable for seed development. Few genes show conserved imprinted expression within or between plant species. These data are not fully explained by current models for the evolution of imprinting in plant seeds. We suggest that imprinting may have evolved to provide a mechanism for rapid neofunctionalization of genes during seed development to increase phenotypic diversity of seeds. PMID:25674092

  16. Epigenomic landscape modified by histone modification correlated with activation of IGF2 gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The links of histone post-translational modifications and chromatin structure to cell cycle progression, DNA replication, and overall chromosome functions are very clear. The modulation of genome expression as a consequence of chromatin structural changes is most likely a basic mechanism. The epige...

  17. Genomic Inprinting of the M6P/IGF2 Receptor: A Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    locus in embryos. Such anomalies do occur in the The molecular mechanism by which the imprinted chicken and karyotypic mosaicism (Abdel-Hameed and...data, with special reference to the positions of hedgehog, armadillo, Sinauer Associates), pp 407-514 and elephant . Syst Biol 48, 31-53 Teeling EC

  18. Gene interactions in the evolution of genomic imprinting.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J B; Brandvain, Y

    2014-08-01

    Numerous evolutionary theories have been developed to explain the epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting. Here, we explore a subset of theories wherein non-additive genetic interactions can favour imprinting. In the simplest genic interaction--the case of underdominance--imprinting can be favoured to hide effectively low-fitness heterozygous genotypes; however, as there is no asymmetry between maternally and paternally inherited alleles in this model, other means of enforcing monoallelic expression may be more plausible evolutionary outcomes than genomic imprinting. By contrast, more successful interaction models of imprinting rely on an asymmetry between the maternally and paternally inherited alleles at a locus that favours the silencing of one allele as a means of coordinating the expression of high-fitness allelic combinations. For example, with interactions between autosomal loci, imprinting functionally preserves high-fitness genotypes that were favoured by selection in the previous generation. In this scenario, once a focal locus becomes imprinted, selection at interacting loci favours a matching imprint. Uniparental transmission generates similar asymmetries for sex chromosomes and cytoplasmic factors interacting with autosomal loci, with selection favouring the expression of either maternal or paternally derived autosomal alleles depending on the pattern of transmission of the uniparentally inherited factor. In a final class of models, asymmetries arise when genes expressed in offspring interact with genes expressed in one of its parents. Under such a scenario, a locus evolves to have imprinted expression in offspring to coordinate the interaction with its parent's genome. We illustrate these models and explore key links and differences using a unified framework.

  19. Gene interactions in the evolution of genomic imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, J B; Brandvain, Y

    2014-01-01

    Numerous evolutionary theories have been developed to explain the epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting. Here, we explore a subset of theories wherein non-additive genetic interactions can favour imprinting. In the simplest genic interaction—the case of underdominance—imprinting can be favoured to hide effectively low-fitness heterozygous genotypes; however, as there is no asymmetry between maternally and paternally inherited alleles in this model, other means of enforcing monoallelic expression may be more plausible evolutionary outcomes than genomic imprinting. By contrast, more successful interaction models of imprinting rely on an asymmetry between the maternally and paternally inherited alleles at a locus that favours the silencing of one allele as a means of coordinating the expression of high-fitness allelic combinations. For example, with interactions between autosomal loci, imprinting functionally preserves high-fitness genotypes that were favoured by selection in the previous generation. In this scenario, once a focal locus becomes imprinted, selection at interacting loci favours a matching imprint. Uniparental transmission generates similar asymmetries for sex chromosomes and cytoplasmic factors interacting with autosomal loci, with selection favouring the expression of either maternal or paternally derived autosomal alleles depending on the pattern of transmission of the uniparentally inherited factor. In a final class of models, asymmetries arise when genes expressed in offspring interact with genes expressed in one of its parents. Under such a scenario, a locus evolves to have imprinted expression in offspring to coordinate the interaction with its parent's genome. We illustrate these models and explore key links and differences using a unified framework. PMID:24619179

  20. The chicken immediate-early gene ZENK is expressed in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a brain region involved in acoustic imprinting, and is up-regulated after exposure to an auditory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Thode, C; Bock, J; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

    2005-01-01

    The immediate-early gene zenk (an acronym for the avian orthologue of the mammalian genes zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24) has been extensively employed, in studies on oscine birds, as a marker of neuronal activity to reveal forebrain structures that are involved in the memory processes associated with the acquisition, perception and production of song. Audition-induced expression of this gene, in brain, has also recently been reported for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Whilst the anatomical distribution of zenk expression was described for the quail, corresponding data for the chicken were not reported. We have, therefore, used in situ hybridisation to localise the mRNA that encodes the product of the zenk gene (which we call ZENK) within the brain of the 1-day-old chick. We demonstrate that this transcript is present in a number of forebrain structures including the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH), a region that has been strongly implicated in auditory imprinting (which is a form of recognition memory), and Field L, the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex. Because of this pattern of gene expression, we have compared the level of the ZENK mRNA in chicks that have been subjected to a 30-min acoustic imprinting paradigm and in untrained controls. Our results reveal a significant increase (P< or =0.05) in the level of the ZENK mRNA in MNH and Field L, and in the two forebrain hemispheres; no increase was seen in the ectostriatum, which is a visual projection area. The data obtained implicate the immediate-early gene, zenk, in auditory imprinting, which is an established model of juvenile learning. In addition, our results indicate that the ZENK mRNA may be used as a molecular marker for MNH, a region that is difficult to anatomically and histochemically delineate.

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Biodegradable Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina; Bertero, Alice; Bifone, Angelo

    2017-01-10

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine applications. Molecu- lar imprinting is a potential strategy to target polymer nanoparticles through binding of endogenous ligands that may promote recognition and active transport into specific cells and tissues. However, the lock-and-key mechanism of molecular imprinting requires relatively rigid cross-linked structures, unlike those of many biodegradable polymers. To date, no fully biodegradable molecularly imprinted particles have been reported in the literature. This paper reports the synthesis of a novel molecularly- imprinted nanocarrier, based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and acrylic acid, that combines biodegradability and molec- ular recognition properties. A novel three-arm biodegradable cross-linker was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of glycolide and lactide initiated by glycerol. The resulting macromer was functionalized by introduction of end-functions through reaction with acryloyl chloride. Macromer and acrylic acid were used for the synthesis of narrowly-dispersed nanoparticles by radical polymerization in diluted conditions in the presence of biotin as template molecule. The binding capacity of the imprinted nanoparticles towards biotin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was twentyfold that of non-imprinted nanoparti- cles. Degradation rates and functional performances were assessed in in vitro tests and cell cultures, demonstrating effective biotin-mediated cell internalization.

  2. Molecularly Imprinted Biodegradable Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina; Bertero, Alice; Bifone, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine applications. Molecu- lar imprinting is a potential strategy to target polymer nanoparticles through binding of endogenous ligands that may promote recognition and active transport into specific cells and tissues. However, the lock-and-key mechanism of molecular imprinting requires relatively rigid cross-linked structures, unlike those of many biodegradable polymers. To date, no fully biodegradable molecularly imprinted particles have been reported in the literature. This paper reports the synthesis of a novel molecularly- imprinted nanocarrier, based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and acrylic acid, that combines biodegradability and molec- ular recognition properties. A novel three-arm biodegradable cross-linker was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of glycolide and lactide initiated by glycerol. The resulting macromer was functionalized by introduction of end-functions through reaction with acryloyl chloride. Macromer and acrylic acid were used for the synthesis of narrowly-dispersed nanoparticles by radical polymerization in diluted conditions in the presence of biotin as template molecule. The binding capacity of the imprinted nanoparticles towards biotin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was twentyfold that of non-imprinted nanoparti- cles. Degradation rates and functional performances were assessed in in vitro tests and cell cultures, demonstrating effective biotin-mediated cell internalization.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Biodegradable Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina; Bertero, Alice; Bifone, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine applications. Molecu- lar imprinting is a potential strategy to target polymer nanoparticles through binding of endogenous ligands that may promote recognition and active transport into specific cells and tissues. However, the lock-and-key mechanism of molecular imprinting requires relatively rigid cross-linked structures, unlike those of many biodegradable polymers. To date, no fully biodegradable molecularly imprinted particles have been reported in the literature. This paper reports the synthesis of a novel molecularly- imprinted nanocarrier, based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and acrylic acid, that combines biodegradability and molec- ular recognition properties. A novel three-arm biodegradable cross-linker was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of glycolide and lactide initiated by glycerol. The resulting macromer was functionalized by introduction of end-functions through reaction with acryloyl chloride. Macromer and acrylic acid were used for the synthesis of narrowly-dispersed nanoparticles by radical polymerization in diluted conditions in the presence of biotin as template molecule. The binding capacity of the imprinted nanoparticles towards biotin and biotinylated bovine serum albumin was twentyfold that of non-imprinted nanoparti- cles. Degradation rates and functional performances were assessed in in vitro tests and cell cultures, demonstrating effective biotin-mediated cell internalization. PMID:28071745

  4. Intralocus sexual conflict can drive the evolution of genomic imprinting.

    PubMed Central

    Day, Troy; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2004-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon whereby the expression of an allele differs depending upon its parent of origin. There is an increasing number of examples of this form of epigenetic inheritance across a wide range of taxa, and imprinting errors have also been implicated in several human diseases. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of genomic imprinting, but there is not yet a widely accepted general hypothesis for the variety of imprinting patterns observed. Here a new evolutionary hypothesis, based on intralocus sexual conflict, is proposed. This hypothesis provides a potential explanation for much of the currently available empirical data, and it also makes new predictions about patterns of genomic imprinting that are expected to evolve but that have not, as of yet, been looked for in nature. This theory also provides a potential mechanism for the resolution of intralocus sexual conflict in sexually selected traits and a novel pathway for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:15342496

  5. The role of genomic imprinting in biology and disease: an expanding view.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jo

    2014-08-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that results in monoallelic gene expression according to parental origin. It has long been established that imprinted genes have major effects on development and placental biology before birth. More recently, it has become evident that imprinted genes also have important roles after birth. In this Review, I bring together studies of the effects of imprinted genes from the prenatal period onwards. Recent work on postnatal stages shows that imprinted genes influence an extraordinarily wide-ranging array of biological processes, the effects of which extend into adulthood, and play important parts in common diseases that range from obesity to psychiatric disorders.

  6. Human imprinting anomalies in fetal and childhood growth disorders: clinical implications and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Salah; Brioude, Fréderic; Le Bouc, Yves; Netchine, Irène

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is among the most important epigenetic mechanisms whereby expression of a subset of genes is restricted to a single parental allele. Loss of imprinting (LOI) through hypo or hyper methylation is involved in various human syndromes. These LOI occur early during development and usually impair growth. Some imprinting syndromes are the consequences of genetic anomalies, such as uniparental disomies (UPD) or copy number variations (deletion or duplications) involving the imprinted domains; others are due to LOI at the imprinting control regions (ICR) regulating each domain. Imprinting disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous, although some share various common clinical features such that diagnosis may be difficult. Multilocus imprinting defects associated with several syndromes have been increasingly reported in recent years, although there are no obvious clinical differences between monolocus and multilocus LOI patients. Subsequently, some rare mutations of transacting factors have been identified in patients with multilocus imprinting defects but they do not explain the majority of the cases; this therefore implies that other factors are involved. By contrast, no mutation of a transacting factor has yet been identified in monolocus LOI. The effect of the environment on the regulation of imprinting is clearly illustrated by studies of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The regulation of imprinting is complex and involves a huge range of genetic and environmental factors; the identification of these factors will undoubtedly help to elucidate the regulation of imprinting and contribute to the understanding of imprinting disorders. This would be beneficial for diagnostics, clinical follow up and the development of treatment guidelines.

  7. Genomic imprinting and the social brain.

    PubMed

    Isles, Anthony R; Davies, William; Wilkinson, Lawrence S

    2006-12-29

    Genomic imprinting refers to the parent-of-origin-specific epigenetic marking of a number of genes. This epigenetic mark leads to a bias in expression between maternally and paternally inherited imprinted genes, that in some cases results in monoallelic expression from one parental allele. Genomic imprinting is often thought to have evolved as a consequence of the intragenomic conflict between the parental alleles that occurs whenever there is an asymmetry of relatedness. The two main examples of asymmetry of relatedness are when there is partiality of parental investment in offspring (as is the case for placental mammals, where there is also the possibility of extended postnatal care by one parent), and in social groups where there is a sex-biased dispersal. From this evolutionary starting point, it is predicted that, at the behavioural level, imprinted genes will influence what can broadly be termed bonding and social behaviour. We examine the animal and human literature for examples of imprinted genes mediating these behaviours, and divide them into two general classes. Firstly, mother-offspring interactions (suckling, attachment and maternal behaviours) that are predicted to occur when partiality in parental investment in early postnatal offspring occurs; and secondly, adult social interactions, when there is an asymmetry of relatedness in social groups. Finally, we return to the evolutionary theory and examine whether there is a pattern of behavioural functions mediated by imprinted genes emerging from the limited data, and also whether any tangible predictions can be made with regards to the direction of action of genes of maternal or paternal origin.

  8. Genomic imprinting in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Monk, David

    2015-10-01

    With the launch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institutes of Health Human Placenta Project, the anticipation is that this often-overlooked organ will be the subject of much intense research. Compared with somatic tissues, the cells of the placenta have a unique epigenetic profile that dictates its transcription patterns, which when disturbed may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. One major class of genes that is dependent on strict epigenetic regulation in the placenta is subject to genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic gene expression. This review discusses the differences in allelic expression and epigenetic profiles of imprinted genes that are identified between different species, which reflect the continuous evolutionary adaption of this form of epigenetic regulation. These observations divulge that placenta-specific imprinted gene that is reliant on repressive histone signatures in mice are unlikely to be imprinted in humans, whereas intense methylation profiling in humans has uncovered numerous maternally methylated regions that are restricted to the placenta that are not conserved in mice. Imprinting has been proposed to be a mechanism that regulates parental resource allocation and ultimately can influence fetal growth, with the placenta being the key in this process. Furthermore, I discuss the developmental dynamics of both classic and transient placenta-specific imprinting and examine the evidence for an involvement of these genes in intrauterine growth restriction and placenta-associated complications. Finally, I focus on examples of genes that are regulated aberrantly in complicated pregnancies, emphasizing their application as pregnancy-related disease biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies early in gestation.

  9. Expression of the GABA(A) receptor gamma 4-subunit gene: anatomical distribution of the corresponding mRNA in the domestic chick forebrain and the effect of imprinting training.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R J; McCabe, B J; Solomonia, R O; Horn, G; Darlison, M G

    1998-09-01

    The learning process of imprinting involves morphological, electrophysiological and biochemical changes in a region of the chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) forebrain known as the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV). The alterations include increases in the mean length of postsynaptic density profiles of axospinous synapses and the number of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor binding sites, and changes in spontaneous and evoked electrical activity. Recent immunocytochemical and behavioural studies have suggested that inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission plays a role in learning. In this context, it has previously been reported that a novel avian gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABA(A)) receptor gene, encoding the gamma4 subunit, is highly expressed in the hyperstriatum ventrale. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization to map, in detail, the expression of the gamma4-subunit gene in the chick brain, and to assess the effect of imprinting training on the level of the corresponding transcript. Our results reveal that the gamma4-subunit mRNA has a restricted distribution, and demonstrate a highly significant, time-dependent effect of training on its steady-state level. At 10 h but not at 5 h after training there is a decrease (25-32%) in the amount of this transcript in parts of the medial hyperstriatum ventrale, including the IMHV. A decrease (28-39%) is also seen in certain visual and auditory pathway areas but no effect was observed in other forebrain regions such as the hyperstriatum intercalatus superior (HIS). These results suggest that imprinting training leads to a time-dependent down-regulation of GABAergic transmission, and raise the possibility that this down-regulation plays a role in learning.

  10. Short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) are excluded from imprinted regions in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Greally, John M

    2002-01-08

    To test whether regions undergoing genomic imprinting have unique genomic characteristics, imprinted and nonimprinted human loci were compared for nucleotide and retroelement composition. Maternally and paternally expressed subgroups of imprinted genes were found to differ in terms of guanine and cytosine, CpG, and retroelement content, indicating a segregation into distinct genomic compartments. Imprinted regions have been normally permissive to L1 long interspersed transposable element retroposition during mammalian evolution but universally and significantly lack short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs). The primate-specific Alu SINEs, as well as the more ancient mammalian-wide interspersed repeat SINEs, are found at significantly low densities in imprinted regions. The latter paleogenomic signature indicates that the sequence characteristics of currently imprinted regions existed before the mammalian radiation. Transitions from imprinted to nonimprinted genomic regions in cis are characterized by a sharp inflection in SINE content, demonstrating that this genomic characteristic can help predict the presence and extent of regions undergoing imprinting. During primate evolution, SINE accumulation in imprinted regions occurred at a decreased rate compared with control loci. The constraint on SINE accumulation in imprinted regions may be mediated by an active selection process. This selection could be because of SINEs attracting and spreading methylation, as has been found at other loci. Methylation-induced silencing could lead to deleterious consequences at imprinted loci, where inactivation of one allele is already established, and expression is often essential for embryonic growth and survival.

  11. Short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) are excluded from imprinted regions in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Greally, John M.

    2002-01-01

    To test whether regions undergoing genomic imprinting have unique genomic characteristics, imprinted and nonimprinted human loci were compared for nucleotide and retroelement composition. Maternally and paternally expressed subgroups of imprinted genes were found to differ in terms of guanine and cytosine, CpG, and retroelement content, indicating a segregation into distinct genomic compartments. Imprinted regions have been normally permissive to L1 long interspersed transposable element retroposition during mammalian evolution but universally and significantly lack short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs). The primate-specific Alu SINEs, as well as the more ancient mammalian-wide interspersed repeat SINEs, are found at significantly low densities in imprinted regions. The latter paleogenomic signature indicates that the sequence characteristics of currently imprinted regions existed before the mammalian radiation. Transitions from imprinted to nonimprinted genomic regions in cis are characterized by a sharp inflection in SINE content, demonstrating that this genomic characteristic can help predict the presence and extent of regions undergoing imprinting. During primate evolution, SINE accumulation in imprinted regions occurred at a decreased rate compared with control loci. The constraint on SINE accumulation in imprinted regions may be mediated by an active selection process. This selection could be because of SINEs attracting and spreading methylation, as has been found at other loci. Methylation-induced silencing could lead to deleterious consequences at imprinted loci, where inactivation of one allele is already established, and expression is often essential for embryonic growth and survival. PMID:11756672

  12. Selection in the Making: A Worldwide Survey of Haplotypic Diversity Around a Causative Mutation in Porcine IGF2

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, A.; Huang, L.-S.; Ren, J.; Angiolillo, A.; Cho, I.-C.; Soto, H.; Lemús-Flores, C.; Makuza, S. M.; Folch, J. M.; Pérez-Enciso, M.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic species allow us to study dramatic evolutionary changes at an accelerated rate due to the effectiveness of modern breeding techniques and the availability of breeds that have undergone distinct selection pressures. We present a worldwide survey of haplotype variability around a known causative mutation in porcine gene IGF2, which increases lean content. We genotyped 34 SNPs spanning 27 kb in 237 domestic pigs and 162 wild boars. Although the selective process had wiped out variability for at least 27 kb in the haplotypes carrying the mutation, there was no indication of an overall reduction in genetic variability of international vs. European local breeds; there was also no evidence of a reduction in variability caused by domestication. The haplotype structure and a plot of Tajima's D against the frequency of the causative mutation across breeds suggested a temporal pattern, where each breed corresponded to a different selective stage. This was observed comparing the haplotype neighbor-joining (NJ) trees of breeds that have undergone increasing selection pressures for leanness, e.g., European local breeds vs. Pietrain. These results anticipate that comparing current domestic breeds will decisively help to recover the genetic history of domestication and contemporary selective processes. PMID:18245828

  13. Imprinted Nesp55 Influences Behavioral Reactivity to Novel Environments

    PubMed Central

    Plagge, Antonius; Isles, Anthony R.; Gordon, Emma; Humby, Trevor; Dean, Wendy; Gritsch, Sabine; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Wilkinson, Lawrence S.; Kelsey, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    Genomic imprinting results in parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic expression of selected genes. Although their importance in development and physiology is recognized, few imprinted genes have been investigated for their effects on brain function. Gnas is a complex imprinted locus whose gene products are involved in early postnatal adaptations and neuroendocrine functions. Gnas encodes the stimulatory G-protein subunit Gsα and two other imprinted protein-coding transcripts. Of these, the Nesp transcript, expressed exclusively from the maternal allele, codes for neuroendocrine secretory protein 55 (Nesp55), a chromogranin-like polypeptide associated with the constitutive secretory pathway but with an unknown function. Nesp is expressed in restricted brain nuclei, suggesting an involvement in specific behaviors. We have generated a knockout of Nesp55 in mice. Nesp55-deficient mice develop normally, excluding a role of this protein in the severe postnatal effects associated with imprinting of the Gnas cluster. Behavioral analysis of adult Nesp55 mutants revealed, in three separate tasks, abnormal reactivity to novel environments independent of general locomotor activity and anxiety. This phenotype may be related to prominent Nesp55 expression in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus. These results indicate a role of maternally expressed Nesp55 in controlling exploratory behavior and are the first demonstration that imprinted genes affect such a fundamental behavior. PMID:15798190

  14. Transcriptome-wide investigation of genomic imprinting in chicken.

    PubMed

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Dehais, Patrice; Cristobal, Magali San; Marsaud, Nathalie; Vignoles, Florence; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Beaumont, Catherine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Vignal, Alain; Morisson, Mireille; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2014-04-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism by which alleles of some specific genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin manner. It has been observed in mammals and marsupials, but not in birds. Until now, only a few genes orthologous to mammalian imprinted ones have been analyzed in chicken and did not demonstrate any evidence of imprinting in this species. However, several published observations such as imprinted-like QTL in poultry or reciprocal effects keep the question open. Our main objective was thus to screen the entire chicken genome for parental-allele-specific differential expression on whole embryonic transcriptomes, using high-throughput sequencing. To identify the parental origin of each observed haplotype, two chicken experimental populations were used, as inbred and as genetically distant as possible. Two families were produced from two reciprocal crosses. Transcripts from 20 embryos were sequenced using NGS technology, producing ∼200 Gb of sequences. This allowed the detection of 79 potentially imprinted SNPs, through an analysis method that we validated by detecting imprinting from mouse data already published. However, out of 23 candidates tested by pyrosequencing, none could be confirmed. These results come together, without a priori, with previous statements and phylogenetic considerations assessing the absence of genomic imprinting in chicken.

  15. Transcriptome-wide investigation of genomic imprinting in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Frésard, Laure; Leroux, Sophie; Servin, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Dehais, Patrice; Cristobal, Magali San; Marsaud, Nathalie; Vignoles, Florence; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Beaumont, Catherine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Vignal, Alain; Morisson, Mireille; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Pitel, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism by which alleles of some specific genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin manner. It has been observed in mammals and marsupials, but not in birds. Until now, only a few genes orthologous to mammalian imprinted ones have been analyzed in chicken and did not demonstrate any evidence of imprinting in this species. However, several published observations such as imprinted-like QTL in poultry or reciprocal effects keep the question open. Our main objective was thus to screen the entire chicken genome for parental-allele-specific differential expression on whole embryonic transcriptomes, using high-throughput sequencing. To identify the parental origin of each observed haplotype, two chicken experimental populations were used, as inbred and as genetically distant as possible. Two families were produced from two reciprocal crosses. Transcripts from 20 embryos were sequenced using NGS technology, producing ∼200 Gb of sequences. This allowed the detection of 79 potentially imprinted SNPs, through an analysis method that we validated by detecting imprinting from mouse data already published. However, out of 23 candidates tested by pyrosequencing, none could be confirmed. These results come together, without a priori, with previous statements and phylogenetic considerations assessing the absence of genomic imprinting in chicken. PMID:24452801

  16. Rasgrf1 Imprinting Is Regulated by a CTCF-Dependent Methylation-Sensitive Enhancer Blocker

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Bongjune; Herman, Herry; Hu, Benjamin; Park, Yoon Jung; Lindroth, Anders; Bell, Adam; West, Adam G.; Chang, Yanjie; Stablewski, Aimee; Piel, Jessica C.; Loukinov, Dmitri I.; Lobanenkov, Victor V.; Soloway, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Imprinted methylation of the paternal Rasgrf1 allele in mice occurs at a differentially methylated domain (DMD) 30 kbp 5′ of the promoter. A repeated sequence 3′ of the DMD regulates imprinted methylation, which is required for imprinted expression. Here we identify the mechanism by which methylation controls imprinting. The DMD is an enhancer blocker that binds CTCF in a methylation-sensitive manner. CTCF bound to the unmethylated maternal allele silences expression. CTCF binding to the paternal allele is prevented by repeat-mediated methylation, allowing expression. Optimal in vitro enhancer-blocking activity requires CTCF binding sites. The enhancer blocker can be bypassed in vivo and imprinting abolished by placing an extra enhancer proximal to the promoter. Together, the repeats and the DMD constitute a binary switch that regulates Rasgrf1 imprinting. PMID:16314537

  17. Molecularly imprinted membranes.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Francesco; Biasizzo, Miriam; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2012-07-19

    Although the roots of molecularly imprinted polymers lie in the beginning of 1930s in the past century, they have had an exponential growth only 40-50 years later by the works of Wulff and especially by Mosbach. More recently, it was also proved that molecular imprinted membranes (i.e., polymer thin films) that show recognition properties at molecular level of the template molecule are used in their formation. Different procedures and potential application in separation processes and catalysis are reported. The influences of different parameters on the discrimination abilities are also discussed.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Trotta, Francesco; Biasizzo, Miriam; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Although the roots of molecularly imprinted polymers lie in the beginning of 1930s in the past century, they have had an exponential growth only 40–50 years later by the works of Wulff and especially by Mosbach. More recently, it was also proved that molecular imprinted membranes (i.e., polymer thin films) that show recognition properties at molecular level of the template molecule are used in their formation. Different procedures and potential application in separation processes and catalysis are reported. The influences of different parameters on the discrimination abilities are also discussed. PMID:24958291

  19. Short Interspersed Element (SINE) Depletion and Long Interspersed Element (LINE) Abundance Are Not Features Universally Required for Imprinting

    PubMed Central

    McCole, Ruth B.; Chahal, Mandeep; Saadat, Ghazal; Oakey, Rebecca J.; Schulz, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting. PMID:21533089

  20. Short interspersed element (SINE) depletion and long interspersed element (LINE) abundance are not features universally required for imprinting.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Michael; de Burca, Anna; McCole, Ruth B; Chahal, Mandeep; Saadat, Ghazal; Oakey, Rebecca J; Schulz, Reiner

    2011-04-20

    Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.

  1. Sequences sufficient for programming imprinted germline DNA methylation defined.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Jung; Herman, Herry; Gao, Ying; Lindroth, Anders M; Hu, Benjamin Y; Murphy, Patrick J; Putnam, James R; Soloway, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic marks are fundamental to normal development, but little is known about signals that dictate their placement. Insights have been provided by studies of imprinted loci in mammals, where monoallelic expression is epigenetically controlled. Imprinted expression is regulated by DNA methylation programmed during gametogenesis in a sex-specific manner and maintained after fertilization. At Rasgrf1 in mouse, paternal-specific DNA methylation on a differential methylation domain (DMD) requires downstream tandem repeats. The DMD and repeats constitute a binary switch regulating paternal-specific expression. Here, we define sequences sufficient for imprinted methylation using two transgenic mouse lines: One carries the entire Rasgrf1 cluster (RC); the second carries only the DMD and repeats (DR) from Rasgrf1. The RC transgene recapitulated all aspects of imprinting seen at the endogenous locus. DR underwent proper DNA methylation establishment in sperm and erasure in oocytes, indicating the DMD and repeats are sufficient to program imprinted DNA methylation in germlines. Both transgenes produce a DMD-spanning pit-RNA, previously shown to be necessary for imprinted DNA methylation at the endogenous locus. We show that when pit-RNA expression is controlled by the repeats, it regulates DNA methylation in cis only and not in trans. Interestingly, pedigree history dictated whether established DR methylation patterns were maintained after fertilization. When DR was paternally transmitted followed by maternal transmission, the unmethylated state that was properly established in the female germlines could not be maintained. This provides a model for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in mice.

  2. The correlation between relatives on the supposition of genomic imprinting.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Hamish G

    2002-01-01

    Standard genetic analyses assume that reciprocal heterozygotes are, on average, phenotypically identical. If a locus is subject to genomic imprinting, however, this assumption does not hold. We incorporate imprinting into the standard quantitative-genetic model for two alleles at a single locus, deriving expressions for the additive and dominance components of genetic variance, as well as measures of resemblance among relatives. We show that, in contrast to the case with Mendelian expression, the additive and dominance deviations are correlated. In principle, this correlation allows imprinting to be detected solely on the basis of different measures of familial resemblances, but in practice, the standard error of the estimate is likely to be too large for a test to have much statistical power. The effects of genomic imprinting will need to be incorporated into quantitative-genetic models of many traits, for example, those concerned with mammalian birthweight. PMID:12019254

  3. No detectable association of IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 genes with type 2 diabetes in the population of Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Kommoju, Uma Jyothi; Maruda, Jayaraj; Kadarkarai, Subburaj; Irgam, Kumuda; Kotla, Jaya Prasad; Velaga, Lakshmi; Mohan Reddy, Battini

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified novel genes associated with T2DM which have been replicated in different populations. We try to examine here if certain frequently replicated SNPs of Insulin growth factor 2 m-RNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) (rs4402960, rs1470579) and Solute Carrier family 30 member 8 (SLC30A8) (rs13266634) genes, known to be implicated in insulin pathway, are associated with T2DM in the population of Hyderabad, which is considered to be a diabetic capital of India. Genotyping of the 1379 samples, 758 cases and 621 controls, for the SNPs was performed on sequenom massarray platform. The logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software and the post-hoc power of the study was estimated using G power. The allele and genotype frequencies were similar between cases and controls, both for SNPs of IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 genes. Logistic regression did not reveal significant allelic or genotypic association of any of the three SNPs with T2DM. Despite large sample size and adequate power, we could not replicate the association of IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 SNPs with T2DM in our sample from Hyderabad (A.P.), India, albeit another study based on much larger sample but from heterogeneous populations from the northern parts of India showed significant association of two of the above 3 SNPs, suggesting variable nature of susceptibility of these genes in different ethnic groups. Although the IGF2BP2 and SLC30A8 genes are important in the functional pathway of Insulin secretion, it appears that these genes do not play a significant role in the susceptibility to T2DM in this population.

  4. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 ) and IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) gene variants are associated with overfeeding-induced metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Ukkola, O; Sun, G; Bouchard, C

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF2, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and IGFBP3 gene variants on the metabolic changes observed in response to a 100-day overfeeding protocol conducted with 12 pairs of monozygotic twins. Genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencer methods. Body fat measurements included hydrodensitometry and abdominal fat from computed tomography. Plasma glucose and insulin during fasting and in response to an OGTT were assayed. Plasma lipids were measured enzymatically. In response to caloric surplus, fasting plasma insulin (p < 0.05) and OGTT insulin (p = 0.004) but not glucose area, increased more among the subjects with IGF2 Apa I GG (n = 12) than those with AA + AG (n = 12). The changes were independent of changes in total fatness. The subjects with IGFBP1 Bgl II AA (n = 8) showed greater increases in abdominal visceral fat (p < 0.01), OGTT insulin area (p = 0.05) and total cholesterol (p < 0.03) with overfeeding than the subjects with AG + GG (n = 16). IGFBP3 Nde I and the IGF1 (CT)n markers were not associated with responsiveness to overfeeding. Insulin sensitivity decreased in the subjects with IGF2 Apa I GG and the subjects with IGFBP1 Bgl II AA showed an accumulation of abdominal visceral fat and the early symptoms of the metabolic syndrome after long-term caloric surplus. Genetic variation at the IGF2 and IGFBP1 loci could be among the factors responsible for the inter-individual differences observed in the response to long-term alterations in energy balance and should be further investigated in larger cohorts.

  5. Mom Knows Best: Imprinted Control of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Quiescence.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Lopez, Juana; Cancelas, Jose A

    2016-02-04

    The mechanisms by which imprinted loci control activity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are not known. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Qian et al. (2016) demonstrate that non-coding RNAs expressed by the maternal-imprinted locus Dlk1-Gtl2 maintain HSC self-renewal through the inhibition of PI3K-mTOR signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis, and metabolic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IGF2BP2 rs11705701 polymorphisms are associated with prediabetes in a Chinese population: A population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liyuan; Li, Yuanyuan; Tang, Linlin; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sihan; Liu, Shengyuan; Peng, Xiaolin; Mai, Yifeng; Zhuo, Renjie; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Associations between insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) rs11705701, insulin receptor substrate 1 rs7578326, gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor rs10423928 and transcription factor 7-like 2 rs12255372 gene polymorphisms with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have not been evaluated in the Han Chinese population. These four genetic variants were investigated for their associations with prediabetes and T2D among 490 unrelated patients with T2D, 471 patients with prediabetes and 575 healthy controls. Sequenom MassARRAY software was used to genotype the patients for these variants. The Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction method was used to analyze the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A breakdown analysis by gender revealed a significant association of IGF2BP2 rs11705701 with prediabetes under the dominant genetic model in females following application of the Bonferroni correction (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.10–0.67; P=0.005). However, no significant associations were reported between any of the other three polymorphisms and T2D under any genetic models. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant gene-gene or gene-environment interactions when evaluated with the above association tests. The present case-control study reveals a significant association between IGF2BP2 rs11705701 and prediabetes in female patients. PMID:27588103

  7. Association study of polymorphisms in FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R genes with human longevity in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Luo, Huaichao; Liu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Shi; Lin, He; Chen, Rong; Hao, Fang; Zhang, Dingding

    2016-01-05

    FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R are critical members of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R were associated with human longevity in Caucasian population. However, the association of these SNPs in different ethnic groups is often inconsistent. Here, we investigated the association of genetic variants in three genes with human longevity in Han Chinese population. Twelve SNPs from FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R were selected and genotyped in 1202 long-lived individuals (nonagenarians and centenarians) and younger individuals. Rs9486902 of FOXO3 was found to be associated with human longevity in both genders combined in this study (allelic P = 0.002, corrected P = 0.024). The other eleven SNPs were not significantly associated with human longevity in Han Chinese population. The haplotypes TTCTT, CCTTC and CTCCT of FOXO3 as well as GGTCGG and GGTCAG of AKT1 were shown to have a significant difference between case and control (P =0.006, 2.78×10-5, 4.68×10-6, 0.003,0.005, respectively). The estimated prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in long-lived individuals was significantly lower than in common adult populations (P = 0.001, 2.3×10-26) .Therefore, the search for longevity-associated genes provides the identification of new potential targets beneficial for the treatment of diabetes.

  8. MC1R, KIT, IGF2, and NR6A1 as markers for genetic differentiation in Thai native, wild boars, and Duroc and Chinese Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Klomtong, P; Chaweewan, K; Phasuk, Y; Duangjinda, M

    2015-10-19

    Mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) gene have been shown to affect coat color patterns in pigs. Additional functional marker genes, such as insulin like growth factor-2 (IGF2) and orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor (NR6A1), have been described for variations in factors such as fat deposition, litter size, and vertebra number in pigs. In this study, we investigated 129 pigs representing 4 breeds: Thai indigenous, classified into black (similar to Raad or Ka done pig) and black and white (similar to the Hailum and Kwai pig) coat color types; wild boar; Duroc; and Chinese Meishan. Mutations of MC1R, KIT, IGF2, and NR6A1 were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotypes variation in MC1R and KIT genes could be used to differentiate four groups of coat color: solid black, black and white, red, and wild type. For IGF2, the GG genotype was present in wild boar only; for NR6A1 the TT genotype was found only in Duroc pigs. We identified novel 14-bp deletions in KIT that were associated with black and white coat color in Thai indigenous pigs. Insights into variations in genes presented in this study will be useful in future developmental breeding programs for the Thai native pig.

  9. Association study of polymorphisms in FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R genes with human longevity in a Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Shi; Lin, He; Chen, Rong; Hao, Fang; Zhang, Dingding

    2016-01-01

    FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R are critical members of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R were associated with human longevity in Caucasian population. However, the association of these SNPs in different ethnic groups is often inconsistent. Here, we investigated the association of genetic variants in three genes with human longevity in Han Chinese population. Twelve SNPs from FOXO3, AKT1 and IGF-2R were selected and genotyped in 1202 long-lived individuals (nonagenarians and centenarians) and younger individuals. Rs9486902 of FOXO3 was found to be associated with human longevity in both genders combined in this study (allelic P = 0.002, corrected P = 0.024). The other eleven SNPs were not significantly associated with human longevity in Han Chinese population. The haplotypes TTCTT, CCTTC and CTCCT of FOXO3 as well as GGTCGG and GGTCAG of AKT1 were shown to have a significant difference between case and control (P =0.006, 2.78×10−5, 4.68×10−6, 0.003,0.005, respectively). The estimated prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in long-lived individuals was significantly lower than in common adult populations (P = 0.001, 2.3×10−26). Therefore, the search for longevity-associated genes provides the identification of new potential targets beneficial for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:26683100

  10. Clickable molecularly imprinted nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changgang; Ye, Lei

    2011-06-07

    Terminal alkynyl and azide groups are introduced on the surface of molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles using precipitation polymerization. These clickable groups enable simple nanoparticle conjugation and surface modification under mild reaction conditions, opening new opportunities for nanoparticle-based assays and chemical sensing.

  11. The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests.

    PubMed

    Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B

    2014-08-01

    The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal-offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal-offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted.

  12. The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests

    PubMed Central

    Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B

    2014-01-01

    The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal–offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal–offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted. PMID:24755983

  13. Genomic imprinting in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis: A review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Liao, Wilson

    2015-11-01

    Genomic imprinting is a genetic process where only one allele of a particular gene is expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. Epigenetic changes in the DNA, such as methylation or acetylation of histones, are primarily thought to be responsible for silencing of the imprinted allele. Recently, global CpG methylation changes have been identified in psoriatic skin in comparison to normal skin, particularly near genes known to be upregulated in psoriasis such as KYNU, OAS2, and SERPINB3. Furthermore, imprinting has been associated with multi-chromosomal human disease, including diabetes and multiple sclerosis. This paper is the first to review the clinical and genetic evidence that exists in the literature for the association between imprinting and general skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis and psoriatic disease. Atopy was found to have evidence of imprinting on chromosomes 6, 11, 14, and 13. The β subunit of the IgE receptor on chromosome 11q12-13 may be imprinted. Psoriatic disease may be related to imprinting effects on chromosome 6 for psoriasis and 16 for psoriatic arthritis.

  14. The evolution of genomic imprinting: costs, benefits and long-term consequences.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-08-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to a pattern of gene expression in which a specific parent's allele is either under-expressed or completely silenced. Imprinting is an evolutionary conundrum because it appears to incur the costs of diploidy (e.g. presenting a larger target than haploidy to mutations) while foregoing its benefits (protection from harmful recessive mutations). Here, we critically evaluate previously proposed evolutionary benefits of imprinting and suggest some additional ones. We discuss whether each benefit is capable of explaining both the origin and maintenance of imprinting, and examine how the different benefits interact. We then outline the many costs of imprinting. Simple models show that circulating deleterious recessives can prevent the initial spread of imprinting, even if imprinting would be evolutionarily stable if it could persist long enough to purge these. We also show that imprinting can raise or lower the mutation load, depending on the selective regime and the degree of dominance. We finish by discussing the population-level consequences of imprinting, which can be both positive and negative. Imprinting offers many insights into evolutionary conflict, the interaction between individual- and population-level fitness effects, and the 'gene's-eye view' of evolution.

  15. Genomic imprinting and its relevance to congenital disease, infertility, molar pregnancy and induced pluripotent stem cell.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic gene-marking phenomenon that occurs in the germline, whereby genes are expressed from only one of the two parental copies in embryos and adults. Imprinting is essential for normal mammalian development and its disruption can cause various developmental defects and diseases. The process of imprinting in the germline involves DNA methylation of the imprint control regions (ICRs), and resulting parental-specific methylation imprints are maintained in the zygote and act as the marks controlling imprinted gene expression. Recent studies in mice have revealed new factors involved in imprint establishment during gametogenesis and maintenance during early development. Clinical studies have identified cases of imprinting disorders where involvement of factors shared by multiple ICRs for establishment or maintenance is suspected. These include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, transient neonatal diabetes, Silver-Russell syndrome and others. More severe disruptions can lead to recurrent molar pregnancy, miscarriage or infertility. Imprinting defects may also occur during assisted reproductive technology or cell reprogramming. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on the mechanisms of imprint establishment and maintenance, and discuss the relationship with various human disorders.

  16. Human imprinting disorders: Principles, practice, problems and progress.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Deborah J G; Temple, I Karen

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic regulation orchestrates gene expression with exquisite precision, over a huge dynamic range and across developmental space and time, permitting genomically-homogeneous humans to develop and adapt to their surroundings. Every generation, these epigenetic marks are re-set twice: in the germline, to enable differentiation of sperm and eggs, and at fertilisation, to create the totipotent zygote that then begins growth and differentiation into a new human. A small group of genes evades the second, zygotic wave of epigenetic reprogramming, and these genes retain an epigenetic 'imprint' of the parent from whom they were inherited. Imprinted genes are (as a general rule) expressed from one parental allele only. Some imprinted genes are critical regulators of growth and development, and thus disruption of their normal monoallelic expression causes congenital imprinting disorders, with clinical features impacting growth, development, behaviour and metabolism. Imprinting disorders as a group have characteristics that challenge diagnosis and management, including clinical and molecular heterogeneity, overlapping clinical features, somatic mosaicism, and multi-locus involvement. New insights into the biology and epigenomics of the early embryo offers new clues about the origin and importance of imprinting disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Angelman syndrome imprinting center encodes a transcriptional promoter

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael W.; Brant, Jason O.; Kramer, Joseph M.; Moss, James I.; Yang, Thomas P.; Hansen, Peter J.; Williams, R. Stan; Resnick, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of imprinted genes are often controlled by an imprinting center that is necessary for allele-specific gene expression and to reprogram parent-of-origin information between generations. An imprinted domain at 15q11–q13 is responsible for both Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), two clinically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders. Angelman syndrome arises from the lack of maternal contribution from the locus, whereas Prader–Willi syndrome results from the absence of paternally expressed genes. In some rare cases of PWS and AS, small deletions may lead to incorrect parent-of-origin allele identity. DNA sequences common to these deletions define a bipartite imprinting center for the AS–PWS locus. The PWS–smallest region of deletion overlap (SRO) element of the imprinting center activates expression of genes from the paternal allele. The AS–SRO element generates maternal allele identity by epigenetically inactivating the PWS–SRO in oocytes so that paternal genes are silenced on the future maternal allele. Here we have investigated functional activities of the AS–SRO, the element necessary for maternal allele identity. We find that, in humans, the AS–SRO is an oocyte-specific promoter that generates transcripts that transit the PWS–SRO. Similar upstream promoters were detected in bovine oocytes. This result is consistent with a model in which imprinting centers become DNA methylated and acquire maternal allele identity in oocytes in response to transiting transcription. PMID:25378697

  18. Angelman syndrome imprinting center encodes a transcriptional promoter.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael W; Brant, Jason O; Kramer, Joseph M; Moss, James I; Yang, Thomas P; Hansen, Peter J; Williams, R Stan; Resnick, James L

    2015-06-02

    Clusters of imprinted genes are often controlled by an imprinting center that is necessary for allele-specific gene expression and to reprogram parent-of-origin information between generations. An imprinted domain at 15q11-q13 is responsible for both Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), two clinically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders. Angelman syndrome arises from the lack of maternal contribution from the locus, whereas Prader-Willi syndrome results from the absence of paternally expressed genes. In some rare cases of PWS and AS, small deletions may lead to incorrect parent-of-origin allele identity. DNA sequences common to these deletions define a bipartite imprinting center for the AS-PWS locus. The PWS-smallest region of deletion overlap (SRO) element of the imprinting center activates expression of genes from the paternal allele. The AS-SRO element generates maternal allele identity by epigenetically inactivating the PWS-SRO in oocytes so that paternal genes are silenced on the future maternal allele. Here we have investigated functional activities of the AS-SRO, the element necessary for maternal allele identity. We find that, in humans, the AS-SRO is an oocyte-specific promoter that generates transcripts that transit the PWS-SRO. Similar upstream promoters were detected in bovine oocytes. This result is consistent with a model in which imprinting centers become DNA methylated and acquire maternal allele identity in oocytes in response to transiting transcription.

  19. Parents do matter: genomic imprinting and parental sex effects in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Chatkupt, S; Antonowicz, M; Johnson, W G

    1995-05-01

    Genomic imprinting is a recently recognized phenomenon of differential expression of genetic material depending upon whether the genetic material has come from the male or female parent. This process of differential phenotypic expression involves mammalian development both in the normal and abnormal situations, resulting in parental sex effects. However, some parental sex effects may be due to other mechanisms such as mitochondrial inheritance. In the following article, evidence for genomic imprinting in experimental animals and in diseases are summarized. Relevant human neurological disorders manifesting parental sex effects discussed here include myotonic dystrophy, Huntington's disease, fragile X syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, and neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2. A possible mechanism of imprinting involves the processes of methylation imprint and replication imprint. The knowledge of imprinting is helpful in clinical practice particularly in the areas of genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and possible future gene therapy.

  20. Genomic imprinting on the X chromosome: implications for brain and behavioral phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Davies, William

    2010-09-01

    Imprinted genes, in contrast to most mammalian genes, are monoallelically expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. The idiosyncratic expression profile associated with imprinted genes arises from the differential epigenetic marking of the alleles in the paternal and maternal germlines. Although small in number, imprinted genes can profoundly influence key developmental and physiological processes, including those in the brain; work in animal models and in humans has shown that such genes can affect behavioral traits and cognition and may confer vulnerability to common mental illnesses. As a consequence of how the X chromosome is inherited, X-linked imprinting may elicit or indeed attenuate sexually dimorphic phenotypes. Thus, studying X-linked imprinting is likely to provide important general information about the evolutionary and mechanistic underpinnings of imprinting, as well as the molecular processes underlying sex-specific neurobiology and sex-biased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  1. Different yet similar: evolution of imprinting in flowering plants and mammals.

    PubMed

    Pires, Nuno D; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to a form of epigenetic gene regulation whereby alleles are differentially expressed in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Imprinting evolved independently in flowering plants and in therian mammals in association with the elaboration of viviparity and a placental habit. Despite the striking differences in plant and animal reproduction, genomic imprinting shares multiple characteristics between them. In both groups, imprinted expression is controlled, at least in part, by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications in cis-regulatory regions, and many maternally and paternally expressed genes display complementary dosage-dependent effects during embryogenesis. This suggests that genomic imprinting evolved in response to similar selective pressures in flowering plants and mammals. Nevertheless, there are important differences between plant and animal imprinting. In particular, genomic imprinting has been shown to be more flexible and evolutionarily labile in plants. In mammals, imprinted genes are organized mainly in highly conserved clusters, whereas in plants they occur in isolation throughout the genome and are affected by local gene duplications. There is a large degree of intra- and inter-specific variation in imprinted gene expression in plants. These differences likely reflect the distinct life cycles and the different evolutionary dynamics that shape plant and animal genomes.

  2. Different yet similar: evolution of imprinting in flowering plants and mammals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to a form of epigenetic gene regulation whereby alleles are differentially expressed in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Imprinting evolved independently in flowering plants and in therian mammals in association with the elaboration of viviparity and a placental habit. Despite the striking differences in plant and animal reproduction, genomic imprinting shares multiple characteristics between them. In both groups, imprinted expression is controlled, at least in part, by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications in cis-regulatory regions, and many maternally and paternally expressed genes display complementary dosage-dependent effects during embryogenesis. This suggests that genomic imprinting evolved in response to similar selective pressures in flowering plants and mammals. Nevertheless, there are important differences between plant and animal imprinting. In particular, genomic imprinting has been shown to be more flexible and evolutionarily labile in plants. In mammals, imprinted genes are organized mainly in highly conserved clusters, whereas in plants they occur in isolation throughout the genome and are affected by local gene duplications. There is a large degree of intra- and inter-specific variation in imprinted gene expression in plants. These differences likely reflect the distinct life cycles and the different evolutionary dynamics that shape plant and animal genomes. PMID:25165562

  3. A survey of assisted reproductive technology births and imprinting disorders.

    PubMed

    Bowdin, Sarah; Allen, Cathy; Kirby, Gail; Brueton, Louise; Afnan, Masoud; Barratt, Christopher; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Harrison, Robert; Maher, Eamonn R; Reardon, William

    2007-12-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process in which allele-specific gene expression is dependent on the parental inheritance. Although only a minority of human genes are imprinted, those that have been identified to date have been preferentially implicated in prenatal growth and neurodevelopment. Mutations or epimutations in imprinted genes or imprinting control centres are associated with imprinting disorders such as Angelman syndrome (AS) and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Recently, an increased frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART) conceptions has been reported in children with BWS and AS. However, the risk of imprinting disorders in ART children is unknown. We undertook a survey of 2492 children born after ART in the Republic of Ireland and Central England with the aim of detecting cases (both clinically diagnosed and previously unrecognized) of BWS and AS in this cohort. The response rate to an initial questionnaire was 61%, corresponding to data for 1524 children. After evaluation of the questionnaire, 70 children were invited for a detailed clinical assessment, and 47 accepted (response rate of 67%). In this entire cohort, we detected one case of BWS and no cases of AS. We did not find evidence that there exists a significant group of ART children with unrecognized milder forms of AS or BWS. Although previous studies have suggested an increased relative risk of BWS and AS after ART, our findings suggest that the absolute risk of imprinting disorders in children conceived by ART is small (<1%). Precise risk estimates of risk are difficult to define because of the rarity of the conditions and incomplete response rates to the questionnaire and clinical examination invitations. Hence further investigations are indicated to (i) refine the absolute and relative risks of imprinting disorders after ART and (ii) ensure that changes in ART protocols are not associated with increased frequencies of epigenetic changes and imprinting disorders in

  4. A model for genomic imprinting in the social brain: adults.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, Francisco; Gardner, Andy

    2011-02-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to genes that are silenced when inherited via sperm or via egg. The silencing of genes conditional upon their parental origin requires an evolutionary explanation. The most widely accepted theory for the evolution of genomic imprinting-the kinship theory-argues that conflict between maternally inherited and paternally inherited genes over phenotypes with asymmetric effects on matrilineal and patrilineal kin results in self-imposed silencing of one of the copies. This theory has been applied to imprinting of genes expressed in the placenta, and infant brain determining the allocation of parental resources being the source of conflict parental promiscuity. However, there is growing evidence that imprinted genes are expressed in the postinfant brain where parental promiscuity per se is no longer a source of conflict. Here, we advance the kinship theory by developing an evolutionary model of genomic imprinting in adults, driven by intragenomic conflict over allocation to parental versus communal care. We consider the role of sex differences in dispersal and variance in reproductive success as sources of conflict. We predict that, in hominids and birds, parental care will be expressed by maternally inherited genes. In nonhominid mammals, we predict more diversity, with some mammals showing the same pattern and other showing the reverse. We use the model to interpret experimental data on imprinted genes in the house mouse: specifically, paternally expressed Peg1 and Peg3 genes, underlying maternal care, and maternally expressed Gnas and paternally expressed Gnasxl genes, underlying communal care. We also use the model to relate ancestral demography to contemporary imprinting disorders of adults, in humans and other taxa.

  5. Genomic imprinting in disruptive spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marques, Cristina Joana; Carvalho, Filipa; Sousa, Mário; Barros, Alberto

    2004-05-22

    The possibility of imprinting disease transmission by assisted reproductive technologies has been raised after births of children with Angelman's and Beckwith-Wiedemann's syndromes. To investigate whether imprinting defects were associated with disturbed spermatogenesis, we studied two oppositely imprinted genes in spermatozoan DNA from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic patients. In the mesodermal specific transcript gene (MEST), bisulphite genomic sequencing showed that maternal imprinting was correctly erased in all 123 patients. However, methylation of the H19 gene did not change in any of 27 normozoospermic individuals (0%, 95% CI 0-13%), compared with methylation changes in eight moderate (17%, 8-31%, p=0.026) and 15 severe (30%, 18-45%, p=0.002) oligozoospermic patients. Our data suggest an association between abnormal genomic imprinting and hypospermatogenesis, and that spermatozoa from oligozoospermic patients carry a raised risk of transmitting imprinting errors.

  6. Genomic imprinting, methylation and parent-of-origin effects in reciprocal hybrid endosperm of castor bean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Dai, Mengyuan; Li, Fei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting often results in parent-of-origin specific differential expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles. In plants, the triploid endosperm is where gene imprinting occurs most often, but aside from studies on Arabidopsis, little is known about gene imprinting in dicotyledons. In this study, we inspected genomic imprinting in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm, which persists throughout seed development. After mapping out the polymorphic SNP loci between accessions ZB306 and ZB107, we generated deep sequencing RNA profiles of F1 hybrid seeds derived from reciprocal crosses. Using polymorphic SNP sites to quantify allele-specific expression levels, we identified 209 genes in reciprocal endosperms with potential parent-of-origin specific expression, including 200 maternally expressed genes and 9 paternally expressed genes. In total, 57 of the imprinted genes were validated via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction sequencing, and analysis of the genomic DNA methylation distribution between embryo and endosperm tissues showed significant hypomethylation in the endosperm and an enrichment of differentially methylated regions around the identified genes. Curiously, the expression of the imprinted genes was not tightly linked to DNA methylation. These results largely extended gene imprinting information existing in plants, providing potential directions for further research in gene imprinting. PMID:24799438

  7. Genomic imprinting, methylation and parent-of-origin effects in reciprocal hybrid endosperm of castor bean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Dai, Mengyuan; Li, Fei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-06-01

    Genomic imprinting often results in parent-of-origin specific differential expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles. In plants, the triploid endosperm is where gene imprinting occurs most often, but aside from studies on Arabidopsis, little is known about gene imprinting in dicotyledons. In this study, we inspected genomic imprinting in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm, which persists throughout seed development. After mapping out the polymorphic SNP loci between accessions ZB306 and ZB107, we generated deep sequencing RNA profiles of F1 hybrid seeds derived from reciprocal crosses. Using polymorphic SNP sites to quantify allele-specific expression levels, we identified 209 genes in reciprocal endosperms with potential parent-of-origin specific expression, including 200 maternally expressed genes and 9 paternally expressed genes. In total, 57 of the imprinted genes were validated via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction sequencing, and analysis of the genomic DNA methylation distribution between embryo and endosperm tissues showed significant hypomethylation in the endosperm and an enrichment of differentially methylated regions around the identified genes. Curiously, the expression of the imprinted genes was not tightly linked to DNA methylation. These results largely extended gene imprinting information existing in plants, providing potential directions for further research in gene imprinting. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Conserved imprinting associated with unique epigenetic signatures in the Arabidopsis genus