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Sample records for improve laboratory rearing

  1. Laboratory rearing and handling of cerambycids

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena

    2017-01-01

    Lack of suitable rearing and handling techniques has hampered research on the biology and control of many species of cerambycids that feed on host species of economic importance. Furthermore, because cerambycids spend most or all of their pre-adult life cycle inside the host plant, the biology of many is not well-known and would be dif

  2. Communications: Blood chemistry of laboratory-reared Golden trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.; Wiedmeyer, Ray H.; Greer, Ivan E.; Grady, Andrew W.

    1992-01-01

    Golden trout Oncorhynchus aguabonita obtained from a wild stock as fertilized eggs were reared in the laboratory for 21 months. The laboratory-reared golden trout in our study reached sexual maturity earlier and grew more rapidly than wild golden trout do (according to the scientific literature). Male fish averaged 35.6 cm in total length and 426 g in weight, and females averaged 36.2 cm and 487 g. All golden trout were sexually mature when used for hematological analysis. The hematological profile (hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, and thrombocytes) of golden trout was similar to that reported elsewhere for other trout species. Male and female golden trout did not have significantly different thrombocyte counts; however, the immobilization treatment used on the fish (anesthesia versus a blow to the head) resulted in significant treatment differences in thrombocyte numbers and interaction effect of sex in treatment for hematocrits. Gravid female golden trout had significantly higher plasma protein and calcium levels than did males. The ionic compositions of plasma (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and chloride) and gallbladder bile (calcium and chloride) were similar to those reported for other salmonids.

  3. Pupal abnormalities among laboratory-reared gypsy moths

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hansen

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth cohorts from 10 near-wild strains (one to six previous generations in culture), six wild strains (field-collected egg masses), and the standard "New Jersey" lab strain (34th and 35th generation in culture) were reared on Otis wheat germ-based artificial diet, in a constant environment. Rearings were begun with newly-hatched first instars; pupae...

  4. Phenotypic changes in laboratory-reared colonies of the maize herbivore, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North American and European maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was used to assess whether environmental conditions of the natal field, subsequent laboratory rearing, or genetic population characteristics affect phenotypic traits of fitness, activity, or...

  5. An inexpensive, versatile mosquito rearing chamber for field, laboratory, and classroom investigations.

    PubMed

    Dees, William H; Figueroa, Aaron P; Schultz, George W

    2011-03-01

    An inexpensive mosquito rearing chamber for field, laboratory, and classroom investigations is described. The rearing chamber is made from plastics recycled from peanut butter jars and room deodorizers. The top of the chamber requires mesh material and gluing. The cost for the rearing chamber is negligible. The design of the chamber allows for direct field collecting of larvae and for easy knock down/cold storage of emerged adults. In addition to its use in field and laboratory investigations, the chamber is an excellent device for classroom study of insect metamorphosis.

  6. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  7. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  8. Exposing Laboratory-Reared Fleas to Soil and Wild Flea Feces Increases Transmission of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan T.; Vetter, Sara M.; Gage, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis. PMID:23939709

  9. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  10. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  11. Laboratory rearing of Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an endangered butterfly in Michigan

    Treesearch

    Catherine Papps Herms; Deborah G. McCullough; Deborah L. Miller; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack

    1996-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) is listed as a federally endangered species in the United States. It occurs in oak savanna and pine barren habitats from eastern Minnesota to New Hampshire. In 1994, we successfully reared Karner blue larvae under controlled laboratory conditions for experimental purposes, and report on those...

  12. Augmenting laboratory rearing of stable fly (diptera: muscidae) larvae with ammoniacal salts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable flies are serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties o...

  13. Comparative Studies of Predation Among Feral, Commercially-Purchased, and Laboratory-Reared Predators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The predatory activities of commercially-purchased Hippodamia convergens Guèrin-Mèneville and two laboratory-reared strains of Geocoris punctipes (Say) were compared with their feral counterparts. In single prey choice feeding tests, commercially-purchased and feral H. convergens were provided copi...

  14. Performance of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): A Comparison between Foliage and Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine L; Parry, Dylan; Faske, Trevor M; Hamilton, Audrey; Tobin, Patrick C; Agosta, Salvatore J; Johnson, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    The effects of long-term mass rearing of laboratory insects on ecologically relevant traits is an important consideration when applying research conclusions to wild populations or developing management strategies. Laboratory strains of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), an invasive forest pest in North America, have been continuously reared since 1967. Selection on these strains has enhanced a variety of traits, resulting in faster development, shorter diapause, and greater fecundity. As in many mass-reared insects, laboratory strains of the gypsy moth are also reared exclusively on artificial diets that lack much of the phytochemical and nutritional complexity associated with natural foliage. We tested for differences in growth and development of wild gypsy moth populations from across the invasive range in comparison to laboratory strains when reared on artificial diet and a preferred foliage host species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Overall, caterpillars reared on foliage had higher survival and faster development rates, with smaller differences among populations. When reared on artificial diet, laboratory strains had the highest performance as expected. The response from the wild populations was mixed, with two populations performing poorly on artificial diet and another performing nearly as well as the laboratory strains. Performance on diet was enhanced when larvae received cubed portions changed regularly, as opposed to filled cups. Understanding these relationships between food source and population performance is important for informing studies that examine population comparisons using wild and laboratory-reared strains.

  15. Coral ontogeny affects early symbiont acquisition in laboratory-reared recruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Shelby E.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    2017-09-01

    In most coral species, the critical association with a subset of genetically diverse algal endosymbionts, Symbiodinium, is re-established anew each generation in early coral ontogeny. Yet little is known about the window during which these associations are established or the potential for altering symbiont associations through early exposure to non-native, and/or ecologically beneficial (e.g., stress tolerant), symbiont strains. This study examined the ontogenetic window of symbiont uptake in a restoration target species. Orbicella faveolata recruits, maintained aposymbiotic in laboratory tanks for 4 months, showed a significant decrease in symbiont acquisition upon exposure to natural seawater. Recruits initially inoculated with cultured Symbiodinium readily acquired additional strains from environmental symbiont populations upon exposure, but exogenous uptake also decreased in frequency after 4 months of laboratory rearing. Early exposure to Symbiodinium may benefit laboratory-reared recruits (e.g., enhance growth), but the potential for establishing long-term novel symbiotic associations may be limited.

  16. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  17. Evaluating the use of irradiated caribean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mass-rearing and augmentative release of hymenopterous parasitoids has been a component of area-wide management programs for several tephritid fruit flies, including pestiferous species of the genus Anastrepha (Cancino and Montoya, in press). Laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szeplige...

  18. Improving Laboratory Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Michael Jay

    1979-01-01

    Factors that influence the efficiency of laboratory experiences include: size of laboratory group, length of session, discussion, special tools, and applications of knowledge learned. It is suggested that these variables may be altered to insure that students gain from their time spent in the laboratory. (BH)

  19. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

  20. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Parreño, María A; Scannapieco, Alejandra C; Remis, María I; Juri, Marianela; Vera, María T; Segura, Diego F; Cladera, Jorge L; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed.

  1. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  2. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jeanette M; Sappington, Thomas W; Coates, Brad S

    2013-12-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive insect pest of dry beans and corn within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, since the initiation of an eastward range expansion of S. albicosta in the late 1990s, economic damage has been observed in the Midwest, and the species has now reached the Atlantic Coast and Quebec. Economic damage to corn occurs by larval feeding on ears, which is not controlled by commercial transgenic hybrids that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab, but partial control is observed by corn varieties that express Cry1 F toxins. Inadequate protocols for laboratory rearing of S. albicosta have hindered controlled efficacy experimentation in the laboratory and field. We report an S. albicosta rearing methodology used to maintain alaboratory colony for 12 continuous generations. Rearing procedures were adapted for Bt toxin diet-overlay assays, revealing that S. albicosta larvae exposed to Bt toxin for 14 d were insensitive to Cry1Ab concentrations up to 25,000 ng/cm2. In contrast, neonates exposed to Cry1 F toxin at > or = 250 ng/cm2, showed reduced developmental rates, with estimated effective concentrations of EC50 = 1,187.5 ng/cm2 and EC95 = 10,000.5 ng/cm2. The ability to mass produce this pest insect will enhance fundamental research, including evaluation of control tactics and toxin susceptibility.

  3. Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

    2012-02-01

    The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.

  4. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  5. Laboratory maintenance, breeding, rearing, and biomedical research potential of the Yucatan octopus (Octopus maya).

    PubMed

    Van Heukelem, W F

    1977-10-01

    Eggs of the Yucatan octopus, Octopus maya, were collected at Campeche, Mexico, transported to Hawaii, and incubated in glass funnels. Benthic juveniles hatched from the large (17-mm) eggs and were reared on a variety of live and frozen foods. As many as 200 animals were reared for the first month in a 20-liter aquarium. No disease or parasite problems were encountered and nearly all well-fed juveniles survived to sexual maturity. The species was reared through four generations in the laboratory. Animals weighed 0.1 g at hatching and within 8.5 months attained an average weight of 3231 g. Mating was promiscuous and sperm were stored in the oviducts until spawning. Spawning occurred at 8-9 months of age. Up to 5,000 eggs were laid by large females and nearly 100% of fertilized eggs developed to hatching. Females brooded eggs during the 45-day period of development but artificial was as successful as natural incubation by the mother. Pos-reproductive senescent decline of both males and females was rapid and average life span was 300 days from hatching. Areas of biomedical research in which O maya could be a useful model were suggested and included neurobiology, comparative psychology, ontogeny of behavior, immunology, endocrinology, and studies of aging.

  6. Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

  7. SIMILARITY IN RESPONSES OF LABORATORY-REARED ANED FIELD-COLLECTED LONE STAR TICK (ACARI:IXODIDAE)NYMPHS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field testing tick repellents intended for use on human skin can be difficult, particularly when multiple concentrations of multiple repellents must be tested. Therefore, laboratory tests using laboratory reared ticks have been important. To address concerns that test results obtained with laborator...

  8. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Catalá, S S; Maida, D M; Caro-Riaño, H; Jaramillo, N; Moreno, J

    2004-02-01

    We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens) following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids) and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles). Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long

  9. Short report: Exposing laboratory-reared fleas to soil and wild flea feces increases transmission of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Vetter, Sara M; Gage, Kenneth L

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory-reared Oropsylla montana were exposed to soil and wild-caught Oropsylla montana feces for 1 week. Fleas from these two treatments and a control group of laboratory-reared fleas were infected with Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. Fleas exposed to soil transmitted Y. pestis to mice at a significantly greater rate (50.0% of mice were infected) than control fleas (23.3% of mice were infected). Although the concentration of Y. pestis in fleas did not differ among treatments, the minimum transmission efficiency of fleas from the soil and wild flea feces treatments (6.9% and 7.6%, respectively) were more than three times higher than in control fleas (2.2%). Our results suggest that exposing laboratory-reared fleas to diverse microbes alters transmission of Y. pestis.

  10. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  11. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-07-08

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  12. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  13. Dietary integration with oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil improves growth rate and oxidative status in outdoor-reared, but not indoor-reared, pigs.

    PubMed

    Forte, C; Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Branciari, R; Acuti, G; Todini, L; Cavallucci, C; Trabalza-Marinucci, M

    2017-01-09

    The effects of a diet supplemented with oregano essential oil on performance, oxidative status, pork quality traits and sensorial properties were evaluated. In two studies, 72 pigs in indoor or outdoor conditions were assigned to either a control diet or an identical diet supplemented with 0.2% oregano essential oil. Pigs reared outdoor showed lower live weight, average daily gain and average gain:feed ratio compared to indoor pigs. The oregano supplementation improved the growth performance of the outdoor- but not the indoor-reared animals. The serum oxidative status was influenced by the diet. A higher oxidative stability was observed in the oregano-supplemented groups. As for the rearing conditions, the data suggest that after an initial adapting period, the free-range farming systems could be better tolerated by pigs. Meat derived from pigs reared outdoor showed higher pH and a* values. Lightness was influenced by both the diet and the rearing conditions. The control group reared indoor showed shear force values higher than both supplemented groups, while no differences were detected with the control group reared outdoor. In the consumer test performed under blind conditions, the oregano groups achieved higher consistency scores compared with the control. Under informed conditions, the meat derived from the oregano-supplemented pigs reared outdoor received the highest scores for consistency and overall liking regardless of the rearing system. The same result for the overall liking score was obtained in the expectation test. The data obtained showed that dietary oregano essential oil can be effective in reducing performance losses due to the outdoor-rearing system, increasing the oxidative status of the animal and oxidative stability of the meat, without modifying the meat quality traits and improving consumer perceptions of the meat quality.

  14. Augmenting Laboratory Rearing of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae With Ammoniacal Salts

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis R.; Zhu, Jerry J.; Taylor, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media. Ammonium bicarbonate had no effect on pH and marginally increased ammonium while increasing survival twofold. The optimal level of ammonium bicarbonate was 50 g (0.63 mol) per pan. Larval survival decreased when pH was outside the range of 8.5 to 9.0. PMID:28130462

  15. Augmenting Laboratory Rearing of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae With Ammoniacal Salts.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis R; Zhu, Jerry J; Taylor, David B

    2017-01-01

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media. Ammonium bicarbonate had no effect on pH and marginally increased ammonium while increasing survival twofold. The optimal level of ammonium bicarbonate was 50 g (0.63 mol) per pan. Larval survival decreased when pH was outside the range of 8.5 to 9.0.

  16. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  17. Thermal and substrate color-induced melanization in laboratory reared red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Rowe, John W; Clark, David L; Mortensen, Rebecca A; Commissaris, Carolyn V; Wittle, Lawrence W; Tucker, John K

    2016-10-01

    Color and pigmentation patterns of the integument can facilitate crypsis, thermoregulation, and social signaling. According to the "thermal melanism hypothesis", cold environmental temperature should increase the quantity of melanin that is deposited in the integument thereby facilitating radiative warming. We studied the influences of water temperature (26°C or 31°C) and substrate color (black or white) on the degree of melanization in the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, under laboratory conditions. Turtles reared on a black substrate, or in 26°C water, for 120 days were darker than those reared on a white substrate or in 31°C water. A potential tradeoff between the fitness benefits of crypsis and the benefits of radiative warming through melanism was detected because turtles reared in 26°C water and on a white substrate were darker than those reared on a white substrate and in 31°C water. Low temperatures limited metabolic processes because turtles reared in 26°C water grew more slowly than those reared in 31°C water. However, histological analyses revealed that melanization was a dynamic process in all treatments confirming that the degree of melanization in the cool water treatment was not influenced by the initial and relatively dark hatchling coloration in individuals that grew relatively slowly.

  18. Alternative Method for the Mass Rearing of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E F; Fernandes, W S; Oshiro, E T; Oliveira, A G; Galati, E A B

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania spp. Ross as well as the epidemiology and spread of leishmaniasis is related to parasite-vector-host interactions. These interactions can be studied using specimens of a sand fly population reared in the laboratory, exposing individuals to experimental infection for the investigation of vector competence and parameters of the vectorial capacity of the species. The present study sought to describe an alternative method for the implantation of a Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi colony with wild specimens captured in the municipality of Corumbá, Brazil. With Method 1, engorged females were individualized for oviposition. The eggs were transferred to an acrylic petri dish with a layer of plaster on the bottom, on which food was placed after hatching of the first larvae. With Method 2, females were kept in groups for oviposition in containers, in which soil and food were placed on their bottom for the larvae. In addition, the exposure time of the larvae to light was reduced in comparison with Method 1. With Method 2, a significantly greater number of specimens of Lu. cruzi was obtained. The ratio between the number of emerged adults and the females followed for oviposition was 0.42 with Method 1 and 2.75 with Method 2. The optimization of the rearing conditions for Lu. cruzi will enable the establishment of a colony providing a sufficient number of specimens to develop experimental infection by Leishmania as well as vectorial competence and some parameters of the vectorial capacity of this sand fly.

  19. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  20. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution.

  1. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  2. Effect of temperature and larval density on Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory rearing productivity and male characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hapairai, Limb K; Marie, Jérôme; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2014-04-01

    Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared to adulthood in the laboratory under a range of temperatures and larval densities. We studied the effect of these variables on several life table parameters of relevance to male-release-based vector control strategies including: larval survivorship, developmental time to pupation, male to female ratio, male pupae yield, adult male size and survival. The range of tested rearing temperatures (20, 25, 27, and 30 °C) and larval densities (50, 100, 200, and 400 larvae/L) was selected within the conditions allowing larval growth and survival. Larval survivorship was the highest when larvae were reared at 200 larvae/L for all temperatures except 20 °C. Male to female ratio was male biased at all temperatures and densities. Time to pupation decreased with increasing temperatures. Larval density and temperature influenced the proportion of males pupating on first day of pupation with 43-47% of total male pupae produced at 25 °C. No significant differences in mean wing length were observed between male mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (except at 20 and 30 °C for some densities) and field collected males. Altogether, the study allowed the identification of rearing conditions delivering high male yield with essentially no female contamination, adequate adult male size and survival. Ae. polynesiensis thus appears particularly amenable to biological and mechanical sex separation offering good prospects for Ae. polynesiensis population suppression trials that rely on the production and release of large numbers of incompatible or sterile males. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Larval development of the land hermit crab Coenobita violascens Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Anomura, Coenobitidae) described from laboratory-reared materia.

    PubMed

    Kato, Saori; Hamasaki, Katsuyuki; Dan, Shigeki; Kitada, Shuichi

    2015-02-03

    The zoeal and the megalopal stages of the land hermit crab Coenobita violascens Heller, 1862 are described and illustrated from laboratory-reared material, and compared with larvae of nine other described coenobitid species. The larvae developed through four planktonic zoeal stages to the megalopal stage. Coenobita violascens had characteristics of zoeal pleomeres and megalopal antennules typical of those found in other Coenobita species, excluding C. brevimanus. 

  4. Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens, one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. We also examined the plasticity of blood feeding time for these three populations. Results For most (>70%) C.p. f. pipiens and C.p. f. molestus collected from metropolitan Chicago, IL, blood feeding took place during scotophase. Peak blood feeding occurred in mid-scotophase, 3-6 hours after lights off. For C.p. f. pipiens originating from Pennsylvania, most mosquitoes (> 90%) blood fed during late photophase and early scotophase. C.p. f. molestus denied a blood meal during scotophase were less likely to blood feed during early photophase (< 20%) than were C.p. f. pipiens from Chicago (> 50%). C.p. f. pipiens from Pennsylvania were capable of feeding readily at any hour of photo- or scotophase. Conclusions Daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus are similar to those of C.p. f. pipiens, particularly when populations originate from the same geographic region. However, the timing of blood feeding is more flexible for C.p. f. pipiens populations relative to C.p. f. molestus. PMID:24450879

  5. Cold rearing improves cold-flight performance in Drosophila via changes in wing morphology.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Melanie R; Harrison, Jon F; Kirkton, Scott D; Roberts, Stephen P

    2008-07-01

    We use a factorial experimental design to test whether rearing at colder temperatures shifts the lower thermal envelope for flight of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen to colder temperatures. D. melanogaster that developed in colder temperatures (15 degrees C) had a significant flight advantage in cold air compared to flies that developed in warmer temperatures (28 degrees C). At 14 degrees C, cold-reared flies failed to perform a take-off flight approximately 47% of the time whereas warm-reared flies failed approximately 94% of the time. At 18 degrees C, cold- and warm-reared flies performed equally well. We also compared several traits in cold- and warm-developing flies to determine if cold-developing flies had better flight performance at cold temperatures due to changes in body mass, wing length, wing loading, relative flight muscle mass or wing-beat frequency. The improved ability to fly at low temperatures was associated with a dramatic increase in wing area and an increase in wing length (after controlling for wing area). Flies that developed at 15 degrees C had approximately 25% more wing area than similarly sized flies that developed at 28 degrees C. Cold-reared flies had slower wing-beat frequencies than similarly sized flies from warmer developmental environments, whereas other traits did not vary with developmental temperature. These results demonstrate that developmental plasticity in wing dimensions contributes to the improved flight performance of D. melanogaster at cold temperatures, and ultimately, may help D. melanogaster live in a wide range of thermal environments.

  6. Sugar and Multivitamin Diet Effects on The Longevity and Mating Capacity of Laboratory-Reared Male Anopheline Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwatana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Khaosanorh, Sakon; Wanja, Elizabeth W; Davidson, Silas A

    2017-09-01

    Successful mating by male mosquitoes is dependent on several factors, with sugar feeding being particularly important. The effect of ingested vitamins on adult male mosquitoes is poorly understood. This laboratory study used 3 anopheline species, Anopheles campestris, An. dirus, and An. sawadwongporni, to study the effect of sugar and vitamins on male longevity, copulation, and fecundity. Males were fed 1 of 5 diets containing different combinations of sugar and vitamins: 10% glucose, 10% sucrose, 10% multivitamin syrup, 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% glucose, and 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose. The longevity of males was measured for a period of 15 days. Forced mating was used to simulate copulation, and fecundity was measured by counting the number of eggs oviposited and the hatch rate of larvae. The longevity of An. campestris and An. dirus was greatest when fed a diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% glucose, and the longevity of An. sawadwongporni was greatest when fed a diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose. The 1st mating routinely produced the most viable eggs when males were mated with several females. The diet of 10% multivitamin syrup + 10% sucrose produced numerically greater egg production and larval emergence for all 3 species, although this was not always statistically significant due to variability and small sample size. These results indicate that the addition of multivitamin syrup to sucrose may produce healthier and more fit male anophelines. This has potential implications for increasing insectary operations and improving the fitness of laboratory-reared male mosquitoes that will be released for mosquito and disease-pathogen control studies.

  7. Distribution and occurrence of the insect pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) in the predator beetle Rhizophagus grandis G: yll. (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae)-rearing laboratories.

    PubMed

    Yaman, M; Tosun, O; Aydın, C; Ertürk, O

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and occurrence of the insect pathogenic algae Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) in the predator beetle Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae)-rearing laboratories were studied and reported here for the first time. The insect pathogenic alga Helicosporidium sp. infection was observed in all R. grandis-rearing laboratories. The infection rate reached more than 20% which is significant among the samples in some R. grandis-rearing laboratories. The infection rates of the examined beetles showed noticeable differences between localities and years. There was no significant difference in the infection levels of male and female beetles. These results showed that Helicosporidium sp. is one of the factors that decrease efficiency of the R. grandis-rearing laboratories.

  8. Genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing affect survival and assortative mating but not overall mating success in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Traoré, Sékou F; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies.

  9. Laboratory rearing of wild Arctic cod Boreogadus saida from egg to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kent, D; Drost, H E; Fisher, J; Oyama, T; Farrell, A P

    2016-03-01

    The techniques and protocols used to successfully capture, transport and breed Arctic cod Boreogadus saida, as well as to rear their larvae through to adulthood are summarized. Breeding B. saida will increase the opportunity to study this fish species, which is a critical part of the Arctic food web.

  10. Universal Parenthood Training: A Laboratory Approach to Teaching Child-Rearing Skills to Every Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Robert P.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the need ro a program which would leave the responsibility of child rearing with the parents, but take measures to assure that virtually all parents have the necessary skills and knowledge to do the job well." Appended are 16 references. (Author/AA)

  11. A disposable insulated container for rearing fall webworm larvae in the laboratory

    Treesearch

    William N., Jr. Cannon

    1970-01-01

    Plastic-foam cups with plastic lids were found to be more suitable for rearing larvae of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, than other types of containers tested. These cups are inexpensive, lightweight, rigid, and translucent; and they protect the contents from rapid fluctuations in temperature.

  12. Investigation of Age Polyethism in Food Processing of the Fungus-Growing Termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae) Using a Laboratory Artificial Rearing System.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjie; Yang, Mengyi; Chen, Yonger; Zhu, Na; Lee, Chow-Yang; Wei, Ji-Qian; Mo, Jianchu

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory rearing systems are useful models for studying Rhinotermitid behavior. Information on the biology of fungus-growing termites, however, is limited because of the difficulty of rearing colonies in the laboratory settings. The physical structure of termite nests makes it impossible to photograph or to observe colonies in the field. In this study, an artificial rearing system for field-collected colonies of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) was developed to facilitate observation in the laboratory. We recorded colony activity within the artificial rearing system and documented a variety of social behaviors that occurred throughout the food processing of the colony. This complex miniature ecosystem was cooperatively organized via division of labor in the foraging and processing of plant materials, and the observed patterns largely resembled the caste and age-based principles present in Macrotermes colonies. This work extends our insights into polyethism in the subfamily Macrotermitinae.

  13. Glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in wild and laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Murai, Atsuko; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Murata, Koichi; Yanai, Tokuma

    2011-12-01

    Glomerular lipidosis is a disease characterized by lipid accumulation in mesangial cells but that has not been fully investigated in avian species. We examined four wild and two laboratory-reared Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus)--an endangered avian species--presenting vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. All cases had vacuolar deposits in the glomeruli. In the wild cases, fewer than 30% of all glomeruli were affected, compared with more than 90% in the laboratory-reared cases. In the wild cases, most deposits were mild and restricted to the mesangial areas of glomeruli. In the laboratory-reared cases, nearly all of the deposits covered entire glomeruli. Electron microscopy of mild deposits revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mesangial cells. These vacuoles were positive for Sudan III, Sudan black B, oil red O, Nile blue, periodic acid-Schiff, Schultz test, and digitonin stain and were negative for performaric acid-Schiff stains. Based on these results, we diagnosed the glomerular lesion as glomerular lipidosis caused by uptake of low-density lipoprotein in mesangial cells. Except for one wild case, all cases exhibited renal tubular oxalosis. The severity of tubular oxalosis tended to be related to the severity of glomerular lipidosis: In cases of mild glomerular lipidosis, tubular oxalosis was also mild or absent. We therefore diagnosed the primary lesion as glomerular lipidosis accompanied by tubular oxalosis. The four wild cases came from different zones and therefore had no opportunities to interbreed and no common relatives. We believe these data support the hypothesis that glomerular lipidosis is a disease of the general population ofJapanese rock ptarmigans. This is the first report of glomerular lipidosis accompanied by renal tubular oxalosis in an avian species.

  14. The Rearing and Biology of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Jia; Rexili, Kelaimu; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kasz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a unique species that lives in the desert region of Central Asia and has adopted a nocturnal habit to survive the desert environment. Female adults are larger in size than male adults. The female/male ratio was 1.04:1. A rearing method using reused plastic bottles was used. The rearing conditions were 30 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 6% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 L:D photoperiod. Cabbage was provided as food. Cannibalism was avoided by rearing one larva in a bottle. A complete life cycle was obtained under these conditions. The viability of eggs, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adults was 93.54%, 83.71%, 84.76%, 87.64%, and 93.59%, respectively. Embryogenesis took 7.35 days on average. The larval duration in each instar was 2.25 days. The mean duration of the larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adult was 49.27, 7.05, 9.95, and 10.12 days, respectively. The coloration of each developmental stage gradually changed from creamy white to light brownish or black. Females commenced oviposition when their body color became black. On average, each female produced 568 eggs. PMID:21529250

  15. Rivastigmine improves isolation rearing-induced prepulse inhibition deficits via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosuke; Ago, Yukio; Umeki, Takahiro; Hasebe, Shigeru; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2016-02-01

    The acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine are used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We previously demonstrated that donepezil and galantamine differentially affect isolation rearing-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits and that this might be due to differential effects on brain muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor function in mice. We examined the effects of rivastigmine on isolation rearing-induced PPI deficits, brain ACh levels, and mACh receptor function in mice. Acoustic startle responses were measured in a startle chamber. Microdialysis was performed, and the levels of dopamine and ACh in the prefrontal cortex were measured. Rivastigmine (0.3 mg/kg) improved PPI deficits, and this improvement was antagonized by the mACh receptor antagonist telenzepine but not by the nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine. Rivastigmine increased extracellular ACh levels by approximately 2-3-fold, less than the increase produced by galantamine. Rivastigmine enhanced the effect of the mACh receptor agonist N-desmethylclozapine on prefrontal dopamine release, a marker of mACh receptor function, and this increase was blocked by telenzepine. In contrast, galantamine did not affect N-desmethylclozapine-induced dopamine release. Furthermore, rivastigmine did not affect cortical dopamine release induced by the serotonin1A receptor agonist osemozotan, suggesting that the effect of rivastigmine has specificity for mACh receptors. Taken together with our previous finding that marked increases in ACh levels are required for the PPI deficit improvement induced by galantamine, our present results suggest that rivastigmine improves isolation rearing-induced PPI deficits by increasing ACh levels and by concomitantly enhancing mACh receptor function.

  16. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks.

  17. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  18. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  19. Whole-Genome Sequences and Classification of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Laboratory-Reared Long-Evans Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Dzink-Fox, J.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.; Bakthavatchalu, V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In collaboration with the CDC’s Streptococcus Laboratory, we report here the whole-genome sequences of seven Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria isolated from laboratory-reared Long-Evans rats. Four of the S. agalactiae isolates were associated with morbidity accompanied by endocarditis, metritis, and fatal septicemia, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic analysis of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:28057750

  20. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    PubMed

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  2. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  3. Improving laboratory usage: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Young, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Influencing the ordering of laboratory investigations, and in particular reducing unnecessary ones, is a vital concern to many hospitals. An account of the reasons why control is necessary is presented. The different methods evaluated are reviewed, including rationing, form design, resource management (budget control), education, protocols and decision support systems, incentives, feedback and case note appraisal. Methods of controlling the requesting of investigations are likely to be ineffective unless they take place in the correct environment. Elements of this include correct attitude and commitment by senior staff, a long term strategy, and different approaches for different groups of doctors. PMID:3054854

  4. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  5. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  6. Male-biased sex ratios in laboratory rearings of gypsy moth parasitoids

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Fuester; Kenneth S. Swan; Philip B. Taylor; Keith R. Hopper; Paul Ode

    2003-01-01

    Male-biased sex ratios in laboratory colonies of parasitic wasps used in biological control are harmful because they can prevent the establishment of introduced species or hinder commercial production of species used for augmentative control.

  7. Comparing the Use of Laboratory-Reared and Field-Collected Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae for Demonstrating Efficacy of Postharvest Cold Treatments in Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Albertyn, S; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    Some of South Africa's export markets require postharvest cold treatment of citrus fruit for phytosanitary risk mitigation for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). An alternative to a standalone cold treatment may be a reduced intensity cold treatment as a step in a systems approach. For cold treatment trials, large numbers of larvae are required. Due to recent dramatic improvement of T. leucotreta control in the field, sufficient naturally infested citrus fruit are no longer available. Artificial infestation of fruit is not viable due to rapid decay of the fruit. Consequently, it is necessary to use laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet. In trials, field-collected larvae from the Eastern Cape were at least as cold-tolerant as those from other regions. Larvae in Navel oranges showed the median level of susceptibility in a range of citrus types evaluated at 6°C, and their use in trials was considered acceptable due to their greater natural susceptibility to T. leucotreta infestation. We demonstrated that larvae at high density in artificial diet were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae at lower densities. When exposed to 2°C for 18 d or longer, larvae in artificial diet as used in the trials were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae in fruit. Very few surviving larvae from fruit completed development, with no subsequent generation. Consequently, it is considered justifiable to conduct cold-treatment trials with laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet without risk of underestimating the effect of cold on feral larvae in citrus fruit. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  9. [Quality improvement of medical diagnostic laboratories].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Andrea Rita; Endröczi, Elemér; Mikó, Tivadar

    2003-07-13

    Service quality in medical laboratories is influenced by a number of variables. Medical laboratories have long recognized the need for total quality management that incorporates the continuous improvement of all stages, such as the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases, of the diagnostic process, in addition to the traditional internal and external quality control of analytical procedures. Based on national and international experience, continuous improvement of quality and its external assessment are of high priority in order to guarantee a reliable, effective and cost-effective diagnostic service. Certification of health care services, according to ISO 9001 standards in Hungarian hospitals, is not sufficient to prove professional competence of medical laboratories, which called for a system of laboratory accreditation. Accreditation is an external professional audit by which an independent accreditation body gives formal recognition that the medical laboratory is competent to provide high quality services that are compliant with rigorous professional standards of best practice. The primary aim of accreditation is the improvement of the quality of diagnostic services by voluntary participation, professional peer review, continuous training and education and compliance with professional standards. In vitro medical laboratories have pioneered quality control and quality assurance in health care. Based on these strengths and traditions, the introduction of the accreditation program of medical laboratories in Hungary is one of the key professional and ethical responsibilities of diagnostic professions, in order to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services during the course of Hungary's accession to the European Union.

  10. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  11. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve the species, gender, age, and the presence of Wolbachia infection in laboratory-reared Drosophila

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory reared Drosophila. NIRS measures absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model wa...

  12. Long-term efficacy of two cricket and two liver diets for rearing laboratory fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis Invicta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective diets are necessary for many kinds of laboratory studies of ants. We conducted a year-long study of imported fire ant colonies reared on either chicken liver, beef liver, banded crickets, or domestic crickets all with a sugar water supplement. Fire ant colonies thrived on diets of sugar ...

  13. Rearing Glypta Fumiferanae [hym.:Ichneumonida] on a multivoltine laboratory colony of the Western Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura Occidentalis) [LEP.:Tortricidae

    Treesearch

    Nancy Rappaport; Marion Page

    1985-01-01

    Methods were devloped for rearing Glypta fumiferanae Viereck on a nondiapausing laboratory colony of the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman. Both host and parasite are univoltine and undergo diapause in nature. In this study, the parasite's voltinism was synchronized with that of a nondiapausing...

  14. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory-rearing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective ...

  15. Improving the Design of Laboratory Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, E. T.; Wadding, R. E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a technique to improve the adaptation, development, and utilization of laboratory worksheets. Two sample worksheets (on decomposition of ethanol and on solubility of potassium chloride) are included. (JN)

  16. Improving the Design of Laboratory Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, E. T.; Wadding, R. E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a technique to improve the adaptation, development, and utilization of laboratory worksheets. Two sample worksheets (on decomposition of ethanol and on solubility of potassium chloride) are included. (JN)

  17. Internal quantum efficiency improvement in polysilicon solar cells with porous silicon layer on the rear side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Abdessalem; Zouari, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on a simulation study carried out to determine and optimize the effect of porous silicon (PS) layer at the rear side on the performance of thin polysilicon solar cells. It analytically solved the complete set of equations necessary to determine the contribution that this material has with regard to the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the cell when acting as a backside reflector. The contribution of the different regions of the cell, the increase in IQE, and the effects of high porosity and number of PS layers were derived and compared to conventional BSF solar cells. The findings revealed that the IQE of the solar cell with a PS layer at the backside was higher than that of conventional BSF, particularly in terms of medium and long wavelength range λ > 0.5 μm. This improvement was more significant with thin cells, large grain widths, and well-passivated grain boundaries. Furthermore, while the use of the PS layer had a significant effect on the contribution of the base, it exerted no effect on the contribution of the emitter and depletion regions. Overall, the maximum level of IQE improvement was recorded with three double-porosity structures in the PS layer, reaching a high porosity value of about 80 %.

  18. Susceptibility of laboratory-reared northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Crystal, M M; DeMilo, A B

    1988-07-01

    Toxicity was determined for 15 acaricides against a laboratory strain of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). Adult females were exposed to residues on filter paper for 24 h. Three organophosphorous compounds (monocrotophos, cythioate, and famphur) were more toxic to the northern fowl mite than was carbaryl, the most commonly used pesticide in the poultry industry. The other tested compounds were less toxic to the mite than was carbaryl. Four of these, not used previously for northern fowl mite control, had low LC50's for northern fowl mites:aldicarb (0.46); pirimiphos-methyl (0.73); exo, exo-2,8-dichloro-4-thiatricyclo[3.2.1.0.]octane-4-oxide (AI3-63182) (0.87); and diazinon (2.48).

  19. Dispersal and oviposition of laboratory-reared gravid females of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in an arid urban area of Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Macías-Duarte, Alberto; Alvarado-Castro, J Andrés; Dórame-Navarro, María E; Félix-Torres, A Amalia

    2009-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide. Biological control of its vector, Aedes aegypti, remains a feasible option in light of increasing urbanization and insecticide resistance. We studied the dispersal and oviposition activity of Toxorhynchites moctezuma in a dengue-endemic urban area in SSonora, Mexico, to provide information about the potential of Toxorhynchites as a control agent for Ae. aegypti in arid areas. We released 210 and 100 laboratory-reared gravid females of Tx. moctezuma in 2 city blocks during the summer and fall of 1993. We set 3 1-liter containers and 1 car tire as sentinel traps at each of 10 backyards within each city block. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal and oviposition activity differed between city blocks and between releases. However, a Cox regression analysis showed no significant difference in the per-day probability of Tx. moctezuma oviposition events in sentinel traps between summer and fall releases. Per-day oviposition probability was nearly 5 times greater for sentineltraps that contained larvae of Ae. aegypti, suggesting a high specificity of the predator for its prey. The proportion of sentinel traps positive for Tx. moctezuma eggs did not increase substantially after the 8th day piost-release, reaching 66% and 23% for sentinel traps with and without Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively.

  20. Additional moults into 'elongatus' males in laboratory-reared Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae) - implications for taxonomy.

    PubMed

    David, Jean-Francois; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The number of stadia during post-embryonic development is supposed to be fixed in most species of the millipede order Polydesmida. For the first time since 1928, additional moults were observed in two males of Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 reared in the laboratory. These 'elongatus' males sensu Verhoeff reached stadium IX instead of stadium VIII, with addition of a further podous ring (32 pairs of legs). One male had well-developed gonopods at stadium VIII, which regressed at stadium IX; the other had no gonopods at stadium VIII, which developed at stadium IX. The two cases correspond to the 'regressionis' and 'progressionis' forms described by Verhoeff in Polydesmus complanatus (Linnaeus, 1761), which confirms entirely his results. Additional moults appear to be associated with small body sizes and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Comparisons between millipede orders indicate that post-embryonic development is less strictly canalized in Polydesmida than in Chordeumatida. This implies that the adult number of body rings is of limited taxonomic value in Polydesmida and should not be viewed as a character of generic importance.

  1. Major changes in the sex differences in cuticular chemical profiles of the western conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis) after laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Dapporto, Leonardo; Baracchi, David; Benassai, Daniele; Capretti, Paolo; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2013-07-01

    Chemical compounds covering the insect cuticle have several functions ranging from protection against water loss to inter- and intra-specific communication. Their composition is determined by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among these factors, laboratory rearing has been poorly investigated even though it has a strong potential for biasing behavioral experiments. We selected an invasive species with unknown cuticular mixtures as a model. Our aim was to describe its mixtures and to determine if highly simplified laboratory rearing conditions interact with sexual signatures. We analyzed the cuticle by means of two different techniques - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) - to obtain data on a wide range of compounds with different molecular weight. We found that both sets of chemicals showed correlations with gender but also that cuticular waxes detected by GC/MS were highly dependent on rearing conditions, with a strong bias in sexual dimorphism. Conversely, the heavier signatures detected by MALDI-TOF showed a less clear diversification between sexes, although the discrimination power was unaffected by rearing conditions. The biological and practical implications of our findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An improved Monte-Carlo model of the Varian EPID separating support arm and rear-housing backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monville, M. E.; Kuncic, Z.; Greer, P. B.

    2014-03-01

    Previous investigators of EPID dosimetric properties have ascribed the backscatter, that contaminates dosimetric EPID images, to its supporting arm. Accordingly, Monte-Carlo (MC) EPID models have approximated the backscatter signal from the layers under the detector and the robotic support arm using either uniform or non-uniform solid water slabs, or through convolutions with back-scatter kernels. The aim of this work is to improve the existent MC models by measuring and modelling the separate backscatter contributions of the robotic arm and the rear plastic housing of the EPID. The EPID plastic housing is non-uniform with a 11.9 cm wide indented section that runs across the cross-plane direction in the superior half of the EPID which is 1.75 cm closer to the EPID sensitive layer than the rest of the housing. The thickness of the plastic housing is 0.5 cm. Experiments were performed with and without the housing present by removing all components of the EPID from the housing. The robotic support arm was not present for these measurements. A MC model of the linear accelerator and the EPID was modified to include the rear-housing indentation and results compared to the measurement. The rear housing was found to contribute a maximum of 3% additional signal. The rear housing contribution to the image is non-uniform in the in-plane direction with 2% asymmetry across the central 20 cm of an image irradiating the entire detector. The MC model was able to reproduce this non-uniform contribution. The EPID rear housing contributes a non-uniform backscatter component to the EPID image, which has not been previously characterized. This has been incorporated into an improved MC model of the EPID.

  3. 76 FR 9578 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... Additional Information: Nancy Anderson, Chief, Laboratory Practice Standards Branch, Division of Laboratory Science and Standards, Laboratory Science, Policy and Practice Program Office, Office of...

  4. NOVEL ASPECTS OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA BIOLOGY AND IMPROVED METHODS OF REARING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drosophila suzukii (Mats.) or the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), is a global pest of soft fruits that can now be reared on a standard Drosophila diet containing the fly's own natural food: soft-skinned berries. The techniques tested here can thwart bacterial and fungal disease that can destroy more ...

  5. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.

  6. Methods for rearing Mesostoma ehrenbergii in the laboratory for cell biology experiments, including identification of factors that influence production of different egg types.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Carina; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Gauthier, Kimberley; Forer, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes are uniquely useful to study various aspects of cell division. Their chromosomes are large in size and few in number, with only three bivalent and four univalent chromosomes. During prometaphase, bipolar bivalents oscillate regularly to and from the poles for 1-2 hours. The univalents remain at the poles but occasionally move from one pole to the other. In addition, a precocious cleavage furrow forms during prometaphase and remains partially constricted until anaphase. Attempts to rear these animals indefinitely in laboratory conditions, however, have been mostly unsuccessful because of their reproductive strategy. M. ehrenbergii are hermaphroditic flatworms that can produce viviparous offspring (termed S eggs) and/or diapausing eggs (termed D eggs) and they follow either one of two reproductive patterns: (1) they first form S eggs and following the delivery of these eggs produce D eggs, or (2) they only produce D eggs. When only D eggs are formed, which is common under laboratory conditions, the stocks die out until the D eggs hatch, which is irregular and creates unpredictable wait times. Consequently, in order to maintain M. ehrenbergii stocks to study their spermatocytes, we examined various factors that might influence egg-type production. Feeding them daily and keeping them at 25°C favours S egg production. Currently, our cultures have reached the 53rd generation. We herein describe our rearing and dissection methods, and some experiments which led to our present rearing methods. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus is highly pathogenic for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Bradley, M.; Elder, N.; Meyers, T.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1997-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasi were reared in the laboratory from eggs and then challenged at 5, 9, and 13 months of age by waterborne exposure to low (101.5–2.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per milliliter), medium (103.5–4.5 PFU/mL), or high (105.5–6.5 PFU/mL) levels of a North American isolate of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The fish were extremely susceptible to the virus, showing clinical disease, mortality approaching 100%, and only a limited increase in resistance with age. Mortality began 4–6 d after exposure and peaked at approximately day 7 in fish exposed to high levels of virus. Whereas the mean time to death showed a significant dose response (P < 0.001), the percent mortality and virus titers in dead fish were generally high in all groups regardless of initial challenge dose. External signs of disease were usually limited to 1–2-mm hemorrhagic areas on the lower jaw and isthmus and around the eye, but 2 of 130 infected fish exhibited extensive cutaneous hemorrhaging. Histopathologic examination of tissues from moribund fish sampled at 2–8 d after exposure revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, diffuse necrosis of interstitial hematopoietic tissues in the kidney, diffuse necrosis of the spleen, epidermis, and subcutis, and occasional necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Virus titers in tissues of experimentally infected herring were first detected 48 h after exposure and peaked 6-8 d after exposure at 107.7 PFU/g. Fish began shedding virus at 48 h after exposure with titers in the flow-through aquaria reaching 102.5 PFU/mL at 4–5 d after exposure, just before peak mortality. When the water flow was turned off for 3 h, titers in the water rose to 103.5 PFU/mL, and the amount of virus shed by infected fish (on average, greater than 106.5 PFU/h per fish) appeared sufficient to sustain a natural epizootic among schooling herring. Taken together, these data suggest that VHSV could be a

  8. Low anterior counterweights to improve static rear stability of occupied wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Loane, T D; Kirby, R L

    1986-04-01

    Rear tipping accidents in wheelchairs are a common problem, the likelihood of which may be increased by the combination of a wheelchair with low stability and an occupant with altered body morphology, such as a person with lower limb amputations. This study tests the hypothesis that counterweights on the wheelchair footrests significantly increase static rear stability. In addition to pilot work indicating the amount and positioning of effective counterweights, ten normal subjects were studied on a tilting platform in both lightweight and conventional wheelchairs, with and without a 5-kg weight on the footrests. The angles at which the front casters lifted off the platform increased from a mean of 28.6 (+/- 2.7) degrees to 34.8 (+/- 3) degrees in the conventional wheelchair (p less than 0.01) and from 18.2 (+/- 2.7) degrees to 24.6 (+/- 2.5) degrees (p less than 0.0001) and 15.5 (+/- 2) degrees to 23.4 (+/- 2.2) degrees (p less than 0.0001) in the lightweight chair with the axle in the low-posterior and low-anterior positions, respectively. A 5-kg weight on the footrests increased the average rear stability of lightweight and conventional chairs by 6.2 degrees (31.9%).

  9. Improvement of photon management in partial rear contact solar cells using a combination of DBR and Mie scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Saha, Hiranmay; Kumar Datta, Swapan; Chaudhuri, Partha; Banerjee, Chandan

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we present systematic simulations and numerical analysis of a novel light trapping scheme in a partial rear contact (PRC) solar cell involving a combined effect of rear located Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) and Mie scatterers comprising of dielectric nanoparticles (DNP), thereby, enhancing the efficiency of the device. We have studied the effect of three different types of DBRs in combination with embedded silica (SiO2) DNPs which scatter light into silicon substrate of PRC c-Si solar cell. The materials for DBRs are chosen in such a way that they may serve the dual purpose of reflecting more than 90% of incident light at the rear surface and passivating it as well. The internal reflection from the rear surface, absorption enhancement ratio and average scattering angle have been computed from 3-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations and performing numerical analysis later on. Further, these results are used in the analysis of basic solar cell to extract the parameters like short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor, reverse saturation current density and efficiency of solar cell. It has been observed that significant increase in efficiency can be achieved for solar cells having 10-100 μm thick substrates by incorporating this light trapping scheme. Beyond 100 μm thickness, the conversion efficiency approaches a saturation value. Moreover, a combination of DBR with silica nanoparticles results in maximum efficiency near 50 μm thickness of solar cell thereby improving the baseline efficiency from 20.3% to an absolute value of 22.9%. This study opens up a new perspective of light management using the advantages of highly reflective DBRs and highly scattering DNPs which can be incorporated in a rather simple and inexpensive way for thin (<100 μm) silicon solar cells.

  10. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  11. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  12. Improving Target Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Doss, F. W.; Krauland, C. M.; Distefano, C. A.

    2010-11-01

    We have fabricated and characterized targets for laboratory astrophysics since 2003, and have made improvements focusing on characterizing particular target features and their variances. Examples of measurements include machined features, material thickness and uniformity, location and thickness of glue, and mating conditions between adjacent materials. Measurements involve new technology and characterization methods, such as pre-shot radiography. More accurate characterization also leads to improvements in fabrication techniques, and helps integrate new technology into our build process. Quantifying variances more precisely also helps us better evaluate each fabrication method for both accuracy and consistency. We present these characterization methods and their impact on fabrication. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29034.

  13. 76 FR 5379 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ..., revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the impact on medical and... Clinical Laboratory Workforce; the National Institutes of Health Genetic Test Registry design and responses... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement...

  14. Improvement of the recombination and infrared light losses by rear surface chemical polishing in silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xueliang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Feng; Sun, Yun

    2017-06-01

    Rear surface chemical polishing (RSCP) was investigated for the improvement of the internal reflection and surface passivation of heterojunction solar cells with intrinsic thin layers (HIT). The HIT solar cells without or with RSCP treatment were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition techniques. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that rounding of the spires and V-groove bottom of the pyramid as well as smoothing of incline surface of the pyramid were achieved. These effects would decrease the loss of infrared light transmittance and interface recombination at the rear surface of the cells. To experimentally corroborate these two points, two special geometries, ITO/c-Si/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)/ITO and a-Si:H/c-Si/a-Si:H, were introduced as a test of the reflectance/transmittance spectra and the minority carrier lifetime. Weakened transmittance and enhanced lifetime were observed for the sample with RSCP, which are responsible for the improvement of J sc and V oc, respectively. Therefore, RSCP is a promising candidate for improving the performance of HIT solar cells.

  15. Nature beats nurture: a case study of the physiological fitness of free-living and laboratory-reared male Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    PubMed

    Huho, B J; Ng'habi, K R; Killeen, G F; Nkwengulila, G; Knols, B G J; Ferguson, H M

    2007-08-01

    Laboratory experimentation forms the basis for most of our knowledge of the biology of many organisms, in particular insects. However, the accuracy with which laboratory-derived estimates of insect life history and behaviour can predict their fitness and population dynamics in the wild is rarely validated. Such comparison is especially important in cases where laboratory-derived information is used to formulate and implement strategies for the genetic control of insects in nature. We have conducted a comparative study of the reproductive potential and life history of male Anopheles gambiae Gilies sensu lato mosquitoes from both standardized laboratory conditions and from natural field settings. We measured three indirect indicators of male mosquito fitness: energetic reserves, body size and survival, in a bid to determine whether the demographics and energetic limitations of wild males can be correctly predicted from their laboratory counterparts. Crucially, the body size and lipid reserves of wild males were substantially greater than those reared under standard laboratory conditions. We caution that the energetic limitations of insects as identified in the laboratory may underestimate their resilience in the wild, and discuss the implications of this phenomenon with respect to vector-borne disease control programmes based on genetic control of mosquitoes.

  16. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  17. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  18. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Juvenile Salmon Growth, Biochemistry, and Aerobic Performance: A Laboratory Rearing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, M. N. C.; Miller, J. A.; Copeman, L.; Hurst, T. P.

    2016-02-01

    Juvenile salmon undergo important physiological and ecological transitions as they migrate from freshwater to the ocean, a phase characterized by rapid growth and high mortality. It is becoming increasing clear that variations in nutritional quality of marine prey may be as important as prey quantity in determining salmon survival during this critical period in their life history. Growth potential, and hence survival, may be related to the size when salmon first become piscivorous. We tested the hypothesis that prey nutrient composition and predator nutritional history affects growth, biochemistry, and performance in a population of subyearling Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha). Salmon were reared for 12 weeks on three energetically similar experimental diets. Diets were created with ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) of 0.56, 0.94, and 1.47 by altering the amount of krill, anchovy, and two fatty acid supplements. Tagged salmon reared on the high DHA:EPA anchovy diet trended towards faster growth (0.33±0.05 mm d-1) compared to fish reared on the low DHA:EPA krill diet (0.27±0.03 mm d-1) or blended diet (0.29±0.02 mm d-1). Tissue turnover in salmon, measured in half-lives, was 5 to 28 days for essential fatty acids, and 9 to 184 days for bulk isotopes of nitrogen and carbon, indicating that predator tissue fatty acids reflect diet sooner than stable isotopes. After the rearing experiment, salmon were starved for 4 weeks and their critical swimming speeds measured to determine whether nutritional history had an affect on aerobic performance. Although there were no significant differences in swim performance among diet treatments, there was a significant relationship (r2=0.57, p=0.02) between swimming speed and an individual's size and storage lipids across diet treatments. Results from this study will support future ecological studies of migrating juvenile salmon and quantitative estimates of diet in other anadromous fish.

  19. Laboratory and field rearing of the warble fly Hypoderma bovis (De Geer) (Diptera, hypodermatidae) in the research of its population ecology.

    PubMed

    Minár, J; Breev, K A

    1982-01-01

    A new method was successfully used in collecting the mature larvae of the cattle warble fly by means of woven wire flooring. In laboratory colonies the influence of temperature on pupal development, percentage of hatched adults and sex ratio, weight of pupae and adults, its changes during their life cycle, copulation and survival of adults were studied. Field experiments involved studies on the influence of humidity on the survival of pupae, percentage of hatched adults, duration of the pupal stage in the spring and summer periods. Stability of the total sum of temperatures above the temperature threshold necessary for the development of adult in pupa, facilitating to determine the term of hatching, was demonstrated. Laboratory rearing made it possible to obtain gravid females of the cattle warble fly for experimental purposes.

  20. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  1. Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Christiansen, M. E.; Süsens, U.; Wilmes, B.

    1992-03-01

    Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 °C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were measured, as well as oxygen consumption. Changes in the absolute amounts of W. AFW, and C, N, and H during the moulting cycle are described with various regression equations as functions of age within a given instar. These patterns of growth differ in part from those that have been observed during previous studies in larval stages of the same and some other decapod species, possibly indicating different growth strategies in larvae and juveniles. There were clear periodic changes in ash (% of W) and inorganic C (as % of total C), with initially very low and then steeply increasing values in postmoult, a maximum in intermoult, and decreasing figures during the premoult phase of each moulting cycle. Similar patterns were observed in the chitin fraction, reaching a maximum of 16% of W (31% of AFW). Ash, inorganic C, and chitin represent the major components of the exoskeleton and hence, changes in their amounts are associated with the formation and loss of cuticle material. Consequently, a high percentage of mineral matter was lost with the exuvia (76% of the late premoult [LPM] ash content, 74% of inorganic C), but relatively small fractions of LPM organic matter (15% of AFW, 11% of organic C, 5 6% of N and H). These cyclic changes in the cuticle caused an inverse pattern of variation in the percentage values (% of W) of AFW, organic C, N, H, and biochemical constituents other than chitin. When these measures of living biomass were related to, exclusively, the organic body fraction (AFM), much less variation was found during individual moulting cycles, with values of

  2. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Chisolm, T. David; Nicolich, Jane M.; Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Thomas, Nancy J.; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  3. Paternity analyses in wild-caught and laboratory-reared Caribbean cricket females reveal the influence of mating environment on post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Oneal, E; Knowles, L L

    2015-12-01

    Polyandry is ubiquitous in insects and provides the conditions necessary for male- and female-driven forms of post-copulatory sexual selection to arise. Populations of Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis exhibit significant divergence in portions of the male genitalia that are inserted directly into the female reproductive tract, suggesting that males may exercise some post-copulatory control over fertilization success. We examine the potential for male-male and male-female post-copulatory interactions to influence paternity in wild-caught females of A. sanctaecrucis and contrast our findings with those obtained from females reared in a high-density laboratory environment. We find that female A. sanctaecrucis exercise control by mating multiple times (females mount males), but that male-male post-copulatory interactions may influence paternity success. Moreover, post-copulatory interactions that affect reproductive success of males are not independent of mating environment: clutches of wild-caught females exhibit higher sire diversity and lower paternity skew than clutches of laboratory-reared females. There was no strong evidence for last male precedence in either case. Most attempts at disentangling the contributions of male-male and male-female interactions towards post-copulatory sexual selection have been undertaken in a laboratory setting and may not capture the full context in which they take place--such as the relationship between premating and post-mating interactions. Our results reinforce the importance of designing studies that can capture the multifaceted nature of sexual selection for elucidating the role of post-copulatory sexual selection in driving the evolution of male and female reproductive traits, especially when different components (e.g. precopulatory and post-copulatory interactions) do not exert independent effects on reproductive outcomes. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For

  4. Pathogenicity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish - thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  5. Pathogenecity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  6. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.

  7. State Public Health Laboratory System Quality Improvement Activities

    PubMed Central

    Vagnone, Paula Snippes

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) and the APHL Laboratory Systems and Standards Committee manage the Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP). One component of L-SIP is an assessment that allows the members and stakeholders of a laboratory system to have an open and honest discussion about the laboratory system's strengths and weaknesses. From these facilitated discussions, gaps and opportunities for improvement are identified. In some cases, ideas for how to best address these gaps emerge, and workgroups are formed. Depending on resources, both monetary and personnel, laboratory staff will then prioritize the next component of L-SIP: which quality improvement activities to undertake. This article describes a sample of quality improvement activities initiated by several public health laboratories after they conducted L-SIP assessments. These projects can result in more robust linkages between system entities, which can translate into improvements in the way the system addresses the needs of stakeholders. PMID:23997301

  8. New technologies to improve laboratory testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtis, C. A.

    Several core technologies that are having, or will have, an impact on the clinical laboratory are discussed. These include instrument-related technologies such as computer technology, chemometrics, robotics, sensors, and biological technologies such as cell fusion and recombinant DNA.

  9. The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus De Haan, 1849 (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguridae) reared in the laboratory, with emphasis on the post-larval stage.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Zakea; Asakura, Akira

    2015-02-03

    The complete larval development of Pagurus lanuginosus is described and illustrated including the first description of the post-larval stage. Specimens were reared in the laboratory at 15°C and 33.5-35.02 PSU. Newly hatched larvae passed through a short prezoeal stage (10 minutes to 2 hours), four zoeal stages (6, 6, 6, 8 days), and one megalopal stage (10 days). We compared the morphological features of each larval stage with those of the preceding two descriptions on the same species, and found many differences in morphology and the duration between zoeal stages. We concluded that significant diagnostic characters separating this species from other congeners in Japanese waters include the presence of two pairs of yellowish chromatophores on the carapace in the zoeal stages, a translucent body flecked with red chromatophores, and two pairs of red chromatophores on the carapace in the megalopal stage. 

  10. New technologies to improve laboratory testing

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Several core technologies that are having, or will have, an impact on the clinical laboratory are discussed. These include instrument-related technologies such as computer technology, chemometrics, robotics, sensors, and biological technologies such as cell fusion and recombinant DNA. 79 references, 14 figures. (ACR)

  11. In plastico: laboratory material newness affects growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna reared in 50-ml polypropylene tubes.

    PubMed

    Cuhra, Marek; Bøhn, Thomas; Cuhra, Petr

    2017-04-20

    Plastic laboratory materials are found to affect vital parameters of the waterflea Daphnia magna. The main responsible factor is defined as "newness" of the materials. Juvenile D. magna were raised individually in; a) new laboratory-standard 50 ml polypropylene tubes, and; b) identical tubes which had been washed and aerated for several weeks. Newness had significant effects on growth and fecundity of D. magna. New tubes caused delayed maturation, reduced reproduction and reduced growth when compared to washed and re-used tubes of the same commercial brand. The findings indicate that newness of tubes has inhibiting or toxic effects on D. magna. Often laboratory plastics are intended for single-use due to sterility demands. Newness might be an important confounding factor in research results and should not be disregarded. Disposable plastic utensils may come with a seemingly ignored cost and induce adverse effects in biological test-organisms and systems. The presented findings accentuate continued need for general awareness concerning confounding factors stemming from material laboratory environment. Based on the present findings the authors suggest that plastics intended for use in sensitive research may need to be washed and aerated prior to use.

  12. In plastico: laboratory material newness affects growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna reared in 50-ml polypropylene tubes

    PubMed Central

    Cuhra, Marek; Bøhn, Thomas; Cuhra, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Plastic laboratory materials are found to affect vital parameters of the waterflea Daphnia magna. The main responsible factor is defined as “newness” of the materials. Juvenile D. magna were raised individually in; a) new laboratory-standard 50 ml polypropylene tubes, and; b) identical tubes which had been washed and aerated for several weeks. Newness had significant effects on growth and fecundity of D. magna. New tubes caused delayed maturation, reduced reproduction and reduced growth when compared to washed and re-used tubes of the same commercial brand. The findings indicate that newness of tubes has inhibiting or toxic effects on D. magna. Often laboratory plastics are intended for single-use due to sterility demands. Newness might be an important confounding factor in research results and should not be disregarded. Disposable plastic utensils may come with a seemingly ignored cost and induce adverse effects in biological test-organisms and systems. The presented findings accentuate continued need for general awareness concerning confounding factors stemming from material laboratory environment. Based on the present findings the authors suggest that plastics intended for use in sensitive research may need to be washed and aerated prior to use. PMID:28425469

  13. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  14. An L-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an L-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator (P<0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (P<0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls (P<0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  15. Large Litter Rearing Improves Leptin Sensitivity and Hypothalamic Appetite Markers in Offspring of Rat Dams Fed High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model. PMID:24926823

  16. Large litter rearing improves leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic appetite markers in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Moran, Timothy H; Yan, Jianqun

    2014-09-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model.

  17. Serum clinical biochemical and hematologic reference ranges of laboratory-reared and wild-caught Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sabrina; Felt, Stephen; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Howard, Antwain; Behan, Colleen; Moorhead, Roberta; Green, Sherril

    2011-09-01

    The South African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis are fully aquatic amphibians and well-established animal models. Because genetically engineered laboratory Xenopus are now being produced, the establishment of normal reference ranges for serum biochemical and hematologic parameters is essential for phenotyping and as a diagnostic aide. We determined normal reference ranges for hematologic values from 3 populations of X. laevis: wild-caught frogs (n = 43) and frogs from 2 commercial sources (A, n = 166; B, n = 109). For serum biochemistry, we determined normal reference ranges for frogs from source A and wild-caught frogs divided by sex and season. Significant differences across populations were found in WBC and RBC counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. Among serum biochemical analytes, significant differences were found for albumin:globulin ratio, anion gap, and concentrations of albumin, globulin, total protein, lipase, alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; creatine phosphokinase; indirect, direct, and total bilirubin; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein lipase, carbon dioxide, glucose, lactacte dehydrogenase, calcium, chloride, and sodium. We hypothesize that these differences can be attributed to differences in water quality, habitat, ambient temperature, diet, sex, recent transport or shipment, and genetic background. However, testing that hypothesis is beyond the scope of the current study. In addition, clinical chemistry and hematologic reference range values Xenopus laevis are quite distinct from those for other species and are most consistent with the only values published for another fully aquatic amphibian, the Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis).

  18. Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Resolve the Species, Gender, Age, and the Presence of Wolbachia Infection in Laboratory-Reared Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Wen C.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Ballard, J. William O.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age, and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory-reared Drosophila. NIRS measures the absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model was developed for each study. An independent set with flies not involved in initial cross-validation was then used to validate the accuracy of each calibration model. Flies from the independent sets were correctly classified into Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans with 94% and 82% accuracy, respectively, whereas flies were successfully classified by gender with accuracy greater than 90%. In the age grading test, correlation plots of the actual and predicted age for males and females of D. melanogaster and D. simulans were shown to be overlapping between the adjacent age groups. It is, however, possible to predict the age of flies as less than 9 days of age with 62–88% accuracy and flies that are equal to or older than 9 days of age with 91–98% accuracy. Finally, we used NIRS to detect the presence of Wolbachia in flies. Flies from the independent sets were successfully identified as infected or not infected with Wolbachia with approximately 90% accuracy. These results suggest that NIRS has the potential to quantify the species, gender, and presence of Wolbachia in fly populations. However, additional optimization of the protocol may be necessary before the technique can reliably estimate fly age. PMID:22973543

  19. Complete larval development of Thor amboinensis (De Man, 1888) Decapoda: Thoridae) described from laboratory-reared material
    and identified by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Salabert, Joana; Santos, Antonina Dos

    2016-01-18

    Of the 12 species of Thor described until present date, only three (25%) have their complete larval development known. Present work describes the complete larval development of Thor amboinensis, based on laboratory-reared material. The spent females were identified through the analysis of the partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA barcode, also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the recently resurrected and recognized family Thoridae Kingsley, 1879. Eight zoeal stages and one decapodid complete this species larval development. In the genus Thor, the number of zoeal stages varies greatly from two (T. dobkini) to eight (T. amboinensis and T. floridanus). The larvae of T. ambionensis and T. floridanus are readily distinguished from each other by the ornamentation of the ventral margin of the carapace and the pereiopods development. The first zoeal stage of T. amboinensis described by Yang & Okuno (2004) and the one described in present study are very similar. A brief discussion on the morphological characters and on the number of zoeal stages of the genus, as well as of the previous larval descriptions is made. The phylogenetic analysis suggest cryptic speciation for geographical separated populations of T. amboinensis, paraphyly of the genus Eualus, and the reassignment of E. cranchii to a different genus.

  20. Additional moults into ‘elongatus’ males in laboratory-reared Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae) – implications for taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    David, Jean-Francois; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The number of stadia during post-embryonic development is supposed to be fixed in most species of the millipede order Polydesmida. For the first time since 1928, additional moults were observed in two males of Polydesmus angustus Latzel, 1884 reared in the laboratory. These ‘elongatus’ males sensu Verhoeff reached stadium IX instead of stadium VIII, with addition of a further podous ring (32 pairs of legs). One male had well-developed gonopods at stadium VIII, which regressed at stadium IX; the other had no gonopods at stadium VIII, which developed at stadium IX. The two cases correspond to the ‘regressionis’ and ‘progressionis’ forms described by Verhoeff in Polydesmus complanatus (Linnaeus, 1761), which confirms entirely his results. Additional moults appear to be associated with small body sizes and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. Comparisons between millipede orders indicate that post-embryonic development is less strictly canalized in Polydesmida than in Chordeumatida. This implies that the adult number of body rings is of limited taxonomic value in Polydesmida and should not be viewed as a character of generic importance. PMID:22303094

  1. Milwaukee Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Murphy, Amy; Becker, Julie N.; Baker, Bevan K.

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) of the Association of Public Health Laboratories aims to improve state public health laboratory (PHL) system performance through continuous quality improvement. We successfully applied this state assessment tool to a local PHL (LPHL) system by tailoring it to reflect local system needs and created an LPHL system definition explaining how a local system differs from, yet complements, a state system. On November 18, 2010, 75 stakeholders from 40 agencies assessed the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, PHL system, capturing themes, strengths and weaknesses of the system, and scores for each of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. A Laboratory Advisory Committee analyzed assessment results to identify a strategic focus of research and workforce development and define an action plan, which is now being carried out. Milwaukee's L-SIP process is effectively improving LPHL system research and workforce development while raising community awareness of the system. PMID:23997302

  2. Milwaukee Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP).

    PubMed

    Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Murphy, Amy; Becker, Julie N; Baker, Bevan K

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) of the Association of Public Health Laboratories aims to improve state public health laboratory (PHL) system performance through continuous quality improvement. We successfully applied this state assessment tool to a local PHL (LPHL) system by tailoring it to reflect local system needs and created an LPHL system definition explaining how a local system differs from, yet complements, a state system. On November 18, 2010, 75 stakeholders from 40 agencies assessed the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, PHL system, capturing themes, strengths and weaknesses of the system, and scores for each of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. A Laboratory Advisory Committee analyzed assessment results to identify a strategic focus of research and workforce development and define an action plan, which is now being carried out. Milwaukee's L-SIP process is effectively improving LPHL system research and workforce development while raising community awareness of the system.

  3. Fine-scale transition to lower bacterial diversity and altered community composition precedes shell disease in laboratory-reared juvenile American lobster.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Sarah G; Unzueta Martínez, Andrea; Bowen, Jennifer L; Tlusty, Michael F

    2017-03-30

    The American lobster Homarus americanus supports a valuable commercial fishery in the Northeastern USA and Maritime Canada; however, stocks in the southern portion of the lobster's range have shown declines, in part due to the emergence of shell disease. Epizootic shell disease is a bacterially induced cuticular erosion that renders even mildly affected lobsters unmarketable because of their appearance, and in more severe cases can cause mortality. Despite the importance of this disease, the associated bacterial communities have not yet been fully characterized. We sampled 2 yr old, laboratory-reared lobsters that displayed signs of shell disease at the site of disease as well as at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm away from the site of disease to determine how the bacterial community changed over this fine spatial scale. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a distinct bacterial community at the site of disease, with significant reductions in bacterial diversity and richness compared to more distant sampling locations. The bacterial community composition 0.5 cm from the site of disease was also altered, and there was an observable decrease in bacterial diversity and richness, even though there were no signs of disease at that location. Given the distinctiveness of the bacterial community at the site of disease and 0.5 cm from the site of disease, we refer to these communities as affected and transitionary, and suggest that these bacteria, including the previously proposed causative agent, Aquimarina 'homaria', are important for the initiation and progression of this laboratory model of shell disease.

  4. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yukio

    In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ℃ for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ℃) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

  6. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  7. Anti-predator behaviour of adult red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) tutors improves the defensive responses of farm-reared broods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, C; Alonso, M E; Tizado, E J; Pérez, J A; Armenteros, J A; Gaudioso, V R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to improve natural anti-predator behaviour of farm-reared gamebirds. We evaluated the anti-predator behaviour of reared red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa chicks kept in brooder houses in large groups (>350 chicks), trained and not trained by parent red-legged partridges acting as experienced tutors. The experiment consisted of two conditioned tests (a raptor model and a human) and two control tests, which were conducted during three consecutive phases of life (1-4, 15-17 and 30-32 d after hatching). The motor anti-predator behaviour, its duration, the intensity of response in chicks and alarm calls elicited by adults were recorded. Tutors elicited aerial alarm calls (76% of tests) and showed prolonged crouching (59% of tests) in response to the raptor model whereas uttering the ground alarm call (73% of tests) and showing vigilance behaviour (78% of tests) was the main pattern during the human test. Trained and not trained chicks showed similar motor behaviour in response to the raptor model (crouching) and the human test (escaping), but frequency of strong responses (all chicks responding) from chicks trained with tutors was double that of chicks trained without them, and chicks trained with tutors showed a higher frequency of long responses (41-60 s). This study indicates that anti-predator training programmes before release may improve behaviour of farm-reared partridges which may confer benefits to survival of birds.

  8. Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

    2013-04-01

    Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence.

  9. Effects of crude extracts of a saxitoxin-producer strain of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii on the swimming behavior of wild and laboratory reared guppy Poecilia vivipara.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Karina C; Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S; Dos Santos, Everton G N; Cunha, Rodolfo A; Santos, Cláudia P

    2017-04-01

    The cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is an invasive species in water supply reservoirs worldwide, which can produces cylindrospermopsins and saxitoxins. In the wild, guppy (Poecilia vivipara) can be exposed to cyanotoxins, but those born and reared in laboratory are free of this contact. The aim of this paper was to comparatively measure the locomotor activity of 'wild' and 'lab' P. vivipara before and after exposure to crude extracts of two different cultures of C. raciborskii (CYRF-01), a saxitoxin-procucer strain. The movement of each fish was recorded using an image monitoring system (Videomex V(®)) before and after 48 h exposure to cyanobacterial extracts. Each experiment was performed during 4 h, with 1 h acclimation and 3 h recording period of the parameters Distance performed (DP), Swimming time (SwT), Stereotypic time (StT), Resting time (RT) and Average speed (AS). The quantification of saxitoxin in the solutions was performed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The weight or the total length did not influence the locomotor activity of fish in any of the experiments. The saxitoxin value was similar for both cultures (Culture 1: 7.3 μg L(-1) and Culture 2: 8.6 μg L(-1)). However, in experiments with Culture 1 an increased activity in most parameters was observed, while in Culture 2, a decreased activity was observed only in 'lab' fish. Wild fish was less affected, showing higher resistance to both cyanobacterial crude extracts. This study showed that different cultures of the same strain of C. raciborskii and with similar contents of saxitoxin are able to change the locomotor activity of P. vivipara, contributing to the validation of the use of behavioral parameters to the evaluation of sublethal effects of toxic cyanobacteria on fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  11. Rearing conditions and domestication background determine regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in adulthood-laboratory CD1 and C57Bl/6 mice versus wild house mice.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, A T U

    2013-01-03

    Brain development is sensitive to an individual's interaction with its environment. Deprivation of natural environmental stimulation especially in the phase after weaning has long-lasting consequences on neuroplasticity. However, previous findings concerning the effects of rearing environment on adult hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in rodents remain contradictory. To address the question, whether the variability of hippocampal plasticity in response to environmental conditions is a unique feature at least in mice, the present study examined the effects of social and physical deprivation during brain development on hippocampal cell production and survival in adults of three mouse strains (Mus musculus) with different domestication background: outbred CD1, inbred C57Bl/6 and the F2-descendants of wild-caught house mice. Wheel running increased cell proliferation rates in the dentate gyrus of CD1 and C57Bl/6 mice reared under socially and physically deprived conditions, but not from enriched conditions. In wild house mice, neither the rearing conditions nor the wheel-running challenge did affect proliferative activity. This indicates, on the one hand, that wild house mice are more robust in their regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation against environmental influences and, on the other hand, that domestication and rearing background of laboratory animals impact neuroplastic potentials and responsiveness to external stimuli in adulthood.

  12. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-06-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage ( V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PEDOT:PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PEDOT:PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  13. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma.

    PubMed

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  14. 75 FR 12554 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for..., Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,...

  15. Improving quality management systems of laboratories in developing countries: an innovative training approach to accelerate laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katy; McKinney, Barbara; Murphy, Anna; Rotz, Phil; Wafula, Winnie; Sendagire, Hakim; Okui, Scolastica; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) program was developed to promote immediate, measurable improvement in laboratories of developing countries. The laboratory management framework, a tool that prescribes managerial job tasks, forms the basis of the hands-on, activity-based curriculum. SLMTA is implemented through multiple workshops with intervening site visits to support improvement projects. To evaluate the effectiveness of SLMTA, the laboratory accreditation checklist was developed and subsequently adopted by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO). The SLMTA program and the implementation model were validated through a pilot in Uganda. SLMTA yielded observable, measurable results in the laboratories and improved patient flow and turnaround time in a laboratory simulation. The laboratory staff members were empowered to improve their own laboratories by using existing resources, communicate with clinicians and hospital administrators, and advocate for system strengthening. The SLMTA program supports laboratories by improving management and building preparedness for accreditation.

  16. Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

  17. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

  18. Impacts of extended laboratory rearing on female fitness in Florida colonies of the parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with an analysis of wolbachia strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spalangia cameroni is used as a biological control agent of filth flies. These parasitoids are reared commercially, but little is known about the impact of colony age on host-seeking and life history parameters. Host-seeking in equine shavings and manure was analyzed with two colony ages established...

  19. Moving out of the laboratory: does nicotine improve everyday attention?

    PubMed

    Rusted, J M; Caulfield, D; King, L; Goode, A

    2000-11-01

    The most robust demonstrations of the nicotine-related performance effects on human cognitive processes are seen in tasks that measure attention. If nicotine does have some potential for enhancing attention, the obvious question to ask is whether the effects demonstrated in the laboratory hold any significance for real-life performance. This paper describes three studies that compare the effects in smokers of a single own brand cigarette on laboratory tests of attention and on everyday analogues of these laboratory tasks. In the laboratory measures of sustained attention and in the everyday analogue, performance advantages were registered in the smoking condition. These benefits were observed in smokers who abstained for a self-determined period of not less than 2 h. The studies were unable to replicate previous research reporting positive effects of smoking on a laboratory task of selective attention, the Stroop task. Small but significant improvements in performance were registered in the everyday analogues, which involved sustaining attention in a dual task situation, a telephone directory search task and a map search task. In addition, smokers showed a significant colour-naming decrement for smoking-related stimuli in the Stroop task. This attentional bias towards smoking-related words occurred independent of whether they had abstained or recently smoked an own brand cigarette. The effect is discussed in terms of the two-component model of processing bias for emotionally valenced stimuli.

  20. Improvements in the Child-Rearing Attitudes of Latina Mothers Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma Predict Greater Maternal Sensitivity Toward Their 6-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Waters, Sara F; Hagan, Melissa J; Rivera, Luisa; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated maternal sensitivity in a treatment-seeking sample of predominately Latina, low-income pregnant women with histories of interpersonal trauma exposure. Pregnant women (N = 52; M = 27.08 years, SD = 5.66) who enrolled in a study of a perinatal adaptation of child-parent psychotherapy reported on their posttraumatic stress symptoms and child-rearing attitudes at baseline and again at 6-months postpartum. Maternal sensitivity was measured via observational coding of a free-play episode at 6-months postpartum. Two thirds of mothers exhibited healthy levels of maternal sensitivity, M > 4.0 (range = 2.5-7.0). The results of multiple linear regression predicting maternal sensitivity, R(2) = .26, indicated that greater improvements in child-rearing attitudes over the course of treatment predicted higher levels of maternal sensitivity, β = .33, whereas improvements in posttraumatic stress symptoms over the course of treatment did not, β = -.10. Mothers' attitudes regarding parenting during the perinatal period may be a mechanism by which intervention fosters healthy mother-infant relationship dynamics. Thus, parenting attitudes are a worthy target of intervention in vulnerable families.

  1. Cytopathology laboratory improvement programs of the College of American Pathologists: Laboratory Accreditation Program (CAP LAP) and Performance Improvement Program in Cervicovaginal Cytology (CAP PAP).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M L

    1997-03-01

    Major programs of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) are directed toward improvement of laboratory practices through peer review, interlaboratory comparison, education, and development of practice standards and guidelines. Two programs provided to cytopathology laboratories, the Laboratory Accreditation Program and the Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Cervicovaginal Cytology, are dedicated to these laboratory improvement principles. In 1996, each of these programs served over 2100 laboratories that provide cytopathology services. This paper reviews the peer development, structure, and administration of the Laboratory Accreditation Program and the Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Cervicovaginal Cytology, focusing on recent and ongoing initiatives to enhance their contribution to continued improvement of gynecologic cytopathology laboratory practices.

  2. Application of the Toyota Production System improves core laboratory operations.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Joe; Xu, Min; Simpson, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increased clinical demands of our hospital expansion, improve quality, and reduce costs, our tertiary care, pediatric core laboratory used the Toyota Production System lean processing to reorganize our 24-hour, 7 d/wk core laboratory. A 4-month, consultant-driven process removed waste, led to a physical reset of the space to match the work flow, and developed a work cell for our random access analyzers. In addition, visual controls, single piece flow, standard work, and "5S" were instituted. The new design met our goals as reflected by achieving and maintaining improved turnaround time (TAT; mean for creatinine reduced from 54 to 23 minutes) with increased testing volume (20%), monetary savings (4 full-time equivalents), decreased variability in TAT, and better space utilization (25% gain). The project had the unanticipated consequence of eliminating STAT testing because our in-laboratory TAT for routine testing was less than our prior STAT turnaround goal. The viability of this approach is demonstrated by sustained gains and further PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) improvements during the 4 years after completion of the project.

  3. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  4. [Improvement of routine works and quality control in mycobacterial laboratory].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Higuchi, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    Many new methods have been introduced into routine laboratory works in microbiology since 1990. Molecular biology, in particular, opened a new era and promoted a technician's skill much. PCR and hybridization technique have been ordinary one in many laboratories. Since old techniques such as smear and culture are still needed, amount of routine works is increasing gradually. Thus, improving efficiency and keeping quality of routine works are becoming more and more important issues. This symposium focused on such points, and four skilled technicians around Japan presented their own tips. 1. Coexistence of M. tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC) in the MGIT culture system: Yasushi WATANABE (Clinical Laboratory Division, NHO Nishi-Niigata Chuo National Hospital). Sputum samples of some tuberculosis patients yielded only MAC in the MGIT culture system. Such co-infected cases presented problems to mislead proper treatment and infection control. The detection rate of MAC was significantly high, and the growth speed of MAC was significantly rapid in the MGIT culture system, compared to those of M. tuberculosis. Additionally, M. tuberculosis was not detected with even more quantity than MAC in the small amount of mixed samples. Higher sensitivity and growth speed of MAC are the important characteristics of the MGIT system. 2. Internal quality control with ordinary examination results: Akio AONO (Department of Clinical Examination, Double-Barred Cross Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). Our laboratory utilizes ordinary examination results as the internal quality control for specimen pretreatment, culture, and drug susceptibility testing. The contamination rate of MGIT culture system is useful for the evaluation of the decontamination process. It was 6.3% on average in our laboratory in 2005. The number of drug resistant strains is also useful to assess the performance of drug susceptibility testing. The incidence of each anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

  5. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  6. Case study: improving efficiency in a large hospital laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Marilynn

    2004-01-01

    Saint Francis Health System (SFHS) consists of three hospitals and one clinic: Saint Francis Hospital (SFH); Broken Arrow Medical Center; Laureate Psychiatric Hospital; and Warren Clinic. SFHS has 670 physicians on staff and serves medical (oncology, orthopedic, neurology, and renal), surgical, cardiac, women and infant, pediatric, transplant, and trauma patients in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, which has a population of 660,000. SFH incorporates 706 staffed beds, including 126 pediatric beds and 119 critical care beds. Each year, the health system averages 38,000 admissions, 70,000 emergency department visits, 25,000 surgeries, and 3,500 births. Saint Francis Laboratory is located within the main hospital facility (SFH) and functions as a core lab for the health system. The lab also coordinates lab services with Saint Francis Heart Hospital, a physician-system joint venture. The Optimal Equipment Configuration (OEC) Project was designed by the Clinical Laboratory Services division of Premier, a group purchasing organization, with the goal of determining whether laboratories could improve efficiency and decrease unit cost by using a single-source vendor. Participants included seven business partners (Abbott, Bayer, Beckman/Coulter, Dade/Behring, J&J/ Ortho, Olympus, and Roche) and 21 laboratory sites (a small, mid-sized, and large site for each vendor). SFH laboratory staff embraced Premier's concept and viewed the OEC project as an opportunity to "energize" laboratory operations. SFH partnered with Abbott, their primary equipment vendor, for the project. Using resources and tools made available through the project, the laboratory was re-engineered to simplify workflow, increase productivity, and decrease costs by adding automation and changing to centralized specimen processing. Abbott and SFH shared a common vision for the project and enhanced their partnership through increased communication and problem solving. Abbott's area representatives provided for third

  7. Critical components required to improve deployable laboratory biological hazards identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, Debra M.

    2004-08-01

    An ever-expanding global military mission necessitates quick and accurate identification of biological hazards, whether naturally occurring or man-made. Coupled with an ever-present threat of biological attack, an expanded U.S. presence in worn-torn locations like Southwest Asia presents unique public health challenges. We must heed modern day "lessons learned" from Operation Desert Shield and the Soviet Afghanistan Campaign and guard against rapid incapacitation of troop strength from endemic disease and biological attack. To minimize readiness impacts, field hygiene is enforced, and research on better medical countermeasures such as antibiotics and vaccines continues. However, there are no preventions or remedies for all military-relevant infectious diseases or biological agents. A deployable, streamlined, self-contained diagnostic and public health surveillance laboratory capability with a reach-back communication is critical to meeting global readiness challenges. Current deployable laboratory packages comprise primarily diagnostic or environmental sample testing capabilities. Discussion will focus on critical components needed to improve existing laboratory assets, and to facilitate deployment of small, specialized packages far forward. The ideal laboratory model described will become an essential tool for the Combatant or Incident Commander to maintain force projection in the expeditionary environment.

  8. Improving carotenoids production in yeast via adaptive laboratory evolution.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Luis H; Gomez, Jose M; Kao, Katy C

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution is an important tool for the engineering of strains for industrially relevant phenotypes. Traditionally, adaptive laboratory evolution has been implemented to improve robustness of industrial strains under diverse operational conditions; however due to the required coupling between growth and survival, its application for increased production of secondary metabolites generally results in decreased production due to the metabolic burden imposed by, or toxicity of, the produced compound. In this study, adaptive laboratory evolution was successfully applied to improve carotenoids production in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae producer strain by exploiting the antioxidant properties of carotenoids. Short-term evolution experiment using periodic hydrogen peroxide shocking schemes resulted in a 3-fold increase in carotenoids production (from 6 mg/g dry cell weight to up to 18 mg/g dry cell weight). Subsequent transcriptome analysis was used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for increased carotenoids production. Upregulation of genes related with lipid biosynthesis and mevalonate biosynthesis pathways were commonly observed in the carotenoids hyper-producers analyzed. © 2013 Published by International Metabolic Engineering Society on behalf of International Metabolic Engineering Society.

  9. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  10. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  11. Improving Laboratory and Clinical Hematology Services in Resource Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Allen, Angela; Allen, Stephen; Olivieri, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    The difficulties in establishing and delivering reliable clinical hematology and laboratory services in resource-limited settings are well recognized. However, much can be achieved by better use of existing resources through a concerted quality improvement approach. The recommendations of this article are based in part upon work in the thalassemias, inherited disorders of hemoglobin that are widely prevalent in Asia, which may serve as a model that is applicable to other common, chronic disorders in resource-poor settings. Available resources are highlighted and recommendations made regarding approaches to improving services. Over the last few years, a number of low and middle-income countries, obtaining support from appropriate governmental sources, have identified and overcome difficulties and significantly improved clinical services for patients with thalassemia.

  12. L-carnitine supplementation decreases lipid peroxidation and improves cardiopulmonary function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Khajali, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance and cardiopulmonary function of broiler chickens reared at high altitude (2100 m above sea level). A total of 96 day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned into two dietary treatments containing 0 (control group) and 200 mg/kg L-carnitine. The experimental diets were fed for a period of 42 days consisting of the starting (days 1 to 21) and growing periods (days 21 to 42). Nutrient requirements of chickens met the NRC (1994) recommendations. The results showed that dietary L-carnitine had no significant influence on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. L-carnitine reduced plasma concentration of malondialdehyde, packed cell volume (PCV) and abdominal fat deposition compared to the control (P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) in birds receiving L-carnitine when compared to the control. Supplementation of L-carnitine increased plasma nitric oxide and immune responsiveness, which manifested in an increased toe-web thickness index measured at 24 h following the injection of phytohaemagglutinin P. In conclusion, supplementation of L-carnitine had beneficial effects on preventing lipid peroxidation and pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens raised at high altitude.

  13. Errors in laboratory medicine: practical lessons to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Howanitz, Peter J

    2005-10-01

    Patient safety is influenced by the frequency and seriousness of errors that occur in the health care system. Error rates in laboratory practices are collected routinely for a variety of performance measures in all clinical pathology laboratories in the United States, but a list of critical performance measures has not yet been recommended. The most extensive databases describing error rates in pathology were developed and are maintained by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). These databases include the CAP's Q-Probes and Q-Tracks programs, which provide information on error rates from more than 130 interlaboratory studies. To define critical performance measures in laboratory medicine, describe error rates of these measures, and provide suggestions to decrease these errors, thereby ultimately improving patient safety. A review of experiences from Q-Probes and Q-Tracks studies supplemented with other studies cited in the literature. Q-Probes studies are carried out as time-limited studies lasting 1 to 4 months and have been conducted since 1989. In contrast, Q-Tracks investigations are ongoing studies performed on a yearly basis and have been conducted only since 1998. Participants from institutions throughout the world simultaneously conducted these studies according to specified scientific designs. The CAP has collected and summarized data for participants about these performance measures, including the significance of errors, the magnitude of error rates, tactics for error reduction, and willingness to implement each of these performance measures. A list of recommended performance measures, the frequency of errors when these performance measures were studied, and suggestions to improve patient safety by reducing these errors. Error rates for preanalytic and postanalytic performance measures were higher than for analytic measures. Eight performance measures were identified, including customer satisfaction, test turnaround times, patient identification

  14. Report: NSF Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) have been announced and are listed below. The ILI program provides matching funds in the range of 5,000 to 100,000 for purchasing equipment for laboratory improvement. Since the recipient institution must provide matching funds equaling or exceeding the NSF award, the supported projects range in cost from 10,000 to over 200,000. The 311 chemistry proposals requesting 13 million constituted 21% of the total number of proposals submitted to the ILI program. A total of 3.9 million was awarded in support of 110 projects in chemistry. The instruments requested most frequently were high field NMRs, GC/MS instruments, computers for data analysis, and FT-IRs; next most commonly requested were UV-vis spectrophotometers, followed by HPLCs, lasers, computers for molecular modeling, AAs, and GCs. In addition, one award was made this year in chemistry within the Leadership in Laboratory Development category. The next deadline for submission of ILI proposals is November 14, 1997. Guidelines for the preparation of proposals are found in the DUE Program Announcement (NSF 96-10), which may be obtained by calling (703) 306-1666 or by e-mail: undergrad@nsf.gov. Other information about DUE programs and activities and abstracts of the funded proposals can be found on the DUE Home Page at http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/DUE/start.htm. We thank Sandra D. Nelson, Science Education Analyst in DUE, for assistance in data gathering.

  15. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  16. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  17. Improved data acquisition system at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norum, W. Eric

    1994-02-01

    An improved data acquisition system has been in service at the Saskatchewan accelerator laboratory for the past 14 months. The system has shown itself to be reliable and easy to use having collected over 800 gigabytes of data for a number of experiments. The system is based on a VME front end computer acquiring data from CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and forwarding the data via an Ethernet connection to an acquisition workstation for archiving and on-line analysis. A multiprocessor real-time operating system in the front end computer makes increasing the performance of the system a simple matter of adding an additional processor to the VME chassis. Experiments need only write a high-level description of their experiments which is transformed into a C program for the front end computer by a translation program. Special requirements are met by facilities for direct inclusion of user C or FORTRAN code.

  18. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  19. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Zhou, Yan; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; Brookshear, Daniel W.; Stump, Benjamin C.; Viola, Michael B.; Zreik, Khaled; Ahmed, Tasfia

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  20. Laboratory and field testing of improved geothermal rock bits

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-07-01

    The development and testing of 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bits are described. The new bits were fabricated by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability, and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Two types of experimental bits were subjected to laboratory air drilling tests at 250/sup 0/C (482/sup 0/F) in cast iron. These tests indicated field testing could be conducted without danger to the hole, and that bearing wear would be substantially reduced. Six additional experimental bits, and eight conventional bits were then subjected to air drilling a 240/sup 0/C (464/sup 0/F) in Francisan Graywacke at The Geysers, CA. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction-pin wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. Geysers drilling performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling life was increased by 70%. All bits at The Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole over the conventional bits. These tests demonstrated a potential well cost reduction of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  1. Curiosity Rear View, Annotated

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-06

    This labeled version of one of the first images taken by a rear Hazard-Avoidance camera on NASA Curiosity rover shows a fin on the radioisotope thermoelectric generator, the rear left wheel and a spring that released the dust cover.

  2. Improving the Diet for the Rearing of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead: Blood Source and Collection – Processing – Feeding Procedures

    PubMed Central

    De Beer, Chantel J.; Venter, Gert J.; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) colonies is the sustainable supply of high quality blood meals. The effect of using anticoagulants during collection of the blood, the addition of phagostimulants to the blood meals as well as using mixtures of bovine and porcine blood in different proportions for feeding on colony productivity was assessed. Defibrinated bovine blood was found to be suitable to maintain both the Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead colonies. Blood collected with the anticoagulants sodium citrate, citric sodium combination, citrate phosphate dextrose adenine and citric acid did not affect colony performance of both species. Defibrinated bovine and porcine blood in a 1:1 ratio or the feeding of either bovine or porcine blood on alternating days improved pupae production of G. austeni and can be used to enhance colony growth. Bovine blood is appropriate to maintain G. brevipalpis colonies, however, feeding either bovine or porcine blood on alternating days did improve productivity. Adding the phagostimulants inosine tri-phosphate, cytosine mono-phosphate and guanosine mono-phosphate to the blood at a concentration of 10−4 M improved pupae production of the G. brevipalpis colony. The addition of adenosine tri-phosphate and inosine tri-phosphate improved the performance of the G. austeni colony. Decisions on the most suitable rearing diet and feeding protocols will not only depend on the biological requirements of the species but also on the continuous supply of a suitable blood source that can be collected and processed in a cost-effective way. PMID:28006007

  3. Decoding Student Satisfaction: How to Manage and Improve the Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, Sasha; Ritz, Christian; Vial, Peter James; Ros, Montserrat; Stirling, David

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory plays an important role in teaching engineering skills. An Electrical Engineering department at an Australian University implemented a reform to monitor and improve student satisfaction with the teaching laboratories. A Laboratory Manager was employed to oversee the quality of 27 courses containing instructional laboratories.…

  4. Evaluation of strategies to improve village chicken production: controlled field trials to assess effects of Newcastle disease vaccination and altered chick rearing in Myanmar [corrected].

    PubMed

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2009-07-01

    Previous research identified Newcastle disease and poor management of chicks (birds younger than 6 weeks of age) as major constraints to village chicken production in Myanmar. Based on these findings, controlled trials were conducted in 124 randomly selected households in nine villages in Myanmar over a period of 12 months to evaluate strategies to enhance survival of village chickens. Two intervention strategies were assessed: Newcastle disease vaccination using the thermostable I-2 vaccine and changes to the management of chick rearing (confinement and supplementary feeding). These interventions were applied in two trials: (1) a randomised controlled trial to compare I-2 vaccination, altered chick management and no intervention (apart from placebo treatment) at household level and (2) nested within this trial, a double-blinded controlled trial at bird-level to compare serological titres between I-2 vaccinated and placebo-treated birds both between and within households. Outcomes measured in the first trial were crude incidence rate of mortality, proportional mortality rate for deaths due to disease stratified by age group of birds and mortality attributed to Newcastle disease, number of sales, income from sale of birds, consumption of birds and hatching of birds. Odds of having protective titres two weeks after vaccination were up to 125 times higher in I-2 vaccinated birds and up to 47 times higher in control birds in contact with I-2 vaccinates compared to birds without I-2 contact. Vaccination against Newcastle disease reduced the proportions of mortalities assumed to be caused by disease in growers and chicks. Crude mortality incidence was lower in households that applied management changes to chick rearing. In household-months when birds were sold, numbers sold were higher and income from sale of birds were about 2.50 US dollars per month higher in households allocated to altered chick management. Altered chick management resulted in more households having

  5. Increasing dietary vitamin D3 improves the walking ability and welfare status of broiler chickens reared at high stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z W; Yan, L; G, Y Y; Zhao, J P; Lin, H; Guo, Y M

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying dietary vitamin D3 and stocking density on growing performance, carcass characteristics, bone biomechanical properties, and welfare responses in Ross (308) broilers. Experimental diets, containing 1, 10, or 20 times the NRC recommended level of vitamin D3 (200 IU/kg), were formulated with low, medium, or high vitamin D3 levels for 3 growing phases. Two stocking densities were 10 and 16 birds/m(2). One-day-old hatchlings (1,872 males) were randomly assigned to 6 pens in each treatment. Results showed that high stocking density decreased the feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.01), breast muscle yield (P = 0.010), and tibial development (P < 0.01), whereas increasing feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001), and the scores of gait, footpad and hock burn, and abdominal plumage damage (P < 0.01), particularly toward the age when birds attained their market size. Increasing dietary vitamin D3 improved the birds' walking ability and tibial quality (P < 0.05), and reduced the development of footpad or hock dermatitis and abdominal plumage damage (P < 0.01), some aspects of which were age-dependent and appeared to vary with stocking density. These data indicate that increasing supplemental vitamin D3 has a favorable effect on walking ability and welfare status of high stocking density birds, but not on performance.

  6. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  7. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  8. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  9. Applying Psychology and Philosophy to the Improvement of Laboratory Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1979-01-01

    Models, based on Gowin's Epistomological V model, are presented which are intended to be useful in illustrating ideas to students about how knowledge is acquired and how to relate laboratory work to the concept being learned. (SA)

  10. [Laboratory diagnosis of cholera: analysis and prospects for improvement].

    PubMed

    Telesmanich, N R; Lomov, Iu M

    2009-11-01

    Microbiological monitoring of the circulation of Vibro cholerae remains one of the key factors contributing to optimization of epidemiological surveillance in a specific area and the laboratory diagnosis of cholera is a basic applied tool for the detection and characterization of isolated cultures. The quality of etiological identification of the pathogen, the competent use of procedures, and the observance of a laboratory diagnosis scheme increases the likelihood of the cholera pathogen being detected in the samples taken from human beings and environmental objects, which allows to timely notify the disease and to prevent it. The current goals of investigations include the development of more accessible and rapid methods that would further find their place in the scheme for the laboratory diagnosis of cholera.

  11. Reproduction and larval rearing of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Browne, Robert K; Zippel, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in these reproduction technologies have been driven by (1) difficulties with achieving reliable reproduction of threatened species in captive breeding programs, (2) the need for the efficient reproduction of laboratory model species, and (3) the cost of maintaining increasing numbers of amphibian gene lines for both research and conservation. Many amphibians are particularly well suited to the use of reproduction technologies due to external fertilization and development. However, due to limitations in our knowledge of reproductive mechanisms, it is still necessary to reproduce many species in captivity by the simulation of natural reproductive cues. Recent advances in reproduction technologies for amphibians include improved hormonal induction of oocytes and sperm, storage of sperm and oocytes, artificial fertilization, and high-density rearing of larvae to metamorphosis. The storage of sperm in particular can both increase the security and reduce the cost of maintaining genetic diversity. It is possible to cryopreserve sperm for millennia, or store it unfrozen for weeks in refrigerators. The storage of sperm can enable multiple parentages of individual females' clutches of eggs and reduce the need to transport animals. Cryopreserved sperm can maintain the gene pool indefinitely, reduce the optimum number of males in captive breeding programs, and usher in new generations of Xenopus spp. germ lines for research. Improved in vitro fertilization using genetic diversity from stored sperm means that investigators need the oocytes from only a few females to produce genetically diverse progeny. In both research and captive breeding programs, it is necessary to provide suitable conditions for the rearing of large numbers of a diverse range of species. Compared with traditional systems, the raising of larvae

  12. 75 FR 1063 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... & Medicaid Services, and the Food and Drug Administration; a report from the CLIAC Biochemical Genetic Testing Workgroup and discussion of the Workgroup's proposals related to good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing; and presentations and discussions related to electronic health records...

  13. 78 FR 6330 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... register for the meeting online at least 5 business days in advance for U.S. citizens and at least 10.... Citizen Registration or Non-U.S. Citizen Registration) and completing all forms according to the... clinical laboratory test results; and assuring the quality of new DNA sequencing technologies in...

  14. The Laboratory. Guides for the Improvement of Instruction in Higher Education, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Lawrence T.; And Others

    This guide for the improvement of instruction in higher education is designed to aid the educator in planning and conducting laboratory instruction. The examples used refer primarily to science laboratories. Topics discussed include: deciding whether or not to use the laboratory method (with a discussion of discovery learning or the processes of…

  15. The Laboratory. Guides for the Improvement of Instruction in Higher Education, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Lawrence T.; And Others

    This guide for the improvement of instruction in higher education is designed to aid the educator in planning and conducting laboratory instruction. The examples used refer primarily to science laboratories. Topics discussed include: deciding whether or not to use the laboratory method (with a discussion of discovery learning or the processes of…

  16. The Future Direction of Regional Educational Laboratories in Contributing to Urban School Improvement. Laboratory Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Floretta Dukes

    This paper examines the current and future roles of organizations such as education laboratories in serving the changing needs of urban education. Concerns for greater effectiveness in support services stem from the growing need to effectively deal with some of the complex, lingering issues which to data have been only marginally addressed. Urban…

  17. The World Health Organization African region laboratory accreditation process: improving the quality of laboratory systems in the African region.

    PubMed

    Gershy-Damet, Guy-Michel; Rotz, Philip; Cross, David; Belabbes, El Hadj; Cham, Fatim; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Fine, Glen; Zeh, Clement; Njukeng, Patrick A; Mboup, Souleymane; Sesse, Daniel E; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Birx, Deborah L; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    Few developing countries have established laboratory quality standards that are affordable and easy to implement and monitor. To address this challenge, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) established a stepwise approach, using a 0- to 5-star scale, to the recognition of evolving fulfillment of the ISO 15189 standard rather than pass-fail grading. Laboratories that fail to achieve an assessment score of at least 55% will not be awarded a star ranking. Laboratories that achieve 95% or more will receive a 5-star rating. This stepwise approach acknowledges to laboratories where they stand, supports them with a series of evaluations to use to demonstrate improvement, and recognizes and rewards their progress. WHO AFRO's accreditation process is not intended to replace established ISO 15189 accreditation schemes, but rather to provide an interim pathway to the realization of international laboratory standards. Laboratories that demonstrate outstanding performance in the WHO-AFRO process will be strongly encouraged to enroll in an established ISO 15189 accreditation scheme. We believe that the WHO-AFRO approach for laboratory accreditation is affordable, sustainable, effective, and scalable.

  18. Laboratory technique for coloring titanium abutments to improve esthetics.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Chandur P K; O'Brien, Richard; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Titanium alloys are used for implant abutments onto which prostheses are attached. One major disadvantage of titanium abutments is their esthetics; the metallic gray color may show through the restorative material or through surrounding tissues. A laboratory technique using readily available household items is described that can alter the abutment color by anodization. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  3. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  4. Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  7. Sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA among isolates of the oxyurid nematodes Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera from mice reared in laboratories in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J H; Lou, Y; Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Liu, Z X; Duan, H; Guo, D H; Gao, D Z; Yue, D M; Wang, C R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0-0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0-0.7% in ITS1 and 0-1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0-65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3-64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods - Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony - revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes.

  8. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  9. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  10. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  11. Validation of a New Larval Rearing Unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Mass Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Jérémie R. L.; Bellini, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT) package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms. PMID:24647347

  12. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed "Barnacle Bill," which Sojourner will later study. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00627

  13. Does mosquito mass-rearing produce an inferior mosquito?

    PubMed

    Soma, Dieudonné D; Maïga, Hamidou; Mamai, Wadaka; Bimbile-Somda, Nanwintoun S; Venter, Nelius; Ali, Adel B; Yamada, Hanano; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Fournet, Florence; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Lees, Rosemary S; Dabiré, Roch K; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2017-09-07

    The success of the sterile insect technique depends, among other things, on continuous releases of sexually competitive sterile males within the target area. Several factors (including high rearing density and physical manipulation, such as larvae and pupae separation) can influence the quality of males produced in mass-rearing facilities. The different steps in mass production in the laboratory may modify the behaviour of mosquitoes, directly or through loss of natural characters as a result of adaptation to lab rearing, and lead to the competitiveness of sterile male being reduced. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of mass-rearing conditions on sterile male sexual competitiveness in semi-field cages compared to routine small scale laboratory rearing methods. Anopheles arabiensis immature stages were reared both on a large scale using a rack and tray system developed by the FAO/IAEA (MRS), and on a small scale using standard laboratory rearing trays (SRS). Mosquito life history traits such as pupation rate, emergence rate, adult size as well as the effect of irradiation on adult longevity were evaluated. Moreover, 5-6 day old mosquitoes were released into field cages and left for two nights to mate and the mating competitiveness between sterile mass-reared males and fertile males reared on a small scale when competing for small scale reared virgin females was investigated. Resulting fertility in a treatment ratio of 1:1:1 (100 irradiated males: 100 non-irradiated males: 100 virgin females) was compared to control cages with 0:100:100 (non-irradiated control) and 100:0:100 (irradiated control). No significant differences in life history parameters were observed between rearing methods. The competitiveness index of mass reared males (0.58) was similar to males reared on a small scale (0.59). A residual fertility rate of 20% was observed in the irradiated control (100:0:100), measured as the percentage of eggs collected from the cages

  14. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  15. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS GARDEN FROM TOWER GROVE SOUTH PORCH - Missouri Botanical Garden, Henry Shaw Townhouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  18. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  19. 43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS LOOKING NORTH TO 19TH CENTURY ADDITION. Arch defines north wall of original house. - George A. Trenholm Mansion, 172 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  1. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  2. The impact of SLMTA in improving laboratory quality systems in the Caribbean Region

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Giselle; Gordon, Floris; Irving, Yvette; Whyms, Ismae; Parris, Keith; Beckles, Songee; Maruta, Talkmore; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Albalak, Rachel; Alemnji, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Past efforts to improve laboratory quality systems and to achieve accreditation for better patient care in the Caribbean Region have been slow. Objective To describe the impact of the Strengthening of Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) training programme and mentorship amongst five clinical laboratories in the Caribbean after 18 months. Method Five national reference laboratories from four countries participated in the SLMTA programme that incorporated classroom teaching and implementation of improvement projects. Mentors were assigned to the laboratories to guide trainees on their improvement projects and to assist in the development of Quality Management Systems (QMS). Audits were conducted at baseline, six months, exit (at 12 months) and post-SLMTA (at 18 months) using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist to measure changes in implementation of the QMS during the period. At the end of each audit, a comprehensive implementation plan was developed in order to address gaps. Results Baseline audit scores ranged from 19% to 52%, corresponding to 0 stars on the SLIPTA five-star scale. After 18 months, one laboratory reached four stars, two reached three stars and two reached two stars. There was a corresponding decrease in nonconformities and development of over 100 management and technical standard operating procedures in each of the five laboratories. Conclusion The tremendous improvement in these five Caribbean laboratories shows that SLMTA coupled with mentorship is an effective, user-friendly, flexible and customisable approach to the implementation of laboratory QMS. It is recommended that other laboratories in the region consider using the SLMTA training programme as they engage in quality systems improvement and preparation for accreditation. PMID:27066396

  3. A novel class of laboratory middleware. Promoting information flow and improving computerized provider order entry.

    PubMed

    Grisson, Ricky; Kim, Ji Yeon; Brodsky, Victor; Kamis, Irina K; Singh, Balaji; Belkziz, Sidi M; Batra, Shalini; Myers, Harold J; Demyanov, Alexander; Dighe, Anand S

    2010-06-01

    A central duty of the laboratory is to inform clinicians about the availability and usefulness of laboratory testing. In this report, we describe a new class of laboratory middleware that connects the traditional clinical laboratory information system with the rest of the enterprise, facilitating information flow about testing services. We demonstrate the value of this approach in efficiently supporting an inpatient order entry application. We also show that order entry monitoring and iterative middleware updates can enhance ordering efficiency and promote improved ordering practices. Furthermore, we demonstrate the value of algorithmic approaches to improve the accuracy and completeness of laboratory test searches. We conclude with a discussion of design recommendations for middleware applications and discuss the potential role of middleware as a sharable, centralized repository of laboratory test information.

  4. Improving consistency in large laboratory courses: a design for a standardized practical exam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinnian; Graesser, Donnasue; Sah, Megha

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory courses serve as important gateways to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. One of the challenges in assessing laboratory learning is to conduct meaningful and standardized practical exams, especially for large multisection laboratory courses. Laboratory practical exams in life sciences courses are frequently administered by asking students to move from station to station to answer questions, apply knowledge gained during laboratory experiments, interpret data, and identify various tissues and organs using various microscopic and gross specimens. This approach puts a stringent time limit on all questions regardless of the level of difficulty and also invariably increases the potential risk of cheating. To avoid potential cheating in laboratory courses with multiple sections, the setup for practical exams is often changed in some way between sections. In laboratory courses with multiple instructors or teaching assistants, practical exams may be handled inconsistently among different laboratory sections, due to differences in background knowledge, perceptions of the laboratory goals, or prior teaching experience. In this article, we describe a design for a laboratory practical exam that aims to align the assessment questions with well-defined laboratory learning objectives and improve the consistency among all laboratory sections. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Laboratory rearing of solitary bees and wasps.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mira C; Keller, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Ecological experiments often require standardized methods that exclude natural variation and allow manipulation of a single parameter. It has been shown that domesticated honey bee larvae are raisable in a controlled environment. Here we demonstrate that this approach is also transferable to wild solitary bees and wasps without inducing negative effects on their development. Wells may also be supplemented with the antibiotic substance oxytetracycline to control the presence of bacteria. The method thus provides a useful tool to investigate offspring recruitment and larval development in solitary bees and wasps, plus their responses to manipulation of factors as for example diets, toxins and microbiota. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Laboratory rearing of emerald ash borer

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Houping Liu; Toby Petrice

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality throughout southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario. More isolated infestations continue to be found throughout Lower Michigan, northern...

  7. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. 493.2001 Section 493.2001 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical...

  8. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. 493.2001 Section 493.2001 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical...

  9. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. 493.2001 Section 493.2001 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical...

  10. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. 493.2001 Section 493.2001 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical...

  11. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. 493.2001 Section 493.2001 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical...

  12. 78 FR 59704 - Medicare, Medicaid, and CLIA Programs; Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... requirements of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) for a period of 6 years. DATES... CLIA is a user-fee funded program. The registration fee paid by laboratories is intended to cover the... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare, Medicaid, and CLIA Programs; Clinical...

  13. Performance-Based Assessment: Improving the Value of Laboratory and Skills Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestrone, Judy M.

    2004-01-01

    Whether in the science or language laboratory, carrying out health care procedures or demonstrating performance arts, faculty can improve skill evaluation through transparency and authenticity in exam construction, format, and grading.

  14. Development of Rear Contact Technologies for Next Generation High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Cooper, Ian

    2012-03-30

    Project Objective: The objective of this program is to develop low-cost high-quality rear contacts and fabricate production-ready high-efficiency monocrystalline (~20%) and multicrystalline (17-18%) silicon solar cells. This efficiency enhancement on thin Si wafers will help achieve the Solar America Initiative goal of a levelized cost of electricity less than 10¢ per kWh by 2015. Background: The efficiency of current c-Si solar cells is strongly dependent on back surface passivation because recent advances in crystal growth and cell processing can produce bulk diffusion lengths greater than the wafer thickness. Improving the rear contact quality realizes three benefits simultaneously: gain in absolute efficiency, ability to use lower quality thin wafers, and better Si utilization. In this project, we will investigate and develop four novel back contact technologies that can lower the back surface recombination velocity (BSRV) and enhance the back surface reflectance (BSR). These rear contact technologies include (a) novel dielectric passivation of the rear surface (b) local contact window opening through a dielectric by screen printing or laser patterning (c) a novel boron diffusion process for p+ back surface field (B-BSF) and (d) a-Si passivation of the p-type rear Si surface in conjunction with screen printed front contacts. Our device modeling and analysis shows that these technologies can raise production-ready large area cell efficiencies in our laboratory from 17.5-18.0% to ~20.0% and expedite their commercialization. These rear contact technologies will allow the use of thin Si wafers (100-150 μm) without any wafer warpage or compromise in cell efficiency.

  15. Rebound after rear impacts.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Burnett, Roger

    2013-01-01

    A number of field accident studies have found that rebound is a source for occupant injury after rear impacts. Sled tests were run to investigate occupant kinematics and rebound, including head velocity and displacement with 3 different seats, 2 conventional seat designs, and 1 all belts to seat (ABTS). Nine rear-end sled tests were run with a belted 50th Hybrid III dummy on a Taurus, Mustang, or Sebring ABTS seat in nominally 16.5, 24.1, and 32.5 km/h rear-end delta Vs. There was no sled braking after the rear acceleration to study rebound from the seat. Dummy kinematics were analyzed from high-speed video and biomechanical responses from triaxial head and chest accelerations, triaxial upper and lower neck loads and moments, and seat belt loads. Peak responses were tabulated during seat back rotation rearward and rebound forward. Ratios of biomechanical and kinematic responses were determined comparing ABTS to conventional seat responses for each delta V. Student's t-test was used to determine significant differences between the ratios of ABTS to conventional seat responses. The rebound velocity of the head varied from 2.9 to 6.8 m/s with respect to the sled. Overall, it was 69 ± 22 percent higher than the sled delta V. It was greatest with ABTS in the highest severity test where seat back yielding absorbed energy and reduced rebound in the conventional seats. The time to maximum forward excursion was significantly shorter with ABTS compared to the conventional seats with a ratio of 0.54 ± 0.34 (t = 6.13, df = 5, P < .001). ABTS seats remain more upright in rear-end crashes and transfer greater load to the occupant during rebound than conventional seats that yield rearward and absorb energy in higher severity crashes. Rebound occurs earlier and at higher velocities with ABTS. This displaces the occupant toward the front interior. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the

  16. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  17. Measuring influenza laboratory capacity: use of a tool to measure improvements.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Pam; Aden, Tricia; Cheng, Po Yung; Moen, Ann

    2017-06-15

    To collect information, identify training needs, and assist with influenza capacity building voluntary laboratory capacity assessments were conducted using a standardized tool in CDC cooperative agreement countries. To understand the usefulness of comparing results from repeat assessments and to determine if targeted training supported improvements, this paper details comparison of assessment results of conducting 17 repeat laboratory assessments between 2009 and 2013. Laboratory assessments were conducted by SMEs in 17 laboratories (16 countries). We reviewed the quantitative assessment results of the laboratories that conducted both an initial and follow up assessment between 2009 to 2013 using repeated measures of Anova, (Mixed procedure of SAS (9.3)). Additionally, we compared the overall summary scores and the assessor recommendations from the two assessments. We were able to document a statistically significant improvement between the first and second assessments both on an aggregate as well as individual indicator score. Within the international capacity tool three of the eight categories recorded statistically significant improvement (equipment, management, and QA/QC), while the other tool categories (molecular, NIC, specimen, safety and virology) showed improvement in scores although not statistically significant. We found that using a standardized tool and quantitative framework is useful for documenting capacity and performance improvement in identified areas over time. The use of the tool and standard reports with assessor recommendations assisted laboratories with establishing, maintaining, and improving influenza laboratory practices. On-going assessments and the consistent application of the analytic framework over time will continue to aid in building a measurement knowledge base for laboratory capacity.

  18. Inter-laboratory study to improve the quality of the analysis of nutrients in rainwater chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; He, Jun

    This paper describes the results of an inter-laboratory study conducted for the analysis of nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP)) in natural rainwater. For this purpose, rainwater samples were collected and aggregated in Singapore and homogenized. These samples were immediately filtered through 0.45 μm membrane filters and autoclaved for 15 min at 80 °C in order to stabilize the nutrients. The homogeneity and the stability of nutrients were rigorously tested for a period of three months initially. Upon ensuring the homogeneity and stability, the samples were distributed to 15 different laboratories from various countries around the world (Australia, Brazil, India, Mauritius, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Taiwan, and USA). Almost all laboratories have reported the analytical results for nitrate whereas only 8 of the 15 laboratories reported results for other nutrients such as ammonium, phosphate, TN, and TP. The discrepancy was mainly due to the presence of these nutrients in low concentration levels (particularly ammonium ion and phosphate). Not all the laboratories were equipped with analytical capabilities to conduct the analysis of nutrients in low concentration levels. Further, the uncertainty associated with the analysis of TN and TP restricted the number of laboratories that could report their analytical data on nutrients. All 14 laboratories reported nitrate-nitrogen results which were in good agreement with each other (0.68 ± 0.07 mg l -1). Similarly, the results of TN and TP were also comparable among at least 8 laboratories. This inter-laboratory study on the analysis of nutrients in natural rainwater, conducted for the first time, provided an opportunity to the participating laboratories to assess and improve their laboratory performance, thereby, improving the quality of their analytical data.

  19. Lean six sigma methodologies improve clinical laboratory efficiency and reduce turnaround times.

    PubMed

    Inal, Tamer C; Goruroglu Ozturk, Ozlem; Kibar, Filiz; Cetiner, Salih; Matyar, Selcuk; Daglioglu, Gulcin; Yaman, Akgun

    2017-02-15

    Organizing work flow is a major task of laboratory management. Recently, clinical laboratories have started to adopt methodologies such as Lean Six Sigma and some successful implementations have been reported. This study used Lean Six Sigma to simplify the laboratory work process and decrease the turnaround time by eliminating non-value-adding steps. The five-stage Six Sigma system known as define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) is used to identify and solve problems. The laboratory turnaround time for individual tests, total delay time in the sample reception area, and percentage of steps involving risks of medical errors and biological hazards in the overall process are measured. The pre-analytical process in the reception area was improved by eliminating 3 h and 22.5 min of non-value-adding work. Turnaround time also improved for stat samples from 68 to 59 min after applying Lean. Steps prone to medical errors and posing potential biological hazards to receptionists were reduced from 30% to 3%. Successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma significantly improved all of the selected performance metrics. This quality-improvement methodology has the potential to significantly improve clinical laboratories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 77 FR 14805 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the... Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and...

  1. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR SIDE OF THE COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REAR SIDE OF THE COMPLEX, LOOKING NORTH FROM GRAND AVENUE. A LATER, ONE-STORY ADDITION TO THE UNDERWRITERS' LABORATORIES COMPLEX IS SHOWN AT EXTREME RIGHT - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Analytical Validation of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 Detection in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Riel, Stacy L; Haley, Lisa; Lu, Changxue; Chen, Yan; Silberstein, John; Zhu, Yezi; Zheng, Gang; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Gocke, Christopher D; Partin, Alan W; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Luo, Jun; Eshleman, James R

    2017-01-01

    Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) often are treated with drugs that target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain. Constitutively active AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7) lacks the ligand-binding domain and, if detected in circulating tumor cells, may be associated with resistance to these agents. We validated an AR-V7 assay in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory. Circulating tumor cells were isolated, and mRNA was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of reference transcripts (beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), prostate-specific transcripts (prostate-specific membrane antigen, prostate-specific antigen, and AR-full length), and AR-V7 was performed. Specimens for validation included an AR-V7 expressing prostate cancer (LNCaP95), 38 peripheral blood controls, and 21 blood samples from CRPC patients. The assay detected as few as five LNCaP95 cells spiked into peripheral blood, showing high analytical sensitivity. Multiple inter-run and intrarun replicates of LNCaP95 cell line experiments yielded similar cycle threshold values for all genes, showing high analytical precision (AR-V7 cycle threshold CV of 0.67%). All 38 healthy control samples were negative for AR-V7, showing high diagnostic specificity (100%). The diagnostic accuracy was confirmed by concurrent testing of 21 CRPC samples in the research laboratory and the clinical diagnostic laboratory: concordance in AR-V7 status was achieved in all cases (positive in 4, negative in 17) (100% accuracy). This first validated clinical assay detects the AR-V7 with high analytical sensitivity, precision, specificity, and accuracy.

  3. Evidence from 617 laboratories in 47 countries for SLMTA-driven improvement in quality management systems

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katy; Luman, Elizabeth T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme is a large-scale effort to improve the quality of laboratories in resource-limited countries. Objectives This study sought to evaluate the first four years (2010–2013) of SLMTA implementation. Methods Country-level data were submitted by SLMTA programme leads and compiled globally. Performance was measured before (baseline) and after (exit) SLMTA implementation using an audit checklist which results in a percentage score and a rating of zero to five stars. Some laboratories continued to monitor performance in post-exit surveillance audits. We evaluated score improvements using two-tailed t-tests for equal variances and estimated the number of tests performed by SLMTA laboratories based on star level. Results SLMTA was implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries in Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and Southeast Asia. At the baseline audit, the laboratories scored an average of 39% on the checklist and 84% of them were rated below one star. As of December 2013, 302 laboratories had completed the SLMTA programme; mean checklist scores increased from 39% at baseline to 64% at exit (p < 0.001) over an average 16-month programme duration. Ninety-two laboratories conducted a surveillance audit at a median of 11 months after their exit audit; 62% further increased their performance. Six SLMTA laboratories have achieved accreditation status. In total, the 617 SLMTA laboratories conduct an estimated 111 million tests annually. Only 16% of these tests were conducted by laboratories with at least one star at baseline, which increased to 68% of tests after SLMTA training. Thus, approximately 23 million tests are conducted annually by laboratories previously at zero stars that now have one to five stars; this number is projected to increase to 58 million when currently-enrolled laboratories complete the programme. Conclusion SLMTA has transformed the laboratory landscape in

  4. Validation and Implementation of Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act-Compliant Whole-Genome Sequencing in the Public Health Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kozyreva, Varvara K.; Truong, Chau-Linda; Greninger, Alexander L.; Crandall, John; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health microbiology laboratories (PHLs) are on the cusp of unprecedented improvements in pathogen identification, antibiotic resistance detection, and outbreak investigation by using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). However, considerable challenges remain due to the lack of common standards. Here, we describe the validation of WGS on the Illumina platform for routine use in PHLs according to Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act (CLIA) guidelines for laboratory-developed tests (LDTs). We developed a validation panel comprising 10 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 5 Gram-positive cocci, 5 Gram-negative nonfermenting species, 9 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, and 5 miscellaneous bacteria. The genome coverage range was 15.71× to 216.4× (average, 79.72×; median, 71.55×); the limit of detection (LOD) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was 60×. The accuracy, reproducibility, and repeatability of base calling were >99.9%. The accuracy of phylogenetic analysis was 100%. The specificity and sensitivity inferred from multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and genome-wide SNP-based phylogenetic assays were 100%. The following objectives were accomplished: (i) the establishment of the performance specifications for WGS applications in PHLs according to CLIA guidelines, (ii) the development of quality assurance and quality control measures, (iii) the development of a reporting format for end users with or without WGS expertise, (iv) the availability of a validation set of microorganisms, and (v) the creation of a modular template for the validation of WGS processes in PHLs. The validation panel, sequencing analytics, and raw sequences could facilitate multilaboratory comparisons of WGS data. Additionally, the WGS performance specifications and modular template are adaptable for the validation of other platforms and reagent kits. PMID:28592550

  5. Validation and Implementation of Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act-Compliant Whole-Genome Sequencing in the Public Health Microbiology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kozyreva, Varvara K; Truong, Chau-Linda; Greninger, Alexander L; Crandall, John; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2017-08-01

    Public health microbiology laboratories (PHLs) are on the cusp of unprecedented improvements in pathogen identification, antibiotic resistance detection, and outbreak investigation by using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). However, considerable challenges remain due to the lack of common standards. Here, we describe the validation of WGS on the Illumina platform for routine use in PHLs according to Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act (CLIA) guidelines for laboratory-developed tests (LDTs). We developed a validation panel comprising 10 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 5 Gram-positive cocci, 5 Gram-negative nonfermenting species, 9 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, and 5 miscellaneous bacteria. The genome coverage range was 15.71× to 216.4× (average, 79.72×; median, 71.55×); the limit of detection (LOD) for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was 60×. The accuracy, reproducibility, and repeatability of base calling were >99.9%. The accuracy of phylogenetic analysis was 100%. The specificity and sensitivity inferred from multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and genome-wide SNP-based phylogenetic assays were 100%. The following objectives were accomplished: (i) the establishment of the performance specifications for WGS applications in PHLs according to CLIA guidelines, (ii) the development of quality assurance and quality control measures, (iii) the development of a reporting format for end users with or without WGS expertise, (iv) the availability of a validation set of microorganisms, and (v) the creation of a modular template for the validation of WGS processes in PHLs. The validation panel, sequencing analytics, and raw sequences could facilitate multilaboratory comparisons of WGS data. Additionally, the WGS performance specifications and modular template are adaptable for the validation of other platforms and reagent kits. Copyright © 2017 Kozyreva et al.

  6. Integrated patient data for optimal patient management: the value of laboratory data in quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Emons, M F

    2001-08-01

    Managed care organizations are shifting from traditional utilization management programs to focus on initiatives that improve the health of an insured population. This strategy requires sophisticated data integration to identify at-risk individuals and track outcomes. Laboratory data are becoming increasingly valuable tools for managed care organizations and healthcare providers. The HEDIS Effectiveness of Care measures have incorporated laboratory data into several key performance indicators. By building a comprehensive repository of laboratory data that includes both procedure codes and laboratory values, managed care organizations can realize substantial savings by avoiding the costly medical record reviews required when administrative data are incomplete. In addition to tracking clinical outcomes, laboratory data provide the ability to risk-stratify a population to target high-risk individuals for case management and disease management interventions. Healthcare organizations face several challenges in the integration of laboratory data into medical databases and practice management software. Confidentiality is a key consideration in view of recent healthcare regulations. Providers of laboratory services should work collaboratively with organizations setting standards for healthcare informatics to facilitate the pooling of data for quality improvement and outcomes research. Health Level Seven, Inc. (HL7), Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC), and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) will likely play a key role in this process.

  7. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme.

  8. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  9. Implementation research: a mentoring programme to improve laboratory quality in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Voeurng, Vireak; Sek, Sophat; Song, Sophanna; Vong, Nora; Tous, Chansamrach; Flandin, Jean-Frederic; Confer, Deborah; Costa, Alexandre; Martin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To implement a mentored laboratory quality stepwise implementation (LQSI) programme to strengthen the quality and capacity of Cambodian hospital laboratories. Methods We recruited four laboratory technicians to be mentors and trained them in mentoring skills, laboratory quality management practices and international standard organization (ISO) 15189 requirements for medical laboratories. Separately, we trained staff from 12 referral hospital laboratories in laboratory quality management systems followed by tri-weekly in-person mentoring on quality management systems implementation using the LQSI tool, which is aligned with the ISO 15189 standard. The tool was adapted from a web-based resource into a software-based spreadsheet checklist, which includes a detailed action plan and can be used to qualitatively monitor each laboratory’s progress. The tool – translated into Khmer – included a set of quality improvement activities grouped into four phases for implementation with increasing complexity. Project staff reviewed the laboratories’ progress and challenges in weekly conference calls and bi-monthly meetings with focal points of the health ministry, participating laboratories and local partners. We present the achievements in implementation from September 2014 to March 2016. Findings As of March 2016, the 12 laboratories have completed 74–90% of the 104 activities in phase 1, 53–78% of the 178 activities in phase 2, and 18–26% of the 129 activities in phase 3. Conclusion Regular on-site mentoring of laboratories using a detailed action plan in the local language allows staff to learn concepts of quality management system and learn on the job without disruption to laboratory service provision. PMID:27843164

  10. A FMEA clinical laboratory case study: how to make problems and improvements measurable.

    PubMed

    Capunzo, Mario; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Boccia, Giovanni; Brunetti, Luigi; Pizzuti, Sante

    2004-01-01

    The authors have experimented the application of the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) technique in a clinical laboratory. FMEA technique allows: a) to evaluate and measure the hazards of a process malfunction, b) to decide where to execute improvement actions, and c) to measure the outcome of those actions. A small sample of analytes has been studied: there have been determined the causes of the possible malfunctions of the analytical process, calculating the risk probability index (RPI), with a value between 1 and 1,000. Only for the cases of RPI > 400, improvement actions have been implemented that allowed a reduction of RPI values between 25% to 70% with a costs increment of < 1%. FMEA technique can be applied to the processes of a clinical laboratory, even if of small dimensions, and offers a high potential of improvement. Nevertheless, such activity needs a thorough planning because it is complex, even if the laboratory already operates an ISO 9000 Quality Management System.

  11. Laboratory System Improvement Program: first in the nation--New Hampshire reassessment.

    PubMed

    Power, Jill J; Bean, Christine L; Cosser, Amanda; Vazquez, Alma

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories (NH PHL) conducted an initial Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) assessment in March 2007 and a reassessment in May 2011. New Hampshire was a pilot state for the initial L-SIP assessment in 2007 and was the first laboratory system in the United States to conduct an L-SIP reassessment. The New Hampshire reassessment was also used as a pilot for revising the assessment tool. The NH PHL performed a high-level comparison benchmarking the work done between the two assessments. This comparison revealed areas of improvement and other areas that needed continued focus to align with model standards of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. This article outlines achievements, improvements, and outcomes made since 2007, as well as participants, activities, plans, resources, and other factors that contributed to the change in scores between assessments.

  12. Laboratory System Improvement Program: First in the Nation— New Hampshire Reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Christine L.; Cosser, Amanda; Vazquez, Alma

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories (NH PHL) conducted an initial Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) assessment in March 2007 and a reassessment in May 2011. New Hampshire was a pilot state for the initial L-SIP assessment in 2007 and was the first laboratory system in the United States to conduct an L-SIP reassessment. The New Hampshire reassessment was also used as a pilot for revising the assessment tool. The NH PHL performed a high-level comparison benchmarking the work done between the two assessments. This comparison revealed areas of improvement and other areas that needed continued focus to align with model standards of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. This article outlines achievements, improvements, and outcomes made since 2007, as well as participants, activities, plans, resources, and other factors that contributed to the change in scores between assessments. PMID:23997303

  13. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. A primer on the cost of quality for improvement of laboratory and pathology specimen processes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Richard O; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hernandez, James S

    2012-09-01

    In today's environment, many laboratories and pathology practices are challenged to maintain or increase their quality while simultaneously lowering their overall costs. The cost of improving specimen processes is related to quality, and we demonstrate that actual costs can be reduced by designing "quality at the source" into the processes. Various costs are hidden along the total testing process, and we suggest ways to identify opportunities to reduce cost by improving quality in laboratories and pathology practices through the use of Lean, Six Sigma, and industrial engineering.

  16. Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration for recovery and reuse of larval rearing water in Anopheles arabiensis mass production: Effect of water quality on larval development and fitness of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Mamai, Wadaka; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Maiga, Hamidou; Ali, Adel Barakat; Bimbile-Somda, Nanwintoun S; Soma, Diloma Dieudonné; Yamada, Hanano; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2017-06-01

    Countries around the world are showing increased interest in applying the sterile insect technique against mosquito disease vectors. Many countries in which mosquitoes are endemic, and so where vector control using the sterile insect technique may be considered, are located in arid zones where water provision can be costly or unreliable. Water reuse provides an alternate form of water supply. In order to reduce the cost of mass rearing of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes, the possibility of recycling and reusing larval rearing water was explored. The used rearing water ('dirty water') was collected after the tilting of rearing trays for collection of larvae/pupae, and larvae/pupae separation events and underwent treatment processes consisting of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. First-instar An. arabiensis larvae were randomly assigned to different water-type treatments, 500 larvae per laboratory rearing tray: 'clean' dechlorinated water, routinely used in rearing; dirty water; and 'recycled' dirty water treated using reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Several parameters of insect quality were then compared: larval development, pupation rate, adult emergence, body size and longevity. Water quality of the samples was analyzed in terms of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, chloride, and phosphate concentrations after the larvae had all pupated or died. Surface water temperatures were also recorded continuously during larval development. Pupation rates and adult emergence were similar in all water treatments. Adult body sizes of larvae reared in recycled water were similar to those reared in clean water, but larger than those reared in the dirty larval water treatment, whereas the adult longevity of larvae reared in recycled water was significantly increased relative to both 'clean' and 'dirty' water. Dirty larval water contained significantly higher concentrations of ammonium, sulfate, phosphate and chloride and lower levels of dissolved

  17. Improving Gram stain proficiency in hospital and satellite laboratories that do not have microbiology.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Street, Cassandra; Matlock, Margaret; Cole, Lisa; Brierre, Francoise

    2017-03-01

    Consolidation of laboratories has left many hospitals and satellite laboratories with minimal microbiologic testing. In many hospitals and satellite laboratories, Gram stains on primary specimens are still performed despite difficultly in maintaining proficiency. To maintain Gram stain proficiency at a community 450-bed hospital with an active emergency room we designed bimonthly challenges that require reporting Gram staining and morphology of different organisms. The challenges consist of five specimens prepared by the reference microbiology laboratory from cultures and primary specimens. Twenty to 23 medical laboratory scientists participate reading the challenges. Results from the challenges are discussed with each medical laboratory scientists. In addition, printed images from the challenges are presented at huddle to add microbiology knowledge. On the first three challenges, Gram staining was read correctly in 71%-77% of the time while morphology 53%-66%. In the last six challenges correct answers for Gram stain were 77%-99% while morphology 73%-96%. We observed statistically significant improvement when reading Gram stains by providing frequent challenges to medical laboratory scientists. The clinical importance of Gram stain results is emphasized during huddle presentations increasing knowledge and motivation to perform the test for patients.

  18. Confirmation of the absence of tetrodotoxin and its analogues in the juveniles of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs in the laboratory using HILIC-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Chiba, Chikafumi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-07-01

    The tetrodotoxin (TTX) contents of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs to metamorphosed juveniles with a non-toxic diet for 70 weeks, as well as wild-caught juvenile newts, were investigated using a high-resolution hydrophilic interaction chromatography-LC-MS. TTX was detected in 0- to 22-week-old captive-reared juvenile newts but was not detected (<15 ng/g) in the 36- to 70-week-old newts, while significant levels of TTX (1.3-14 μg/g) were detected in the wild-caught juveniles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

  20. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  1. Development of a Web-Enabled Learning Platform for Geospatial Laboratories: Improving the Undergraduate Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Amy B.; Nelson, Sarah; Huang, Bruce; He, Yuhong; Wilson, Kathi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a web-enabled learning platform providing remote access to geospatial software that extends the learning experience outside of the laboratory setting. The platform was piloted in two undergraduate courses, and includes a software server, a data server, and remote student users. The platform was designed to improve the quality…

  2. Development of a Web-Enabled Learning Platform for Geospatial Laboratories: Improving the Undergraduate Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Amy B.; Nelson, Sarah; Huang, Bruce; He, Yuhong; Wilson, Kathi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a web-enabled learning platform providing remote access to geospatial software that extends the learning experience outside of the laboratory setting. The platform was piloted in two undergraduate courses, and includes a software server, a data server, and remote student users. The platform was designed to improve the quality…

  3. 78 FR 63999 - Notice of Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Symposium: Tools To Improve Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Notice of Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP... one-day symposium on November 14, 2013, to present information about the Vitamin D Standardization... standardize the laboratory measurement of vitamin D status worldwide. Standardization is essential to improve...

  4. Peer-Teaching and the Utilization of Students as Laboratory Teaching Aids to Improve Class Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliauskas, Jura B.

    A study was conducted at the College of DuPage in Illinois to find out if peer-teaching and the utilization of students as laboratory aids could improve class performance, personalize instruction, and benefit the student. Two classes of highly motivated comparative anatomy students and two classes of less motivated second semester general biology…

  5. Improved Detection of Staphylococcus intermedius Group in a Routine Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Aimee; Bendall, Richard; Gaze, William; Zhang, Lihong; Vos, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) includes zoonotic pathogens traditionally associated with dog bites. We describe a simple scheme for improved detection of SIG using routine laboratory methods, report its effect on isolation rates, and use sequencing to confirm that, apart from one atypical SIG strain, most isolates are Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. PMID:25502532

  6. Improving Learning Performance in Laboratory Instruction by Means of SMS Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Toral, S. L.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The study described in this paper outlines an attempt to explore those factors that contribute to learning performance improvement in laboratory instruction. As a case study, the educational methodology involved in a basic microcontroller course was analyzed. Traditional lab sessions based on the control of peripherals with low interactivity have…

  7. Improving Learning Performance in Laboratory Instruction by Means of SMS Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Toral, S. L.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The study described in this paper outlines an attempt to explore those factors that contribute to learning performance improvement in laboratory instruction. As a case study, the educational methodology involved in a basic microcontroller course was analyzed. Traditional lab sessions based on the control of peripherals with low interactivity have…

  8. Speeding up laboratory test reporting in Medical Emergency and Cardiac Arrest calls: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    Al-Talib, Mohammed; Leslie, Isla

    2017-01-01

    Many hospitals deploy Medical Emergency (MET) and Cardiac Arrest teams to improve the management and treatment of patients who become critically ill. In many cases, blood results are key in allowing the clinicians involved in these teams to make definitive management decisions for these patients. Following anecdotal reports that these results were often delayed, we assessed the process of blood tests being reported in emergency calls, identified the key factors causing delays and sought to make improvements. The initial intervention involved implementing a new blood form that specified the nature of the call, the tests required and a contact number for laboratory staff to contact the clinical team with results. We also developed a streamlined process within the laboratory for these samples to be fast-tracked. Successive improvement cycles sought to increase awareness of the project, improve accessibility to the new forms and embed spontaneous practices that contributed to improvement. Results demonstrated an overall reduction in the time taken for blood samples in emergencies to be reported from 130 minutes to 97 minutes. This project demonstrates that using a specific blood request form for emergency calls, and tying this to a specified laboratory process, improves the time taken for these tests to be reported. In addition, the project provides some insight into challenges faced when implementing change in new departments. PMID:28243442

  9. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  10. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P <0.05), male rats singly-reared (full fed, P <0.05; 12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05), female rats group-reared (12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05) and female rats singly reared (full fed, P <0.05; 12 h fasted, P <0.05; 85% body/wt, P <0.05) displayed reduced amounts of time exploring the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. In conclusion, control rats learned the autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  11. Medicare, Medicaid, and CLIA programs; Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 continuance of exemption of laboratories licensed by the State of Washington--HCFA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1997-07-01

    This notice announces that laboratories located in the State of Washington that possess a valid license under the Medical Test Site Licensure Law, Chapter 70.40 of the Revised Code of Washington (RCW), continue to be exempt from the requirements of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) until April 30, 2001.

  12. Improving Laboratory Efficiency in the Caribbean to Attain the World Health Organization HIV Treat All Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George A; Chase, Martine; Branch, Songee; Guevara, Giselle; Nkengasong, John N; Albalak, Rachel

    2017-10-01

    Scientific evidence showing the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) prompted World Health organization (WHO) to recommend that all persons diagnosed HIV-positive should commence ART irrespective of CD4 count and disease progression. Based on this recommendation, countries should adopt and implement the HIV "Treat All" policy to achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and ultimately reach epidemic control. Attaining this goal along the HIV treatment cascade depends on the laboratory to monitor progress and measure impact. The laboratory plays an important role in HIV diagnosis to attain the first 90 and in viral load (VL) and HIV drug resistance testing to reinforce adherence, improve viral suppression, and measure the third 90. Countries in the Caribbean region have endorsed the WHO HIV "Treat all" recommendation; however, they are faced with diminishing financial resources to support laboratory testing, seen as a rate-limiting factor to achieving this goal. To improve laboratory coverage with fewer resources in the Caribbean there is the need to optimise laboratory operations to ensure the implementation of high quality, less expensive, evidence-based approaches that will result in more efficient and effective service delivery. Suggested practical and innovative approaches to achieve this include: 1) targeted testing within HIV hotspots; 2) strengthening sample referral systems for VL; 3) better laboratory data collection systems; and 4) use of treatment cascade data for programmatic decision making. Furthermore, strengthening quality improvement and procurement systems will minimize diagnostic errors and guarantee a continuum of uninterrupted testing which is critical for routine monitoring of patients to meet the stated goal.

  13. Improving access to diagnostics: an evaluation of a satellite laboratory service in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Leman, P; Guthrie, D; Simpson, R; Little, F

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the impact of a satellite laboratory upon laboratory result turnaround times and clinical decision making times. Design: A prospective cohort study, the intervention group had blood tests sent Monday to Friday 12 noon to 8 pm and the control group had blood tests sent outside these hours. The data were collected over a six week period before the laboratory was opened, and a subsequent six week period. Setting: An urban teaching hospital emergency department. Participants: 1065 patients requiring blood tests. Main outcome measure: Time from the blood sample being sent to the laboratory to the results being available on the clinician's computer. Results: The time to haematology (blood count) results in the intervention group decreased by 47.2 minutes (95% CI 38.3 to 56.1, p<0.001) after the laboratory was opened. The corresponding control group times were unchanged (0.6 minutes; –13.8 to 15.0, p = 0.94). Similar sized differences were also seen for haemostasis (D-dimer) testing 66.1 (41.8 to 90.4) minutes compared with –14.2 (–47.1 to 18.7) and chemistry 41.3 (30.3 to 52.2) compared with –4.2 (–17.4 to 8.9) testing. Decisions to discharge patients were significantly faster (28.2 minutes, 13.5 to 42.8, p<0.0001) in the intervention group after the laboratory was opened (controls; –2.6 minutes –27.0 to 21.7). No change was seen with decisions to admit patients. There was a trend for earlier laboratory results modifying intravenous drug or fluids orders, or both (p = 0.06) Conclusion: A comprehensive satellite laboratory service is an important adjunct to improve the timeliness of care in the emergency department. PMID:15208229

  14. 6. HOUSE REAR EXTERIOR SHOWING UTILITY PORCH AND REAR ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOUSE REAR EXTERIOR SHOWING UTILITY PORCH AND REAR ENTRANCE TO DINNING/KITCHEN AREA AT PHOTO CENTER. SMALL RECTANGULAR STRUCTURE ATTACHED TO SIDE OF HOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT CENTER BELOW SMALL, DOUBLEHUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOW IS THE HOT WATER HEATER CABINET. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  15. Responses of artificially reared cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835) to different mammalian bloods.

    PubMed

    Kernif, T; Stafford, K; Coles, G C; Bitam, I; Papa, K; Chiaroni, J; Raoult, D; Parola, P

    2015-06-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche, 1835) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), which is found worldwide and which parasitizes many species of wild and domestic animal, is a vector and/or reservoir of bacteria, protozoa and helminths. To aid in the study of the physiology and behaviour of fleas and of their transmission of pathogens, it would be of value to improve the laboratory rearing of pathogen-free fleas. The conditions under which artificially reared fleas at the University of Bristol (U.K.) and the Rickettsial Diseases Institute (France) are maintained were studied, with different ratios of male to female fleas per chamber (25 : 50, 50 : 100, 100 : 100, 200 : 200). The fleas were fed with bovine, ovine, caprine, porcine or human blood containing the anticoagulants sodium citrate or EDTA. Egg production was highest when fleas were kept in chambers with a ratio of 25 males to 100 females. In addition, the use of EDTA as an anticoagulant rather than sodium citrate resulted in a large increase in the number of eggs produced per female; however, the low percentage of eggs developing through to adult fleas was lower with EDTA. The modifications described in our rearing methods will improve the rearing of cat fleas for research.

  16. Use of Lean Response to Improve Pandemic Influenza Surge in Public Health Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yin; Prystajecky, Natalie; Petric, Martin; Mak, Annie; Abbott, Brendan; Paris, Benjamin; Decker, K.C.; Pittenger, Lauren; Guercio, Steven; Stott, Jeff; Miller, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus detected in April 2009 rapidly spread around the world. North American provincial and state laboratories have well-defined roles and responsibilities, including providing accurate, timely test results for patients and information for regional public health and other decision makers. We used the multidisciplinary response and rapid implementation of process changes based on Lean methods at the provincial public health laboratory in British Columbia, Canada, to improve laboratory surge capacity in the 2009 influenza pandemic. Observed and computer simulating evaluation results from rapid processes changes showed that use of Lean tools successfully expanded surge capacity, which enabled response to the 10-fold increase in testing demands. PMID:22257385

  17. Simulation information regarding Sandia National Laboratories trinity capability improvement metric.

    SciTech Connect

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Lin, Paul T.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory each selected a representative simulation code to be used as a performance benchmark for the Trinity Capability Improvement Metric. Sandia selected SIERRA Low Mach Module: Nalu, which is a uid dynamics code that solves many variable-density, acoustically incompressible problems of interest spanning from laminar to turbulent ow regimes, since it is fairly representative of implicit codes that have been developed under ASC. The simulations for this metric were performed on the Cielo Cray XE6 platform during dedicated application time and the chosen case utilized 131,072 Cielo cores to perform a canonical turbulent open jet simulation within an approximately 9-billion-elementunstructured- hexahedral computational mesh. This report will document some of the results from these simulations as well as provide instructions to perform these simulations for comparison.

  18. Feeding behaviour of artificially reared Romane lambs.

    PubMed

    David, I; Bouvier, F; Ricard, E; Ruesche, J; Weisbecker, J-L

    2014-06-01

    A consequence of increasing litter size in sheep is that a portion of the lambs have to be reared artificially. Detailed information about the pattern of milk consumption of artificially reared lambs would help improve their management. The purpose of this study is to describe the individual and group feeding behaviour of 94 Romane artificially reared lambs from 5 to 28 days of age using an electronic automatic lamb feeder. Animals were located in four pens of 8 to 15 lambs of similar age with one teat per pen. They were fed ad libitum. In our experimental situation (group rearing, continuous lightning) on average a lamb made 1.4±0.7 visits to the teat per meal and 9.5±3 meals per day. Mean meal duration was 247±158 s and the mean daily time spent feeding was 38±25 min. The mean quantity of milk intake was 176±132 ml per meal and 1.68±0.8 l per day. With age, the number of daily meals and their duration decreased while the quantity of milk consumed per meal and per day increased. Females tended to make more visits to the teat per meal and perform more meals per day but their milk consumption per meal was lower. The feed conversion ratio was 1.36±0.2. Synchrony in feeding (group meal) was estimated as the percentage of lambs that wanted to access the teat within the same short period (relative group meal size). On average 65% of lambs in the pen wanted to access the teat within the same period, but for 35% of group meals the relative group meal size was >90%. There was no consistency in the order in which lambs accessed the teat during a group meal. Our evaluation suggested that electronic automatic lamb feeders are tools that can provide, on a large scale, data describing the feeding behaviour of artificially reared lambs. It is then possible to study factors influencing these traits in order to improve the outcome of artificially reared lambs.

  19. Repeated HIV-1 resistance genotyping external quality assessments improve virology laboratory performance.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Diane; Delaugerre, Constance; Masquelier, Bernard; Ruffault, Annick; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Izopet, Jacques; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Calvez, Vincent; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Costagliola, Dominique

    2006-02-01

    The performance of French virology laboratories belonging to the ANRS network has been assessed annually for 3 years. The performance of these laboratories was compared between the years 2002 and 2003. Ten and 7 coded samples were sent to 38 virology laboratories in 2002 and 45 virology laboratories in 2003, respectively. Each panel of coded samples included at least one HIV-negative control, a pair of duplicate specimens, samples with a wide range of viral loads, and samples with a large number of resistance mutations. The laboratories used their standard sequencing procedures and were asked to report the amino acids at codons associated with resistance mutations, based on the IAS-USA expert panel list. The reference amino acid sequences were defined as those most frequently reported by the participants. The specificity of detection of RT mutations was significantly better in 2003 (99.9%) than in 2002 (99.7%) (P = 0.05). There was no difference between 2002 and 2003 in the specificity of detection of protease mutations (99.6% and 99.8%) or the sensitivity of detection of RT mutations (98.8% and 98.2%). The sensitivity of detection of protease mutations improved significantly between 2002 and 2003 (97.6% and 99.0%, respectively; P = 0.037). The proportion of laboratories reporting fully accurate results, in terms of amplification, specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, tended to increase between 2002 and 2003 (P = 0.077). No errors were made by 19% of laboratories in 2002, compared to 42% in 2003. These results show the value of repeated external quality assessments.

  20. Development and Implementation of a Quality Improvement Process for Echocardiographic Laboratory Accreditation.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Yvonne E; Lavie, Carl J; Ahmad, Homaa; Bernal, Jose A; Cash, Michael E; Dinshaw, Homeyar; Milani, Richard V; Shah, Sangeeta; Bienvenu, Lisa; White, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    We describe our process for quality improvement (QI) for a 3-year accreditation cycle in echocardiography by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) for a large group practice. Echocardiographic laboratory accreditation by the IAC was introduced in 1996, which is not required but could impact reimbursement. To ensure high-quality patient care and community recognition as a facility committed to providing high-quality echocardiographic services, we applied for IAC accreditation in 2010. Currently, there is little published data regarding the IAC process to meet echocardiography standards. We describe our approach for developing a multicampus QI process for echocardiographic laboratory accreditation during the 3-year cycle of accreditation by the IAC. We developed a quarterly review assessing (1) the variability of the interpretations, (2) the quality of the examinations, (3) a correlation of echocardiographic studies with other imaging modalities, (4) the timely completion of reports, (5) procedure volume, (6) maintenance of Continuing Medical Education credits by faculty, and (7) meeting Appropriate Use Criteria. We developed and implemented a multicampus process for QI during the 3-year accreditation cycle by the IAC for Echocardiography. We documented both the process and the achievement of those metrics by the Echocardiography Laboratories at the Ochsner Medical Institutions. We found the QI process using IAC standards to be a continuous educational experience for our Echocardiography Laboratory physicians and staff. We offer our process as an example and guide for other echocardiography laboratories who wish to apply for such accreditation or reaccreditation.

  1. Correction factor to improve agreement between point-of-care and laboratory International Normalized Ratio values.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stacy A; Vazquez, Sara R; Fleming, Ryan; Lanspa, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Results of a research project to quantify and improve the accuracy of point-of-care (POC) International Normalized Ratio (INR) values are reported. The accuracy of POC INR values relative to laboratory-measured INR values was retrospectively assessed in a cohort of patients with same-day INR determinations by both methods. Univariate linear regression was performed to derive a correction factor for POC INR values of >3; this correction factor was validated in a second cohort. In the derivation cohort (259 patients and 344 paired INR results), agreement of POC values with corresponding laboratory INR values at two specified thresholds (±15% and ±25%) was 51.2% and 66.6%, respectively; for POC INR values of >3 (n = 205), agreement was lower (24.9% and 44.9%, respectively). Univariate linear regression yielded a coefficient of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.79; p < 0.001). Applying a correction factor of 0.8 to POC INR values in a validation cohort (169 patients and 209 paired INR values) significantly improved the accuracy of POC INR values of >3 relative to laboratory values (from 7% to 71.1% at the lower threshold and from 23.5% to 88.8% at the higher threshold, p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Agreement between POC and laboratory INR results in one institution was poor, especially when POC INR values exceeded 3. Application of an institution-specific correction factor to POC INR values of >3 improved agreement with laboratory INR results but would not have significantly reduced differences in protocol-based warfarin dosage adjustments. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.; Conway, Stuart; Osorto Pinel, Anibal Benjamin; MacCarty, Nordica; Still, Dean

    We implemented a program in which emission characterization is enabled through collaborations between academic, US and international non-governmental entities that focus on evaluation, dissemination, and in-use testing, of improved cookstoves. This effort resulted in a study of field and laboratory emissions from traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves. We found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking average three times those measured during simulated cooking in the laboratory. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg -1 - significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg -1 and 4.5 g kg -1, respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories.

  3. Using the ASHRAE 110 test as a TQM tool to improve laboratory fume hood performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchings, D.T.; Maupins, K.

    1997-12-31

    ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995, Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 1995) yields quantitative data about fume hood containment and can be used in a classical total quality management (TQM) approach to process improvement. This involves measuring process indicators, analyzing probable causes of poor performance, implementing changes to the process, and again measuring the indicators to determine the efficacy of the changes implemented. This paper outlines the ASHRAE 110 method and how it was used to evaluate the containment performance of fume hoods in the quality control laboratory of pharmaceutical manufacturing plant, the techniques implemented to improve performance, and the final results. An average reduction of 99.5% in ASHRAE 110 tracer gas control levels was realized. These ASHRAE 110 tests, combined with several thousand others, reveal that 30% to 50% of the hoods tested that meet industry standard face velocity specifications have leakage rates that exceed industry guidelines.

  4. Closing the loop on improvement: Packaging experience in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon R.; Landis, Linda C.; Doland, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its award-winning software process improvement program, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has developed an effective method for packaging organizational best practices based on real project experience into useful handbooks and training courses. This paper shares the SEL's experience over the past 12 years creating and updating software process handbooks and training courses. It provides cost models and guidelines for successful experience packaging derived from SEL experience.

  5. Improved communication with the laboratory for the fabrication of labial veneers.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, Aaron; Zweig, Alan E

    2015-04-01

    Advances in dental materials and adhesive technologies have changed the way we practice dentistry. Consequently, restorative dentistry has seen the adoption and almost exponential increase in usage of materials like zirconia and lithium disilicate. Unlike the incidence of ceramic failure in the past, these newer materials are paving the road to better looking dentistry. This paper focuses on lithium disilicate and predominantly glassy ceramics, as well as improving communication with the laboratory.

  6. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. 11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. SHOP BUILDING IN DISTANCE. NOTE CONCRETE PROTECTION SLAB FOR UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AND ESCAPE HATCH ON GROUND AT RIGHT MIDDLE DISTANCE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  15. 2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 15 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 1-5 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED TANKS (BUILDING 8649) AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Shop Building for Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8814, WEST SIDE AND SOUTH REAR, SHOWING BLAST DOOR. BUILDING 8826 IS IN BACKGROUND. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. IET contextual view. facing south. rear of coupling station at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET contextual view. facing south. rear of coupling station at right of view. control building (TAN-620) to its left. exhaust stack and duct have been removed. INEEL negative no. HD-21-9-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. CallWall: tracking resident calls to improve clinical utilization of pathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Buck, Thomas P; Connor, Ian M; Horowitz, Gary L; Arnaout, Ramy A

    2011-07-01

    Clinical pathology (CP) laboratories are used for millions of tests each year. These lead to thousands of calls to CP residents. However, although laboratory utilization is a frequent topic of study, clinical utilization--the content of the interactions between clinicians and CP residents--is not. Because it reflects questions about laboratory utilization, clinical utilization could suggest ways to improve both training and care by reducing diagnostic error. To build and implement a secure, scalable Web-based system to allow CP residents at any hospital to track the calls they receive, the interaction's context, and the action taken as a result, with evidence where applicable, and to use this system to report on clinical utilization at a major academic hospital. Entries were analyzed from a nearly year-long period to describe the clinical utilization of CP at a large academic teaching hospital. Sixteen residents logged 847 calls during 10 months, roughly evenly distributed among transfusion medicine, chemistry, microbiology, and hematopathology. Calls covered 94 different analytes in chemistry and 71 different organisms or tests in microbiology. Analysis revealed areas where CP can improve clinical care through educating the clinical services, for example, about ordering Rh immune globulin, testosterone testing, and diagnosis of tick-borne diseases. Documenting calls also highlighted patterns among residents. Clinical utilization is a potentially rich knowledge base for improving patient care and resident training. Our resident call-tracking system is a useful way for measuring clinical utilization and mining it for actionable information.

  1. Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.

    PubMed

    Rush, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

  2. Using Focused Laboratory Management and Quality Improvement Projects to Enhance Resident Training and Foster Scholarship

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Bradley A.; Klutts, J. Stacey; Jensen, Chris S.; Briggs, Angela S.; Robinson, Robert A.; Bruch, Leslie A.; Karandikar, Nitin J.

    2017-01-01

    Training in patient safety, quality, and management is widely recognized as an important element of graduate medical education. These concepts have been intertwined in pathology graduate medical education for many years, although training programs face challenges in creating explicit learning opportunities in these fields. Tangibly involving pathology residents in management and quality improvement projects has the potential to teach and reinforce key concepts and further fulfill Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education goals for pursuing projects related to patient safety and quality improvement. In this report, we present our experience at a pathology residency program (University of Iowa) in engaging pathology residents in projects related to practical issues of laboratory management, process improvement, and informatics. In this program, at least 1 management/quality improvement project, typically performed during a clinical chemistry/management rotation, was required and ideally resulted in a journal publication. The residency program also initiated a monthly management/informatics series for pathology externs, residents, and fellows that covers a wide range of topics. Since 2010, all pathology residents at the University of Iowa have completed at least 1 management/quality improvement project. Many of the projects involved aspects of laboratory test utilization, with some projects focused on other areas such as human resources, informatics, or process improvement. Since 2012, 31 peer-reviewed journal articles involving effort from 26 residents have been published. Multiple projects resulted in changes in ongoing practice, particularly within the hospital electronic health record. Focused management/quality improvement projects involving pathology residents can result in both meaningful quality improvement and scholarly output. PMID:28913416

  3. Using Focused Laboratory Management and Quality Improvement Projects to Enhance Resident Training and Foster Scholarship.

    PubMed

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Ford, Bradley A; Klutts, J Stacey; Jensen, Chris S; Briggs, Angela S; Robinson, Robert A; Bruch, Leslie A; Karandikar, Nitin J

    2017-01-01

    Training in patient safety, quality, and management is widely recognized as an important element of graduate medical education. These concepts have been intertwined in pathology graduate medical education for many years, although training programs face challenges in creating explicit learning opportunities in these fields. Tangibly involving pathology residents in management and quality improvement projects has the potential to teach and reinforce key concepts and further fulfill Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education goals for pursuing projects related to patient safety and quality improvement. In this report, we present our experience at a pathology residency program (University of Iowa) in engaging pathology residents in projects related to practical issues of laboratory management, process improvement, and informatics. In this program, at least 1 management/quality improvement project, typically performed during a clinical chemistry/management rotation, was required and ideally resulted in a journal publication. The residency program also initiated a monthly management/informatics series for pathology externs, residents, and fellows that covers a wide range of topics. Since 2010, all pathology residents at the University of Iowa have completed at least 1 management/quality improvement project. Many of the projects involved aspects of laboratory test utilization, with some projects focused on other areas such as human resources, informatics, or process improvement. Since 2012, 31 peer-reviewed journal articles involving effort from 26 residents have been published. Multiple projects resulted in changes in ongoing practice, particularly within the hospital electronic health record. Focused management/quality improvement projects involving pathology residents can result in both meaningful quality improvement and scholarly output.

  4. Improving Histopathology Laboratory Productivity: Process Consultancy and A3 Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Yörükoğlu, Kutsal; Özer, Erdener; Alptekin, Birsen; Öcal, Cem

    2017-01-01

    The ISO 17020 quality program has been run in our pathology laboratory for four years to establish an action plan for correction and prevention of identified errors. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the errors that we could not identify through ISO 17020 and/or solve by means of process consulting. Process consulting is carefully intervening in a group or team to help it to accomplish its goals. The A3 problem solving process was run under the leadership of a 'workflow, IT and consultancy manager'. An action team was established consisting of technical staff. A root cause analysis was applied for target conditions, and the 6-S method was implemented for solution proposals. Applicable proposals were activated and the results were rated by six-sigma analysis. Non-applicable proposals were reported to the laboratory administrator. A mislabelling error was the most complained issue triggering all pre-analytical errors. There were 21 non-value added steps grouped in 8 main targets on the fish bone graphic (transporting, recording, moving, individual, waiting, over-processing, over-transaction and errors). Unnecessary redundant requests, missing slides, archiving issues, redundant activities, and mislabelling errors were proposed to be solved by improving visibility and fixing spaghetti problems. Spatial re-organization, organizational marking, re-defining some operations, and labeling activities raised the six sigma score from 24% to 68% for all phases. Operational transactions such as implementation of a pathology laboratory system was suggested for long-term improvement. Laboratory management is a complex process. Quality control is an effective method to improve productivity. Systematic checking in a quality program may not always find and/or solve the problems. External observation may reveal crucial indicators about the system failures providing very simple solutions.

  5. Improvements and modeling calculations for a laboratory photoionized plasma experiment at Z relevant to astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockard, T. E.; Mayes, D. C.; Durmaz, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Loisel, G.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Heeter, R. F.

    2013-10-01

    Creating a photoionized plasma in a controlled laboratory environment is difficult due to the intense x-ray flux needed to drive the plasma. This is overcome by the intense flux of x-ray photons produced by the pulsed power Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We discuss improvements to a gascell experiment at Z including new ultrathin windows and window plates, and lower filling pressures that permit producing photoionized plasmas of larger ionization parameters. To understand the radiation environment, constrained view-factor calculations have been performed to model the x-ray flux at the gascell. Radiation-hydrodynamic simulations were also done to provide information on the overall evolution of the plasma and, in particular, the radiation heating of the plasma including non-equilibrium effects. We will also discuss a series of collisional-radiative atomic kinetics calculations that were done using a collection of laboratory and astrophysics codes. These results are useful to understand the relative importance of photon- and particle-driven atomic processes in the plasma. This work is sponsored in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas grant program through DOE Grant DE-FG52-09NA29551, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.

  6. An improved auto-generation system to obtain reference intervals for laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Hoi; Hong, Hae Sook; Kim, Shine Young; Tran, Tung; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Hwa Sun; Cho, Hune

    2010-03-01

    Reference values are highly required parameters for all tests in the clinical laboratory, and the supplementary provision of reliable reference intervals is an important task for both clinical laboratories and diagnostic test manufacturers. Despite the progress that has been made in the conceptual aspects of reference intervals, in practice their use is still not completely satisfactory. Most of the laboratories have used various methods to calculate statistic-based reference intervals, and they have mainly focused on extracted data, yet its use is considerably limited. We had to deal with the inconvenience of using a number of programs (SPSS or SAS, MS Excel) in order to calculate the results of reference intervals. In order to obtain standardized reference intervals, we developed an integrated program that can calculate, by a nonparametric method, reference intervals with using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) processes as its guideline. We also developed a grouping interface that enables users to customize classification of each group (age, gender, blood group, race, etc) when calculating reference intervals. To verify the developed program, we compared the reference intervals of the current data on 281 persons for 8 total areas, and the reference intervals were was already calculated beforehand with by using this new program. As a result, both results perfectly matched. This integrated program will be convenience for calculating reasonable values through continual datainspection at an inspection lab for calculating reference intervals. The newly developed program will improve the consistency and reliability of the statistics on reference intervals.

  7. Laboratory animal science: a resource to improve the quality of science.

    PubMed

    Forni, M

    2007-08-01

    The contribution of animal experimentation to biomedical research is of undoubted value, nevertheless the real usefulness of animal models is still being hotly debated. Laboratory Animal Science is a multidisciplinary approach to humane animal experimentation that allows the choice of the correct animal model and the collection of unbiased data. Refinement, Reduction and Replacement, the "3Rs rule", are now widely accepted and have a major influence on animal experimentation procedures. Refinement, namely any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to animals, has been today extended to the entire lives of the experimental animals. Reduction of the number of animals used to obtain statistically significant data may be achieved by improving experimental design and statistical analysis of data. Replacement refers to the development of validated alternative methods. A Laboratory Animal Science training program in biomedical degrees can promote the 3Rs and improve the welfare of laboratory animals as well as the quality of science with ethical, scientific and economic advantages complying with the European requirement that "persons who carry out, take part in, or supervise procedures on animals, or take care of animals used in procedures, shall have had appropriate education and training".

  8. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities.

  9. Improving patient safety via automated laboratory-based adverse event grading.

    PubMed

    Niland, Joyce C; Stiller, Tracey; Neat, Jennifer; Londrc, Adina; Johnson, Dina; Pannoni, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The identification and grading of adverse events (AEs) during the conduct of clinical trials is a labor-intensive and error-prone process. This paper describes and evaluates a software tool developed by City of Hope to automate complex algorithms to assess laboratory results and identify and grade AEs. We compared AEs identified by the automated system with those previously assessed manually, to evaluate missed/misgraded AEs. We also conducted a prospective paired time assessment of automated versus manual AE assessment. We found a substantial improvement in accuracy/completeness with the automated grading tool, which identified an additional 17% of severe grade 3-4 AEs that had been missed/misgraded manually. The automated system also provided an average time saving of 5.5 min per treatment course. With 400 ongoing treatment trials at City of Hope and an average of 1800 laboratory results requiring assessment per study, the implications of these findings for patient safety are enormous.

  10. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Downs, Stephen M; van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services.

  11. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  12. RIPOSTE: a framework for improving the design and analysis of laboratory-based research.

    PubMed

    Masca, Nicholas Gd; Hensor, Elizabeth Ma; Cornelius, Victoria R; Buffa, Francesca M; Marriott, Helen M; Eales, James M; Messenger, Michael P; Anderson, Amy E; Boot, Chris; Bunce, Catey; Goldin, Robert D; Harris, Jessica; Hinchliffe, Rod F; Junaid, Hiba; Kingston, Shaun; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Nelson, Christopher P; Peacock, Janet; Seed, Paul T; Shinkins, Bethany; Staples, Karl J; Toombs, Jamie; Wright, Adam Ka; Teare, M Dawn

    2015-05-07

    Lack of reproducibility is an ongoing problem in some areas of the biomedical sciences. Poor experimental design and a failure to engage with experienced statisticians at key stages in the design and analysis of experiments are two factors that contribute to this problem. The RIPOSTE (Reducing IrreProducibility in labOratory STudiEs) framework has been developed to support early and regular discussions between scientists and statisticians in order to improve the design, conduct and analysis of laboratory studies and, therefore, to reduce irreproducibility. This framework is intended for use during the early stages of a research project, when specific questions or hypotheses are proposed. The essential points within the framework are explained and illustrated using three examples (a medical equipment test, a macrophage study and a gene expression study). Sound study design minimises the possibility of bias being introduced into experiments and leads to higher quality research with more reproducible results.

  13. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.

  14. United States Supports Distributed Wind Technology Improvements; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Karin

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides information on the activities conducted through the Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP), initiated in 2012 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the distributed wind industry. The CIP provides research and development funding and technical support to improve distributed wind turbine technology and increase the competitiveness of U.S. small and midsize wind turbine manufacturers. Through this project, DOE/NREL assists U.S. manufacturers to lower the levelized cost of energy of wind turbines through component improvements, manufacturing process upgrades, and turbine testing. Ultimately, this support is expected to lead to turbine certification through testing to industry-recognized wind turbine performance and safety standards.

  15. Toward Improvements in Inter-laboratory Calibration of Argon Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; Deino, A. L.; Heizler, M. T.; Hodges, K. V.; McIntosh, W. C.; Renne, P. R.; Swisher, C. C., III; Turrin, B. D.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to continue to develop strategies to improve our ability to compare results between laboratories chronometers. The U-Pb community has significantly reduced inter-laboratory biases with the application of a community tracer solution and the distribution of synthetic zircon solutions. Inevitably sample selection and processing and even biases in interpretations will still lead to some disagreements in the assignment of ages. Accordingly natural samples that are shared will be important for achievement of the highest levels of agreement. Analogous improvements in quality and inter-laboratory agreement of analytical aspects of Ar-Ar can be achieved through development of synthetic age standards in gas canisters with multiple pipettes to deliver various controlled amounts of argon to the mass spectrometer. A preliminary proof-of concept comes from the inter-laboratory calibration experiment for the 40Ar/39Ar community. This portable Argon Pipette Intercalibration System (APIS) consists of three 2.7 L canisters each equipped with three pipettes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cc volumes. The currently traveling APIS has the three canisters filled with air and 40Ar*/39Ar of 1.73 and canister 2 has a 40Ar*/39Ar of 40.98 (~ Alder Creek and Fish Canyon in the same irradiation). With these pipettes it is possible to combine them to provide 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 (0.1+0.2), 0.4, 0.5 (0.1+0.4), 0.6 (0.2+0.4), and 0.7 (0.1+0.2+0.4) cc. The configuration allows a simple test for inter-laboratory biases and for volume/pressure dependent mass fractionation on the measured ratios for a gas with a single argon isotope composition. Although not yet tested, it is also possible to mix gas from any one of the three canisters in proportions of these increments, allowing even more tightly controlled calibration of measurements. We suggest that ultimately each EARTHTIME lab should be equipped with such a system permanently, with a community plan for a traveling system to periodically repeat the

  16. Towards laboratory x-ray nanotomography: instrumental improvements on a SEM-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Perini, L. A.; Bleuet, P.; Buijsse, B.; Kwakman, L. F. Tz.; Parker, W.

    2016-10-01

    We aim at resolving deca-nanometer features in microelectronic samples using a laboratory SEM-based X-ray tomography microscope. Such a system produces X-rays through the interaction between a focused SEM electron beam and a metallic target. The effective source size of the X-ray beam can be adjusted by varying the target material and geometry. For instance, the use of tungsten nanowires (few hundred nanometers of length) combined with a high electron beam current leads to an increased X-ray flux generated in a reduced volume, necessary for detecting interface details of the analyzed object. It improves resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but is also sensitive to electron beam-target instabilities during the scan. To improve robustness, a FFT-based image correlation is integrated in the process through a closed-loop control scheme. It allows stabilizing the electron beam on the target and to preserve the X-ray flux intensity and alignment. Also, a state of the art high-resolution scientific-CMOS (sCMOS) X-ray detector was installed, allowing to reduce noise and to increase quantum efficiency. Results show that such numerical and equipment improvements lead to significant gains in spatial resolution, SNR and scanning time of the SEM-based tomography. It paves the way to routine, high resolution, 3D X-ray imaging in the laboratory.

  17. Improvement in the quality of enzyme determinations by Scandinavian laboratories upon introduction of Scandinavian recommended methods.

    PubMed

    Strömme, J H; Björnstad, P; Eldjarn, L

    1976-10-01

    The last annual Scandinavian proficiency survey (January 1975) offered an opportunity to evaluate the effect of the introduction of recommended methods for ASAT, ALAT, LD, and ALP on routinely performed enzyme determinations in clinical chemical laboratories. The results obtained by the recommended methods showed a marked improvement in precision, bringing the interlaboratory variations down to levels that have previously been achieved only for the determination of non-enzymic constituents. Enzymes for which no recommended method have been proposed were still determined with low interlaboratory precision.

  18. Antimicrobial drug use and risk factors associated with treatment incidence and mortality in Swiss veal calves reared under improved welfare conditions.

    PubMed

    Lava, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Steiner, A; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-one Swiss veal farms producing under a label with improved welfare standards were visited between August and December 2014 to investigate risk factors related to antimicrobial drug use and mortality. All herds consisted of own and purchased calves, with a median of 77.4% of purchased calves. The calves' mean age was 29±15days at purchasing and the fattening period lasted at average 120±28 days. The mean carcass weight was 125±12kg. A mean of 58±33 calves were fattened per farm and year, and purchased calves were bought from a mean of 20±17 farms of origin. Antimicrobial drug treatment incidence was calculated with the defined daily dose methodology. The mean treatment incidence (TIADD) was 21±15 daily doses per calf and year. The mean mortality risk was 4.1%, calves died at a mean age of 94±50 days, and the main causes of death were bovine respiratory disease (BRD, 50%) and gastro-intestinal disease (33%). Two multivariable models were constructed, for antimicrobial drug treatment incidence (53 farms) and mortality (91 farms). No quarantine, shared air space for several groups of calves, and no clinical examination upon arrival at the farm were associated with increased antimicrobial treatment incidence. Maximum group size and weight differences >100kg within a group were associated with increased mortality risk, while vaccination and beef breed were associated with decreased mortality risk. The majority of antimicrobial treatments (84.6%) were given as group treatments with oral powder fed through an automatic milk feeding system. Combination products containing chlortetracycline with tylosin and sulfadimidine or with spiramycin were used for 54.9%, and amoxicillin for 43.7% of the oral group treatments. The main indication for individual treatment was BRD (73%). The mean age at the time of treatment was 51 days, corresponding to an estimated weight of 80-100kg. Individual treatments were mainly applied through injections (88.5%), and included

  19. Application of indices Cp and Cpk to improve quality control capability in clinical biochemistry laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shu; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The traditional criteria for acceptability of analytic quality may not be objective in clinical laboratories. To establish quality control procedures intended to enhance Westgard multi-rules for improving the quality of clinical biochemistry tests, we applied the Cp and Cpk quality-control indices to monitor tolerance fitting and systematic variation of clinical biochemistry test results. Daily quality-control data of a large Taiwanese hospital in 2009 were analyzed. The test items were selected based on an Olympus biochemistry machine and included serum albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, glucose and potassium levels. Cp and Cpk values were calculated for normal and abnormal levels, respectively. The tolerance range was estimated with data from 50 laboratories using the same instruments and reagents. The results showed a monthly trend of variation for the five items under investigation. The index values of glucose were lower than those of the other items, and their values were usually <2. In contrast to the Cp value for cholesterol, Cpk of cholesterol was lower than 2, indicating a systematic error that should be further investigated. This finding suggests a degree of variation or failure to meet specifications that should be corrected. The study indicated that Cp and Cpk could be applied not only for monitoring variations in quality control, but also for revealing inter-laboratory qualitycontrol capability differences.

  20. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL`s substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL.

  1. Optimization of Methodology for Rearing Spodoptera albula on Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Di Bello, M M; Souza, B H S; Nogueira, L; Ribeiro, Z A; Eduardo, W I; Boiça Júnior, A L

    2017-03-08

    Advances in techniques for rearing insects on artificial diets are fundamental to solving issues of basic and applied entomology. In this study, we evaluated the development of Spodoptera albula (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on three artificial diets used for other species of Lepidoptera, at three larval densities, and two densities of adult couples housed in oviposition cages of two sizes, with the aim of optimizing methodology for rearing S. albula in the laboratory. Biological parameters were recorded from S. albula, and a fitness index was calculated based on the larval survival and duration and weight of pupae. The total and daily oviposition was recorded using 5 or 10 adult couples of S. albula housed in two cage sizes. Concentrations of total nitrogen and protein in the tested diets were determined. Development of S. albula was completed in all artificial diets; however, the diet used for rearing Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) larvae was the most suitable for S. albula, yielding intermediate development time and higher survival relative to the other diets. Individualization of larvae favored S. albula development by producing overall greater weights of larvae and pupae, higher survival rates, and longer adult longevity. Cage size and number of couples per cage did not influence S. albula fecundity in the experiment conditions. Spodoptera albula can be satisfactorily reared on the artificial diet used for A. gemmatalis, using one larva per tube, and either density of adults at any cage size. Additional amendments are needed in the rearing methodology to achieve optimal conditions for larval development to adulthood.

  2. Facilitating Improvements in Laboratory Report Writing Skills with Less Grading: A Laboratory Report Peer-Review Process†

    PubMed Central

    Brigati, Jennifer R.; Swann, Jerilyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading). T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading). While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions) in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings. PMID:25949758

  3. Facilitating improvements in laboratory report writing skills with less grading: a laboratory report peer-review process.

    PubMed

    Brigati, Jennifer R; Swann, Jerilyn M

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading). T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading). While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions) in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings.

  4. Supplementation of lactobacilli improves growth, regulates microbiota composition and suppresses skeletal anomalies in juvenile pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) reared in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ljubobratovic, Uros; Kosanovic, Dejana; Vukotic, Goran; Molnar, Zsuzsanna; Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Ristovic, Tijana; Peter, Geza; Lukic, Jovanka; Jeney, Galina

    2017-07-24

    This research aimed to test the effects of lactobacilli, applied to cultured pike-perch, either through hydrolyzed OTOHIME fish diet, or through Artemia nauplii, on fish growth, microbiota balance and skeletal development. On the 12th Day Post Hatching (DPH) fish were divided into following treatment groups: two groups received the combination of OTOHIME and nauplii enriched either with Lactobacillus paracasei BGHN14+Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 or with Lactobacillus reuteri BGGO6-55+Lactobacillus salivarius BGHO1, and one group received OTOHIME hydrolyzed by BGHN14+BGT10 and non-enriched nauplii. Control group received non-enriched nauplii and non-hydrolyzed OTOHIME. The treatment lasted 14days and fish were sacrificed on the 26th DPH for the assessment of digestive enzyme activity and microbiota composition. Individual total lengths and individual body weights were recorded at the end of the treatments, on the 26th DPH, and also on the 45th DPH, in parallel with the evaluation of skeletal deformities and fish survival. Our results indicated positive effect of Artemia enriched with BGGO6-55+BGHO1 on fish growth, skeletal development and trypsin to chymotrypsin activity ratio (T/C), as an indicator of protein digestibility. Hydrolysis of OTOHIME was also associated with better skeletal development, higher T/C values and lower levels of Aeromonas and Mycobacterium spp., which are important fish pathogens. Though additional testing in larger cohort studies is needed, these observations are promising in terms of usage of probiotics for improved environmentally friendly production of pike-perch in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving Resident Performance in Oculoplastic Surgery: A New Curriculum Using Surgical Wet Laboratory Videos.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kapil; Mathai, Mariam; Della Rocca, Robert C; Reddy, Harsha S

    To develop a new oculoplastic curriculum that incorporates learning theory of skill acquisition. To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of instructional videos for an oculoplastic surgical wet laboratory. Proof of concept, randomized controlled trial. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai-tertiary care academic institution. In total, 16 ophthalmology residents were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups and given either video and text or text instructions alone for the following 2 procedures: blepharoplasty and eyelid laceration repair. Operating time and esthetic result were measured, and the groups were statistically compared. A brief survey was administered. We developed a new 6 component oculoplastics curriculum that incorporates concepts of the Fitts and Posner skill acquisition model and mental imagery. In the wet laboratory pilot study, the group that watched the video of the laceration repair showed better esthetic grades than the group that received text alone (p = 0.038). This difference was not found for the blepharoplasty (p = 0.492). There was no difference between groups in operating time for the laceration repair (p = 0.722), but the group that watched the blepharoplasty video required more time to complete the task than those that reviewed text only (p = 0.023). In total, 100% of residents reported the videos augmented their learning. Methods to optimize surgical education are important given limited operating room time in oculoplastics, a subspecialty in which the number of surgeries performed during residency is relatively low. We developed a curriculum based on learning theory and sought to formally test one important aspect, surgical video for wet laboratories. Our pilot study, despite its limitations, showed that wet laboratory surgical videos can be effective tools in improving motor skill acquisition for oculoplastic surgery. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The improvement project would maximize the efficiency of the Fermilab Industrial Cooling Water (ICW) distribution system, which removes (via evaporation) the thermal load from experimental and other support equipment supporting the high energy physics program at Fermilab. The project would eliminate the risk of overheating during fixed target experiments, ensure that the Illinois Water Quality Standards are consistently achieved and provide needed additional water storage for fire protection. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  7. The Biological Stain Commission's Quality Control Laboratory operations and improved traceability of certified stains.

    PubMed

    Fagan, C L

    2012-01-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) is a quality control laboratory that certifies biological dyes for staining cells and tissues. Originally, a single lot of a certified dye was sold to histologists. Today, companies frequently change their lot numbers as part of regulatory efforts. When a certified dye undergoes a lot number change, the BSC must re-certify this dye to verify that it is identical to the one certified earlier. The BSC has improved how these lot changes are monitored using a redesigned BSC certification label. Certification labels always have been issued by the BSC and are attached to every bottle of "BSC certified dye" that is sold. The new BSC certification label has added security features and currently bears both the BSC certification number and the manufacturer batch lot number. The result is improved security and traceability of certified dyes.

  8. Launching a Laboratory Testing Process Quality Improvement Toolkit: From the Shared Networks of Colorado Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP).

    PubMed

    Fernald, Douglas; Hamer, Mika; James, Kathy; Tutt, Brandon; West, David

    2015-01-01

    Family medicine and internal medicine physicians order diagnostic laboratory tests for nearly one-third of patient encounters in an average week, yet among medical errors in primary care, an estimated 15% to 54% are attributed to laboratory testing processes. From a practice improvement perspective, we (1) describe the need for laboratory testing process quality improvements from the perspective of primary care practices, and (2) describe the approaches and resources needed to implement laboratory testing process quality improvements in practice. We applied practice observations, process mapping, and interviews with primary care practices in the Shared Networks of Colorado Ambulatory Practices and Partners (SNOCAP)-affiliated practice-based research networks that field-tested in 2013 a laboratory testing process improvement toolkit. From the data collected in each of the 22 participating practices, common testing quality issues included, but were not limited to, 3 main testing process steps: laboratory test preparation, test tracking, and patient notification. Three overarching qualitative themes emerged: practices readily acknowledge multiple laboratory testing process problems; practices know that they need help addressing the issues; and practices face challenges with finding patient-centered solutions compatible with practice priorities and available resources. While practices were able to get started with guidance and a toolkit to improve laboratory testing processes, most did not seem able to achieve their quality improvement aims unassisted. Providing specific guidance tools with practice facilitation or other rapid-cycle quality improvement support may be an effective approach to improve common laboratory testing issues in primary care. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  9. Improving validity of informed consent for biomedical research in Zambia using a laboratory exposure intervention.

    PubMed

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Chisenga, Caroline C; Chomba, Mumba; Simuyandi, Michelo; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Complex biomedical research can lead to disquiet in communities with limited exposure to scientific discussions, leading to rumours or to high drop-out rates. We set out to test an intervention designed to address apprehensions commonly encountered in a community where literacy is uncommon, and where complex biomedical research has been conducted for over a decade. We aimed to determine if it could improve the validity of consent. Data were collected using focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. We designed an intervention that exposed participants to a detailed demonstration of laboratory processes. Each group was interviewed twice in a day, before and after exposure to the intervention in order to assess changes in their views. Factors that motivated people to participate in invasive biomedical research included a desire to stay healthy because of the screening during the recruitment process, regular advice from doctors, free medical services, and trust in the researchers. Inhibiting factors were limited knowledge about samples taken from their bodies during endoscopic procedures, the impact of endoscopy on the function of internal organs, and concerns about the use of biomedical samples. The belief that blood can be used for Satanic practices also created insecurities about drawing of blood samples. Further inhibiting factors included a fear of being labelled as HIV positive if known to consult heath workers repeatedly, and gender inequality. Concerns about the use and storage of blood and tissue samples were overcome by a laboratory exposure intervention. Selecting a group of members from target community and engaging them in a laboratory exposure intervention could be a useful tool for enhancing specific aspects of consent for biomedical research. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which improved understanding permeates beyond the immediate group participating in the intervention.

  10. Improving Validity of Informed Consent for Biomedical Research in Zambia Using a Laboratory Exposure Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Chisenga, Caroline C.; Chomba, Mumba; Simuyandi, Michelo; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Complex biomedical research can lead to disquiet in communities with limited exposure to scientific discussions, leading to rumours or to high drop-out rates. We set out to test an intervention designed to address apprehensions commonly encountered in a community where literacy is uncommon, and where complex biomedical research has been conducted for over a decade. We aimed to determine if it could improve the validity of consent. Methods Data were collected using focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. We designed an intervention that exposed participants to a detailed demonstration of laboratory processes. Each group was interviewed twice in a day, before and after exposure to the intervention in order to assess changes in their views. Results Factors that motivated people to participate in invasive biomedical research included a desire to stay healthy because of the screening during the recruitment process, regular advice from doctors, free medical services, and trust in the researchers. Inhibiting factors were limited knowledge about samples taken from their bodies during endoscopic procedures, the impact of endoscopy on the function of internal organs, and concerns about the use of biomedical samples. The belief that blood can be used for Satanic practices also created insecurities about drawing of blood samples. Further inhibiting factors included a fear of being labelled as HIV positive if known to consult heath workers repeatedly, and gender inequality. Concerns about the use and storage of blood and tissue samples were overcome by a laboratory exposure intervention. Conclusion Selecting a group of members from target community and engaging them in a laboratory exposure intervention could be a useful tool for enhancing specific aspects of consent for biomedical research. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which improved understanding permeates beyond the immediate group participating in the intervention

  11. The Henry Ford Production System: LEAN Process Redesign Improves Service in the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C.; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement. PMID:19661386

  12. GenomeConnect: matchmaking between patients, clinical laboratories and researchers to improve genomic knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brianne E.; Riggs, Erin Rooney; Azzariti, Danielle R.; Miller, Vanessa Rangel; Ledbetter, David H.; Miller, David T.; Rehm, Heidi; Martin, Christa Lese; Faucett, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    As the utility of genetic and genomic testing in healthcare grows, there is need for a high quality genomic knowledge base to improve the clinical interpretation of genomic variants. Active patient engagement can enhance communication between clinicians, patients and researchers, contributing to knowledge building. It also encourages data sharing by patients and increases the data available for clinicians to incorporate into individualized patient care, clinical laboratories to utilize in test interpretation and investigators to use for research. GenomeConnect is a patient portal supported by the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen), providing an opportunity for patients to add to the knowledge base by securely sharing their health history and genetic test results. Data can be matched with queries from clinicians, laboratory personnel and researchers to better interpret the results of genetic testing and build a foundation to support genomic medicine. Participation is online, allowing patients to contribute regardless of location. GenomeConnect supports longitudinal, detailed clinical phenotyping and robust “matching” among research and clinical communities. Phenotype data is gathered using online health questionnaires; genotype data is obtained from genetic test reports uploaded by participants and curated by staff. GenomeConnect empowers patients to actively participate in the improvement of genomic test interpretation and clinical utility. PMID:26178529

  13. GenomeConnect: matchmaking between patients, clinical laboratories, and researchers to improve genomic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Brianne E; Riggs, Erin Rooney; Azzariti, Danielle R; Miller, Vanessa Rangel; Ledbetter, David H; Miller, David T; Rehm, Heidi; Martin, Christa Lese; Faucett, W Andrew

    2015-10-01

    As the utility of genetic and genomic testing in healthcare grows, there is need for a high-quality genomic knowledge base to improve the clinical interpretation of genomic variants. Active patient engagement can enhance communication between clinicians, patients, and researchers, contributing to knowledge building. It also encourages data sharing by patients and increases the data available for clinicians to incorporate into individualized patient care, clinical laboratories to utilize in test interpretation, and investigators to use for research. GenomeConnect is a patient portal supported by the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen), providing an opportunity for patients to add to the knowledge base by securely sharing their health history and genetic test results. Data can be matched with queries from clinicians, laboratory personnel, and researchers to better interpret the results of genetic testing and build a foundation to support genomic medicine. Participation is online, allowing patients to contribute regardless of location. GenomeConnect supports longitudinal, detailed clinical phenotyping and robust "matching" among research and clinical communities. Phenotype data are gathered using online health questionnaires; genotype data are obtained from genetic test reports uploaded by participants and curated by staff. GenomeConnect empowers patients to actively participate in the improvement of genomic test interpretation and clinical utility. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  15. On improving rainfall and solid precipitation weighing-gauge measurements using laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, Matteo; Landolt, Scott; Rasmussen, Roy; Govanni Lanza, Luca; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Short interval snowfall, drizzle and light rainfall events can be hard to measure with precipitation gauges due to sampling limitations, wind effects, and noise. The noise observed in the data sampling can often be greater than the detectable signal from a real precipitation event. In addition wind effects can induce differential air pressure on the measurement devices inside the gauges increasing the signal noise. Various algorithms have been devised to help reduce noise and other unwanted effects in precipitation gauge measurements. Most of these algorithms have focused on the removal of wind effects, while others have focused on reducing temperature dependencies. Recent laboratory testing has demonstrated the ability to reproduce some of these anomalies observed in precipitation measurements during field trial campaigns. Assessing the factors contributing to these anomalies is required to accurately simulate these conditions in the laboratory. It is also important to understand these factors to support the selection of the appropriate natural conditions to be simulated in the laboratory environment. This work details the wind-free laboratory testing of some of the above-mentioned effects in order to develop a measurement interpretation algorithm capable of improving the accuracy of the Geonor T-200B vibrating wire gauge and the OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauge. Specifically, these experiments will examine the effects of temperature oscillations on the various gauge components, as well as snow capping and the potential heat-plume problem associated with heating the gauge orifices. These experiments use an artificial snow-generation machine: a snowflake simulation system in which snowflake sizes and snowfall rates can be controlled in a wind-free environment. The positive outcome of this preliminary phase would result in the transfer of the tested methodologies to the on-going WMO Solid Precipitation InterComparison Experiment (SPICE) campaign. The laboratory

  16. Repeated testing to improve skills in a pharmacy practice laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Begley, Kimberley; Monaghan, Michael S; Qi, Yongyue

    2013-08-12

    To evaluate the impact of repeated simulations and testing on the pharmacy practice skills development of third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. A pharmacy practice skills laboratory was redesigned to reinforce skills development and enhance retention. Timed, repeated learning experiences that increased in complexity throughout the semester were used to test student knowledge, skills, and abilities. Over a 5-year period, scores from skills-based activities deemed essential to professional practice and repeated 4 or more times in the course were analyzed. There was a significant improvement in scores on drug utilization reviews and patient counseling simulations despite the increasing difficulty and complexity of the medication problems presented (p <0.001). Students' scores on prescription verification and sterile product verification also improved significantly over 3 assessments (p <0.001), but then plateaued, with less improvement seen in performance on subsequent assessments. Providing multiple opportunities for students to conduct or simulate pharmacy practice activities and then test their knowledge and skills improves students' learning and performance.

  17. Improving Consistency in Large Laboratory Courses: A Design for a Standardized Practical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinnian; Graesser, Donnasue; Sah, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory courses serve as important gateways to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. One of the challenges in assessing laboratory learning is to conduct meaningful and standardized practical exams, especially for large multisection laboratory courses. Laboratory practical exams in life sciences courses are frequently…

  18. The Regional Laboratory Connection. Improving Educational Practices Through Systematic Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Larry

    To examine the contributions and procedures of regional educational laboratories, the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) compiled a history of its own development and compared its approaches in several critical areas to those of seven other regional laboratories. A section on the purpose and development of the laboratories provides…

  19. Improving Consistency in Large Laboratory Courses: A Design for a Standardized Practical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinnian; Graesser, Donnasue; Sah, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory courses serve as important gateways to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. One of the challenges in assessing laboratory learning is to conduct meaningful and standardized practical exams, especially for large multisection laboratory courses. Laboratory practical exams in life sciences courses are frequently…

  20. The Role of Laboratory Supervision in Improving the Quality of Malaria Diagnosis: A Pilot Study in Huambo, Angola.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Rebecca; Mugizi, Rukaaka; Lopes, Sergio; Etossi, R Cacilda; Allan, Richard

    2016-03-01

    In 2006, the Angolan National Malaria Control Program introduced clinical guidelines for malaria case management, which included diagnostic confirmation of malaria before administration of treatment; however, diagnostic practices were inconsistent and of unknown quality. In 2009, a laboratory supervision program was implemented in Huambo Province, with the goal of assessing and improving diagnosis of malaria within the confines of available in-country resources. Supervisions were carried out from 2009 to 2014 using a standardized supervision tool by national laboratory trainers. Data from the first supervision were compared with that from the final supervision. Over the study period, the number and level of training of laboratory technicians increased, and there was a nonstatistically significant trend toward improved laboratory conditions. There was a significant reduction in false-positive microscopy slide reading (P = 0.0133). Laboratory infrastructural capacity to diagnose other communicable diseases, including syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infections (P = 0.0012, 0.0233 and 0.0026, respectively), also improved significantly. Laboratory supervision for malaria diagnosis found significant areas for improvement, and in combination with concurrent capacity-building activities, it improved the diagnostic capacity for malaria and other diseases. Importantly, this study demonstrates that locally available resources can be used to improve the accuracy of malaria diagnosis.

  1. Sodium phosphate loading improves laboratory cycling time-trial performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Folland, Jonathan P; Stern, Ric; Brickley, Gary

    2008-09-01

    Sodium phosphate loading has been reported to increase maximal oxygen uptake (6-12%), however its influence on endurance performance has been ambiguous. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sodium phosphate loading on laboratory 16.1 km cycling time-trial performance. Six trained male cyclists (V O(2) peak, 64.1+/-2.8 ml kg(-1)min(-1); mean+/-S.D.) took part in a randomised double-blind crossover study. Upon completion of a control trial (C), participants ingested either 1g of tribasic dodecahydrate sodium phosphate (SP) or lactose placebo (P) four times daily for 6 days prior to performing a 16.1 km (10 mile) cycling time-trial under laboratory conditions. Power output and heart rate were continually recorded throughout each test, and at two points during each time-trial expired air samples and capillary blood samples were taken. There was a 14-day period between each of the supplemented time-trials. After SP loading mean power was greater than for P and C (C, 322+/-15 W; P, 317+/-16 W; SP, 347+/-19 W; ANOVA, P<0.05) and time to complete the 16.1 km was shorter than P, but not C (ANOVA, P<0.05). During the SP trial, relative to the P, mean changes were mean power output +9.8+/-8.0% (+/-95% confidence interval); time -3.0+/-2.9%. There was a tendency towards higher V O(2) after SP loading (ANOVA, P = 0.07). Heart rate, V (E), RER and blood lactate concentration were not significantly affected by SP loading. Sodium phosphate loading significantly improved mean power output and 16.1 km time-trial performance of trained cyclists under laboratory conditions with functional increases in oxygen uptake.

  2. Improved compliance with reporting standards: A retrospective analysis of Intersocietal Accreditation Commission Nuclear Cardiology Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Maddux, P Tim; Farrell, Mary Beth; Ewing, Joseph A; Tilkemeier, Peter L

    2016-11-09

    In 2011, Tilkemeier et al reported significant nuclear cardiology laboratory noncompliance with reporting standards. The aim of this study was to identify and examine noncompliant reporting elements with the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission Nuclear/PET (IAC) Reporting Standards and to compare compliance between 2008 and 2014. This was a retrospective study of compliance with 18 reporting elements utilizing accreditation findings from all laboratories applying for accreditation in 2008 and 2014. 1816 labs applying for initial or subsequent accreditation were analyzed for compliance. The mean reporting noncompliance per lab decreased from 2008 to 2014 (2.48 ± 2.67 to 1.24 ± 1.79, P < .001). Noncompliance decreased across lab types, labs with Certification Board of Nuclear Cardiology physicians on staff, and by geographic region (P < .001). Overall severity of reporting issues decreased. Facilities with compliant reports increased from 35.0% in 2008 to 57.1% in 2014 (P < .001). Continuing medical education, accreditation, and other instructional activities aimed at improving nuclear cardiology reporting appear to have made a positive impact over time with the number and severity of noncompliance decreased. More labs are now compliant with the IAC Standards and, thus, reporting guidelines. However, the need for continued educational efforts remains.

  3. RIPOSTE: a framework for improving the design and analysis of laboratory-based research

    PubMed Central

    Masca, Nicholas GD; Hensor, Elizabeth MA; Cornelius, Victoria R; Buffa, Francesca M; Marriott, Helen M; Eales, James M; Messenger, Michael P; Anderson, Amy E; Boot, Chris; Bunce, Catey; Goldin, Robert D; Harris, Jessica; Hinchliffe, Rod F; Junaid, Hiba; Kingston, Shaun; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Nelson, Christopher P; Peacock, Janet; Seed, Paul T; Shinkins, Bethany; Staples, Karl J; Toombs, Jamie; Wright, Adam KA; Teare, M Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility is an ongoing problem in some areas of the biomedical sciences. Poor experimental design and a failure to engage with experienced statisticians at key stages in the design and analysis of experiments are two factors that contribute to this problem. The RIPOSTE (Reducing IrreProducibility in labOratory STudiEs) framework has been developed to support early and regular discussions between scientists and statisticians in order to improve the design, conduct and analysis of laboratory studies and, therefore, to reduce irreproducibility. This framework is intended for use during the early stages of a research project, when specific questions or hypotheses are proposed. The essential points within the framework are explained and illustrated using three examples (a medical equipment test, a macrophage study and a gene expression study). Sound study design minimises the possibility of bias being introduced into experiments and leads to higher quality research with more reproducible results. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05519.001 PMID:25951517

  4. Implementing a regulation-complaint quality improvement program on a commercial laboratory information system.

    PubMed

    Cowan, D F

    1992-10-01

    Implementing a quality improvement (QI) program on an automated laboratory information system (LIS) in the current regulatory climate requires first that the QI program be defined and second that the selected LIS be able to capture important events and use flexible vendor-provided or user-defined routines to prepare reports. Reports key on specific monitors and thresholds defined in the QI program. The product of a pathology laboratory is communicated information. The QI program focuses on the accuracy, clarity and timeliness with which the whole information-generating process functions. To support peer review the LIS must be able to select reports for evaluation based on user-defined parameters, such as diagnosis keyed through Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes, or by random or pattern selection by accession number. Counting and review of revised reports will focus attention on accuracy and skill in communication since these indicators often reflect client satisfaction with the report. To link services--e.g., cytology with surgical pathology--the LIS must be able to gather cases from the accession lists of both services and to flag diagnostic inconsistencies. LIS transaction logging at every step in the information process allows tracking of work load, productivity and resource utilization by functional areas and by individual, thus meeting regulatory requirements. Transaction logging also provides management information, such as segmented turnaround time audits, pinpointing sources of delay by kind and location of work or individual involved. Critical data must be held on-line for at least five years.

  5. Introduction of a fresh cadaver laboratory during the surgery clerkship improves emergency technical skills.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Saman; Kaplan, Stephen J; Knapp, Christopher M; Ho, Hang; Alvarado, Jared; Viscusi, Rebecca; Adamas-Rappaport, William

    2015-08-01

    Student acquisition of technical skills during the clinical years of medical school has been steadily declining. To address this issue, the authors instituted a fresh cadaver-based Emergency Surgical Skills Laboratory (ESSL). Sixty-three medical students rotating through the third-year surgery clerkship participated in a 2-hour, fresh cadaver-based ESSL conducted during the first 2 days of the clerkship. The authors evaluated students utilizing both surgical skills and written examination before the ESSL and at 4 weeks post ESSL. Students demonstrated a mean improvement of 64% (±11) (P < .001) and 38% (±17) (P < .001) in technical skills and clinical knowledge, respectively. When technical skills were compared between cohorts, there were no differences observed in both pre- and post-testing (P = .08). A fresh cadaver laboratory is an effective method to provide proficiency in emergency technical skills not acquired during the clinical years of medical school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Engaging Students Through Classroom Connection Webinars to Improve Their Understanding of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige V.; Achilles, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions to other worlds, like Mars, can generate a lot of excitement and wonder for the public. The Mars Science Laboratory Mission is one of the latest planetary missions that has intrigued the public perhaps more than most. How can scientists and educational specialists capitalize on the allure of this mission and involve students and teachers in a way that not only shares the story of the mission, but actively engages classrooms with scientists and improves their understanding of the science? The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center achieves this by facilitating MSL mission focused classroom connection webinars. Five MSL-focused webinars facilitated through EEAB during the 2012 fall semester engaged almost 3000 students and teachers. Involved STEM experts/role models helped translate the science behind the Mars Science Laboratory mission in a comprehensive, exciting, and engaging manner. These virtual events captured participants attention while increasing their science awareness and understanding of the MSL mission.

  7. Using checklists in a gross anatomy laboratory improves learning outcomes and dissection quality.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Ryan Engebretson; Nikolaus, O Brant; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Checklists have been widely used in the aviation industry ever since aircraft operations became more complex than any single pilot could reasonably remember. More recently, checklists have found their way into medicine, where cognitive function can be compromised by stress and fatigue. The use of checklists in medical education has rarely been reported, especially in the basic sciences. We explored whether the use of a checklist in the gross anatomy laboratory would improve learning outcomes, dissection quality, and students' satisfaction in the first-year Human Structure didactic block at Mayo Medical School. During the second half of a seven-week anatomy course, dissection teams were each day given a hardcopy checklist of the structures to be identified during that day's dissection. The first half of the course was considered the control, as students did not receive any checklists to utilize during dissection. The measured outcomes were scored on four practice practical examinations and four dissection quality assessments, two each from the first half (control) and second half of the course. A student satisfaction survey was distributed at the end of the course. Examination and dissection scores were analyzed for correlations between practice practical examination score and checklist use. Our data suggest that a daily hardcopy list of anatomical structures for active use in the gross anatomy laboratory increases practice practical examination scores and dissection quality. Students recommend the use of these checklists in future anatomy courses.

  8. Adaptive laboratory evolution of Klebsiella pneumoniae for improving 2,3-butanediol production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbiao; Zhang, Genlin; Dang, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol is limited by the toxic components in the lignocellulose hydrolysate. To improve the 2,3-butanediol production via Klebsiella pneumoniae from cotton stalk hydrolysate, a method coupling a high tolerance of strain and detoxification of the hydrolysate was thus investigated in this study. The strain tolerance of K. pneumoniae to the cotton stalk hydrolysate was improved via an adaptive laboratory evolution, which involved a stepwise increase in the hydrolysate concentration in the medium. Compared with the initial strain, the resulting strain increased the biomass 3.2-fold in a medium of 20 g/L hydrolysate and produced 10.45 g/L of 2,3-butanediol at an optimal concentration of 60 g/L hydrolysate. After detoxification of cotton stalk hydrolysate, the cell metabolism of K. pneumoniae was further promoted, and the 2,3-butanediol production increased by 1.2 folds. Using fed-batch fermentation, the concentration of 2,3-butanediol reached 35.5 g/L with a yield of 0.43 g/g. The results demonstrated that the bioconversion of low-cost cotton stalk hydrolysate into 2,3-butanediol improves the economics of microbial 2,3-butanediol production. PMID:27442598

  9. Energy reallocation to breeding performance through improved nest building in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Mice are housed at temperatures (20-26 °C) that increase their basal metabolic rates and impose high energy demands to maintain core temperatures. Therefore, energy must be reallocated from other biological processes to increase heat production to offset heat loss. Supplying laboratory mice with nesting material may provide sufficient insulation to reduce heat loss and improve both feed conversion and breeding performance. Naïve C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CD-1 breeding pairs were provided with bedding alone, or bedding supplemented with either 8 g of Enviro-Dri, 8 g of Nestlets, for 6 months. Mice provided with either nesting material built more dome-like nests than controls. Nesting material improved feed efficiency per pup weaned as well as pup weaning weight. The breeding index (pups weaned/dam/week) was higher when either nesting material was provided. Thus, the sparing of energy for thermoregulation of mice given additional nesting material may have been responsible for the improved breeding and growth of offspring.

  10. CSF xanthochromia analysis takes longer following centralisation of the laboratories testing samples - how can we improve the time to result?

    PubMed

    Martin, Sean; Page, Melanie; Godber, Ian; McGregor, Calum

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar puncture is an essential tool for excluding subarachnoid haemorrhage. In August 2012, the laboratory at which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is analysed for xanthochromia in Lanarkshire was centralised at Hairmyres (East Kilbride, UK). Prior to this, each of the three hospitals analysed their own specimens. We aim to assess whether or not the change in xanthochromia processing has resulted in diagnostic delay at Wishaw General Hospital in the assessment of CT negative possible subarachnoid haemorrhage. We subsequently assessed the impact of a strategy to minimise any delay, i.e. increasing laboratory processing hours. Patients undergoing CSF analysis for xanthochromia were identified directly from the laboratory database. Time of lumbar puncture, and time of xanthochromia results were obtained from the hospital's laboratory computer system. Data were analysed using a commercially available statistical software programme (Microsoft Excel). Audit was repeated after the change to a centralised laboratory, and again following the increased laboratory working hours. Mean time from lumbar puncture to availability of xanthochromia result was significantly longer following the laboratory change (20.8±3.5 hours post [n=35] vs. 12.5±3.0 pre, p=0.01 [n=17]). However, following a change in the laboratory's practice, there was no improvement (19.8±3.4 hours post practice change [n=35]), and this remained significantly longer when compared to the original laboratory set-up (p=0.025). The change in laboratory processing CSF samples for xanthochromia in Lanarkshire resulted in a significant delay in analysing the samples. Attempts by the laboratory to extend processing hours did not make any significant improvement, but having expanded our knowledge of the issues, further measures are now planned to minimise delays in the future. Centralisation of laboratory services for CSF analysis, whilst cheaper, may impact negatively on clinical care.

  11. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  12. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  13. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron.

  14. Using laboratory experiments to improve reliability in rainfall and solid precipitation weighing-gauge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, S.; Colli, M.; La Barbera, P.; Lanza, L. G.; Rasmussen, R.

    2012-12-01

    Snowfall, drizzle and light rainfall events (defined as events with intensities < 12 mm/h) can often be hard to detect over a short-time resolution due to sampling limitations, wind effects, and noise influencing the weighing-gauge measurements. In many instances, the noise observed in the data sampling can often be greater than the detectable signal from a real precipitation event. Wind can be one of the largest contributors to gauge undercatch, and can also increase noise due to wind pumping on the measurement devices inside the gauges. Various algorithms have been devised to help reduce noise and other unwanted effects in precipitation gauge measurements. Most of these algorithms have focused on the removal of wind effects, while others have focused on reducing temperature dependencies and snow capping. Recent laboratory testing has demonstrated the ability to reproduce some of these anomalies observed in precipitation measurements during field trial campaigns. Assessing the factors contributing to these anomalies is required to accurately simulate these conditions in the laboratory. It is also important to understand these factors to support the selection of the appropriate natural conditions to be simulated in the laboratory environment. Significant research has already been undertaken to measure the influence of wind affecting the gauges. This work details the wind-free laboratory testing of some of the above-mentioned algorithms developed to improve measurement accuracy from the Geonor T-200b vibrating wire gauge and the OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauges. Specifically, these experiments will examine the effects of temperature oscillations and their subsequent effects on the various gauge components, as well as snow capping and the potential heat-plume problem associated with heating the gauges. These experiments employ an artificial snow-generation machine; a snowflake simulation system in which snowflake sizes and snowfall rates can be controlled in a wind

  15. Improved Sepsis Alert With a Telephone Call From the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bunsow, Eleonora; González-Del Vecchio, Marcela; Sanchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Patricia; Burillo, Almudena; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    Early sepsis attention is a standard of care in many institutions and the role of different specialists is well recognized. However, the impact of a telephone call from a specialist in Clinical Microbiology upon blood cultures request has not been assessed to the best of our knowledge. We performed telephone calls followed by an interview with physicians and nurses in charge of adult patients (> 18 years old) whose blood cultures had just been received in the Microbiology Laboratory in a tertiary hospital. Patients were randomly classified in 2 different groups: group A (telephone call performed) and group B (no telephone call). At the end of the telephonic intervention, recommendations on the use of microbiology and biochemical tests as well as on the management and antibiotic therapy of sepsis were made if required. We included 300 patients. Of those fulfilling standard criteria of sepsis, 30.3% of the nurses and 50% of the physicians immediately recognized it. Advice to optimize the use of biochemical and microbiological tests was provided in 36% of the cases and to improve antimicrobial therapy in 57.6%. The median number of days of antibiotic use in groups A and B were, respectively, 6 days (IQR: 2-12) vs 9 days (IQR: 4-16) P = 0.008 and the median number of prescribed daily doses of antimicrobials (6 [IQR: 3-17] vs 10 [IQR: 5-22] P = 0.016) were lower in group A. We estimate a reduction, only in the use of antibiotic, of 1.8 million Euros per year. A telephone call with management advice, immediately after the arrival of blood cultures in the Microbiology Laboratory improves the recognition of sepsis and the use of diagnostic resources and reduces antimicrobial consumption and expenses.

  16. Improved Sepsis Alert With a Telephone Call From the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Bunsow, Eleonora; Vecchio, Marcela González-Del; Sanchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Patricia; Burillo, Almudena; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early sepsis attention is a standard of care in many institutions and the role of different specialists is well recognized. However, the impact of a telephone call from a specialist in Clinical Microbiology upon blood cultures request has not been assessed to the best of our knowledge. We performed telephone calls followed by an interview with physicians and nurses in charge of adult patients (> 18 years old) whose blood cultures had just been received in the Microbiology Laboratory in a tertiary hospital. Patients were randomly classified in 2 different groups: group A (telephone call performed) and group B (no telephone call). At the end of the telephonic intervention, recommendations on the use of microbiology and biochemical tests as well as on the management and antibiotic therapy of sepsis were made if required. We included 300 patients. Of those fulfilling standard criteria of sepsis, 30.3% of the nurses and 50% of the physicians immediately recognized it. Advice to optimize the use of biochemical and microbiological tests was provided in 36% of the cases and to improve antimicrobial therapy in 57.6%. The median number of days of antibiotic use in groups A and B were, respectively, 6 days (IQR: 2–12) vs 9 days (IQR: 4–16) P = 0.008 and the median number of prescribed daily doses of antimicrobials (6 [IQR: 3–17] vs 10 [IQR: 5–22] P = 0.016) were lower in group A. We estimate a reduction, only in the use of antibiotic, of 1.8 million Euros per year. A telephone call with management advice, immediately after the arrival of blood cultures in the Microbiology Laboratory improves the recognition of sepsis and the use of diagnostic resources and reduces antimicrobial consumption and expenses. PMID:26426609

  17. Impact of lean six sigma process improvement methodology on cardiac catheterization laboratory efficiency.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shikhar; Gallo, Justin J; Parashar, Akhil; Agarwal, Kanika K; Ellis, Stephen G; Khot, Umesh N; Spooner, Robin; Murat Tuzcu, Emin; Kapadia, Samir R

    2016-03-01

    Operational inefficiencies are ubiquitous in several healthcare processes. To improve the operational efficiency of our catheterization laboratory (Cath Lab), we implemented a lean six sigma process improvement initiative, starting in June 2010. We aimed to study the impact of lean six sigma implementation on improving the efficiency and the patient throughput in our Cath Lab. All elective and urgent cardiac catheterization procedures including diagnostic coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions, structural interventions and peripheral interventions performed between June 2009 and December 2012 were included in the study. Performance metrics utilized for analysis included turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start and manual sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. After implementation of lean six sigma in the Cath Lab, we observed a significant improvement in turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. The percentage of cases with optimal turn-time increased from 43.6% in 2009 to 56.6% in 2012 (p-trend<0.001). Similarly, the percentage of cases with an aggregate on-time start increased from 41.7% in 2009 to 62.8% in 2012 (p-trend<0.001). In addition, the percentage of manual sheath-pulls performed in the Cath Lab decreased from 60.7% in 2009 to 22.7% in 2012 (p-trend<0.001). The current longitudinal study illustrates the impact of successful implementation of a well-known process improvement initiative, lean six sigma, on improving and sustaining efficiency of our Cath Lab operation. After the successful implementation of this continuous quality improvement initiative, there was a significant improvement in the selected performance metrics namely turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. Copyright © 2016

  18. Improvement of the quality of work in a biochemistry laboratory via measurement system analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shu; Liao, Chen-Mao; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2016-10-31

    An adequate and continuous monitoring of operational variations can effectively reduce the uncertainty and enhance the quality of laboratory reports. This study applied the evaluation rule of the measurement system analysis (MSA) method to estimate the quality of work conducted in a biochemistry laboratory. Using the gauge repeatability & reproducibility (GR&R) approach, variations in quality control (QC) data among medical technicians in conducting measurements of five biochemical items, namely, serum glucose (GLU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), were evaluated. The measurements of the five biochemical items showed different levels of variance among the different technicians, with the variances in GLU measurements being higher than those for the other four items. The ratios of precision-to-tolerance (P/T) for Na, Cl and GLU were all above 0.5, implying inadequate gauge capability. The product variation contribution of Na was large (75.45% and 31.24% in normal and abnormal QC levels, respectively), which showed that the impact of insufficient usage of reagents could not be excluded. With regard to reproducibility, high contributions (of more than 30%) of variation for the selected items were found. These high operator variation levels implied that the possibility of inadequate gauge capacity could not be excluded. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of GR&R showed that the operator variations in GLU measurements were significant (F=5.296, P=0.001 in the normal level and F=3.399, P=0.015 in the abnormal level, respectively). In addition to operator variations, product variations of Na were also significant for both QC levels. The heterogeneity of variance for the five technicians showed significant differences for the Na and Cl measurements in the normal QC level. The accuracy of QC for five technicians was identified for further operational improvement. This study revealed that MSA can be used to evaluate product and

  19. Use of bar code readers and programmable keypads to improve the speed and accuracy of manual data entry in the clinical microbiology laboratory: experience of two laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, R; Coia, J E; Michie, J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of the use of bar code readers and programmable keypads for entry of specimen details and results in two microbiology laboratories. METHODS: The solutions selected in each laboratory are described. The benefits resulting from the implementation were measured in two ways. The speed of data entry and error reduction were measured by observation. A questionnaire was completed by users of bar codes. RESULTS: There were savings in time and in reduced data entry errors. Average time to enter a report by keyboard was 21.1 s v 14.1 s for bar coded results entry. There were no observed errors with the bar code readers but 55 errors with keystroke entries. The laboratory staff of all grades found the system fast, easy to use, and less stressful than conventional keyboard entry. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect time savings should accrue from the observed reduction in incorrectly entered data. Any microbiology laboratory seeking to improve the accuracy and efficiency of data entry into their laboratory information systems should consider the adoption of this technology which can be readily interfaced to existing terminals. PMID:10343613

  20. Costly nutritious diets do not necessarily translate into better performance of artificaially reared fruit files (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1 and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique (SIT) program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adu...

  1. Miniaturized and automated adaptive laboratory evolution: Evolving Corynebacterium glutamicum towards an improved d-xylose utilization.

    PubMed

    Radek, Andreas; Tenhaef, Niklas; Müller, Moritz Fabian; Brüsseler, Christian; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Marienhagen, Jan; Polen, Tino; Noack, Stephan

    2017-05-12

    Adaptive Laboratory Evolution (ALE) is increasingly being used as a technique for untargeted strain optimization. This work aimed at developing an automated and miniaturized ALE approach based on repetitive batch cultivations in microtiter plates. The new method is applied to the recently published strain Corynebacterium glutamicum pEKEx3-xylXABCDCc, which is capable of utilizing d-xylose via the Weimberg (WMB) pathway. As a result, the significantly improved strain WMB2evo was obtained, showing a specific growth rate of 0.26h(-1) on d-xylose as sole carbon and energy source. WMB2evo grows stable during lab-scale bioreactor operation, demonstrating the high potential of this strain for future biorefinery applications. Genome sequencing of cell samples from two different ALE processes revealed potential key mutations, e.g. in the gene cg0196 (encoding for the transcriptional regulator IolR of the myo-inositol metabolism). These findings open up new perspectives for the rational engineering of C. glutamicum towards improved d-xylose utilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and implementation of the Caribbean Laboratory Quality Management Systems Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP) Towards Accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Alemnji, George; Edghill, Lisa; Wallace-Sankarsingh, Sacha; Albalak, Rachel; Cognat, Sebastien; Nkengasong, John; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background Implementing quality management systems and accrediting laboratories in the Caribbean has been a challenge. Objectives We report the development of a stepwise process for quality systems improvement in the Caribbean Region. Methods The Caribbean Laboratory Stakeholders met under a joint Pan American Health Organization/US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative and developed a user-friendly framework called ‘Laboratory Quality Management System – Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP) Towards Accreditation’ to support countries in strengthening laboratory services through a stepwise approach toward fulfilling the ISO 15189: 2012 requirements. Results This approach consists of a three-tiered framework. Tier 1 represents the minimum requirements corresponding to the mandatory criteria for obtaining a licence from the Ministry of Health of the participating country. The next two tiers are quality improvement milestones that are achieved through the implementation of specific quality management system requirements. Laboratories that meet the requirements of the three tiers will be encouraged to apply for accreditation. The Caribbean Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality hosts the LQMS-SIP Secretariat and will work with countries, including the Ministry of Health and stakeholders, including laboratory staff, to coordinate and implement LQMS-SIP activities. The Caribbean Public Health Agency will coordinate and advocate for the LQMS-SIP implementation. Conclusion This article presents the Caribbean LQMS-SIP framework and describes how it will be implemented among various countries in the region to achieve quality improvement. PMID:28879149

  3. Development and Use of Online Prelaboratory Activities in Organic Chemistry to Improve Students' Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaytor, Jennifer L.; Al Mughalaq, Mohammad; Butler, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Online prelaboratory videos and quizzes were prepared for all experiments in CHEM 231, Organic Chemistry I Laboratory. It was anticipated that watching the videos would help students be better prepared for the laboratory, decrease their anxiety surrounding the laboratory, and increase their understanding of the theories and concepts presented.…

  4. Laboratory D-dimer measurement: improved agreement between methods through calibration.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ian; Woods, Timothy A L; Kitchen, Dianne P; Kitchen, Steve; Walker, Isobel D

    2007-11-01

    Accurate and precise measurement of plasma D-dimer levels is important in the diagnosis and management of venous thromboembolism. Considerable variability in D-dimer results obtained using different methods has, however, been reported in multicentre studies. This study explored in two separate multicentre exercises the degree of precision amongst laboratory D-dimer measurements, and the degree by which inter-method agreement could be improved using a calibration curve model. The first exercise demonstrated generally good within-centre precision, with 82% of the centres reporting results for two identical but differently coded samples within 10% of each other. However, six centres reported results which would have excluded deep vein thrombosis (DVT) for one sample but failed to exclude DVT for the other, identical sample. In the second exercise, overall between-method precision of D-dimer results for two samples was shown to improve markedly when a calibration model was applied, using the consensus median values obtained by all participants for three "calibration plasmas" to recalculate D-dimer values. For centres reporting results in fibrinogen equivalent units (FEUs), between-centre coefficients of variation (CVs) fell from 25.9% to 11.6% and 22.4% to 7.7%, respectively, for the two samples. For centres reporting in ng/ml, CVs fell from 45.3-21.6% and 40.8-11.6%, respectively. In conclusion, improved harmonisation of D-dimer results by different methods may be achieved by a calibration model and common calibrant plasmas.

  5. Adding Laboratory Data to Hospital Claims Data to Improve Risk Adjustment of Inpatient/30-Day Postdischarge Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pine, Michael; Fry, Donald E; Hannan, Edward L; Naessens, James M; Whitman, Kay; Reband, Agnes; Qian, Feng; Schindler, Joseph; Sonneborn, Mark; Roland, Jaclyn; Hyde, Linda; Dennison, Barbara A

    Numerical laboratory data at admission have been proposed for enhancement of inpatient predictive modeling from administrative claims. In this study, predictive models for inpatient/30-day postdischarge mortality and for risk-adjusted prolonged length of stay, as a surrogate for severe inpatient complications of care, were designed with administrative data only and with administrative data plus numerical laboratory variables. A comparison of resulting inpatient models for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, coronary artery bypass grafting, and percutaneous cardiac interventions demonstrated improved discrimination and calibration with administrative data plus laboratory values compared to administrative data only for both mortality and prolonged length of stay. Improved goodness of fit was most apparent in acute myocardial infarction and percutaneous cardiac intervention. The emergence of electronic medical records should make the addition of laboratory variables to administrative data an efficient and practical method to clinically enhance predictive modeling of inpatient outcomes of care.

  6. [Improving experimental teaching facilities and opening up of laboratories in order to raise experimental teaching quality of genetics].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian-Fu; Wu, Jian-Guo; Shi, Chun-Hai

    2011-12-01

    Advanced teaching facilities and the policy of opening laboratories to students play an important role in raising the quality in the experimental teaching of Genetics. This article introduces the superiority of some advanced instruments and equipment (such as digital microscope mutual laboratory system, flow cytometry, and NIRSystems) in the experimental teaching of genetics, and illustrates with examples the significance of exposing students to experiments in developing their creative consciousness and creative ability. This article also offers some new concepts on the further improvement upon teaching in the laboratory.

  7. Good clinical laboratory practices improved proficiency testing performance at clinical trials centers in Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Faisal; Dosoo, David; Kronmann, Karl C; Ouedraogo, Issa; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Abdul, Haruna; Sodiomon, Sirima; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Koram, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    The recent drive towards accreditation of clinical laboratories in Africa by the World Health Organization-Regional Office for Africa (WHO-AFRO) and the U.S Government is a historic step to strengthen health systems, provide better results for patients and an improved quality of results for clinical trials. Enrollment in approved proficiency testing (PT) programs and maintenance of satisfactory performance is vital in the process of accreditation. Passing proficiency testing surveys has posed a great challenge to many laboratories across sub-Saharan Africa. Our study was aimed at identifying the causes of unsatisfactory PT results in clinical research laboratories conducting or planning to conduct malaria vaccine trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). PT reports for 2009 and 2010 from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) for the laboratories were reviewed as part of the process. Errors accounting for unsatisfactory results were classified into clerical, methodological, technical, problem with PT materials, and random errors. A training program on good clinical laboratory practices (GCLP) was developed for each center to address areas for improvement. The major cause of PT failure in the four centers was methodological. The application of GCLP improved the success rate in the PT surveys from 58% in 2009 to 88% in 2010. It also decreased the error rate on PT by 35%. A previous report from the CAP- PT participating laboratories indicated that the major causes of error were clerical. These types of errors were predominantly made in laboratories in the US, with much more experience in quality control, and varied significantly from what we found. In our centers in sub-Saharan Africa, methodological errors, and not clerical errors, accounted for the vast majority of errors. A process was started for continuous improvement which has decreased methodological errors by 35%, but more improvement is needed.

  8. Good Clinical Laboratory Practices Improved Proficiency Testing Performance at Clinical Trials Centers in Ghana and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Faisal; Dosoo, David; Kronmann, Karl C.; Ouedraogo, Issa; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Abdul, Haruna; Sodiomon, Sirima; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Koram, Kwadwo

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent drive towards accreditation of clinical laboratories in Africa by the World Health Organization – Regional Office for Africa (WHO-AFRO) and the U.S Government is a historic step to strengthen health systems, provide better results for patients and an improved quality of results for clinical trials. Enrollment in approved proficiency testing (PT) programs and maintenance of satisfactory performance is vital in the process of accreditation. Passing proficiency testing surveys has posed a great challenge to many laboratories across sub-Saharan Africa. Our study was aimed at identifying the causes of unsatisfactory PT results in clinical research laboratories conducting or planning to conduct malaria vaccine trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Methodology PT reports for 2009 and 2010 from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) for the laboratories were reviewed as part of the process. Errors accounting for unsatisfactory results were classified into clerical, methodological, technical, problem with PT materials, and random errors. A training program on good clinical laboratory practices (GCLP) was developed for each center to address areas for improvement. Results The major cause of PT failure in the four centers was methodological. The application of GCLP improved the success rate in the PT surveys from 58% in 2009 to 88% in 2010. It also decreased the error rate on PT by 35%. Conclusion A previous report from the CAP- PT participating laboratories indicated that the major causes of error were clerical. These types of errors were predominantly made in laboratories in the US, with much more experience in quality control, and varied significantly from what we found. In our centers in sub-Saharan Africa, methodological errors, and not clerical errors, accounted for the vast majority of errors. A process was started for continuous improvement which has decreased methodological errors by 35%, but more improvement is

  9. Patterns of heritability of decreased EROD activity and resistance to PCB 126-induced teratogenesis in laboratory-reared offspring of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated site in the Elizabeth River, VA, USA.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joel; Di Giulio, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated site on the Elizabeth River are resistant to the acute toxicity and the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-inducing activity of both the sediments from the site and chemically pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These effects are highly heritable for one generation, but heritable to a lesser degree by subsequent generations, in clean conditions in the laboratory. We show that offspring of this population of Elizabeth River killifish are also resistant to the teratogenicity and P4501A-inducing activity of PCB congener 126, a prototypical coplanar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (HAH). Furthermore, the pattern of greater resistance to acute toxicity and P4501A-inducing activity in the first generation and less in subsequent generations is also observed upon exposure to PCB-126.

  10. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in aModular Classroom Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Fisk,William J.; Lai, Chi-Ming; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2005-08-01

    The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air

  11. Using performance tasks employing IOM patient safety competencies to introduce quality improvement processes in medical laboratory science education.

    PubMed

    Golemboski, Karen; Otto, Catherine N; Morris, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In order to contribute to improved healthcare quality through patient-centered care, laboratory professionals at all levels of practice must be able to recognize the connection between non-analytical factors and laboratory analysis, in the context of patient outcomes and quality improvement. These practices require qualities such as critical thinking (CT), teamwork skills, and familiarity with the quality improvement process, which will be essential for the development of evidence-based laboratory science practice. Performance tasks (PT) are an educational strategy which can be used to teach and assess CT and teamwork, while introducing Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) students at both baccalaureate and advanced-practice levels to the concepts of quality improvement processes and patient outcomes research. PT presents students with complex, realistic scenarios which require the incorporation of subject-specific knowledge with competencies such as effective team communication, patient-centered care, and successful use of information technology. A PT with assessment rubric was designed for use in a baccalaureate-level MLS program to teach and assess CT and teamwork competency. The results indicated that, even when students were able to integrate subject-specific knowledge in creative ways, their understanding of teamwork and quality improvement was limited. This indicates the need to intentionally teach skills such as collaboration and quality system design. PT represent one of many strategies that may be used in MLS education to develop essential professional competencies, encourage expert practice, and facilitate quality improvement.

  12. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.

  13. Recent Improvements to the Acoustical Testing Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Devin M.; Mirecki, Julius H.; Walker, Bruce E.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) consists of a 27- by 23- by 20-ft (height) convertible hemi/anechoic chamber and separate sound-attenuating test support enclosure. Absorptive fiberglass wedges in the test chamber provide an anechoic environment down to 100 Hz. A spring-isolated floor system affords vibration isolation above 3 Hz. These specifications, along with very low design background levels, enable the acquisition of accurate and repeatable acoustical measurements on test articles that produce very low sound pressures. Removable floor wedges allow the test chamber to operate in either a hemi-anechoic or anechoic configuration, depending on the size of the test article and the specific test being conducted. The test support enclosure functions as a control room during normal operations. Recently improvements were accomplished in support of continued usage of the ATL by NASA programs including an analysis of the ultra-sonic characteristics. A 3-D traverse system inside the chamber was utilized for acquiring acoustic data for these tests. The traverse system drives a linear array of 13, 1/4 in.-microphones spaced 3 in. apart (36 in. span). An updated data acquisition system was also incorporated into the facility.

  14. Recent Improvements to the Acoustical Testing Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Devin M.; Mirecki, Julius H.; Walker, Bruce E.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) consists of a 27 by 23 by 20 ft (height) convertible hemi/anechoic chamber and separate sound-attenuating test support enclosure. Absorptive fiberglass wedges in the test chamber provide an anechoic environment down to 100 Hz. A spring-isolated floor system affords vibration isolation above 3 Hz. These specifications, along with very low design background levels, enable the acquisition of accurate and repeatable acoustical measurements on test articles that produce very low sound pressures. Removable floor wedges allow the test chamber to operate in either a hemi-anechoic or anechoic configuration, depending on the size of the test article and the specific test being conducted. The test support enclosure functions as a control room during normal operations. Recently improvements were accomplished in support of continued usage of the ATL by NASA programs including an analysis of the ultra-sonic characteristics. A 3 dimensional traverse system inside the chamber was utilized for acquiring acoustic data for these tests. The traverse system drives a linear array of 13, 1/4"-microphones spaced 3" apart (36" span). An updated data acquisition system was also incorporated into the facility.

  15. Tobacco consumption in Swedish twins reared apart and reared together.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Thornton, L M; Pedersen, N L

    2000-09-01

    Prior studies of twins reared together suggest that regular tobacco use (RTU) is substantially heritable. However, strong social influences on RTU might have biased these results. We examine the self-report lifetime history of RTU in members of 778 male-male and female-female twin pairs, raised together and apart, born from 1890 to 1958 and ascertained through the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. In men, the pattern of twin resemblance for RTU suggested both genetic and rearing-environmental effects, which, in the best-fit biometrical model, accounted for 61% and 20% of the variance in liability to RTU, respectively. For women, overall results were hard to interpret, but became clearer when divided by birth cohort. In women born before 1925, rates of RTU were low and twin resemblance was environmental in origin. In later cohorts, rates of RTU in women increased substantially, as did heritability. For women born after 1940, heritability of RTU was similar to that seen in men (63%). Genetic factors play an important etiologic role in RTU. In women, the impact of genetic factors increased in more recent cohorts, suggesting that, as social restrictions on female tobacco use relaxed over time, heritable influences increased in importance.

  16. Improved laboratory test selection and enhanced perception of test results as tools for cost-effective medicine.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M; Wilkinson, I; Heikkinen, R; Orntoft, T; Magid, E

    1998-09-01

    Inconsistencies in the way physicians perceive and handle identical laboratory results have untoward effects on morbidity, mortality and cost of medical care. In this context, the selection of suitable tests to answer definite clinical questions, and the manner in which laboratory results are presented have great impact on the action taken by the clinician. This review addresses preferred methods to improve laboratory test selection, and examines methods that more effectively convey laboratory results to clinicians. It is anticipated that refined selection of tests, and presentation of the test results in a configuration that is easily perceived by the clinician, will facilitate interpretation of laboratory reports. Furthermore, any measures that promote the application of laboratory information in medical practice improve economics at the laboratory-clinical interface. The presently described methods to optimize test selection and interpretation are: likelihood ratios to provide estimates of the ability of a test to identify a clinical condition; consensus- and discriminant function-analysis to estimate the performance of tests in diagnosing a particular disease or condition; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to assess discrimination capabilities. The methods which improve test result perception are expression of results as multiples of the upper normal limit, utilizing signal strength to provide prognostic probabilities, and presentation of results in graphic forms that display mutually interrelated functions, with a specific cluster of results being highly suggestive of a given condition. In addition, we discuss application of expert systems to provide rules based on knowledge and experience to analyze results of tests and suggest diagnosis and action, including additional tests when required. It is anticipated that judicious utilization of laboratory services by application of the reviewed methodologies will help to achieve medically justified

  17. Role of a quality management system in improving patient safety - laboratory aspects.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lynn C

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to describe how implementation of a quality management system (QMS) based on ISO 15189 enhances patient safety. A literature review showed that several European hospitals implemented a QMS based on ISO 9001 and assessed the impact on patient safety. An Internet search showed that problems affecting patient safety have occurred in a number of laboratories across Canada. The requirements of a QMS based on ISO 15189 are outlined, and the impact of the implementation of each requirement on patient safety is summarized. The Quality Management Program - Laboratory Services in Ontario is briefly described, and the experience of Ontario laboratories with Ontario Laboratory Accreditation, based on ISO 15189, is outlined. Several hospitals that implemented ISO 9001 reported either a positive impact or no impact on patient safety. Patient safety problems in Canadian laboratories are described. Implementation of each requirement of the QMS can be seen to have a positive effect on patient safety. Average laboratory conformance on Ontario Laboratory Accreditation is very high, and laboratories must address and resolve any nonconformities. Other standards, practices, and quality requirements may also contribute to patient safety. Implementation of a QMS based on ISO 15189 provides a solid foundation for quality in the laboratory and enhances patient safety. It helps to prevent patient safety issues; when such issues do occur, effective processes are in place for investigation and resolution. Patient safety problems in Canadian laboratories might have been prevented had effective QMSs been in place. Ontario Laboratory Accreditation has had a positive impact on quality in Ontario laboratories. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Talkmore; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Moyo, Sikhulile; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Kasolo, Francis; Turgeon, David; Abrol, Angelii P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in disease burden has continued to weigh upon health systems in Africa. The role of the laboratory has become increasingly critical in the improvement of health for diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases. In response, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) and its partners created the WHO AFRO Stepwise Laboratory (Quality) Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) program. SLIPTA implementation process WHO AFRO defined a governance structure with roles and responsibilities for six main stakeholders. Laboratories were evaluated by auditors trained and certified by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Laboratory performance was measured using the WHO AFRO SLIPTA scoring checklist and recognition certificates rated with 1–5 stars were issued. Preliminary results By March 2015, 27 of the 47 (57%) WHO AFRO member states had appointed a SLIPTA focal point and 14 Ministers of Health had endorsed SLIPTA as the desired programme for continuous quality improvement. Ninety-eight auditors from 17 African countries, competent in the Portuguese (3), French (12) and English (83) languages, were trained and certified. The mean score for the 159 laboratories audited between May 2013 and March 2015 was 69% (median 70%; SD 11.5; interquartile range 62–77). Of these audited laboratories, 70% achieved 55% compliance or higher (2 or more stars) and 1% scored at least 95% (5 stars). The lowest scoring sections of the WHO AFRO SLIPTA checklist were sections 6 (Internal Audit) and 10 (Corrective Action), which both had mean scores below 50%. Conclusion The WHO AFRO SLIPTA is a process that countries with limited resources can adopt for effective implementation of quality management systems. Political commitment, ownership and investment in continuous quality improvement are integral components of the process. PMID:28879103

  19. A review on laboratory tests’ utilization: A trigger for cutting costs and quality improvement in health care settings

    PubMed Central

    Meidani, Zahra; Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Farrokhian, Alireza; Haghighat, Masomeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the role of laboratory tests as a central part of controlling health expenditure, this study intends to investigate laboratory tests overutilization in Iran to pave the way for future interventions. Methods: Inappropriate laboratory utilization was reviewed in a cross-sectional survey through the retrospective analysis of 384 medical records at a tertiary center. To pave the way for future intervention, overutilization tests were classified into two categories, inappropriate and inefficient, and then they were analyzed. Frequency analysis was used to analysis patient’s age, gender, hospital wards, length of stay, and diagnosis as well as inappropriate test and inefficient tests. Results: A total of 143 (1.50 %) of the tests were inefficient and was ordered due to laboratory errors including hemolysis, inefficient sampling, or absurd results. 2522 (26.40%) of the tests were inappropriate and stem from failure to meet medical/clinical appropriateness criteria. Conclusion: Whereas, inappropriate test ordering was more frequent than inefficient tests, the initial improvement strategy should focus on physicians’ test ordering behavior through conducting proper teaching strategies, ongoing audit and educational feedback, implementing health information technology tools and employing laboratory practice guidelines (LPGs) and testing algorithms. Conducting continuous quality improvement cycle for laboratory services and training of personnel involved in blood sampling is recommended for inefficient tests. PMID:27493909

  20. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  1. Improvement of tuberculosis laboratory capacity on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: a health cooperation project.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Maria G; Bevilacqua, Nazario; Haji, Haji Said; Vairo, Francesco; Girardi, Enrico; Nicastri, Emanuele; Muhsin, Juma; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Jiddawi, Mohammed S; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Low-income countries with high Tuberculosis burden have few reference laboratories able to perform TB culture. In 2006, the Zanzibar National TB Control Programme planned to decentralize TB diagnostics. The Italian Cooperation Agency with the scientific support of the "L. Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases sustained the project through the implementation of a TB reference laboratory in a low-income country with a high prevalence of TB. The implementation steps were: 1) TB laboratory design according to the WHO standards; 2) laboratory equipment and reagent supplies for microscopy, cultures, and identification; 3) on-the-job training of the local staff; 4) web- and telemedicine-based supervision. From April 2007 to December 2010, 921 sputum samples were received from 40 peripheral laboratories: 120 TB cases were diagnosed. Of all the smear-positive cases, 74.2% were culture-positive. During the year 2010, the smear positive to culture positive rate increased up to 100%. In March 20, 2010 the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Zanzibar officially recognized the Public Health Laboratory- Ivo de Carneri as the National TB Reference Laboratory for the Zanzibar Archipelago. An advanced TB laboratory can represent a low cost solution to strengthen the TB diagnosis, to provide capacity building and mid-term sustainability.

  2. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory…

  3. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  4. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory…

  5. Improvement of Tuberculosis Laboratory Capacity on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: A Health Cooperation Project

    PubMed Central

    Paglia, Maria G.; Bevilacqua, Nazario; Haji, Haji Said; Vairo, Francesco; Girardi, Enrico; Nicastri, Emanuele; Muhsin, Juma; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Jiddawi, Mohammed S.; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Low-income countries with high Tuberculosis burden have few reference laboratories able to perform TB culture. In 2006, the Zanzibar National TB Control Programme planned to decentralize TB diagnostics. The Italian Cooperation Agency with the scientific support of the “L. Spallanzani” National Institute for Infectious Diseases sustained the project through the implementation of a TB reference laboratory in a low-income country with a high prevalence of TB. The implementation steps were: 1) TB laboratory design according to the WHO standards; 2) laboratory equipment and reagent supplies for microscopy, cultures, and identification; 3) on-the-job training of the local staff; 4) web- and telemedicine-based supervision. From April 2007 to December 2010, 921 sputum samples were received from 40 peripheral laboratories: 120 TB cases were diagnosed. Of all the smear-positive cases, 74.2% were culture-positive. During the year 2010, the smear positive to culture positive rate increased up to 100%. In March 20, 2010 the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Zanzibar officially recognized the Public Health Laboratory- Ivo de Carneri as the National TB Reference Laboratory for the Zanzibar Archipelago. An advanced TB laboratory can represent a low cost solution to strengthen the TB diagnosis, to provide capacity building and mid-term sustainability. PMID:22952891

  6. School-located influenza vaccination decreases laboratory-confirmed influenza and improves school attendance.

    PubMed

    Pannaraj, Pia S; Wang, Hai-Lin; Rivas, Hector; Wiryawan, Hilda; Smit, Michael; Green, Nicole; Aldrovandi, Grace M; El Amin, Alvin Nelson; Mascola, Laurene

    2014-08-01

    School-located influenza vaccination (SLV) programs can efficiently immunize large numbers of school-aged children. We evaluated the impact of SLV on laboratory-confirmed influenza and absenteeism. Active surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) was conducted on 4455 children in 4 SLV intervention and 4 control elementary schools (grades K-6) matched for sociodemographic characteristics during the 2010-2011 influenza season in Los Angeles County, California. Combined nose/throat swabs were collected from febrile children with ILI at presentation to the school nurse or during absenteeism. In SLV schools, 26.9%-46.6% of enrolled students received at least 1 dose of either inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccine compared with 0.8%-4.3% in control schools. Polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses (PCR) was performed on 1021 specimens obtained from 898 children. Specimens were positive for influenza in 217 (21.3%), including 2009 H1N1 (30.9%), H3 (9.2%), and B (59.9%). Children attending SLV schools, regardless of vaccination status, were 30.8% (95% confidence interval, 10.1%-46.8%) less likely to acquire influenza compared with children at control schools. Unvaccinated children were indirectly protected in the school with nearly 50% vaccination coverage compared with control schools (influenza rate, 27.1 vs 60.0 per 1000 children; P = .023). Unvaccinated children missed more school days than vaccinated children (4.3 vs 2.8 days per 100 school days; P < .001). Vaccination of at least a quarter of the school population resulted in decreased influenza rates and improved school attendance. Herd immunity for unvaccinated children may occur in schools with vaccination coverage approaching 50%. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  8. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  9. Improving Student Attitudes about Science by Integrating Research into the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory: Interdisciplinary Drinking Water Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter-Egger, Dana L.; Hagen, James P.; Laquer, Frederic C.; Grandgenett, Neal F.; Shuster, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of student research into a general chemistry laboratory and an environmental geology course has been evaluated for its effectiveness to improve (i) student attitudes about science and chemistry, (ii) student understanding of the nature of experimental science and the scientific method, and (iii) student perceptions of the…

  10. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  11. Analysis of factors associated with seatbelt wearing among rear passengers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Isah, Noradrenalina; Othman, Ihamah; Syed Rahim, Sharifah-Allyana; Paiman, Noorfaradilla

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 793 rear passengers in Malaysia. Logistic regression was performed to analyse the association of rear seatbelt wearing with 12 independent variables. Seven factors were significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing. Experience of being stopped by an enforcement officer for not wearing rear seatbelt yielded the highest odds ratio 2.3 (p = 0.002) followed by self-consciousness (odds ratio 1.7; p = 0.004), attitude (odds ratio 1.5, p = 0.001), and knowledge (odds ratio 1.4, p = 0.004). Age of participants and their perception of being caught by an enforcement officer were also significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing, odds ratios were 1.03 (p = 0.004) and 1.1 (p = 0.004), respectively. In contrast, level of education was negatively associated with rear seatbelt wearing (odds ratio 0.59, p = 0.003). It was concluded that enforcement activities, knowledge and attitude on seatbelt wearing play a very important role in improving the rate of rear seatbelt wearing. Thus, efforts to increase these factors should be the special focus in designing education and social marketing activities to advocate rear seatbelt wearing.

  12. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...; Rear Impact Protection; Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride Guards for Heavy Trailers...: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report, its existing Safety Standard 223, Rear Impact Guards and Safety Standard 224, Rear...

  13. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  14. Predicting patient volume in cardiac catheterization laboratory to improve resource management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhua; Santangelo, Jennifer; James, Randy; Watters, Coyt D; Orsini, Anthony; Mekhjian, Hagop; Kamal, Jyoti

    2008-11-06

    Using historical data within the Information Warehouse of the Ohio State University Medical Center, prediction on daily patient volume to catheterization laboratory was attempted to facilitate resource management and planning.

  15. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  16. Health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (Ara spp.) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Karesh, W B; del Campo, A; Braselton, W E; Puche, H; Cook, R A

    1997-12-01

    As part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern Peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. Thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. All but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical examination. Hematology, plasma chemistries, and plasma vitamin and mineral levels were studied and correlated with the results of bacterial and viral serology. Positive antibody titers for Salmonella and psittacine herpesvirus were found. These diseases have the potential to affect wildlife population dynamics, and Salmonella may have public health significance. Serological tests for avian influenza, infectious laryngotracheitis, paramyxovirus-1, -2, -3, polyoma virus, chlamydiosis, and aspergillosis were negative. Differences in disease prevalence were found between rearing situations.

  17. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  18. Rear Steering Inoperative: Apollo 16 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The inoperative condition of the rear steering system of the lunar roving vehicle (Apollo 16) during the initial drive to the modular equipment stowage assembly was investigated. The front and rear steering systems are described, and the failure analyzed. It is concluded that an open circuit must have occurred either in the hand controller potentiometer or between the potentiometer wiper and the summing node.

  19. Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.

    This book, designed for advanced courses on parent-child relationships, examines scientific evidence concerning parents' effect on children's development. Chapter 1, "The Development of Child-Rearing Research: From Mere Beliefs to a More Dynamic Perspective," discusses the beginnings of and current trends in child rearing research and…

  20. Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

    Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

  1. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  2. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings☆

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  3. Biomass Burning: Energy and Emissions Performance of Traditional and Improved Cookstoves Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Pooja

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid biomass fuel burning in traditional cookstoves is a leading problem all the world which is responsible for health and climate related impacts. The immediate solution in order to combat this threat has been introduction of improved cookstoves among rural populations who doesn't have access clean energy. The extent of improvement in new cookstove designs, in terms of higher energy efficiency and lower emissions is in turn dependent on the customary behaviour of the users on field. The field based cookstove testing conducted in various studies show a disagreement between performance measures in the lab and real world conditions. Some of the important variables which reflect the actual user behaviour on field depending on geographical location include fuel characteristics and cooking cycle. In this thesis, the research approach focused on user-centred testing methodology for cookstoves. The variation in cookstove performance in terms of energy and emission parameters was assessed by isolating the impact of individual variables i.e. types of fuel and cooking cycles. The energy parameters which served as indicators of cookstove performance included SEC and power input, and EFs for CO and PM were used as emission parameters. PM emissions were further analysed with the help of physical and chemical characterization studies. The physical characterization focused on size distribution of the particulate using optical and electron microscopy techniques. While chemical characterization was conducted using quantification methods for organic and elemental carbon content of PM using TOR and CBMS techniques. The test variables were identified through field survey and literature review and were replicated under controlled laboratory conditions where emissions were sampled using hood method. The research resulted in six research papers addressing specific hypothesis related the problem identified through literature survey. The results showed that

  4. Improving Clinical Laboratory Efficiency: Introduction of Systems for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Marta; Chueca, Natalia; Guillot, Vicente; Bernal, María Del Carmen; García, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Since the first tests for identifying individuals with suspected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were introduced in the mid-1980s, diagnostic virology testing has greatly evolved. The technological advances, automating in the laboratories and the advances in molecular biology techniques have helped introduce invaluable laboratory methods for managing HIV patients. Tests for diagnosis, specially for screening HIV antibodies, are now fully automated; in the same way, tests for monitoring HIV viral load (HIV RNA copies/ml of plasma), which is used for monitoring infection and response to antiretroviral treatment, are also fully automated; however, resistance testing, tropism determination and minor variant detection, which are used to make decisions for changing antiretroviral treatment regimens in patients failing therapy, still remain highly laborious and time consuming. This chapter will review the main aspects relating to the automating of the methods available for laboratory diagnosis as well as for monitoring of the HIV infection and determination of resistance to antiretrovirals and viral tropism.

  5. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  6. Improving patient safety and healthcare quality in the 21st century--competencies required of future medical laboratory science practitioners.

    PubMed

    Morris, Susan; Otto, Catherine N; Golemboski, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare quality has yet to meet the aims of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) with respect to safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, efficiency, timeliness and equity. No professional curricula adequately prepare future healthcare practitioners-including medical laboratory science professionals-with all competencies necessary to deliver quality healthcare. Practicing evidence-based medicine, focusing on quality improvement, using information technology, delivering patient-centered care and working as part of interdisciplinary teams are identified by the IOM as the five core competencies that every healthcare practitioner needs to effectively provide healthcare. Medical laboratory science educators need to incorporate patient safety concepts into the curricula and include assignments to develop the IOM competencies in order to adequately prepare future practitioners to effectively practice medical laboratory science in the healthcare system of the 21st century.

  7. The scope and nature of injuries to rear seat passengers in NSW using linked hospital admission and police data.

    PubMed

    Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E

    2014-01-01

    sustaining a head injury did not vary with age, and the odds of sustaining thoracic, abdominal, or lower extremity injuries did not differ significantly between rear seat passengers aged 16-50 years and 9-15 years. The findings suggest that there is a need for enhanced protection for rear seat passengers, because they have proportionally more fatal injuries than front-seated occupants. The frequency of abdominal injury and the differences between injury patterns observed in front seat passengers suggests a potential benefit from adding abdominal injury risk assessment to rear seat occupant protection test protocols. There is also scope to improve chest protection for older rear seat passengers.

  8. [Impact of Lean methodology to improve care processes and levels of satisfaction in patient care in a clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Morón-Castañeda, L H; Useche-Bernal, A; Morales-Reyes, O L; Mojica-Figueroa, I L; Palacios-Carlos, A; Ardila-Gómez, C E; Parra-Ardila, M V; Martínez-Nieto, O; Sarmiento-Echeverri, N; Rodríguez, C A; Alvarado-Heine, C; Isaza-Ruget, M A

    2015-01-01

    The application of the Lean methodology in health institutions is an effective tool to improve the capacity and workflow, as well as to increase the level of satisfaction of patients and employees. To optimise the time of outpatient care in a clinical laboratory, by implementing a methodology based on the organisation of operational procedures to improve user satisfaction and reduce the number of complaints for delays in care. A quasi-experimental before and after study was conducted between October 2011 to September 2012. XBar and S charts were used to observe the mean service times and standard deviation. The user satisfaction was assessed using service questionnaires. A reduction of 17 minutes was observed in the time of patient care from arrival to leaving the laboratory, and a decrease of 60% in complaints of delay in care. Despite the high staff turnover and 38% increase in the number of patients seen, a culture of empowerment and continuous improvement was acquired, as well as greater efficiency and productivity in the care process, which was reflected by maintaining standards 12 months after implementation. Lean is a viable methodology for clinical laboratory procedures, improving their efficiency and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Incrementally Approaching an Inquiry Lab Curriculum: Can Changing a Single Laboratory Experiment Improve Student Performance in General Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2009-04-01

    Many institutions are responding to current research about how students learn science by transforming their general chemistry laboratory curricula to be inquiry-oriented. We present a comparison study of student performance after completing either a traditional or an inquiry stoichiometry experiment. This single laboratory experience was the only difference between two comparison groups enrolled in the same general chemistry course with otherwise traditional labs. Measures used to assess student performance included an open-response question, and ACS multiple-choice test items at various points in the course, as well as observations of students in the laboratory, and interviews. Statistical analysis of data used an ANOVA model, including a covariate to control for students' prior knowledge and skills. Students who completed the inquiry experiment significantly outperformed students who did the traditional experiment on stoichiometry content problems and experimental design tasks. No difference in performance between the groups was found on problems not directly related to the content of the experiment. These results provide evidence that student learning of chemistry content and skills is enhanced by a single inquiry laboratory experience, and suggest that increasing the number and variety of inquiry experiments may lead to greater improvements in performance. This study is part of a larger study examining the impact on student performance of incrementally shifting toward more inquiry experiments in the laboratory portion of general chemistry.

  10. Total Automation for the Core Laboratory: Improving the Turnaround Time Helps to Reduce the Volume of Ordered STAT Tests.

    PubMed

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Porzio, Ottavia; Giambini, Ilio; Bernardini, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    The transition to total automation represents the greatest leap for a clinical laboratory, characterized by a totally new philosophy of process management. We have investigated the impact of total automation on core laboratory efficiency and its effects on the clinical services related to STAT tests. For this purpose, a 47-month retrospective study based on the analysis of 44,212 records of STAT cardiac troponin I (CTNI) tests was performed. The core laboratory reached a new efficiency level 3 months after the implementation of total automation. Median turnaround time (TAT) was reduced by 14.9±1.5 min for the emergency department (p < 0.01), reaching 41.6±1.2 min. In non-emergency departments, median TAT was reduced by 19.8±2.2 min (p < 0.01), reaching 52±1.3 min. There was no change in the volume of ordered STAT CTNI tests by the emergency department (p = 0.811), whereas for non-emergency departments there was a reduction of 115.7±50 monthly requests on average (p = 0.026). The volume of ordered tests decreased only in time frames of the regular shift following the morning round. Thus, total automation significantly improves the core laboratory efficiency in terms of TAT. As a consequence, the volume of STAT tests ordered by hospital departments (except for the emergency department) decreased due to reduced duplicated requests. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Benefits of Good Laboratory Practice as a tool to improve testing.

    PubMed

    Turnheim, D

    1993-11-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has promoted Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) since the mid 1970s. This paper describes the development of the concept through international harmonisation, Quality Assurance (QA), and compliance monitoring. Ultimately this process permits Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD). An important aspect of the OECD's programme is the promotion of related training and information exchange.

  12. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.D.

    1996-11-01

    Implementation of the laboratory QA/QC program at SRS has increased the credibility and accuracy of drinking water system analyses results. Although the program required a significant effort, it was practical in nature, involving basic changes which are readily implemented by most small drinking water systems.

  13. Importance of Temperature Calibration for Sunset Laboratory Carbon Analyzer: NIOSH and IMPROVE Temperature Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sunset Laboratory Dual-Optical Carbonaceous Analyzer that simultaneously measures transmission and reflectance signals is widely used in thermal-optical analysis of particulate matter samples. Most often it is used to measure total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and eleme...

  14. Improved Student Linkage of Mendelian and Molecular Genetic Concepts through a Yeast-Based Laboratory Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolyniak, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A study of modern genetics requires students to successfully unite the principles of Mendelian genetics with the functions of DNA. Traditional means of teaching genetics are often successful in teaching Mendelian and molecular ideas but not in allowing students to see how the two subjects relate. The laboratory module presented here attempts to…

  15. An Improved Method of Presenting Laboratory Demonstrations in Physiology and Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Michael H.; Oliver, Jack W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a laboratory demonstration and discussion period in physiology and pharmacology instruction at the Univeristy of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine is described. The advantages for instruction include lower costs, fewer personnel and animals required, less time required in the curriculum, and increased student attention in class.…

  16. Coding and Analysing Behaviour Strategies of Instructors in University Science Laboratories to Improve Science Teachers Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, Patrick Osawaru

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this study was to determine how science instructors in the university laboratories spend time on instruction. The study, was guided by three research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study employed a non-participant observation case study design. 48 instructors teaching lower and higher levels…

  17. Can an Inquiry Approach Improve College Student Learning in a Teaching Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissing, Steven W.; Cogan, John G.

    2009-01-01

    We present an inquiry-based, hands-on laboratory exercise on enzyme activity for an introductory college biology course for science majors. We measure student performance on a series of objective and subjective questions before and after completion of this exercise; we also measure performance of a similar cohort of students before and after…

  18. An Improved Method of Presenting Laboratory Demonstrations in Physiology and Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Michael H.; Oliver, Jack W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a laboratory demonstration and discussion period in physiology and pharmacology instruction at the Univeristy of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine is described. The advantages for instruction include lower costs, fewer personnel and animals required, less time required in the curriculum, and increased student attention in class.…

  19. Importance of Temperature Calibration for Sunset Laboratory Carbon Analyzer: NIOSH and IMPROVE Temperature Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sunset Laboratory Dual-Optical Carbonaceous Analyzer that simultaneously measures transmission and reflectance signals is widely used in thermal-optical analysis of particulate matter samples. Most often it is used to measure total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and eleme...

  20. Improving the Laboratory Learning Experience: A Process to Train and Manage Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, Sasha; Vial, Peter James; Ros, Montserrat; Stirling, David; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes in detail a successful training program developed for sessional (part-time or nonpermanent) laboratory demonstrators employed in the Electrical Engineering Department of an Australian university. Such demonstrators play an important role in teaching practical concepts and skills in engineering. The success of the program…

  1. Improved mouse cage provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.

    1969-01-01

    Mouse cage system provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice, cleaning their cages, and collecting uncontaminated metabolic test specimens. The cage, compact and free standing, contains a screened bottom and funnel channel to collect waste. The feed is in the cage top and thereby separates the food and waste.

  2. Can an Inquiry Approach Improve College Student Learning in a Teaching Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissing, Steven W.; Cogan, John G.

    2009-01-01

    We present an inquiry-based, hands-on laboratory exercise on enzyme activity for an introductory college biology course for science majors. We measure student performance on a series of objective and subjective questions before and after completion of this exercise; we also measure performance of a similar cohort of students before and after…

  3. Improved Student Linkage of Mendelian and Molecular Genetic Concepts through a Yeast-Based Laboratory Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolyniak, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A study of modern genetics requires students to successfully unite the principles of Mendelian genetics with the functions of DNA. Traditional means of teaching genetics are often successful in teaching Mendelian and molecular ideas but not in allowing students to see how the two subjects relate. The laboratory module presented here attempts to…

  4. Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; van der Werf, Sylvie; Zambon, Maria

    2006-11-10

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyping and strain characterisation of influenza viruses, diagnostic serology and the creation of archives for clinical specimens and virus isolates. To improve the capacity and quality of the laboratories of the CNRL and to increase the consistency in performance among all 25 European Union countries plus Norway, Romania, and Switzerland, five task groups were set up in February 2005. These task groups developed work programmes in the areas of virus isolation, antibodies, molecular virology, quality control assessment and antiviral susceptibility testing. This report outlines the programmes and the results achieved in the first half-year of operation of the task groups. The action plans are challenging and it is expected that these efforts will lead to considerable improvements in the performance of the laboratories and in the standardisation of methods employed in Europe with regard to routine influenza surveillance and early warning for emerging viruses.

  5. Improving Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the structure of the `Air Pollution Course', an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this study deals with the problem of air pollution, which has a special local interest in a large and crowded city like Athens, Greece. The design of the `Air Pollution Course' was based on a combination of experimental study and the use of educational software. All the activities were carried out with the aid of contemporary technological equipment according to the Microcomputer Based Laboratory and to Information and Communication Technologies principles. This approach has encouraging results to the understanding of the problem of air pollution. Τhe laboratory course has improved pre-service elementary teachers' correct use of terms and accuracy in scientific descriptions. These facts suppose deeper conceptual understanding on air pollution phenomena. However, there is a need for further improvement of the pre-service elementary teachers' knowledge in air pollution phenomena, as they still hold misconceptions. The teaching implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Teaching laboratory rodent research techniques under the tenets of situated learning improves student confidence and promotes collaboration.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

    2014-07-01

    A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers' needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the 'tools at hand' (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning.

  7. Development of an Excel-based laboratory information management system for improving workflow efficiencies in early ADME screening.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinyan

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear requirement for enhancing laboratory information management during early absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening. The application of a commercial laboratory information management system (LIMS) is limited by complexity, insufficient flexibility, high costs and extended timelines. An improved custom in-house LIMS for ADME screening was developed using Excel. All Excel templates were generated through macros and formulae, and information flow was streamlined as much as possible. This system has been successfully applied in task generation, process control and data management, with a reduction in both labor time and human error rates. An Excel-based LIMS can provide a simple, flexible and cost/time-saving solution for improving workflow efficiencies in early ADME screening.

  8. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations.

  9. Novel In vitro Procedures for Rearing a Root-Feeding Pest (Heteronychus arator) of Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Moore, Ben D.; Johnson, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing plant protection against insect herbivory relies on testing plant defense mechanisms and how the insect response to these defensive strategies. Such experiments benefit from using insects generated from standardized rearing protocols since this reduces stochastic variation. Such protocols can be challenging to devise, however, especially for root herbivores. These insects generally have complex and long life cycles, which are often only poorly described. Moreover, using field-captured root herbivores is often suboptimal because it involves extensive excavation from sites selected by chance (their location is not obvious) and larval stages are frequently indistinguishable beyond the family level. We investigated in vitro procedures to improve the availability of the African Black Beetle (ABB) Heteronychus arator, an invasive alien pest in both Australia and New Zealand. Native to Africa, this scarab beetle has established in Australian and New Zealand grasslands, pastures, and crops. Adults feed on the stem of young plants just beneath the soil surface. During the mating season, gravid females lay eggs in the soil, giving rise to larvae feeding on grass roots, causing severe damage, and impairing plant growth. Here, we propose laboratory approaches to collect eggs from field-captured adult beetles, to hatch eggs, and to rear neonate larvae to adults. We propose that these methods will provide plant scientists and entomologists with a better and more controlled supply of ABB larvae for laboratory and field assays. In turn, this will assist with the collection of important information for the management of this insect pest and enhanced protection of plants in crop and grassland ecosystems. PMID:27625673

  10. Can an Inquiry Approach Improve College Student Learning in a Teaching Laboratory?

    PubMed Central

    Cogan, John G.

    2009-01-01

    We present an inquiry-based, hands-on laboratory exercise on enzyme activity for an introductory college biology course for science majors. We measure student performance on a series of objective and subjective questions before and after completion of this exercise; we also measure performance of a similar cohort of students before and after completion of an existing, standard, “direct” exercise over the same topics. Although student performance on these questions increased significantly after completion of the inquiry exercise, it did not increase after completion of the control, standard exercise. Pressure to “cover” many complex topics as preparation for high-stakes examinations such as the Medical College Admissions Test may account for persistence of highly efficient, yet dubiously effective “cookbook” laboratory exercises in many science classes. PMID:19255136

  11. How to improve your image with physicians. Differentiating your laboratory for a competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Riggs, L; Winsten, D

    1996-01-01

    A collaborative partnership between physicians and the laboratory is more important than ever. This requires addressing the five major complaints that physicians have regarding the laboratory within the context of six key characteristics of doctors. The complaints concern: timeliness of information, completeness, accessibility, providing information in a suitable form, and making it understandable to time-pressed physicians. Working effectively with physicians to achieve an immaculate image means understanding why they tend toward control, have difficulty with conceptual presentations, and are quick to stereotype. It also means understanding how to capitalize on their tendency to respect expertise and reward it with loyalty. Establishing a favorable image requires creating a perception of cooperative proactivity based on sensitive performance.

  12. An improved method for field extraction and laboratory analysis of large, intact soil cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, J.A.; Hemmen, K.; Dowd, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed for the extraction of large, undisturbed soil cores and for subsequent analysis of fluid movement within the cores. The major problems associated with these methods are expense, cumbersome field extraction, and inadequate simulation of unsaturated flow conditions. A field and laboratory procedure is presented that is economical, convenient, and simulates unsaturated and saturated flow without interface flow problems and can be used on a variety of soil types. In the field, a stainless steel core barrel is hydraulically pressed into the soil (30-cm diam. and 38 cm high), the barrel and core are extracted from the soil, and after the barrel is removed from the core, the core is then wrapped securely with flexible sheet metal and a stainless mesh screen is attached to the bottom of the core for support. In the laboratory the soil core is set atop a porous ceramic plate over which a soil-diatomaceous earth slurry has been poured to assure good contact between plate and core. A cardboard cylinder (mold) is fastened around the core and the empty space filled with paraffin wax. Soil cores were tested under saturated and unsaturated conditions using a hanging water column for potentials ???0. Breakthrough curves indicated that no interface flow occurred along the edge of the core. This procedure proved to be reliable for field extraction of large, intact soil cores and for laboratory analysis of solute transport.

  13. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Parrado, G. Cañón, Y.; Peña, M. Sierra, O. Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C. Orozco, J.

    2016-07-07

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  14. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  15. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  16. Liquid-based cytology can improve efficiency of cervical smear readers: evidence from timing surveys in two NHS cytology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Dowie, R; Stoykova, B; Crawford, D; Desai, M; Mather, J; Morgan, K; Shirt, M

    2006-04-01

    Cervical screening programmes in England and Wales were advised by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence in 2003 to adopt liquid-based cytology (LBC) in place of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology to facilitate laboratory efficiency. Pilot evaluations in England and Scotland monitored daily or weekly workloads of smear readers and concluded that LBC could increase hourly throughput rates. This study, instead, used timing surveys to determine screening rates. Two National Health Service cytology laboratories in Manchester and Stockport were partially converted to the LBC ThinPrep process for a cervical screening trial. Three 1-week timing surveys were conducted over 7 months. The surveys covered all LBC-trained staff. The first survey in Manchester also covered staff undertaking conventional Pap screening. The smear readers used timers to record time taken for examining and reporting each slide. In Manchester, in the first survey, nearly 1 minute per slide was saved by the LBC method during primary microscopy. In both laboratories, the mean microscopy time for primary screening of LBC slides was reduced by almost 1 minute between the first and second surveys. There was no difference between the second and third surveys. Microscopy by cytopathologists was also 1 minute per slide quicker with LBC than conventional Pap. The LBC inadequate rates for both laboratories were <2.0%. Organizational factors impacted on the hourly LBC primary screening rates in the laboratories, the rate for Stockport being higher than the rates in the pilot evaluations. The timing surveys confirm that the LBC ThinPrep technology can improve laboratory efficiency. However, decision-makers should also consider the overall costs and benefits of introducing the technology in screening programmes, including the capital investment and workforce implications.

  17. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions.

  18. Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawirs, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

  19. Transcriptomic Responses of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) to Environmental Enrichment during Juvenile Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Melissa L.; Hori, Tiago S.; Rise, Matthew L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions. PMID:25742646

  20. DMXB, an alpha7 nicotinic agonist, normalizes auditory gating in isolation-reared rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Heidi C; Rieger, Kate; Kem, William R; Stevens, Karen E

    2003-09-01

    Impaired auditory gating is common in schizophrenic patients. Evidence suggests that this deficit is related to a reduced number of alpha(7) nicotinic receptors and therefore treatment with alpha(7) nicotinic agonists may improve this condition. 3-(2,4)-Dimethoxybenzylidine anabaseine (DMXB; also known as GTS-21) is such an agonist and has shown efficacy in mice both orally and intraperitoneally. Rats reared in social isolation post weaning have demonstrated a deficit in auditory gating similar to that seen in schizophrenia patients. The current study determined the effects of DMXB on auditory gating in awake, freely moving rats, comparing a group born and raised in-house and reared in isolation post-weaning (isolation reared) with a group shipped from the supplier as adults and housed in groups prior to surgery (controls). Ten unmedicated, baseline recordings were obtained following surgical implantation of a recording electrode. All control group rats and the isolation-reared rats that showed deficient gating at baseline were treated with 1.0, 3.33, 10 or 33 mg/kg DMXB, IP, to determine the drug's impact on auditory gating. Isolation-reared rats had significantly improved auditory gating at the 3.33, 10 and 33 mg/kg doses, while control rats had a significant impairment in their auditory gating at the 33 mg/kg dose. DMXB improved the auditory gating deficit seen in isolation-reared rats. As previously observed in another model, the change was produced through a decrease in the test amplitude in isolation-reared animals. Control animals had a significant reduction in conditioning amplitude at the high dose, which produced the loss of auditory gating. The results in the isolation-reared rats are in concert with previous studies which found similar improvement in auditory gating following administration of DMXB to DBA mice, the only differences being in the duration of the effect.

  1. OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AVAILABILITY AND IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Roy I; Peplov, Vladimir V; Wezensky, Mark W; Norris, Kevin Paul; Barnett, William E; Hicks, Jim; Weaver, Joey T; Moss, John; Rust, Kenneth R; Mize, Jeffery J; Anderson, David E

    2011-01-01

    SNS electrical systems have been operational for 4 years. System availability statistics and improvements are presented for AC electrical systems, DC and pulsed power supplies and klystron modulators.

  2. Armstrong Laboratory (AL) Analytical Services Process Improvement Team (PIT) - Air Force Team Quality Award Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    describe this process in detail 6. Identify key parameters for measuring customer satisfaction ; establish targets for improvement whenever possible...parameters for measuring customer satisfaction ; establish targets for improvement whenever possible. .Hints !Example wich parameers are most important POSSIBLE... measuring customer satisfaction : Dec 92 Need/Purpose: To find customer’s key desires on our services provided. How: Team discussed customer feedback and

  3. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    PubMed Central

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs. PMID:26758187

  4. BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

    2003-05-12

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

  5. Improved measurement for volatile particles: Vapor-particle separator design and laboratory tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Allman, Steve E.

    2011-12-01

    Sampling and measurement of volatile particles is a challenging task. It has been hampered by lack of a reliable technique capable of accurately capturing the phase-partition process of the pollutants without generating bias and artifacts in the data. The objective of this research is to design a new vapor-particle separation technique for performing the phase separation on-line (the sampling aspect), which, simultaneously, enables characterization of the vapors and particles. The new vapor-particle separator (VPS) consists of a thin metallic microporous membrane for (1) extraction of vapor molecules that are thermally desorbed from the condensed particulate phases and (2) collection of the vapors for subsequent chemical analysis. We evaluated this new separator using synthetic particles made of nonvolatile and or semi-volatile chemicals, and reported the laboratory test results in this paper. The laboratory particle test results showed reasonably high particle transmission efficiency across all particle sizes. The thermal dynamics of nanoparticles was succinctly observed on-line. The results successfully demonstrated the ability of VPS to separate particles and vapors thus enabling a faithful observation of the thermal behavior. We believe the new technology will make a great contribution to the measurement of volatile particles.

  6. Artificial Neural Network for Total Laboratory Automation to Improve the Management of Sample Dilution.

    PubMed

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Diluting a sample to obtain a measure within the analytical range is a common task in clinical laboratories. However, for urgent samples, it can cause delays in test reporting, which can put patients' safety at risk. The aim of this work is to show a simple artificial neural network that can be used to make it unnecessary to predilute a sample using the information available through the laboratory information system. Particularly, the Multilayer Perceptron neural network built on a data set of 16,106 cardiac troponin I test records produced a correct inference rate of 100% for samples not requiring predilution and 86.2% for those requiring predilution. With respect to the inference reliability, the most relevant inputs were the presence of a cardiac event or surgery and the result of the previous assay. Therefore, such an artificial neural network can be easily implemented into a total automation framework to sensibly reduce the turnaround time of critical orders delayed by the operation required to retrieve, dilute, and retest the sample.

  7. Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

  8. Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

  9. A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

  10. TV Spots and Supportive Printed Materials on Child-Rearing Practices. Work Unit III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This is the 1976-1977 final report of Work Unit III of Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's Early Childhood Program. The Unit was funded to develop media products, mass media delivery strategies, television spot announcements and supportive booklets designed to increase awareness of certain child-rearing skills and practices among low…

  11. Improving the life science (biology) laboratory education experience: From an instructor-centered to a learner-centered educational environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Marcella Liffick

    The component parts of the educational experience in a freshman biology laboratory course could be improved if the knowledge, skills, and personality of the students could be integrated with the instructor's. Lack of integration of instruction with learning often results in students unwilling or unable to learn content and to transfer it to future courses. This research examined the component parts of instruction and learning for a freshman biology laboratory class and provided an alternative approach to the traditional experience in this lab. Outcome assessment revealed that students experiencing a learner-centered lab responded differently to instruction than students in the traditional lab did and expressed more of a learning orientation and awareness. Not all methods used were successful but course evaluations demonstrated an increased awareness of the learning process among students in the learner-centered lab. The alternative group indicated differences specifically directed toward learning, more often than the traditional group did.

  12. Improvement of Phase Synchronization between Chaotic Oscillators with External Force in a Laboratory Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Takao; Hagimine, Kengo; Miyazaki, Ren

    2017-09-01

    The improvement of phase synchronization between two coupled chaotic oscillators achieved using a pulse as the external force in a glow discharge plasma is experimentally demonstrated. The effect of coupling and pulse application on the dynamic behaviors of systems is investigated. From the viewpoint of the phase of oscillations, experimental results show that phase synchronization between two coupled chaotic oscillators is improved by applying a pulse.

  13. The Role of the National Laboratory in Improving Secondary Science Education

    SciTech Connect

    White,K.; Morris, M.; Stegman, M.

    2008-10-20

    While the role of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers in our education system is obvious, their role in our economic and national security system is less so. Our nation relies upon innovation and creativity applied in a way that generates new technologies for industry, health care, and the protection of our national assets and citizens. Often, it is our science teachers who generate the excitement that leads students to pursue science careers. While academia provides these teachers with the tools to educate, the rigors of a science and technology curriculum, coupled with the requisite teaching courses, often limit teacher exposure to an authentic research environment. As the single largest funding agency for the physical sciences, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science plays an important role in filling this void. For STEM teachers, the DOE Academies Creating Teacher Scientists program (ACTS) bridges the worlds of research and education. The ACTS program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one of several across the country, exemplifies the value of this program for participating teachers. Outcomes of the work at BNL as evidenced by the balance of this report, include the following: (1) Teachers have developed long-term relationships with the Laboratory through participation in ongoing research, and this experience has both built enthusiasm for and enriched the content knowledge of the participants. (2) Teachers have modified the way they teach and are more likely to engage students in authentic research and include more inquiry-based activities. (3) Teachers have reported their students are more interested in becoming involved in science through classes, extra-curricular clubs, and community involvement. (4) Teachers have established leadership roles within their peer groups, both in their own districts and in the broader teaching community. National laboratories are making an important contribution to the science

  14. Teaching Laboratory Rodent Research Techniques under the Tenets of Situated Learning Improves Student Confidence and Promotes Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers’ needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the ‘tools at hand’ (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

  15. Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.

    PubMed

    Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P < 0.01). Non-TBL students had significantly lower attitudes toward teamwork (P < 0.01). Comparison of academic performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P < 0.001). When asked to rate their role in a team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork.

  16. CRISPR Typing and Subtyping for Improved Laboratory Surveillance of Salmonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Laëtitia; Zhang, Jian; Guigon, Ghislaine; Le Hello, Simon; Guibert, Véronique; Accou-Demartin, Marie; de Romans, Saïana; Lim, Catherine; Roux, Chrystelle; Passet, Virginie; Diancourt, Laure; Guibourdenche, Martine; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Achtman, Mark; Brisse, Sylvain; Sola, Christophe; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is highly polymorphic in Salmonella. We found that CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated with both serotype and multilocus sequence type. Furthermore, spacer microevolution discriminated between subtypes within prevalent serotypes, making it possible to carry out typing and subtyping in a single step. We developed a high-throughput subtyping assay for the most prevalent serotype, Typhimurium. An open web-accessible database was set up, providing a serotype/spacer dictionary and an international tool for strain tracking based on this innovative, powerful typing and subtyping tool. PMID:22623967

  17. Improved monitoring of subsurface CO2 storage using novel electrical and seismic measurements: scaled laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, R.; Kirichek, A.; Draganov, D.; Heller, K.

    2013-05-01

    For monitoring CO2 stored in appropriate geological settings like depleted oil or gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers and deep unminable coalbeds, geophysical methods e.g., seismic, electromagnetics, gravity, and surface deformation studies serve as remote sensing techniques which generally provide a large coverage but a low spatial resolution. It has been concluded that of the various approaches, seismic methods have the broadest applicability for stored CO2 monitoring in various geologic settings. As a result, advanced and dedicated seismic monitoring techniques have been developed. However, three major issues that remain unresolved are: 1) to remove accurately the effect of the overburden layers in order to capture the change in seismic properties in the reservoir and thereby obtain reliable estimates of temporal and spatial changes of the rock-physical properties like pressure and saturation, 2) the difficulty to minimize the source-related variation in time-lapse seismic, and 3) the inability to monitor the changes in phase (supercritical, liquid or gaseous) of the stored CO2 in time and space. In order to address these crucial issues, we have concentrated on scaled laboratory tests mimicking realistic storage conditions, and have tested novel approaches involving analysis of complex electrical impedance coupled with seismic-interferometric characterization. A new laboratory experimental facility for simultaneous, multichannel seismic and AC electrical measurements has been developed. We have found that electrical permittivity is a very sensitive parameter to monitor the phase of the stored CO2. Secondly, a novel approach has been developed, which takes advantage of the nonphysical reflections retrieved by seismic interferometry to estimate reliable values of seismic wave velocity and attenuation in the CO2 reservoir, efficiently minimizing the effect of the overburden and removing the detrimental effect of the source-related irreproducibility. Finally, new

  18. Automatic laboratory-based strategy to improve the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lugo, Javier; Pomares, Francisco J; Asencio, Alberto; Ahumada, Miguel; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To study the pre-design and success of a strategy based on the addition of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the blood samples of certain primary care patients to detect new cases of type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods In a first step, we retrospectively calculated the number of HbA1c that would have been measured in one year if HbA1c would have been processed, according to the guidelines of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Based on those results we decided to prospectively measure HbA1c in every primary care patient above 45 years, with no HbA1c in the previous 3 years, and glucose concentration between 5.6-6.9 mmol/L, during an 18 months period. We calculated the number of HbA1c that were automatically added by the LIS based on our strategy, we evaluated the medical record of such subjects to confirm whether type 2 diabetes was finally confirmed, and we calculated the cost of our intervention. Results In a first stage, according to the guidelines, Hb1Ac should have been added to the blood samples of 13,085 patients, resulting in a cost of 14,973€. In the prospective study, the laboratory added Hb1Ac to 2092 patients, leading to an expense of 2393€. 314 patients had an HbA1c value ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol). 82 were finally diagnosed as type 2 diabetes; 28 thanks to our strategy, with an individual cost of 85.4€; and 54 due to the request of HbA1c by the general practitioners (GPs), with a cost of 47.5€. Conclusion The automatic laboratory-based strategy detected patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care, at a cost of 85.4€ per new case. PMID:26981026

  19. Strategies to improve the efficiency of celiac disease diagnosis in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    González, Delia Almeida; de Armas, Laura García; Rodríguez, Itahisa Marcelino; Almeida, Ana Arencibia; García, Miriam García; Gannar, Fadoua; de León, Antonio Cabrera

    2017-10-01

    The demand for testing to detect celiac disease (CD) autoantibodies has increased, together with the cost per case diagnosed, resulting in the adoption of measures to restrict laboratory testing. We designed this study to determine whether opportunistic screening to detect CD-associated autoantibodies had advantages compared to efforts to restrict testing, and to identify the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy. We compared a group of 1678 patients in which autoantibody testing was restricted to cases in which the test referral was considered appropriate (G1) to a group of 2140 patients in which test referrals were not reviewed or restricted (G2). Two algorithms A (quantifying IgA and Tissue transglutaminase IgA [TG-IgA] in all patients), and B (quantifying only TG-IgA in all patients) were used in each group, and the cost-effectiveness of each strategy was calculated. TG-IgA autoantibodies were positive in 62 G1 patients and 69 G2 patients. Among those positive for tissue transglutaminase IgA and endomysial IgA autoantibodies, the proportion of patients with de novo autoantibodies was lower (p=0.028) in G1 (11/62) than in G2 (24/69). Algorithm B required fewer determinations than algorithm A in both G1 (2310 vs 3493; p<0.001) and G2 (2196 vs 4435; p<0.001). With algorithm B the proportion of patients in whom IgA was tested was lower (p<0.001) in G2 (29/2140) than in G1 (617/1678). The lowest cost per case diagnosed (4.63 euros/patient) was found with algorithm B in G2. We conclude that opportunistic screening has advantages compared to efforts in the laboratory to restrict CD diagnostic testing. The most cost-effective strategy was based on the use of an appropriate algorithm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Automatic laboratory-based strategy to improve the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in primary care.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lugo, Javier; Pomares, Francisco J; Asencio, Alberto; Ahumada, Miguel; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To study the pre-design and success of a strategy based on the addition of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the blood samples of certain primary care patients to detect new cases of type 2 diabetes. In a first step, we retrospectively calculated the number of HbA1c that would have been measured in one year if HbA1c would have been processed, according to the guidelines of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Based on those results we decided to prospectively measure HbA1c in every primary care patient above 45 years, with no HbA1c in the previous 3 years, and glucose concentration between 5.6-6.9 mmol/L, during an 18 months period. We calculated the number of HbA1c that were automatically added by the LIS based on our strategy, we evaluated the medical record of such subjects to confirm whether type 2 diabetes was finally confirmed, and we calculated the cost of our intervention. In a first stage, according to the guidelines, Hb1Ac should have been added to the blood samples of 13,085 patients, resulting in a cost of 14,973€. In the prospective study, the laboratory added Hb1Ac to 2092 patients, leading to an expense of 2393€. 314 patients had an HbA1c value ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol). 82 were finally diagnosed as type 2 diabetes; 28 thanks to our strategy, with an individual cost of 85.4€; and 54 due to the request of HbA1c by the general practitioners (GPs), with a cost of 47.5€. The automatic laboratory-based strategy detected patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care, at a cost of 85.4€ per new case.

  1. Evaluation of a Community-Based Intervention to Promote Rear Seating for Children

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S.; Ross, Julie B.; Lissy, Karen S.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the short-term effect of a community-based effort to promote child rear seating in a low-income Hispanic community. Methods. Child seating patterns were observed pre- and postintervention at intersections in 1 intervention and 2 control cities. Brief interviews assessed exposure to program messages. Results. Child rear seating increased from 33% to 49% in the intervention city (P < .0001), which represented a greater increase than that in the control cities (P < .0001). The greatest improvement was observed in relatively higher-income areas. Rear seating was significantly correlated with reported program exposure. Incentives and exposure to the program across multiple channels seemed to have the greatest effect. Conclusions. Independent of legislation, community-based programs incorporating incentives can increase child rear seating. PMID:15249307

  2. An optimized approach to germ-free rearing in the jewel wasp Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Nasonia in vitrogerm-free rearing system in 2012 enabled investigation of Nasonia-microbiota interactions and real-time visualization of parasitoid metamorphosis. However, the use of antibiotics, bleach, and fetal bovine serum introduced artifacts relative to conventional rearing of Nasonia. Here, we optimize the germ-free rearing procedure by using filter sterilization in lieu of antibiotics and by removing residual bleach and fetal bovine serum. Comparison of these methods reveals no influence on larval survival or growth, and a 52% improvement in adult production. Additionally, adult males produced in the new germ-free system are similar in size to conventionally reared males. Experimental implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:27602283

  3. Multi-physics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Safety; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Yang, C.

    2015-04-21

    Battery performance, cost, and safety must be further improved for larger market share of HEVs/PEVs and penetration into the grid. Significant investment is being made to develop new materials, fine tune existing ones, improve cell and pack designs, and enhance manufacturing processes to increase performance, reduce cost, and make batteries safer. Modeling, simulation, and design tools can play an important role by providing insight on how to address issues, reducing the number of build-test-break prototypes, and accelerating the development cycle of generating products.

  4. Premedication with fentanyl-midazolam improves sevoflurane anesthesia for surgical intervention in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Lipiski, Miriam; Arras, Margarete; Jirkof, Paulin; Cesarovic, Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Balanced anesthesia allows for a reduced dosage of each component, while inducing general anesthesia of sufficient depth with potentially fewer side effects. Here, we compare two anesthetic protocols combining sevoflurane anesthesia with pre-medication (ketamine [K] or fentanyl-midazolam [FM]) to a sevoflurane monoanesthesia (S) concerning their ability to provide reliable anesthesia suitable for moderate surgery in laboratory mice. Twenty-one female C57BL/6J mice assigned randomly to one of three protocols underwent a 50-min anesthesia and a sham embryo transfer. Heart rate and core body temperature were continuously recorded by telemetry intra-operatively and for three days pre- and three days post-surgery. Intra-operative respiratory rate was determined by counting thorax movements. Body weight, food, and water intake were measured daily for three days pre- and three days post-surgery. The heart rate in the KS group remained at baseline level throughout the 50-min of anesthesia and surgery. FMS caused a lower heart rate and S alone caused a higher heart rate compared to baseline values. Intra-operative body temperature was at baseline levels in all groups. A decreased respiratory rate was observed in all groups compared to baseline values obtained from resting mice of the same strain, sex and age-distribution. Surgical stimuli induced no significant changes in heart rate and respiratory rate in the KS or FMS group but significant respiratory alteration in the S group compared to baseline values obtained 10 s before applying the stimulus. Post-operative heart rate was above baseline values in all groups; with a significant deviation in the S group. There were no changes in body weight, food, and water intake. In summary, FMS was superior to KS and S for moderate surgery in laboratory mice resulting in less inter-individual variability in response to painful stimuli. Fentanyl and midazolam reduced the depressant effect of sevoflurane on the respiratory rate and

  5. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

  6. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

  7. Approaches for improving present laboratory and field methodology for evaluation efficacy of transgenic technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessing the efficacy of transgenic plants under new environmental and management regimes is of prime importance to the companies which produce new or improved existing transgenic products, breeders which create different varieties stacked with Bt endotoxins, and growers who use them for production...

  8. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  9. Improving image quality in laboratory x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, F.; Marschner, M.; Birnbacher, L.; Viermetz, M.; Noël, P.; Herzen, J.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2017-03-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast (gbPC) is known to provide significant benefits for biomedical imaging. To investigate these benefits, a high-sensitivity gbPC micro-CT setup for small (≍ 5 cm) biological samples has been constructed. Unfortunately, high differential-phase sensitivity leads to an increased magnitude of data processing artifacts, limiting the quality of tomographic reconstructions. Most importantly, processing of phase-stepping data with incorrect stepping positions can introduce artifacts resembling Moiré fringes to the projections. Additionally, the focal spot size of the X-ray source limits resolution of tomograms. Here we present a set of algorithms to minimize artifacts, increase resolution and improve visual impression of projections and tomograms from the examined setup. We assessed two algorithms for artifact reduction: Firstly, a correction algorithm exploiting correlations of the artifacts and differential-phase data was developed and tested. Artifacts were reliably removed without compromising image data. Secondly, we implemented a new algorithm for flatfield selection, which was shown to exclude flat-fields with strong artifacts. Both procedures successfully improved image quality of projections and tomograms. Deconvolution of all projections of a CT scan can minimize blurring introduced by the finite size of the X-ray source focal spot. Application of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm to gbPC-CT projections resulted in an improved resolution of phase-contrast tomograms. Additionally, we found that nearest-neighbor interpolation of projections can improve the visual impression of very small features in phase-contrast tomograms. In conclusion, we achieved an increase in image resolution and quality for the investigated setup, which may lead to an improved detection of very small sample features, thereby maximizing the setup's utility.

  10. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  11. Improved understanding of bimolecular reactions in deceptively simple homogeneous media: From laboratory experiments to Lagrangian quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Qian, Jiazhong; Papelis, Charalambos; Sun, Pengtao; Yu, Zhongbo

    2014-02-01

    Medium heterogeneity affects reaction kinetics by controlling the mixing of reactant particles, but the linkage between medium properties and reaction kinetics is difficult to build, even for simple, relatively homogeneous media. This study aims to explore the dynamics of bimolecular reactions, aniline + 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid → 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-aminobenzene, in relatively homogeneous flow cells. Laboratory experiments were conducted to monitor the transport of both conservative and reactive tracers through columns packed with silica sand of specific diameters. The measured tracer breakthrough curves exhibit subdiffusive behavior with a late-time tail becoming more pronounced with decreasing sand size, probably due to the segregated flow regions formed more easily in columns packed with smaller size sand. Numerical analysis using a novel Lagrangian model shows that subdiffusion has a twofold effect on bimolecular reactions. While subdiffusion enhances the power-law growth rate of product mass by prolonging the exposure of reactant particles in the depletion zone, the global reaction rate is constrained because subdiffusion constrains the mobility of reactant particles. Reactive kinetics in deceptively simple homogeneous media is therefore controlled by subdiffusion, which is sensitive to the dimensions of packed sand.

  12. Improving the Laboratory Experience for Introductory Geology Students Using Active Learning and Evidence-Based Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oien, R. P.; Anders, A. M.; Long, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the initial results of transitioning laboratory activities in an introductory physical geology course from passive to active learning. Educational research demonstrates that student-driven investigations promote increased engagement and better retention of material. Surveys of students in introductory physical geology helped us identify lab activities which do not engage students. We designed new lab activities to be more collaborative, open-ended and "hands-on". Student feedback was most negative for lab activities which are computer-based. In response, we have removed computers from the lab space and increased the length and number of activities involving physical manipulation of samples and models. These changes required investment in lab equipment and supplies. New lab activities also include student-driven exploration of data with open-ended responses. Student-evaluations of the new lab activities will be compiled during Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 to allow us to measure the impact of the changes on student satisfaction and we will report on our findings to date. Modification of this course has been sponsored by NSF's Widening Implementation & Demonstration of Evidence Based Reforms (WIDER) program through grant #1347722 to the University of Illinois. The overall goal of the grant is to increase retention and satisfaction of STEM students in introductory courses.

  13. Strain improvement of Chlorella sp. for phenol biodegradation by adaptive laboratory evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libo; Xue, Chuizhao; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae are highly efficient photosynthesis cell factories for CO2 capture, biofuel productions and wastewater treatment. Phenol is a typical environmental contaminant. Microalgae normally have a low tolerance for, and a low degradation rate to, high concentration of phenol. Adaptive laboratory evolution was performed for phenolic wastewater treatment by Chlorella sp. The resulting strain was obtained after 31 cycles (about 95d) under 500mg/L phenol as environmental stress. It could grow under 500mg/L and 700mg/L phenol without significant inhibition. The maximal biomass concentrations of the resulting strain at day 8 were 3.40g/L under 500mg/L phenol and 2.70g/L under 700mg/L phenol, respectively. They were more than two times of those of the original strain. In addition, 500mg/L phenol was fully removed by the resulting strain in 7d when the initial cell density was 0.6g/L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved student linkage of Mendelian and molecular genetic concepts through a yeast-based laboratory module.

    PubMed

    Wolyniak, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A study of modern genetics requires students to successfully unite the principles of Mendelian genetics with the functions of DNA. Traditional means of teaching genetics are often successful in teaching Mendelian and molecular ideas but not in allowing students to see how the two subjects relate. The laboratory module presented here attempts to present classical and molecular genetic concepts together as an inquiry-based exploration appropriate for high school or introductory undergraduate students. Using the non-essential APQ12 gene in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, students perform PCR, selective growth, and sporulation experiments to establish the ploidy and APQ12 zygosity of a series of unknown strains. Each experiment contributes data to characterize the unknown strains, but complete characterization is not possible without assimilating the data from all of the experiments. The module allows students to consider concepts normally introduced and emphasized in Mendelian genetics and explore them using molecular and experimental tools. Comparison of pre-module and post-module assessment surveys show an increase in student ability to link Mendelian concepts to experimental procedures relying on DNA analysis. The development of modules such as these provides students of all backgrounds with the tools to engage the complexities and issues that constitute modern principles of inheritance.

  15. Improving Financial Management via Contemplation: Novel Interventions and Findings in Laboratory and Applied Settings

    PubMed Central

    Harkin, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The present research tackles two main areas of financial mismanagement, namely avoiding debt-related information and underestimating expenditure. We draw upon research which has shown that inviting people to think about reasons for avoiding something actually serves to reduce the likelihood that they will then avoid it, and potentially improves what they know about it. Therefore, in three studies we investigated if prompting participants to contemplate their debt (Studies 1 and 2) and expenditure (Study 3) would decrease avoidance of debt-related information and improve estimates of expenditure, respectively. Conform to our expectations prompting contemplation via questionnaire (Study 1) and video (Study 2) reduced avoidance of debt-related information. In other words, contemplation reduced the likelihood that people would avoid viewing their risk of debt. The success of prompting contemplation via video offers a new and important addition to the literature on contemplation, which has previously focused on using the traditional questionnaire format. In Study 3 we observed that contemplation improved the estimates of expenditure that loan applicants at a credit union provided. Specifically, contemplation resulted in participants providing larger and more detailed accounts of their expenditure, and increased the agreement between staff and clients for the number of expenditure items provided by the clients. In sum, these findings suggest that contemplation in the context of the above financial decision-making is a robust intervention, as it was effective for different types of interventions (questionnaire and video), behaviors (avoidance of debt-related information and improving estimates of expenditure), and samples (students and university staff; Studies 1 and 2 and loan applicants at a credit union; Study 3). We discuss the theoretical, policy and applied impact of these findings, and highlight limitations and considerations for future research. PMID:28326053

  16. Improving Financial Management via Contemplation: Novel Interventions and Findings in Laboratory and Applied Settings.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The present research tackles two main areas of financial mismanagement, namely avoiding debt-related information and underestimating expenditure. We draw upon research which has shown that inviting people to think about reasons for avoiding something actually serves to reduce the likelihood that they will then avoid it, and potentially improves what they know about it. Therefore, in three studies we investigated if prompting participants to contemplate their debt (Studies 1 and 2) and expenditure (Study 3) would decrease avoidance of debt-related information and improve estimates of expenditure, respectively. Conform to our expectations prompting contemplation via questionnaire (Study 1) and video (Study 2) reduced avoidance of debt-related information. In other words, contemplation reduced the likelihood that people would avoid viewing their risk of debt. The success of prompting contemplation via video offers a new and important addition to the literature on contemplation, which has previously focused on using the traditional questionnaire format. In Study 3 we observed that contemplation improved the estimates of expenditure that loan applicants at a credit union provided. Specifically, contemplation resulted in participants providing larger and more detailed accounts of their expenditure, and increased the agreement between staff and clients for the number of expenditure items provided by the clients. In sum, these findings suggest that contemplation in the context of the above financial decision-making is a robust intervention, as it was effective for different types of interventions (questionnaire and video), behaviors (avoidance of debt-related information and improving estimates of expenditure), and samples (students and university staff; Studies 1 and 2 and loan applicants at a credit union; Study 3). We discuss the theoretical, policy and applied impact of these findings, and highlight limitations and considerations for future research.

  17. Many pathways in laboratory evolution can lead to improved enzymes: how to escape from local minima.

    PubMed

    Gumulya, Yosephine; Sanchis, Joaquin; Reetz, Manfred T

    2012-05-07

    Directed evolution is a method to tune the properties of enzymes for use in organic chemistry and biotechnology, to study enzyme mechanisms, and to shed light on darwinian evolution in nature. In order to enhance its efficacy, iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) was implemented. This involves: 1) randomized mutation of appropriate sites of one or more residues; 2) screening of the initial mutant libraries for properties such as enzymatic rate, stereoselectivity, or thermal robustness; 3) use of the best hit in a given library as a template for saturation mutagenesis at the other sites; and 4) continuation of the process until the desired degree of enzyme improvement has been reached. Despite the success of a number of ISM-based studies, the question of the optimal choice of the many different possible pathways remains unanswered. Here we considered a complete 4-site ISM scheme. All 24 pathways were systematically explored, with the epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger as the catalyst in the stereoselective hydrolytic kinetic resolution of a chiral epoxide. All 24 pathways were found to provide improved mutants with notably enhanced stereoselectivity. When a library failed to contain any hits, non-improved or even inferior mutants were used as templates in the continuation of the evolutionary pathway, thereby escaping from the local minimum. These observations have ramifications for directed evolution in general and for evolutionary biological studies in which protein engineering techniques are applied. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  19. Efficient fermentation of an improved synthetic grape must by enological and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Viana, Tiago; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Prista, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Grape must or freshly pressed grape juice is a complex chemical matrix that impacts the efficiency of yeast fermentation. The composition of natural grape must (NGM) can be variable; thus, to ensure reproducibility, a synthetic grape must (SGM) with defined composition is commonly used. The aim of this work was to create conditions to advance the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for wine fermentation studies, considering previous results obtained for enological strains fermenting NGM under simulated winery conditions. We designed a new SGM formulation, ISA-SGM, by introducing specific modifications to a commonly used formulation, putting together previous reports. We added glucose and fructose in equal amounts (125 g/l) and 50 parts per million (ppm) sulfur dioxide (SO2, corresponding to standard enological treatment), and we optimized the concentrations of malic acid (3 g/l), citric acid (0.3 g/l), and tartaric acid (3 g/l). Using ISA-SGM, we obtained similar fermentative profiles for the wine strain ISA1000, the prototrophic strain S288C, and its auxotrophic derivative BY4741. In this case, the concentrations of supplements were optimized to 120 mg/l L-uracil, 80 mg/l L-methionine, 400 mg/l L-leucine, and 100 mg/l L-histidine. All these strains tested in ISA-SGM presented a similar fermentative performance as ISA1000 in NGM. ISA-SGM formulation is a promising new tool to allow the use of the auxotrophic BY strains in the detailed assessment of the alcoholic fermentation process under simulated winery conditions, and it provides a foundation to extract relevant physiological conclusions in future research on enological yeast traits.

  20. Laboratory and initial clinical studies of nifedipine, a calcium antagonist for improved myocardial preservation.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R E; Christlieb, I Y; Ferguson, T B; Weldon, C S; Marbarger, J P; Sobel, B E; Roberts, R; Henry, P D; Ludbrook, P A; Biello, D; Clark, B K

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes five years of laboratory investigations and the initial six-month clinical experience with a calcium antagonist, nifedipine, added to a cold hyperkalemic cardioplegic solution for enhancement of myocardial protection. Regional ischemia was created in 112 dogs and global ischemia in 98 dogs, under normothermic and two hyperthermic states. Control solutions, two clinical cardioplegic solutions, and nifedipine solutions were compared. Infusion of nifedipine during regional ischemia and reperfusion intervals resulted in a two-to-threefold reduction in injury volume and maintenance of normal left ventricular function in contrast infusion of nitroprusside. Nifedipine solutions (0.2 microgram/ml) provided superior preservation of left ventricular function in comparison to the two cardioplegic solutions after one hour of global ischemia at 37 degrees C and two hours at 18 C. In a clinical trial of nifedipine in cold potassium cardioplegia, 38 high risk patients with poor ventricular function have been treated; 22 of which were intensively studied serially with radionuclide ventriculography and pyrophosphate scans, myocardial isoenzyme determinations, 24 hour EKG recordings and intra- and postoperative hemodynamic studies. Of the 35 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 33 have survived. Stroke work and cardiac indices return promptly to near normal levels after operation. The time-isoenzyme activity curves are low and radionuclide determined ejection fractions show no change for the study group. Death from acute postischemic cardiac failure did not occur in treated patients and the usage of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has decreased threefold in comparison with 40 similar high risk patients treated concurrently with cardioplegic solution alone. It is concluded that nifedipine is a potent adjunct to cold hyperkalemic cardioplegic solution in high risk patients. PMID:7018425

  1. Doubling of muscle carnosine concentration does not improve laboratory 1-hr cycling time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Chung, Weiliang; Baguet, Audrey; Bex, Tine; Bishop, David J; Derave, Wim

    2014-06-01

    Muscle carnosine loading through chronic oral beta-alanine supplementation has been shown to be effective for short-duration, high-intensity exercise. This randomized, placebo-controlled study explored whether the ergogenic effect of beta-alanine supplementation is also present for longer duration exercise. Subjects (27 well-trained cyclists/triathletes) were supplemented with either beta-alanine or placebo (6.4 g/day) for 6 weeks. Time to completion and physiological variables for a 1-hr cycling time-trial were compared between preand postsupplementation. Muscle carnosine concentration was also assessed via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after supplementation. Following beta-alanine supplementation, muscle carnosine concentration was increased by 143 ± 151% (mean ± SD; p < .001) in the gastrocnemius and 161 ± 56% (p < .001) in the soleus. Postsupplementation time trial performance was significantly slower in the placebo group (60.6 ± 4.4-63.0 ± 5.4 min; p < .01) and trended toward a slower performance following beta-alanine supplementation (59.8 ± 2.8-61.7 ± 3.0 min; p = .069). We found an increase in lactate/proton concentration ratio following beta-alanine supplementation during the time-trial (209.0 ± 44.0 (beta-alanine) vs. 161.9 ± 54.4 (placebo); p < .05), indicating that a similar lactate concentration was accompanied by a lower degree of systemic acidosis, even though this acidosis was quite moderate (pH ranging from 7.30 to 7.40). In conclusion, chronic beta-alanine supplementation in well-trained cyclists had a very pronounced effect on muscle carnosine concentration and a moderate attenuating effect on the acidosis associated with lactate accumulation, yet without affecting 1-h time-trial performance under laboratory conditions.

  2. Does rearing laying hens in aviaries adversely affect long-term welfare following transfer to furnished cages?

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Hansen, Tone Beate; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Moe, Randi O; Janczak, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10). There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000), with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52%) compared to cage birds (2.48%). The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing.

  3. Paving the way for a gold standard of care for infertility treatment: improving outcomes through standardization of laboratory procedures.

    PubMed

    Schoolcraft, William; Meseguer, Marcos

    2017-07-14

    Infertility affects over 70 million couples globally. Access to, and interest in, assisted reproductive technologies is growing worldwide, with more couples seeking medical intervention to conceive, in particular by IVF. Despite numerous advances in IVF techniques since its first success in 1978, almost half of the patients treated remain childless. The multifactorial nature of IVF treatment means that success is dependent on many variables. Therefore, it is important to examine how each variable can be optimized to achieve the best possible outcomes for patients. The current approach to IVF is fragmented, with various protocols in use. A systematic approach to establishing optimum best practices may improve IVF success and live birth rates. Our vision of the future is that technological advancements in the laboratory setting are standardized and universally adopted to enable a gold standard of care. Implementation of best practices for laboratory procedures will enable clinicians to generate high-quality gametes, and to produce and identify gametes and embryos of maximum viability and implantation potential, which should contribute to improving take-home healthy baby rates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory-based clinical audit as a tool for continual improvement: an example from CSF chemistry turnaround time audit in a South-African teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E

    2016-01-01

    Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P < 0.05). CSF chemistry requests without the appropriate number of CSF sample tubes were significantly associated with delays in movement of samples from the labelling area to the technologist's work station (caused by a preference for microbiological testing prior to CSF chemistry). A laboratory-based clinical audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction.

  5. Development of improved methods for delivery of Trichuris muris to the laboratory mouse.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Jamie J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2010-10-01

    Murine immunological responses to experimental infection with Trichuris muris and the effects of the resident microbiota on these responses are of increasing interest. For these studies, accurate dose delivery and improved sterilization of inocula are essential to prevent co-infection with unknown contaminants. We found that washing T. muris eggs with antibiotics may not be sufficient for sterilization of inocula. However, washing eggs in 6.25% hypochlorite/bleach eliminated bacteria and fungi, as determined by culture and PCR, did not harm viable T. muris eggs and reduced the number of non-viable eggs in the inocula. A hatching assay and propidium iodide staining method were developed and found to increase the accuracy for assessing T. muris egg viability prior to infection for rapid dose evaluation. In addition, metal gavage feeding needles increased the accuracy and precision of the dose delivered to the mice compared to flexible rubber tubes. These methods will improve experimental Trichuris studies by decreasing the variability in outcome due to unintended carryover of adherent microorganisms and unrecognized variation in inocula.

  6. Being, becoming, and belonging: Improving science fluency during laboratory activities in urban education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Wesley

    The research presented in this dissertation uses authentic ethnography, augmented by video and conversational analysis, to investigate the teaching and learning of chemistry across boundaries of difference in an urban high school. A coordinated set of theoretical lenses from cultural sociology and sociology of emotion is used to deploy and analyze these methods. All four students highlighted in this study are Black and/or Latino females from working class income families. They identify as second-generation Americans either of African American of Caribbean heritage or Latina of Latin American or Caribbean heritage. The students achieved mild to moderate success in a tenth-grade level chemistry class. Their chemistry teacher is a first-generation immigrant middle-aged male who would ethnically be considered Filipino-American. The focal fields of this research occur in Regents chemistry laboratory classes in a small secondary inner city high school in the Bronx, New York City, and associated cogenerative dialogues. One of the major premises of this study is that learning is a form of cultural enactment (i.e., production, reproduction, and transformation). Culture (schema and practices) enacted by students and teachers in one field can be enacted successfully in another field because fields are surrounded by porous boundaries. Accordingly, participants use resources to meet their goals (e.g., learn chemistry), in so doing, create interstitial culture that becomes part of the structure of the field and resources for learning. A priority was to examine how learning and teaching of science is enacted when students and their teachers are able to coparticipate in culturally adaptive ways and use their capital successfully. A key implication is the need for teachers and students to be aware of cultural encounters that afford positive emotional energy and solidarity. The important point here is to minimize encounters that create negative emotional energy. What we learned from

  7. Hand-Rearing Reduces Fear of Humans in European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level. PMID:21364770

  8. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota.

  9. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  10. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  11. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  12. Effects of lavender oil inhalation on improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica

    2012-04-15

    Lavender is reported to be an effective medical plant in treating inflammation, depression, stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of two different lavender essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae) and Lavandula hybrida Rev. (Lamiaceae) on neurological capacity of male Wistar rats subjected to scopolamine (0.7mg/kg)-induced dementia rat model. Chronic exposures to lavender essential oils (daily, for 7 continuous days) significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior and inhibited depression in elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests, suggesting anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Also, spatial memory performance in Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks was improved, suggesting positive effects on memory formation. Taken together, multiple exposures to lavender essential oils could effectively reverse spatial memory deficits induced by dysfunction of the cholinergic system in the rat brain and might provide an opportunity for management neurological abnormalities in dementia conditions.

  13. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  14. EMS activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory is associated with process improvements in the care of myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C; Lee, Christopher H; Van Gelder, Carin

    2013-01-01

    68%, respectively, and was better for the EMS field activations than for either of the other groups (p < 0.001). In the system studied, EMS field activation of the catheterization laboratory for patients with STEMI is associated with shorter D2B times and better compliance with 90-minute benchmarks than ED activation for either walk-in STEMI patients or STEMI patients arriving by EMS without field activation. Improvements are needed in compliance with the field activation protocol to maximize these benefits. Key words: emergency medical services; emergency medical technicians; electrocardiography; myocardial infarction; heart catheterization.

  15. Implementing a Continuous Quality Improvement Program in a High-Volume Clinical Echocardiography Laboratory: Improving Care for Patients With Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Samad, Zainab; Minter, Stephanie; Armour, Alicia; Tinnemore, Amanda; Sivak, Joseph A; Sedberry, Brenda; Strub, Karen; Horan, Seanna M; Harrison, J Kevin; Kisslo, Joseph; Douglas, Pamela S; Velazquez, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    The management of aortic stenosis rests on accurate echocardiographic diagnosis. Hence, it was chosen as a test case to examine the utility of continuous quality improvement (CQI) approaches to increase echocardiographic data accuracy and reliability. A novel, multistep CQI program was designed and prospectively used to investigate whether it could minimize the difference in aortic valve mean gradients reported by echocardiography when compared with cardiac catheterization. The Duke Echo Laboratory compiled a multidisciplinary CQI team including 4 senior sonographers and MD faculty to develop a mapped CQI process that incorporated Intersocietal Accreditation Commission standards. Quarterly, the CQI team reviewed all moderate- or greater-severity aortic stenosis echocardiography studies with concomitant catheterization data, and deidentified individual and group results were shared at meetings attended by cardiologists and sonographers. After review of 2011 data, the CQI team proposed specific amendments implemented over 2012: the use of nontraditional imaging and Doppler windows as well as evaluation of aortic gradients by a second sonographer. The primary outcome measure was agreement between catheterization- and echocardiography-derived mean gradients calculated by using the coverage probability index with a prespecified acceptable echocardiography-catheterization difference of <10 mm Hg in mean gradient. Between January 2011 and January 2014, 2093 echocardiograms reported moderate or greater aortic stenosis. Among cases with available catheterization data pre- and post-CQI, the coverage probability index increased from 54% to 70% (P=0.03; 98 cases, year 2011; 70 cases, year 2013). The proportion of patients referred for invasive valve hemodynamics decreased from 47% pre-CQI to 19% post-CQI (P<0.001). A laboratory practice pattern that was amenable to reform was identified, and a multistep modification was designed and implemented that produced clinically

  16. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  17. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  18. Improving mid stream urine sampling: reducing labelling error and laboratory rejection.

    PubMed

    Jakes, Adam; McCue, Eleanor; Cracknell, Alison

    2014-01-01

    A urine sample is vital in older patients with pyrexia or acute confusion, and commonly directs clinicians towards a source of infection. Not only can the organism be identified, but sensitivities to antibiotics can also guide prescribing. A high number of urine samples were not being processed on the medicine for older people wards at St. James's Hospital due to incomplete hand-written request forms not complying with trust policy. Previous attempts to re-educate staff had failed to improve acceptance rates. Rejected samples delay diagnosis, identification of organisms and subsequent sensitivities, as well as increasing staff workload. A total of 72 urine samples were audited from our wards in March 2013; 12 (17%) rejected. Clinicians were notified of rejected samples within one to four days. An electronic-requesting system was implemented in April 2013. Once implemented, a further two data collection cycles of 72 urine samples were completed from the same wards. In December 2013, 55 (76%) were electronically requested and 17 (24%) hand-written. Four (5%) samples were rejected and were all hand-written. In August 2014, 61 (85%) were electronically requested and 11 (15%) hand-written. No samples were rejected. The electronic-requesting system has effectively reduced the number of rejected urine samples. No electronically requested samples were rejected, therefore 100% sample acceptance is achievable. It is more effective than re-educating staff alone and ensures requests meet trust policy. Clinicians were notified of a samples rejection after one to four days. By this time patients may have started antibiotic therapy, decreasing the likelihood of isolating the causative organism in subsequent samples. All urine samples requested must meet a high standard and comply with trust policy in order to be processed. An electronic-requesting system removes errors of omission and ensures policy compliance, ultimately leading to improved patient care. Now our processes are

  19. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Aubin-Horth, N; Letcher, B H; Hofmann, H A

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment.

  20. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

  1. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  2. The role of socio-communicative rearing environments in the development of social and physical cognition in apes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jamie L; Lyn, Heidi; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Hopkins, William D

    2011-11-01

    The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5-year-old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (Herrmann et al., 2007). However, the previous study failed to control for rearing when comparing these two species. Specifically, the human children were raised in a human culture whereas the apes were raised in standard sanctuary settings. To further explore the CIH, here we compared the performance on multiple measures of social and physical cognition in a group of standard reared apes raised in conditions typical of zoo and biomedical laboratory settings to that of apes reared in an enculturated socio-communicatively rich environment. Overall, the enculturated apes significantly outperformed their standard reared counterparts on the cognitive tasks and this was particularly true for measures of communication. Furthermore, the performance of the enculturated apes was very similar to previously reported data from 2.5-year-old children. We conclude that apes who are reared in a human-like socio-communicatively rich environment develop superior communicative abilities compared to apes reared in standard laboratory settings, which supports some assumptions of the cultural intelligence hypothesis. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Improved clinical and laboratory skills after team-based, malaria case management training of health care professionals in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Deployment of highly effective artemisinin-based combination therapy for treating uncomplicated malaria calls for better targeting of malaria treatment to improve case management and minimize drug pressure for selecting resistant parasites. The Integrated Management of Malaria curriculum was developed to train multi-disciplinary teams of clinical, laboratory and health information assistants. Methods Evaluation of training was conducted in nine health facilities that were Uganda Malaria Surveillance Programme (UMSP) sites. From December 2006 to June 2007, 194 health professionals attended a six-day course. One-hundred and one of 118 (86%) clinicians were observed during patient encounters by expert clinicians at baseline and during three follow-up visits approximately six weeks, 12 weeks and one year after the course. Experts used a standardized tool for children less than five years of age and similar tool for patients five or more years of age. Seventeen of 30 laboratory professionals (57%) were assessed for preparation of malaria blood smears and ability to interpret smear results of 30 quality control slides. Results Percentage of patients at baseline and first follow-up, respectively, with proper history-taking was 21% and 43%, thorough physical examination 18% and 56%, correct diagnosis 51% and 98%, treatment in compliance with national policy 42% and 86%, and appropriate patient education 17% and 83%. In estimates that adjusted for individual effects and a matched sample, relative risks were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.20,2.88) for history-taking, 2.66 (95%CI: 1.60,4.41) for physical examination, 1.77 (95%CI: 1.41,2.23) for diagnosis, 1.96 (95%CI: 1.46,2.63) for treatment, and 4.47 (95%CI: 2.68,7.46) for patient education. Results were similar for subsequent follow-up and in sub-samples stratified by patient age. Quality of malaria blood smear preparation improved from 21.6% at baseline to 67.3% at first follow-up (p < 0.008); sensitivity of interpretation of

  4. [Improvement of laboratory diagnostics of cholera due to genetically altered (hybrid) variants of cholera Vibrio biovar El Tor].

    PubMed

    Savel'eva, I V; Khatsukov, K X; Savel'eva, E I; Moskvitina, S I; Kovalev, D A; Savel'ev, V N; Kulichenko, A N; Antonenko, A D; Babenyshev, B V

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of laboratory diagnostics of cholera taking into the account appearance of hybrid variants of cholera vibrio El Tor biovar in the 1990s. Phenotypic and molecular-genetic properties of typical toxigenic (151 strains) and hybrid (102 strains) variants of El Tor biovar cholera vibrios, isolated in the Caucuses in 1970-1990 and 1993-1998, respectively, were studied. Toxigenicity gene DNA fragments, inherent to El Tor biovars or classic, were detected by using a reagent kit "Genes of Vibrio cholerae variant ctxB-rstR-rstC, REF" developed by us. Reagent kit "Genes of V. cholerae variant ctxB-rstR-rstC, REF" is proposed to be used for laboratory diagnostics of cholera during study of material from humans or environmental objects and for identification of V. cholerae 01 on genome level in PCR-analysis as a necessary addition to the classic scheme of bacteriological analysis. Laboratory diagnostics of cholera due to genetically altered (hybrid) variants of cholera vibrio El Tor biovar is based on a complex study of material from humans and environmental objects by routine bacteriologic and PCR-analysis methods with the aim of detection of gene DNA fragments in the studied material, that determine biovar (classic or El Tor), identification of V. cholerae O1 strains with differentiation of El Tor vibrios into typical and altered, as well as determination of enterotoxin, produced by the specific cholera vibrio strain (by the presence ctxB(El) or ctxB(Cl) gene DNA fragment, coding biosynthesis of CT-2 or CT-1, respectively).

  5. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions.

  6. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. Results A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Conclusions During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy. PMID:23569725

  7. New instruments for soil physics class: Improving the laboratory and field seminars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Jankovec, Jakub; Snehota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Teaching soil science and soil physics is an important part of the curriculum of many programs with focus on technical and natural sciences. Courses of soil science and namely soil physics have a long tradition at the faculty of Civil Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Students receive the theoretical foundations about soil classification, soil physics, soil chemistry and soil hydraulic characteristics in the course. In practical seminars students perform measurements of physical, hydraulic and chemical characteristics of soils, thus a comprehensive survey of soil is done in the given site. So far, students had the opportunity to use old, manually operated instrumentation. The project aims to improve the attractiveness of soil physics course and to extend the practical skills of students by introducing new tasks and by involving modern automated equipment. New instruments were purchased with the support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the project FRVS No. 1162/2013 G1. Specifically, two tensiometers T8 with multi-functional handheld read-out unit (UMS, GmbH) and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (Decagon Devices, Inc.) were purchased and incorporated into the course. In addition, newly designed MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (CTU in Prague) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT sensor TMS 2 (TOMST®, s.r.o.), were made freely available for soil physics classes and included into the courses. Online tutorials and instructional videos were developed. Detailed multimedia teaching materials were introduced so that students are able to work more independently. Students will practice operating the digital tensiometer T8 with integrated temperature sensor and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (diameter disk: 4.4 cm, suction range: 0.5 to 7.0 cm of suction) and MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (see Klipa et al., EGU2014-7230) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT

  8. Fiber containment for improved laboratory handling and uniform nanocoating of milligram quantities of carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Devine, Christina K; Oldham, Christopher J; Jur, Jesse S; Gong, Bo; Parsons, Gregory N

    2011-12-06

    The presence of nanostructured materials in the workplace is bringing attention to the importance of safe practices for nanomaterial handling. We explored novel fiber containment methods to improve the handling of carbon nanotube (CNT) powders in the laboratory while simultaneously allowing highly uniform and controlled atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings on the nanotubes, down to less than 4 nm on some CNT materials. Moreover, the procedure yields uniform coatings on milligram quantities of nanotubes using a conventional viscous flow reactor system, circumventing the need for specialized fluidized bed or rotary ALD reactors for laboratory-scale studies. We explored both fiber bundles and fiber baskets as possible containment methods and conclude that the baskets are more suitable for coating studies. An extended precursor and reactant dose and soak periods allowed the gases to diffuse through the fiber containment, and the ALD coating thickness scaled linearly with the number of ALD cycles. The extended dose period produced thicker coatings compared to typical doses on CNT controls not encased in the fibers, suggesting some effects due to the extended reactant dose. Film growth was compared on a range of single-walled NTs, double-walled NTs, and acid-functionalized multiwalled NTs, and we found that ultrathin coatings were most readily controlled on the multiwalled NTs.

  9. Describing Assay Precision-Reciprocal of Variance Is Correct, Not CV Percent: Its Use Should Significantly Improve Laboratory Performance.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, Roger W; Schumitzky, Alan; Bayard, David; Fu, Xiaowei; Neely, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Describing assay error as percent coefficient of variation (CV%) fails as measurements approach zero. Results are censored if below some arbitrarily chosen lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). CV% gives incorrect weighting to data obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring, with incorrect parameter values in the resulting pharmacokinetic models, and incorrect dosage regimens for patient care. CV% was compared with the reciprocal of the variance (1/var) of each assay measurement. This method has not been considered by the laboratory community. A simple description of assay standard deviation (SD) as a polynomial function of the assay measurement over its working range was developed, the reciprocal of the assay variance determined, and its results compared with CV%. CV% does not provide correct weighting of measured serum concentrations as required for optimal therapeutic drug monitoring. It does not permit optimally individualized models of the behavior of a drug in a patient, resulting in incorrect dosage regimens. The assay error polynomial described here, using 1/var, provides correct weighting of such data, all the way down to and including zero. There is no need to censor low results, and no need to set any arbitrary LLOQ. Reciprocal of variance is the correct measure of assay precision and should replace CV%. The information is easily stored as an assay error polynomial. The laboratory can serve the medical community better. There is no longer any need for LLOQ, a significant improvement. Regulatory agencies should implement this more informed policy.

  10. Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

  11. The "Rear-View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James

    1987-01-01

    The "rear-view mirror" approach referred to by McLuhan refers to new media being used with the methods of older, different media. A Sens-it (SENtence- SENtence- SITuation) cell model is suggested as an effective use of interactive videodisk systems in contrast to the communicative competence approach. (Author/LMO)

  12. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  13. Synthesis report on rearing Asian longhorned beetle

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena; Ann E. Hajek; Thomas L. M. Dubois; David R. Lance

    2003-01-01

    Since not all research on Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (ALB) can be conducted in China or at North American sites where it is being eradicated, the ability to mass rear the Asian longhorned beetle is critical to rapid progress on research necessary for exclusion, detection, and eradication of this serious pest.

  14. Contexts of Child Rearing: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1979-01-01

    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding interpersonal contexts of human development with emerging concepts and data that point to trans-contextual parameters of child-rearing environments. Proposes properties of the environment that foster development: primary and secondary development contexts; the impact of third parties; and interconnections…

  15. Contexts of Child Rearing: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1979-01-01

    Synthesizes existing knowledge regarding interpersonal contexts of human development with emerging concepts and data that point to trans-contextual parameters of child-rearing environments. Proposes properties of the environment that foster development: primary and secondary development contexts; the impact of third parties; and interconnections…

  16. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  17. Rear View - Astronaut Alan Shepard - Pressure Suit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    S61-02796 (5 May 1961) --- Rear view of astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., in his pressure suit and helmet, as he approaches the Freedom 7 capsule in preparation for ingress before the Mercury-Redstone 3 mission. All that can be seen of the astronaut is his legs. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  18. Child Rearing Study in Brunei Darussalam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosberg, Marilee A.

    In order to gather data on children's lives, language, and religious activities, and to gather data on child rearing practices in Brunei, a study interviewed parents from 38 Malaysian families having one or more children 3-8 years old. Results indicated that 92 percent of the children crawled when they were between 6-9 months old; 63 percent were…

  19. Improving reproducibility and external validity. The role of standardization and data reporting of laboratory rat husbandry and housing.

    PubMed

    Fontoura-Andrade, José Luiz; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de; Sousa, João Batista de

    2017-03-01

    To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.

  20. Creating 21st-Century Laboratories and Classrooms for Improving Population Health: A Call to Action for Academic Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Shannon, Jackilen; Steiner Hayward, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) in the United States built world-class infrastructure to successfully combat disease in the 20th century, which is inadequate for the complexity of sustaining and improving population health. AMCs must now build first-rate 21st-century infrastructure to connect combating disease and promoting health. This infrastructure must acknowledge the bio-psycho-social-environmental factors impacting health and will need to reach far beyond the AMC walls to foster community "laboratories" that support the "science of health," complementary to those supporting the "science of medicine"; cultivate community "classrooms" to stimulate learning and discovery in the places where people live, work, and play; and strengthen bridges between academic centers and these community laboratories and classrooms to facilitate bidirectional teaching, learning, innovation, and discovery.Private and public entities made deep financial investments that contributed to the AMC disease-centered approach to clinical care, education, and research in the 20th century. Many of these same funders now recognize the need to transform U.S. health care into a system that is accountable for population health and the need for a medical workforce equipped with the skills to measure and improve health. Innovative ideas about communities as centers of learning, the importance of social factors as major determinants of health, and the need for multidisciplinary perspectives to solve complex problems are not new; many are 20th-century ideas still waiting to be fully implemented. The window of opportunity is now. The authors articulate how AMCs must take bigger and bolder steps to become leaders in population health.