Goodnight, William; Newman, Roger
Twin pregnancies contribute a disproportionate degree to perinatal morbidity, partly because of increased risks of low birth weight and prematurity. Although the cause of the morbidity is multifactorial, attention to twin-specific maternal nutrition may be beneficial in achieving optimal fetal growth and birth weight. Achievement of body mass index (BMI)-specific weight gain goals, micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation specific to the physiology of twin gestations, and carbohydrate-controlled diets are recommended for optimal twin growth and pregnancy outcomes. The daily recommended caloric intake for normal-BMI women with twins is 40-45 kcal/kg each day, and iron, folate, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplementation is recommended beyond a usual prenatal vitamin. Daily supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin D should also be considered. Multiple gestation-specific prenatal care settings with a focus on nutritional interventions improve birth weight and length of gestation and should be considered for the care of women carrying multiples. Antepartum lactation consultation can also improve the rate of postpartum breastfeeding in twin pregnancies. Twin gestation-specific nutritional interventions seem effective in improving the outcome of these pregnancies and should be emphasized in the antepartum care of multiple gestations. This review examines the available evidence and offers recommendations for twin pregnancy-specific nutritional interventions.
Nnam, N M
Much has been learned during the past several decades about the role of maternal nutrition in the outcome of pregnancy. While the bulk of the data is derived from animal models, human observations are gradually accumulating. There is need to improve maternal nutrition because of the high neonatal mortality rate especially in developing countries. The author used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors into account when interpreting study findings. Nutrition plays a vital role in reducing some of the health risks associated with pregnancy such as risk of fetal and infant mortality, intra-uterine growth retardation, low birth weight and premature births, decreased birth defects, cretinism, poor brain development and risk of infection. Adequate nutrition is essential for a woman throughout her life cycle to ensure proper development and prepare the reproductive life of the woman. Pregnant women require varied diets and increased nutrient intake to cope with the extra needs during pregnancy. Use of dietary supplements and fortified foods should be encouraged for pregnant women to ensure adequate supply of nutrients for both mother and foetus. The author concludes that nutrition education should be a core component of Mother and Child Health Clinics and every opportunity should be utilised to give nutrition education on appropriate diets for pregnant women.
Yamamoto, Yuriko; Aoki, Shigeru
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a high prevalence in females of childbearing age. Thus, reproduction in SLE patients is a major concern for clinicians. In the past, SLE patients were advised to defer pregnancy because of poor pregnancy outcomes and fear of SLE flares during pregnancy. Investigations to date show that maternal and fetal risks are higher in females with SLE than in the general population. However, with appropriate management of the disease, sufferers may have a relatively uncomplicated pregnancy course. Factors such as appropriate preconception counseling and medication adjustment, strict disease control prior to pregnancy, intensive surveillance during and after pregnancy by both the obstetrician and rheumatologist, and appropriate interventions when necessary play a key role. This review describes the strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes in SLE patients at different time points in the reproduction cycle (preconception, during pregnancy, and postpartum period) and also details the neonatal concerns. PMID:27468250
Yamamoto, Yuriko; Aoki, Shigeru
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a high prevalence in females of childbearing age. Thus, reproduction in SLE patients is a major concern for clinicians. In the past, SLE patients were advised to defer pregnancy because of poor pregnancy outcomes and fear of SLE flares during pregnancy. Investigations to date show that maternal and fetal risks are higher in females with SLE than in the general population. However, with appropriate management of the disease, sufferers may have a relatively uncomplicated pregnancy course. Factors such as appropriate preconception counseling and medication adjustment, strict disease control prior to pregnancy, intensive surveillance during and after pregnancy by both the obstetrician and rheumatologist, and appropriate interventions when necessary play a key role. This review describes the strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes in SLE patients at different time points in the reproduction cycle (preconception, during pregnancy, and postpartum period) and also details the neonatal concerns.
Stampalija, Tamara; Gyte, Gillian ML; Alfirevic, Zarko
outcomes. We identified no randomised studies assessing the utero-placental vessels in the first trimester or in women at high risk for hypertensive disorders. Authors’ conclusions Present evidence failed to show any benefit to either the baby or the mother when utero-placental Doppler ultrasound was used in the second trimester of pregnancy in women at low risk for hypertensive disorders. Nevertheless, this evidence cannot be considered conclusive with only two studies included. There were no randomised studies in the first trimester, or in women at high risk. More research is needed to investigate whether the use of utero-placental Doppler ultrasound may improve pregnancy outcome. PMID:20824875
Siefert, K; Pimlott, S
The female prison population has increased dramatically in recent years. Most women prisoners are involved with drugs, and as many as 25 percent are pregnant or have delivered within the past year. Reproductive health and drug treatment services for women in prison are inadequate, if they are available at all, and although illicit drugs are readily available in prison, drug-involved pregnant women often are incarcerated to protect fetal health. Studies of pregnancy outcome among women prisoners have demonstrated high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. This article examines issues related to pregnancy among women prisoners and describes an innovative residential program designed for pregnant, drug-dependent women in a state adult corrections system. Social workers can play an important role in promoting policy reform and improved services for this underserved population.
González, Irene; Lecube, Albert; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo
The significant increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increase in the number of obese women who become pregnant. In this setting, in recent years, there has been an exponential rise in the number of bariatric procedures, with approximately half of them performed in women of childbearing age, and a remarkable surge in the number of women who become pregnant after having undergone bariatric surgery (BS). These procedures entail the risk of nutritional deficiencies, and nutrition is a crucial aspect during pregnancy. Therefore, knowledge and awareness of the consequences of these techniques on maternal and fetal outcomes is essential. Current evidence suggests a better overall obstetric outcome after BS, in comparison to morbid obese women managed conservatively, with a reduction in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-associated hypertensive disorders, macrosomia, and congenital defects. However, the risk of potential maternal nutritional deficiencies and newborns small for gestational age cannot be overlooked. Results concerning the incidence of preterm delivery and the number of C-sections are less consistent. In this paper, we review the updated evidence regarding the impact of BS on pregnancy. PMID:28008286
Simpson, Joe Leigh
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis provides prenatal genetic diagnosis before implantation, thus allowing detection of chromosomal abnormalities and their exclusion from embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technologies. Polar body, blastomere or trophectoderm can each be used to obtain requisite genetic or embryonic DNA. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for excluding unbalanced translocations is well accepted, and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis aneuploidy testing to avoid repeated pregnancy losses in couples having recurrent aneuploidy is efficacious in reducing miscarriages. Controversy remains about whether pre-implantation genetic diagnosis aneuploidy testing improves take home pregnancy rates, for which reason adherence to specific indications is recommended while the issue is being adjudicated. Current recommendations are for obligatory 24 chromosome testing, most readily using array comparative genome hybridisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fitzpatrick, Alyssa; Mohammadi, Fadak; Jesudason, Shilpanjali
Parenthood is a central focus for women with chronic kidney disease, but raises important fears and uncertainties about risks to their own and their baby’s health. Pregnancy in women with background kidney disease, women receiving dialysis, or those with a functioning kidney transplant poses a challenging clinical scenario, associated with high maternal–fetal morbidity and potential impact on maternal renal health. Improvements in care over recent decades have led to a paradigm shift with cautious optimism and growing interest regarding pregnancies in women with chronic kidney disease. In this review, we discuss obstetric and renal outcomes, and practical aspects of management of pregnancy in this complex cohort. PMID:27471410
Leach, J P; Smith, P E; Craig, J; Bagary, M; Cavanagh, D; Duncan, S; Kelso, A R C; Marson, A G; McCorry, D; Nashef, L; Nelson-Piercy, C; Northridge, R; Sieradzan, K; Thangaratinam, S; Walker, M; Winterbottom, J; Reuber, M
Between 2009 and 2012 there were 26 epilepsy-related deaths in the UK of women who were pregnant or in the first post-partum year. The number of pregnancy-related deaths in women with epilepsy (WWE) has been increasing. Expert assessment suggests that most epilepsy-related deaths in pregnancy were preventable and attributable to poor seizure control. While prevention of seizures during pregnancy is important, a balance must be struck between seizure control and the teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A range of professional guidance on the management of epilepsy in pregnancy has previously been issued, but little attention has been paid to how optimal care can be delivered to WWE by a range of healthcare professionals. We summarise the findings of a multidisciplinary meeting with representation from a wide group of professional bodies. This focussed on the implementation of optimal pregnancy epilepsy care aiming to reduce mortality of epilepsy in mothers and reduce morbidity in babies exposed to AEDs in utero. We identify in particular -What stage to intervene - Golden Moments of opportunities for improving outcomes -Which Key Groups have a role in making change -When - 2020 vision of what these improvements aim to achieve. -How to monitor the success in this field We believe that the service improvement ideas developed for the UK may provide a template for similar initiatives in other countries. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. All rights reserved.
Bond, M Jermane; Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Robertson, Audra; Alio, P A; Parker, Willie J
To review current research, policy, and practice on paternal involvement in pregnancy outcomes and suggest recommendations to improve paternal involvement in pregnancy and childbirth. Although much has been written about fathers' influence on child health and development, little is known about the expectant father's role in pregnancy and childbirth. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of paternal involvement during pregnancy, but more research is needed to identify specific contributions expectant fathers make and their impact on reducing infant mortality and associated risk factors during pregnancy and childbirth. Obstetricians-gynecologists can play a greater role in promoting research, policy and practice to improve paternal involvement in pregnancy and childbirth.
Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Su, Yi; Qian, Xu
Poor oral health, such as periodontal (gum) disease, has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality, especially in low-and middle-income countries. However, there is little or no access to preventive dental care in most low-and middle-income countries. We propose to develop and test a "Mouth Rinse Intervention" among pregnant women to prevent the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy and reduce adverse birth and neonatal outcomes in a rural county of China. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. A sample of 468 (234 in each arm of the study) women in early pregnancy with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through the methods of Periodontal Screening and Recording. All women diagnosed with periodontal disease will be randomly allocated into the intervention or control group. Women assigned in the intervention group will be provided with non-alcohol antimicrobial mouth rinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride throughout the pregnancy and oral health education. Women in the control group will receive a package of tooth brush and paste, plus oral hygiene education. Women will be followed-up to childbirth until the 42nd day postpartum. The main outcomes include mean birthweight (gram) and mean gestational age (week). Compared with conventional mechanical 'scaling and root planning' periodontal treatment during pregnancy, our proposed mouth rinse intervention could be a simple, cost-effective, and sustainable solution to improve both mother's oral health and neonate outcomes. If the mouth rinse is confirmed to be effective, it would demonstrate great potential for the application in other low- or middle-income countries to prevent adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight and to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. This trial was registered with Chinese
Ferguson, James E; Hansen, Wendy F; Novak, Karen F; Novak, M John
Until recently many physicians in the United States including obstetrician gynecologists have been relatively unconcerned with oral health. During most physical examinations, the oral cavity is given only a rudimentary examination. With the recognition of the oral-systemic health care link, physicians have been keenly interested in the findings from their dental colleagues in periodontal medicine which have convincingly linked periodontal disease with such diverse systemic health complications as aging, Alzheimer disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and also pregnancy complications including low birth weight, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and early pregnancy loss. Intervention trials designed to improve oral health during pregnancy have proven to be safe; however, the outcomes have been inconsistent. Further studies will be required to determine the nature of the association and the optimal timing and efficacy of intervention.
Lefkou, Eleftheria; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Dagklis, Themistoklis; Vosnakis, Christos; Rousso, David
BACKGROUND. Administration of conventional antithrombotic treatment (low-dose aspirin plus low–molecular weight heparin [LDA+LMWH]) for obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) does not prevent life-threatening placenta insufficiency–associated complications such as preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in 20% of patients. Statins have been linked to improved pregnancy outcomes in mouse models of PE and APS, possibly due to their protective effects on endothelium. Here, we investigated the use of pravastatin in LDA+LMWH-refractory APS in patients at an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS. We studied 21 pregnant women with APS who developed PE and/or IUGR during treatment with LDA+LMWH. A control group of 10 patients received only LDA+LMWH. Eleven patients received pravastatin (20 mg/d) in addition to LDA+LMWH at the onset of PE and/or IUGR. Uteroplacental blood hemodynamics, progression of PE features (hypertension and proteinuria), and fetal/neonatal outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS. In the control group, all deliveries occurred preterm and only 6 of 11 neonates survived. Of the 6 surviving neonates, 3 showed abnormal development. Patients who received both pravastatin and LDA+LMWH exhibited increased placental blood flow and improvements in PE features. These beneficial effects were observed as early as 10 days after pravastatin treatment onset. Pravastatin treatment combined with LDA+LMWH was also associated with live births that occurred close to full term in all patients. CONCLUSION. The present study suggests that pravastatin may improve pregnancy outcomes in women with refractory obstetric APS when taken at the onset of PE or IUGR until the end of pregnancy. PMID:27454295
Wright, Tricia E.; Schuetter, Renee; Tellei, Jacqueline; Sauvage, Lynnae
during pregnancy. Stopping MA use at any time during pregnancy improves birth outcomes, thus resources should be directed towards providing treatment and prenatal care. PMID:25599434
Kupari, Marja; Talola, Nina; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tihtonen, Kati
To clarify whether an increased cesarean section rate improves the short-term neonatal outcome in singleton term pregnancies with cephalic presentation. A retrospective study of institutional data on the mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. The study included two cohorts: 1998-1999 (n = 7437) and 2004-2005 (n = 8505), since the institutional cesarean section rate increased sharply between these cohorts and has remained stable after the latter study period. The caesarean section rate almost doubled from 6.8 to 11.3 % (p < 0.001), during the study period. The rate of neonates suffering severe birth asphyxia remained low in both cohorts (0.4 vs. 0.6 %) and there were no significant differences in neonatal outcome (Apgar score <4 at 1 min and Apgar score <7 at 5 min, severe birth asphyxia, resuscitation or artificial ventilation) between the study periods. In the subgroup of neonates delivered vaginally, no significant differences were found in the above-mentioned neonatal outcomes between the cohorts. Apart from other outcomes admissions to neonatal intensive care unit increased significantly (p < 0.001) during the latter period (0.8 vs 1.6 %). Increasing cesarean section rate from a low to a moderate does not improve the short-term neonatal outcome in term singleton pregnancies. On the contrary neonatal intensive care unit admissions increased with increasing caesarean section rate. Furthermore it is possible to achieve good neonatal outcome with a low cesarean section rate.
Zhou, C Y; Xu, X J; He, J
Objective: To investigate the symptom improvement and pregnancy outcomes of patients with adenomyosis after treatment with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Methods: From October 2010 to October 2015, 68 patients with adenomyosis who wish to get pregnancies were treated with HIFU ablation in Suining Central Hospital. Among these patients, 56 presented with dysmenorrhea, 11 presented with menorrhagia, and 1 patient complained both; 41 of them had histories of abnormal pregnancy. The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Fifty-four patients got pregnancy at the median of 10 months(range:1 to 31 months) after HIFU ablation, and 21 of them had delivered healthy babies. No uterine rupture occurred during gestation or delivery, and the newborn babies were healthy. Dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in the patients who had pregnancies after HIFU ablation treatment were significantly relieved. The average menstruation volume score before and 1, 3, 6-month post-HIFU were 2.6±1.7, 1.7±0.8, 1.4±0.6, 1.3±0.6, respectively (P<0.05). The menstruation pain score before and 1, 3, 6-month after HIFU were 1.4±0.9, 0.9±0.7, 0.6±0.5, and 0.9±0.7, respectively (P<0.05). The volume of the adenomyotic lesions before and after HIFU at 1, 3, 6 month were (34±23), (23±15), (20±17), (20±12) cm(3) (P<0.05). Although the spontaneous abortion rate was decreased after HIFU ablation treatment, there was no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative [43% (23/54) versus 37% (20/54), P>0.05]. However, 20 of the 54 patients had spontaneous abortion, compared with 21 patients who had delivered babies, there were no significant statistical difference in terms of age, duration of disease, lesion size, non-perfused volume ratio, as well as the symptom scores before and after HIFU ablation treatment. Conclusions: HIFU ablation treatment is effective in improving symptoms of patients with adenomyosis. Based on our results, HIFU ablation
Gabbe, Patricia Temple; Reno, Rebecca; Clutter, Carmen; Schottke, T F; Price, Tanikka; Calhoun, Katherine; Sager, Jamie; Lynch, Courtney D
Objectives To describe temporal changes in maternal and child health outcomes in an impoverished urban community after the implementation of an innovative community-based pregnancy support program, named Moms2B. Methods Beginning in 2011, pregnant women in an urban impoverished community were recruited for participation in a community-based pregnancy support program focused on improving nutrition coupled with increasing social and medical support. The comprehensive program targeting pregnancy through the infants' first year of life was developed and staffed by a multidisciplinary team from an academic health system. As a preliminary effort to assess the effectiveness of Moms2B, we examined maternal and infant health characteristics in the community before and after implementation of the program. Results From 2011 to 2014, 195 pregnant women attended one or more Moms2B sessions at the Weinland Park (WP) location. Most (75%) were African American (AA) with incomes below $800 per month and significant medical and social stressors. Outcomes from the two WP census tracts before and after implementation of the Moms2B program were studied. From 2007 to 2010, there were 442 births in WP and 6 infant deaths for an infant mortality rate of 14.2/1000. In 2011-2014, the first four years of the Moms2B program there were 339 births and one infant death giving an IMR of 2.9/1000, nearly a five-fold reduction in the rate of an infant death. Among pregnant women in WP who were covered by Medicaid, the breastfeeding initiation rate improved from 37.9 to 75.5% (p < .01) after the introduction of Moms2B. There were no infant deaths among Moms2B participants at the WP location in the first four years of the program. Conclusions Implementation of an innovative community-based pregnancy support program was associated with important improvements in maternal and infant health in an impoverished neighborhood.
Mekinian, Arsene; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Masseau, Agathe; Tincani, Angela; De Caroli, Sara; Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Ruffatti, Amelia; Ambrozic, Ales; Botta, Angela; Le Guern, Véronique; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale; Carbonne, Bruno; Carbillon, Lionel; Fain, Olivier
The use of the conventional APS treatment (the combination of low-dose aspirin and LMWH) dramatically improved the obstetrical prognosis in primary obstetrical APS (OAPS). The persistence of adverse pregnancy outcome raises the need to find other drugs to improve obstetrical outcome. Hydroxychloroquine is widely used in patients with various autoimmune diseases, particularly SLE. Antimalarials have many anti-inflammatory, anti-aggregant and immune-regulatory properties: they inhibit phospholipase activity, stabilize lysosomal membranes, block the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and, in addition, impair complement-dependent antigen-antibody reactions. There is ample evidence of protective effects of hydroxychloroquine in OAPS similar to the situation in SLE arising from in vitro studies of pathophysiological working mechanism of hydroxychloroquine. However, the clinical data on the use of hydroxychloroquine in primary APS are lacking and prospective studies are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Briley, Annette L; Barr, Suzanne; Badger, Shirlene; Bell, Ruth; Croker, Helen; Godfrey, Keith M; Holmes, Bridget; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Patel, Nashita; Robson, Stephen C; Sandall, Jane; Sanders, Thomas; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla
Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women.Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks' gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks' gestation.Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile.Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. All aspects of this protocol have been evaluated in a pilot randomised controlled trial
Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been
Gomi, Harumi; Goto, Yoshihito; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Usui, Rie; Mori, Rintaro
Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that affects the upper urinary tract and kidneys, and is one of the most common conditions for hospitalisation among pregnant women, aside from delivery. Samples of urine and blood are obtained and used for cultures as part of the diagnosis and management of the condition. Acute pyelonephritis requires hospitalisation with intravenous administration of antimicrobial agents. Several studies have questioned the necessity of obtaining blood cultures in addition to urine cultures, citing cost and questioning whether blood testing is superfluous. Pregnant women with bacteraemia require a change in the initial empirical treatment based on the blood culture. However, these cases are not common, and represent approximately 15% to 20% of cases. It is unclear whether blood cultures are essential for the effective management of the condition. To assess the effectiveness of routine blood cultures to improve health outcomes in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register without language or date restrictions (31 December 2014). Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials comparing outcomes among pregnant women with pyelonephritis who received initial management with or without blood cultures. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. Clinical trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed one trial report for inclusion. We identified one trial report but this was excluded. No clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. There are no large-scale randomised controlled trials to assess outcomes in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnancy with or without blood cultures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of managing pyelonephritis in pregnant women with or without
Kekäläinen, Päivi; Juuti, Mari; Walle, Tiina; Laatikainen, Tiina
The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes of women with type 1 diabetes managed on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) compared with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). Pregnancy outcomes were assessed retrospectively in women with type 1 diabetes who were patients of the Diabetes Clinic of North Karelia Hospital (Joensuu, Finland) between 2000 and 2012. The medical records of 72 women experiencing 135 pregnancies and data of their infants were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 48 pregnancies were treated with CSII and 87 with MDI. Women on CSII treatment were older and had more diabetes complications compared with women on MDI. No significant differences in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were observed between the CSII and MDI groups before or during pregnancy. Maternal or fetal outcomes did not differ between the treatment groups. However, among women with complicated diabetes, HbA1c levels were significantly lower in the CSII group until the second trimester (prepregnancy, 7.22% vs. 8.14%, respectively [P = 0.034]; first trimester, 6.85% vs. 7.87% [P < 0.001]; second trimester, 6.41% vs. 7.03% [P = 0.029]) without an increased rate of maternal hypoglycemia. Pregnancy outcomes were similar regardless of insulin treatment modality. Although using an insulin pump did not result in improvement of pregnancy outcomes, it allowed for better glycemic control in pregnancies of women with complicated diabetes. Therefore, it is worth considering in high-risk T1DM pregnancies, especially if good glycemic control is not achieved otherwise.
Hussein, Norita; Kai, Joe; Qureshi, Nadeem
Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes may be improved if the reproductive risk assessment is moved from the antenatal to the preconception period. Primary care has been highlighted as an ideal setting to offer preconception assessment, yet the effectiveness in this setting is still unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness of preconception interventions on improving reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes in primary care. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched from July 1999 to the end of July 2015. Only interventional studies with a comparator were included, analysed and appraised systematically, taking into consideration the similarities and differences of the participants, the nature of interventions and settings. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible. Preconception interventions involved multifactorial or single reproductive health risk assessment, education and counselling and the intensity ranged from brief, involving a single session within a day to intensive, involving more than one session over several weeks. Five studies recruited women planning a pregnancy. Four studies involved multifactorial risks interventions; two were brief and the others were intensive. Four studies involved single risk intervention, addressing folate or alcohol. There was some evidence that both multifactorial and single risk interventions improved maternal knowledge; self-efficacy and health locus of control; and risk behaviour, irrespective of whether brief or intensive. There was no evidence to support reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes. One study reported no undue anxiety. The quality of the studies was moderate to poor. The evidence from eligible studies is limited to inform future practice in primary care. Nevertheless, this review has highlighted that women who received preconception education and counselling were more likely to have improved knowledge, self-efficacy and health locus of control and risk behaviour. More studies are
Hammadieh, Nahed; Coomarasamy, Arri; Ola, Bolarinde; Papaioannou, Spyros; Afnan, Masoud; Sharif, Khaldoun
Hydrosalpinges have adverse effects on IVF outcomes. Salpingectomy is effective in improving outcomes, but it is not always practical or safe. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of hydrosalpinges at oocyte collection is an option for those who develop hydrosalpinges during controlled ovarian stimulation; however, there is no randomized evidence to show whether this practice is effective. Between October 1999 and June 2003, consenting women of age
Magon, Anjna; Joshi, Pallavi; Davys (Late), Glyn; Attlee, Amita; Mathur, Beena
ABSTRACT Ready-to-eat (RTE) snacks are routinely distributed to pregnant women in India. These provide protein and calories but are low in micronutrients. We investigated whether RTE snacks fortified with leaf concentrate (LC) could improve pregnancy outcomes, including maternal haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and infants’ birthweight. This randomized controlled two-arm trial was conducted over 18 months: control (sRTE) group received standard 120 g RTE snack (102 g wheat flour, 18 g soya flour); intervention (lcRTE) group received the same snack fortified with 7 g LC. The study was conducted in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. One hundred and five pregnant women aged 18-35 years were studied. Among the 105 women randomized to the two arms of the trial, 2 (1.9%) were severely anaemic (Hb ≤6.0 g/dL); 55 (53.4%) were moderately anaemic (Hb 6.0-8.0 g/dL); 34 (33.0%) were mildly anaemic (Hb 8.6-10.9 g/dL); and 12 (11.7%) were not anaemic (Hb ≥11.0 g/dL). In the final month of pregnancy, 83.0% (39/47) of women in the sRTE group had Hb ≤8.5 g/dL compared to 37.8% (17/45) in the lcRTE group (p<0.001). After adjustment for age and baseline Hb concentration, the difference in Hb concentrations due to LC fortification was 0.94 g/dL (95% CI 6.8-12.0; p<0.001). Mean live birthweight in the lcRTE group was 2,695 g (SD 325 g) compared to 2,545 g (297 g) in the sRTE group (p=0.02). The lcRTE snacks increased infants’ birthweight by 133.7 g (95% CI 7.3-260.2; p=0.04) compared to sRTE snacks. Leaf concentrate fortification of antenatal protein-calorie snacks in a low-income setting in India protected against declining maternal haemoglobin concentrations and increased infants’ birthweight when compared with unfortified snacks. These findings require replication in a larger trial. PMID:25395906
Regal, Jean F.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.; Burwick, Richard M.
Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the feta allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092
Background 5% of first time pregnancies are complicated by pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in Europe. No clinically useful screening test exists; consequentially clinicians are unable to offer targeted surveillance or preventative strategies. IMPROvED Consortium members have pioneered a personalised medicine approach to identifying blood-borne biomarkers through recent technological advancements, involving mapping of the blood metabolome and proteome. The key objective is to develop a sensitive, specific, high-throughput and economically viable early pregnancy screening test for pre-eclampsia. Methods/Design We report the design of a multicentre, phase IIa clinical study aiming to recruit 5000 low risk primiparous women to assess and refine innovative prototype tests based on emerging metabolomic and proteomic technologies. Participation involves maternal phlebotomy at 15 and 20 weeks’ gestation, with optional testing and biobanking at 11 and 34 weeks. Blood samples will be analysed using two innovative, proprietary prototype platforms; one metabolomic based and one proteomic based, both of which outperform current biomarker based screening tests at comparable gestations. Analytical and clinical data will be collated and analysed via the Copenhagen Trials Unit. Discussion The IMPROvED study is expected to refine proteomic and metabolomic panels, combined with clinical parameters, and evaluate clinical applicability as an early pregnancy predictive test for pre-eclampsia. If ‘at risk’ patients can be identified, this will allow stratified care with personalised fetal and maternal surveillance, early diagnosis, timely intervention, and significant health economic savings. The IMPROvED biobank will be accessible to the European scientific community for high quality research into the cause and prevention of adverse pregnancy outcome. Trial registration Trial registration number NCT01891240 The IMPROvED project is funded by the seventh framework
Ichikawa, Kayoko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo
Background Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA), are crucial indicators of child development and health. Purpose To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes. Methods In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14–19 years old), women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964), which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311) and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014. Results In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98) and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92) compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5). Conclusion Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA. PMID:26348847
Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Barry, Danika
Between the 1970s and 1990s, the World Health Organization promoted traditional birth attendant (TBA) training as one strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. To date, evidence in support of TBA training is limited but promising for some mortality outcomes. To assess the effects of TBA training on health behaviours and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (18 June 2012), citation alerts from our work and reference lists of studies identified in the search. Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCT), comparing trained versus untrained TBAs, additionally trained versus trained TBAs, or women cared for/living in areas served by TBAs. Three authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data in the original and first update review. Three authors and one external reviewer independently assessed study quality and two extracted data in this second update. Six studies involving over 1345 TBAs, more than 32,000 women and approximately 57,000 births that examined the effects of TBA training for trained versus untrained TBAs (one study) and additionally trained TBA training versus trained TBAs (five studies) are included in this review. These studies consist of individual randomised trials (two studies) and cluster-randomised trials (four studies). The primary outcomes across the sample of studies were perinatal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal deaths (early, late and overall).Trained TBAs versus untrained TBAs: one cluster-randomised trial found a significantly lower perinatal death rate in the trained versus untrained TBA clusters (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.83), lower stillbirth rate (adjusted OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.83) and lower neonatal death rate (adjusted OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.82). This study also found the maternal death rate was lower but not significant (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.22).Additionally trained TBAs
Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Barry, Danika
Background Between the 1970s and 1990s, the World Health Organization promoted traditional birth attendant (TBA) training as one strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. To date, evidence in support of TBA training is limited but promising for some mortality outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of TBA training on health behaviours and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (18 June 2012), citation alerts from our work and reference lists of studies identified in the search. Selection criteria Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCT), comparing trained versus untrained TBAs, additionally trained versus trained TBAs, or women cared for/living in areas served by TBAs. Data collection and analysis Three authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data in the original and first update review. Three authors and one external reviewer independently assessed study quality and two extracted data in this second update. Main results Six studies involving over 1345 TBAs, more than 32,000 women and approximately 57,000 births that examined the effects of TBA training for trained versus untrained TBAs (one study) and additionally trained TBA training versus trained TBAs (five studies) are included in this review. These studies consist of individual randomised trials (two studies) and cluster-randomised trials (four studies). The primary outcomes across the sample of studies were perinatal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal deaths (early, late and overall). Trained TBAs versus untrained TBAs: one cluster-randomised trial found a significantly lower perinatal death rate in the trained versus untrained TBA clusters (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 0.83), lower stillbirth rate (adjusted OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.83) and lower neonatal death rate (adjusted OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.82). This study also found the maternal death
Canti, Valentina; Castiglioni, Maria Teresa; Rosa, Susanna; Franchini, Stefano; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia
The impact of maternal systemic autoimmune diseases on pregnancy outcome is not unequivocally defined. We analysed the pregnancy outcome of 221 pregnancies from 181 autoimmune patients, consecutively followed in a single Italian reference centre from 2001 to 2009. All patients were prospectively followed with monthly visits. Pregnancy outcome was compared with the previous obstetrical history. The patient population comprised five groups: primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS, 39 pregnancies), antiphospholipid syndrome associated with a rheumatic disease (APS/RD, 17 pregnancies), other RD (92 pregnancies), isolated autoantibodies (autoAbs) in the absence of a definite autoimmune disease (aAbs, 38 pregnancies) and reactive arthritis or spondyloarthropathies (35 pregnancies). Of these patients, 50.6% had previous pregnancy complications with an anamnestic live-birth rate of 43.4%. In these patients, complications dropped to 28.2% (44/156). This percentage was very similar to that observed in the 221 pregnancies (29.9%, 66/221) with a live-birth rate of 87.3%. Mean neonatal weight was 3018 ± 611 g; mean gestational age at delivery was 38.17 ± 2.79 weeks. Thus, 10.4% of pregnancies resulted in preterm delivery and 10.9% newborns had low weight at delivery. APS/RD patients had the worse outcome: 17.6% resulted in miscarriage, 14.3% resulted in growth restriction and 50% resulted in preterm delivery. This result was mainly due to patients with APS/systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that had the lowest gestational age at delivery (30.8 ± 3.56 weeks) and the lowest newborn weight (1499 ± 931 g). Results confirm that a strict follow-up and targeted treatments significantly improve pregnancy outcomes in autoimmune patients with PAPS, SLE and isolated autoAbs. The pregnancy outcome in patients with APS/SLE remains unsatisfactory.
Kovac, Mirjana; Mikovic, Zeljko; Mitic, Gorana; Djordjevic, Valentina; Mandic, Vesna; Rakicevic, Ljiljana; Radojkovic, Dragica
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of anticoagulant therapy in women with thrombophilia and to detect the possible differences among carriers of mutations (factor V [FV] Leiden and FIIG20210) and those with natural anticoagulant deficiency. The 4-year prospective investigation included 85 pregnant women, with a history of recurrent fetal loss (RFL). They were treated with prophylactic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparin) starting from 6 to 8 weeks of gestation. Pregnancy outcomes were evaluated based on the thrombophilia type. Carriers of thrombophilic mutations had a live birth rate of 93%, compared to 41.6% for women with natural anticoagulant deficiencies. Significant differences between the groups were also observed for intrauterine fetal death, intrauterine growth restriction, and postpartum thrombosis. The optimal therapy for women with natural anticoagulant deficiency and RFL remains unclear and future prospective study with a large number of patients is required to determine the best treatment for these severe thrombophilic conditions.
Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555
Background Obesity is a significant global health problem, with the proportion of women entering pregnancy with a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 approaching 50%. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant, however there is more limited information available regarding effective interventions to improve health outcomes. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to assess whether the implementation of a package of dietary and lifestyle advice to overweight and obese women during pregnancy to limit gestational weight gain is effective in improving maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised, controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria: Women with a singleton, live gestation between 10+0-20+0 weeks who are obese or overweight (defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2), at the first antenatal visit. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible, consenting women will be randomised between 10+0 and 20+0 weeks gestation using a central telephone randomisation service, and randomisation schedule prepared by non-clinical research staff with balanced variable blocks. Stratification will be according to maternal BMI at trial entry, parity, and centre where planned to give birth. Treatment Schedules: Women randomised to the Dietary and Lifestyle Advice Group will receive a series of inputs from research assistants and research dietician to limit gestational weight gain, and will include a combination of dietary, exercise and behavioural strategies. Women randomised to the Standard Care Group will continue to receive their pregnancy care according to local hospital guidelines, which does not currently include routine provision of dietary, lifestyle and behavioural advice. Outcome assessors will be blinded to the allocated treatment group. Primary Study Outcome: infant large for gestational age (defined as
Bajaj, Preeti S; Veenstra, David L
We sought to assess the benefits, risks, and personal utility of factor V Leiden mutation testing to improve pregnancy outcomes and to assess the utility of decision-analytic modeling for complex outcomes in genomics. We developed a model to evaluate factor V Leiden testing among women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, including heparin therapy during pregnancy in mutation-positive women. Outcomes included venous thromboembolism, major bleeds, pregnancy loss, maternal mortality, and quality-adjusted life-years. Factor V Leiden testing in a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 women led to 7 fewer venous thromboembolic events, 90 fewer pregnancy losses, and an increase of 17 major bleeding events. Small improvements in quality-adjusted life-years were largely attributable to reduced mortality but also to improvements in health-related quality of life. However, sensitivity analyses indicate large variance in results due to data uncertainty. Furthermore, the complexity of outcomes limited our ability to fully capture the repercussions of testing in the quality-adjusted life-year measure. Factor V Leiden testing involves tradeoffs between clinical and personal utility, and additional effectiveness data are needed for heparin use to prevent pregnancy loss. Decision-analytic methods offer somewhat limited value in assessing these tradeoffs, suggesting that evaluation of complex outcomes will require novel approaches to appropriately capture patient-centered outcomes.Genet Med 2013:15(5):374-381.
In developing countries, 1/3 of infants are born weighing less than 2500 grams. A study conducted in Ethiopia among women consuming about 1600 kcal/day, those who were very physically active during pregnancy bore smaller babies, and gained less weight during pregnancy, than those who were not so active. Average birth weight was 3068 grams for the 1st group, 3270 grams for the less active. The active group of women gained an average of 6.5 kilograms, and the less active 9.2 kilograms. Women who did not engage in heavy work during pregnancy, although they were undernourished, apparently did not bear growth-retarded babies. Indirect evidence for the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcome comes from studies conducted in Taiwan, and the Gambia. These studies, and others from Malawi, Burkina Faso, and Kenya have shown that women's energy expenditures vary greatly with the agricultural season. Daily housekeeping tasks, however, also consume a lot of women's energy. Technologies that allow women to reduce energy expenditure can have beneficial effects, if they do not simultaneously reduce their incomes. For instance, programs improving water or fuel availability, or reducing fuel needs, reduce women's energy expenditures. Food processing mills can help too if women have access to them, and are thus not in danger of being displaced from their jobs and losing necessary income. Examples of technology improving women's tasks are pedal drying machines for nice in Bangladesh, using a greater and pressing machine to prepare gari in Ghana; but growing thicker rice stalks in Indonesia displaced women workers and reduced income.
Hirsch, Dania; Levy, Sigal; Nadler, Varda; Kopel, Vered; Shainberg, Bracha; Toledano, Yoel
Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Most studies have focused on subjects with a mild or subclinical disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the relative rate of severe thyroid dysfunction among pregnant women with hypothyroidism, identify related factors and analyse the impact on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case series design was employed. The study group included 101 pregnant women (103 pregnancies) with an antenatal serum TSH level >20.0 mIU/l identified from the 2009-2010 computerised database of a health maintenance organisation. Data were collected from the medical records. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with those of a control group of 205 euthyroid pregnant women during the same period. The study group accounted for 1.04% of all insured pregnant women with recorded hypothyroidism during the study period. Most cases had an autoimmune aetiology. All women were treated with levothyroxine (L-T₄) during pregnancy. Maximum serum TSH level measured was 20.11-150 mIU/l (median 32.95 mIU/l) and median serum TSH level 0.36-75.17 mIU/l (median 7.44 mIU/l). The mean duration of hypothyroidism during pregnancy was 21.2 ± 13.2 weeks (median 18.5 weeks); in 36 cases (34.9%), all TSH levels during pregnancy were elevated. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included abortions in 7.8% of the cases, premature deliveries in 2.9% and other complications in 14.6%, with no statistically significant differences from the control group. Median serum TSH level during pregnancy was positively correlated with the rate of abortions+premature deliveries and rate of all pregnancy-related complications (P<0.05). Abortions and premature deliveries occur infrequently in women with severe hypothyroidism. Intense follow-up and L-T₄ treatment may improve pregnancy outcomes even when target TSH levels are not reached.
Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L
Pregnancy represents a time of rapid change, including dramatic shifts in vitamin D metabolism. Circulating concentrations of the active form of vitamin D-1,25(OH)2D skyrocket early in pregnancy to levels that would be toxic to a nonpregnant adult, signaling a decoupling of vitamin D from the classic endocrine calcium metabolic pathway, likely serving an immunomodulatory function in the mother and her developing fetus. In this review, we summarize the unique aspects of vitamin D metabolism and the data surrounding vitamin D requirements during this important period. Both observational and clinical trials are reviewed in the context of vitamin D's health effects during pregnancy that include preeclampsia, preterm birth, and later disease states such as asthma and multiple sclerosis. With enhanced knowledge about vitamin D's role as a preprohormone, it is clear that recommendations about supplementation must mirror what is clinically relevant and evidence-based. Future research that focuses on the critical period(s) leading up to conception and during pregnancy to correct deficiency or maintain optimal vitamin D status remains to be studied. In addition, what effects vitamin D has on genetic signatures that minimize the risk to the mother and her developing fetus have not been elucidated. Clearly, while there is much more research that needs to be performed, our understanding of vitamin D requirements during pregnancy has advanced significantly during the last few decades.
Peoples, M D; Grimson, R C; Daughtry, G L
This study was designed to assess the effects of the North Carolina Improved Pregnancy Outcome (IPO) Project on use of prenatal care and incidence of low birthweight among its primarily Black registrants . Weighted least squares and stratified analysis procedures were used to scrutinize vital statistics data for subpopulation effects. IPO services were received by 51.7 per cent of Black women in the counties served by the project. For all Black registrants , the risk of receiving less than adequate prenatal care was 55.1 per cent of that of the comparison group. For Black teenage registrants , the risk was even less: 37.2 per cent of that of the comparison group. Nevertheless, no corresponding effects on the incidence of low birthweight could be detected. The evaluation methods used in this study can be applied to programs for mothers and infants in other locales to generate useful and practical information for state-level decision-making. PMID:6721010
Ferriols, Elena; Rueda, Carolina; Gamero, Rocío; Vidal, Mar; Payá, Antonio; Carreras, Ramón; Flores-le Roux, Juana A; Pedro-Botet, Juan
Lipids play an important role during pregnancy, and in this period major changes occur in lipoprotein metabolism. During the third trimester plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are substantially increased, returning to normal after delivery. Described associations between increased morbidity during pregnancy and excessive increases in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. For this reason we have reviewed the relationship between lipid alterations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. The overall metabolic control can improve pregnancy outcomes, and the assessment of supraphysiological changes in lipid profile will classify pregnancy risk at a higher level, which would entail a stricter control. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Abstract Pregnancy and childbirth represent a critical time period when a woman can be reached through a variety of mechanisms with interventions aimed at reducing her risk of a preterm birth and improving her health and the health of her unborn baby. These mechanisms include the range of services delivered during antenatal care for all pregnant women and women at high risk of preterm birth, services provided to manage preterm labour, and workplace, professional and other supportive policies that promote safe motherhood and universal access to care before, during and after pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to present the latest information about available interventions that can be delivered during pregnancy to reduce preterm birth rates and improve the health outcomes of the premature baby, and to identify data gaps. The paper also focuses on promising avenues of research on the pregnancy period that will contribute to a better understanding of the causes of preterm birth and ability to design interventions at the policy, health care system and community levels. At minimum, countries need to ensure equitable access to comprehensive antenatal care, quality childbirth services and emergency obstetric care. Antenatal care services should include screening for and management of women at high risk of preterm birth, screening for and treatment of infections, and nutritional support and counselling. Health workers need to be trained and equipped to provide effective and timely clinical management of women in preterm labour to improve the survival chances of the preterm baby. Implementation strategies must be developed to increase the uptake by providers of proven interventions such as antenatal corticosteroids and to reduce harmful practices such as non-medically indicated inductions of labour and caesarean births before 39 weeks of gestation. Behavioural and community-based interventions that can lead to reductions in smoking and violence against women need to be
Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun
Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691
Butler, M M; Kenny, L C; McCarthy, F P
Coeliac disease is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy affecting up to 1% of the population. An accumulating body of evidence supports the association of coeliac disease with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including increased risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction. Reports differ regarding the extent and severity of these associations, in addition to the exact pathophysiology underlying these associations. Overall, coeliac disease is believed to be a significant condition in pregnancy and reproductive medicine with some advocating the screening of coeliac disease in all pregnant women or some specific high-risk groups. PMID:27579100
Harries, A D; Jahn, A; Ben-Smith, A; Gadabu, O J; Douglas, G P; Seita, A; Khader, A; Zachariah, R
Cohort analysis has been the cornerstone of tuberculosis (TB) monitoring and evaluation for nearly two decades; these principles have been adapted for patients with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome on antiretroviral treatment and patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We now make the case for using cohort analyses for monitoring pregnant women during antenatal care, up to and including childbirth. We believe that this approach would strengthen the current monitoring and evaluation systems used in antenatal care by providing more precise information at regular time intervals. Accurate real-time data on how many pregnant women are enrolled in antenatal care, their characteristics, the interventions they are receiving and the outcomes for mother and child should provide a solid basis for action to reduce maternal mortality.
Carrara, Verena I; Hogan, Celia; De Pree, Cecilia; Nosten, Francois; McGready, Rose
Maternal and infant health has been associated with maternal education level, which is highly associated with literacy. We aimed at estimating literacy rates among reproductive age women attending antenatal clinics in camps for refugees and in migrant clinics in Tak province, north-western Thailand, to determine whether illiteracy had an impact on birth outcomes. Three reading assessments were conducted using an identical method each time, in 1995-97, 2003 and 2008. Midwives chose at random one of four pre-set sentences. Each woman was asked to read aloud and scoring was based on a "pass/fail" system. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with maternal literacy rate. Overall, 47% (1149/2424) of women were able to read. A significant improvement was observed among migrant (34% in 2003 vs. 46% in 2008, p = 0.01), but not refugee (47% in 1995-97, 49% in 2003, and 51% in 2008) women. Literate women were significantly more likely to be of non-Karen ethnicity, primigravidae, non-smokers, to remain free from malaria during pregnancy and to deliver in a health clinic. Significant improvements in pregnancy outcome (reductions in premature births, low birth weight newborns and neonatal death) between 1995-97 and 2003 were unrelated to literacy. Significant reductions in poor pregnancy outcome over time have not been driven by changes in literacy rates, which have remained low. Access to early diagnosis and treatment of malaria in this population, and delivery with skilled birth attendants, despite ongoing low literacy, appears to have played a significant role.
Gaskins, Audrey J.; Toth, Thomas L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.
Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization. To date, there is limited evidence to support associations of prepregnancy vitamin D and caffeine intake with pregnancy loss. There is suggestive data supporting a link between a healthy diet and lower risk of pregnancy loss. High folate and minimal to no alcohol intake prior to conception have the most consistent evidence supporting an association with lower risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26457232
Sinha, Ruchi; Sachan, Shikha; Khanna, Anuradha
Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn is an uncommon type of mullerian duct malformation associated with various gynecological and obstetrical complications. Rudimentary horn pregnancy is a rare entity and the majority have rupture of gravid horn leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. A case of rudimentary horn pregnancy at 32 weeks and 6 days with pregnancy induced hypertension is reported where proper management results in successful pregnancy outcome.
Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony
-2A) 12. The possible increased risk for late onset cancer due to gene dysregulation for tumour suppression requires more long-term follow-up before the true risk can be determined. (III-A) 13. The clinical application of preimplantation genetic testing in fertile couples must balance the benefits of avoiding disease transmission with the medical risks and financial burden of in vitro fertilization. (III-B) 14. Preimplantation screening for aneuploidy is associated with inconsistent findings for improving pregnancy outcomes. Any discussion of preimplantation genetic screening with patients should clarify that there is no adequate information on the long-term effect of embryo single cell biopsy. (I-C).
Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Dojo Soeandy, Chesarahmia; Lassi, Zohra S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
. Similarly, there was no difference between the viral influenza vaccine and placebo control groups in terms of any adverse systemic reactions. There is limited evidence (from one small trial at a high risk of bias) on the effectiveness on Hib during pregnancy for improving maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes.Evidence from one large high quality trial on the effectiveness of viral influenza vaccine during pregnancy suggests reduced RT-PCR confirmed influenza among women and their babies, suggesting the potential of this strategy for scale up but further evidence from varying contexts is required.Further trials for both Hib and viral influenza vaccines with appropriate study designs and suitable comparison groups are required. There are currently two 'ongoing' studies - these will be incorporated into the review in future updates.
Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanalı, Mahmut Kuntay; Tasdemir, Umit; Doganay, Melike; Aksakal, Orhan
To evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women who underwent transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy with the review of the literature STUDY DESIGN: 54 women who underwent transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy due to ≥grade 2 uterine prolapse during six-year period were identified from a computer based database. 8 of these who had pregnancy resulted in live birth subsequent to transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy were enrolled in this study. They were examined in case of pelvic organ prolapse recurrence and were questioned about their current self satisfaction status and PISQ-12 questionnaire. The median age of women was 36 years (range 29-43 years). All of the women were multiparous and there were no women with a previous cesarean section. All of the subsequent conceptions following operation occured spontaneously. The median time between hysteropexy and conception was 16 months (range 10-30 months). The pregnancies continued at least 37 weeks with only one preterm delivery (due to twin pregnancy). All 8 pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section. The median follow-up period after cesarean section was 45 months (range 7-60 months). Majority of women (7/8, 87.5%) were satisfied with current outcomes of sacrospinous hysteropexy and PISQ12 questionnaire scores revealed improvement in 87.5% (7/8) of women. Transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy is an appropriate surgical treatment method for symptomatic uterovaginal descensus in women who wish to preserve their uterine and future childbearing. And cesarean section is a reliable and satisfactory delivery route for women who underwent transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kemse, Nisha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana
Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency leads to an adverse pregnancy outcome and increases the risk for developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in mothers in later life. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that vitamin B12 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are interlinked in the one carbon cycle. The present study for the first time examines the effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation to vitamin B12 deficient or supplemented diets on pregnancy outcome, fatty-acid status and metabolic variables in Wistar rats. Pregnant dams were assigned to one of the following groups: control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 deficient + n-3 PUFA or vitamin B12 supplemented + n-3 PUFA. The amount of vitamin B12 in the supplemented group was 0.50 μg kg(-1) diet and n-3 PUFA was alpha linolenic acid (ALA) 1.68, eicosapentaenoic acid 5.64, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 3.15 (g per 100g fatty acids per kg diet). Our findings indicate that maternal vitamin B12 supplementation did not affect the weight gain of dams during pregnancy but reduced litter size and weight and was ameliorated by n-3 PUFA supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency or supplementation resulted in a low percentage distribution of plasma arachidonic acid and DHA. n-3 PUFA supplementation to these diets improved the fatty-acid status. Vitamin B12 deficiency resulted in higher homocysteine and insulin levels, which were normalised by supplementation with either vitamin B12 or n-3 PUFA. Our study suggests that maternal vitamin B12 status is critical in determining pregnancy outcome and metabolic variables in dams and that supplementation with n-3 PUFA is beneficial.
Clowse, Megan E. B.; Richeson, Rachel L.; Pieper, Carl; Merkel, Peter A.
Objective Pregnancy outcomes of patients with vasculitis are unknown, but are of great concern to patients and physicians. Through an online survey, this study assessed pregnancy outcomes among patients with vasculitis. Methods Participants in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Patient Contact Registry were invited to respond to an anonymous, internet-based survey that included questions about pregnancy outcomes, the timing of pregnancy relative to a diagnosis of vasculitis, and medication use. Results A total of 350 women and 113 men completed the survey. After a diagnosis of vasculitis, 74 pregnancies were reported by women and 18 conceptions were reported by men. The rate of pregnancy loss was higher among women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis compared to those who conceived prior to diagnosis (33.8% versus 22.4%; P = 0.04). Among women, the rate of preterm births increased significantly for pregnancies conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis relative to those conceived before diagnosis (23.3% versus 11.4%; P = 0.03). Only 18% of women reported worsening of vasculitis during pregnancy, but those who experienced increased vasculitis activity were more likely to deliver preterm. Exposure to cyclophosphamide or prednisone did not appear to impact pregnancy outcomes; however, the number of pregnancies among women taking these medications was small. Among the pregnancies conceived by men with vasculitis, the timing of diagnosis had no significant effect on the rate of pregnancy loss. Conclusion Women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis had a higher rate of pregnancy loss than those who conceived prior to diagnosis. Vasculitis did not worsen during the majority of pregnancies conceived after diagnosis. PMID:23401494
De Santis, M; Straface, G; Cavaliere, A F; Carducci, B; Caruso, A
Gadolinium derivatives are ionic paramagnetic contrast agents used to enhance magnetic resonance images, labeled as a pregnancy category C by the Food and Drug Administration because of a lack of epidemiological studies concerning first-trimester exposure. Prospective cohort study to determine whether gadolinium derivatives exposure in periconceptional period is a risk factor for pregnancy or fetal development. We report the outcome of 26 pregnant women exposed to gadolinium derivatives in the first trimester without adverse effect on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Currently, this study represents the only prospective investigation of gadolinium derivatives in pregnancy, but more data are necessary to exclude a teratogenic risk.
D'Souza, Lalitha; Jayaweera, Hiranthi; Pickett, Kate E
Women in low- and middle-income countries are known to make changes to their diets during pregnancy. We set out to explore the subject of traditional pregnancy diets with a view to finding out if migrant women follow these practices, and if such information might help explain differences in birth outcomes between migrant women and destination-country-born women. This review found that traditional pregnancy diets vary from region to region, that migrant women may follow some of these practices, and that there is a dearth of studies looking into the impact of pregnancy diets on birth outcomes.
Hall, Jennifer A; Benton, Lorna; Copas, Andrew; Stephenson, Judith
Introduction Previous systematic reviews concluded that rigorous research on the relationships between pregnancy intentions and pregnancy outcomes is limited. They further noted that most studies were conducted in high-income countries and had methodological limitations. We aim to assess the current evidence base for the relationship between pregnancy intention and miscarriage, stillbirth, low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal mortality. In March 2015 Embase, PubMed, Scopus and PsychInfo were searched for studies investigating the relationship between pregnancy intention and the outcomes of interest. Methods Studies published since 1975 and in English, French or Spanish were included. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, read the full text of identified articles and extracted data. Meta-analyses were conducted where possible. Results Thirty-seven studies assessing the relationships between pregnancy intention and LBW were identified. A meta-analysis of 17 of these studies found that unintended pregnancies are associated with 1.41 times greater odds of having a LBW baby (95%CI 1.31, 1.51). Eight studies looking at miscarriage, stillbirth or neonatal death were found. The limited data concerning pregnancy loss and neonatal mortality precluded meta-analysis but suggest these outcomes may be more common in unintended pregnancies. Discussion While there seems to be an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in unintended pregnancies, there has been little improvement in either the quantity of evidence from low-income countries or in the quality of evidence generally. Longitudinal studies of pregnancy intention and pregnancy outcome, where pregnancy intention is assessed prospectively with a validated measure and where analyses include confounding or mediating factors, are required in both high- and low-income countries.
Metzger, Boyd E; Lowe, Lynn P; Dyer, Alan R; Trimble, Elisabeth R; Chaovarindr, Udom; Coustan, Donald R; Hadden, David R; McCance, David R; Hod, Moshe; McIntyre, Harold David; Oats, Jeremy J N; Persson, Bengt; Rogers, Michael S; Sacks, David A
It is controversial whether maternal hyperglycemia less severe than that in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A total of 25,505 pregnant women at 15 centers in nine countries underwent 75-g oral glucose-tolerance testing at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. Data remained blinded if the fasting plasma glucose level was 105 mg per deciliter (5.8 mmol per liter) or less and the 2-hour plasma glucose level was 200 mg per deciliter (11.1 mmol per liter) or less. Primary outcomes were birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, primary cesarean delivery, clinically diagnosed neonatal hypoglycemia, and cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile. Secondary outcomes were delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, need for intensive neonatal care, hyperbilirubinemia, and preeclampsia. For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glucose level of 1 SD (6.9 mg per deciliter [0.4 mmol per liter]), an increase in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (30.9 mg per deciliter [1.7 mmol per liter]), and an increase in the 2-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (23.5 mg per deciliter [1.3 mmol per liter]). For birth weight above the 90th percentile, the odds ratios were 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 1.44), 1.46 (1.39 to 1.53), and 1.38 (1.32 to 1.44), respectively; for cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile, 1.55 (95% CI, 1.47 to 1.64), 1.46 (1.38 to 1.54), and 1.37 (1.30 to 1.44); for primary cesarean delivery, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.15), 1.10 (1.06 to 1.15), and 1.08 (1.03 to 1.12); and for neonatal hypoglycemia, 1.08 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.19), 1.13 (1.03 to 1.26), and 1.10 (1.00 to 1.12). There were no obvious thresholds at which risks increased. Significant associations were also observed for secondary outcomes, although these
Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455
Kim, M W; Hong, S-C; Choi, J S; Han, J-Y; Oh, M-J; Kim, H J; Nava-Ocampo, A; Koren, G
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal and/or cord blood folate/homocysteine concentrations and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study population included a random sample of singleton pregnant women in whom we measured total homocysteine and folic acid in maternal or cord blood at deliveries. A total of 227 pregnant women were enrolled. The concentration of folate in maternal blood tended to be significantly lower in pre-term birth than in full-term delivery group (median (95% CI), 14.4 (3.6-73) vs 25 (7.3-105.5) p < 0.01). The total homocysteine in maternal and cord blood was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia than in the normotensive group (7.9 (1.7-28.2) vs 5.9 (1.8-14.6) μmol/ml, p < 0.05; and 5.8 (2.6-14.4) vs 4.2 (0.7-7.9) ng/ml, p < 0.05, respectively). Lower maternal serum folate concentration is associated with pre-term delivery and higher maternal plasma homocysteine concentration with pre-eclampsia.
Windham, Gayle; Fenster, Laura
To review selected environmental, occupational, and other important risk factors for the following adverse pregnancy outcomes: low birth weight (LBW), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and preterm delivery (PTD). The evidence is explored in greater detail for environmental tobacco smoke, drinking water disinfection byproducts, and organochlorine (DDT) and organophosphate pesticides, partly using a weight of evidence approach. Low birth weight and IUGR are surrogate measures of fetal growth that are determined at delivery. Low birth weight is defined as <2,500 grams, and occurs in about 7% of US births. Intrauterine growth retardation is commonly defined as birth weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational week, using a standard population. Preterm delivery is birth at <37 weeks gestational age, and occurs in approximately 12% of US births. Numerous factors are associated with these endpoints that may be important to consider in studies of environmental exposures, such as young or old maternal age, race/ethnicity, multiple births, low socioeconomic status, inadequate prenatal care, low maternal weight gain, and infections and premature rupture of the membranes. Environmental contaminants found associated with increased risk of one or more of the endpoints include: tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, air pollutants, heavy metals, pesticides, chlorination byproducts, and solvents. Future research directions include measurement of exposure biomarkers during critical windows and consideration of genetic polymorphisms.
Bailit, Jennifer L.; Grobman, William; McGee, Paula; Reddy, Uma M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Iams, Jay D.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.
Objective To evaluate whether the presence of condition-specific obstetric protocols within a hospital was associated with better maternal and neonatal outcomes. Study Design Cohort study of a random sample of deliveries performed at 25 hospitals over three years. Condition-specific protocols were collected from all hospitals and categorized independently by two authors. Data on maternal and neonatal outcomes, as well as data necessary for risk adjustment were collected. Risk-adjusted outcomes were compared according to whether the patient delivered in a hospital with condition-specific obstetric protocols at the time of delivery. Results Hemorrhage-specific protocols were not associated with a lower rate of postpartum hemorrhage or with fewer cases of EBL >1000cc. Similarly, in the presence of a shoulder dystocia protocol, there were no differences in the frequency of shoulder dystocia or number of shoulder dystocia maneuvers used. Conversely, preeclampsia-specific protocols were associated with fewer ICU admissions (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18–0.44) and fewer cases of severe maternal hypertension (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96). Conclusion The presence of condition-specific obstetric protocols was not consistently shown to be associated with improved risk-adjusted outcomes. Our study would suggest that the presence or absence of a protocol does not matter and regulations to require protocols are not fruitful. PMID:25659468
Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok
To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials.
Henry, David; Dormuth, Colin; Winquist, Brandace; Carney, Greg; Bugden, Shawn; Teare, Gary; Lévesque, Linda E.; Bérard, Anick; Paterson, J. Michael; Platt, Robert W.
Background: Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data, we identified 4 historical cohorts of female users of isotretinoin (aged 12–48 yr) for the period 1996 to 2011. We defined pregnancy using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and billing codes. One definition included only cases with documented pregnancy outcomes (high-specificity definition); the other definition also included individuals recorded as receiving prenatal care (high-sensitivity definition). We studied new courses of isotretinoin and detected pregnancies in 2 time windows: during isotretinoin treatment only and up to 42 weeks after treatment. Live births were followed for 1 year to identify congenital malformations. Results: A total of 59 271 female patients received 102 308 courses of isotretinoin. Between 24.3% and 32.9% of participants received prescriptions for oral contraceptives while they were taking isotretinoin, compared with 28.3% to 35.9% in the 12 months before isotretinoin was started. According to the high-specificity definition of pregnancy, there were 186 pregnancies during isotretinoin treatment (3.1/1000 isotretinoin users), compared with 367 (6.2/1000 users) according to the high-sensitivity definition. By 42 weeks after treatment, there were 1473 pregnancies (24.9/1000 users), according to the high-specificity definition. Of these, 1331 (90.4%) terminated spontaneously or were terminated by medical intervention. Among the 118 live births were 11 (9.3%) cases of congenital malformation. Pregnancy rates during isotretinoin treatment remained constant between 1996 and 2011
There are several reasons why metformin treatment may be considered for women in neuropsychiatric practice. These include prevention or attenuation of antipsychotic-associated weight gain, prevention or treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improvement of conception chances and pregnancy outcomes in the presence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). This article examines the benefits and risks associated with metformin use during pregnancy. The available data suggest that metformin exposure during the first trimester is not associated with major congenital malformations; that metformin reduces the risk of early pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and GDM in women with PCOD; that metformin is associated with at least comparable benefits relative to insulin treatment in women with mild GDM; and that neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 1.5-2.5 years are comparable after gestational exposure to metformin and insulin. Whereas study designs were not always ideal and sample sizes were mostly small to modest, the study findings are more encouraging than discouraging and can guide shared decision-making in women who are receiving or may need metformin during pregnancy.
Fujimoto, Akihisa; Morishima, Kaoru; Harada, Miyuki; Hirata, Tetsuya; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki
The purpose of the present study is to assess the significance of elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) in older women. The outcomes of assisted reproductive technology between 2001 and 2013 at single institution were retrospectively evaluated. Cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) in one oocyte retrieval cycle were compared between those who underwent eSET and multiple embryo transfer (MET) in fresh cycles. The outcomes of 429 eSET cycles and 965 MET cycles were compared. CLBRs in eSET were higher than those of MET in women under 37 and were comparable in women aged 37 and over. The analysis of the outcomes separately in three age subgroups showed a significantly higher CLBR in young eSET (aged under 37) than that in young MET and similar CLBR between older (aged 37-40 and over 40) eSET and MET. Multiple birth rates were lower in eSET in all age groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that, in women aged under 37, number of frozen embryos, presence of good-quality embryos, and eSET were significantly related to cumulative live birth. In women aged between 37 and 40, age and number of frozen embryos were significantly related, while eSET was not. eSET in women under 37 resulted in increased CLBR compared with MET. In women aged between 37 and 40, CLBR in eSET group was similar with that in MET group. In both age groups, eSET reduced multiple birth rates. The significance of eSET in older women is limited presently, and further research on the strategy to improve cumulative outcomes is necessary.
Mattila, Mirjami; Kemppainen, Helena; Isoniemi, Helena; Polo-Kantola, Päivi
Pregnancy after liver transplantation is possible but associated with increased risk of obstetrical complications. We report here for the first time the pregnancy outcomes after liver transplantation in Finland. All of the 25 pregnancies ending in deliveries after liver transplantation in Finland in 1998-2015 were analyzed. The data were collected from the mothers' medical records. The main outcome measures included pregnancy complications and the mode of delivery. Neonatal outcome measures were birthweight, 5-min Apgar score and umbilical artery pH. Twenty-six infants were born. Of all deliveries, 76% occurred at the ≥37 weeks of gestation and the average birthweight was 3040 g. Apgar scores were ≥7 in 25/26 (96%) of the infants and cases of birth asphyxia (umbilical artery pH ≤ 7.05) were not detected. Cesarean section rate was 32%. Preeclampsia occurred in 12% of the women and the preterm delivery rate was 24%. Co-morbidities (hypertension, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Hodgkin's disease, colitis ulcerosa, epileptic attacks, cholangitis, splenic artery rupture, renal insufficiency and graft rejection) complicated 52% of pregnancies. Pregnancies after liver transplantation in Finland result in good perinatal outcome with healthy, mostly full-term, normally grown offspring; however, serious maternal complications related to underlying liver pathology, transplant surgery and immunosuppressive medication occur frequently. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Liu, Xiaohua; Landon, Mark B; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Weiwei
To describe perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies complicated by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women delivered at a large tertiary obstetric center in Shanghai, China from January 2006 to May 2014. Delivery data were abstracted from medical records of all twin gestations delivered at the hospital. A total of 129/1922(6.7%) twin and 1190/92 273 singleton (1.3%) pregnancies were complicated by ICP. An increased risk of stillbirth among twin pregnancies was observed (3.9% and 0.8% in the ICP and non-ICP groups, respectively; aOR 5.75, 95% CI 2.00-16.6). Stillbirths with ICP and twins occurred between 33 and 35 weeks gestation compared to 36-38 weeks gestation among singletons. ICP in twins was also associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks) with an aOR of 4.17 (95% CI 2.47-7.04) and an aOR of 1.89 (95% CI 1.26-2.85) for delivery <35 weeks. Twin pregnancies complicated by ICP also had increased meconium staining of amniotic fluid and lower birth weight. Twin pregnancies with ICP have significantly increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirth and preterm birth. Stillbirth occurs at an earlier gestational age in twin gestation compared to singletons, suggesting that earlier scheduled delivery should be considered in these women.
Kolding, Line; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn; Grzeskowiak, Luke E
Hypericum perforatum (HP; also known as St. John's Wort) is one of the most commonly used herbal therapies in the management of depressive illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential side effects of HP during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome. Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), we investigated outcomes among 38 HP exposed pregnancies compared to a group of 90,128 women. Associations between HP use and gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight, malformations and Apgar scores were investigated. Preterm birth did not differ across the groups. While the prevalence of malformations in the HP exposed group was slightly higher (8.1%) than observed in the control groups (3.3%; p=0.13), this was based on only three cases and was not of any specific pattern.
Ozturk, Zeynep; Olmez, Ercument; Gurpinar, Tugba; Vural, Kamil
Thiocolchicoside is a commonly used muscle relaxant in orthopedic, rheumatologic or musculoskeletal disorders to treat painful muscle spasms. It is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation. There is no previously published experience with thiocolchicoside exposure during pregnancy. In this observational study, we collected and evaluated 18 pregnancy outcomes of the women referred to our prenatal consultation service for thiocolchicoside exposure between 2007-2012, and offspring were followed up until 2 years of age. There were 16 live births, 1 spontaneous abortion and 1 elective termination of pregnancy. No major birth defect was observed. The mothers and their babies were free of perinatal complications. No growth or developmental abnormalities were found during follow-up period. Our findings add information on inadvertent use of thiocolchicoside in pregnancy. Further large prospective cohort studies are required to investigate this issue.
Diego, Miguel; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla; Gonzalez-Garcia, Adolfo
A sample of 750 women were interviewed during pregnancy on their depression and anxiety symptoms, substance use and demographic variables. A subsample was seen again at the neonatal stage (n = 152), and their infants were observed for sleep-wake behavior. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were related to caffeine use. Mothers who consumed more…
Diego, Miguel; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla; Gonzalez-Garcia, Adolfo
A sample of 750 women were interviewed during pregnancy on their depression and anxiety symptoms, substance use and demographic variables. A subsample was seen again at the neonatal stage (n = 152), and their infants were observed for sleep-wake behavior. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were related to caffeine use. Mothers who consumed more…
Nuchpramool, Prachratana; Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut
Small local hospitals with inexperiencedpersonnel often have adverse incidence that could be prevented. A good referral system could reduce this unnecessary death rate. The present study was conducted to determine the pregnancy outcomes of cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) cases that were referred for cesarean section at a tertiary center and presented the predictivefactorsfor adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective study that descriptively presented the adverse pregnancy outcome in referred CPD pregnancies and analyzed for predictive factor of overall adverse pregnancy outcome. One hundred ninety five referred CPD pregnancies were included in this study. The mean duration ± SD from CPD diagnosis to childbirth was 232.32±103.75 minutes. Pregnancy additional complication was found in 42/195 (21.5%) cases, but there were no maternal or neonatal mortalities. The NICU admission and postpartum hemorrhage rates were 21.5% and 12.3%, respectively. Obesity BMI was associated with an increased risk of overall adverse maternal outcomes (OR 3.12). Previously complicated pregnancy and cervical dilatation at CPD diagnosis were significant predictors for overall neonatal adverse outcomes. The highest risk wasforpregnant women who were cesarean delivered at 10 cm cervical dilatation (OR 2.84 vs. cervical dilatation ≤5 cm, p-value 0.002). A referral system is one of the modalities to avoid maternal and neonatal mortality for CPD pregnant women in a resource-limited setting. We suggest that early referral before advanced progression of cervical dilatation, especially in obese pregnant women and in complicated pregnancies, may improve the pregnancy outcomes.
King, Janet C
About one third of all pregnant women in the United States are obese. Maternal obesity at conception alters gestational metabolic adjustments and affects placental, embryonic, and fetal growth and development. Neural tube defects and other developmental anomalies are more common in infants born to obese women; these defects have been linked to poor glycemic control. Preeclampsia, a gestational disorder occurring more frequently in obese women, appears to be due to a subclinical inflammatory state that impairs early placentation and development of its blood supply. Fetal growth and development during the last half of pregnancy depends on maternal metabolic adjustments dictated by placental hormones and the subsequent oxygen and nutrient supply. Maternal obesity affects these metabolic adjustments as well. Basal metabolic rates are significantly higher in obese women, and maternal fat gain is lower, possibly in response to altered leptin function. The usual increase in insulin resistance seen in late pregnancy is enhanced in obese mothers, causing marked postprandial increases in glucose, lipids, and amino acids and excessive fetal exposure to fuel sources, which in turn increases fetal size, fat stores, and risk for disease postnatally. Impaired glucose tolerance, gestational diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are more common among obese mothers. To date, little attention has been given to the role of diet among obese women in preventing these problems. However, studies of women with impaired glucose tolerance show that replacing refined carbohydrates and saturated fat with complex, low-glycemic carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids improves metabolic homeostasis and pregnancy outcomes. Thus, current dietary guidelines regarding the amount and type of carbohydrates and fat for nonpregnant women seem appropriate for pregnant women as well.
Missumi, Larissa Sayuri; Souza, Fernando Henrique Carlos de; Andrade, Joelma Queiroz; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki
Currently, there are few studies that describe pregnancy in dermatomyositis/polymyositis patients, and they are largely limited to case reports or studies with few samples. Therefore, we describe the pregnancy in a large sample of patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis and to analyze the outcomes in those who became pregnant during or after disease onset. The present single-center study analyzed 98 female patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (60 dermatomyositis and 38 polymyositis patients). They were interviewed to obtain obstetric antecedent and demographic data from June 2011 to June 2012. Seventy-eight (79.6%) of the 98 patients had obstetric histories. Six polymyositis and 9 dermatomyositis patients became pregnant after disease onset. The pregnancy outcomes in these cases were good, except in the following cases: 1 disease reactivation, 1 intrauterine growth retardation, 1 diabetes mellitus, 1 hypertension, 1 hypothyroidism, and 2 fetal losses (same patient). Moreover, 2 patients developed dermatomyositis during pregnancy and 4 (2 polymyositis and 2 dermatomyositis) during the postpartum period with good control after glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy. The adverse obstetric events were related to clinical intercurrences and the pregnancy does not seem to carry a worse prognosis specifically in disease (for example: disease relapsing). Moreover, dermatomyositis or polymyositis onset during pregnancy or the postpartum period had good outcome after drug therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Ness, Roberta B
Reproductive failure in a variety of forms, whether it be infertility, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, prematurity or intrauterine growth restriction, may aggregate within individuals. This observation, although rarely studied, suggests that single pathophysiologies may be associated with a variety of reproductive morbidities. In this review, hyperimmune responsiveness to pregnancy is provided as one example of a process leading to a multitude of adverse impacts on healthy childbearing. Further research on reproductive failure as a spectrum is warranted.
Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Palacios, Ana M.; George, Timothy M.; Finnell, Richard H.
The treatment of epilepsy in women of reproductive age remains a clinical challenge. While most women with epilepsy require anticonvulsant drugs for adequate control of their seizures, the teratogenicity associated with some antiepileptic drugs is a risk that needs to be carefully addressed. Antiepileptic medications are also used to treat an ever broadening range of medical conditions such as bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, cancer and neuropathic pain. Despite the fact that the majority of pregnancies of women with epilepsy who are receiving pharmacological treatment are normal, studies have demonstrated that the risk of having a pregnancy complicated by a major congenital malformation is doubled when comparing the risk of untreated pregnancies. Furthermore, when antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used in polytherapy regimens, the risk is tripled, especially when valproic acid (VPA) is included. However, it should be noted that the risks are specific for each anticonvulsant drug. Some investigations have suggested that the risk of teratogenicity is increased in a dose-dependent manner. More recent studies have reported that in utero exposure to AEDs can have detrimental effects on the cognitive functions and language skills in later stages of life. In fact, the FDA just issued a safety announcement on the impact of VPA on cognition (Safety Announcement 6-30-2011). The purpose of this document is to review the most commonly used compounds in the treatment of women with epilepsy, and to provide information on the latest experimental and human epidemiological studies of the effects of antiepileptic drugs in the exposed embryos. PMID:22711424
Maymunah, Adegbesan-Omilabu; Kehinde, Okunade; Abidoye, Gbadegesin; Oluwatosin, Akinsola
Prevention of viable spontaneous preterm birth and low birth weight through screening is one of the key aims of antenatal care as these have implications for the child, mother and society. If women can be identified to be at high risk of these adverse birth outcomes in early pregnancy, they can be targeted for more intensive antenatal surveillance and prophylactic interventions. This study is therefore aimed to determine the association between elevated maternal serum cholesterol level in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome. It was a prospective observational cohort study in which eligible participants were enrolled at gestational age of 14 to 20 weeks. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analyzed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP) method. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by extraction from medical records and the labour ward register. The incidences of the two adverse pregnancy outcomes examined in the study (preterm births and low birth weight (LBW) in term neonates) were 8.0% and 14.4% respectively. Preterm birth was 6.89-times more common in mothers with high cholesterol than in control mothers with normal total cholesterol level (38.5% versus 5.4%, P=0.029) while LBW was 7.99-times more common in mothers with high total maternal cholesterol than in mothers with normal cholesterol (87.5% versus 10.5%, P=0.019). We can infer that the high maternal serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolaemia) is associated with preterm delivery/ low birth weight (LBW) in term infants. However, further validation of these findings with more robust prospective and longitudinal characterization of maternal serum cholesterol profiles is required in subsequent investigations.
Al Arfaj, A S; Khalil, N
The aim of this study was to examine the pregnancy outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the effect of SLE flare and treatment on pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective evaluation of all pregnancies occurring in patients with SLE during the 27-year period from 1980 to 2006. Of the 319 women with SLE planning pregnancy after SLE onset, 176 (55.2%) conceived resulting in 396 pregnancies. Live births were significantly lower in proportion (70.2% vs. 85.7%) and more likely to end in fetal deaths (29.7% vs. 14.2%) and preterm births (26.7% vs. 5.8 %) in pregnancies occurring after SLE onset than in pregnancies occurring before SLE onset (p < 0.0001). With respect to different disease manifestations, we found that fetal loss was significantly higher in patients with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies than without (p < 0.001). Preterm deliveries were significantly more frequent in patients with lupus nephritis, anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, hypertension, history of intravenous cyclophosphamide treatment and aPL than those without these features (p < 0.05). Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) neonates were more common in hypertensive and Raynaud's-positive pregnancies (p < 0.05). SLE flares occurred in 30.8% pregnancies. There was increased risk of fetal loss, preterm births and IUGR in pregnancies with SLE exacerbations than without (p < 0.05). Prednisolone was found to improve the rate of live births, although it was also a predictor of prematurity. The predictors of pregnancy loss were lupus nephritis (odds ratio (OR) 7.3), aPL (OR 3.9), and SLE flares in pregnancy (OR 1.9). There was higher risk of preterm deliveries in patients with lupus nephritis (OR 18.9), anti-Ro antibodies (OR 13.9), hypertension (OR 15.7) and SLE flares (OR 2.5). IUGR was found to be associated with hypertension (OR 37.7), Raynaud's (OR 12.3), and SLE flares (OR 4.2). In conclusion, pregnancies in SLE patients with active lupus nephritis, anti
Nasrin, S; Islam, S; Shahida, S M; Begum, R A; Haque, N
This was a hospital based prospective clinical study conducted among women having prolonged pregnancy to assess the outcome of induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy cases. One hundred and thirty nine women having uncomplicated prolonged pregnancy were studied. The study was carried out in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka from 01 July 2010 to 30 March 2011. In this study 66% of the respondents had vaginal delivery on routine induction of labour and in 34% cases induction failed. Ninety three percent (93%) of the multigravida had vaginal delivery and in primigravida their vaginal delivery rate was 47.5%. Regarding cervical condition for delivery, 75% of the respondents having favourable cervix had vaginal delivery and in case of unfavourable cervix respondents, they had 55% cases of vaginal delivery. About the foetal outcome it was evidenced from this study that the perinatal adverse outcome increases with the increasing age of gestation beyond 40 completed weeks of gestation. This study showed that the use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening and by confirming the diagnosis of prolonged pregnancy, the delivery outcome in prolonged pregnancy can be improved. The study also showed that induction of labour is not associated with any major complications and the routine induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy is beneficial for both mother and the baby.
Kuvacić, I; Sprem, M; Skrablin, S; Kalafatić, D; Bubić-Filipi, L; Milici D
To correlate pregnancy outcome with complications in pregnancy and transplantation-to-pregnancy interval in renal transplant recipients in Croatia. Data on 23 pregnancies after prepregnancy stabilization of blood pressure and normalization of graft function were retrospectively analyzed. The mean interval between transplantation and conception was 3.1 years. Primary renal disease was chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, chronic pyelonephritis in 7 and agenesis of right kidney and stenosis of left renal artery in 1 patient. There were 10 term and 5 preterm deliveries, 6 induced and 2 spontaneous abortions. The mean gestational age was 38.1 weeks and the mean newborn birthweight was 3015 g. The prematurity rate was 21.7%. Patients with arterial hypertension in pregnancy, elevated serum creatinine level and bacteriuria, as well as those with conception occurring less than 2 years after transplantation, had a higher rate of therapeutic and spontaneous abortions, preterm deliveries and low birth weight infants. The interval between transplantation and conception, as well as allograft function during pregnancy, seem to be of great importance for successful obstetric outcome in renal transplant patients.
Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.
Cederberg, J; Simán, C M; Eriksson, U J
The aim was to investigate whether dietary supplementation of a combination of the two antioxidants, vitamin E and vitamin C, would protect the fetus in diabetic rat pregnancy at a lower dose than previously used. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were mated and given standard food or food supplemented with either 0.5% vitamin E + 1% vitamin C or 2% vitamin E + 4% vitamin C. At gestational d 20, gross morphology and weights of fetuses were evaluated. Vitamins E and C and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured in maternal and fetal compartments. In addition, protein carbonylation was estimated in fetal liver. Maternal diabetes increased the rate of malformation and resorption in the offspring. High-dose antioxidant supplementation decreased fetal dysmorphogenesis to near normal levels. The low-dose group showed malformations and resorptions at an intermediate rate between the untreated and the high-dose groups. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased in fetal livers of diabetic rats and reduced to normal levels already by low-dose antioxidative treatment. Protein carbonylation rate was also increased in fetal liver of diabetic rats; it was normalized by high-dose treatment but only partially reduced by low-dose antioxidants. We conclude that combined antioxidative treatment with vitamins E and C decreases fetal malformation rate and diminishes oxygen radical-related tissue damage. However, no synergistic effect between the two antioxidants was noted, a result that may influence future attempts to design antiteratogenic treatments in diabetic pregnancy. Oxidatively modified proteins may be teratogenically important mediators in diabetic embryopathy.
Megaw, Lauren; Clemens, Tom; Dibben, Chris; Weller, Richard; Stock, Sarah
Season and vitamin D are indirect and direct correlates of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are associated with pregnancy outcomes. Further to producing vitamin D, UV has positive effects on cardiovascular and immune health that may support a role for UV directly benefitting pregnancy. To investigate the effects of UV exposure on pregnancy; specifically fetal growth, preterm birth and hypertensive complications. We conducted a systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, DoPHER, Global Health, ProQuest Public Health, AustHealth Informit, SCOPUS and Google Scholar to identify 537 citations, 8 of which are included in this review. This review was registered on PROSPERO and a. narrative synthesis is presented following PRISMA guidance. All studies were observational and assessed at high risk of bias. Higher first trimester UV was associated with and improved fetal growth and increased hypertension in pregnancy. Interpretation is limited by study design and quality. Meta-analysis was precluded by the variety of outcomes and methods. The low number of studies and risk of bias limit the validity of any conclusions. Environmental health methodological issues are discussed with consideration given to design and analytical improvements to further address this reproductive environmental health question. The evidence for UV having benefits for pregnancy hypertension and fetal growth is limited by the methodological approaches utilized. Future epidemiological efforts should focus on improving the methods of modeling and linking widely available environmental data to reproductive health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Beinhardt, Sandra; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Haag, Nicola; Freissmuth, Clarissa; Reuner, Ulrike; Gauss, Annika; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Schilsky, Michael L; Ferenci, Peter; Weiss, Karl Heinz
Introduction Wilson disease (WD) is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism causing toxic hepatic and neural copper accumulation. Clinical symptoms vary widely, from asymptomatic disease to acute liver failure or chronic liver disease without or with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Continuation of specific medical treatment for WD is recommended during pregnancy, but reports of pregnancy outcomes in WD patients are sparse. Patients and methods In a retrospective, multicenter study, 282 pregnancies in 136 WD patients were reviewed. Age at disease onset, age at conception and WD-specific treatments were recorded. Maternal complications during pregnancy, rate of spontaneous abortions and birth defects were analyzed with respect to medical treatment during pregnancy. Results Worsening of liver function tests was evident during 16/282 (6%) pregnancies and occurred in undiagnosed patients as well as in those under medical treatment. Liver test abnormalities resolved in all cases after delivery. Aggravation of neurological symptoms during pregnancy was rare (1%) but tended to persist after delivery. The overall spontaneous abortion rate in the study cohort was 73/282 (26%). Patients with an established diagnosis of WD receiving medical treatment experienced significantly fewer spontaneous abortions than patients with undiagnosed WD (Odds ratio: 2.853 [95% CI: 1.634-4.982]). Birth defects occurred in 7/209 (3%) live births. Conclusion Pregnancy in WD patients on anti-copper therapy is safe. The spontaneous abortion rate in treated patients was lower than that in therapy-naive patients. Although the teratogenic potential of copper chelators is a concern, the rate of birth defects in our cohort was low. Treatment for WD should be maintained during pregnancy, and patients should be monitored closely for hepatic and neurologic symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Garcia, Mila Trementosa; Lin, Lawrence Hsu; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo
The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms "gestational trophoblastic disease" and "pregnancy outcome". A total of 18 articles were included. No evidence of decreased fertility after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia was observed. The abortion rates in patients who conceived within 6 months after chemotherapy was higher compared to those who waited longer. Some studies showed increased rates of stillbirth and repeat hydatidiform moles. Only one work showed increased congenital abnormalities. The pregnancies conceived after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia should be followed with clinical surveillance due to higher rates of some pregnancy complications. However, studies in the literature provide reassuring data about reproductive outcomes of these patients.
normal growth and development of offspring during early life. In addition, the NTP monograph provides background materials on individual cancer chemotherapeutic agents (e.g., evidence for placenta and breast milk transport, developmental toxicity in animals), and a brief review of the prevalence and prognosis of seven frequently diagnosed cancers in women during pregnancy. Finally, the NTP monograph identifies challenges in interpreting the health outcomes from this observational literature base and discussed possible actions to improve the understanding of the developmental effects of chemotherapy treatment for cancer administered during pregnancy.
Tedeschi, Sara K; Guan, Hongshu; Fine, Alexander; Costenbader, Karen H; Bermas, Bonnie
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of reproductive-age women, and thus questions regarding how disease influences pregnancy outcomes arise. We investigated whether five specific types of SLE activity during the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy (nephritis, cytopenias, skin disease, arthritis, serositis) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcomes among women with SLE at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lupus Center. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, elective termination due to SLE, spontaneous miscarriage at weeks 12-20, and stillbirth. SLE and obstetric history, laboratories, and medications were obtained from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify predictors of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Most pregnancies resulted in a live term delivery (76.5 %). After adjustment for Hispanic ethnicity, prior adverse pregnancy outcome and medication use 6 months before conception, nephritis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-12.8), cytopenias during pregnancy (OR 3.9, 95 % CI 1.3-11.4), and serositis during pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 1.0-34.0) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Specific types of SLE disease activity during pregnancy were related to adverse pregnancy outcome. Nephritis, cytopenias, and serositis carried a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, suggesting that these abnormalities should be carefully monitored during pregnancy.
... Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy Use During Pregnancy; Request... Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy Use during Pregnancy (available by August 14, 2012... NTP Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy...
Kinugasa-Taniguchi, Yukiko; Ueda, Yutaka; Hara-Ohyagi, Chifumi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi
To compare obstetric and delivery outcomes between myoma-complicated pregnancies and pregnancies that follow myomectomy. Among the 7,589 deliveries performed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan, from 1994 to 2007, women with a past history of myomectomy and those with myoma during their pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Their clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. The frequency of myomas detected during pregnancy significantly increased by 1.8-fold during the first 7-year period as compared with the latter 7-year period of the study (p < 0.001). The obstetric and delivery outcomes, including the rate of cesarean section, the rate of preterm delivery and the amount of blood loss at delivery, were better in pregnancies complicated with current myoma than those in pregnancies which had undergone previous myomectomy (p < 0.001, p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively), with the exception of an increased need for analgesic medication. Myomectomy of large asymptomatic myomas does not improve future obstetric and delivery outcomes, indicating that most asymptomatic myomas should be managed conservatively in women still considering childbearing.
Weck, Rebekah L; Paulose, Tessie; Flaws, Jodi A
Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.
Eaton, Jennifer L; Milad, Magdy P
The aim of this study was to report preliminary data on pregnancy outcomes after myomectomy with placement of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene adhesion barrier membrane. In this retrospective case series, 68 women who underwent myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2009, were identified. Of these women, 15 subsequently had documented pregnancies and were included in the final dataset. Eighteen pregnancies were documented among 15 women. There were no reported cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture. In this case series, there were no documented cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture after myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement.
Milad, Magdy P.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to report preliminary data on pregnancy outcomes after myomectomy with placement of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene adhesion barrier membrane. Methods: In this retrospective case series, 68 women who underwent myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2009, were identified. Of these women, 15 subsequently had documented pregnancies and were included in the final dataset. Results: Eighteen pregnancies were documented among 15 women. There were no reported cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture. Conclusion: In this case series, there were no documented cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture after myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement. PMID:25392651
Barta, Valerie; Thakkar, Jyotsana; Sakhiya, Vipulbhai; Miller, Ilene
Abstract Background. Pregnancy occurs among 1–7% of women on chronic dialysis. Experience regarding pregnancy and dialysis originates from anecdotal reports, case series and surveys. This survey updates the US nephrologists’ experience with pregnancy on hemodialysis (HD) over the past 5 years. We evaluated maternal and fetal outcomes, certain practice patterns such as dialysis regimens utilized and nephrologist knowledge and comfort level when caring for a pregnant patient on HD. Methods. An anonymous Internet-based 23-question survey was e-mailed to end-stage renal disease Networks of America program directors for forwarding to practicing nephrologists. Results. A total of 196 nephrologists responded to the survey, reporting >187 pregnancies. Of the respondents, 45% had cared for pregnant females on HD and 78% of pregnancies resulted in live births. In 44% of the pregnancies a diagnosis of preeclampsia was made. There were no maternal deaths. Nephrologists most commonly prescribe 4–4.5 h of HD 6 days/week for pregnant women on dialysis. Women dialyzed cumulatively for >20 h/week were 2.2 times more likely to develop preeclampsia than those who received ≤20 h of HD per week. Conclusion. Providing intensive HD is a common treatment approach when dialyzing pregnant women. Maternal and fetal outcomes can be improved. There is a trend toward better live birthrates with more intense HD. Whether more cumulative hours of dialysis per week increases the risk of preeclampsia needs to be further investigated. PMID:28396746
C Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Shea, Brian; Goorah, Diya
Background: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. Previously established risk factors for the development of NEC include prematurity and low birth weight. However, it is not clear to date as to whether the etiology of NEC is due to host, environmental, or yet other unknown factors. We analyzed the differences in incidence of NEC in twin pregnancies to further clarify its etio-pathogenesis. Methods: After IRB approval, a retrospective search of the medical records of the Department of Pediatric Surgery was done to identify all the neonates treated for surgical NEC from 2006-2013. Patients that had been treated for NEC elsewhere and subsequently transferred in to our facility were excluded. The medical records of the resulting 45 patients were then analyzed for demographics, antenatal screening, risk factors, treatment (medical and surgical), and outcomes. The resulting data was then analyzed using relative risk calculations and standard statistical tests. Results: Of the 45 patients who developed surgical NEC, 9 neonates (20%) were born of a twin pregnancy. There were no cases in which both twin A and twin B developed NEC. NEC in twin pregnancy neonates showed a female preponderance (p less than 0.0001) and developed universally in the first born of the twins. Birth weight, time of onset of NEC, hospital stay and mortality were similar between twin and non-twin NEC. There was an average lead-time of three weeks to development of NEC in both singletons and twin pregnancies. Conclusion: There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event. NEC in twin pregnancy does not appear to have a deleterious outcome compared to NEC in singleton pregnancy. PMID:26023516
Moore, Vivienne M; Davies, Michael J
Renewed interest in nutrition during pregnancy has been generated by the hypothesis that adult disease has origins in early life. Animal experiments clearly show that altering maternal diet before and during pregnancy can induce permanent changes in the offspring's birth size, adult health and lifespan. Among women living in Western societies, cigarette smoking is the most important factor known to reduce fetal growth, followed by low pre-pregnancy weight and low gestational weight gain. Obesity is also associated with pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcomes, so inadequate or excessive energy intake is not optimal for the developing fetus. Against a history of inconsistent results, several recent studies suggest that in Western settings the balance of macronutrients in a woman's diet can influence newborn size. Effects appear to be modest, but this relationship may not encapsulate the full significance for health of the child, as there is emerging evidence of associations with long-term metabolic functioning that are independent of birth size. Consequences of inadequate maternal nutrition, for the offspring, may depend on timing during gestation, reflecting critical windows for fetal development. Where women are not malnourished, changing a woman's nutritional plane during pregnancy may be detrimental to the unborn baby, and systematic reviews of the literature on dietary supplementation during pregnancy indicate few benefits and possible risks. In view of this, improved diet before pregnancy deserves greater attention.
Allen, Victoria M; Wilson, R Douglas; Cheung, Anthony
To review the effect of assisted reproductive technology (ART) on perinatal outcomes, to provide guidelines to optimize obstetrical management and counselling of Canadian women using ART, and to identify areas specific to birth outcomes and ART requiring further research. Perinatal outcomes of ART pregnancies in subfertile women are compared with those of spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Perinatal outcomes are compared between different types of ART. This guideline discusses the adverse outcomes that have been recorded in association with ART, including obstetrical complications, adverse perinatal outcomes, multiple gestations, structural congenital abnormalities, chromosomal abnormalities, imprinting disorders, and childhood cancer. The Cochrane Library and MEDLINE were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to February 2005, relating to assisted reproduction and perinatal outcomes. Search terms included assisted reproduction, assisted reproductive technology, ovulation induction, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer, and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Additional publications were identified from the bibliographies of these articles as well as the Science Citation Index. Studies assessing gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) were excluded since they are rarely used in Canada. All study types were reviewed. Randomized controlled trials were considered evidence of the highest quality, followed by cohort studies. Key studies and supporting data for each recommendation are summarized with evaluative comments and referenced. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Genetics Committee and the Reproductive Endocrinology Infertility Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the Evaluation of Evidence Guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. The type and magnitude of benefits, harms, and costs
Brameld, Kate J; Dickinson, Jan E; O'Leary, Peter; Bower, Carol; Goldblatt, Jack; Hewitt, Beverley; Murch, Ashleigh; Stock, Rosanne
To identify first trimester indicators of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data were obtained from the statewide evaluation of first trimester screening for Down syndrome in Western Australia which included 22,695 pregnancies screened between August 2001 and October 2003. Screening data were linked with pregnancy outcome information from the Hospital Morbidity Database and the Birth Defects Registry. The odds ratios (OR) of adverse outcomes were analysed for combined risk incorporating maternal age, nuchal translucency (NT) and biochemical parameters and then separately for each parameter (pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and NT). Risk assessments for first trimester combined screening are derived from maternal age, ultrasound measurement of fetal NT, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. Increased combined risk for Down syndrome was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with spontaneous loss at or before 24 weeks gestation (OR 13.51), birth defects (OR 6.58) and preterm birth at or before 32 weeks gestation (OR 3.2). Maternal serum PAPP-A below the 5th centile was associated with Down syndrome (OR 8.43), spontaneous loss before 24 weeks (OR 5.04) and later than 24 weeks (OR 4.50), preterm delivery before 32 weeks (OR 3.11) and before 37 weeks (OR 2.24). NT above the 95th centile was associated with Down syndrome (OR 43.91), birth defects (OR 4.02) and spontaneous loss before 24 weeks (OR 6.24). Low levels of free beta-hCG and increased NT were less consistently associated with adverse outcomes and high levels of free beta-hCG showed limited use as an indicator. The detection rates for all outcomes other than Down syndrome were less than 40%. Biochemical indicators and NT that are measured during first trimester screening for Down syndrome show a number of associations with adverse outcomes, but do not show appropriate performance characteristics for screening tests. These data are consistent with the
Reece, E A; Gabrielli, S; Cullen, M T; Zheng, X Z; Hobbins, J C; Harris, E N
Antiphospholipid antibodies, which include lupus-like anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody, have been linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, although their exact pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly defined. The relative risk of complications such as intrauterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortions, and stillbirth in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies also remains undetermined. Heightened attention has been focused on the association, leading to investigations into the pathogenesis. Uncontrolled studies have also explored therapeutic regimens such as aspirin, steroids, and heparin, and clinical trials have used various treatment protocols. Although knowledge into the association of antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent adverse pregnancy outcome is limited and continues to evolve, this association provides new insights into the disease and offers promise for pharmacologic prophylaxis. In this article, current concepts on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy are reviewed and recommendations are made for clinical care of these patients.
Gupta, Nandini; Kiran, Usha; Bhal, Kiron
To quantify the age related risk of adverse obstetric outcome in primigravid women less than 20 years of age. The study sample was drawn from Cardiff Births Survey (a computerized maternity information database) comprising 66,271 pregnancies in the South Glamorgan region during 1990-1999. Pregnancy outcomes of primigravid women were compared in age groups less than 20 years (n=4126) and 20 to <35 years (n=17,615). SPSS version 11 was used for statistical analysis. Student's t-test was used for continuous variables, Chi square, Fishers exact test was used for categorical variables. There was a lower incidence of multiple pregnancies (OR=0.3(0.2-0.4)), spontaneous rupture of membranes >24h (OR=0.7(0.6-0.9)), and pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR=0.8(0.6-0.8)) amongst teenage primigravidae but a higher incidence of anaemia (OR=1.8(1.6-2.0)), and pyelonephritis (OR=1.5(1.1-2.0)). There was a lower incidence of induction of labour (OR=0.7(0.7-0.8)) and use of regional analgesia in the teenage group. Teenage women were more likely to have a spontaneous vaginal delivery (OR=2.1(2.0-2.3)) with a significantly lower incidence of instrumental delivery (OR=0.5(0.5-0.6)), and Caesarean section (OR=0.4(0.4-0.5)). Inspite of a higher incidence of preterm labour (corrected OR=1.4(1.1-1.7)) the perinatal outcome measures between the teenage group and the older group were not significantly different. Teenage primigravidae are more likely to have a spontaneous vaginal delivery, without compromising the maternal or neonatal outcome.
Bond, Diana M; Middleton, Philippa; Levett, Kate M; van der Ham, David P; Crowther, Caroline A; Buchanan, Sarah L; Morris, Jonathan
babies), or intrauterine deaths (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.57, 11 trials, 3321 babies) when comparing early birth with expectant management. However, early birth was associated with a higher rate of neonatal death (RR 2.55, 95% CI 1.17 to 5.56, 11 trials, 3316 babies) and need for ventilation (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.58, seven trials, 2895 babies, evidence graded high). Babies of women randomised to early birth were delivered at a gestational age lower than those randomised to expectant management (mean difference (MD) -0.48 weeks, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.39, eight trials, 3139 babies). Admission to neonatal intensive care was more likely for those babies randomised to early birth (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24, four trials, 2691 babies, evidence graded moderate).In assessing secondary maternal outcomes, we found that early birth was associated with a decreased rate of chorioamnionitis (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.95, eight trials, 1358 women, evidence graded moderate), and an increased rate of endometritis (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.59, seven trials, 2980 women). As expected due to the intervention, women randomised to early birth had a higher chance of having an induction of labour (RR 2.18, 95% CI 2.01 to 2.36, four trials, 2691 women). Women randomised to early birth had a decreased total length of hospitalisation (MD -1.75 days, 95% CI -2.45 to -1.05, six trials, 2848 women, evidence graded moderate).Subgroup analyses indicated improved maternal and infant outcomes in expectant management in pregnancies greater than 34 weeks' gestation, specifically relating to RDS and maternal infections. The use of prophylactic antibiotics were shown to be effective in reducing maternal infections in women randomised to expectant management.Overall, we assessed all 12 studies as being at low or unclear risk of bias. Some studies lacked an adequate description of methods and the risk of bias could only be assessed as unclear. In five of the studies there were one and/or two domains where
Hou, M Q; Wang, Z J; Hou, K Z
To investigate the influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus in pregnant women. A total of 4 286 pregnant women, who received prenatal examination in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2015, were selected as study subjects. The incidence of hypothyroidism and the influence on pregnancy outcomes and fetus were investigated. In 4 286 pregnant women surveyed, 209 hypothyroidism cases were detected(4.9%), including 85 clinical hypothyroidism cases and 124 subclinical hypothyroidism cases. In health group, the premature delivery rate was 1.0%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(6.5%), the differences were significant(χ(2)= 38.884, P<0.001; χ(2)=17.722, P<0.001). In healthy group, the incidence of anemia was 3.8%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(18.8%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.7%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=30.949, P<0.001; χ(2)=23.275, P<0.001). In health group, the incidence of low birth weight was 1.1%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(14.1%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(4.8%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=50.593, P<0.001; χ(2)=15.637, P<0.001). In health group, the fetal distress incidence was 1.9%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(5.6%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=19.257, P< 0.001; χ(2)=12.357, P<0.001). In health group, the fetal Apgar score(9.69 ± 0.32)was significantly higher than those in clinical hypothyroidism group(9.25 ± 0.45)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.28 ± 0.44), the differences were significant(t=8.823, P<0.001; t=15.175, P<0.001). Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has adverse influences on pregnancy outcome and fetus, and it is necessary to strengthen the hypothyroidism detection in pregnant women for the early treatment.
Does intrauterine saline infusion by intrauterine insemination (IUI) catheter as endometrial injury during IVF cycles improve pregnancy outcomes among patients with recurrent implantation failure?: An RCT
Salehpour, Saghar; Zamaniyan, Marzieh; Saharkhiz, Nasrin; Zadeh modares, Shahrzad; Hosieni, Sedighe; Seif, Samira; Malih, Narges; Rezapoor, Parinaz; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza
Background: Recurrent implantation failure is one of the most issues in IVF cycles. Some researchers found that beneficial effects of endometrial Scratching in women with recurrent implantation failure, while some authors demonstrated contrary results Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of intrauterine. Saline infusion as a form of endometrial injury, during fresh in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycle, among patients with recurrent implantation failure. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 63 women undergoing assisted reproductive technology were divided into two groups either local endometrial injury by intrauterine saline infusion during day 3-5 of the ongoing controlled ovarian stimulation cycle, or IVF protocol performed without any other intervention in Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The main outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rates. Results: Patients who received intra uterine saline infusion (n=20), had significantly lower clinical pregnancy numbers (1 vs. 9, p<0.05) and implantation rates (4.7% vs. 41.6%, p<0.05), compared to controls (n=39). However, there was no significant difference in miscarriage rates (9.4% vs. 8.7%, p>0.05) and multiple pregnancy numbers (1 vs. 3, p>0.05) between groups. Conclusion: When intrauterine saline infusion as a form of endometrial injury is performed during the ongoing IVF cycles it has negative effect on reproductive outcomes among patients with recurrent implantation failure. PMID:27738660
Tangren, Jessica Sheehan; Powe, Camille E; Ankers, Elizabeth; Ecker, Jeffrey; Bramham, Kate; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi
The effect of clinically recovered AKI (r-AKI) on future pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We retrospectively studied all women who delivered infants between 1998 and 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital to assess whether a previous episode of r-AKI associated with subsequent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including preeclampsia. AKI was defined as rise in serum creatinine concentration to 1.5-fold above baseline. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with r-AKI without history of CKD (eGFR>90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) before conception; n=105) with outcomes in women without kidney disease (controls; n=24,640). The r-AKI and control groups had similar prepregnancy serum creatinine measurements (0.70±0.20 versus 0.69±0.10 mg/dl; P=0.36). However, women with r-AKI had increased rates of preeclampsia compared with controls (23% versus 4%; P<0.001). Infants of women with r-AKI were born earlier than infants of controls (37.6±3.6 versus 39.2±2.2 weeks; P<0.001), with increased rates of small for gestational age births (15% versus 8%; P=0.03). After multivariate adjustment, r-AKI associated with increased risk for preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.6 to 9.7) and adverse fetal outcomes (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.7). When women with r-AKI and controls were matched 1:2 by age, race, body mass index, diastolic BP, parity, and diabetes status, r-AKI remained associated with preeclampsia (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1 to 10.1) and adverse fetal outcomes (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.7). Thus, a past episode of AKI, despite return to normal renal function before pregnancy, associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
DaVanzo, J; Hale, L; Razzaque, A; Rahman, M
To estimate the effects on pregnancy outcomes of the duration of the preceding interpregnancy interval (IPI) and type of pregnancy outcome that began the interval. Observational population-based study. The Maternal Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) area of Matlab, Bangladesh. A total of 66,759 pregnancy outcomes that occurred between 1982 and 2002. Bivariate tabulations and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Pregnancy outcomes (live birth, stillbirth, miscarriage [spontaneous fetal loss prior to 28 weeks], and induced abortion). When socio-economic and demographic covariates are controlled, of the IPIs that began with a live birth, those < 6 months in duration were associated with a 7.5-fold increase in the odds of an induced abortion (95% CI 6.0-9.4), a 3.3-fold increase in the odds of a miscarriage (95% CI 2.8-3.9), and a 1.6-fold increase in the odds of a stillbirth (95% CI 1.2-2.1) compared with 27- to 50-month IPIs. IPIs of 6-14 months were associated with increased odds of induced abortion (2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.6). IPIs > or = 75 months were associated with increased odds of all three types of non-live-birth (NLB) outcomes but were not as risky as very short intervals. IPIs that began with a NLB were generally more likely to end with the same type of NLB. Women whose pregnancies are between 15 and 75 months after a preceding pregnancy outcome (regardless of its type) have a lower likelihood of fetal loss than those with shorter or longer IPIs. Those with a preceding NLB outcome deserve special attention in counselling and monitoring.
Adolescents are at higher risk during childbirth than women between 20 to 25 years. Adolescent childbearing initiates a syndrome of failure: failure to complete one's education; failure in limiting family size; failure to establish a vocation and become independent. This study was done to find out the obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy along with factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. A prospective, cross sectional study was carried out in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMSTH), Bharatpur during the period for two years from September 2008 to August 2010. Pregnant girls ≤19 years admitted to labour ward were taken for the study. Cases planned for abortion and MTP were also taken. One hundred cases of pregnant teenagers were admitted in CMSTH during a period of two years. Incidence was 6.85%. In our study, most of the teenagers were unbooked, from low socioeconomic status and with no or inadequate education. They had little knowledge about contraception and less number of teenagers used temporary means of contraception. Because of our social custom of early marriage, most of the teenage mothers were married. All these factors were correlated with teenage pregnancy in present study. This study failed to show any statistically significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, LBW babies, preterm delivery, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, mode of delivery in different ages of teenage mothers. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of perinatal death in different ages of teenage mothers indicating that perinatal deaths were more in younger teenagers.
Bili, E; Tsolakidis, D; Stangou, S; Tarlatzis, B
An increasing number of pregnancies occur in the presence of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), mainly including chronic glomerulonephritis (GN), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and lupus nephritis (LN). The most important factor affecting fetal and maternal prognosis is the degree of renal function at conception. In the majority of patients with mild renal function impairment, and well-controlled blood pressure, pregnancy is usually successful and does not alter the natural course of maternal renal disease. Conversely, fetal outcome and long-term maternal renal function might be seriously threatened by pregnancy in women with moderate or severe renal function impairment. The last few years, advances in our knowledge about the interaction of pregnancy and renal function resulted in the improvement of fetal outcome in patients with chronic renal failure and also in the management of pregnant women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) maintained on dialysis. However, women with impaired renal function and those on dialysis should be carefully counseled about the risks of pregnancy.
Savitz, David A; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Thorp, John M; Kaczor, Diane T
Few studies have considered the differing impact of socioeconomic factors on pregnancy outcomes among racial subgroups. We assessed pregnancy outcome by race, education, and income (poverty index), using data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina, using binomial regression. Poverty was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only among African Americans with 12 or more years of education (RR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2). White participants with both a low level of education and an income below the poverty line were at increased risk of preterm birth (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). White women with 12 or more years of education had increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA, defined as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) associated with poverty status (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). Socioeconomic indicators appear to have complex joint effect patterns among racial subgroups, perhaps because the material and psychological implications of education and income status differ between groups.
Gann, P; Nghiem, L; Warner, S
This study describes the perinatal characteristics of Cambodian refugees in Massachusetts. Data were abstracted from the records of 452 consecutive pregnancies among Cambodian women and 110 low-income Whites receiving obstetrical services at the same clinic and hospital in Lowell, Massachusetts. Pregnancies of Cambodian women were marked by a higher proportion of older mothers, grand multiparas, previous adverse birth outcomes, and short interpregnancy intervals. We identified maternal anemia (29.9 percent with hemoglobin less than 110 g/L) and inadequate utilization of prenatal care (32.3 percent with first visit in the 3rd trimester) as possible risk factors for the Cambodians. The prevalence of primary cesarean birth was only 6.3 percent in the Cambodians, compared to 15.6 percent in the comparison group, largely due to the infrequent occurrence of prolonged labor among multiparas. Despite the prominence of several risk factors for adverse birth outcomes in this population, major pregnancy complications were less common and the prevalence of low birthweight (6.4 percent) was close to the state average. Logistic regression analysis of risk factors for low birthweight identified young maternal age and short stature as the strongest factors operative in this community. Many of our findings are consistent with a strong cultural emphasis on managing the size of the baby to avoid a difficult labor and delivery. PMID:2764203
perinatal mortality in woman with structural malformation who had massive intra-ventricular haemorrhage, secondary to ruptured cerebral cavernoma. Here we have described in detail 5 patients with varied clinical manifestation causing diagnostic dilemma. They are spinal arterio-venous malformation, disseminated toxoplasmosis, massive intra-ventricular haemorrhage (ruptured cerebral cavernoma), tubercular meningitis with cortical venous thrombosis, suspected Bartter syndrome presenting as coma. Conclusion Neurological manifestation during pregnancy may not always be a primary neurological disorder, instead may be manifestation secondary to any systemic illness. Hence, a wide index of suspicion and neuroimaging aids in arriving at the diagnosis certainly improves the pregnancy outcome. PMID:28208940
Brodsky, J.B.; Cohen, E.N.; Brown, B.W.; Wu, M.L.; Whitcher, C.
Information was sought on wives of dentists or female dental assistants who underwent surgery during their pregnancies to determine the effects of anesthesia and surgery on fetal outcome. Occupational exposure to inhalation anesthetics either directly (dental assistants) or indirectly (wives of exposed male dentists) was associated with a significant increase in spontaneous abortion rate over a comparison group during both trimesters. Anesthesia for surgery was also associated with increased fetal loss when administered during the first or second trimesters. The number of congenital abormalities in children born to women who had surgery during pregnancy was not increased. For women surgically exposed to anesthetics and occupationally exposed as well, either directly or indirectly, the risk of spontaneous abortion increased almost threefold above control lvels. The authors conclude that elective surgery should be deferred during early pregnanacy to minimize potential fetal loss.
Grieger, Jessica A.; Wood, Lisa G.; Clifton, Vicki L.
The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy, and (ii) provide the rationale for which dietary management strategies, specifically increased dietary antioxidants, might positively impact maternal asthma outcomes. Improving asthma control through a holistic antioxidant dietary approach might be valuable in reducing asthma exacerbations and improving asthma management during pregnancy, subsequently impacting perinatal health. PMID:23948757
van Veen, Teelkien R; Haeri, Sina; Baker, Arthur M
The authors sought to determine whether pregnancies in adolescents following an abortion of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. In a cohort study of all adolescent (younger than 18 years) deliveries over a 4-year period at 1 institution, we compared nulliparous women with a history of a prior abortion (cases) to those without a spontaneous loss or abortion of pregnancy (referent) for adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. Of the 654 included nulliparous adolescent deliveries, 102 (16%) had an abortion before the index pregnancy. Compared with the referent group, adolescents with a history of a abortion were older (17.8 ± 0.8 vs 16.7 ± 1.2 years, P = .0001), enrolled earlier for prenatal care (14.4 ± 5.6 vs 17.2 ± 7.6 weeks, P = .0004), along with a higher incidence of African American race (95% vs 88%, P = .05). The groups did not differ with respect to other maternal demographics. Perinatal outcomes, including spontaneous preterm birth, abnormal placentation, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery, did not differ between the 2 groups. Compared with adolescent women who had just delivered and did not have a prior abortion, women who had just delivered and had a previous abortion were more likely to be older at the age of their first pregnancy and more likely to initiate early prenatal care. Thus, having a prior abortion may improve the health of a pregnancy though adverse outcomes do not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Weisz, Boaz; Achiron, Reuven; Dulitzky, Mordechai
Summary Background To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of term macrosomic and adequate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all term singleton macrosomic (birth weight ≥4000 g) and AGA (birth weight >10th percentile and <4000 g) pregnancies delivered at our hospital between 2004 and 2008. Data collected included maternal age, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, fetal gender, maternal and neonatal complications. Comparisons were made between macrosomic and AGA pregnancies and between different severities of macrosomia (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g). Results The study population comprised of 34,685 pregnancies. 2077 neonates had birth weight ≥4000 g. Maternal age and gestational age at delivery were significantly higher for macrosomic neonates. Significantly more macrosomic neonates were born by cesarean section, and were complicated with shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and had longer hospitalization period (both in vaginal and cesarean deliveries). Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) relative to AGA pregnancies for each macrosomic category (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g) of shoulder dystocia was 2.37, 2.24, 7.61, respectively, and for neonatal hypoglycemia 4.24, 4.41, 4.15, respectively. The risk of post partum hemorrhage was statistically increased when birth weight was >4500 g (OR=5.23) but not for birth weight between 4000–4500 g. No differences were found in the rates of extensive perineal lacerations between AGA and the different macrosomic groups. Conclusions Macrosomia is associated with increased rate of cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and longer hospitalization, but not associated with excessive perineal tears. Increased risk of PPH was found in the >4500g group. PMID:22936200
Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Weidlich, Patrícia; Fiorini, Tiago; da Rocha, José Mariano; Musskopf, Marta Liliana; Susin, Cristiano; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker
This study was conducted to compare periodontal therapy outcomes during pregnancy and after delivery. One hundred nine pregnant women up to the 20th gestational week (GW) were randomized into two groups: the test group (comprehensive periodontal therapy during pregnancy) and the control group (comprehensive periodontal therapy after delivery). Periodontal examinations comprised plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume. After baseline examination, women in the test group received periodontal treatment up to the 24th GW. The final examination was performed at the 26th to the 28th GW. Women in the control group were treated 30 days after delivery and reexamined 30 days after treatment. Periodontal therapy significantly reduced periodontal inflammation in both groups. The mean percentage of sites with BOP was reduced from 49.14 % (±22.49) to 11.10 % (±7.84) and from 45.71 % (±17.86) to 8.07 % (±5.21) in the test and control groups, respectively (p = 0.95). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups concerning PI, GI, PPD, CAL, and GCF. The reduction in mean percentage of sites with BOP stratified for initial PPD ≥4 mm was higher in the control group (p < 0.01), but no differences were seen regarding GCF in these sites. Hormonal changes during pregnancy do not interfere in treatment outcomes in women with widespread gingival inflammation and limited periodontal destruction. The role of these hormonal changes in pregnant women with different disease patterns remains uncertain. Periodontal health can be reestablished irrespective of the hormonal challenge that takes place during pregnancy.
ROSENGARD, CYNTHIA; PHIPPS, MAUREEN G.; ADLER, NANCY E.; ELLEN, JONATHAN M.
Purpose (a) To examine different methods of assessing pregnancy intention; (b) to identify psychosocial differences between those who indicate pregnancy intentions and those who do not; and (c) to examine the relationship between pregnancy intentions and subsequent pregnancy at 6-month follow-up in nonpregnant (at baseline), sexually experienced adolescent females. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of 354 sexually experienced female adolescents attending either a STD clinic or HMO adolescent medicine clinic in northern California. Student’s t-tests and regressions examined psychosocial differences between females who reported “any” and “no” pregnancy intentions. ANOVAs examined differences among different combinations of pregnancy plans/likelihood. Chi-square analyses assessed associations between baseline pregnancy intentions and subsequent pregnancy. Results Adolescents’ reports of their pregnancy plans and their assessments of pregnancy likelihood differed from one another (χ2 = 50.39, df = 1, p < .001). Pregnancy attitudes and baseline contraceptive use differentiated those with inconsistent pregnancy intentions (Not Planning, but Likely) from those with clear pregnancy intentions (Planning and Likely, and Not Planning and Not Likely) (Pregnancy Attitudes: F [2,338] = 68.96, p < .0001; Contraceptive Use: F [2,308] = 14.87, p < .0001). Suspected pregnancies and positive pregnancy test results were associated with baseline pregnancy intentions (Suspected: χ2 = 19.08, df = 2, p < .01; Positive Results: χ2 = 8.84, df = 2, p = .015). Conclusions To reduce adolescent childbearing we must assess pregnancy intentions in multiple ways. Information/education might benefit those female adolescents with inconsistent reports of pregnancy intentions. PMID:15581524
Corrado, F; Cannata, M L; La Galia, T; Magliarditi, M; Imbruglia, L; D'anna, R; Carlo Stella, N
To determine the institutional pregnancy complications rate associated with genetic amniocentesis and ascertain whether procedural variables or pre-existing factors may determine an increased risk of having a procedural-related fetal loss, we retrospectively evaluated all the consecutive amniocentesis, with known pregnancy outcome (n = 2990), performed between January 2001 and December 2009 by two very experienced clinicians. The patients who had counselling in the same period but declined to undergo amniocentesis represent the control group (n = 487). A total of 30 fetal losses occurred within 24 weeks' gestation (1%), while in the control group, we had four losses (0.8%). Procedural variables (transplacental sample, multiple needle insertions and gestational age) were not found to be predictive of increased fetal loss rate. Previous vaginal bleeding increased the risk of pregnancy loss after amniocentesis with an OR 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.7); on the contrary, a history of two or more miscarriages is not associated with a greater fetal loss rate, while the increased percentage (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.0) in patients affected by uterine myoma appears connected, after the comparison with the control group, with the presence of fibroids rather than procedure.
De Santis, Marco; Cavaliere, A F; Straface, G; Di Gianantonio, E; Caruso, A
Maternal thrombophilias increases the risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. An extensive literature review highlights the role of inherited and acquired thrombophilic disorders in spontaneous abortion, both early and late, recurrent or isolate, in intrauterine growth retardation, in placenta abruption, in pre-eclampsia and in venous thromboembolism. We have particularly focused attention on the following factors: antithrombin III (ATIII), proteins C (PC) and S (PS) deficiencies, genetic mutations particularly factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin gene G20210A (PTM) and the thermolabile variant of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR) gene, lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and anticardiolipin antibodies, VIIIc factor, hyperhomocysteinemia and acquired activated protein C resistance. Appropriate treatment can improve pregnancy outcome without teratogenic effects.
Moscovici, Samuel; Fraifeld, Shifra; Cohen, José E; Dotan, Shlomo; Elchalal, Uriel; Shoshan, Yigal; Spektor, Sergey
Rapid visual deterioration may occur as the result of the quick growth of parasellar meningiomas in the high-hormone/increased fluid retention milieu of pregnancy; however, surgery before delivery entails increased maternal-fetal risk. We present our experience in the management of parasellar meningiomas that compress the optic apparatus during pregnancy, with a focus on decisions regarding the timing of surgery. Serial visual examinations and other clinical data for 11 women presenting from 2002 to 2012 with visual deterioration during pregnancy or delivery as the result of parasellar meningiomas involving the optic apparatus were reviewed. Indications for surgery during pregnancy included severely compromised vision, rapid visual deterioration, and early-to-midstage pregnancy with the potential for significant tumor growth and visual decrease before delivery. All patients underwent surgery with the use of skull base techniques via pterional craniotomy. An advanced extradural-intradural (i.e., Dolenc) approach, with modifications, was used in seven. All women achieved a Glasgow Outcome Score of 5 at discharge with no new neurologic deficits; all children are developing normally at a mean 4.5 years of age (range, 1-9.5 years). Surgery during pregnancy was recommended for six women: four operated at gestational weeks 20-23 had excellent postoperative visual recovery; two who delayed surgery until after delivery have permanent unilateral blindness. Among five others operated after delivery, four had good visual recovery and one has pronounced but correctable deficits. Three of five women diagnosed at gestational weeks 32-35 experienced spontaneous visual improvement after delivery, before surgery. We recommend that surgery be offered to patients during pregnancy when a delay may result in severe permanent visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wallace, Harriet E; Isitt, Catherine E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Perry, Alison E; Wilson, Janet D
Syphilis infection in pregnancy is known to cause a number of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes, including second-trimester miscarriage, stillbirth, very pre-term delivery and neonatal death, in addition to congenital syphilis. A retrospective review of women with positive syphilis serology and a pregnancy outcome between 2005 and 2012 in Leeds, UK, was performed. In all, 57 cases of positive syphilis serology in pregnancy were identified: 24 with untreated syphilis treated in the current pregnancy (Group 1); seven with reported but unconfirmed prior treatment who were retreated (Group 2); and 26 adequately treated prior to pregnancy (Group 3). The rate of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes in Group 1 at 21% was significantly higher than the 0% outcome of Group 3 (p = 0.02). The severe adverse pregnancy outcomes were two second-trimester miscarriages, two pre-term births at 25 and 28 weeks and one stillbirth at 32 weeks. There were no cases of term congenital syphilis or term neonatal death, but we observed high rates of other adverse pregnancy outcomes despite treatment during pregnancy. Rapid referral for treatment is needed before 18 weeks in order to minimise adverse pregnancy outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.
The statistics related to pregnancy and its outcomes are staggering: annually, an estimated 250000-280000 women die during childbirth. Unfortunately, a large number of women receive little or no care during or before pregnancy. At a period of critical vulnerability, interventions can be effectively delivered to improve the health of women and their newborns and also to make their pregnancy safe. This paper reviews the interventions that are most effective during preconception and pregnancy period and synergistically improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Among pre-pregnancy interventions, family planning and advocating pregnancies at appropriate intervals; prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections including HIV; and peri-conceptual folic-acid supplementation have shown significant impact on reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy, interventions including antenatal care visit model; iron and folic acid supplementation; tetanus Immunisation; prevention and management of malaria; prevention and management of HIV and PMTCT; calcium for hypertension; anti-Platelet agents (low dose aspirin) for prevention of Pre-eclampsia; anti-hypertensives for treating severe hypertension; management of pregnancy-induced hypertension/eclampsia; external cephalic version for breech presentation at term (>36 weeks); management of preterm, premature rupture of membranes; management of unintended pregnancy; and home visits for women and children across the continuum of care have shown maximum impact on reducing the burden of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. All of the interventions summarized in this paper have the potential to improve maternal mortality rates and also contribute to better health care practices during preconception and periconception period. PMID:25178042
Sreelatha, Omana Kesary; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam VenkataSubbu
Teleophthalmology is gaining importance as an effective eye care delivery modality worldwide. In many developing countries, teleophthalmology is being utilized to provide quality eye care to the underserved urban population and the unserved remote rural population. Over the years, technological innovations have led to improvement in evidence and teleophthalmology has evolved from a research tool to a clinical tool. The majority of the current teleophthalmology services concentrate on patient screening and appropriate referral to experts. Specialty care using teleophthalmology services for the pediatric group includes screening as well as providing timely care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Among geriatric eye diseases, specialty teleophthalmology care is focused toward screening and referral for diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and other sight-threatening conditions. Comprehensive vision screening and refractive error services are generally covered as part of most of the teleophthalmology methods. Over the past decades, outcome assessment of health care system includes patients’ assessments on their health, care, and services they receive. Outcomes, by and large, remain the ultimate validators of the effectiveness and quality of medical care. Teleophthalmology produces the same desired clinical outcome as the traditional system. Remote portals allow specialists to provide care over a larger region, thereby improving health outcomes and increasing accessibility of specialty care to a larger population. A high satisfaction level and acceptance is reported in the majority of the studies because of increased accessibility and reduced traveling cost and time. Considering the improved quality of patient care and patient satisfaction reported for these telemedicine services, this review explores how teleophthalmology helps to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26929592
Preconceptual administration of an alphavirus replicon UL83 (pp65 homolog) vaccine induces humoral and cellular immunity and improves pregnancy outcome in the guinea pig model of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.
Schleiss, Mark R; Lacayo, Juan C; Belkaid, Yasmine; McGregor, Alistair; Stroup, Greg; Rayner, Jon; Alterson, Kimberly; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Smith, Jonathan F
Development of a vaccine against congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health priority. We report the use of a propagation-defective, single-cycle, RNA replicon vector system, derived from an attenuated strain of the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, to produce virus-like replicon particles (VRPs) expressing GP83, the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) homolog of the human CMV pp65 phosphoprotein. Vaccination with VRP-GP83 induced antibodies and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in GPCMV-seronegative female guinea pigs. Guinea pigs immunized with VRP-GP83 vaccine or with a VRP vaccine expressing influenza hemagglutinin (VRP-HA) were bred for pregnancy and subsequent GPCMV challenge during the early third trimester. Dams vaccinated with VRP-GP83 had improved pregnancy outcomes, compared with dams vaccinated with the VRP-HA control. For VRP-GP83-vaccinated dams, there were 28 live pups and 4 dead pups (13% mortality) among 10 evaluable litters, compared with 9 live pups and 12 dead pups (57% mortality) among 8 evaluable litters in the VRP-HA-vaccinated group (P<.001, Fisher's exact test). Improved pregnancy outcome was accompanied by reductions in maternal blood viral load, measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results indicate that cell-mediated immune responses directed against a CMV matrix protein can protect against congenital CMV infection and disease.
Bildircin, Fatma Devran; Kurtoglu, Emel; Kokcu, Arif; Işik, Yuksel; Ozkarci, Murat; Kuruoglu, Serkan
The aim of this study was to compare perinatal outcomes between adolescent and adult pregnancies. In 527 adolescent and 1334 adult pregnant women who delivered at Ondokuz Mayis University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department between 2006 and 2013, perinatal outcomes were retrospectively compared in terms of including spontaneous abortion, induced abortion rate, dilatation and curettage (D&C), pregnancy-induced hypertension, premature prelabor and prelabor rupture of membranes, polihydramnios, oligohydramnios, maternal anemia, delivery modes and also neonatal outcomes including 5th minute Apgar score and fetal birth weight. The ratio of pregnancy induced hypertension and postpartum hemorrhage was higher in adults, but, anemia was more common in adolescents. There was statistically significant difference in the mode of delivery; the ratio of cesarean section was higher in adults whereas the rate of induced abortions and D&C significantly increased in adolescents. Low birth weight (LBW) and extremely LBW rates were significantly higher in adolescents, however, 5th minute Apgar scores were found to be higher than adult group. These results show that the perinatal care is fairly improved in Turkey.
Fischer, Michael J
Chronic kidney disease complicates an increasing number of pregnancies, and at least 4% of childbearing-aged women are afflicted by this condition. Although diabetic nephropathy is the most common type of chronic kidney disease found in pregnant women, a variety of other primary and systemic kidney diseases also commonly occur. In the setting of mild maternal primary chronic kidney disease (serum creatinine <1.3 mg/dL) without poorly controlled hypertension, most pregnancies result in live births and maternal kidney function is unaffected. In cases of more moderate and severe maternal primary chronic kidney disease, the incidence of fetal prematurity, low birth weight, and death increase substantially, and the risk of accelerated irreversible decline in maternal kidney function, proteinuria, and hypertensive complications rise dramatically. In addition to kidney function, maternal hypertension and proteinuria portend negative outcomes and are important factors to consider when risk stratifying for fetal and maternal complications. In the setting of diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephropathy, other systemic disease features such as disease activity, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and glycemic control play important roles in determining pregnancy outcomes. Concomitant with advances in obstetrical management and kidney disease treatments, it appears that the historically dismal maternal and fetal outcomes have greatly improved.
Çift, Tayfur; Korkmazer, Engin; Temur, Muzaffer; Bulut, Berk; Korkmaz, Bariş; Ozdenoğlu, Onur; Akaltun, Cem; Üstünyurt, Emin
In this study we aim to evaluate antenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes and complications of adolescent pregnancies, as well as to discuss the social and psychological consequences of these pregnancies. We compare a total of 243 pregnant women at age 14-18 years to a vast control group at age 19-36 who all delivered at Bursa Yüksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between years 2005-2014. Antenatal care (folic acid supplementation, pre-conception counseling) was significantly higher in adolescent pregnancy group. Unplanned pregnancy rate was significantly higher in in study group (p < 0.001). Preterm delivery (before 37th week) ratio was statistically higher in pregnancy complications. Adolescent pregnancy is a social entity which should be regulated and prevented by legal measures. Planned pregnancies should be promoted and the public should be educated and informed about the Hazards of adolescent pregnancies. Press institutions, public broadcasting services support the efforts to decrease adolescent pregnancies.
Wang, Chen; Wei, Yumei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Qianqian; Sun, Yiying; Su, Shiping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Chunhong; Feng, Yaru; Shou, Chong; Guelfi, Kym J; Newnham, John P; Yang, Huixia
Obesity and being overweight are becoming epidemic, and indeed, the proportion of such women of reproductive age has increased in recent times. Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome for both mothers and their offspring. Furthermore, the combination of gestational diabetes mellitus with obesity/overweight status may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to either factor alone. Regular exercise has the potential to reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus and can be used during pregnancy; however, its efficacy remain controversial. At present, most exercise training interventions are implemented on Caucasian women and in the second trimester, and there is a paucity of studies focusing on overweight/obese pregnant women. We sought to test the efficacy of regular exercise in early pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese overweight/obese pregnant women. This was a prospective randomized clinical trial in which nonsmoking women age >18 years with a singleton pregnancy who met the criteria for overweight/obese status (body mass index 24≤28 kg/m(2)) and had an uncomplicated pregnancy at <12(+6) weeks of gestation were randomly allocated to either exercise or a control group. Patients did not have contraindications to physical activity. Patients allocated to the exercise group were assigned to exercise 3 times per week (at least 30 min/session with a rating of perceived exertion between 12-14) via a cycling program begun within 3 days of randomization until 37 weeks of gestation. Those in the control group continued their usual daily activities. Both groups received standard prenatal care, albeit without special dietary recommendations. The primary outcome was incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. From December 2014 through July 2016, 300 singleton women at 10 weeks' gestational age and with a
Jiang, Yang; McIntosh, Jennifer J.; Reese, Jessica A.; Deford, Cassandra C.; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A.; Lämmle, Bernhard; Terrell, Deirdra R.; Vesely, Sara K.; Knudtson, Eric J.
Pregnancy may precipitate acute episodes of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), but pregnancy outcomes in women who have recovered from acquired TTP are not well documented. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes following recovery from TTP associated with acquired, severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (ADAMTS13 activity <10%) in women enrolled in the Oklahoma TTP-HUS Registry from 1995 to 2012. We also systematically searched for published reports on outcomes of pregnancies following recovery from TTP associated with acquired, severe ADAMTS13 deficiency. Ten women in the Oklahoma Registry had 16 subsequent pregnancies from 1999 to 2013. Two women had recurrent TTP, which occurred 9 and 29 days postpartum. Five of 16 pregnancies (31%, 95% confidence interval, 11%-59%) in 3 women were complicated by preeclampsia, a frequency greater than US population estimates (2.1%-3.2%). Thirteen (81%) pregnancies resulted in normal children. The literature search identified 382 articles. Only 6 articles reported pregnancies in women who had recovered from TTP associated with acquired, severe ADAMTS13 deficiency, describing 10 pregnancies in 8 women. TTP recurred in 6 pregnancies. Conclusions: With prospective complete follow-up, recurrent TTP complicating subsequent pregnancies in Oklahoma patients is uncommon, but the occurrence of preeclampsia may be increased. Most pregnancies following recovery from TTP in Oklahoma patients result in normal children. PMID:24398329
Introduction of IADPSG criteria for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus results in improved pregnancy outcomes at a lower cost in a large cohort of pregnant women: the St. Carlos Gestational Diabetes Study.
Duran, Alejandra; Sáenz, Sofía; Torrejón, María J; Bordiú, Elena; Del Valle, Laura; Galindo, Mercedes; Perez, Noelia; Herraiz, Miguel A; Izquierdo, Nuria; Rubio, Miguel A; Runkle, Isabelle; Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Cusihuallpa, Idalia; Jiménez, Sandra; García de la Torre, Nuria; Fernández, María D; Montañez, Carmen; Familiar, Cristina; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L
The use of the new International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria (IADPSGC) for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) results in an increased prevalence of GDM. Whether their introduction improves pregnancy outcomes has yet to be established. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of one-step IADPSGC for screening and diagnosis of GDM compared with traditional two-step Carpenter-Coustan (CC) criteria. GDM risk factors and pregnancy and newborn outcomes were prospectively assessed in 1,750 pregnant women from April 2011 to March 2012 using CC and in 1,526 pregnant women from April 2012 to March 2013 using IADPSGC between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Both groups received the same treatment and follow-up regimes. The use of IADPSGC resulted in an important increase in GDM rate (35.5% vs. 10.6%) and an improvement in pregnancy outcomes, with a decrease in the rate of gestational hypertension (4.1 to 3.5%: -14.6%, P < 0.021), prematurity (6.4 to 5.7%: -10.9%, P < 0.039), cesarean section (25.4 to 19.7%: -23.9%, P < 0.002), small for gestational age (7.7 to 7.1%: -6.5%, P < 0.042), large for gestational age (4.6 to 3.7%: -20%, P < 0.004), Apgar 1-min score <7 (3.8 to 3.5%: -9%, P < 0.015), and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (8.2 to 6.2%: -24.4%, P < 0.001). Estimated cost savings was of €14,358.06 per 100 women evaluated using IADPSGC versus the group diagnosed using CC. The application of the new IADPSGC was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in GDM prevalence in our study population, as well as significant improvements in pregnancy outcomes, and was cost-effective. Our results support their adoption. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Van, Toan Ngo; Gammeltoft, Tine; W. Meyrowitsch, Dan; Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Rasch, Vibeke
Background Violence against pregnant women is an increasing public health concern particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to measure the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1276 pregnant women in Dong Anh district, Vietnam. Women with gestational age less than 24 weeks were enrolled and interviewed. Repeated interviews were performed at 30–34 weeks gestation to assess experience of IPV during pregnancy and again 48 hours post-delivery to assess the birth outcome including birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Results There was a statistically significant association between exposure to physical violence during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB) or low birth weight (LBW). After adjustment for age, education, occupation, body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin level, previous adverse pregnancy outcomes, the pregnant women who were exposed to physical violence during pregnancy were five times more likely to have PTB (AOR = 5.5; 95%CI: 2.1–14.1) and were nearly six times more likely to give birth to a child of LBW (AOR = 5.7; 95%CI: 2.2–14.9) as compared to those who were not exposed to physical violence. Conclusion Exposure to IPV during pregnancy increases the risk of PTB and LBW. Case-finding for violence in relation to antenatal care may help protect pregnant women and improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27631968
Soroye, M; Ayanbadejo, P; Savage, K; Oluwole, A
To evaluate the association between periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes like preterm birth and low birth weight. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by the subjects who attended the antenatal clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. Information obtained included; maternal age, gestational age, marital status, educational status, occupation and expected date of delivery. After delivery, the questionnaire was completed with baby's weight at birth and the actual date of delivery. Clinical assessment of the periodontium was done using Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Participants were divided into three groups: Test, Control I and Control II groups. Scaling and polishing were done for all patients with periodontal disease before (Test group) and after delivery (Control I). All Control II participants (those without periodontal disease) were given Oral hygiene instructions. Descriptive and comparative analyses were done using Epi info version 2008. Four hundred and fifty women received the questionnaire but the response rate was 94%, giving an actual sample size of 423 participants. Maternal age range was between 18 and 34 years with mean age of 29.67 (± 3.37). Gestational age at the point of recruitment was between 10 weeks and 26 weeks with mean of 23.34 (± 4.05). The prevalence of periodontal disease among the study group was 33.38%. About 71% of the participants attained tertiary level of education; only 0.7% had no formal education. There was 9.9% use of alcohol among the participants. The mean oral hygiene score for the participants was 1.94 (± 1.31). The prevalences for preterm deliveries, low birth weight and spontaneous abortion were 12.5%, 12.1% and 1.42% respectively. This study confirms periodontal disease as a probable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery and low birth weight. Therefore, health workers should be encouraged to promote good
Amer, Nuzhat; Amer, Muhammad; Kolkaila, Mohamed Abdoh; Yaqoob, Shahida
To find out the outcome of a cohort of women with pregnancy of unknown location presenting to a tertiary care hospital. The prospective study was conducted from January to December, 2011, at Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit, King Faisal Military Hospital, Khamis Mushait, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected for women with early pregnancy or with history of amenorrhoea, bleeding or pain. These women were investigated with serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels twice weekly and transvaginal ultrasonography weekly. Expectant management was done for failing pregnancy of unknown location while medical or surgical management was considered for persistent pregnancy of unknown location and ectopic pregnancy. During study period, 7215 patients were admitted, and, of them, 2212(30.6%) were patients with early pregnancy. Meeting the inclusion criteria were 183(2.53%) patients who formed the study sample. There were 131(71.6%) patients presenting with amenorrhoea, 90(49.2%) had bleeding and 93(50.8%) presented with pain. Outcome of 100(54.6%) patients was failing pregnancy of unknown location, 58(31.7%) had intrauterine pregnancy, 14(7.7%) converted to ectopic pregnancy, while 11(6%) had persistent pregnancy of unknown location. All patients with persistent pregnancy of unknown location and 5(36%) patients with ectopic pregnancy were medically treated. Five (36%) patients having ectopic pregnancy were managed surgically. Management of choice for asymptomatic patients having pregnancy of unknown location is expectant management. Most of the patients suspected to have Most of the patients with persistent pregnancy of unknown location and ectopic pregnancy can be managed medically.
Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C
Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.
Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy. PMID:27442513
Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy.
Several environmental factors affect the fetus and thereby the outcome of pregnancy. Recent studies have confirmed a relation between stress and pregnancy outcome; furthermore they have indicated that biological measures of stress may predict risk of complications. Altered sex ratio may be an interesting way of measuring the effect of stress during pregnancy. Stress and work load during pregnancy seem to be related to time until conception and to becoming pregnant through assisted reproduction. Drinking large amounts of alcohol is hazardous, but drinking one drink per day appears to be safe. The effect of passive smoking continues to be a matter of debate.
Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Banti, Susanna; Manconi, Mauro; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter
Short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and insomnia frequently characterize sleep in pregnancy during all three trimesters. We aimed: (i) to review the clinical evidence of the association between conditions of sleep loss during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) to discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that may be involved. A systematic search of cross-sectional, longitudinal studies using Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO, and MeSH headings and key words for conditions of sleep loss such as 'insomnia', 'poor sleep quality', 'short sleep duration', and 'pregnancy outcome' was made for papers published between January 1, 1960 and July 2013. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria for sleep loss and pregnancy outcome: seven studies on prenatal depression, three on gestational diabetes, three on hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, six on length of labor/type of delivery, eight on preterm birth, and three on birth grow/birth weight. Two main results emerged: (i) conditions of chronic sleep loss are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) chronic sleep loss yields a stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and abnormal immune/inflammatory, reaction, which, in turn, influences pregnancy outcome negatively. Chronic sleep loss frequently characterizes sleep throughout the course of pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Common pathophysiological mechanisms emerged as being related to stress system activation. We propose that in accordance to the allostatic load hypothesis, chronic sleep loss during pregnancy may also be regarded as both a result of stress and a physiological stressor per se, leading to stress 'overload'. It may account for adverse pregnancy outcomes and somatic and mental disorders in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Di Cianni, G; Torlone, E; Lencioni, C; Bonomo, M; Di Benedetto, A; Napoli, A; Vitacolonna, E; Mannino, D; Lapolla, A
Insulin glargine (IG), with its non-peaking action profile, might be useful in diabetic pregnancy. However, data on its safety are limited and its use during pregnancy is not recommended. This study focused on the effects of IG on perinatal outcome, particularly to estimate the rate of congenital anomalies and birthweight. This retrospective study included women with pre-gestational diabetes who used IG before (at least 1 month) and during pregnancy. For all women we recorded data regarding maternal glycaemic control and pregnancy outcome. We also compared women treated with IG throughout pregnancy and women who stopped taking IG at an earlier stage. From 27 centres, 107 Type 1 diabetic pregnancies were identified. IG was started 10.3 +/- 6.9 months before conception and in 57.4% of cases was stopped during the first trimester; 42.6% of women continued using it until the end of pregnancy. There were six abortions (four spontaneous and two induced) and five newborns (4.9%) with congenital anomalies. Glycaemic control, birthweight and the prevalence of macrosomia and neonatal morbidity were similar in women who used IG for the full term compared with those who stopped IG earlier during pregnancy. This study, although limited, suggests that IG is safe and effective; the rate of congenital malformations was within the range expected for diabetic pregnancies treated with more traditional forms of insulin. IG used throughout pregnancy did not seem to influence birthweight or increase adverse outcomes.
Rodriguez Gonzalez, Zaskia M; Leavitt, Karla; Martin, Jose; Benabe, Erika; Romaguera, Josefina; Negrón, Ivette
Based on our population data, the teen pregnancy rate and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported during pregnancy are worrisome. STIs appear to pose a threat to pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), neonatal low birth weight (NLBW) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of STIs in pregnant teens and the association of this variable to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of STIs among pregnant teens during a 4-year period at our institution. Birth outcomes such as gestational age at delivery, PROM and NLBW were analyzed and compared with adults. In the four years of our study, teen pregnancy rate fluctuated from 21.7% in 2010 to 16.8% in 2013. The rate of STIs for adult and teen pregnancies was similar, 21% and 23%, respectively. Chlamydia was the most common STI (67.3%) for both groups. PTB was more prevalent among adults affected with STIs than teens, 13.8% and 11.5%, respectively. NLBW was similar among teens and adults with STIs. PROM complicated 9.1% of teen pregnancies with STIs, compared to 6.7% in adults. There was no significant correlation between the STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes on teen pregnancies for our population, except for PROM. This age group is associated with a high-risk sexual behavior and poor adherence to treatment. They would benefit from efforts to prevent unintended pregnancies and infectious diseases.
Shields, Kristine E; Wiholm, Bengt-Erik; Hostelley, Linda S; Striano, Linda F; Arena, Sam R; Sharrar, Robert G
Women who discover they are pregnant after exposure to a drug and pregnant women who have a condition that requires continued treatment during pregnancy are told to balance the benefits and risks of the exposure to justify continuation of treatment, discontinuation of treatment or, possibly, pregnancy termination. However, there are limited data available to inform decision-making. The Merck Pregnancy Registry Program is a company-run pregnancy registry whose objective is to acquire and analyse information on drug exposures and pregnancy outcomes to better describe the safety profile of Merck products used during pregnancy. Information is collected from women and healthcare providers who call to report drug exposure during pregnancy. Prospective pregnancies are followed up to outcome and data are collected via questionnaires, telephone calls and a review of medical records. Reports are classified as prospective (information received prior to knowledge of pregnancy outcome) or retrospective (received after the outcome is known). Congenital anomaly reports are assessed for timing of exposure, maternal age and medical history, biological plausibility and concomitant medication exposures. Rates of pregnancy outcomes and birth defects in the prospective cohort are computed and confidence intervals are calculated to reflect the strength of the finding based on the sample size. Rates of pregnancy outcomes in the Pregnancy Registry are compared with the rates of pregnancy outcomes in the general US population and, if available, in subpopulations with the relevant disease states. The limitations of post-marketing surveillance are well known as voluntary reporting of individuals and healthcare professionals is known to be subject to various types of bias. Small sample size is another major limitation. However, the strength of the registry lies in its ability to gather pregnancy outcome reports early in the life of a product and to recognise and analyse unusual birth defects
Seyam, Emaduldin Mostafa; Hassan, Momen Mohamed; Mohamed Sayed Gad, Mohamed Tawfeek; Mahmoud, Hazem Salah; Ibrahim, Mostafa Gamal
routine procedure in order to diagnose and to treat missed intrauterine abnormalities, especially in cases with un- explained infertility, with additional improvement of the pregnancy outcome after the procedure.
NICHOLSON, James M.; STENSON, Ms. Morghan H.; KELLAR, Lisa; CAUGHEY, Aaron B.; MACONES, George A.
Objective To determine if exposure of nulliparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with improvement in birth health. Study Design A risk-scoring system was used to guide the frequent use of preventive labor induction in 100 nulliparous women. The birth outcomes of this group were compared to those of 352 nulliparous women who received usual care. Cesarean delivery was the primary study outcome. The Adverse Outcome Index and the rate of uncomplicated vaginal delivery were used to measure overall birth health. Results The exposed group experienced a higher labor induction rate (48% vs. 23.6%, p = <0.001), a lower cesarean rate (9% vs. 25.8%, aOR 0.36 p=0.02), and better composite birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of nulliparous women to a high preventive induction rate was significantly associated with improvement in birth health. Prospective randomized trials are needed to further explore the utility of risk-guided preventive labor induction. PMID:19168168
Ideguchi, Haruko; Ohno, Shigeru; Uehara, Takeaki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mainly a disease of fertile women and the coexistence of pregnancy is by no means a rare event. How SLE and its treatment affect pregnancy outcomes is still a matter of debate. We performed a retrospective analysis of 41 SLE patients (55 pregnancies) who were followed at our university hospital from January 2000 to December 2009. The mean age of patients was 30.6±4.8 years and mean disease duration was 6.6±5.3 years. After exclusion of artificial abortions, live birth rate was 84%. Significantly, more women with stillbirth pregnancies were complicated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) than women with live birth pregnancies (two of eight stillbirth pregnancies (25%) versus one of 42 live birth pregnancies (2%); p=0.014) and hypocomplementemia at conception (four of eight stillbirth pregnancies (50%) versus six of 42 live birth pregnancies (14%); p=0.021). Compared with nonrenal pregnancies, renal pregnancies were younger at SLE disease onset, had a lower positivity of anti-RNP antibody, and were more complicated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Past maximum dose of prednisolone, the dose of prednisolone at conception, and percentage of past steroid pulse therapy were higher in renal pregnancies. Outcomes of pregnancies were not significantly different both for mothers and for infants between renal and nonrenal pregnancies. We conclude that it is necessary to provide SLE mothers with the proper information before pregnancy. Women with APS or hypocomplementemia should be regarded with particular attention. Optimal management of mothers and infants requires collaborative efforts of rheumatologists and obstetricians.
Borgstein, Alexander Berend-Jan; Sondaal, Stephanie FV; Grobbee, Diederick E; Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Verwijs, Mirjam; Ansah, Evelyn K; Browne, Joyce L; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin
Background Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face the highest burden of maternal and neonatal deaths. Concurrently, they have the lowest number of physicians. Innovative methods such as the exchange of health-related information using mobile devices (mHealth) may support health care workers in the provision of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in LMICs. Objective We conducted a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of mHealth interventions targeting health care workers to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in LMIC. Methods The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health Library, and Popline were searched using predetermined search and indexing terms. Quality assessment was performed using an adapted Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat analysis was performed for each included paper. Results A total of 19 studies were included for this systematic review, 10 intervention and 9 descriptive studies. mHealth interventions were used as communication, data collection, or educational tool by health care providers primarily at the community level in the provision of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care. Interventions were used to track pregnant women to improve antenatal and delivery care, as well as facilitate referrals. None of the studies directly assessed the effect of mHealth on maternal and neonatal mortality. Challenges of mHealth interventions to assist health care workers consisted mainly of technical problems, such as mobile network coverage, internet access, electricity access, and maintenance of mobile phones. Conclusions mHealth interventions targeting health care workers have the potential to improve maternal and neonatal health services in LMICs. However, there is a gap in the knowledge whether mHealth interventions directly affect maternal and neonatal outcomes and future research should employ experimental designs with relevant outcome measures to
Background Health care providers are often unfamiliar with the needs of women with disability. Moreover maternity and postnatal services may not be specifically tailored to the needs of women with disability and their families. We conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of healthcare interventions to improve outcomes for pregnant and postnatal women with disability and for their families. Methods Studies on pregnant and postnatal women with disability and their families which evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention using a design that met the criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care group were eligible for inclusion in this review. A comprehensive search strategy was carried using eleven electronic databases. No restriction on date or language was applied. Included studies were assessed for quality and their results summarized and tabulated. Results Only three studies fully met the inclusion criteria. All were published after 1990, and conducted as small single-centre randomized controlled trials. The studies were heterogeneous and not comparable. Therefore the main finding of this review was the lack of published research on the effectiveness of healthcare interventions to improve outcomes for pregnant women with disability and their families. Conclusions More research is required to evaluate healthcare interventions to improve outcomes for pregnant women with disability and their families. PMID:24499308
Malouf, Reem; Redshaw, Maggie; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Gray, Ron
Health care providers are often unfamiliar with the needs of women with disability. Moreover maternity and postnatal services may not be specifically tailored to the needs of women with disability and their families. We conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of healthcare interventions to improve outcomes for pregnant and postnatal women with disability and for their families. Studies on pregnant and postnatal women with disability and their families which evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention using a design that met the criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care group were eligible for inclusion in this review. A comprehensive search strategy was carried using eleven electronic databases. No restriction on date or language was applied. Included studies were assessed for quality and their results summarized and tabulated. Only three studies fully met the inclusion criteria. All were published after 1990, and conducted as small single-centre randomized controlled trials. The studies were heterogeneous and not comparable. Therefore the main finding of this review was the lack of published research on the effectiveness of healthcare interventions to improve outcomes for pregnant women with disability and their families. More research is required to evaluate healthcare interventions to improve outcomes for pregnant women with disability and their families.
Kramer, Michael S; Zhang, Xun; Platt, Robert W
Approaches for analyzing the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes have been the source of much debate and many publications. Much of the problem, in our view, is the conflation of time at risk with gestational age at birth (or birth weight, a proxy for gestational age). We consider the causal questions underlying such analyses with the help of a generic directed acyclic graph. We discuss competing risks and populations at risk in the context of appropriate numerators and denominators, respectively. We summarize 3 different approaches to quantifying risks with respect to gestational age, each of which addresses a distinct etiological or prognostic question (i.e., cumulative risk, prospective risk, or instantaneous risk (hazard)) and suggest the appropriate denominators for each. We show how the gestational age-specific risk of perinatal death (PND) can be decomposed as the product of the gestational age-specific risk of birth and the risk of PND conditional on birth at a given gestational age. Finally, we demonstrate how failure to consider the first of these 2 risks leads to selection bias. This selection bias creates the well-known crossover paradox, thus obviating the need to posit common causes of early birth and PND other than the study exposure.
Ferraro, Zachary M; Contador, Fernanda; Tawfiq, Afaf; Adamo, Kristi B
This narrative review discusses gestational weight gain (GWG) and medical outcomes of pregnancy, including metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychiatric systems. Taken as a whole, the available evidence shows that excessive GWG increases the risk of all medical complications of pregnancy, and negatively impacts the long-term health and weight of both mothers and their offspring. Briefly, interventions to encourage appropriate GWG are discussed and readers are directed to resources to facilitate discussion of pregnancy weight. PMID:27512468
Veiby, Gyri; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Gilhus, Nils Erik
To investigate possible effects on pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome in female survivors of polio. In a cohort design, data from the national population based Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) were used to compare all 2495 births recorded 1967-1998 by female survivors of polio with all 1.9 mill non-polio deliveries. The results were adjusted for time period, maternal age, and birth order by unconditional logistic regression, with effects presented as adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) with a corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and p values. Female polio survivors had a higher occurrence of pre-eclampsia (3.4% vs. 2.8%, p=0.003, OR=1.4, CI=1.1-1.7), gestational proteinuria (1.3% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001, OR=2.0, CI=1.4-2.8), renal disease prior to pregnancy (1.4% vs. 0.9%, p=0.001, OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.5), vaginal bleeding (3.8% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1), and urinary tract infection during pregnancy (3.5% vs. 2.4%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1). Deliveries complicated by obstruction of the birth process were more common in the polio group (6.1% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=4.8, CI=4.0-5.6), and cesarean section was performed at a higher rate throughout the time period (13.2% vs. 8.3%, p<0.001, OR=2.7, CI=2.4-3.1). Infants of polio mothers had a lower mean birth weight (3383 g vs. 3483 g, p<0.001), and more often had a birth weight below 2500 g (6.9% vs. 5.2%, p=0.001, OR=1.3, CI=1.1-1.5). There was no difference regarding pregnancy length. The risk of perinatal death was increased (2.1% vs. 1.1%, p=0.05, OR=1.3, CI=1.0-1.7). Pregnancy in female survivors of polio is associated with an increased risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery, as well as an adverse perinatal outcome. Awareness towards risk factors should improve pre-natal care and possibly prevent complications.
Fonseca, Ana Glória
Thromboembolic disease and obstetric complications related to ischemia of the placenta are currently the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Thrombophilia been implicated in their aetiology and the magnitude of the risk depends on the type of thrombophilia. As the evidence is still unclear and controversial, questions about the clinical management of pregnant women with thrombophilia are a daily issue. We aim to review, bearing in mind the consensus and controversies, the impact of inherited thrombophilia in the risk of thrombosis related to pregnancy and of obstetric complications. Moreover, the diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic approach during pregnancy and puerperium, including the role of antithrombotic pharmacopoeia available, will be discussed.
Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Attini, Rossella; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Maxia, Stefania; Lepori, Nicola; Tuveri, Milena; Massidda, Marco; Marchi, Cecilia; Mura, Silvia; Coscia, Alessandra; Biolcati, Marilisa; Gaglioti, Pietro; Nichelatti, Michele; Pibiri, Luciana; Chessa, Giuseppe; Pani, Antonello; Todros, Tullia
CKD is increasingly prevalent in pregnancy. In the Torino-Cagliari Observational Study (TOCOS), we assessed whether the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes is associated with CKD by comparing pregnancy outcomes of 504 pregnancies in women with CKD to outcomes of 836 low-risk pregnancies in women without CKD. The presence of hypertension, proteinuria (>1 g/d), systemic disease, and CKD stage (at referral) were assessed at baseline. The following outcomes were studied: cesarean section, preterm delivery, and early preterm delivery; small for gestational age (SGA); need for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); new onset of hypertension; new onset/doubling of proteinuria; CKD stage shift; "general" combined outcome (preterm delivery, NICU, SGA); and "severe" combined outcome (early preterm delivery, NICU, SGA). The risk for adverse outcomes increased across stages (for stage 1 versus stages 4-5: "general" combined outcome, 34.1% versus 90.0%; "severe" combined outcome, 21.4% versus 80.0%; P<0.001). In women with stage 1 CKD, preterm delivery was associated with baseline hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 3.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.87 to 6.21), systemic disease (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.51 to 6.50), and proteinuria (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.63 to 8.36). However, stage 1 CKD remained associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (general combined outcome) in women without baseline hypertension, proteinuria, or systemic disease (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.79). The risk of intrauterine death did not differ between patients and controls. Findings from this prospective study suggest a "baseline risk" for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes linked to CKD.
Heitmann, Kristine; Nordeng, Hedvig; Holst, Lone
Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes. The study is based on data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study including more than 100,000 pregnancies from 1999 to 2008. Information on use of cranberry and socio-demographic factors was retrieved from three self-administered questionnaires completed by the women in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Among the 68,522 women in the study, 919 (1.3%) women had used cranberry while pregnant. We did not detect any increased risk of congenital malformations after use of cranberry. Furthermore, the use of cranberry was also not associated with increased risk for stillbirth/neonatal death, low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, low Apgar score (<7), neonatal infections or maternal vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Although an association was found between use of cranberry in late pregnancy and vaginal bleeding after pregnancy week 17, further sub-analyses of more severe bleeding outcomes did not support a significant risk. The findings of this study, revealing no increased risk of malformations nor any of the following pregnancy outcomes; stillbirth/neonatal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age, low Apgar score and neonatal infections are reassuring. However, maternal vaginal bleeding should be investigated further before any firm conclusion can be drawn. Treatment guidelines on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy recommend antimicrobial therapy as the first line treatment
Banjari, Ines; Kenjerić, Daniela; Šolić, Krešimir; Mandić, Milena L
Considering specific physiology changes during gestation and thinking of pregnancy as a "critical window", classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy can be considered as crucial. The paper demonstrates the use of a method based on an approach from intelligent data mining, cluster analysis. Cluster analysis method is a statistical method which makes possible to group individuals based on sets of identifying variables. The method was chosen in order to determine possibility for classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy to analyze unknown correlations between different variables so that the certain outcomes could be predicted. 222 pregnant women from two general obstetric offices' were recruited. The main orient was set on characteristics of these pregnant women: their age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin value. Cluster analysis gained a 94.1% classification accuracy rate with three branch- es or groups of pregnant women showing statistically significant correlations with pregnancy outcomes. The results are showing that pregnant women both of older age and higher pre-pregnancy BMI have a significantly higher incidence of delivering baby of higher birth weight but they gain significantly less weight during pregnancy. Their babies are also longer, and these women have significantly higher probability for complications during pregnancy (gestosis) and higher probability of induced or caesarean delivery. We can conclude that the cluster analysis method can appropriately classify pregnant women at early pregnancy to predict certain outcomes.
Thompson, Alexis A; Kim, Hae-Young; Singer, Sylvia T; Vichinsky, Elliott; Eile, Jennifer; Yamashita, Robert; Giardina, Patricia J; Olivieri, Nancy; Parmar, Nagina; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Neufeld, Ellis J; Kwiatkowski, Janet L
Improved survival in thalassemia has refocused attention on quality of life, including family planning. Understanding the issues associated with infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes may impact clinical care of patients with thalassemia. We report the number and outcomes of pregnancies among subjects enrolled in Thalassemia Clinical Research Network (TCRN) registries and examine variables associated with successful childbirth. We identified 129 pregnancies in 72 women among the 264 women, age 18 years or older in our dataset. Over 70% of pregnancies resulted in live births and 73/83 (88%) of live births occurred at full term. Most pregnancies (78.2%) were conceived without reproductive technologies. Most (59.3%) pregnancies occurred while on chronic transfusion programs, however only 38.9% were on iron chelation. Four women developed heart problems. Iron burden in women who had conceived was not significantly different from age- and diagnosis-matched controls that had never been pregnant. There was also no difference in pregnancy outcomes associated with diagnosis, transfusion status, diabetes or Hepatitis C infection. Pregnancies occurred in 27.3% of women with thalassemia of child-bearing age in the TCRN registries, a notable increase from our previous 2004 report. With optimal health maintenance, successful pregnancies may be achievable.
Lobel, Marci; Cannella, Dolores Lacey; Graham, Jennifer E; DeVincent, Carla; Schneider, Jayne; Meyer, Bruce A
Stress in pregnancy predicts earlier birth and lower birth weight. The authors investigated whether pregnancy-specific stress contributes uniquely to birth outcomes compared with general stress, and whether prenatal health behaviors explain this association. Three structured prenatal interviews (N = 279) assessing state anxiety, perceived stress, life events, pregnancy-specific stress, and health behaviors. Gestational age at delivery, birth weight, preterm delivery (<37 weeks), and low birth weight (<2,500 g). A latent pregnancy-specific stress factor predicted birth outcomes better than latent factors representing state anxiety, perceived stress, or life event stress, and than a latent factor constructed from all stress measures. Controlling for obstetric risk, pregnancy-specific stress was associated with smoking, caffeine consumption, and unhealthy eating, and inversely associated with healthy eating, vitamin use, exercise, and gestational age at delivery. Cigarette smoking predicted lower birth weight. Clinically-defined birth outcomes were predicted by cigarette smoking and pregnancy-specific stress. Pregnancy-specific stress contributed directly to preterm delivery and indirectly to low birth weight through its association with smoking. Pregnancy-specific stress may be a more powerful contributor to birth outcomes than general stress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Floridia, M; Tamburrini, E; Masuelli, G; Martinelli, P; Spinillo, A; Liuzzi, G; Vimercati, A; Alberico, S; Maccabruni, A; Pinnetti, C; Frisina, V; Dalzero, S; Ravizza, M
The aim of the study was to assess the rate, determinants, and outcomes of repeat pregnancies in women with HIV infection. Data from a national study of pregnant women with HIV infection were used. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birth weight, CD4 cell count and HIV plasma viral load. The rate of repeat pregnancy among 3007 women was 16.2%. Women with a repeat pregnancy were on average younger than those with a single pregnancy (median age 30 vs. 33 years, respectively), more recently diagnosed with HIV infection (median time since diagnosis 25 vs. 51 months, respectively), and more frequently of foreign origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.68], diagnosed with HIV infection in the current pregnancy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35-2.11), and at their first pregnancy (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.66). In women with sequential pregnancies, compared with the first pregnancy, several outcomes showed a significant improvement in the second pregnancy, with a higher rate of antiretroviral treatment at conception (39.0 vs. 65.4%, respectively), better median maternal weight at the start of pregnancy (60 vs. 61 kg, respectively), a higher rate of end-of-pregnancy undetectable HIV RNA (60.7 vs. 71.6%, respectively), a higher median birth weight (2815 vs. 2885 g, respectively), lower rates of preterm delivery (23.0 vs. 17.7%, respectively) and of low birth weight (23.4 vs. 15.4%, respectively), and a higher median CD4 cell count (+47 cells/μL), with almost no clinical progression to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage C (CDC-C) HIV disease (0.3%). The second pregnancy was significantly more likely to end in voluntary termination than the first pregnancy (11.4 vs. 6.1%, respectively). Younger and foreign women were more likely to have a repeat pregnancy; in women with sequential pregnancies, the second pregnancy was characterized by a significant improvement in several outcomes, suggesting that women with HIV infection who desire multiple
Berti, C; Cetin, I; Agostoni, C; Desoye, G; Devlieger, R; Emmett, P M; Ensenauer, R; Hauner, H; Herrera, E; Hoesli, I; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Olsen, S F; Schaefer-Graf, U; Schiessl, B; Symonds, M E; Koletzko, B
Pregnancy is a complex period of human growth, development, and imprinting. Nutrition and metabolism play a crucial role for the health and well-being of both mother and fetus, as well as for the long-term health of the offspring. Nevertheless, several biological and physiological mechanisms related to nutritive requirements together with their transfer and utilization across the placenta are still poorly understood. In February 2009, the Child Health Foundation invited leading experts of this field to a workshop to critically review and discuss current knowledge, with the aim to highlight priorities for future research. This paper summarizes our main conclusions with regards to maternal preconceptional body mass index, gestational weight gain, placental and fetal requirements in relation to adverse pregnancy and long-term outcomes of the fetus (nutritional programming). We conclude that there is an urgent need to develop further human investigations aimed at better understanding of the basis of biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological events related to maternal-fetal nutrition and offspring health. An improved knowledge would help to optimize nutritional recommendations for pregnancy.
Peart, Erica; Clowse, Megan E B
This review synthesizes new data from the studies published between 2011 and 2013, with particular focus on the different information gleaned by various study types. Population-based cohorts have demonstrated that women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have fewer live births and more pregnancy complications, but can have successful live births after having a poor outcome. A retrospective study suggests that only 4 months, not the traditional 6 months of disease quiescent SLE prior to pregnancy improves outcomes. Prospective studies identified several novel predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes, including uterine Doppler and laboratory findings. A prospective study found great success in transitioning to azathioprine from mycophenolate mofetil prior to pregnancy in patients with quiet lupus nephritis. Two retrospective analyses suggest that hydroxychloroquine may prevent congenital heart block in pregnancies exposed to SSA/Ro antibodies. Finally, the initial pregnancy data for belimumab suggest a high degree of transplacental transfer, but thus far no definitive link between belimumab and congenital abnormalities. Recent studies suggest both novel markers of poor pregnancy outcomes and new approaches to the management of lupus during pregnancy.
Pregnancy outcomes improved significantly over the 20th century in the United States but currently vary widely between women of different ethnic and racial backgrounds. The current health disparities that exist are based, in part, only on differences in socioeconomic status or education. There is wide variability in pregnancy outcomes within specific subgroups of women. Disparities may be due to underlying differences in health before pregnancy, differences in community norms, and individual lifestyle choices and to differences in health care delivery systems. Areas for needed research and promising new models of care are reviewed.
Kotelchuck, Milton; And Others
Using 1978 data from the Massachusetts Birth and Death Registry, examined the effects of WIC prenatal participation. Found that increased WIC participation was associated with enhanced pregnancy outcomes, but suggested that other causal factors also should be considered. (GC)
Zhan, Z P; Yang, Y; Zhan, Y F; Chen, D Y; Liang, L Q; Yang, X Y
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with new onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 263 pregnancies with SLE in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhongshan University from 2001 to 2015 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of all the 263 pregnancies, 188 were diagnosed before pregnancy and 75 were newly diagnosed during pregnancy. Among the 75 new onset SLE, 27, 31, 14 and 3 cases were diagnosed during first trimester, second trimester, third trimester and puerperium, respectively. Active lupus was noted in 81.3% of the patients with new onset SLE. The main clinical manifestations of new onset SLE were lupus nephritis (57.3%) and thrombocytopenia (38.7%). SLEPDAI scores as well as the prevalence of lupus nephritis, and thrombocytopenia in patients with new onset SLE was higher than those in the previously diagnosed ones (P<0.05). Among the 75 new onset SLE pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomesoccurred in 53 patients, including 34 with pregnancy loss, 15with premature, 8with intrauterine growth restriction, 5with fetal distress and5 with neonatal lupus. Compared with patients withnon-newonset SLE, patients with newonset SLEhad a higher prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (56.4% vs 70.7%, P<0.05), and pregnancy loss (21.8% vs 45.3%, P<0.01) but less live birth (78.2% vs 54.7%, P<0.05). Conclusion: Most of the patients with new onset SLE occurred during the first and second trimester. The most common clinical features of new onset SLE were lupus nephritis and thrombocytopenia. Patients with new onset SLE were more prone to active lupus, lupus nephritis and thrombocytopenia, as well as more adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy loss.
Zhang, Shun; Cardarelli, Kathryn; Shim, Ruth; Ye, Jiali; Booker, Karla L.; Rust, George
To explore racial-ethnic disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes among Medicaid recipients, and to estimate excess Medicaid costs associated with the disparities. Cross-sectional study of adverse pregnancy outcomes and Medicaid payments using data from Medicaid Analytic eXtract files on all Medicaid enrollees in fourteen southern states. Compared to other racial and ethnic groups, African American women tended to be younger, more likely to have a Cesarean section, to stay longer in the hospital and to incur higher Medicaid costs. African-American women were also more likely to experience preeclampsia, placental abruption, preterm birth, small birth size for gestational age, and fetal death/stillbirth. Eliminating racial disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes (not counting infant costs), could generate Medicaid cost savings of $114 to $214 million per year in these 14 states. Despite having the same insurance coverage and meeting the same poverty guidelines for Medicaid eligibility, African American women have a higher rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes than White or Hispanic women. Racial disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes not only represent potentially preventable human suffering, but also avoidable economic costs. There is a significant financial return-on-investment opportunity tied to eliminating racial disparities in birth outcomes. With the Affordable Care Act expansion of Medicaid coverage for the year 2014, Medicaid could be powerful public health tool for improving pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23065298
Scheller, Nikolai M; Pasternak, Björn; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Svanström, Henrik; Hviid, Anders
The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for all girls and women 9 to 26 years of age. Some women will have inadvertent exposure to vaccination during early pregnancy, but few data exist regarding the safety of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in this context. We assessed a cohort that included all the women in Denmark who had a pregnancy ending between October 1, 2006, and November 30, 2013. Using nationwide registers, we linked information on vaccination, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and potential confounders among women in the cohort. Women who had vaccine exposure during the prespecified time windows were matched for propensity score in a 1:4 ratio with women who did not have vaccine exposure during the same time windows. Outcomes included spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, major birth defect, small size for gestational age, low birth weight, and preterm birth. In matched analyses, exposure to the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was not associated with significantly higher risks than no exposure for major birth defect (65 cases among 1665 exposed pregnancies and 220 cases among 6660 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.58), spontaneous abortion (20 cases among 463 exposed pregnancies and 131 cases among 1852 unexposed pregnancies; hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.14), preterm birth (116 cases among 1774 exposed pregnancies and 407 cases among 7096 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.42), low birth weight (76 cases among 1768 exposed pregnancies and 277 cases among 7072 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.43), small size for gestational age (171 cases among 1768 exposed pregnancies and 783 cases among 7072 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.02), or stillbirth (2 cases among 501 exposed pregnancies and 4 cases among 2004 unexposed pregnancies; hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.45 to 13
Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph
Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584
Vinturache, Angela; Moledina, Nadia; McDonald, Sheila; Slater, Donna; Tough, Suzanne
women with induced labor, obesity was a significant risk factor for delivery by C-section (adjusted OR 2.2; CI 1.2-4.1). Even among women with term, singleton pregnancies obtaining prenatal care in community-based settings, obese women who undergo labour induction are at increased risk of obstetrical interventions at delivery. These findings highlight the importance of tailored maternal care in pregnancy and at delivery of pregnant women with increased BMI in order to improve the outcomes and wellbeing of these women and their children.
De Santis, Marco; Straface, Gianluca; Cavaliere, Anna F; Carducci, Brigida; Caruso, Alessandro
Sibutramine is a drug that is used in the treatment of obesity. There are currently no epidemiological studies relating to sibutramine exposure in pregnancy. The objective of our study was to determine whether sibutramine exposure during pregnancy constitutes a risk factor to the mother and developing fetus. Fifty-two pregnant women who were exposed to sibutramine in the first trimester of pregnancy, when they were unaware of being pregnant, contacted our Teratology Information Service. We recorded the prospective outcomes of this case series between May 2001 and September 2004 with a complete neonatal follow-up up to 1 month after delivery. Seven cases of hypertensive complications were observed during pregnancies. No cases of congenital anomalies in neonates were observed. Although many more cases are necessary to demonstrate that sibutramine is not teratogenic in pregnancy, our experience improves the counseling of pregnancies occurring involuntarily during sibutramine therapy.
A, Baxi; M, Kaushal
There is a continuous controversy regarding the obstetric perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). There is an ongoing discussion whether theses parameters may show poorer results as compared to spontaneous conception. To evaluate the outcome of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. Prospective case-control study. In this prospective case-control study of 2-year duration, obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared in 36 ART twin pregnancies (Group A) with 138 twins who conceived naturally (Group B). The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. The continuous variables were analyzed by Student's t-test and categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. Pregnancy-related complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage, were similar in both groups. Incidence of cesarean section, preterm delivery, and hospital stay was significantly more in Group A vs. Group B, P < 0.001. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, sepsis, and longer hospital stay (4.8 days vs. 1.6 days, P < 0.001). Increased rates of cesarean section and preterm delivery are the main reasons for increased obstetric risk in pregnancies conceived through ART. Preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications were the main cause for longer stay in hospital in ART-conceived twins.
Background Time-to-pregnancy (TTP) has never been studied in an African setting and there are no data on the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in South Africa. The study objectives were to measure TTP and the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in South Africa, and to determine the reliability of the questionnaire tool. Methods The study was cross-sectional and applied systematic stratified sampling to obtain a representative sample of reproductive age women for a South African population. Data on socio-demographic, work, health and reproductive variables were collected on 1121 women using a standardized questionnaire. A small number (n = 73) of randomly selected questionnaires was repeated to determine reliability of the questionnaire. Data was described using simple summary statistics while Kappa and intra-class correlation statistics were calculated for reliability. Results Of the 1121 women, 47 (4.2%) had never been pregnant. Mean gravidity was 2.3 while mean parity was 2.0 There were a total of 2467 pregnancies; most (87%) resulted in live births, 9.5% in spontaneous abortion and 2.2% in still births. The proportion of planned pregnancies was 39% and the median TTP was 6 months. The reliability of the questionnaire for TTP data was good; 63% for all participants and 97% when censored at 14 months. Overall reliability of reporting adverse pregnancy outcomes was very high, ranging from 90 - 98% for most outcomes. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive population-based reproductive health study in South Africa, to describe the biologic fertility of the population, and provides rates for planned pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The reliability of the study questionnaire was substantial, with most outcomes within 70 - 100% reliability index. The study provides important public information for health practitioners and researchers in reproductive health. It also highlights the need for public health intervention programmes and epidemiological
McLennan, Amelia S; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Ananth, Cande V; Wright, Jason D; Siddiq, Zainab; D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M
in their 40s. Although twin pregnancy is associated with increased risk for most adverse perinatal outcomes, this analysis did not find advanced maternal age to be an additional risk factor for fetal death and infant death. Preterm birth risk was relatively low for women in their late 30s. Risks for adverse outcomes were higher among younger women; further research is indicated to improve outcomes for this demographic group. It may be reasonable to counsel women in their 30s that their age is not a major additional risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes in the setting of twin pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Villalbí, Joan R; Salvador, Joaquin; Cano-Serral, Gemma; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica C; Borrell, Carme
Exposure to tobacco during pregnancy is an important risk factor for infant health. Recently the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy has declined in our area. The objective of this study was to analyse the association between several social variables and the fetal exposure to smoking, as well as the association between maternal smoking and some adverse gestational outcomes. Data collection was cross-sectional. The study population were women in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) delivering a child without birth defects. The sample corresponded to the controls of the Birth Defects Registry of Barcelona, 2% of all pregnancy deliveries in the city from 1994 to 2003 (n = 2297). Information sources were hospital records and a personal interview of mothers. The analysis measured first the association between independent variables (instruction level, social class, occupation, nationality, planned pregnancy, parity, hospital funding and smoking status of the mother's partner) with two dependent variables: smoking at the initiation of pregnancy and quitting during pregnancy. Second, the persistence of smoking over pregnancy and all independent variables were studied with three variables indicating adverse outcomes of pregnancy: low gestation, low birthweight and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Finally, the joint association between the persistence of smoking over pregnancy and social class taken as independent variables was determined with the three variables indicating adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Logistic regression models were fitted, adjusting for maternal age. Results are presented as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of smoking at the onset of gestation was 41%, and 40% of these women quit during pregnancy, so that 25% delivered as active smokers. Fewer women with higher educational levels and from families with non-manual jobs smoked, as did immigrants, those planning pregnancy and women whose partner did not smoke
Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Daar, Shahina
Objectives: Pregnancy in women with homozygous beta thalassaemia (HBT) carries a high risk to both the mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes among this group at a single tertiary centre. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2012 on all women with HBT who received prenatal care and subsequently delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Women who delivered elsewhere and women with the beta thalassaemia trait were excluded. Results: Ten women with HBT were studied with a total of 15 pregnancies and 14 live births. The mean maternal age ± standard deviation (SD) was 27.9 ± 3.7 years, with a range of 24–35 years. There were 14 spontaneous pregnancies and one pregnancy following hormone treatment. Eight women had been on chelation therapy before pregnancy, one of whom needed chelation during late pregnancy. Of the pregnancies, 93% had a successful outcome with a mean ± SD gestational age at delivery of 38.6 ± 0.9 weeks, with a range of 37–40 weeks. Eight babies (57%) were delivered by Caesarean section. The mean ± SD birth weight was 2.6 ± 0.2 kg, with a range of 1.9–3.0 kg. Three babies (21%) were born with low birth weights. Conclusion: Pregnancy is safe and usually has a favourable outcome in patients with HBT, provided that a multidisciplinary team is available. This is the first study of Omani patients with HBT whose pregnancies have resulted in a successful outcome. PMID:25097768
Bouthry, Elise; Picone, Olivier; Hamdi, Ghada; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle
Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in childhood. Rubella infection during pregnancy causes congenital rubella syndrome, including the classic triad of cataracts, cardiac abnormalities and sensorineural deafness. Highly effective vaccines have been developed since 1969, and vaccination campaigns have been established in many countries. Although there has been progress, the prevention and diagnosis of rubella remain problematic. This article reviews the implications and management of rubella during pregnancy.
Hall, Eric S.; Greenberg, James M.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.
Abstract Background: Despite prior efforts to develop pregnancy risk prediction models, there remains a lack of evidence to guide implementation in clinical practice. The current aim was to develop and validate a risk tool grounded in social determinants theory for use among at-risk Medicaid patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 409 women across 17 Cincinnati health centers between September 2013 and April 2014. The primary outcomes included preterm birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal demise, and neonatal death. After random allocation into derivation and validation samples, a multivariable model was developed, and a risk scoring system was assessed and validated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values. Results: The derived multivariable model (n=263) included: prior preterm birth, interpregnancy interval, late prenatal care, comorbid conditions, history of childhood abuse, substance use, tobacco use, body mass index, race, twin gestation, and short cervical length. Using a weighted risk score, each additional point was associated with an odds ratio of 1.57 for adverse outcomes, p<0.001, AUROC=0.79. In the validation sample (n=146), each additional point conferred an odds ratio of 1.20, p=0.03, AUROC=0.63. Using a cutoff of 20% probability for the outcome, sensitivity was 29%, with specificity 82%. Positive and negative predictive values were 22% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Risk scoring based on social determinants can discriminate pregnancy risk within a Medicaid population; however, performance is modest and consistent with prior prediction models. Future research is needed to evaluate whether implementation of risk scoring in Medicaid prenatal care programs improves clinical outcomes. PMID:26102375
Martin, Julie C; Zhou, Shao J; Flynn, Angela C; Malek, Lenka; Greco, Rebecca; Moran, Lisa
Overweight and obesity pre pregnancy or during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal obstetric and fetal complications. Diet is one modifiable risk factor that women may be motivated to improve. General healthy eating guidelines, micronutrient sufficiency and macronutrient quantity and quality are important nutrition considerations pre and during pregnancy. With regards to specific nutrients, health authorities have recommendations for folate and/or iodine supplementation; but not consistently for iron and omega-3 despite evidence for their association with health outcomes. There are modest additional requirements for energy and protein, but not fat or carbohydrate, in mid-late pregnancy. Diet indices and dietary pattern analysis are additional tools or methodologies used to assess diet quality. These tools have been used to determine dietary intakes and patterns and their association with pregnancy complications and birth outcomes pre or during pregnancy. Women who may unnecessarily resist foods due to fear of food contamination from listeriosis and methylmercury may limit their diet quality and a balanced approached is required. Dietary intake may also vary according to certain population characteristics. Additional support for women who are younger, less educated, overweight and obese, from socially disadvantaged areas, smokers and those who unnecessarily avoid healthy foods, is required to achieve a higher quality diet and optimal lifestyle peri conception.
Doğan, Selen; Özyüncü, Özgür; Atak, Zeliha
To determine the effects of fibroids on pregnancy and neonatal parameters. A total of 12,855 consecutive pregnant women admitted to a tertiary care university hospital between January 2002 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 267 patients with fibroids and 267 age- and parity-matched controls were included. The Clavien-Dindo classification was used to grade postoperative complications. Mean gestational age at delivery (p<0.001) and mean neonatal birthweight (p=0.034) were significantly different between the 2 groups. We recorded a higher rate of pain-related hospitalization in the large fibroid group (38.2% and 7.8%, p <0.001). Myomectomy was performed in 124 of 267 patients during cesarean section (C/S). The myomectomy group was associated with lower postoperative hemoglobin levels (p=0.01) and higher need for transfusion (p=0.009). When postpartum hemoglobin levels of the control group and fibroid group without myomectomy were compared, hemoglobin levels were higher in favor of the control group (p = 0.009). Beyond lower gestational age and mean birthweight, perinatal complications did not increase with fibroids during pregnancy. Performing myomectomy increases the need for transfusion (Grade 2) without an increase in the risk of hysterectomy (Grade 3) and other life-threatening complications (Grade 4-5). Leaving fibroids in situ during C/S did not prevent a fall in post-partum hemoglobin levels.
Ghazeeri, Ghina S; Nassar, Anwar H; Younes, Zeina; Awwad, Johnny T
This article is a review of the literature assessing pregnancy outcomes and the effect of metformin treatment among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A review of research published in English was undertaken using PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The weight of the available evidence suggests that pregnant women with PCOS are at an increased risk of developing gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Obesity is a contributory factor for the increased risk of gestational diabetes in this group of women and is estimated to affect 5-40% of pregnant women with PCOS. The prevalence of other obstetric complications is estimated at 10-30% for gestational hypertension, 8-15% for pre-eclampsia and 6-15% for preterm birth. The association between PCOS and early pregnancy loss may not be direct, wherein the presence of PCOS-associated hyperinsulinemia, leading to hyperandrogenemia, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of early pregnancy loss. Apart from the role of metformin in improving the metabolic consequences accompanying PCOS, it has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with PCOS who are resistant to clomiphene citrate. In conclusion, pregnancy in women with PCOS is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes (multiple adverse obstetric risk). Whether metformin should be administered throughout pregnancy still remains controversial. Further prospective studies that foster a larger number of participants and adjust for all potentially confounding factors are needed.
Coppola, Danielle; Russo, Leo J; Kwarta, Robert F; Varughese, Ruana; Schmider, Juergen
A significant number of women of childbearing age have schizophrenia or other psychoses. This means that there is a considerable risk of in utero exposure to risperidone due to maternal use. To determine whether in utero exposure to the atypical antipsychotic risperidone is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal/neonatal outcomes. A search of the Benefit Risk Management Worldwide Safety database, using a selection of preferred terms from the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities, was performed to identify all cases of pregnancy or fetal/neonatal outcomes reported in association with risperidone treatment from its first market launch (international birth date, 1 June 1993) to 31 December 2004. The main measures were the patterns and reporting rates of pregnancy (stillbirth and spontaneous and induced abortion) and fetal/neonatal outcomes (congenital abnormalities, perinatal syndromes and withdrawal symptoms) for women administered risperidone during pregnancy. Overall, 713 pregnancies were identified in women who were receiving risperidone. Data were considered prospective in 516 of these, and retrospective in the remaining 197 cases. The majority of the known adverse pregnancy and fetal/neonatal outcomes were retrospectively reported. Of the 68 prospectively reported pregnancies with a known outcome, organ malformations and spontaneous abortions occurred 3.8% and 16.9% (when the 15 induced abortions were excluded from the denominator, as they were predominantly undertaken for nonmedical reasons), respectively, a finding consistent with background rates of the general population. There were 12 retrospectively reported pregnancies involving major organ malformations, the most frequently reported of which affected the heart, brain, lip and/or palate. There were 37 retrospectively reported pregnancies involving perinatal syndromes, of which 21 cases involved behavioural or motor disorders. In particular, there was a cluster of cases reporting tremor
Cassina, Matteo; De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; van Eijkeren, Marion; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Eleftheriou, Giorgio; Raffagnato, Francesco; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Clementi, Maurizio
To assess the safety of diclofenac during pregnancy. A prospective observational cohort study, evaluating follow-up data of women who contacted Teratology Information Services to get counseling. The exposed group included 145 pregnant women who were exposed to diclofenac between the 5th and the 14th gestational week. A contemporary control group (501 women) was randomly selected from among patients who contacted Teratology Information Services with regard to exposures to agents known not to be teratogenic during a similar period of pregnancy. Major birth malformations were not more common in the study group than in the control group (p=0.07). Our study suggests that the use of diclofenac is relatively safe during the first trimester of pregnancy and the studied sample size makes it possible to exclude a risk of congenital malformation higher than 3.3, with a power of 80%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D'Cruz, Rebecca F.; Ng, Sher M.; Dassan, Pooja
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection with the larvae of Taenia solium from contaminated pork. It is a leading cause of seizures in the developing world. Symptoms may be secondary to live or degenerating cysts, or previous infection causing calcification or gliosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, radiological confirmation of intracranial lesions and immunological testing. Management involves symptom control with antiepileptics and antiparasitic agents. Few cases have been described of maternal NCC during pregnancy. We describe a 25-year-old female presenting to a London hospital with secondary generalized seizures. MRI of the brain confirmed a calcified lesion in the right parietal lobe, and she gave a corroborative history of NCC during her childhood in India. She was stabilized initially on antiepileptics, but during her pregnancy presented with breakthrough seizures and radiological evidence of NCC reactivation. She was managed symptomatically with antiepileptics and completed the pregnancy to term with no fetal complications. PMID:27471595
Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…
Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…
Hilmert, Clayton J; Kvasnicka-Gates, Lexi; Teoh, Ai Ni; Bresin, Konrad; Fiebiger, Siri
To assess the impact of experiencing a major flood during pregnancy on fetal growth and length of gestation, and to consider how flood-related strains might contribute to these effects. The Red River Pregnancy Project was a prospective study carried out for 3 months immediately after the historic 2009 crest of the Red River in Fargo, North Dakota. Pregnant community residents who were at least 18 years old with a singleton, intrauterine pregnancy participated in the study (N = 169). Analyses examined if birth weight and length of gestation were associated with residential distance from flooding and gestational age at time of the flood crest. For pregnancies earlier in gestation during the crest (-1 SD = 12 weeks), birth weight decreased as distance from flooding decreased (-42.29 g/mi, p < .01). For pregnancies later in gestation at crest (+1 SD = 26 weeks), distance was not associated with birth weight (p > .10). Biparietal growth trajectories showed a decrease in growth after the crest of the flood but only for women early in pregnancy. However, various measures of flood related and general stress or strain did not explain these effects. Length of gestation was not associated with distance from or the timing of the flood. Pregnant women in the first trimester who experience a major flood near their homes are at risk of having lower birth weight neonates due to a reduction in fetal growth. The mechanisms of this effect deserve further attention in rapidly mounted investigations after disaster. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Naveiro-Fuentes, Mariña; Puertas Prieto, Alberto; Ruíz, Rocío Sánchez; Carrillo Badillo, María Paz; Ventoso, Francisco Montoya; Gallo Vallejo, José Luis
To compare the outcomes of term gestations with oligohydramnios in the absence of other underlying disorders and term gestations with normal amniotic fluid. A retrospective analysis of obstetric outcomes in 27,708 term pregnancies. We compared three groups: labor induced because of oligohydramnios, spontaneous onset of labor with normal amniotic fluid, and labor induced because of late term pregnancy with normal amniotic fluid. We excluded pregnancies with maternal or fetal diseases or disorders potentially related with amniotic fluid alterations. The main outcome measures were mode of delivery, neonatal birth weight, umbilical artery blood pH, Apgar scores and neonatal discharge status. Compared to spontaneous labor, induction of labor because of oligohydramnios was associated with a higher risk of cesarean delivery and small size of the fetus for gestational age (SGA). Compared to induction because of late term pregnancy there were no significant differences in neonatal, although neonates had a higher risk of being SGA. The only perinatal outcome for which the risk was higher in term pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios was SGA. The systematic induction of labor in these pregnancies should be questioned.
Liu, Li-Ling; Pang, Li-Hong; Deng, Bi-Ye
The aim of the study was to investigate the etiology and pregnancy outcomes in mothers with polyhydramnios through prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy outcome analysis of pregnant women with polyhydramnios. One hundred and thirty women were enrolled. Fifty pregnant women with polyhydramnios were categorized as the case group, and 80 pregnant women with normal amniotic fluid were categorized as the control group. The causes of polyhydramnios and the pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. Two cases had chromosomal abnormalities, seven had severe α-thalassemia, 15 had fetal anomalies, four had maternal-fetal diseases and 22 had unexplained idiopathic polyhydramnios. Significantly, higher occurrences of cesarean section, preterm birth, fetal anomaly, fetal distress, fetal macrosomia and female fetuses occurred in patients with polyhydramnios than in patients without polyhydramnios. Polyhydramnios is associated with a higher occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes. Intensive monitoring of the maternal-fetal condition and prenatal diagnosis is important in patients with polyhydramnios.
Pourali, Leila; Ayati, Sedigheh; Jelodar, Shahrzad; Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Sheikh Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan
Introduction: Regarding to the recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART), twin and multiple pregnancies have increased during past years. Objective: This study was performed to compare obstetrics and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy following ART with spontaneous pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was performed in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 107 dichorionic twin pregnancy were enrolled in two groups: spontaneous group (n=96) and ART group (n=31). Basic criteria and obstetrics and neonatal outcomes information including demographic data, gestational age, mode of delivery, pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), postpartum hemorrhage), neonatal outcomes (weight, first and fifth minute Apgar score, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus) were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: Preterm labor, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia were significantly higher in ART group compared to spontaneous pregnancy group. However, other factors such as anemia, IUGR, postpartum hemorrhage, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal outcomes (weight, 1st and 5th min Apgar score <7, NICU hospitalization, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus). Conclusion: With regard of significantly higher poor outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm labor in ART group, the couples should be aware of these potential risks before choosing ART. PMID:27326416
Tinius, Rachel A.; Cahill, Alison G.; Cade, W. Todd
Aim Maternal obesity is associated with complications and adverse outcomes during the labor and delivery process. In pregnant women with a healthy body weight, maternal physical activity during pregnancy is associated with better obstetric outcomes; however, the effect of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes in obese women is not known. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of self-reported physical activity levels on obstetric outcomes in pregnant obese women. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on 48 active obese women and 48 inactive obese women (N=96) who received prenatal care and delivered at the medical center during the past five years. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared between the active and inactive groups. Results Obese women who were active during pregnancy spent less total time in labor (13.4 hours vs. 19.2 hours, p=0.048) and were less likely to request an epidural (92% vs. 100%, p=0.04). When stratified by parity, active multiparous women spent significantly less total time in labor compared to inactive multiparous (6.2 hours vs. 16.7 hours, p=0.018). There were no statistical differences between groups in rates of cesarean deliveries or neonatal outcomes. Conclusion Maternal physical activity during pregnancy appears to improve obstetric outcomes in obese women, and this improvement may be more pronounced among multiparous women. Our finding is of particular importance as pregnant obese women are at higher risk for adverse and delivery outcomes. PMID:26564274
Nand, N; Deshmukh, A R; Mathur, R; Chauhan, V; Brijlal
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive salt-losing tubulopathy. The incidence of Gitelman syndrome is 25 cases in 1 million among western population. This patient presented with loose stool, vomiting and sudden onset quadriparesis. Investigations revealed hypokalaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hypermagnesuria. Symptoms and hypokalemia improved after starting oral magnesium and potassium supplements. But the patient again presented with symptomatic hypokalemia and delivered a still born foetus with hydrocephalus. Patient was put on potassium sparing diuretics along with supplements and thereafter, has been asymptomatic. There have been very few case reports on Gitelman syndrome in pregnancy and most of them show favourable outcomes. This is a rare case report of a pregnant female with Gitelman syndrome with foetal loss. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.
Barceló-Fimbres, M; Campos-Chillón, L F; Mtango, N R; Altermatt, J; Bonilla, L; Koppang, R; Verstegen, J P
The present work evaluated the benefit of a novel shipping and maturation medium (SMM) not requiring a CO2 gas for maturation and subsequent embryonic development of slaughterhouse and ovum pickup (OPU) bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Four experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, COCs were maturated for 18 hours in SMM and then incubated for 6 hours in, or 24 hours in a conventional system (control). Experiment 2 compared maturation for 24 hours in SMM versus 24 hours in the control. Experiment 3 compared three different incubation temperatures (37 °C, 38 °C, and 38.5 °C) for COCs maturation in SMM. In experiment 4, COCs obtained from 166 OPU sessions (representing two dairy and two beef breeds) in two locations (Wisconsin and California) were matured in SMM or control and evaluated relative to embryo production and pregnancy rates. Frozen semen was used for all experiments. The results for experiment 1 showed that the blastocyst rate and total embryo production rate (TE, Day-7 morulae plus all blastocysts) were higher for SMM than those in the control. However, no differences were observed for cleavage rate or blastocyst stage. In experiment 2, the blastocyst rate and TE were higher for SMM than those in the control; however, there was no difference for cleavage rate, total cell number, blastocyst stage. In experiment 3, the cleavage rate was similar, but the blastocyst rate and TE were greater for 38.5 °C than those for 38.0 °C and 37.5 °C. For experiment 4, Wisconsin OPU-derived COCs had a greater cleavage rate, blastocyst rate, TE, and blastocyst stage for SMM versus control. There were no breed effects. For the California trial, OPU-derived COCs matured in SMM had similar cleavage and pregnancy rates at Day 35 but greater blastocyst rates and transferred embryos per session than the control, which resulted in 2.2 more pregnancies per OPU session. Holstein COCs had superior embryonic development but similar pregnancy compared with Jersey. We
Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Wanapirak, Chanane; Piyamongkol, Wirawit; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Tongsong, Theera
To compare the outcomes after mid-pregnancy cordocentesis between singleton and twin pregnancies. We compared immediate complications and pregnancy outcomes between a cohort of twin pregnancies undergoing mid-pregnancy diagnostic cordocentesis between the years 1989 and 2010, and a control group of singleton pregnancies matched based on maternal age and years of the procedure with a ratio of 1:3. Among 6147 pregnancies undergoing cordocentesis during the study period, 122 twin fetuses met the study criteria and were matched with 336 singleton controls. Success rate of sampling was slightly higher in singleton than in twin gestations (98.8% vs 97.3%), and time required for the procedure was significantly longer in the twin group (8.1 vs 6.3 min, p = 0.02). Immediate complications, such as fetal bradycardia and transient bleeding from the puncture site, were significantly higher in twins (13% vs 6.0%, p = 0.001; and 34.8% vs 26.1%, p = 0.03, respectively). However, fetal loss rate within 2 weeks of cordocentesis was not different (1.4% and 1.1%, p = 0.42). Immediate complications following cordocentesis are significantly higher in twin pregnancies, but fetal loss rate within 2 weeks of the procedure is comparable. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in eligible HIV-infected pregnant women is an important intervention to promote maternal and child health. Increasing the duration of ART received before delivery plays a major role in preventing vertical HIV transmission, but pregnant women across Africa experience significant delays in starting ART, partly due the perceived need to deliver ART counseling and patient education before ART initiation. We examined whether delaying ART to provide pre-ART counseling was associated with improved outcomes among HIV-infected women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 490 HIV-infected pregnant women referred to initiate treatment at an urban ART clinic. At this clinic all patients including pregnant women are screened by a clinician and then undergo three sessions of counseling and patient education prior to starting treatment, commonly introducing delays of 2–4 weeks before ART initiation. Data on viral suppression and retention in care after ART initiation were taken from routine clinic records. Results A total of 382 women initiated ART before delivery (78%); ART initiation before delivery was associated with earlier gestational age at presentation to the ART service (p < 0.001). The median delay between screening and ART initiation was 21 days (IQR, 14–29 days). Overall, 84.7%, 79.6% and 75.0% of women who were pregnant at the time of ART initiation were retained in care at 4, 8 and 12 months after ART initiation, respectively. Among those retained, 91% were virally suppressed at each follow-up visit. However the delay from screening to ART initiation was not associated with retention in care and/or viral suppression throughout the first year on ART in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusions A substantial proportion of eligible pregnant women referred for ART do not begin treatment before delivery in this setting. Among women who do initiate ART, delaying
Adachi, Kristina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. PMID:27144177
Hillman, R Tyler; Garabedian, Matthew James; Wallerstein, Robert J
Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome that primarily affects male fetuses. Affected men are universally infertile; however, there is a paucity of information published on the reproductive potential of affected women. Pregnancy outcomes in affected women have not been described in the literature. We describe the case of pregnancy in an affected woman. Her pregnancy progressed without complication. Her fetus had no stigmata of the syndrome. Her labour and delivery were, however, complicated by a prolonged second stage of labour and need for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery.
Byrne, Laura; Sconza, Rebecca; Foster, Caroline; Tookey, Pat A; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire
To estimate the incidence of first pregnancy in women living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) in the United Kingdom and to compare pregnancy management and outcomes with age-matched women with behaviourally acquired HIV (BHIV). The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood is a comprehensive, population-based surveillance study that collects demographic and clinical data on all pregnant women living with HIV, their children, and all HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was calculated for all women of reproductive age who had been reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood as vertically infected children. These women and their pregnancies were compared to age-matched pregnant women with BHIV. Of the 630 women with PHIV reported in the United Kingdom as children, 7% (45) went on to have at least one pregnancy, with 70 pregnancies reported. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was 13/1000 woman-years. The BHIV comparison group comprised 118 women (184 pregnancies). Women with PHIV were more likely to be on combined antiretroviral therapy at conception and have a lower baseline CD4 cell count (P < 0.01 for both). In adjusted analysis, PHIV and a low baseline CD4 cell count were risk factors for detectable viral load near delivery; older age at conception and being on combined antiretroviral therapy at conception reduced this risk. Women with PHIV in the United Kingdom have a low pregnancy incidence, but those who become pregnant are at risk of detectable viral load near delivery, reflecting their often complex clinical history, adherence, and drug resistance issues.
Nour, Matthew M; Nakashima, Ichiro; Coutinho, Ester; Woodhall, Mark; Sousa, Filipa; Revis, Jon; Takai, Yoshiki; George, Jithin; Kitley, Joanna; Santos, Maria Ernestina; Nour, Joseph M; Cheng, Fan; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Misu, Tatsuro; Martins-da-Silva, Ana; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Vincent, Angela; Palace, Jacqueline; Waters, Patrick; Fujihara, Kazuo; Leite, Maria Isabel
To investigate the association between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and pregnancy outcome. An international cohort of women with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and ≥1 pregnancy was studied retrospectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate whether pregnancy after NMOSD onset was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage (cohort of 40 women) or preeclampsia (cohort of 57 women). Miscarriage rate was higher in pregnancies after NMOSD onset (42.9% [95% confidence interval 17.7%-71.1%] vs. 7.04% [2.33%-15.7%]). Pregnancies conceived after, or up to 3 years before, NMOSD onset had an increased odds ratio of miscarriage (7.28 [1.03-51.6] and 11.6 [1.05-128], respectively), independent of maternal age or history of miscarriage. Pregnancies after, or up to 1 year before, NMOSD onset ending in miscarriage were associated with increased disease activity from 9 months before conception to the end of pregnancy, compared to viable pregnancies (mean annualized relapse rate 0.707 vs. 0.100). The preeclampsia rate (11.5% [6.27%-18.9%]) was significantly higher than reported in population studies. The odds of preeclampsia were greater in women with multiple other autoimmune disorders or miscarriage in the most recent previous pregnancy, but NMOSD onset was not a risk factor. Pregnancy after NMOSD onset is an independent risk factor for miscarriage, and pregnancies conceived at times of high disease activity may be at increased risk of miscarriage. Women who develop NMOSD and have multiple other autoimmune disorders have greater odds of preeclampsia, independent of NMOSD onset timing. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Background Diabetes in pregnancy carries an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and foetus, but it also provides an excellent early opportunity for intervention in the life course for both mother and baby. In the context of the escalating epidemic of chronic diseases among Indigenous Australians, it is vital that this risk is reduced as early as possible in the life course of the individual. The aims of the PANDORA Study are to: (i) accurately assess rates of diabetes in pregnancy in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia, where 38% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers; (ii) assess demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, socioeconomic and early life development factors that may contribute to key maternal and neonatal birth outcomes associated with diabetes in pregnancy; and (iii) monitor relevant post-partum clinical outcomes for both the mothers and their babies. Methods/Design Eligible participants are all NT women with diabetes in pregnancy aged 16 years and over. Information collected includes: standard antenatal clinical information, diagnosis and management of diabetes in pregnancy, socio-economic status, standard clinical birth information (delivery, gestational age, birth weight, adverse antenatal and birth outcomes). Cord blood is collected at the time of delivery and detailed neonatal anthropometric measurements performed within 72 hours of birth. Information will also be collected regarding maternal post-partum glucose tolerance and cardio-metabolic risk factor status, breastfeeding and growth of the baby up to 2 years post-partum in the first instance. Discussion This study will accurately document rates and outcomes of diabetes in pregnancy in the NT of Australia, including the high-risk Indigenous Australian population. The results of this study should contribute to policy and clinical guidelines with the goal of reducing the future risk of obesity and diabetes in both mothers and their offspring. PMID
Maple-Brown, Louise J; Brown, Alex; Lee, I-Lynn; Connors, Christine; Oats, Jeremy; McIntyre, Harold D; Whitbread, Cherie; Moore, Elizabeth; Longmore, Danielle; Dent, Glynis; Corpus, Sumaria; Kirkwood, Marie; Svenson, Stacey; van Dokkum, Paula; Chitturi, Sridhar; Thomas, Sujatha; Eades, Sandra; Stone, Monique; Harris, Mark; Inglis, Chrissie; Dempsey, Karen; Dowden, Michelle; Lynch, Michael; Boyle, Jacqueline; Sayers, Sue; Shaw, Jonathan; Zimmet, Paul; O'Dea, Kerin
Diabetes in pregnancy carries an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and foetus, but it also provides an excellent early opportunity for intervention in the life course for both mother and baby. In the context of the escalating epidemic of chronic diseases among Indigenous Australians, it is vital that this risk is reduced as early as possible in the life course of the individual. The aims of the PANDORA Study are to: (i) accurately assess rates of diabetes in pregnancy in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia, where 38% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers; (ii) assess demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, socioeconomic and early life development factors that may contribute to key maternal and neonatal birth outcomes associated with diabetes in pregnancy; and (iii) monitor relevant post-partum clinical outcomes for both the mothers and their babies. Eligible participants are all NT women with diabetes in pregnancy aged 16 years and over. Information collected includes: standard antenatal clinical information, diagnosis and management of diabetes in pregnancy, socio-economic status, standard clinical birth information (delivery, gestational age, birth weight, adverse antenatal and birth outcomes). Cord blood is collected at the time of delivery and detailed neonatal anthropometric measurements performed within 72 hours of birth. Information will also be collected regarding maternal post-partum glucose tolerance and cardio-metabolic risk factor status, breastfeeding and growth of the baby up to 2 years post-partum in the first instance. This study will accurately document rates and outcomes of diabetes in pregnancy in the NT of Australia, including the high-risk Indigenous Australian population. The results of this study should contribute to policy and clinical guidelines with the goal of reducing the future risk of obesity and diabetes in both mothers and their offspring.
Background Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes. Methods The study is based on data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study including more than 100,000 pregnancies from 1999 to 2008. Information on use of cranberry and socio-demographic factors was retrieved from three self-administered questionnaires completed by the women in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results Among the 68,522 women in the study, 919 (1.3%) women had used cranberry while pregnant. We did not detect any increased risk of congenital malformations after use of cranberry. Furthermore, the use of cranberry was also not associated with increased risk for stillbirth/neonatal death, low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, low Apgar score (<7), neonatal infections or maternal vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Although an association was found between use of cranberry in late pregnancy and vaginal bleeding after pregnancy week 17, further sub-analyses of more severe bleeding outcomes did not support a significant risk. Conclusions The findings of this study, revealing no increased risk of malformations nor any of the following pregnancy outcomes; stillbirth/neonatal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age, low Apgar score and neonatal infections are reassuring. However, maternal vaginal bleeding should be investigated further before any firm conclusion can be drawn. Treatment guidelines on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy recommend antimicrobial
Shek, Noel Wan Man; Hillman, Sarah C; Kilby, Mark D
Single-twin demise can pose substantial risks for the surviving co-twin, including increased risk of fetal loss, preterm delivery, neurovascular injury, and end-organ damage. In this chapter, we summarise recently published research on the causes of single twin demise, the pathophysiology of injury to the surviving co-twin, and the evidence for current management strategies. The gestation at which single intrauterine fetal demise occurs, and the chorionicity of the multiple pregnancies, are the two most important factors when considering the risks to the surviving twin. Management should include fortnightly ultrasound scans for growth, umbilical artery Doppler studies, and liquor volume. In monochorionic twins, more complex Doppler assessment with middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry and a magnetic resonance imaging of the survivor's brain at least 3 weeks after single intrauterine fetal demise occurs should be carried out to look for evidence of neurological morbidity. With no other obstetric complications, dichorionic pregnancies can be delivered at term. Monochorionic pregnancies are more difficult to manage, and are often delivered between 34 and 36 weeks.
Brennan, P A; Grekin, E R; Mednick, S A
Perinatal risk factors are related to persistent and violent criminal outcomes. Prenatal maternal smoking may represent an additional perinatal risk factor for adult criminal outcomes. Our study examines maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of offspring crime in the context of a prospective, longitudinal design. Subjects were a birth cohort of 4169 males born between September 1959 and December 1961 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers self-reported the number of cigarettes smoked daily. When the male offspring were 34 years of age, their arrest histories were checked in the Danish National Criminal Register. Additional data were collected concerning maternal rejection, socioeconomic status, maternal age, pregnancy and delivery complications, use of drugs during pregnancy, paternal criminal history, and parental psychiatric hospitalization. Results indicate a dose-response relationship between amount of maternal prenatal smoking and arrests for nonviolent and violent crimes. Maternal prenatal smoking was particularly related to persistent criminal behavior rather than to arrests confined to adolescence. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled for. Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring. This relationship has not been accounted for by related parental characteristics or perinatal problems. Potential physiologic or central nervous system mediators between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminal outcomes need further study.
Li, F.P.; Gimbrere, K.; Gelber, R.D.; Sallan, S.E.; Flamant, F.; Green, D.M.; Heyn, R.M.; Meadows, A.T.
Outcome of pregnancy was reported by 99 patients who were cured of childhood Wilms' tumor at seven pediatric cancer centers during 1931 to 1979. These patients carried or sired 191 singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks in duration. Among the 114 pregnancies in women who had received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor, an adverse outcome occurred in 34 (30%). There were 17 perinatal deaths (five in premature low-birth-weight infants) and 17 other low-birth-weight infants. Compared with white women in the United States, the irradiated women had an increased perinatal mortality rate (relative risk, 7.9) and an excess of low-birth-weight infants (relative risk, 4.0). In contrast, an adverse outcome was found in two (3%) of the 77 pregnancies in nonirradiated female patients with Wilms' tumor and wives of male patients. The high risk of adverse pregnancy outcome should be considered in the counseling and prenatal care of women who have received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor.
Murphy, D A; Mann, T; O'Keefe, Z; Rotheram-Borus, M J
In this descriptive study, researchers examined pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and sexual behaviors among 67 HIV-infected young women, as well as the women's outcome expectancies and peer and partner norms regarding pregnancy. Many of the women (69%) had been pregnant; 42% had been pregnant at least once since learning their HIV status, with 71% choosing to carry to term, resulting in 25% (N = 5) of the babies infected. The women had positive outcome expectancies related to pregnancy, which were significantly correlated with peer and partner social norms. Lack of knowledge regarding infant transmission, high rates of STDs, and inconsistent condom use all indicate a need for improved intervention regarding pregnancy and decision-making. Suggestions for better methods of providing information to HIV+ young women are provided.
Sirotkina, Meeli; Douroudis, Konstantinos; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Westgren, Magnus
Introduction Chorangiomas (CAs) are the most common non-trophoblastic tumor-like-lesions of the placenta. Although the clinical significance of small CAs is unknown, the large lesions are often associated with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of our study was to assess the maternal clinical characteristics and neonatal outcome in singleton and multiple pregnancies with placental CA. Materials and Methods Among 15742 selected placentas 170 CAs were diagnosed. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were analyzed in singleton (n = 121) and multiple (n = 49) pregnancy groups including 121 and 100 neonates, respectively. Results The frequency of APGAR score <7 at 5 minutes (p = 0,012), abnormal pulsatility index (p = 0,034), and abnormal blood flow class (p = 0,011) were significantly higher in neonates from singleton compared to multiple pregnancies. Significantly smaller CAs in singleton pregnancies were related to small for gestational age neonates (p = 0,00040) and neonates admitted to the neonatal care unit (p = 0,028). In singleton pregnancies, significantly smaller CAs were associated to maternal preeclampsia (p = 0,039) and larger CAs to multiparity (p = 0,005) and smoking (p = 0,001) groups. The frequency of preeclampsia was high in both singleton and multiple pregnancy groups (41,32% vs 26,53%, respectively), however, the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Discussion A high incidence of preeclampsia in cohort of placental CA might lead to a possible recognition of CAs as potential morphologic indicator of placental hypoxia. Conclusion A more favorable pregnancy outcome in multiple gestations compared to the singleton gestations with CAs might reflect an adaptive mechanism for increased demand of oxygen and associated placental tissue hypoxia in this group. PMID:27835686
Greig, Emma; Ash, Alok; Douiri, Abdel
To assess the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women enrolled on a Methadone Substitution Programme (MSP). Retrospective cohort study. Maternity unit of a London teaching hospital and tertiary referral centre. Pregnant women on a MSP whose antenatal care and delivery was at St Thomas' Hospital (STH) between January 2005 and March 2008. Controls were non-MSP mothers closely matched for age, parity and delivery date during the same period. Maternal data was collected from the Liaison Antenatal Drugs and Alcohol Service clinic records and the STH Maternity Unit's computerised database. Neonatal data was extracted from the STH Neonatal database (part of the UK National Neonatal database). Maternal profiles (age, gravidity, parity, ethnicity, BMI, smoking and alcohol history, relationship and employment history), pregnancy details and mode of delivery. Neonatal outcome measures to include gestation age at delivery, birth weight, head circumference, admission rates and length of stay on Special Care Baby Unit plus Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) rates, scoring and treatment. Compared to the non-MSP mothers (n = 88) the MSP group (n = 44) booked later and had a higher incidence of smoking (6.8 vs. 84.1 %), alcohol consumption (10.2 vs. 34.1 %). As a group, they had adverse social background. The MSP group had a higher relative risk (RR) of premature delivery [RR = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66-3.88] and had lower birth weight babies (adjusted RR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.31-3.71) with smaller head circumferences (adjusted RR 1.9; 95% CI 1.06-3.38). NAS occurred in 27 % (95% CI 15.0-42.8) of the MSP group. There was no difference in congenital abnormality between the two groups, but caesarean section rate was higher in the control group. Opiate-addicted mothers have adverse perinatal outcomes even on MSPs. In addition to the drug effect associated social, relationship and accommodation problems should also be addressed as they may affect the outcome. Pregnancy
A, Baxi; M, Kaushal
CONTEXT: There is a continuous controversy regarding the obstetric perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). There is an ongoing discussion whether theses parameters may show poorer results as compared to spontaneous conception. AIMS: To evaluate the outcome of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective case-control study of 2-year duration, obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared in 36 ART twin pregnancies (Group A) with 138 twins who conceived naturally (Group B). The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The continuous variables were analyzed by Student's t-test and categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Pregnancy-related complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage, were similar in both groups. Incidence of cesarean section, preterm delivery, and hospital stay was significantly more in Group A vs. Group B, P < 0.001. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, sepsis, and longer hospital stay (4.8 days vs. 1.6 days, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased rates of cesarean section and preterm delivery are the main reasons for increased obstetric risk in pregnancies conceived through ART. Preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications were the main cause for longer stay in hospital in ART-conceived twins. PMID:19562060
Grzeskowiak, Luke E.; Smith, Brian; Roy, Anil; Dekker, Gustaaf A.
There exists a paucity of data for socially disadvantaged populations describing patterns and predictors of asthma control status and exacerbations during pregnancy, and their relationship to adverse perinatal outcomes. Asthmatic women (n=189) were followed prospectively during pregnancy, with visits at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Data on loss of control, recurrent uncontrolled asthma and moderate/severe exacerbations were collected at each visit and their relationship to perinatal outcomes examined following stratification for fetal sex. 50% of asthmatic women experienced a loss of control or moderate/severe exacerbation during pregnancy, with 22% of women experiencing a moderate/severe exacerbation. Factors associated with an increased risk of women experiencing recurrent uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy included smoking (relative risk 2.92, 95% CI 1.53–5.58), inhaled corticosteroid use at the beginning of pregnancy (relative risk 2.40, 95% CI 1.25–4.60) and increasing maternal age (relative risk 1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11). No factors were associated with moderate/severe exacerbations. Asthma control rather than exacerbations during pregnancy appeared to be most strongly correlated with perinatal outcomes. Following stratification by fetal sex, the presence of recurrent uncontrolled asthma was associated with an increased risk of being small for gestational age in women pregnant with females (33.3% versus 9.5%; p=0.018). In contrast, there was a nonsignificant increased risk of preterm birth in women with recurrent uncontrolled asthma that were pregnant with males (25.0% versus 11.8%; p=0.201) These results suggest that the key to improving perinatal outcomes lies in improving asthma control as early as possible in pregnancy and monitoring throughout pregnancy, rather than focusing on preventing exacerbations alone. PMID:27730170
Maymon, R; Jauniaux, E; Holmes, A; Wiener, Y M; Dreazen, E; Herman, A
Nuchal translucency (NT) measurement for Down's syndrome screening or detecting various fetal anomalies is a reliable sonographic marker. This study evaluates the contribution of NT screening in spontaneously conceived and assisted conception twin pregnancies. Maternal age at measurement, chorionicity, ultrasound features, karyotype results and pregnancy outcome were recorded prospectively and compared in 83 assisted reproduction treatment and 91 spontaneously conceived twins. Pregnancy outcome was evaluated according to maternal age, method of conception, NT data and chorionicity. NT measurements (> or =95 centiles of the normal range) were considered screen-positive and mid-pregnancy fetal karyotyping was advised. Complicated pregnancy outcome, which could be signalled by increased NT, was defined as either chromosomal abnormalities, severe structural defects or fetal demise. Based on NT measurements, 16 fetuses (4.6%) were found to be screen-positive. Five of them had chromosomal aneuploidy and selective termination was performed. The parents also opted for this procedure in another five fetuses because of major structural abnormality diagnosed during NT assessment. No other chromosomal or major fetal abnormality were found post-natally. Although no difference was found in NT, crown-rump length and maternal age between spontaneous and assisted reproduction technology twin pregnancies, the former group had a significantly higher rate of screen-positive results (7 versus 2%, P = 0.047), amniocentesis uptake (33 versus 22%, P = 0.014), monochorionic twining (32 versus 4%, P = 0.001) and complicated pregnancy outcome (11 versus 5%, P = 0.02). The present study confirms that first trimester target scanning can improve outcome by early detection and management of cases with an anomalous co-twin. It also identifies some differences between spontaneously and artificially conceived twin pregnancies in relation to this area of testing.
Bérard, Anick; Sheehy, Odile
Purpose We evaluated the potential and the validity of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (QPC) as a research tool in perinatal pharmacoepidemiology. Methods The QPC was built by linking four administrative databases: RAMQ (medical and pharmaceutical data), Med-Echo (hospitalizations), ISQ (births/deaths), and MELS (Ministry of Education data). A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a random sample of women to collect lifestyle information. The QPC includes data on all pregnancies of women covered by the Quebec provincial prescription drug insurance between 1998 and 2008. Date of entry in the QPC is the first day of pregnancy, and women are followed during and after pregnancy; children are followed after birth up until 2009. The prevalence of prescribed medications before, during and after pregnancy was compared between time-window. Pregnancy outcomes were also estimated among pregnancies ending with a live born infant. Results The QPC included 289,688 pregnancies of 186,165 women. Among them, 167,398 ended with a delivery representing 19.4% of all deliveries occurring in the Province of Quebec between 1998–2009. The total frequency of abortions was 35.9% in the QPC comparable to the 36.4% observed in the Province of Quebec. The prevalence of prescribed medication use was 74.6%, 59.0%, and 79.6% before, during and after pregnancy, respectively. Although there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of use once the pregnancy was diagnosed (p<.01), post-pregnancy prescribed medication use returned above the pre-pregnancy level. The prevalence of pregnancy outcomes found in the QPC were similar to those observed in the Province of Quebec. Conclusion The QPC is an excellent tool for the study of the risk and benefit of drug use during the perinatal period. This cohort has the advantage of including a validated date of beginning of pregnancy giving the possibility of assigning the exact gestational age at the time of maternal exposure. PMID:24705674
Akoï, Koïvogui; Francoise, Julien-Pena; Aurel, Carbunar; Laure-Manuella, Imounga; Christelle, Laruade; Venise, Nebor; Sabrina, Covis
Describe the part that teenage pregnancy plays in overall pregnancies in French Guiana. Descriptive and retrospective study of the medical records of 25,343 women who delivered in French Guiana from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. The study displays and compares several indicators of follow-up visits, pregnancy-linked disorders, delivery and birth outcomes between the years and between minors and adult women. The proportion of teenage pregnancies was 6.8%; it decreased significantly from 7.2% in 2009 to 6.1% in 2012 (p=0.01). The number of antenatal visits was <7 and the visits were mainly provided by the Mother and Child Health ("Protection Maternelle et Infantile", PMI) services (38.6%). The mean (±SD) gestational age at first antenatal visit was 14.1±6.5 weeks. In comparison with adult pregnancies, teenage pregnancies were more frequently concerned with preterm labour (4.6% vs. 2%; p<0.01) but less concerned with gestational diabetes (0% vs. 2.2%; p<0.05) or pregnancy-induced hypertension (2.2% vs. 4.2%; p<0.05). Teenage pregnancies are still frequent in French Guiana, especially in the Eastern and Western communes, where first visits are often delayed by mothers who are minors and take place in PMI services, which offer less clinical, and paraclinical examinations than other settings.
SANT’ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; de CAMPOS, Marinele R.; PASSANEZI, Selma Campos; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; PASSANEZI, Euloir
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG – "no intervention" (n=17) or IG- "intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), late abortion (14-24 weeks) or abortion (<14 weeks). The results obtained were statistically evaluated according to OR, unpaired t test and paired t test at 5% significance level. Results No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline examination. Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001), except for PI. Significant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001). The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Conclusions Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21552714
Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Nielsen, Tine; Vedal, Sissel; Olofsson, May
Substance exposure in utero has been associated with physical birth defects and increased risk of regulatory and neuropsychological difficulties. The aims of this study were to describe women who use substances and are in treatment with respect to the type and number of substances used during pregnancy, as well as their background, and to examine the effect substance use has on gestational age, birth weight, and the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth. A sample of 161 pregnant women and their 163 newborn children were included. The results indicate that the children whose mothers continued to use substances throughout their pregnancies were born at a lower gestational age (Chi-Square = 15.1(2), P < .01); children exposed to poly-substances in utero were more affected than those exposed to only alcohol and those with no substance exposure. The same children were more vulnerable to the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth (Chi-Square = 51.7(2), P < .001). Newborns who were exposed primarily to alcohol in utero were at a significant risk of being born with low birth weight (Chi-Square = 8.8(2), P < .05) compared with those exposed to other types of substances. More than 50% of the mothers ceased using any substances (with the exception of tobacco) by birth, indicating that the treatment program did have an interventional effect on the mothers. The mothers' ability to either cease or decrease the use of substances during pregnancy appears to have direct positive effect on their newborns.
Clapp, James F
Experimental evidence indicates that the primary maternal environmental factor that regulates feto-placental growth is substrate delivery to the placental site, which is the product of maternal substrate levels and the rate of placental-bed blood flow. Thus, maternal factors which change either substrate level or flow alter feto-placental growth rate. The best-studied substrate in human pregnancy is glucose, and there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels and size at birth. Altering the type of carbohydrate eaten (high- v. low-glycaemic sources) changes postprandial glucose and insulin responses in both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and a consistent change in the type of carbohydrate eaten during pregnancy influences both the rate of feto-placental growth and maternal weight gain. Eating primarily high-glycaemic carbohydrate results in feto-placental overgrowth and excessive maternal weight gain, while intake of low-glycaemic carbohydrate produces infants with birth weights between the 25th and the 50th percentile and normal maternal weight gain. The calculated difference in energy retention with similar total energy intakes is of the order of 80,000 kJ. Preliminary information from subsequent metabolic studies indicates that the mechanisms involved include changes in: daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. metabolic efficiency), substrate utilization (glucose oxidation v. lipid oxidation), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Thus, altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be a valuable tool in the management of pregnancies at risk for anomalous feto-placental growth and for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in the non-pregnant state.
Wouldes, Trecia A; Woodward, Lianne J
In recent decades there has been an increase in the methadone dosages prescribed for opioid dependent women during pregnancy. Using prospective longitudinal data from a cohort of 32 methadone exposed and 42 non-methadone exposed infants, this study examined the relationship between maternal methadone dose during pregnancy and a range of infant clinical outcomes. Of particular interest was the extent to which any observed associations might reflect the direct causal effects of maternal methadone dose and/or the confounding effects of adverse maternal lifestyle factors correlated with methadone use during pregnancy. Findings revealed the presence of clear linear relationships between the mean methadone dose prescribed for mothers during pregnancy and a range of adverse infant clinical outcomes. With increasing maternal methadone dose there was a corresponding increase in infants' risk of being born preterm, being symmetrically smaller, spending longer periods in hospital and the need for treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. After due allowance for potentially confounding maternal health and lifestyle factors, maternal methadone dose during pregnancy remained a significant predictor of preterm birth, growth, and the duration of infant hospitalization post delivery. These findings suggest a need to examine more closely the potential impacts of recent trends towards the use of higher methadone dose levels during pregnancy.
Sterling, Lynn; Keunen, Johannes; Wigdor, Emilie; Sermer, Mathew; Maxwell, Cynthia
Women with spinal cord lesions present special challenges during pregnancy. We studied their pregnancy outcomes with regard to medical, obstetrical, and social concerns. We reviewed the records of pregnant women with spinal cord injury who attended our institution between 1999 and 2009. Thirty-two women with a total of 37 pregnancies were identified. Most were nulliparous (65%) with either thoracic or lumbar spinal cord lesions due to neural tube defects (69%), trauma (19%), tumours (9%), or iatrogenic injury (3%). Most had undergone orthopedic surgery (63%) or neurosurgery (53%). The most common medical conditions were neurogenic bladder (53%), anemia (16%), autonomic hyperreflexia (9%), and elevated BMI > 30 (6%). Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 32%. Antibiotic suppression against bacteriuria was used in 35%. Antenatal hospitalization occurred in 46%, most often because of threatened preterm labour (19%). There were 33 live births and two stillbirths (6%). Preterm birth < 37 weeks occurred in 24%. Vaginal birth occurred in 33%. Pregnant women with spinal cord lesions generally have successful pregnancy outcomes. However, their pregnancies are at significant risk for preterm birth, infection, and Caesarean section. Coordinated multidisciplinary care is recommended for optimal management of these pregnancies.
Aktürk, S; Çelebi, Z K; Erdoğmuş, Ş; Kanmaz, A G; Yüce, T; Şengül, Ş; Keven, K
Although pregnancy after kidney transplantation has been considered as high risk for maternal and fetal complications, it can be successful in properly selected patients. It is well known that pregnancy can induce changes in the plasma concentrations of some drugs; however, there has been very limited information about tacrolimus pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. In this study, we evaluated the tacrolimus doses, blood levels, and the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney allograft recipients. From 2004 to 2014, we found 16 pregnancies in 12 kidney allograft recipients at our center. We reviewed the files and data reports including fetal outcomes, graft function, complications, tacrolimus trough levels, and doses. We analyzed the tacrolimus trough levels and doses before pregnancy, during pregnancy (monthly), and in the postpartum period. Throughout the pregnancy, we aimed to achieve tacrolimus trough levels between 4 and 7 ng/mL. All patients were on triple immunosuppression, including tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisolone. In total, 11 of 16 (68.7%) pregnancies were successful, with a mean weight gain of 12.5 ± 1.66 kg. One patient developed gestational diabetes mellitus and 2 had preeclampsia. Although 5 of 11 babies were found to have low birth weight, 4 of these were premature. Two patients lost their grafts, 1 due to acute rejection and the second due to progression of chronic allograft dysfunction. We have shown that tacrolimus doses need to be significantly increased to keep appropriate trough levels during pregnancy (the doses: before, 3.20 ± 0.9 mg/day; first trimester, 5.03 ± 1.5; second trimester, 6.50 ± 1.8; third trimester, 7.30 ± 2.3; post-partum, 3.5 ± 0.9). In conclusion, the dose of tacrolimus needs to be increased to provide safe and stable tacrolimus trough levels during pregnancy. Although pregnancy can be successful in most cases, it should be kept in mind that there is an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, including
Capoccia, Romina; Greub, Gilbert; Baud, David
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may colonize the human genital tract and have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chorioamnionitis, spontaneous preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes are significant contributors to neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, as these bacteria can reside in the normal vaginal flora, there are controversies regarding their true role during pregnancy and thus the need to treat these organisms. We review here the recent data on the epidemiology of mycoplasmas and their clinical role during pregnancy. The association of these organisms with preterm labour has been suggested by many observational studies, but proof of causality remains limited. PCR is an excellent alternative to culture to detect the presence of these organisms, but culture allows antibiotic susceptibility testing. Whether antimicrobial treatment of mycoplasma-colonized pregnant patients can effectively reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes warrants further investigations. The role of Mycoplasma spp. and U. urealyticum in adverse pregnancy outcomes is increasingly accepted. However, sole presence of these microorganisms in the vaginal flora might be insufficient to cause pathological issues, but their combination with other factors such as bacterial vaginosis or cervical incompetence may be additionally needed to induce preterm birth.
Schwartzenburg, Christopher J; Gilmandyar, Dzhamala; Thornburg, Loralei L; Hackney, David N
We sought to explore the clinical variables associated with the loss of rubella immunity during pregnancy and to determine if these changes are linked to obstetrical complications. This is a case-control study in which women were identified whose rubella antibody titers were equivocal or non-immune and compared to those who had retained immunity. Two hundred and eighty-five cases were identified and compared to the same number of controls using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U-test or Fisher's exact test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed. Subjects with diminished immunity were more likely to have public insurance and higher gravidity with a trend toward increased tobacco use. Diminished rubella immunity was not associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, including preterm birth and pre-eclampsia and is likely not a risk factor for these pregnancy outcomes. While no adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with a loss of rubella immunity, women with greater number of pregnancies appear to lose their immunity to rubella. This relationship needs to be explored further and if proven, revaccination prior to pregnancy may need to be addressed.
Enomoto, Kimiko; Aoki, Shigeru; Toma, Rie; Fujiwara, Kana; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Hirahara, Fumiki
Objective To verify whether body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is valid in Japanese women. Method A study was conducted in 97,157 women with singleton pregnancies registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System between January 2013 and December 2013, to examine pregnancy outcomes in four groups stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI category according to the 2009 criteria recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The groups comprised 17,724 underweight women with BMI <18.5, 69,126 normal weight women with BMI 18.5–24.9, 7,502 overweight women with BMI 25–29.9, and 2,805 obese women with BMI ≥30. The pregnancy outcomes were also compared among subgroups stratified by a gestational weight gain below, within, and above the optimal weight gain. Results The higher the pre-pregnancy BMI, the higher the incidences of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, macrosomia, cesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, and post-term birth, but the lower the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA). In all pre-pregnancy BMI category groups, excess gestational weight gain was associated with a higher frequency of large for gestational age and macrosomia; poor weight gain correlated with a higher frequency of SGA, preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and spontaneous preterm birth; and optimal weight gain within the recommended range was associated with a better outcome. Conclusion The BMI classification by the IOM was demonstrated to be valid in Japanese women. PMID:27280958
Ozcan, Tulin; Bacak, Stephen J; Zozzaro-Smith, Paula; Li, Dongmei; Sagcan, Seyhan; Seligman, Neil; Glantz, Christopher J
Objective The objective is to estimate the impact of maternal weight gain outside the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. Study Design Twin pregnancies with two live births between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014 delivered after 23 weeks Finger Lakes Region Perinatal Data System (FLRPDS) and Central New York Region Perinatal Data System were included. Women were classified into three groups using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Perinatal outcomes in women with low or excessive weekly maternal weight gain were assessed using normal weekly weight gain as the referent in each BMI group. Results Low weight gain increased the risk of preterm delivery, birth weight less than the 10th percentile for one or both twins and decreased risk of macrosomia across all BMI groups. There was a decreased risk of hypertensive disorders in women with normal pre-pregnancy weight and an increased risk of gestational diabetes with low weight gain in obese women. Excessive weight gain increased the risk of hypertensive disorders and macrosomia across all BMI groups and decreased the risk of birth weight less than 10th percentile one twin in normal pre-pregnancy BMI group. Conclusion Among twin pregnancies, low weight gain is associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery in all BMI groups and increased risk of gestational diabetes in obese women. Our study did not reveal any benefit from excessive weekly weight gain with potential harm of an increase in risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Normal weight gain per 2009 IOM guidelines should be encouraged to improve pregnancy outcome in all pre-pregnancy BMI groups.
Grigoriadis, Charalampos; Tympa, Aliki; Theodoraki, Kassiani
The progress in research of in vitro fertilization and fetal-maternal medicine allows more women and men, with fertility problems due to cystic fibrosis, to have a baby. In the majority of cases, pregnancy in women with cystic fibrosis results in favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the incidence of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, caesarean section and deterioration of the maternal health are increased. Pre-pregnancy counseling is a crucial component of overall obstetric care, especially in women with poor pulmonary function. Additionally, closer monitoring during pregnancy with a multidisciplinary approach is required. The value of serial ultrasound scans and fetal Doppler assessment is important for the control of maternal and fetal wellbeing, as well as for the definition of the appropriate timing of delivery. In this article, clinical issues of pregnant women with cystic fibrosis are reviewed; counseling, obstetrical management and perinatal outcomes are being discussed.
Koubovec, D; Geerts, L; Odendaal, H J; Stein, Dan J; Vythilingum, B
Data from animal studies show that maternal stress is associated with disturbances in pregnancy outcomes and offspring development and behavior, possibly as a result of permanent structural and functional changes termed "early-life programming." There is growing interest in whether similar relationships are present in humans. Here we review recent significant findings from the literature on the impact of prenatal psychologic stressors on pregnancy outcome and offspring development, with a particular focus on the developing brain. Relevant papers were searched using PubMed, and reference lists from obtained articles were checked. In humans, prenatal stress is associated with pregnancy complications, developmental, cognitive, and behavioral disorders, and possible onset of psychopathology in later life. In contrast to the available research done in animals, virtually nothing is known about the effects of prenatal stress on morphologic fetal brain development, and the mechanisms underlying subsequent associated behavioral changes.
Bateman, B T; Schumacher, H C; Bushnell, C D; Pile-Spellman, J; Simpson, L L; Sacco, R L; Berman, M F
To describe the frequency, risk factors, and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in pregnancy and the postpartum period using a large database of US inpatient hospitalizations. The authors obtained data from an administrative dataset, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which includes approximately 20% of all discharges from non-Federal hospitals, for the years 1993 through 2002. Women aged 15 to 44 years with a diagnosis of ICH were selected from the database for analysis, and within this group patients coded as pregnant or postpartum were identified. Using US Census data, estimates were made of the rates of ICH in pregnant/postpartum and non-pregnant women. Rates of various comorbidities in patients with pregnancy-related ICH were compared to the rates found in the general population of delivering patients using multivariate logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for pregnancy-related ICH. The authors identified 423 patients with pregnancy-related ICH, which corresponded to 6.1 pregnancy-related ICH per 100,000 deliveries and 7.1 pregnancy-related ICH per 100,000 at-risk person-years (compared to 5.0 per 100,000 person-years for non-pregnant women in the age range considered). The increased risk of ICH associated with pregnancy was largely attributable to ICH occurring in the postpartum period. The in-hospital mortality rate for pregnancy-related ICH was 20.3%. ICH accounted for 7.1% of all pregnancy-related mortality recorded in this database. Significant independent risk factors for pregnancy-related ICH included advanced maternal age (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.64), African American race (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.41), preexisting hypertension (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.34 to 5.07), gestational hypertension (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.59), preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR 10.39, 95% CI 8.32 to 12.98), preexisting hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR 9.23, 95% CI 5.26 to 16.19), coagulopathy (OR 20.66, 95% CI 13.67 to 31.23), and
Hanprasertpong, T; Hanprasertpong, J
This retrospective study was conducted to determine the pregnancy outcomes and identify predictive factors of adverse outcomes in pregnant migrant workers who delivered at Songklanagarind Hospital from January 2002 to December 2012. Two hundred and forty migrant worker pregnancies were enrolled. Pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-term birth and foetal intrauterine growth restriction found were 15, 7.9, 13.7 and 3.7%, respectively. No stillbirth was found. Apgar score was = 7 at 1 and 5 min and neonatal intensive care unit admission was found to be 12.1, 4.2 and 11.3%, respectively. Antenatal care place, low haemoglobin level and the presence of maternal underlying disease were significantly related to increased risk of overall adverse maternal outcomes. Only pre-term birth was significantly related to overall adverse neonatal outcomes.
Rebarber, Andrei; Bender, Samuel; Silverstein, Michael; Saltzman, Daniel H; Klauser, Chad K; Fox, Nathan S
To report the obstetrical outcomes in patients with twin pregnancies who underwent an emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage and to compare them to patients with singleton pregnancies undergoing the same procedure. Patients who underwent emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage in the second trimester in one maternal-fetal medicine practice from July 1997 to March 2012 were reviewed. We defined an emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage as any cerclage placed in a patient with a dilated cervix on examination or membranes visible at the external cervical os on speculum examination. We compared outcomes between patients with singleton and twin pregnancies using non-parametric testing. There were 43 patients (12 twin and 31 singleton pregnancies) who underwent emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage placement. The median gestational age at cerclage placement, cervical dilation, maternal age, and cerclage type were similar between the groups. Comparing twins to singletons, the median time from cerclage placement to delivery was similar (92 vs. 106 days, p=0.330), as was the median gestational age at delivery (33.5 vs. 35.0 weeks, p=0.244). The likelihood of delivery at >32 weeks (75.0% vs. 71.0%, p>0.999) and the likelihood of neonatal survival to discharge (83.3% vs. 83.9%, p>0.999) were also similar. Emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage in twin pregnancies can be associated with favorable outcomes, including a high likelihood of delivery at >32 weeks and a high likelihood of survival. Their outcomes appear similar to singleton pregnancies. Cerclage should be considered an option for patients with twin pregnancies and a dilated cervix in the second trimester. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
significant increase in BMI in 1997 relative to 1993 for women of reproductive age, but not for men in that age range or for older men and women. We also show...preventive and curative services, which explains why they are associated not just with positive pregnancy outcomes, but also with improvements in BMI , a more general indicator of health status.
Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Jaiprom, Jedsada; Luewan, Suchaya; Tongsong, Theera
The aim of this study was to determine pregnancy outcomes among early adolescent women (aged ≤ 15 years) compared with those in late adolescence (16-19 years) and adults aged 20-30 years. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies with maternal age ≤15 years (early adolescent), 16-19 years (late adolescent), and 20-30 years (adult). The primary outcomes for comparison were the rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, growth restriction and cesarean section. A total of 33 777 pregnancies, 298 early adolescent, 4456 late adolescent, and 29 023 adults, were enrolled. Most baseline characteristics were comparable but rates of pregnancy complicated by medical diseases were significantly higher in the adults, especially diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension. When compared to the adult group, the early adolescent group had significantly higher rates of preterm birth (31.9% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001), growth restriction (11.7% vs 7.1%, P = 0.002), low birthweight (28.9% vs 14.7%, P < 0.001), while maternal morbidity, such as pre-eclampsia and placenta previa, was similar. Likewise, most of the main outcomes in early adolescents were also significantly higher than those in late adolescents, but with lesser degrees. Interestingly, the primary cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent women (6.7% vs 12.3%, P = 0.005). Early adolescent pregnancy was associated with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular preterm birth and growth restriction, though most maternal morbidity was comparable with that in the control groups. Cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent mothers. This information should be provided to women and their families. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Ayuba, Ibrahim Isa; Gani, Owoeye
Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, it occurs in all races, faiths, socioeconomic statuses, and regions. Teenage pregnancy can have serious physical consequences and teenage mothers are likely to be unmarried, poor and remain uneducated. The objective of the study was to evaluate risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy and compare the obstetric and fetal outcome to older parturient. This is a retrospective study performed over a period of 4 Years (January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010) in Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Bayelsa State, Nigeria where data was retrieved from the hospital records. All teenage mothers (aged 13-19) who had delivery within the period were compared with 180 randomly selected deliveries in the older age group (20-32 years) over the same period. Variables of interest were the demographic characteristics of the women, their obstetric complications and the outcome. There were a total of 1341 deliveries during the study period, out which 83(6.2%) were teenagers. Teenage mothers were significantly more likely to be unbooked, (p = 0.000) Unmarried, (χ=26.2; p = 0.000) had significantly more preterm labor, (P=0.000) and Caesarean sections (P= 0.014). However, there was no difference in both the perinatal and maternal mortality rates between the two groups. Teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta is concentrated among women with less formal education, who are unemployed, unmarried and with inadequate antenatal care and obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome. The provision an appropriate contraceptive method and to look with priority after any pregnancy occurring among this age group cannot be overemphasized.
Neihardt, Joanne E.
To explore the relationship between prenatal parental stress and pregnancy outcome, this study investigated the hypothesis that parents of infants with defects would report greater amounts of stress in the year prior to their infant's birth than would parents of normally developing infants. Data on levels of parental stress were obtained from 37…
Dalzell, Jonathan R; Cannon, Jane A; Simpson, Joanne; Gardner, Roy S; Petrie, Mark C
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare condition with a diverse spectrum of potential outcomes, ranging from frequent complete recovery to fulminant heart failure and death. The pathogenesis of PPCM is not well understood, and relatively little is known about its incidence and prevalence. PPCM is often under-recognised in the clinical setting. Early investigation and diagnosis with subsequent expert management may improve outcomes. The development of registries will allow this condition to be better characterised and may help answer crucial questions regarding its optimal medical and surgical management. This paper reviews the potential approaches to improve outcomes in patients with PPCM.
Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Masin, Michela; Bonsembiante, Barbara; Cosma, Chiara; Barison, Antonella; Toniato, Rosanna; Fedele, Domenico; Lapolla, Annunziata
Recent studies show adverse outcomes of pregnancy among immigrant women from countries with high diabetes rates. We compared maternal and fetal outcomes in immigrant and Italian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) followed up at our center. Maternal characteristics considered were age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, frequency of insulin treatment, timing and mode of delivery, and hypertensive disorders; and, for fetal outcome, infants large or small for gestational age, and fetal complications. Pre-pregnancy BMI and HbA1c were higher in immigrant GDM women than in Italians, and more of them were on insulin. No differences in maternal outcome emerged between the two groups. More large for gestational age (LGA) babies were born to immigrant women than to Italians, but no other differences emerged. Apart from newborn LGA, maternal and fetal outcomes were comparable in our immigrant and Italian GDM women. Immigrant GDM women have favourable outcomes if given access to health care and language and cultural barriers are removed.
Rizwan, Naushaba; Abbasi, Razia Mustafa; Mughal, Razia
Multiple pregnancy still warrants special attention as it is associated with increasing risk for mother and foetus. Preterm delivery increases the risk for baby. This study was conducted to evaluate the risks of pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcome in women with twin pregnancy. It was 2 years observational study from July 2007 to July 2009 at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro. All women admitted to the labour ward with multiple pregnancy after 28 weeks gestation were included in the study. Main outcome measures were maternal complications (i.e., anaemia, preterm labour, pregnancy induced hypertension, postpartum haemorrhage etc.), perinatal morbidity and mortality. All data collected was analysed using SPSS-16. Incidence of multiple pregnancy in this study was 1.44%. Majority of women 52 (81%) were un-booked and only 12 (18%) were booked; 54 (84%) women presented with preterm labour, 10 (15.6%) were at > or = 36 weeks of gestation. Fifty-four (84%) patients presented with preterm labour. Anaemia was found in 42 (65.6%), and hypertension was noted in 31.2% cases. Abruptio placentae occurred in 6.2% of cases, prematurity was the major problem (54, 84.3%). Majority presented between 28-35 weeks gestation, 10 (15.6%) delivered at 36 weeks or above. The most common cause of neonatal death was very low birth weight (in 32.8% cases), followed by sepsis and jaundice. Multiple pregnancy is associated with increasing risk for mother and foetus. Preterm delivery increases the risk for baby.
Harmsen, Marissa J; Browne, Joyce L; Venter, Francois; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Rijken, Marcus J
Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between HIV, ART and serum lipids during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases to obtain articles that measured serum lipid concentrations or the incidence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women. Included articles were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The extracted data was analysed through descriptive analysis. Of the 1264 articles screened, 17 articles were included in this review; eleven reported the incidence of dyslipidaemia, and twelve on maternal serum lipid concentrations under the influence of HIV-infection and ART. No articles reported pregnancy outcomes in relation to serum lipids. Articles were of acceptable quality, but heterogenic in methods and study design. Lipid levels in HIV-infected women increased 1.5-3 fold over the trimesters of pregnancy, and remained within the physiological reference range. The percentage of women with dyslipidaemia was variable between the studies [0-88.9%] and highest in the groups on first generation protease inhibitors and for women on ART at conception. This systematic review observed physiologic concentrations of serum lipids for HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy. Serum lipids were increased in users of first generation protease inhibitors and for those on treatment at conception. There was no information available about pregnancy outcomes. Future studies are needed which include HIV-uninfected control groups, control for potential confounders, and overcome limitations associated with included studies.
Parihar, Anuj Singh; Katoch, Vartika; Rajguru, Sneha A; Rajpoot, Nami; Singh, Pinojj; Wakhle, Sonal
Bacterial invasion in subgingival sites especially of gram-negative organisms are initiators for periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogens with persistent inflammation lead to destruction of periodontium. In recent years, periodontal diseases have been associated with a number of systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular-disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-term low-birth weight (PLBW) and pre-eclampsia. The factors like low socio-economic status, mother's age, race, multiple births, tobacco and drug-abuse may be found to increase risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the same are less correlated with PLBW cases. Even the invasion of both aerobic and anerobic may lead to inflammation of gastrointestinal tract and vagina hence contributing to PLBW. The biological mechanism involved between PLBW and Maternal periodontitis is the translocation of chemical mediators of inflammation. Pre-eclampsia is one of the commonest cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity as it is characterized by hypertension and hyperprotenuria. Improving periodontal health before or during pregnancy may prevent or reduce the occurrences of these adverse pregnancy outcomes and, therefore, reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, this article is an attempt to review the relationship between periodontal condition and altered pregnancy outcome. PMID:26229389
Bastani, Farideh; Hidarnia, Alireza; Montgomery, Kristen S; Aguilar-Vafaei, Maria E; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Maternal anxiety and stress are found to be predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including low birth weight and prematurity. The aim of the study was to determine whether relaxation education in anxious pregnant Iranian women in their first pregnancy affects selected pregnancy outcomes, including birth weight, preterm birth, and surgical delivery rate. A total of 110 obstetrically and medically low-risk primigravid women in Iran with a high anxiety level demonstrated by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In this randomized controlled trial, the experimental group received routine prenatal care along with 7-week applied relaxation training sessions, while the control group received only routine prenatal care. Anxiety and perceived stress were measured by pre-educational and post-educational intervention. Data related to pregnancy outcomes include birth weight, gestational age at birth, and type of delivery. Significant reductions in low birth weight, cesarean section, and/or instrumental extraction were found in the experimental group compared with the control group. No significant differences were found in the rate of preterm birth. The findings suggest beneficial effects of nurse-led relaxation education sessions during the prenatal period. This intervention could serve as a resource for improving pregnancy outcomes in women with high anxiety.
Brin, Mitchell F; Kirby, Russell S; Slavotinek, Anne; Miller-Messana, Mary Ann; Parker, Lori; Yushmanova, Irina; Yang, Huiying
To evaluate pregnancy outcomes following onabotulinumtoxinA (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy category C product) exposure using the Allergan safety database. The Allergan Global Safety Database contains reports of onabotulinumtoxinA administration before/during pregnancy, including both prospective (reported before outcome) and retrospective (outcome already known) cases. The database was searched from 1/1/90 to 12/31/13 for eligible cases where treatment occurred during pregnancy or ≤3 months before conception. To minimize reporting bias, prevalence rates were focused on prospective cases. Of 574 pregnancies with maternal onabotulinumtoxinA exposure, 232 were eligible with known outcomes. Patients received onabotulinumtoxinA most frequently for cosmetic indications (50.5%), movement disorders (16.8%), and pain disorders (14.2%). Of the 137 with dose information, 40.1% received <50U, 14.6% 50U to <100U, 27.7% 100U to <200U, and 17.5% ≥200U. Among 146 cases with known maternal age, 47.9% were ≥35 years. Most (96.0%) fetal exposures occurred during/before the first trimester. Of the 137 prospective cases (139 fetuses), 110 (79.1%) were live births; 29 (20.9%; 95% CI, 14.0-30.0%) ended in fetal loss (21 spontaneous, 8 induced abortions). Among live births, 106 (96.4%) were normal, with four abnormal birth outcomes (1 major fetal defect, 2 minor fetal malformations, 1 birth complication), giving a 2.7% (3/110; 95% CI, 0.6-8.0%) prevalence rate for overall fetal defects. A 24-year retrospective review of the Allergan safety database shows that the prevalence of fetal defects in onabotulinumtoxinA-exposed mothers before/during pregnancy (2.7%) is comparable with background rates in the general population. Pregnancy outcome monitoring in onabotulinumtoxinA-exposed women continues. © 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baroncelli, Silvia; Tamburrini, Enrica; Ravizza, Marina; Pinnetti, Carmela; Dalzero, Serena; Scatà, Manuela; Crepaldi, Alessandra; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Molinari, Atim; Vimercati, Antonella; Maccabruni, Anna; Francisci, Daniela; Rubino, Elena; Floridia, Marco
Pregnancy has been associated with a low risk of HIV disease progression. Most pregnancies with HIV currently involve women who have not experienced AIDS-defining events, and are clinically classified as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) groups A or B. We evaluated the main maternal outcomes among pregnant women with more advanced HIV disease, defined by CDC-C disease stage. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. A total of 566 HIV-infected mothers, 515 in stage A or B (CDC-AB group) and 51 in stage C (CDC-C group) were evaluated. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. No differences were found in the main maternal and neonatal outcomes. Most of the women achieved viral suppression at end of pregnancy (>1000 copies per milliliter: CDC-C: 17.2%; CDC-AB: 13.7%). One year after delivery, HIV replication (HIV-RNA >1000 copies per milliliter) was present in 11.5% of CDC-AB women and 30.0% CDC-C women. Despite lower initial CD4 counts (300 versus 481 cells per microliter), CDC-C women maintained stable CD4 levels during pregnancy, and 1 year after delivery, a significant increase in CD4 count from preconception values was observed in both groups (CDC-C: +72 cells per microliter, p=0.031; CDC-AB: +43 cells per microliter, p<0.001). Only one AIDS event occurred in a woman with a previous diagnosis of AIDS. In CDC-C women, pregnancy is not associated with an increased rate of adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes, and a good immunovirologic response can be expected. During postpartum care, women with more advanced HIV infection should receive particular care to prevent loss of virologic suppression.
Stang, Jamie; Huffman, Laurel G
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all women of reproductive age receive education about maternal and fetal risks associated with prepregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and significant postpartum weight retention, including potential benefits of lifestyle changes. Behavioral counseling to improve dietary intake and physical activity should be provided to overweight and obese women, beginning in the preconception period and continuing throughout pregnancy, for at least 12 to 18 months postpartum. Weight loss before pregnancy may improve fertility and reduce the risk of poor maternal-fetal outcomes, such as preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, assisted delivery, and select congenital anomalies. Lifestyle interventions that moderate gestational weight gain may reduce the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, large for gestational age, and macrosomia, as well as lower the risk for significant postpartum retention. Postpartum interventions that promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors may reduce postpartum weight retention and decrease obesity-related risks in subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of the evidence suggests that there is good evidence to support the role of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes in promoting optimal weight gain during pregnancy; however, there is currently a relative lack of evidence in other areas related to reproductive outcomes.
Scholten, Brenda L; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L; Franx, Arie; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W P M; Koster, Maria P H
Objective To compare the incidences of preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placental implantation or retention problems (ie, placenta praevia, placental abruption and retained placenta) and postpartum haemorrhage between women with and without a history of pregnancy termination. Design A retrospective cohort study using aggregated data from a national perinatal registry. Setting All midwifery practices and hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants All pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy without congenital malformations and a gestational age of ≥20 weeks who delivered between January 2000 and December 2007. Main outcome measures Preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placenta praevia, placental abruption, retained placenta and postpartum haemorrhage. Results A previous pregnancy termination was reported in 16 000 (1.2%) deliveries. The vast majority of these (90–95%) were performed by surgical methods. The incidence of all outcome measures was significantly higher in women with a history of pregnancy termination. Adjusted ORs (95% CI) for cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, preterm delivery, placental implantation or retention problems and postpartum haemorrhage were 4.6 (2.9 to 7.2), 1.11 (1.02 to 1.20), 1.42 (1.29 to 1.55) and 1.16 (1.08 to 1.25), respectively. Associated numbers needed to harm were 1000, 167, 111 and 111, respectively. For any listed adverse outcome, the number needed to harm was 63. Conclusions In this large nationwide cohort study, we found a positive association between surgical termination of pregnancy and subsequent preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placental implantation or retention problems and postpartum haemorrhage in a subsequent pregnancy. Absolute risks for these outcomes, however, remain small. Medicinal termination might be considered first whenever there is a choice between both methods. PMID:23793655
Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Weirong; Li, Xiaotian
To evaluate the natural history and outcome of pregnancies in patients with placental chorioangioma. A total of 16 placentas with a histologic diagnosis of chorioangioma were identified, and the natural history and outcome of pregnancy were evaluated. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committees of our unit, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Thirteen of the 16 cases were associated with a wide variety of fetal complications. Two-thirds of the cases developed complications that either required elective delivery because of fetal distress (n = 4), fetal heart failure (n = 1), oligohydramnion (n = 1), and premature labor of dichorionic twins (n = 1) or resulted in intrauterine fetal death and termination of pregnancy (n = 2). Placental chorioangioma was associated with the development of polyhydramnios, fetal growth restriction, and fetal distress in a significant number of cases. The size, vascularity, and location of the chorioangioma may be three independent factors of maternal and fetal complications. Any of these three factors can influence the outcome of pregnancy. Close antenatal examination should be routinely practiced to allow the timely diagnosis of early fetal heart failure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Khalil, Mounir M; Alzahra, Esgair
The relationship between pregnancy outcomes and fetal gender is well reported from different areas in the world, but not from Africa. In this study, we try to understand whether the recorded phenomenon of association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with a male fetus applies to our population. A total of 29,140 patient records from 2009 and 2010 were retrieved from Aljalaa Maternity Hospital, Tripoli, Libya. Analysis was carried out to find the correlation between fetal gender and different pregnancy outcomes. A male fetus was associated with an increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds risk 1.4), preterm delivery (6.7% for males, 5.5% for females, odds risk 1.24), cesarean section (23.9% for males, 20% for females, odds risk 1.25), and instrumental vaginal delivery (4.4% for males, 3.1% for females, odds risk 1.48), p<0.005. Preeclampsia was more frequent among preterm females and postterm males, p<0.005. It was also more frequent in male-bearing primigravids, p<0.01. We confirm the existence of an adverse effect of a male fetus on pregnancy and labor in our population. We recommend further research to understand the mechanisms and clinical implications of this phenomenon.
Khalil, Mounir M.; Alzahra, Esgair
Objective The relationship between pregnancy outcomes and fetal gender is well reported from different areas in the world, but not from Africa. In this study, we try to understand whether the recorded phenomenon of association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with a male fetus applies to our population. Materials and methods A total of 29,140 patient records from 2009 and 2010 were retrieved from Aljalaa Maternity Hospital, Tripoli, Libya. Analysis was carried out to find the correlation between fetal gender and different pregnancy outcomes. Results A male fetus was associated with an increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds risk 1.4), preterm delivery (6.7% for males, 5.5% for females, odds risk 1.24), cesarean section (23.9% for males, 20% for females, odds risk 1.25), and instrumental vaginal delivery (4.4% for males, 3.1% for females, odds risk 1.48), p<0.005. Preeclampsia was more frequent among preterm females and postterm males, p<0.005. It was also more frequent in male-bearing primigravids, p<0.01. Conclusion We confirm the existence of an adverse effect of a male fetus on pregnancy and labor in our population. We recommend further research to understand the mechanisms and clinical implications of this phenomenon. PMID:23308081
Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Piya-Anant, M
The outcome of 196 pregnancies with Lippes Loop in situ was studied. In 102 cases with inaccessible thread, the IUD was left in place. Ninety-four women had the IUD removed when the thread was still visible. The incidence of spontaneous abortion and premature delivery was 56.8% in the group of 102, and was significantly higher than in those women whose loop was removed. No serious complications occurred in any of the cases. The results suggested that the IUD should be removed early in pregnancy when the string is still accessible.
Matsuki, Yuko; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Koushi; Hisano, Michi; Arata, Naoko; Oku, Kenji; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Sago, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Murashima, Atsuko
Abstract Objective. To clarify the clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) profile in patients with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Methods. Clinical records of 13 pregnant patients (15 pregnancies) with obstetrical APS were reviewed over 10 years. Patients who met the Sapporo Criteria fully were studied, whereas those with only early pregnancy loss were excluded. In addition to classical aPL: lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibody (aCL), and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI); phosphatidylserine-dependent anti-prothrombin antibody (aPS/PT) and kininogen-dependent anti-phosphatidylethanolamine antibody (aPE) were also examined in each case. Results. Cases were divided into two groups according to patient response to standard treatment: good and poor outcome groups. All cases with poor outcome presented LA, with IgG aβ2GPI and IgG aPS/PT were also frequently observed. IgG aPE did not correlate with pregnancy outcome. Conclusion. aPL profile may predict pregnancy outcome in patients with this subset of obstetric APS.
Vivatkusol, Yada; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn
To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) among teenage pregnant women. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG. Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m(2). The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P<0.001). The rates of gestational diabetes mellitus among women who were underweight, overweight, or appropriate weight were not significantly different. More than 60% of teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes.
Zhou, Shao J; Anderson, Amanda J; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria
Routine iodine supplementation during pregnancy is recommended by leading health authorities worldwide, even in countries where the iodine status of the population is sufficient. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of iodine supplementation during pregnancy or the periconceptional period on the development and growth of children. Secondary outcomes included pregnancy outcome and thyroid function. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted. PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched to identify relevant RCTs. Fourteen publications that involved 8 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only 2 included trials reported the growth and development of children and clinical outcomes. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy or the periconceptional period in regions of severe iodine deficiency reduced risk of cretinism, but there were no improvements in childhood intelligence, gross development, growth, or pregnancy outcomes, although there was an improvement in some motor functions. None of the remaining 6 RCTs conducted in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency reported childhood development or growth or pregnancy outcomes. Effects of iodine supplementation on the thyroid function of mothers and their children were inconsistent. In this review, we highlight a lack of quality evidence of the effect of prenatal or periconceptional iodine supplementation on growth and cognitive function of children. Although contemporary RCTs of iodine supplementation with outcomes addressing childhood development are indicated, conduct of such RCTs may not be feasible in populations where iodine supplementation in pregnancy is widely practiced.
Cleghorn de Rohrmoser, D.C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has been implicated in reproductive disorders and malformed offspring in animals. Similarly, some recent research suggests that the exposure of male workers to such hazards on their job may have consequences for their spouses and children. Based on these experimental research studies and analyses of persons working in high risk occupations, a broader study of the potential contribution of paternal work environment variables to the success of pregnancy and birth outcomes seemed warranted. Based upon the literature review, a model was proposed for predicting complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and birth outcome (normal birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations and fetal death). From the 1980 National Natality Survey and the 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey, four sub-samples of married couples, with both husband and wife employed, were selected on the basis of one of the four birth outcomes. The model called for controlling a range of maternal intrinsic and extrinsic health and behavioral variables known to be related to birth outcomes. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to analyze the effects of father's exposure to radiation and solvents on the job, to complications in pregnancy and labor, and to birth outcome, while controlling for maternal variables. The results indicated that none of the paternal variables were predictors of complications in labor. Further, there was no clear pattern of results, though father's degree of exposure to solvents, and exposures to radiation did reach significance in some analyses.
Hinds, T S; West, W L; Knight, E M; Harland, B F
The American public consumes a wide array of caffeinated products as coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and caffeine-containing medication. Therefore, it seems of value to inform both the scientific community and the consumer about the potential effects of excessive caffeine consumption, particularly by pregnant women. The results of this literature review suggest that heavy caffeine use (> or = 300 mg per day) during pregnancy is associated with small reductions in infant birth weight that may be especially detrimental to premature or low-birth-weight infants. Some researchers also document an increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with caffeine consumption prior to and during pregnancy. However, overwhelming evidence indicates that caffeine is not a human teratogen, and that caffeine appears to have no effect on preterm labor and delivery. More research is needed before unambiguous statements about the effects of caffeine on pregnancy outcome variables can be made.
Kozer, E.; Moretti, M. E.; Koren, G.
QUESTION: I am treating a 34-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis. She began taking the new drug leflunomide (Arava) 6 months ago and had good clinical response. She is now planning her first pregnancy. What should she do? ANSWER: Leflunomide is a new and effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. Animal studies have shown an increased rate of malformations and fetal death in various species, but there are no data on pregnancy outcomes in humans treated with leflunomide. Since the drug has a prolonged and unpredictable elimination half-life, it should be stopped during pregnancy. The manufacturer recommends that patients who wish to become pregnant be treated with cholestyramine, which enhances elimination. PMID:11340750
Boyd, Heather A.; Basit, Saima; Harpsøe, Maria C.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Jess, Tine
Background and Objectives Existing data on pregnancy complications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are inconsistent. To address these inconsistencies, we investigated potential associations between IBD, IBD-related medication use during pregnancy, and pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, Apgar score, and congenital abnormalities. Methods We conducted a cohort study in >85,000 Danish National Birth Cohort women who were pregnant in the period 1996-2002 and had information on IBD, IBD-related medication use (systemic or local corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates), pregnancy outcomes and potential confounders. We evaluated associations between IBD and adverse pregnancy/birth outcomes using Cox regression and log-linear binomial regression. Results IBD was strongly and significantly associated with severe pre-eclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes and medically indicated preterm delivery in women using systemic corticosteroids during pregnancy (hazard ratios [HRs] >7). IBD was also associated with premature preterm rupture of membranes in women using local corticosteroid medications (HR 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-8.20) and with medically indicated preterm delivery (HR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99-3.68) in non-medicated women. Furthermore, IBD was associated with low 5-minute Apgar score in term infants (risk ratio [RR] 2.19, 95% CI 1.03-4.66). Finally, Crohn’s disease (but not ulcerative colitis) was associated with major congenital abnormalities in the offspring (RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06-3.21). No child with a congenital abnormality born to a woman with IBD was exposed to systemic corticosteroids in utero. Conclusion Women with IBD are at increased risk of severe pre-eclampsia, medically indicated preterm delivery, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and delivering infants with low Apgar score and major congenital malformations. These associations are only partly explained by severe disease as reflected by systemic corticosteroid use
Chambers, Christina D.; Johnson, Diana L.; Robinson, Luther K.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Xu, Ronghui; Lopez-Jimenez, Janina; Mirrasoul, Nicole; Salas, Elizabeth; Luo, Yunjun J.; Jin, Shelia; Jones, Kenneth Lyons
Objective In preclinical reproductive studies, leflunomide was found to be embryotoxic and teratogenic. Women treated with leflunomide are advised to avoid pregnancy; those who become pregnant are advised to reduce fetal exposure through a cholestyramine drug elimination procedure. The present study was undertaken to investigate pregnancy outcomes in women who received leflunomide and were treated with cholestyramine during pregnancy. Methods Sixty-four pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were treated with leflunomide during pregnancy (95.3% of whom received cholestyramine), 108 pregnant women with RA not treated with leflunomide, and 78 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 1999 and 2009. Information was collected via interview of the mothers, review of medical records, and specialized physical examination of infants. Results There were no significant differences in the overall rate of major structural defects in the exposed group (3 of 56 live births [5.4%]) relative to either comparison group (each 4.2%)(P = 0.13). The rate was similar to the 3–4% expected in the general population. There was no specific pattern of major or minor anomalies. Infants in both the leflunomide-exposed and non–leflunomide-exposed RA groups were born smaller and earlier relative to infants of healthy mothers; however, after adjustment for confounding factors, there were no significant differences between the leflunomide-exposed and non–leflunomide-exposed RA groups. Conclusion Although the sample size is small, these data do not support the notion that there is a substantial increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes due to leflunomide exposure among women who undergo cholestyramine elimination procedure early in pregnancy. These findings can provide some reassurance to women who inadvertently become pregnant while taking leflunomide and undergo the washout procedure. PMID:20131283
Chambers, Christina D; Johnson, Diana L; Robinson, Luther K; Braddock, Stephen R; Xu, Ronghui; Lopez-Jimenez, Janina; Mirrasoul, Nicole; Salas, Elizabeth; Luo, Yunjun J; Jin, Shelia; Jones, Kenneth Lyons
In preclinical reproductive studies, leflunomide was found to be embryotoxic and teratogenic. Women treated with leflunomide are advised to avoid pregnancy; those who become pregnant are advised to reduce fetal exposure through a cholestyramine drug elimination procedure. The present study was undertaken to investigate pregnancy outcomes in women who received leflunomide and were treated with cholestyramine during pregnancy. Sixty-four pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were treated with leflunomide during pregnancy (95.3% of whom received cholestyramine), 108 pregnant women with RA not treated with leflunomide, and 78 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 1999 and 2009. Information was collected via interview of the mothers, review of medical records, and specialized physical examination of infants. There were no significant differences in the overall rate of major structural defects in the exposed group (3 of 56 live births [5.4%]) relative to either comparison group (each 4.2%)(P = 0.13). The rate was similar to the 3-4% expected in the general population. There was no specific pattern of major or minor anomalies. Infants in both the leflunomide-exposed and non-leflunomide-exposed RA groups were born smaller and earlier relative to infants of healthy mothers; however, after adjustment for confounding factors, there were no significant differences between the leflunomide-exposed and non-leflunomide-exposed RA groups. Although the sample size is small, these data do not support the notion that there is a substantial increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes due to leflunomide exposure among women who undergo cholestyramine elimination procedure early in pregnancy. These findings can provide some reassurance to women who inadvertently become pregnant while taking leflunomide and undergo the washout procedure.
Sepulveda, Waldo; Wong, Amy E; Bustos, Juan C; Flores, Ximena; Alcalde, Juan L
To report our experience with the management of triplet pregnancies complicated by an acardiac fetus. During the 5-year period from 2003 to 2008, five cases were identified. The prenatal sonographic findings, antepartum course, antenatal intervention if performed, and perinatal outcome of each case were reviewed. Four pregnancies were spontaneously conceived and one was achieved by in vitro fertilization. Three pregnancies were dichorionic and two were monochorionic, and two acardiac fetuses were part of a monoamniotic set. All cases underwent an early sonographic examination, but the diagnosis was only made in the first trimester in only two cases, as the acardiac fetus was overlooked or inaccurately identified as a dead fetus in the remaining three cases. Early fetal demise before 12 weeks occurred in a case of monochorionic-triamniotic triplets. Percutaneous laser coagulation of the main intra-abdominal vessel was attempted at 17 weeks in two cases, with subsequent delivery after 34 weeks and perinatal survival of three of the four structurally normal fetuses. In the other two pregnancies which were managed expectantly, both were complicated by severe preterm delivery with perinatal survival of three of the four structurally normal fetuses. Overall, there were no survivors in one case, one twin survived in two cases, and two twins survived in the remaining two cases. None of the survivor had neurological sequelae. The presence of an acardiac fetus in a triplet pregnancy carries a high risk for poor pregnancy outcome, including fetal death and severe preterm labor. Prenatal intervention may be indicated in some cases, but does not prevent fetal death of the pump twin.
Ratanajamit, Chaveewan; Vinther Skriver, Mette; Jepsen, Peter; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
This study aimed to examine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in children born to mothers who redeemed a prescription for systemic or topical acyclovir during pregnancy. Data on prescriptions of acyclovir were obtained from the Danish North Jutland Prescription Database and data on pregnancy outcomes from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and the County Hospital Discharge Registry. The risk of malformations, low birth weight, preterm birth and stillbirth in users of acyclovir were compared with non-exposed women using a follow-up design, while the risk of spontaneous abortion was examined using a case-control design. 90 pregnant women had redeemed a prescription for systemic acyclovir, and 995 women for topical acyclovir, during 30 d before conception, or during their pregnancies from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2001. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the exposed relative to the non-exposed for the systemic and topical acyclovir were: malformations, 0.69 (0.17-2.82) and 0.84 (0.51, 1.39); low birth weight, 2.03 (0.50-8.35) and 0.48 (0.21-1.07); preterm birth, 1.04 (0.38-2.85) and 0.95 (0.70-1.28); stillbirth (for topical acyclovir), 1.70 (0.80-3.60); and spontaneous abortion, 2.16 (0.60-7.80) and 1.29 (0.80-3.60). There is increasing evidence that the use of systemic acyclovir is not associated with an increased prevalence of malformations at birth and preterm delivery. The data for low birth weight and spontaneous abortion are still inconclusive, although the risk of spontaneous abortion is increased in women exposed to acyclovir during the first month of pregnancy. The use of topical acyclovir does not seem to be associated with any adverse pregnancy outcome, although data on stillbirth are inconclusive.
O'Brien, Louise M; Bullough, Alexandra S; Owusu, Jocelynn T; Tremblay, Kimberley A; Brincat, Cynthia A; Chames, Mark C; Kalbfleisch, John D; Chervin, Ronald D
This cohort study examined the impact of maternal snoring on key delivery outcomes such as mode of delivery, infant birth centile, and small-for-gestational age. Cohort study. A large tertiary medical center. Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited between March 2007 and December 2010. Women were screened for habitual snoring, as a known marker for sleep disordered breathing. Outcome data were obtained from medical records following delivery and birth centiles were calculated. Of 1,673 women, a total of 35% reported habitual snoring (26% with pregnancy-onset snoring and 9% with chronic snoring). After adjusting for confounders, chronic snoring was associated with small-forgestational age (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66, P = 0.041) and elective cesarean delivery (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.22-4.18, P = 0.008). Pregnancy-onset snoring was associated with emergency cesarean delivery (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.22-2.30, P = 0.001). Maternal snoring during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse delivery outcomes including cesarean delivery and small-for-gestational age. Screening pregnant women for symptoms of SDB may provide an early opportunity to identify women at risk of poor delivery outcomes. IDENTIFIER: NCT01030003.
Goodman, Michael; Mandel, Jack S; DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R
Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used agricultural herbicide that has been the subject of epidemiologic studies assessing its relation to reproductive health problems. This review evaluates both the consistency and the quality of epidemiologic evidence testing the hypothesis that ATR exposure, at usually encountered levels, is a risk factor for birth defects, small for gestational age birth weight, prematurity, miscarriages, and problems of fetal growth and development. We followed the current methodological guidelines for systematic reviews by using two independent researchers to identify, retrieve, and evaluate the relevant epidemiologic literature on the relation of ATR to various adverse outcomes of birth and pregnancy. Each eligible paper was summarized with respect to its methods and results with particular attention to study design and exposure assessment, which have been cited as the main areas of weakness in ATR research. As a quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible, the study results were categorized qualitatively as positive, null, or mixed. The literature on ATR and pregnancy-related health outcomes is growing rapidly, but the quality of the data is poor with most papers using aggregate rather than individual-level information. Without good quality data, the results are difficult to assess; however, it is worth noting that none of the outcome categories demonstrated consistent positive associations across studies. Considering the poor quality of the data and the lack of robust findings across studies, conclusions about a causal link between ATR and adverse pregnancy outcomes are not warranted. PMID:24797711
Siegmund, Anne S; Kampman, Marlies A M; Bilardo, Caterina M; Balci, Ali; van Dijk, Arie P J; Oudijk, Martijn A; Mulder, Barbara J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Koenen, Steven V; Sollie-Szarynska, Krystyna M; Ebels, Tjark; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Pieper, Petronella G
Women with repaired coarctation of the aorta (rCoA) are at risk of hypertensive disorders and other complications during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders in pregnant women are associated with inadequate uteroplacental flow, which is related to adverse offspring outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of maternal cardiac function, placental function and pregnancy complications in women with rCoA. We included 49 pregnant women with rCoA and 69 controls from the prospective ZAHARA-studies (Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren HARtAfwijkingen, pregnancy in congenital heart disease). Clinical evaluation, echocardiography and uteroplacental Doppler flow (UDF) measurements were performed at 20 and 32weeks gestation. Univariable regression analysis was performed. Comparison of rCoA and healthy women. In women with rCoA, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) decreased during pregnancy (25.7mm to 22.8mm, P=0.006). UDF indices and pregnancy complication rates were similar in both groups. Offspring of rCoA women had lower birth weight (3233g versus 3578g, P=0.001), which was associated with β-blocker use during pregnancy (β=-418.0, P=0.01). Association of cardiac function and UDF. Right ventricular (RV) function before pregnancy (TAPSE) and at 20weeks gestation (TAPSE and RV fractional area change) were associated with impaired UDF indices (umbilical artery pulsatility index at 20weeks β=-0.02, P=0.01, resistance index at 20 and 32weeks β=-0.01, P=0.02 and β=-0.02, P=0.01 and uterine artery pulsatility and resistance index at 20weeks gestation β=-0.02, P=0.05 and β=-0.01, P=0.02). Women with rCoA tolerate pregnancy well. However, RV function is altered and is associated with impaired placentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Afolabi, Bosede B.; Moses, Olusanjo E.; Oduyebo, Oyinlola O.
Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora and a malodorous discharge when symptomatic. In pregnancy, BV has been associated with adverse outcomes such as miscarriage, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and low birth weight. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associations of BV and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study with high vaginal swabs obtained from consecutive newly registered antenatal women between 14 and 36 weeks gestation. The women were monitored until delivery, and their pregnancy outcome and demographic data were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed by Nugent score in 64 of 246 women, giving a prevalence rate of 26%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with preterm delivery (risk ratio [RR], 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44–4.98), low birth weight (RR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.29–7.94), and premature rupture of membranes (RR, 6.75; 95% CI, 3.11–14.67). The association between BV and miscarriage (<28 weeks gestation) and neonatal admission for various morbidities was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The prevalence rate of BV among pregnant women in LUTH is high and is significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Routine screening and treatment of women preconceptually may enable interventions to prevent these adverse outcomes. PMID:26989754
Kashiwagi, Maki; Arlettaz, Romaine; Lauper, Urs; Zimmermann, Roland; Hebisch, Gundula
Although methadone maintenance is the standard treatment of opiate addiction in pregnancy, opinion as to its utility is divided. The aim of this study was to analyze polydrug abuse, pregnancy outcome and fetomaternal complications among pregnant women in a major Swiss methadone maintenance program. Prospective data collection of all pregnant opiate addicts and their neonates from 1996 to 2001. Maternal complications occurred in 73% and fetal complications in 34% of the pregnancies. The average methadone dose at delivery in the 89 pregnancies was 40.9 +/- 32.7 (0-150) mg/day. Sixty-four percent of the women were co-users of cocaine and/or heroin. Birthweight was lower in polydrug abusers than in near-exclusive methadone users (p = 0.001). The high rate of maternal complications demonstrates the need for further improvement in antenatal management of opiate addiction in pregnancy. Methadone maintenance is inefficient in preventing pregnancy exposure to additional illicit drug consumption. Additional illicit heroin and/or cocaine abuse does not seem to increase the incidence of fetomaternal complications during pregnancy, but reverses the positive impact of methadone on birthweight. Heroin-assisted treatment may be a more effective method of minimizing the use of street drugs.
Care for the emotional state of pregnant women remains a neglected aspect of obstetric medicine. Many prospective studies have shown that, if a mother is depressed, anxious, or stressed while pregnant, this increases the risk for her child having a wide range of adverse outcomes, including emotional problems, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or impaired cognitive development. Although genetics and postnatal care clearly affect these outcomes, evidence for an additional prenatal causal component is substantial. Prenatal anxiety or depression may contribute 10-15% of the attributable load for emotional and behavioural outcomes. The Nurse Family Partnership remains the only intervention that starts in pregnancy and has been shown to have long-term benefits for the behaviour of the child. Several other interventions, however, are likely to be helpful. Depression, anxiety, and stress during pregnancy are frequently undetected by health professionals, and untreated. Programmes to help with this should eventually improve child outcome.
Sinclair, Susan M; Miller, Richard K; Chambers, Christina; Cooper, Elizabeth M
Nearly 90% of women in the United States have taken medications during pregnancy. Medication exposures during pregnancy can result in adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including birth defects, fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity, and longer-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Advising pregnant women about the safety of medication use during pregnancy is complicated by a lack of data necessary to engage the woman in an informed discussion. Routinely, health care providers turn to the package insert, yet this information can be incomplete and can be based entirely on animal studies. Often, adequate safety data are not available. In a busy clinical setting, health care providers need to be able to quickly locate the most up-to-date information in order to counsel pregnant women concerned about medication exposure. Deciding where to locate the best available information is difficult, particularly when the needed information does not exist. Pregnancy registries are initiated to obtain more data about the safety of specific medication exposures during pregnancy; however, these studies are slow to produce meaningful information, and when they do, the information may not be readily available in a published form. Health care providers have valuable data in their everyday practice that can expand the knowledge base about medication safety during pregnancy. This review aims to discuss the limitations of the package insert regarding medication safety during pregnancy, highlight additional resources available to health care providers to inform practice, and communicate the importance of pregnancy registries for expanding knowledge about medication safety during pregnancy.
Wacker-Gussmann, A; Thriemer, M; Yigitbasi, M; Berger, F; Nagdyman, N
Pregnancy in women with congenital cardiac disease is more frequent due to an increased lifespan and improved health situations. However, the long-term outcomes in these women are not known. We analysed 267 consecutive pregnant women with congenital heart defects who were seen at the German Heart Centre Berlin. This retrospective study included analysis of long-term follow-up data after pregnancy and standard maternal cardiac, obstetric and neonatal outcomes. The long-term data (n = 103) were acquired with a self-assessment questionnaire from each patient. The main primary outcomes of the study included functional class, health, work capability and physical activity. The median age of the patients at delivery was 27 years (range 17-43 years). The median follow-up of all patients was 11 years (range 1-49 years). Twenty-four percent exhibited complex cardiac defects. Primary long-term outcomes included good health in 61 % of the patients. Approximately 68 % worked, and 76 % engaged in physical activity. Thirty-three percent of the women who answered the questionnaire demonstrated a decrease in functional class during pregnancy, but more than two-thirds of these patients subsequently improved. Secondary short-term outcomes included a 4 % miscarriage rate and a 4 % induced abortion rate. The maternal cardiac data revealed that 30 % of the patients lost at least one functional class during pregnancy. Onset arrhythmias were observed in 12 % of the patients. The most prevalent neonatal complication was premature birth, which was present in 12 % of the neonates. Two-thirds of the patients tolerated pregnancy without cardiovascular complications. Most patients displayed good long-term health, work capability and physical activity outcomes. Further prospective controlled studies are necessary to confirm these results and safely advise pregnant women.
Hillemeier, Marianne M; Domino, Marisa E; Wells, Rebecca; Goyal, Ravi K; Kum, Hye-Chung; Cilenti, Dorothy; Timothy Whitmire, J; Basu, Anirban
Care coordination services that link pregnant women to health-promoting resources, avoid duplication of effort, and improve communication between families and providers have been endorsed as a strategy for reducing disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes, however empirical evidence regarding the effects of these services is contradictory and incomplete. This study investigates the effects of maternity care coordination (MCC) on pregnancy outcomes in North Carolina. Birth certificate and Medicaid claims data were analyzed for 7,124 women delivering live infants in North Carolina from October 2008 through September 2010, of whom 2,255 received MCC services. Propensity-weighted analyses were conducted to reduce the influence of selection bias in evaluating program participation. Sensitivity analyses compared these results to conventional ordinary least squares analyses. The unadjusted preterm birth rate was lower among women who received MCC services (7.0 % compared to 8.3 % among controls). Propensity-weighted analyses demonstrated that women receiving services had a 1.8 % point reduction in preterm birth risk; p < 0.05). MCC services were also associated with lower pregnancy weight gain (p = 0.10). No effects of MCC were seen for birthweight. These findings suggest that coordination of care in pregnancy can significantly reduce the risk of preterm delivery among Medicaid-enrolled women. Further research evaluating specific components of care coordination services and their effects on preterm birth risk among racial/ethnic and geographic subgroups of Medicaid enrolled mothers could inform efforts to reduce disparities in pregnancy outcome.
Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Dera, Anna; Szymankiewicz, Marta; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Markwitz, Wiesław
The incidence of multiple pregnancies has increased dramatically over the last few years in developed countries, largely attributed to delayed childbearing and the increasing use of assisted reproduction technologies and ovulation inducing hormones. Relatively few countries have population-based statistics covering birth statistics. Of those that do, the numbers of quintuplet pregnancies rose sharply in the nineties while, at the same time, their delivery rates decreased greatly because of the use of fetal reduction. Fetal reduction is not possible or legal in some countries, Poland being one of them, and therefore obstetricians are faced with the challenges of quintuplet deliveries. Conservative treatment and management is difficult, and outcomes often vary greatly. Despite this, expert care provided at tertiary care centers can positively influence outcomes. The objective of this article is to present different care options and their consequences in two illustrative cases, as well as to establish a set of obstetric care and management goals that would allow prolongation of the gestation time. Quintuplet pregnancy is rare but poses relevant clinical problems to both the obstetrician and the neonatologist. It should be managed with close cooperation between all concerned. Due to the extreme and invariable risk of premature delivery associated with quintuplet pregnancies, we recommend early diagnosis, adequate prenatal care at one tertiary medical center, routine hospitalization and bed rest, repeated ante partum ultrasound surveillance with tests of fetal well-being, tocolytic therapy at first signs of the risk of premature labor, and specialized neonatology care after delivery.
The nutritional status of a woman before and during pregnancy is critical to both her infant's and her own health and survival. It determines her well-being and that of the fetus and child, and in turn the health and reproductive capacity of the next generation's mothers. Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status during the reproductive cycle, particularly during pregnancy, is a widely used, low-technology procedure that has seldom been rigorously evaluated. The need to provide sound technical advice on the utility and feasibility of selected anthropometric indicators for routine application in primary health care, especially in circumstances where resources are limited, led to a meta-analysis of 25 data sets on maternal anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes from 20 different countries, providing information on more than 111,000 births and quantifying to what degree anthropometric measurements are useful and efficient in predicting maternal and child outcomes of pregnancy in the community and at home in different country settings. The next stage will be the demonstration of the operational value of the findings of this study through their successful application in service settings on a large scale. PMID:8529277
The nutritional status of a woman before and during pregnancy is critical to both her infant's and her own health and survival. It determines her well-being and that of the fetus and child, and in turn the health and reproductive capacity of the next generation's mothers. Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status during the reproductive cycle, particularly during pregnancy, is a widely used, low-technology procedure that has seldom been rigorously evaluated. The need to provide sound technical advice on the utility and feasibility of selected anthropometric indicators for routine application in primary health care, especially in circumstances where resources are limited, led to a meta-analysis of 25 data sets on maternal anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes from 20 different countries, providing information on more than 111,000 births and quantifying to what degree anthropometric measurements are useful and efficient in predicting maternal and child outcomes of pregnancy in the community and at home in different country settings. The next stage will be the demonstration of the operational value of the findings of this study through their successful application in service settings on a large scale.
Fang, Cong; Yue, Chao-Min; Huang, Rui; Wei, Li-Na; Jia, Lei
To compare embryo quality and outcomes of blastocysts thawed and transferred the same day with those thawed and cultured overnight before transfer. In this retrospective study, patients with infertility who underwent thawed embryo transfer (TET) the same day as thawing (0TET group) and those that received TET after embryos were thawed and cultured overnight before transfer (1TET group) were enrolled. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to detect the factors associated with the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate, miscarriage rate, and multiple pregnancy rate. A total of 489 patients (489 cycles) were included with 234 in the 0TET group and 255 in the 1TET group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, body mass index (BMI), basal FSH and estradiol (E2) level, and causes of infertility (all, p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the CPR, implantation rate, miscarriage rate, or multiple pregnancy rate between the two groups (all, p > 0.05), and this finding was irrespective of the endometrial preparation method. Pregnancy outcomes are the same for blastocysts thawed and cultured overnight 1 day before transfer and those thawed and transferred on the same day.
Kovo, Michal; Schreiber, Letizia; Elyashiv, Osnat; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Abraham, Golan; Bar, Jacob
To compare pregnancy outcome and placental pathology in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) with and without preeclampsia. Labor, fetal/neonatal outcome, and placental pathology parameters from neonates with a birth weight below the 10 th percentile (FGR), born between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation, were reviewed. Results were compared between pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia (hypertensive FGR [H-FGR]) to those without preeclampsia (normotensive FGR [N-FGR]). Composite neonatal outcome, defined as 1 or more of early complication (respiratory distress, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, transfusion, ventilation, seizure, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, phototherapy, or death), Apgar score ≤ 7 at 5 minutes, and days of hospitalization, were compared between the groups. Placental lesions, classified as lesions related to maternal vascular supply, lesions consistent with fetal thrombo-occlusive disease and inflammatory lesions, maternal inflammatory response, and fetal inflammatory response, were also compared. Women in the H-FGR group (n = 72) were older, with higher body mass index (BMI) and higher rate of preterm labor (<34 weeks) than in the N-FGR group (n = 270), P < .001 for all. Composite neonatal outcome was worse in the H-FGR than in the N-FGR group, 50% versus 15.5%, P < .001. Higher rate of maternal placental vascular lesions was detected in H-FGR compared with N-FGR, 82% versus 57.7%, P < .001. Using a stepwise logistic regression model, maternal BMI (1.13 odds ratio [OR], confidence interval [CI] 1.035-1.227, P = .006) and neonatal birth weight (0.996 OR, CI 0.995-0.998, P < .001) were independently associated with worse neonatal outcome. Worse neonatal outcome and more maternal placental vascular lesions in pregnancy complicated by FGR with preeclampsia versus FGR without preeclampsia suggest different pathophysiology in these entities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zühlke, Liesl; Acquah, Letitia
The World Health Organisation (WHO) supports pre-conception care (PCC) towards improving health and pregnancy outcomes. PPC entails a continuum of promotive, preventative and curative health and social interventions. PPC identifies current and potential medical problems of women of childbearing age towards strategising optimal pregnancy outcomes, whereas antenatal care constitutes the care provided during pregnancy. Optimised PPC and antenatal care would improve civil society and maternal, child and public health. Multiple factors bar most African women from receiving antenatal care. Additionally, PPC is rarely available as a standard of care in many African settings, despite the high maternal mortality rate throughout Africa. African women and healthcare facilitators must cooperate to strategise cost-effective and cost-efficient PPC. This should streamline their limited resources within their socio-cultural preferences, towards short- and long-term improvement of pregnancy outcomes. This review discusses the relevance of and need for PPC in resource-challenged African settings, and emphasises preventative and curative health interventions for congenital and acquired heart disease. We also consider two additional conditions, HIV/AIDS and hypertension, as these are two of the most important co-morbidities encountered in Africa, with significant burden of disease. Finally we advocate strongly for PPC to be considered as a key intervention for reducing maternal mortality rates on the African continent.
Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Adams, Kate; Bell, Michelle L; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Ha, Eun-Hee; Jalaludin, Bin; Slama, Rémy
Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies.
Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Adams, Kate; Bell, Michelle L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Ha, Eun-Hee; Jalaludin, Bin; Slama, Rémy
Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies. PMID:20644693
Little, Bertis B.; Snell, Laura M.; Trimmer, Kenneth J.; Ramin, Susan M.; Ghali, Fred; Blakely, Craig A.; Garret, Andrea
The objective of the study was to analyze possible adverse effects of peripartum cocaine use on maternal and fetal outcomes. Informed consent was given by 720 (97%) of 740 women who delivered consecutively at a large urban public hospital to test an umbilical cord blood sample for the presence of non-medically administered drugs of abuse and alcohol and to be interviewed for the study. Samples were tested for the presence of a cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine-BZE) by radioimmunoassay. The presence of other substances of abuse (alcohol, methamphetamine, opiates) resulted in exclusion from the sample of 143 subjects. Thus, in this cohort analysis, drug-free controls (N = 469) were compared to those positive for cocaine only (N = 108). Peripartum exposure to cocaine only, and no other substances of abuse, was associated with an increased frequency of abruptio placentae (1.9% vs 0% for control, P < 0.004), thick meconium stained amniotic fluid (3.9% vs 0.7% for controls, P < 0.006), premature rupture of membranes (P < 0.02), genitourinary anomalies (OR = 3.6, P < 0.05), abdominal wall defects (OR = 4.4, P < 0.01) and increased frequency of low birth weight (OR = 2.0, P < 0.02). These are important findings because previous studies have been complicated by the confounding effects of other substances of abuse. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:598-602, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Meloni, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Alberico, Salvatore; Tamburrini, Enrica; Pinnetti, Carmela; Bucceri, Anna; Masuelli, Giulia; Viganò, Alessandra; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Antoni, Anna Degli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spinillo, Arsenio; Marocco, Raffaella; Dalzero, Serena; Ravizza, Marina
There is limited information on the relation between glucose levels in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women. To evaluate the potential impact of fasting glucose levels on pregnancy outcomes in a large sample of pregnant women with HIV from a national study, adjusting for potential confounders. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. The main outcomes evaluated in univariate and multivariable analyses were birthweight for gestational age>90th percentile (large for gestational age [LGA]), nonelective cesarean delivery, and preterm delivery. Glucose measurements were considered both as continuous and as categorical variables, following the HAPO study definition. Overall, 1,032 cases were eligible for the analysis. In multivariable analyses, a birthweight>90th percentile was associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per unitary (mg/dL) increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P=.005), a higher body mass index, and parity of 1 or higher. A lower risk of LGA was associated with smoking and African ethnicity. A higher fasting plasma glucose category was significantly associated with LGA occurrence, and AORs for the glucose categories of 90-94 mg/ dL and 95-99 mg/dL were 3.34 (95% CI, 1.09-10.22) and 6.26 (95% CI, 1.82-21.58), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose showed no association with nonelective cesarean section [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02] or preterm delivery [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02]. In pregnant women with HIV, glucose values below the threshold usually defining hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of delivering LGA infants. Other conditions may independently contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in women with HIV and should be considered to identify pregnancies at risk.
Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Ager, Joel W; Greenwald, Mark K; Delaney-Black, Virginia
Detecting patterns of maternal drinking that place fetuses at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is critical to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention but is challenging because information on antenatal drinking collected during pregnancy is often insufficient or lacking. Although retrospective assessments have been considered less favored by many researchers due to presumed poor reliability, this perception may be inaccurate because of reduced maternal denial and/or distortion. The present study hypothesized that fetal alcohol exposure, as assessed retrospectively during child adolescence, would be related significantly to prior measures of maternal drinking and would predict alcohol-related behavioral problems in teens better than antenatal measures of maternal alcohol consumption. Drinking was assessed during pregnancy, and retrospectively about the same pregnancy, at a 14-year follow-up in 288 African-American women using well-validated semistructured interviews. Regression analysis examined the predictive validity of both drinking assessments on pregnancy outcomes and on teacher-reported teen behavior outcomes. Retrospective maternal self-reported drinking assessed 14 years postpartum was significantly higher than antenatal reports of consumption. Retrospective report identified 10.8 times more women as risk drinkers (≥ one drink per day) than the antenatal report. Antenatal and retrospective reports were moderately correlated and both were correlated with the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy based on retrospective report identified significantly more teens exposed prenatally to at-risk alcohol levels than antenatal, in-pregnancy reports. Retrospective report predicted more teen behavior problems (e.g., attention problems and externalizing behaviors) than the antenatal report. Antenatal report predicted younger gestational age at birth and retrospective report predicted smaller birth size
Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Chien
To assess the risks that maternal panic disorder (PD) during pregnancy contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, with the effects further specifically differentiated into mothers who experienced a panic attack during pregnancy and those who did not. This study linked two nationwide population-based datasets: the birth certificate registry and the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset. We identified a total of 371 women who gave birth from 2001 to 2003, who had been diagnosed with PD within 2 years prior to the index delivery, together with 1585 matched women without this chronic disease as a comparison cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios. Results indicated that compared to women without chronic disease, PD mothers who experienced panic manifestations during pregnancy and those who did not were independently associated with respective 2.29- (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14-4.60) and 1.45-fold (95% CI=1.03-2.04) increased risks of having small-for-gestational-age infants. Further, for PD mothers who experienced a panic attack during gestation, the adjusted odds ratio for having a preterm delivery was 2.54 (95% CI=1.09-5.93), whereas no significant difference was identified between PD women who did not have a panic attack during pregnancy and women without PD. Our study was unable to investigate the effects of such risk factors as dietary habits, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use in the regression model. We conclude that prenatal PD, particularly the occurrence of panic attacks during pregnancy, was associated with adverse birth outcomes.
Bro, Søren Pauli; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens
To determine if prenatal exposure to methylphenidate (MPH) or atomoxetine (ATX) increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was a population-based cohort study of all pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. Information on use of ADHD medication, ADHD diagnosis, and pregnancy outcomes was obtained from nationwide registers. We identified 989,932 pregnancies, in which 186 (0.02%) women used MPH/ATX and 275 (0.03%) women had been diagnosed with ADHD but who did not take MPH/ATX. Our reference pregnancies had no exposure to MPH/ATX and no ADHD diagnosis. Exposure to MPH/ATX was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA; ie, death of an embryo or fetus in the first 22 weeks of gestation) (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.36). The risk of SA was also increased in pregnancies where the mother had ADHD but did not use MPH/ATX (aRR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.20). The aRR of Apgar scores <10 was increased among exposed women (aRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.11-3.82) but not among unexposed women with ADHD (aRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.48-2.05). MPH/ATX was associated with a higher risk of SA, but our study indicated that it may at least partly be explained by confounding by indication. Treatment with MPH/ATX was however associated with low Apgar scores <10, an association not found among women with ADHD who did not use MPH/ATX.
Bro, Søren Pauli; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens
Objective To determine if prenatal exposure to methylphenidate (MPH) or atomoxetine (ATX) increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods This was a population-based cohort study of all pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. Information on use of ADHD medication, ADHD diagnosis, and pregnancy outcomes was obtained from nationwide registers. Results We identified 989,932 pregnancies, in which 186 (0.02%) women used MPH/ATX and 275 (0.03%) women had been diagnosed with ADHD but who did not take MPH/ATX. Our reference pregnancies had no exposure to MPH/ATX and no ADHD diagnosis. Exposure to MPH/ATX was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA; ie, death of an embryo or fetus in the first 22 weeks of gestation) (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.36). The risk of SA was also increased in pregnancies where the mother had ADHD but did not use MPH/ATX (aRR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.20). The aRR of Apgar scores <10 was increased among exposed women (aRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.11–3.82) but not among unexposed women with ADHD (aRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.48–2.05). Conclusion MPH/ATX was associated with a higher risk of SA, but our study indicated that it may at least partly be explained by confounding by indication. Treatment with MPH/ATX was however associated with low Apgar scores <10, an association not found among women with ADHD who did not use MPH/ATX. PMID:25657597
van den Broek, Nynke; Dou, Lixia; Othman, Mohammad; Neilson, James P; Gates, Simon; Gülmezoglu, A Metin
The World Health Organization recommends routine vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy or lactation in areas with endemic vitamin A deficiency (where night blindness occurs), based on the expectation that supplementation will improve maternal and newborn outcomes including mortality, morbidity and prevention of anaemia or infection. To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 July 2010). All randomised or quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating the effect of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women. Two review authors independently assessed all studies for inclusion and resolved any disagreement through discussion with a third person. We used pre-prepared data extraction sheets. We examined 88 reports of 31 trials, published between 1931 and 2010, for inclusion in this review. We included 16 trials, excluded 14, and one is awaiting assessment.Overall when trial results are pooled, Vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.10, 3 studies, Nepal, Ghana,UK ), perinatal mortality, neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth or the risk of having a low birthweight baby. Vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk of maternal night blindness (risk ratio (RR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.82, 1 trial Nepal). In vitamin A deficient populations and HIV-positive women, vitamin A supplementation reduces maternal anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.94, 3 trials, Indonesia, Nepal,Tanzania ). There is evidence that vitamin A supplements may reduce maternal clinical infection (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.77, 3 trials, South Africa, Nepal and UK).In HIV-positive women
Reynaud, Quitterie; Poupon-Bourdy, Stéphanie; Rabilloud, Muriel; Al Mufti, Lina; Rousset Jablonski, Christine; Lemonnier, Lydie; Nove-Josserand, Raphaële; Touzet, Sandrine; Durieu, Isabelle
With increasing life expectancy, more women with cystic fibrosis and diabetes mellitus become pregnant. We investigated how pre-gestational diabetes (cystic fibrosis-related diabetes) influenced pregnancy outcome and the clinical status of these women. We analyzed all pregnancies reported to the French cystic fibrosis registry between 2001 and 2012, and compared forced expiratory volume (FEV1 ) and body mass index before and after pregnancy in women with and without pre-gestational diabetes having a first delivery. A total 249 women delivered 314 infants. Among these, 189 women had a first delivery and 29 of these had pre-gestational diabetes. There was a trend towards a higher rate of assisted conception among diabetic women (53.8%) than non-diabetic women (34.5%, p = 0.06), and the rate of cesarean section was significantly higher in diabetic women (48% vs. 21.4%, p = 0.005). The rate of preterm birth and mean infant birthweight did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic women. Forced expiratory volume before pregnancy was significantly lower in the diabetic group. The decline in forced expiratory volume and body mass index following pregnancy did not differ between the women with and those without pre-gestational diabetes. Pre-gestational diabetes in women with cystic fibrosis is associated with a higher rate of cesarean section but does not seem to have a clinically significant impact on fetal growth or preterm delivery. The changes in maternal pulmonary and nutritional status following pregnancy in women with cystic fibrosis were not influenced by pre-gestational diabetes. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Namdar Ahmadabad, Hasan; Kayvan Jafari, Sabah; Nezafat Firizi, Maryam; Abbaspour, Ali Reza; Ghafoori Gharib, Fahime; Ghobadi, Yusef; Gholizadeh, Samira
In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high-dose DEX in the experimental group or saline in the control group on gestational days (GDs) 0.5 to 4.5. Pregnant mice were sacrificed on GDs 7.5, 13.5, or 18.5 and their peripheral blood, placentas, fetuses, and uterine tissue were collected. Decidual and placenta cell supernatants were examined to evaluate the effect of DEX on the proliferation of mononuclear cells, the quantity of uterine macrophages and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also were measured fetal and placental growth parameters on GD 18.5. We found that high doses of DEX were associated with an increased abortion rate, enhancement of the immunosuppressive effect of the decidua, alterations in placental growth parameters, decreased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and a reduced frequency of macrophages and uNK cells. Our data suggest that the high-dose administration of DEX during early pregnancy negatively affected pregnancy outcomes.
Kayvan Jafari, Sabah; Nezafat Firizi, Maryam; Abbaspour, Ali Reza; Ghafoori Gharib, Fahime; Ghobadi, Yusef; Gholizadeh, Samira
Objective In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Methods Pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high-dose DEX in the experimental group or saline in the control group on gestational days (GDs) 0.5 to 4.5. Pregnant mice were sacrificed on GDs 7.5, 13.5, or 18.5 and their peripheral blood, placentas, fetuses, and uterine tissue were collected. Decidual and placenta cell supernatants were examined to evaluate the effect of DEX on the proliferation of mononuclear cells, the quantity of uterine macrophages and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also were measured fetal and placental growth parameters on GD 18.5. Results We found that high doses of DEX were associated with an increased abortion rate, enhancement of the immunosuppressive effect of the decidua, alterations in placental growth parameters, decreased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and a reduced frequency of macrophages and uNK cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that the high-dose administration of DEX during early pregnancy negatively affected pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27104153
Widen, EM; Gallagher, D
Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754
Omar, Khairani; Hasim, Suriati; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Hashim, Syahnaz Mohd; Siraj, Harlina Halizah
To assess the outcomes and risk factors of adolescent pregnancies in 2 major hospitals in Malaysia. We conducted a case-control study of pregnant girls aged 10 through 19 years. The controls were women aged 20 through 35 years who did not become pregnant in their adolescence. Cases and controls were matched for parity and place of delivery. Data were collected from questionnaires and the hospitals' medical records. The study included 102 cases and 102 controls. There were significant associations between adolescent pregnancy and low education level, low socioeconomic status, being raised by a single parent, not engaging in extracurricular school activities, engaging in unsupervised activities with peers after school, and substance abuse (P<0.05 for all); being anemic, being unsure of the expected delivery date, and having few antenatal visits and a late delivery booking; and low Apgar scores and perinatal complications. Adolescent pregnancies are high-risk pregnancies. Better sexual health strategies are required to address the associated complications. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Indigenous women in Latin America have poorer reproductive health outcomes than the general population and face considerable barriers in accessing adequate health services. Indigenous women have high rates of adolescent fertility and unintended pregnancy and may face increased risks for morbidity and mortality related to unsafe abortion. However, research among this population, particularly focusing on social and cultural implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, is significantly limited. This article reviews the literature on unsafe abortion in Latin America and describes successful interventions to ameliorate reproductive health outcomes within Indigenous communities. It also explores important implications for future research. Shedding light on the circumstances, perspectives, and lived realities of Indigenous women of childbearing age, could encourage further qualitative investigation and mitigate negative outcomes through improved understanding of the topic, targeted culturally appropriate interventions, and recommendations for future policy and programming reformations. PMID:23772229
Singh, Harsimran; Murphy, Helen R.; Hendrieckx, Christel; Ritterband, Lee; Speight, Jane
Ineffective management of blood glucose levels during preconception and pregnancy hasbeen associated with severe maternal and fetal complications in women with pre-existing diabetes. Studies have demonstrated that preconception counseling and pre-pregnancy care can dramatically reduce these risks. However, pregnancy-related outcomes in women with diabetes continue to be less than ideal. This review highlights and discusses a variety of patient, provider, and organizational factors that can contribute to these suboptimal outcomes. Based on the findings of studies reviewed and authors' clinical and research experiences, recommendations have been proposed focusing on various aspects of care provided, including improved accessibility to effective preconception and pregnancy-related care and better organized clinic consultations that are sensitive to women's diabetes and pregnancy needs. PMID:24013963
Tita, Alan Thevenet N.; Lai, Yinglei; Bloom, Steven L.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Ramin, Susan M.; Caritis, Steve N.; Grobman, William A; Sorokin, Yoram; Sciscione, Anthony; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; Malone, Fergal D.; Harper, Margaret; Iams, Jay D.
OBJECTIVE To compare pregnancy outcomes by completed week of gestation after 39 weeks with outcomes at 39 weeks. STUDY DESIGN Secondary analysis of a multicenter trial of fetal pulse oximetry in spontaneously laboring or induced nulliparous women ≥36 weeks’ gestation. Maternal outcomes included a composite (treated uterine atony, blood transfusion and peripartum infections) and cesarean delivery. Neonatal outcomes included a composite of death, neonatal respiratory and other morbidities and neonatal ICU admission. RESULTS Among the 4086 women studied, the risks of the composite maternal outcome (p-value for trend<0.001), cesarean delivery (p<0.001) and composite neonatal outcome (p=0.047) increased with increasing gestational age from 39 to ≥41 completed weeks. Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for 40 and ≥41 weeks respectively compared with 39 weeks were 1.29 (1.03–1.64) and 2.05 (1.60–2.64) for composite maternal outcome, 1.28 (1.05–1.57) and 1.75 (1.41–2.16) for cesarean delivery and 1.25 (0.86–1.83) and 1.37 (0.90–2.09) for composite neonatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS Risks of maternal morbidity and cesarean delivery but not neonatal morbidity increased significantly beyond 39 weeks. PMID:22244471
Sands, J J
Renal disease management organizations have reported achieving significant decreases in mortality and hospitalization in conjunction with cost savings, improved patient satisfaction and quality of life. Disease management organizations strive to fill existing gaps in care delivery through the standardized use of risk assessment, predictive modeling, evidence based guidelines and process and outcomes measurement. Patient self-management education and the provision of individual nurse care managers are also key program components. As we more fully measure clinical outcomes and total health-care costs including payments from all insurance and government entities, pharmacy costs and out-of-pocket expenditures, the full implications of disease management can be better defined. The results of this analysis will have a profound influence on United States healthcare policy. At present, current data suggests that the promise of disease management, improved care at reduced cost, can and is being realized in ESRD.
Lenhart, Patricia M.; Wise, Alison; Herring, Amy H.; Nguyen, Thutrang; Caron, Kathleen M.; Stuebe, Alison M.
Objective Reduced maternal plasma levels of the peptide vasodilator adrenomedullin have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We measured the extent to which genetic polymorphisms in the adrenomedullin signaling pathway are associated with birth weight, glycemic regulation, and preeclampsia risk. Study Design We genotyped 1353 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study for 37 ancestry-informative markers and for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adrenomedullin (ADM), complement factor H variant (CFH), and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL). We used linear and logistic regression to model the association between genotype and birth weight, glucose loading test (GLT) results, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes (GDM). All models were adjusted for pregravid BMI, maternal age, and probability of Yoruban ancestry. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Among Caucasian women, ADM rs57153895, a proxy for rs11042725, was associated with reduced birth weight z-score. Among African-American women, ADM rs57153895 was associated with increased birth weight z-score. Two CALCRL variants were associated with GDM risk. CFH rs1061170 was associated with higher GLT results and increased preeclampsia risk. Conclusion Consistent with studies of plasma adrenomedullin and adverse pregnancy outcomes, we found associations between variants in the adrenomedullin signaling pathway and birth weight, glycemic regulation, and preeclampsia. PMID:23797962
Linn, S; Schoenbaum, S C; Monson, R R; Rosner, B; Stubblefield, P G; Ryan, K J
We analyzed interview and record review data from 9,823 deliveries to evaluate the relationship between prior history of induced abortion and subsequent late pregnancy outcomes. Complications such as bleeding in the first and third trimesters, abnormal presentations and premature rupture of the membranes, abruptio placentae, fetal distress, low birth weight, short gestation, and major malformations occurred more often among women with a history of two or more induced abortions. A logistic regression analysis to control for multiple confounding factors showed that a history of one induced abortion was statistically significantly associated with first-trimester bleeding but with no other untoward pregnancy events, and a history of two or more induced abortions was statistically associated with first-trimester bleeding, abnormal presentations, and premature rupture of the membranes. While these relationships merit further research, the results of this study are largely reassuring. A history of one or more prior induced abortions does not appear to increase substantially the risk of adverse late outcomes of subsequent pregnancies.
Kharb, S; Sardana, D; Nanda, S
Background: During normal pregnancy, changes in thyroid function are well documented; however, information regarding thyroid function in preeclampsia is scanty. Aim: The present study was planned to study thyroid hormones in mild and severe preeclamptic women and normotensive women and correlate them with outcome of pregnancy. Subject and Methods: Thyroid hormones were analyzed in mild (n = 50) and severe (n = 50) cases of preeclamptic women and normotensive women (n = 100). Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TT4 levels were higher in mild preeclampsia as compared with severe preeclampsia (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). TT3 levels were lower in preeclampsia (more so in severe preeclamptics as compared with normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant women). Preeclamptic with raised TSH levels had significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and low birth weight (BW). A negative correlation was observed between BW and TSH levels (r = 0.296, P < 0.001) and BW and TT4 levels. A positive correlation was observed between BW and TT3 levels. Conclusion: These findings indicate that there is a state of biochemical hypothyroidism that correlates with severity of preeclampsia and influences obstetric outcome in these women. Identification of thyroid hormone in pregnancy might be of help in predicting occurrence of preeclampsia. PMID:23634328
Li, Min; Huang, S Joseph
Maternal immunity undergoes subtle adjustment in order to tolerate the semi-allogeneic embryo and maintain the host defense against potential pathogens. Concomitantly, coagulation systems change from an anti-coagulant state to a pro-coagulant state to meet the hemostatic challenge of placentation and delivery. Innate immunity and blood coagulation systems are the first line of defense to protect a host against exogenous challenges, including alloantigens and mechanical insults, and preserve the integrity of an organism. The interactions between coagulation and immune systems have been extensively studied. Immune cells play a pivotal role in the initiation of the coagulation cascade, whereas coagulation proteases display substantial immuno-modulatory effects. Upon exogenous challenges, the immune and coagulation systems are capable of potentiating each other leading to a vicious cycle. Natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages (Mphis) and dendritic cells (DCs) are three major innate immune cells that have been demonstrated to play essential roles in early pregnancy. However, immune maladaptation and hemostatic imbalance have been suggested to be responsible for adverse pregnant outcomes, such as preeclampsia (PE), miscarriage, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this review, we will summarize the mutual regulation between blood coagulation and innate immune systems as well as their roles in the maintenance of normal pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Meador, K J; Pennell, P B; Harden, C L; Gordon, J C; Tomson, T; Kaplan, P W; Holmes, G L; French, J A; Hauser, W A; Wells, P G; Cramer, J A
Most pregnant women with epilepsy require antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. Present guidelines recommend optimizing treatment prior to conception, choosing the most effective AED for seizure type and syndrome, using monotherapy and lowest effective dose, and supplementing with folate. The Epilepsy Therapy Project established the international Health Outcomes in Pregnancy and Epilepsy (HOPE) forum to learn more about the impact of AEDs on the developing fetus, particularly the role of pregnancy registries in studying AED teratogenicity. The primary outcome of interest in these registries is the occurrence of major congenital malformations, with some data collected on minor malformations. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes are often beyond the timeframe for follow-up of these registries and require independent study. The HOPE consensus report describes the current state of knowledge and the limitations to interpretations of information from the various sources. Data regarding specific risks for both older and newer AEDs need to be analyzed carefully, considering study designs and confounding factors. There is a critical need for investigations to delineate the underlying mechanisms and explain the variance seen in outcomes across AEDs and within a single AED.
Diskin, M G; Waters, S M; Parr, M H; Kenny, D A
For heifers, beef and moderate-yielding dairy cows, it appears that the fertilisation rate generally lies between 90% and 100%. For high-producing dairy cows, there is a less substantive body of literature, but it would appear that the fertilisation rate is somewhat lower and possibly more variable. In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs in the first 16 days following breeding (Day 0), with emerging evidence of greater losses before Day 8 in high-producing dairy cows. In cattle, late embryo mortality causes serious economic losses because it is often recognised too late to rebreed females. Systemic concentrations of progesterone during both the cycle preceding and following insemination affect embryo survival, with evidence of either excessive or insufficient concentrations being negatively associated with survival rate. The application of direct progesterone supplementation or treatments to increase endogenous output of progesterone to increase embryo survival cannot be recommended at this time. Energy balance and dry matter intake during the first 4 weeks after calving are critically important in determining pregnancies per AI when cows are inseminated at 70-100 days after calving. Level of concentrate supplementation of cows at pasture during the breeding period has minimal effects on conception rates, although sudden reductions in dietary intake should be avoided. For all systems of milk production, more balanced breeding strategies with greater emphasis on fertility and feed intake and/or energy must be developed. There is genetic variability within the Holstein breed for fertility traits, which can be exploited. Genomic technology will not only provide scientists with an improved understanding of the underlying biological processes involved in fertilisation and the establishment of pregnancy, but also, in the future, could identify genes responsible for improved embryo survival. Such information could be incorporated into breeding objectives in
Funk, A; Fendel, H
Between July 1987 and January 1988, 44 patients with a tentative diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy underwent sonographic examination by means of vaginal probe at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the RWTH Aachen. The sonographic findings, all of which were confirmed by subsequent clinical and or surgical clarification, were as follows: an ectopic pregnancy was diganosed in 16 cases, an early intrauterine pregnancy in seven, an intrauterine abortion in seven, and in one case a uterine malformation-a dermoid cyst and a functional cyst. In 11 cases sonographic examination showed the interior genital region to be normal, with no sign of pregnancy. In the 16 ectopic pregnancies diagnosed, it was possible in 13 cases to visualize the pregnancy directly by sonography, including the amniotic sac, and to make measurements. In one case a normally developed ectopic pregnancy with living embryo was seen at the end of the seventh week of gestation post menstruationem. In the remaining three cases the diagnosis was established on the basis of an empty cavum uteri associated with a slightly enlarged uterus and demonstration of fluid in the pouch of Douglas. In two cases the ectopic pregnancy was correctly localized by "feeling" with the intravaginal probe to establish the cause of circumscribed pain. In three case the tentative diagnosis of an ectopic pregnancy made on the basis of sonographic findings was not confirmed by subsequent clarification procedures. The results described show that in most cases ectopic pregnancies can be demonstrated directly by sonography using an intravaginal probe.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that are associated with heterotopic pregnancy (HP) following in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) and to demonstrate the outcomes of HP after the surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancies. Forty-eight patients from a single center, who were diagnosed with HP between 1998 and 2012 were included. All of the patients had received infertility treatments, such as Clomid with timed coitus (n = 1, 2.1%), superovulation with intrauterine insemination (n = 7, 14.6%), fresh non-donor IVF-ET (n = 33, 68.8%), and frozen-thawed cycles (n = 7, 14.6%). Eighty-four additional patients were randomly selected as controls from the IVF registry database. HP was diagnosed at 7.5 ± 1.2 weeks (range 5.4-10.3) gestational age. In six cases (12.5%), the diagnosis was made three weeks after the patients underwent treatment for abortion. There were significant differences in the history of ectopic pregnancy (22.5% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in either group between the rates of first trimester intrauterine fetal loss (15.0% vs. 13.1%) or live birth (80.0% vs. 84.1%) after the surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy. The risk factors for HP include a history of ectopic pregnancy (OR 7.191 [1.591-32.513], P = 0.010), abortion (OR 3.948 [1.574-9.902], P = 0.003), and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) (OR 10.773 [2.415-48.060], P = 0.002). In patients undergoing IVF-ET, history of ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and OHSS may be risk factors for HP as compared to the control group of other IVF patients. The surgical treatment of HP does not appear to affect the rates of first trimester fetal loss or live birth. PMID:27366008
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W
pregnancy may improve Black adolescent mothers' birth outcomes. Intervening on long-term violence may be particularly important.
Abe, Kanako; Hamada, Hiromi; Yamada, Takahiro; Obata-Yasuoka, Mana; Minakami, Hisanori; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki
To investigate whether planning of pregnancy in women with epilepsy affects seizure control during pregnancy and to compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes in planned and unplanned pregnancies. This was a retrospective cohort study of 153 pregnant women with epilepsy who were treated at the University of Tsukuba Hospital and Hokkaido University Hospital between 2003 and 2011. Twenty-one pregnancies were excluded due to insufficient data. Data of patients followed by neurologists during their planned pregnancies (planned-pregnancy group, n=51) were compared to those of patients referred to neurologists after conception for managing epilepsy during pregnancy (unplanned-pregnancy group, n=81). The treatment profile for epilepsy, seizure control, and maternal and neonatal outcomes in both groups were compared using Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test. Compared to the unplanned-pregnancy group, the planned-pregnancy group showed a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (80% vs. 61%: planned vs. unplanned, P=0.049) and those not requiring valproic acid (77% vs. 56%, P=0.031). Furthermore, the frequency of epileptic seizures (16% vs. 35%, P=0.018) and changes in antiepileptic drugs (24% vs. 41%, P=0.042) were significantly lower in the planned-pregnancy group than in the unplanned-pregnancy group. No significant intergroup differences were noted in the obstetric complications and neonatal outcomes, including congenital malformations. For women with epilepsy, planning of pregnancy is associated with good seizure control during pregnancy and less fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, Hunter B; Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; Bronsert, Michael; Hammermeister, Karl E; Henderson, William G; Moore, Ernest E; Meguid, Robert A
The literature regarding the occurrence of adverse outcomes following nonobstetric surgery in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women has conflicting findings. Those differing conclusions may be the result of inadequate adjustment for differences between pregnant and nonpregnant women. It remains unclear whether pregnancy is a risk factor for postoperative morbidity and mortality of the woman after general surgery. To compare the risk of postoperative complications in pregnant vs nonpregnant women undergoing similar general surgical procedures. In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant user file from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Propensity-matched females based on 63 preoperative characteristics were matched 1:1 with nonpregnant women undergoing the same operations by general surgeons. Operations performed between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, were analyzed for postoperative adverse events occurring within 30 days of surgery. Rates of 30-day postoperative mortality, overall morbidity, and 21 individual postoperative complications were compared. The unmatched cohorts included 2764 pregnant women (50.5% underwent emergency surgery) and 516,705 nonpregnant women (13.2% underwent emergency surgery) undergoing general surgery. After propensity matching, there were no meaningful differences in all 63 preoperative characteristics between 2539 pregnant and 2539 nonpregnant patients (all standardized differences, <0.1). The 30-day mortality rates were similar (0.4% in pregnant women vs 0.3% in nonpregnant women; P = .82), and the rate of overall morbidity was also not significantly different between pregnant vs nonpregnant patients (6.6% vs 7.4%; P = .30). There was no significant difference in overall morbidity or 30-day mortality rates in pregnant and nonpregnant propensity-matched women undergoing similar general surgical operations
Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Azizi, Maryam; Darvish, Leili
Nuchal Translucency (NT) is the sonographic form of subcutaneous gathering of liquid behind the foetal neck in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is association of increased NT with chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities. The purpose of this systemic review was to review the pregnancy outcome of abnormal nuchal translucency. The present systematic review was conducted by searching English language articles from sources such as International Medical Sciences, Medline, Web of science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL. Persian articles were searched from Iranmedex and SID sources. Related key words were "outcome", "pregnancy", "abnormal", and "Nuchal Translucency" (NT). All, randomized, descriptive, analytic-descriptive, case control study conducted during 1997-2015 were included. Including duplicate articles, 95 related articles were found. After reviewing article titles, 30 unrelated article and abstracts were removed, and 65 articles were evaluated of which 30 articles were duplicate. Finally 22 articles were selected for final analysis. Exclusion criteria were, case studies and reports and quasi experimental designs. This evaluation has optioned negative relationship between nuchal translucency and pregnancy result. Rate of cardiac, chromosomal and other defects are correlated with increased NT≥2.5mm. Cardiac disease which were associated to the increased NT are heart murmur, systolic organic murmur, Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary valve insufficiency, Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) and Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). The most common problems that related with increased NT were allergic symptoms. According to this systematic review, increased NT is associated with various foetal defects. To verify the presence of malformations, birth defect consultations with a perinatologist and additional tests are required.
Cutts, Diana B; Coleman, Sharon; Black, Maureen M; Chilton, Mariana M; Cook, John T; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Heeren, Timothy C; Meyers, Alan; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Frank, Deborah A
Evaluate homelessness during pregnancy as a unique, time-dependent risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. 9,995 mothers of children <48 months old surveyed at emergency departments and primary care clinics in five US cities. Mothers were classified as either homeless during pregnancy with the index child, homeless only after the index child's birth, or consistently housed. Outcomes included birth weight as a continuous variable, as well as categorical outcomes of low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm delivery (<37 weeks). Multiple logistic regression and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, comparing prenatal and postnatal homelessness with the referent group of consistently housed mothers, controlling for maternal demographic characteristics, smoking, and child age at interview. Prenatal homelessness was associated with higher adjusted odds of LBW (AOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.14, 1.80, p < 0.01) and preterm delivery (AOR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.56, p = 0.08), and a 53 g lower adjusted mean birth weight (p = 0.08). Postnatal homelessness was not associated with these outcomes. Prenatal homelessness is an independent risk factor for LBW, rather than merely a marker of adverse maternal and social characteristics associated with homelessness. Targeted interventions to provide housing and health care to homeless women during pregnancy may result in improved birth outcomes.
Ferraro, Zachary M; Gaudet, Laura; Adamo, Kristi B
Pregnancy is a critical period of body weight regulation. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain have become increasingly common and contribute to poor obstetrical outcomes for mother and baby. Regular participation in physical activity may improve risk profiles in pregnant women. Our objectives were to provide an overview of maternal-fetal exercise physiology, summarize current evidence on the effects of physical activity during pregnancy on maternal-fetal outcomes, and review the most recent clinical practice guidelines. In addition, we summarize the findings in the context of the current obesity epidemic and discuss implications for clinical practice. A literature review was completed in which we queried OVID (Medline), EMBASE, and PSYCHINFO databases with title words "exercise or physical activity" and "pregnancy or gestation" from 1950 to March 1, 2010. A total of 212 articles were selected for review. Care providers should recommend physical activity to most pregnant women (i.e., those without contraindications) and view participation as a safe and beneficial component of a healthy pregnancy. Obstetricians & Gynecologists and Family Physicians. After participating in this CME activity, physicians should be better able to classify the potential impact of physical activity on maternal glycemic control and fetal growth outcomes. Assess maternal lifestyle and provide recommendations on appropriate gestational weight gain, evaluate pregnant women for contraindications to physical activity participation, make individualized recommendations for exercise participation, and educate patients on the merits of physical activity for health benefit.
Coughlin, Catherine G.; Blackwell, Katherine A.; Bartley, Christine; Hay, Madeleine; Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Bloch, Michael H.
Objective Antipsychotic medications are used by increasing numbers of women of reproductive age. The safety of these medications during pregnancy has not been well-described. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes associated with exposure to antipsychotics during pregnancy. Data Sources PubMed, Reprotox, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify potential studies for inclusion. Methods of Study Selection Case-control or cohort studies estimating adverse birth outcomes associated with antipsychotic exposure during pregnancy were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were used for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences (WMD) were used for infant birth weight and gestational age. Thirteen cohort studies, including 6,289 antipsychotic-exposed and 1,618,039 unexposed pregnancies were included. Tabulation, Integration, and Results Antipsychotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of major malformations (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00 – 0.05, p=0.04, Z = 2.06), heart defects (Absolute Risk Difference =0.01, 95% CI 0.00 – 0.01, p<0.001, Z = 3.44), preterm delivery (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 – 0.08, p<0.001, Z = 4.10), small-for-gestational-age births (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02 – 0.09, p = 0.006, Z = 2.74), elective termination (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.09, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.13, p<0.001, Z = 4.69) and decreased birth weight (WMD=−57.89g, 95%CI −103.69g – −12.10g, p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the risk of major malformations (test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 0.07, df = 1, p = 0.79) between typical (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.21 – 1.99, p = 0.006) and atypical (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.66 – 2.93, p = 0.38) antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic exposure was not associated with risk of large for gestational age births, stillbirth, and spontaneous abortion. Although antipsychotic
Rahman, Mizanur; DaVanzo, Julie; Razzaque, Abdur
The Matlab Maternal Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) project provides maternity care as part of its reproductive health services. It is important to assess whether this project has reduced maternal mortality and, if so, whether this was due to differences between the MCH-FP area (which received project services) and the comparison area (which did not) in pregnancy rates, pregnancy outcomes or case-fatality rates. Data from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System on 165,894 pregnancies over the period 1982-2005 were used to calculate four measures of maternal mortality for the MCH-FP and comparison areas. Mortality risk was examined by type of pregnancy outcome and by area, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to generate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, respectively. The maternal mortality rate of 35 deaths per 100,000 women of reproductive age in the MCH-FP area was 37% lower than that in the comparison area (56 deaths per 100,000). In both areas, the maternal mortality risk was considerably higher for pregnancies that ended in induced abortion, miscarriage or stillbirth than for those that resulted in live birth (odds ratios, 4.2, 2.0 and 17.4, respectively). The difference in maternal mortality rates between the two areas was mainly a result of the MCH-FP area's lower pregnancy rate and its lower case-fatality rates for induced abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths. Interventions to increase contraceptive use; to reduce the incidence of induced abortion, miscarriage and stillbirth; to improve the management of such outcomes; and to strengthen antenatal care could substantially reduce maternal mortality in Bangladesh and similar countries.
Price, Bradley B; Amini, Saeid B; Kappeler, Kaelyn
A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the benefits and possible risks of aerobic exercise during pregnancy, using a fitness regimen based on the 2002 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for exercise during pregnancy. Inactive women were randomized at 12-14 wk gestation to a group that remained sedentary or to a group that performed moderate aerobic exercise 45-60 min, 4 d·wk, through 36 wk gestation. Thirty-one subjects in each group completed the study. Compared with women who remained sedentary, active women improved aerobic fitness (P < 0.05) and muscular strength (P < 0.01), delivered comparable size infants with significantly fewer cesarean deliveries (P < 0.01), and recovered faster postpartum (P < 0.05), at least related to the lower incidence of cesarean section. Active women developed no gestational hypertension (P = 0.16 compared with controls) and reported no injuries related to the exercise regimen. In the active group, there was one premature birth at 33 wk by a woman with a history of premature delivery of twins at 34 wk. There were no differences between groups in the incidence of gestational diabetes, musculoskeletal pains during pregnancy, flexibility on sit-and-reach test, mean length of pregnancy, neonatal Apgar scores, placenta weights, overall length of labor, weight gain during pregnancy, or weight retention postpartum. Previously sedentary women who began exercising at 12-14 wk improved fitness and delivery outcomes.
Kaur, Maninder; Geisinger, Maria L.; Geurs, Nicolaas C.; Griffin, Russell; Vassilopoulos, Philip J.; Vermeulen, Lisa; Haigh, Sandra; Reddy, Michael S.
Background Data are limited on the potential effect of intensive oral hygiene regimens and periodontal therapy during pregnancy on periodontal health, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum cytokines, and pregnancy outcomes. Methods A clinical trial was conducted on 120 community-dwelling, 16- to 35-year-old pregnant women at 16 to 24 weeks of gestation. Each participant presented with clinical evidence of generalized, moderate-to-severe gingivitis. Oral hygiene products were provided, together with instructions for an intensive daily regimen of hygiene practices. Non-surgical therapy was provided at baseline. Oral examinations were completed at baseline and again at 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, samples of blood and GCF were collected at baseline and week 8. Mean changes in clinical variables and GCF and serum cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) between baseline and week 8 were calculated using paired t test. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded at parturition. Results Results indicated a statistically significant reduction in all clinical variables (P <0.0001) and decreased levels of TNF-α (P = 0.0076) and IL-1β (P = 0.0098) in GCF during the study period. The rate of preterm births (<37 weeks of gestation) was 6.7% (P = 0.113) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) was 10.2% (P = 1.00). Conclusions Among the population studied, intensive instructions and non-surgical periodontal therapy provided during 8 weeks at early pregnancy resulted in decreased gingival inflammation and a generalized improvement in periodontal health. Large-scale, randomized, controlled studies are needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:25079400
McBain, Rosemary D; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Clifton, Vicki L; Mol, Ben W; Grzeskowiak, Luke E
normal-weight women, while a reduction in BMI is associated with improved perinatal outcomes among women who are overweight/obese. Inter-pregnancy weight control is an important target to reduce the risk of an adverse perinatal outcome in a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berger, Brian M; Phillips, James A
Compare outcomes with vaginal gel versus intramuscular progesterone replacement in donor oocyte recipients. A single-center retrospective analysis (January 2004-December 2006) evaluated pregnancy outcomes (serum human chorionic gonadotropin, implantation, clinical pregnancy, delivery, total pregnancy loss rates) for 225 recipients of embryos from donor (aged <32 years) oocytes. Vaginal progesterone gel (Crinone® 8%; 90 mg twice daily; n = 105) or intramuscular progesterone (50 mg once daily; n = 120) was started the afternoon of oocyte retrieval and continued until a negative pregnancy test or 10 weeks' gestation. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the five pregnancy outcomes; numerical results favored vaginal progesterone in all cases. Confidence intervals showed vaginal gel was within, or <1% from, a noninferiority limit of 10% versus intramuscular progesterone for four of five pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes were comparable for progesterone replacement with vaginal gel and intramuscular progesterone in an oocyte donation program.
Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.
We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation
Edelstein, Burton L.
The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being. Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease, that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development of preeclampsia, and delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal oral flora is transmitted to the newborn infant, and increased cariogenic flora in the mother predisposes the infant to the development of caries. It is intriguing to consider preconception, pregnancy, or intrapartum treatment of oral health conditions as a mechanism to improve women's oral and general health, pregnancy outcomes, and their children's dental health. However, given the relationship between oral health and general health, oral health care should be a goal in its own right for all individuals. Regardless of the potential for improved oral health to improve pregnancy outcomes, public policies that support comprehensive dental services for vulnerable women of childbearing age should be expanded so that their own oral and general health is safeguarded and their children's risk of caries is reduced. Oral health promotion should include education of women and their health care providers ways to prevent oral disease from occurring, and referral for dental services when disease is present. PMID:16816998
Edirne, Tamer; Can, Muhammet; Kolusari, Ali; Yildizhan, Recep; Adali, Ertan; Akdag, Beyza
To determine the proportion of adolescent births in Van, Turkey, and to identify characteristics and related outcomes. Mothers who gave birth at three maternity centers in Van, Turkey, were chosen randomly and were invited to complete a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants were asked for demographic information and pregnancy history. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the birth records. Of 1872 mothers who completed the questionnaires, 211 (11.3%) were younger than 19 years. Adolescent mothers showed significantly more inappropriate education for age (82.5% vs 70.1; P<0.001) and were married to less educated partners (76.3% vs 59.4%; P<0.001) following unofficial matrimonies (25.6% vs 10.7%; P<0.001) than older mothers. There were no differences between the age groups in rates of arranged marriages with relatives, income, and household structure. Adolescent mothers reported higher rates of intimate partner violence (17.1% vs 10.8%; P=0.008) and inadequate prenatal care use (28.4% vs 17.6%; P<0.001) compared with older mothers. Adolescent births were associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery (P<0.001) and low birth weight (P<0.001). Cultural factors rather than economic factors seem to be related to early age at marriage and adolescent childbearing, which are associated with poor birth outcomes. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: Cardiac operations in pregnant patients are a challenge for physicians in multidisciplinary teams due to the complexity of the condition which affects both mother and baby. Management strategies vary on a case-by-case basis. Feto-neonatal and maternal outcomes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in pregnancy, especially long-term follow-up results, have not been sufficiently described. Methods: This review was based on a complete literature retrieval of articles published between 1991 and April 30, 2013. Results: Indications for CPB during pregnancy were cardiac surgery in 150 (96.8 %) patients, most of which consisted of valve replacements for mitral and/or aortic valve disorders, resuscitation due to amniotic fluid embolism, autotransfusion, and circulatory support during cesarean section to improve patient survival in 5 (3.2 %) patients. During CPB, fetuses showed either a brief heart rate drop with natural recovery after surgery or, in most cases, fetal heart rate remained normal throughout the whole course of CPB. Overall feto-neonatal mortality was 18.6 %. In comparison with pregnant patients whose baby survived, feto-neonatal death occurred after a significantly shorter gestational period at the time of onset of cardiac symptoms, cardiac surgery/resuscitation under CPB in the whole patient setting, or cardiac surgery/resuscitation with CPB prior to delivery. Conclusions: The most common surgical indications for CPB during pregnancy were cardiac surgery, followed by resuscitation for cardiopulmonary collapse. CPB was used most frequently in maternal cardiac surgery/resuscitation in the second trimester. Improved CPB conditions including high flow, high pressure and normothermia or mild hypothermia during pregnancy have benefited maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes. A shorter gestational period and the use of CPB during pregnancy were closely associated with feto-neonatal mortality. It is therefore important to attempt delivery ahead of
Lee, Richard H; Kwok, Kay May; Ingles, Sue; Wilson, Melissa L; Mullin, Patrick; Incerpi, Marc; Pathak, Bhuvan; Goodwin, T Murphy
Our objective was to examine whether delivery at 37 weeks of gestation alters adverse pregnancy outcomes in Latina patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We conducted a retrospective chart review of Latina patients who delivered at our institution coded with ICP between 2000 and 2007. During this time period it was our practice to offer delivery to patients with ICP at 37 weeks of gestation. Subjects were classified into three groups according to total bile acid (TBA) concentration: < 20 micromol/L (mild ICP), > or = 20 micromol/L and < 40 micromol/L (moderate ICP), and > or = 40 micromol/L (severe ICP). Meconium passage was observed in no births in patients with mild IC, but was found in 18% of deliveries with moderate/severe ICP. The risk of meconium passage increased linearly, with a 19.7% increased risk for each 10 mumol/L increase in TBA concentration ( P = 0.001). There was no association with higher TBA concentration and other adverse outcomes. There was no difference in adverse outcomes between moderate and severe ICP. We concluded that in our Latina population with ICP, an association existed between meconium passage and moderate/severe ICP. Delivering at 37 weeks was associated with a low risk of adverse outcomes due to ICP among all patients, including those with higher TBA concentrations.
Chen, Jian S; Roberts, Christine L; Simpson, Judy M; March, Lyn M
To examine pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy-related health service utilization among women with rare autoimmune diseases. This population-based cohort study of an Australian obstetric population (2001-2011) used birth records linked to hospital records for identification of rare autoimmune diseases including systemic vasculitis, vasculitis limited to the skin, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, Behçet's disease, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and other systemic involvement of connective tissue. We excluded births in women with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis as well as births occurring ≥6 months before the diagnosis of the rare autoimmune disease. Modified Poisson regression was used to compare study outcomes between women with autoimmune diseases and the general obstetric population. There were 991,701 births, including 409 births (0.04%) in 293 women with rare autoimmune diseases. Of the 409 births, 202 (49%) were delivered by cesarean section and 72 (18%) were preterm; these rates were significantly higher than those in the general obstetric population (28% and 7%, respectively). Compared to the general population, women with autoimmune diseases had higher rates of hypertensive disorders, antepartum hemorrhage, and severe maternal morbidity and required longer hospitalization at delivery, more hospital admissions, and tertiary obstetric care. Compared to other infants, those whose mothers had a rare autoimmune disease were at increased risk of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, severe neonatal morbidity, and perinatal death. While the majority of women with rare autoimmune diseases delivered healthy infants, they were at increased risk of having both maternal complications and adverse neonatal outcomes, suggesting that their pregnancies should be closely monitored. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
Sahin, Erdem; Madendag, Yusuf; Tayyar, Ahter Tanay; Sahin, Mefkure Eraslan; Col Madendag, Ilknur; Acmaz, Gokhan; Unsal, Deniz; Senol, Vesile
The purpose of this study is to determine the adverse perinatal outcomes in uncomplicated late preterm pregnancies with borderline oligohydramnios. A total of 430 pregnant women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy at a gestational age of 34 + 0-36 + 6 weeks were included. Borderline oligohydramnios was defined as an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 5.1-8 cm, which was measured using the four-quadrant technique. Adverse perinatal outcomes were compared between the borderline and normal AFI groups. Approximately 107 of the 430 pregnant women were borderline AFI, and 323 were normal AFI. The demographic and obstetric characteristics were similar in both groups. Delivery <37 weeks, cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal heart-rate testing, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar 5 min <7, transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal intensive care unit, and hyperbilirubinemia were not statistically different between the groups (p = .054, p = .134, p = .749, p = 0.858, p = .703, p = .320, p = .185, and p = .996, respectively). Although gestational age was full-term, induction of labor rates were significantly higher in the borderline AFI group (p = .040). In addition, fetal renal artery pulsatility index pulsatility index (PI) was significantly lower in the borderline AFI group than in the normal AFI group (p = .014). Our results indicated that borderline AFI was not a risk for adverse perinatal outcomes in uncomplicated, late preterm pregnancies.
Ayräs, Outi; Tikkanen, Minna; Eronen, Marianne; Paavonen, Jorma; Stefanovic, Vedran
The goals of this study are to assess pregnancy outcome with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to the degree of increased NT. All singleton pregnancies with increased NT at the first screening ultrasound examination referred to the Department of Fetal Medicine at the Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2002 to 2007 were included. Pregnancy outcomes and short-term outcomes of the newborns were recorded and analyzed. Of the 1063 pregnancies, karyotype was normal in 834 (78%). The majority, 611 (73%), of euploid fetuses was in the lowest NT group (95th percentile--3.4 mm). Percentage of favorable outcome decreased from 92% in the lowest NT group (95th percentile--3.4 mm) to 18% in the highest NT group (≥6.5 mm). Structural defects or genetic disorders were observed in 74 (9%) of cases with normal karyotype, of which 43 (58%) resulted in live birth, 25 (34%) in termination of pregnancy, and 6 (8%) in miscarriage or perinatal death. Even minimal (95th percentile--3.4 mm) increase in NT thickness is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome also in euploid fetuses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Magann, Everett F; Chauhan, Suneet P; Dahlke, Joshua D; McKelvey, Samantha S; Watson, Erin M; Morrison, John C
To review flight regulations and gestational complications associated with air travel in pregnant passengers, flight attendants, and aviators. A literature search was undertaken on the relationship of air travel and spontaneous pregnancy losses, intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), birth weight<10th percentile, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The literature search identified 128 abstracts, of which 9 evaluated air travel and pregnancy outcomes. The risk of a pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortion or IUFD) was greater in flight attendants than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29, 2.04). The risk of preterm birth<37 weeks was greater in passengers than controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93). However, the risk of preeclampsia (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.27), neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.82), or birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.62, 2.48) was not increased. Flight attendants did not have an increased risk of preterm birth compared to controls (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.22) or delivering infants with birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.68, 3.74). The risks of spontaneous abortions and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been poorly studied in a limited number of investigations. An analysis of the available information suggests a greater risk of spontaneous abortions or IUFD in flight attendants, and a greater risk of preterm birth<37 weeks in air passengers. However, the literature on which these findings are based is generally not of high methodologic quality.
Vilchez, Gustavo; Espinoza, Miguel; D'Onadio, Guery; Saona, Pedro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Brucellosis is a zoonosis with high morbidity in humans. This disease has gained interest recently due to its re-emergence and potential for weaponization. Pregnant women with this disease can develop severe complications. Its association with adverse obstetric outcomes is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to describe the obstetric outcomes of brucellosis in pregnancy. Cases of pregnant women with active brucellosis seen at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed. Diagnostic criteria were a positive agglutination test and/or positive blood/bone marrow culture. Presentation and outcomes data were collected. The Chi-square test was used for nominal variables. A p-value of <0.05 indicated significance. One hundred and one cases were included; 27.7% had a threatened abortion/preterm labor, 12.8% experienced spontaneous abortion, 13.9% preterm delivery, 8.1% fetal death, and 1.1% congenital malformations. There was one maternal death secondary to severe sepsis. After delivery, neonatal death occurred in 8.1%, low birth weight in 14.5%, and congenital brucellosis in 6.4%. The most common treatment was aminoglycosides plus rifampicin (42.2% of cases). Complication rates decreased if treatment was started within 2 weeks of presentation (p < 0.001). This is the largest series of brucellosis in pregnancy reported in the literature. Brucella presents adverse obstetric outcomes including fetal and maternal/neonatal death. Cases with unexplained spontaneous abortion should be investigated for brucellosis. Prompt treatment is paramount to decrease the devastating outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yang, Ting; Gu, Yan; Wei, Xiaoping; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tingyu
Maternal folate and vitamin B12 deficiency predict poor pregnancy outcome. To improve pregnancy outcomes in rural area of China, we investigate rural women’s folic acid supplementation (FAS) status and the associations between maternal vitamin B status during the first trimester and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. We collected the questionnaire information and drew 5 ml of blood from 309 early pregnant rural women. The birth outcomes were retrieved from medical records after delivery. Out of the total, 257 had taken FAS, including 50 before conception (group A) and 207 during the first trimester (group B). The concentration of plasma folate and the RBC folate supplementation groups were obviously higher than that of no-supplementation group (group N, p<0.01). The mean vitamin B12 levels in FAS group were significantly higher than those in groups N and B (p<0.05). Women who delivered SGA or premature infants had reduced plasma folate levels (p<0.05) compared with controls. The multiple linear regression models revealed that RBC folate levels affected the infant birth weight (p<0.01) and birth length (p<0.05). In conclusion, FAS can significantly improve plasma folate and RBC folate levels in childbearing-age women and reduce the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:28366994
Bromley, Rebecca; Weston, Jennifer; Adab, Naghme; Greenhalgh, Janette; Sanniti, Anna; McKay, Andrew J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Marson, Anthony G
Accumulating evidence suggests an association between prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and increased risk of both physical anomalies and neurodevelopmental impairment. Neurodevelopmental impairment is characterised by either a specific deficit or a constellation of deficits across cognitive, motor and social skills and can be transient or continuous into adulthood. It is of paramount importance that these potential risks are identified, minimised and communicated clearly to women with epilepsy. To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to commonly prescribed AEDs on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the child and to assess the methodological quality of the evidence. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (May 2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 4), MEDLINE (via Ovid) (1946 to May 2014), EMBASE (May 2014), Pharmline (May 2014) and Reprotox (May 2014). No language restrictions were imposed. Conference abstracts from the last five years were reviewed along with reference lists from the included studies. Prospective cohort controlled studies, cohort studies set within pregnancy registers and randomised controlled trials were selected for inclusion. Participants were women with epilepsy taking AED treatment; the two control groups were women without epilepsy and women with epilepsy who were not taking AEDs during pregnancy. Three authors (RB, JW and JG) independently selected studies for inclusion. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were completed by five authors (RB, JW, AS, NA, AJM). The primary outcome was global cognitive functioning. Secondary outcomes included deficits in specific cognitive domains or prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Due to substantial variation in study design and outcome reporting only limited data synthesis was possible. Twenty-two prospective cohort studies were included and six registry based studies. Study quality varied
Moodley, P; Sturm, A W
Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the sexually active population are the main steps to prevent perinatal infection. However, the spread of STIs continues at an astronomical pace despite various attempts at controlling the epidemic. An important reason for this lack of STI control is that a large percentage of infected people go untreated because they have asymptomatic or unrecognized infections. The microbial differential diagnosis of STIs implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome is broad and includes viral, bacterial and protozoal infections. Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth and puerperal sepsis are some of complications seen in women as a result of infection with sexually transmitted pathogens. In addition, STIs may facilitate the acquisition and transmission of HIV. In the fetus or neonate, complications include abnormalities of the major organ systems. Infections in the form of pneumonia or conjunctivitis may also occur. Due to the lack of simple, inexpensive and sensitive point-of-care tests, screening for STIs in pregnancy is not performed routinely.
Ostaszewska-Puchalska, Iwona; Wilkowska-Trojniel, Marta; Zdrodowska-Stefanow, Bozena; Knapp, Pawel
The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection in women with adverse pregnancy outcomes. 258 patients aged 18-43 yrs were enrolled into the study. Among them, 162 women have had spontaneous abortions in the past (group A), 81 had history of intrauterine death of the foetus (group B) and 15 women had experienced preterm deliveries (group C). The control group (group D) included 131 women who were in the second or third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancy. C. trachomatis was investigated in cervical and urethral smears using direct immunofluorescence or Ligase chain reaction (LCR) for direct testing and immunoenzymatic assay (EIA) for serological testing and detection of specific IgG antibodies. C. trachomatis was detected in 25.9% patients in group A, 35.8% in group B and 20% in group C and only in 12.7% in group D. IgG specific antibodies were present in 31.5%, 41.9%, 26.6% and 14.5% of patients in these groups respectively. The highest prevalence of chlamydial infections, regardless the diagnostic method used, was registered in the group of women with a history of 3 abortions (42.3% when direct testing and 45.5% when serological testing) while the lowest prevalence was in women who experienced only l abortion (23.2% and 28%). C. trachomatis infection in pregnancy affects its duration as it can lead to miscarriage, death of the foetus and preterm delivery.
Jacobs, Myrthe; Cooper, Sally-Ann; McGowan, Ruth; Nelson, Scott M; Pell, Jill P
Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of changes in the age at which women give birth, and of developments in prenatal screening and diagnosis on the number of pregnancies diagnosed and terminated with chromosomal anomalies. However, we are unaware of any population studies examining pregnancy terminations after diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies that has included all aneuploidies and the influence of maternal factors. The aims of this study were to examine the association between results of prenatal tests and pregnancy termination, and the proportion of foetuses with and without chromosomal anomalies referred for invasive diagnostic tests over time. Diagnostic information of 26,261 prenatal invasive tests from all genetic service laboratories in Scotland from 2000 to 2011 was linked to Scottish Morbidity Records to obtain details on pregnancy outcome. Binary logistic regression was carried out to test the associations of year and type of diagnosis with pregnancy termination, while controlling for maternal age, neighbourhood deprivation and parity. There were 24,155 (92.0%) with no chromosomal anomalies, 1,483 (5.6%) aneuploidy diagnoses, and 623 (2.4%) diagnoses of anomaly that was not aneuploidy (including translocations and single chromosome deletions). In comparison with negative test results, pregnancies diagnosed with trisomy were most likely to be terminated (adjusted OR 437.40, 95% CI 348.19-549.46) followed by other aneuploid anomalies (adjusted OR 95.94, 95% CI 69.21-133.01). During the study period, fewer pregnancies that were diagnosed with aneuploidy were terminated, including trisomy diagnoses (adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.73). Older women were less likely to terminate (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28, 0.42), and parity was also an independent predictor of termination. In keeping with previous findings, while the number of invasive diagnostic tests declined, the proportion of abnormal results increased from 6.09% to 10.88%. Systematic advances in
Cooper, Sally-Ann; McGowan, Ruth; Nelson, Scott M.; Pell, Jill P.
Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of changes in the age at which women give birth, and of developments in prenatal screening and diagnosis on the number of pregnancies diagnosed and terminated with chromosomal anomalies. However, we are unaware of any population studies examining pregnancy terminations after diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies that has included all aneuploidies and the influence of maternal factors. The aims of this study were to examine the association between results of prenatal tests and pregnancy termination, and the proportion of foetuses with and without chromosomal anomalies referred for invasive diagnostic tests over time. Diagnostic information of 26,261 prenatal invasive tests from all genetic service laboratories in Scotland from 2000 to 2011 was linked to Scottish Morbidity Records to obtain details on pregnancy outcome. Binary logistic regression was carried out to test the associations of year and type of diagnosis with pregnancy termination, while controlling for maternal age, neighbourhood deprivation and parity. There were 24,155 (92.0%) with no chromosomal anomalies, 1,483 (5.6%) aneuploidy diagnoses, and 623 (2.4%) diagnoses of anomaly that was not aneuploidy (including translocations and single chromosome deletions). In comparison with negative test results, pregnancies diagnosed with trisomy were most likely to be terminated (adjusted OR 437.40, 95% CI 348.19–549.46) followed by other aneuploid anomalies (adjusted OR 95.94, 95% CI 69.21–133.01). During the study period, fewer pregnancies that were diagnosed with aneuploidy were terminated, including trisomy diagnoses (adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26–0.73). Older women were less likely to terminate (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28, 0.42), and parity was also an independent predictor of termination. In keeping with previous findings, while the number of invasive diagnostic tests declined, the proportion of abnormal results increased from 6.09% to 10.88%. Systematic
Demirdag, E; Guler, I; Abay, S; Oguz, Y; Erdem, M; Erdem, A
The most common treatment modalities of ectopic pregnancy may influence long-term subsequent fertility outcomes in women who previously treated for ectopic pregnancy. Our objective was to compare long-term subsequent fertility outcomes after treatment with expectant management, systemic methotrexate (MTX) and surgery in tubal ectopic pregnancy. We searched our database for all women diagnosed with tubal ectopic pregnancy between January 2007 and January 2011 who were managed expectantly, with systemic MTX and with surgery. Treatment success and spontaneous pregnancy rates were compared in patients who desire to conceive following a tubal pregnancy. One hundred twelve of 151 women desired to conceive following tubal ectopic pregnancy. Twenty-seven of 112 (24.1 %) patients were managed expectantly. Fifty-three (47.3 %) and 32 (28.5 %) patients were managed with systemic MTX or surgery, respectively. All patients in expectant and surgery groups were managed successfully. Two (3.7 %) patients had surgery after failed treatment with systemic MTX. Spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rates were 62.9 % in expectantly managed women, 58.4 % in women with systemic MTX and 68.7 % in women with surgery (p > 0.05). Treatment of ectopic pregnancy with either expectant management or systemic MTX is equally effective as compared to surgery. Spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rates were comparable in expectant management, systemic methotrexate and surgery.
Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad
Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to
Hopkins, P M
This review examines the recent evidence of an impact of regional anaesthesia on important clinical outcomes. Evidence was obtained from a variety of studies, with increasing numbers of analyses of large databases being prominent. The benefits and limitations of these approaches are considered in order to provide a context for interpretation of the data they generate. There should be little argument that correctly performed and appropriately used regional anaesthetic techniques can provide the most effective postoperative analgesia for the duration of the block, but the majority of studies suggest that this does not translate into improved longer-term surgical outcomes. The evidence for reduced incidence of major complications when regional anaesthesia is compared with, or added to, general anaesthesia is mixed. There appears to be a small effect in reducing blood loss during major joint arthroplasty. Some, but not all, studies demonstrate a reduced incidence of respiratory and infective complications with regional anaesthesia, but the effect on cardiovascular complications is variable. There are even some data consistent with a hypothesis that general anaesthesia may be protective against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, there is probably no generally applicable benefit in long-term outcomes with regional anaesthesia. More likely is an interaction between patient factors, the surgical procedure, and the relative capability of the anaesthetist to manage different types of anaesthesia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stephenson, Mary D; McQueen, Dana; Winter, Michelle; Kliman, Harvey J
To assess the effectiveness of luteal start vaginal micronized P in a recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cohort. Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Not applicable. Women seen between 2004 and 2012 with a history of two or more unexplained pregnancy losses <10 weeks in size; endometrial biopsy (EB) performed 9-11 days after LH surge; and one or more subsequent pregnancy(ies). Women were excluded if concomitant findings, such as endometritis, maturation delay, or glandular-stromal dyssynchrony, were identified on EB. Vaginal micronized P was prescribed at a dose of 100-200 mg every 12 hours starting 3 days after LH surge (luteal start) if glandular epithelial nuclear cyclin E (nCyclinE) expression was elevated (>20%) in endometrial glands or empirically despite normal nCyclinE (≤20%). Women with normal nCyclinE (≤20%) who did not receive P were used as controls. Pregnancy success was an ongoing pregnancy >10 weeks in size. One hundred sixteen women met the inclusion criteria, of whom 51% (n = 59) had elevated nCyclinE and 49% (n = 57) had normal nCyclinE. Pregnancy success in the 59 women with elevated nCyclinE significantly improved after intervention: 6% (16/255) in prior pregnancies versus 69% (57/83) in subsequent pregnancies. Pregnancy success in subsequent pregnancies was higher in women prescribed vaginal micronized P compared with controls: 68% (86/126) versus 51% (19/37); odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.4). In this study, we found that the use of luteal start vaginal micronized P was associated with improved pregnancy success in a strictly defined cohort of women with RPL. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCauley, Mary E; van den Broek, Nynke; Dou, Lixia; Othman, Mohammad
The World Health Organization recommends routine vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy or lactation in areas with endemic vitamin A deficiency (where night blindness occurs), based on the expectation that supplementation will improve maternal and newborn outcomes including mortality, morbidity and prevention of anaemia or infection. To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating the effect of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We reviewed 106 reports of 35 trials, published between 1931 and 2015. We included 19 trials including over 310,000 women, excluded 15 trials and one is ongoing. Overall, seven trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, three were high risk of bias and for nine it was unclear. 1) Vitamin A alone versus placebo or no treatmentOverall, when trial results are pooled, vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.20; four trials Ghana, Nepal, Bangladesh, UK, high quality evidence), perinatal mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07; one study, high quality evidence), neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.01, five studies, high quality evidence), or the risk of having a low birthweight baby.Vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk of maternal night blindness (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98; two trials). There is evidence that vitamin A supplements may reduce maternal clinical infection
Ezechi, O C; Gab-Okafor, C V; Oladele, D A; Kalejaiye, O O; Oke, B O; Ohwodo, H O; Adu, R A; Ekama, S O; Musa, Z; Onwujekwe, D I; David, A N; Ujah, I A O
While the effect of HIV infection on some maternal outcomes is well established, for some others there is conflicting information on possible association with HIV. In this study we investigated pregnancy and neonatal outcome of HIV positive women in large HIV treatment centre over a period of 84 months. They were managed according to the Nigerian PMTCT protocol. Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome were observed in 48.3% HIV positives compared 30.3% to the negatives (OR: 2.08; CI: 1.84-2.34). Low birth weight ( OR:2.95; CI:1.95-3.1), preterm delivery (OR:2.05; CI:1.3-3.1), perinatal death (OR:1.9;CI:1.3-3.2), and spontaneous abortion (OR:1.37; CI:1.1-2.3) were factors found to be independently associated with HIV. Low CD4 count (OR: 2.45; CI: 1.34- 4.56) and opportunistic infections (OR: 2.11; CI: 1.56-3.45) were to be associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. This study confirms the association of HIV, severe immunosuppression and opportunistic infection and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome.
Sciascia, Savino; Branch, D Ware; Levy, Roger A; Middeldorp, Saskia; Pavord, Sue; Roccatello, Dario; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Tincani, Angela; Khamashta, Munther; Schreiber, Karen; Hunt, Beverley J
The use of low-dose aspirin and heparinoids has improved the pregnancy outcome in obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, current treatment fails in 20-30% of APS pregnancies, raising the need to explore other treatments to improve obstetrical outcome. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used in patients with autoimmune diseases, mainly systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-aggregant and immune-regulatory properties. Evidence from in vitro and animal models suggests a potential protective effect of HCQ in obstetric APS. Pending the availability of prospective trials, we aimed to systematically review the available evidence and to assess the clinical judgment of a panel of experts regarding the use of HCQ in improving pregnancy outcome in women with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Clinical data on the ability of HCQ to improve pregnancy outcome in women with aPL are very limited in the available literature. Only one cohort study evaluating maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy in patients with SLE who were exposed to HCQ was identified. Four of 14 (29%) treated with HCQ patients had pregnancy failure, compared with six of 24 (25%) of patients not treated with HCQ. However, the effect of HCQ was not adjusted for the use of other medications such as aspirin, heparins or steroids. Selected experts were contacted by e-mail and asked to review the summary of the evidence provided by the working group and to briefly answer each of the proposed questions. Overall, the panel of experts agreed that adding HCQ could be considered in selected cases or after failure of standard treatment with aspirin and a heparin agent. Specifically, the majority of experts considered adding HCQ in specific scenarios, such as women with previous thrombosis (either arterial and/or venous), and/or with previous ischaemic placenta-mediated complications. Prospective studies are necessary before the use of HCQ during pregnancy in women with a
Etzel, Taylor M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Savitz, David A; Yolton, Kimberly; Braun, Joseph M
Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical used in consumer products, and exposure is ubiquitous among pregnant women in the United States. Triclosan may reduce the levels of thyroid hormones that are important for fetal growth and development. We investigated the relationship of prenatal triclosan exposure with birth anthropometry and gestational duration. We used data from 378 mother-child pairs participating in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort from Cincinnati, OH. We measured triclosan concentrations in maternal urine samples collected at 16 and 26 weeks of pregnancy. We abstracted information on neonatal anthropometry and gestational duration from medical records. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate the covariate-adjusted association between the average of the two urinary triclosan concentrations and gestational age standardized weight z-score, length, head circumference, and gestational age at birth. Median urinary triclosan concentrations were 16ng/mL (range: <2.4 to 1501ng/mL). Each 10-fold increase in triclosan was associated with a predicted 0.15 standard deviation decrease (95% CI: -0.30, 0.00) in birth weight z-score, 0.4-cm decrease (95% CI: -0.8, 0.1) in birth length, 0.3-cm decrease (95% CI: -0.5, 0.0) in head circumference, and 0.3-week decrease (95% CI: -0.6, -0.1) in gestational age. Child sex did not modify the associations between triclosan and birth outcomes. In this cohort, maternal urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy were inversely associated with infants' birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oztas, Efser; Erkenekli, Kudret; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Kurt, Mevlut; Oztas, Erkin; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri
Our aim was to investigate whether any hematological changes readily detectable by simple complete blood count (CBC), as well as fasting and postprandial total serum bile acid (SBA) levels, have diagnostic values for the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). A prospective, case control study was carried out including 217 pregnant women (117 women with ICP and 100 healthy controls). The main outcome measures investigated were preterm delivery, APGAR scores, and neonatal unit admission. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the independent risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with controls, women with ICP had significantly higher mean platelet volume (MPV) (mean 10.2±1.0 vs. 11.0±1.3; P<0.001) and platelet distribution width (PDW) (mean 13.1±2.3 vs. 14.7±2.8; P<0.001) values. Analysis with logistic regression revealed that the probability of preterm delivery did not increase until MPV levels exceeded 11.2 fL [odds ratio (OR)=2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13-6.32, P=0.025], and total bilirubin levels exceeded 0.6 mg/dL (OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.21-8.09, P=0.019). Considering the low APGAR scores, only increased postprandial total SBA levels of ≥51 μmol/L were found to be predictive significantly (OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.07-8.53, P=0.037). Our study suggests that increased MPV and total bilirubin levels are associated with preterm delivery, and increased postprandial total SBA levels are predictive for low APGAR in ICP patients.
Buhary, Badurudeen Mahmood; Almohareb, Ohoud; Aljohani, Naji; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Elkaissi, Samer; Sherbeeni, Suphia; Almaghamsi, Abdulrahman; Almalki, Mussa
Context: Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) is either pregestational or gestational. Aims: To determine the relationship between glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of DIP patients. Settings and Design: In this 12-month retrospective study, a total of 325 Saudi women with DIP who attended the outpatient clinics at a tertiary center Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included. Subjects and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups, those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) above 6.5%. The two groups were compared for differences in maternal and fetal outcomes. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent Student's t-test and analysis of variance were performed for comparison of continuous variables and Chi-square test for frequencies. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Patients with higher HbA1c were older (P = 0.0077), had significantly higher blood pressure, proteinuria (P < 0.0001), and were multiparous (P = 0.0269). They had significantly shorter gestational periods (P = 0.0002), more preterm labor (P < 0.0001), more perineal tears (P = 0.0406), more miscarriages (P < 0.0001), and more operative deliveries (P < 0.0001). Their babies were significantly of greater weight, had more Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admissions, hypoglycemia, and macrosomia. Conclusions: Poor glycemic control during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes (shortened gestational period, greater risk of miscarriage, increased likelihood of operative delivery, hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and increased NICU admission). Especially at risk are those with preexisting diabetes, who would benefit from earlier diabetes consultation and tighter glycemic control before conception. PMID:27366714
Yang, M S; Chang, F T; Chen, S S; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C
It is known that substance use is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy, outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of alcohol, cigarette, betel quid and drug use during pregnancy and to assess the risk of adverse effects of betel quid chewing on pregnancy outcomes in aboriginal women in southern Taiwan. The study population included 62 women with adverse pregnancy outcomes and 124 age-matched women. Subjects were interviewed at their homes by trained interviewers using a structure questionnaire. Prevalences of various substance use in aborigines with adverse pregnancy outcomes were estimated as follows: alcohol, 43.6%; smoking, 14.5%; betel quid chewing, 43.6% and over-the-counter drug use, 8.1%; whereas in the comparison group it was alcohol, 38.7%; smoking, 8.1%; betel quid chewing, 28.2% and none used drugs. Univariate analysis revealed that adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with maternal betel quid chewing, maternal illness during pregnancy, and the number of pregnancies (gravidity) experienced. After adjusting for maternal illness and number of previous pregnancies covariates, the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome was computed to be 2.8-fold higher among betel quid chewing women as compared to non-chewers (AOR=2.8, 95% CI=1.2-6.8). Among the aboriginal women, prenatal care is essential not only for routine care, but also to focus health education on the harmful effects of substance use, especially betel quid use during pregnancy.
Bouvier, Sylvie; Cochery-Nouvellon, Eva; Lavigne-Lissalde, Géraldine; Mercier, Erick; Marchetti, Tess; Balducchi, Jean-Pierre; Marès, Pierre; Gris, Jean-Christophe
The incidence of pregnancy outcomes for women with the purely obstetric form of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) treated with prophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus low-dose aspirin (LDA) has not been documented. We observed women without a history of thrombosis who had experienced 3 consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 10th week of gestation or 1 fetal loss at or beyond the 10th week. We compared the frequencies of complications during new pregnancies between treated women with APS (n = 513; LMWH + LDA) and women negative for antiphospholipid antibodies as controls (n = 791; no treatment). Among APS women, prior fetal loss was a risk factor for fetal loss, preeclampsia (PE), premature birth, and the occurrence of any placenta-mediated complication. Being positive for anticardiolipin immunoglobulin M antibodies was a risk factor for any placenta-mediated complication. Among women with a history of recurrent abortion, APS women were at a higher risk than other women of PE, placenta-mediated complications, and neonatal mortality. Among women with prior fetal loss, LMWH + LDA-treated APS women had lower pregnancy loss rates but higher PE rates than other women. Improved therapies, in particular better prophylaxis of late pregnancy complications, are urgently needed for obstetric APS and should be evaluated according to the type of pregnancy loss.
Procter, Sandra B; Campbell, Christina G
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that women of childbearing age should adopt a lifestyle optimizing health and reducing risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal development, and chronic health problems in both mother and child. Components leading to a healthy pregnancy outcome include healthy prepregnancy weight, appropriate weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy, consumption of a wide variety of foods, appropriate vitamin and mineral supplementation, avoidance of alcohol and other harmful substances, and safe food handling. Pregnancy is a critical period during which maternal nutrition and lifestyle choices are major influences on mother and child health. Inadequate levels of key nutrients during crucial periods of fetal development may lead to reprogramming within fetal tissues, predisposing the infant to chronic conditions in later life. Improving the well-being of mothers, infants, and children is key to the health of the next generation. This position paper and the accompanying practice paper (www.eatright.org/members/practicepapers) on the same topic provide registered dietitian nutritionists and dietetic technicians, registered; other professional associations; government agencies; industry; and the public with the Academy's stance on factors determined to influence healthy pregnancy, as well as an overview of best practices in nutrition and healthy lifestyles during pregnancy.
Kelly, A; Kevany, J; de Onis, M; Shah, P M
To evaluate to what degree anthropometric measurements are useful and efficient in predicting maternal and fetal outcomes in different country settings and to develop appropriate reference curves for maternal weight gain. A meta-analysis of 25 data sets providing information on over 111,000 births worldwide. Attained weight indicators from pre-pregnancy (Pp) through 9 lunar months demonstrated high odds ratios (O.R.) for both low birth weight (LBW) and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). The strongest effect size (O.R. = 4.0) was provided by attained weight at 7 lunar months for IUGR, when applied to women of below average pre-pregnancy weight. The study indicators showed only minor and inconsistent O.R. for preterm birth (PTB). The ability of study indicators to predict the three maternal outcomes was much weaker. Maternal height as a predictor of assisted delivery showed the highest positive O.R. (1.6), but did not meet the screening criteria. A single measurement of attained weight at 5 or 7 lunar months (16-20 or 24-28 weeks) is the most practical screening instrument for LBW and IUGR in most primary health care settings and provides warning of the need for intervention. The operational value of these findings should be demonstrated through their successful large-scale application in service settings.
Tehraninejad, Ensieh; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Asadi, Ebrahim; Kamali, Koorosh; Aziminikoo, Elham; Rezayof, Elahe
Objective: To evaluate effects of G-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium. Materials and methods: In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient. Results: The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from 3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120 ± 0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years, 3, 1 and 32.78 ± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM. Conclusion: G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy. PMID:26622308
Feig, Denice S; Corcoy, Rosa; Jensen, Dorte Moller; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Nolan, Christopher J; Oats, Jeremy J N; Sacks, David A; Caimari, Francisca; McIntyre, H David
Rising rates of diabetes in pregnancy have led to an escalation in research in this area. As in any area of clinical research, definitions of outcomes vary from study to study, making it difficult to compare research findings and draw conclusions. Our aim was to compile and create a repository of definitions, which could then be used universally. A systematic review of the literature was performed on published and ongoing randomized controlled trials in the area of diabetes in pregnancy between 01 Jan 2000 and 01 Jun 2012. Other sources included the World Health Organization and Academic Society Statements. The advice of experts was sought when appropriate definitions were lacking. Among the published randomized controlled trials on diabetes and pregnancy, 171 abstracts were retrieved, 64 full texts were reviewed and 53 were included. Among the ongoing randomized controlled trials published in ClinicalTrials.gov, 90 protocols were retrieved and 25 were finally included. The definitions from these were assembled and the final maternal definitions and foetal definitions were agreed upon by consensus. It is our hope that the definitions we have provided (i) will be widely used in the reporting of future studies in the area of diabetes in pregnancy, that they will (ii) facilitate future systematic reviews and formal meta analyses and (iii) ultimately improve outcomes for mothers and babies.
Maraka, Spyridoula; Singh Ospina, Naykky M; O'Keeffe, Derek T; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Espinosa De Ycaza, Ana E; Wi, Chung-Il; Juhn, Young J; Coddington, Charles C; Montori, Victor M; Stan, Marius N
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in some, but not all, studies. Uncertainty remains regarding the impact of levothyroxine (LT4) therapy on improving health outcomes in pregnant women with SCH. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of LT4 therapy in pregnant women with SCH. The medical records were reviewed of pregnant women with SCH, defined as an elevated serum thyrotropin (TSH) of >2.5 mIU/L for the 1st trimester or >3 mIU/L for the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, but ≤10 mIU/L. Pregnant women were divided into two groups depending on whether they received LT4 (group A) or not (group B). Pregnancy loss and other pre-specified adverse outcomes were evaluated during follow-up. There were 82 women in group A and 284 in group B. Group A had a higher body mass index (p = 0.04) and a higher serum TSH level (p < 0.0001) compared with group B. Group A had fewer pregnancies lost (n = 5 [6.1%] vs. n = 25 [8.8%]; p = 0.12), low birth weight (LBW) offspring (1.3% vs. 10%; p < 0.001), and no neonates with a five-minute Apgar score ≤7 (0% vs. 7%; p < 0.001) compared with group B. Other pregnancy-related adverse outcomes were similar between the two groups. Inferences remained unchanged after considering different models to adjust for potential predictors of outcome. LT4 therapy is associated with a decreased risk of LBW and a low Apgar score among women with SCH. This association awaits confirmation in randomized trials before the widespread use of LT4 therapy in pregnant women with SCH.
Vogel, Joshua P.; Torloni, Maria Regina; Seuc, Armando; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Widmer, Mariana; Souza, João Paulo; Merialdi, Mario
Background Twin pregnancies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) pose a high risk to mothers and newborns due to inherent biological risks and scarcity of health resources. We conducted a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey dataset to analyze maternal and perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies and factors associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in twins. Methods We examined maternal and neonatal characteristics in twin deliveries in 23 LMICs and conducted multi-level logistic regression to determine the association between twins and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results 279,425 mothers gave birth to 276,187 (98.8%) singletons and 6,476 (1.2%) twins. Odds of severe adverse maternal outcomes (death, blood transfusion, ICU admission or hysterectomy) (AOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.60–2.14) and perinatal mortality (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.40–4.35) in twin pregnancies were higher, however early neonatal death (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.95–6.62) and stillbirth (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.58–2.57) did not reach significance. Amongst twins alone, maternal age <18, poor education and antenatal care, nulliparity, vaginal bleeding, non-cephalic presentations, birth weight discordance >15%, born second, preterm birth and low birthweight were associated with perinatal mortality. Marriage and caesarean section were protective. Conclusions Twin pregnancy is a significant risk factor for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings; maternal risk and access to safe caesarean section may determine safest mode of delivery in LMICs. Improving obstetric care in twin pregnancies, particularly timely access to safe caesarean section, is required to reduce risk to mother and baby. PMID:23936446
Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Domino, Marisa E.; Wells, Rebecca; Goyal, Ravi K.; Kum, Hye-Chung; Cilenti, Dorothy; Whitmire, J. Timothy; Basu, Anirban
Background Care coordination services that link pregnant women to health-promoting resources, avoid duplication of effort, and improve communication between families and providers have been endorsed as a strategy for reducing disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes, however empirical evidence regarding the effects of these services is contradictory and incomplete. This study investigates the effects of maternity care coordination on pregnancy outcomes in North Carolina. Methods Birth certificate and Medicaid claims data were analyzed for 7,124 women delivering live infants in North Carolina from October 2008 through September 2010, of whom 2,255 received Maternity Care Coordination (MCC) services. Propensity-weighted analyses were conducted to reduce the influence of selection bias in evaluating program participation. Sensitivity analyses compared these results to conventional OLS analyses. Results The unadjusted preterm birth rate was lower among women who received MCC services (7.0 percent compared to 8.3 percent among controls). Propensity-weighted analyses demonstrated that women receiving services had a 1.8 percentage point reduction in preterm birth risk; p<0.05). MCC services were also associated with lower pregnancy weight gain (p=0.10). No effects of MCC were seen for birthweight. Conclusions These findings suggest that coordination of care in pregnancy can significantly reduce the risk of preterm delivery among Medicaid-enrolled women. Further research evaluating specific components of care coordination services and their effects on preterm birth risk among racial/ethnic and geographic subgroups of Medicaid enrolled mothers could inform efforts to reduce disparities in pregnancy outcome. PMID:24770956
Kadobera, Daniel; Waiswa, Peter; Peterson, Stefan; Blencowe, Hannah; Lawn, Joy; Kerber, Kate; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona
In most low and middle-income countries vital events registration for births and child deaths is poor, with reporting of pregnancy outcomes highly inadequate or non-existent. Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites and periodic population-based household-level surveys can be used to identify pregnancies and retrospectively capture pregnancy outcomes to provide data for decision making. However, little is known about the performance of different methods in identifying pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, yet this is critical in assessing improvements in reducing maternal and newborn mortality and stillbirths. To explore differences between a population-based household pregnancy survey and prospective health demographic surveillance system in identifying pregnancies and their outcomes in rural eastern Uganda. The study was done within the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS site, a member centre of the INDEPTH Network. Prospective data about pregnancies and their outcomes was collected in the routine biannual census rounds from 2006 to 2010 in the HDSS. In 2011 a cross-sectional survey using the pregnancy history survey (PHS) tool was conducted among women aged 15 to 49 years in the HDSS area. We compared differences between the HDSS biannual census updates and the PHS capture of pregnancies identified as well as neonatal and child deaths, stillbirths and abortions. A total of 10,540 women aged 15 to 49 years were interviewed during the PHS. The PHS captured 12.8% more pregnancies than the HDSS in the most recent year (2010-2011), though between 2006 and 2010 (earlier periods) the PHS captured only 137 (0.8%) more pregnancies overall. The PHS also consistently identified more stillbirths (18.2%), spontaneous abortions (94.5%) and induced abortions (185.8%) than the prospective HDSS update rounds. Surveillance sites are designed to prospectively track population-level outcomes. However, the PHS identified more pregnancy-related outcomes than the HDSS in this study
Zeino, S; Carbillon, L; Pharisien, I; Tigaizin, A; Benchimol, M; Murtada, R; Boujenah, J
Polyhydramnios is associated with an increased risk of cesarean section. The aetiology of polyhydramnios and the characteristics of the labour may be confounding factors. The objective was to study the characteristics and mode of delivery in case of pregnancy complicated with idiopathic polyhydramnios. This retrospective matched and controlled study included all pregnant women with idiopathic polyhydramnios (amniotic index>25cm or single deepest pocket>8cm) diagnosed at the 2nd or 3rd trimester and persistent at term delivery (>37weeks of pregnancy) in our institution. We excluded pregnancies in which the polyhydramnios could be explained by infection, gestational diabetes, congenital malformation, abnormal karyotype, placental anomalies, alloimmunization as well as pregnancies in which an amniocentesis for the purpose of diagnosis had not been performed. Data were gathered from a tertiary care university hospital register from 1998-2015. Cases of polyhydramnios were matched with the following two women who presented for labour management with spontaneous cephalic presentation, matching for delivery date, maternal age, parity, body mass index. The main outcome measure was the risk of cesarean section. Univariate and multivariate adjusted analysis were performed. We identified 108 women with idiopathic polyhydramnios and compared them with 216 matched women. Among them, 94 and 188 attempted a trial of labour. Maternal age, mean term delivery and birthweight were 31 years, 39+5weeks gestation and 3550 g. We did not observe differences in maternal characteristics, epidural analgesia and rate of abnormal fetal heart tracing. Induced labour and non-vertex presentations (forehead, bregma, face) were more frequent in the polyhydramnios group (respectively 57.9% versus 27.8%, P<0.05 and 7.8% versus 1%, P<0.05). Cesarean section rate was higher in the case of polyhydramnios in the overall population (45.4% versus 8%, P<0.05) and remained higher after exclusion of cases of
Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L
The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion.
Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after complete and partial molar pregnancy, recurrent molar pregnancy, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center.
Vargas, Roberto; Barroilhet, Lisa M; Esselen, Katharine; Diver, Elisabeth; Bernstein, Marilyn; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S
To review and update the subsequent reproductive outcomes in patients with complete, partial, and recurrent hydatidiform moles, as well as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center. Patients with complete and partial hydatidiform mole, recurrent hydatidiform mole, and GTN were identified from the Donald P. Goldstein, M.D., Trophoblastic Tumor Registry. Questionnaires regarding subsequent pregnancies were mailed to patients with current mailing addresses available. Additional patient data was obtained from electronic medical records. A total of 2,432 subsequent pregnancies have been reported since 1965. Of those, 1,388 pregnancies were after complete mole, 357 after partial mole, and 667 after GTN. The subsequent reproductive outcomes in patients with complete and partial molar pregnancies and persistent GTN remain similar to those in the general population. However, approximately 1.7% of patients with a prior molar pregnancy had a molar pregnancy in a later gestation. Furthermore, after successful chemotherapy for GTN the incidence of stillbirth was slightly increased to 1.3% in later pregnancies. Patients with molar pregnancies and GTN should expect similar reproductive outcomes as compared to the general population. However, patients receiving chemotherapy for GTN have a slightly increased risk stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies.
Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali
Background What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. Material/Methods The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients’ desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. Results The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. Conclusions Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section. PMID:27636504
Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali
BACKGROUND What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. MATERIAL AND METHODS The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients' desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. RESULTS The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. CONCLUSIONS Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section.
Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, remains one of the major public health challenges, particularly in low-to-middle-income countries. Micronutrient deficiencies affect people of all ages, but its effects appear more devastating in pregnant women and children. Poor maternal nutrition contributes to at least 20% of maternal deaths and increases the probability of poor pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in low birth weight, stunting, wasting and mortality. Key Messages: Several strategies have been employed to provide pregnant women with micronutrients. These strategies include education, dietary modification, food provision, agricultural interventions, supplementation and fortification either alone or in combination. Micronutrient supplementation is the most widely practiced intervention to prevent and manage single or multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Micronutrient supplementation either alone or in combination has shown to be effective in improving maternal, birth and child outcomes. There is a need to focus on maternal micronutrient status as a continuum from the periconceptional period throughout pregnancy to lactation. Given the wide prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies in low-to-middle-income countries, the challenge is to implement intervention strategies that combine appropriate maternal and child health interventions with micronutrient interventions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Thaithae, Suparp; Thato, Ratsiri
To determine whether, when controlling for confounding factors, there was still an association of adolescence with adverse outcomes. Retrospective case control study. Seven Bangkok Metropolitan Administration General Hospitals. Charts of all women aged 19 and younger (n = 1,354) having singleton live births in 2004, 2005, and 2006 were retrieved. For the adult group, 1,389 charts of mothers between the ages of 20 and 34 delivering singleton babies were selected using proportionate systematic random sampling. Maternal age was divided into 3 groups: 11-15, 16-19, and 20-34. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes. After statistically controlling for known confounding factors, teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risks of anemia (11-15: AOR = 1.81, P < 0.001; 16-19: AOR = 1.48, P < 0.01), very preterm deliveries (11-15: AOR = 2.18, P < 0.05), very low birth weight babies (11-15: AOR = 6.98, P < 0.05; 16-19: AOR = 9.86, P < 0.01), newborn admission to Intensive Care Unit (11-15: AOR = 1.93, P < 0.01; 16-19: AOR = 2.10, P < 0.01), and postpartum complications (11-15: AOR = 3.33, P < 0.01). The rates of cesarean delivery (11-15: AOR 0.58, P < 0.01; 16-19: AOR = 0.57, P < 0.01), operative delivery (11-15: AOR = 0.49, P < 0.01), and oxytocin augmentation (16-19: AOR = 0.66, P < 0.01) were less frequent in younger mothers. Independent of known confounding factors, teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes requiring clinical and outreach interventions from health care providers. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aydin, Cetin; Baloglu, Ali; Yavuzcan, Ali; Inci, Aysegul
We investigated the relation between body mass index (BMI) value during labor and pregnancy outcomes in a group of Turkish population. The data on 9,112 singleton pregnancies were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were classified into three groups according to their BMI values: normal (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2), n = 5,685, 62.4%), overweight (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2), n = 2,214, 24.3%) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2), n = 1,213, 33.3%). Gestational diabetes mellitus (P = 0.000), risk of delivering a baby >90th percentile (P = 0.000) and preeclampsia (P = 0.000) were increased in parallel with increased BMI. A statically significant difference was observed between the normal and obese groups in terms of the abdominal cesarean rates (P = 0.020). However, a significant difference was not observed in terms of preterm delivery (P = 0.846), birthweight <10th percentile (P = 0.484), placenta previa (P = 0.880), ablatio placenta (P = 0.499) and intrauterine death (P = 0.175) between the groups. Regardless of the gestation, BMI is a factor that affects the fetal and maternal outcomes. The obese and overweight women should be followed up carefully during the labor and delivery.
Leve, Leslie D.; Kerr, David C. R.; Harold, Gordon T.
Teen pregnancy is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for girls such as drug use and poor parenting. Thus, reducing teen pregnancy rates could improve long-term developmental outcomes for girls, improving adjustment during young adulthood. Based on the positive effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to group care (GC) in a study of adolescent girls—significantly fewer pregnancies reported in the 2-year follow-up for MTFC girls—the present study followed this sample into young adulthood (approximately 7 years postbaseline) to examine the effects of adolescent pregnancy on young adult substance use and pregnancy-related outcomes. All participants were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as adolescents as part of two RCTs. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that becoming pregnant during the 2-year follow-up was significantly related to illicit drug use, miscarriage from a new pregnancy, and child welfare involvement at 7 years postbaseline. In addition, baseline marijuana use predicted marijuana use at 7 years postbaseline. PMID:24453470
Leve, Leslie D; Kerr, David C R; Harold, Gordon T
Teen pregnancy is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for girls such as drug use and poor parenting. Thus, reducing teen pregnancy rates could improve long-term developmental outcomes for girls, improving adjustment during young adulthood. Based on the positive effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to group care (GC) in a study of adolescent girls-significantly fewer pregnancies reported in the 2-year follow-up for MTFC girls-the present study followed this sample into young adulthood (approximately 7 years postbaseline) to examine the effects of adolescent pregnancy on young adult substance use and pregnancy-related outcomes. All participants were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as adolescents as part of two RCTs. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that becoming pregnant during the 2-year follow-up was significantly related to illicit drug use, miscarriage from a new pregnancy, and child welfare involvement at 7 years postbaseline. In addition, baseline marijuana use predicted marijuana use at 7 years postbaseline.
Hanley, Gillian E; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Kinniburgh, Brooke A; Lee, Lily
To examine the association between interpregnancy interval and maternal-neonate health when matching women to their successive pregnancies to control for differences in maternal risk factors and compare these results with traditional unmatched designs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 38,178 women with three or more deliveries (two or greater interpregnancy intervals) between 2000 and 2015 in British Columbia, Canada. We examined interpregnancy interval (0-5, 6-11, 12-17, 18-23 [reference], 24-59, and 60 months or greater) in relation to neonatal outcomes (preterm birth [less than 37 weeks of gestation], small-for-gestational-age birth [less than the 10th centile], use of neonatal intensive care, low birth weight [less than 2,500 g]) and maternal outcomes (gestational diabetes, beginning the subsequent pregnancy obese [body mass index 30 or greater], and preeclampsia-eclampsia). We used conditional logistic regression to compare interpregnancy intervals within the same mother and unconditional (unmatched) logistic regression to enable comparison with prior research. Analyses using the traditional unmatched design showed significantly increased risks associated with short interpregnancy intervals (eg, there were 232 preterm births [12.8%] in 0-5 months compared with 501 [8.2%] in the 18-23 months reference group; adjusted odds ratio [OR] for preterm birth 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.73). However, these risks were eliminated in within-woman matched analyses (adjusted OR for preterm birth 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.02). Matched results indicated that short interpregnancy intervals were significantly associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80 for 0-5 months) and beginning the subsequent pregnancy obese (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05-2.45 for 0-5 months and adjusted OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10-1.87 for 6-11 months). Previously reported associations between short interpregnancy intervals and adverse neonatal
Metz, Torri D; Allshouse, Amanda A; Hogue, Carol J; Goldenberg, Robert L; Dudley, Donald J; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Saade, George R; Silver, Robert M
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network previously demonstrated an association between stillbirth and maternal marijuana use as defined by the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in the umbilical cord homogenate. However, the relationship between marijuana use and perinatal complications in live births is uncertain. Our aim was to examine if maternal marijuana use is associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity among live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network cohort. We conducted a secondary analysis of singleton, live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network data set. Marijuana use was measured by self-report and/or the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in umbilical cord homogenate. Tobacco use was measured by self-report and/or presence of any cotinine in maternal serum. Adverse pregnancy outcome was a composite of small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth resulting from preterm labor with or without intact membranes, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Neonatal morbidity included neonatal intensive care unit admission and composite neonatal morbidity (pulmonary morbidity, necrotizing enterocolitis, seizures, retinopathy of prematurity, infection morbidity, anemia requiring blood transfusion, neonatal surgery, hyperbilirubinemia, neurological morbidity, or death prior to hospital discharge). Effect of maternal marijuana use on the probability of an adverse outcome was estimated using weighted methodology to account for oversampling in the original study. 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid cord homogenate analysis was performed in the subset of women for whom biospecimens were available. Comparisons using logistic modeling, χ(2), and t tests were weighted to account for oversampling of preterm
Sharma, S K; Nehra, A; Sinha, S; Soneja, M; Sunesh, K; Sreenivas, V; Vedita, D
Sleep disturbances such as insomnia, nocturnal awakenings, restless legs syndrome, habitual snoring, and excessive daytime sleepiness are frequent during pregnancy, and these have been linked to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A prospective observational study was performed in high-risk Indian pregnant women. We used modified Berlin questionnaire (MBQ), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group 2011 criteria, and Epworth sleepiness scale to diagnose various sleep disorders, such as symptomatic OSA, poor sleep quality and insomnia, RLS, and excessive daytime sleepiness, respectively, in successive trimesters of pregnancy. Outcome variables of interest were development of gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and cesarean delivery (CS); the Apgar scores; and low birth weight (LBW). The relationship between sleep disorders and outcomes was explored using logistic regression analysis. Outcome data were obtained in 209 deliveries. As compared to nonsnorers, women who reported snoring once, twice, and thrice or more had odds ratios for developing GH-4.0 (95 % CI 1.3-11.9), 1.5 (95 % CI 0.5-4.5), and 2.9 (95 % CI 1.0-8.2) and for undergoing CS-5.3 (95 % CI 1.7-16.3), 4.9 (95 % CI 1.8-13.1), and 5.1 (95 % CI 1.9-14.9), respectively. Pregnant women who were persistently positive on MBQ had increased odds for GH and CS. Snoring and high-risk MBQ in pregnant women are strong risk factors for GH and CS. In view of the significant morbidity and health care costs, simple screening of pregnant women with questionnaires such as MBQ may have clinical utility.
Gudmundsson, Saemundur; Flo, Kari; Ghosh, Gisela; Wilsgaard, Tom; Acharya, Ganesh
The pulsatility indices of the umbilical and uterine arteries are used as the surrogate measures of utero-placental perfusion. Combining the two might simplify the evaluation of total placental vascular impedance, possibly improve prediction of adverse outcomes, and help identify pregnancies with suspected fetal growth restriction that need more intense surveillance. Umbilical and uterine blood flow velocities were recorded using pulsed-wave Doppler in a longitudinal study of 53 low-risk pregnancies (248 observations) during 20-40 weeks of gestation. Pulsatility indices was calculated for each of these vessels. A new placental pulsatility index was constructed as: (umbilical artery pulsatility index + mean of the left and right uterine artery pulsatility indices)/2, and mean +2 SD defined as abnormal. Gestational age-specific reference percentiles were calculated for the second half of pregnancy and related to values obtained from 340 pregnancies with suspected intra-uterine growth restriction to test its ability to predict adverse pregnancy outcome. The placental pulsatility index was closely associated with gestational age and decreased with advancing gestation in normal pregnancy. The placental pulsatility index had a higher sensitivity and comparable specificity in predicting adverse outcome in pregnancies suspected of intra-uterine fetal growth restriction when compared with conventional umbilical and uterine artery pulsatility indices. The new placental pulsatility index, reflecting placental vascular impedance on both the fetal and maternal side of placenta, improves prediction of adverse outcome in pregnancies suspected of intra-uterine fetal growth restriction. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Proietti, Elena; Röösli, Martin; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp
There is increasing evidence of the adverse impact of prenatal exposure to air pollution. This is of particular interest, as exposure during pregnancy--a crucial time span of important biological development--may have long-term implications. The aims of this review are to show current epidemiological evidence of known effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution and present possible mechanisms behind this process. Harmful effects of exposure to air pollution during pregnancy have been shown for different birth outcomes: higher infant mortality, lower birth weight, impaired lung development, increased later respiratory morbidity, and early alterations in immune development. Although results on lower birth weight are somewhat controversial, evidence for higher infant mortality is consistent in studies published worldwide. Possible mechanisms include direct toxicity of particles due to particle translocation across tissue barriers or particle penetration across cellular membranes. The induction of specific processes or interaction with immune cells in either the pregnant mother or the fetus may be possible consequences. Indirect effects could be oxidative stress and inflammation with consequent hemodynamic alterations resulting in decreased placental blood flow and reduced transfer of nutrients to the fetus. The early developmental phase of pregnancy is thought to be very important in determining long-term growth and overall health. So-called "tracking" of somatic growth and lung function is believed to have a huge impact on long-term morbidity, especially from a public health perspective. This is particularly important in areas with high levels of outdoor pollution, where it is practically impossible for an individual to avoid exposure. Especially in these areas, good evidence for the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and infant mortality exists, clearly indicating the need for more stringent measures to reduce exposure to air pollution.
Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Azizi, Maryam
Introduction Nuchal Translucency (NT) is the sonographic form of subcutaneous gathering of liquid behind the foetal neck in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is association of increased NT with chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities. Aim The purpose of this systemic review was to review the pregnancy outcome of abnormal nuchal translucency. Materials and Methods The present systematic review was conducted by searching English language articles from sources such as International Medical Sciences, Medline, Web of science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL. Persian articles were searched from Iranmedex and SID sources. Related key words were “outcome”, “pregnancy”, “abnormal”, and “Nuchal Translucency” (NT). All, randomized, descriptive, analytic-descriptive, case control study conducted during 1997-2015 were included. Results Including duplicate articles, 95 related articles were found. After reviewing article titles, 30 unrelated article and abstracts were removed, and 65 articles were evaluated of which 30 articles were duplicate. Finally 22 articles were selected for final analysis. Exclusion criteria were, case studies and reports and quasi experimental designs. This evaluation has optioned negative relationship between nuchal translucency and pregnancy result. Rate of cardiac, chromosomal and other defects are correlated with increased NT≥2.5mm. Cardiac disease which were associated to the increased NT are heart murmur, systolic organic murmur, Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary valve insufficiency, Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) and Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). The most common problems that related with increased NT were allergic symptoms. Conclusion According to this systematic review, increased NT is associated with various foetal defects. To verify the presence of malformations, birth defect consultations with a perinatologist
Wariyar, U; Richmond, S; Hey, E
A study of all the mothers in the Northern region in 1983 whose pregnancies ended at between 24 and 31 weeks' gestation was undertaken. These pregnancies accounted for 1.3% of all the births and 44% of all the fetal and neonatal deaths in pregnancies that lasted more than 23 weeks. Most of the 389 singleton deliveries without malformations between 24 and 31 weeks were caused by spontaneous premature labour (n = 119, 31%), placental abruption (n = 79, 20%), pre-eclampsia (n = 56, 14%), and premature rupture of membranes (n = 48, 12%). The percentages of babies alive at the onset of delivery who survived the neonatal period were 66, 84, 78, and 73, respectively and the percentages of neonatal survivors with severe disabilities were 19, 13, 3, and 6, respectively. A further 65 (17%) of these babies died before the onset of labour for no obvious reason. The mode of delivery did not correlate with the outcome once the period of gestation at delivery was taken into account. The results highlight the inadequacy of the perinatal mortality index currently used in the United Kingdom, which identified 10.7 deaths/1000 registered births in 1983; 20% of the babies delivered at 24-31 weeks were excluded by this index because the birth went unregistered, as were 21% of all the babies born alive who died before discharge. An index that accounted for all babies weighing 500 g or more at birth irrespective of the period of gestation, and all neonatal (0-27 days) deaths, would be more appropriate and would bring reporting more into line with recommended international practice. PMID:2730121
Daniel-Robinson, Lekisha; Cha, Stephen; Lillie-Blanton, Marsha
Improving women's health and perinatal health outcomes is a high priority for Medicaid, the jointly financed federal-state health coverage program. The authorities provided by the Affordable Care Act give Medicaid new resources and opportunities to improve coverage and perinatal care. Given that the Medicaid program currently covers almost half of all births in the United States, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, working in partnership with states and other stakeholders, is using new and existing authorities to improve birth outcomes. Quality measurement, quality-improvement projects, and expanded models of care underscore the major quality approach of the center. As an outgrowth of an expert panel that included membership of several state Medicaid medical directors, Medicaid providers, and consumer representatives, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services launched the Maternal and Infant Health Initiative, which aims to increase postpartum visit rates and the use of effective contraception among women covered by Medicaid. This Initiative provides focus on key opportunities and strategies to improve the rate, measurement, timing, and content of postpartum visits. Additionally, a focus on contraception will serve to improve pregnancy planning and spacing and prevent unintended pregnancy. As the Initiative evolves, the Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services plans to identify policy, service delivery, and reimbursement policies to advance the Initiative's goals and improve outcomes for women covered by Medicaid.
Tadmor, O P; Shaia, M; Rosenman, H; Livshin, Y; Choukroun, C; Barr, I; Diamant, Y Z
A serological test for chlamydial infection was administered to 281 Jerusalem women in order to determine the rate and influence of Chlamydia on pregnancy outcome. Serological indication of active infection was present in 7.8% of the tested women, while 15.3% were shown to be positive for Chlamydia. Among the ultraorthodox subpopulation of Mea Shearim, serological indication of active infection was present among 5.9% of the women, and 12.3% of this population tested positive. In comparison, women from the secular subpopulation had 12.7% serological indication of active infection and 22.95% tested positive (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between pregnancy duration, birthweight, incidence of premature uterine contractions, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum febrile morbidity in the infected and noninfected groups. Women with a previous history of induced abortions showed a significantly higher evidence of past Chlamydia infection (9.3%) when compared with the women who did not have an infection (1.4%) (P < 0.006). Among the ultraorthodox women with positive or active infection, 41% had suffered at least one spontaneous abortion, as compared with 25% of the religious women who had no serological evidence of infection.
Pfeifer, Caroline; Bunders, Madeleine J
With the rapid roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, there is an annual increase in the number of uninfected infants born to HIV-infected women. Although the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has vastly improved pregnancy outcome and the health of infants born to HIV-infected women, concerns remain regarding the impact the maternal HIV infection on the pregnancy outcome and the health of HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Maternal HIV infection is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight. In addition, an increased susceptibility to infections is reported in HIV-exposed uninfected infants compared with infants born to uninfected women. Studies have shown that HIV-exposure affects the maternal/fetal unit, with increase of proinflammatory cytokine produced by placental cells, as well as altered infant immune responses. These changes could provide the underlying conditions for negative pregnancy outcomes and facilitate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the infant. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms and investigate whether these altered infant immune responses persist and have clinical consequences beyond childhood. HIV infection in pregnant women is associated with altered immune responses in HIV-infected women and their offspring with clinical consequences for pregnancy outcome and the HIV-exposed uninfected infant. Further studies are required to address the origin and long-term consequences of prenatal HIV-exposure and subsequent immune activation for infant health.
Abenhaim, Haim A; Alrowaily, Nouf; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Klam, Stephanie L
Pregnancies among morbidly obese women are associated with serious adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our study objective is to evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on obstetrical outcomes. We carried out a retrospective cohort study using the healthcare cost and utilization project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011 comparing outcome of births among women who had undergone bariatric surgery with births among women with morbid obesity. Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted effect of bariatric surgery on maternal and newborn outcomes. There were 8 475 831 births during the study period (221 580 (2.6%) in morbidly obese women and 9587 (0.1%) in women with bariatric surgery). Women with bariatric surgery were more likely to be Caucasian and ≥35 years old as compared with morbidly obese women. As compared with women with morbid obesity, women with bariatric surgery had lower rates of hypertensive disorders, premature rupture of membrane, chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, instrumental delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, and postpartum infection. Induction of labor, postpartum blood transfusions, venous thromboembolisms, and intrauterine fetal growth restriction were more common in the bariatric surgery group. There were no differences observed in preterm births, fetal deaths, or reported congenital anomalies. In general, women who undergo bariatric surgery have improved pregnancy outcomes as compared with morbidly obese women. However, the bariatric surgery group was more likely to have venous thromboembolisms, to require a blood transfusion, to have their labor induced and to experience fetal growth restriction.
Lohan, Maria; Cruise, Sharon; O'Halloran, Peter; Alderdice, Fiona; Hyde, Abbey
This review article reveals a long-standing gender bias in academic and policy research on adolescent pregnancy, which has led to the neglect of adolescent men's perspectives. The review summarizes the available literature on adolescent men's attitudes in relation to pregnancy occurrence and pregnancy outcomes in the context of addressing three questions: (1) What are adolescent men's attitudes to an adolescent pregnancy? (2) What are adolescent men's attitudes in relation to pregnancy outcomes? (3) What explanations are offered for the identified attitudes to adolescent pregnancy and resolution? The review establishes a foundation for future quantitative and qualitative research on adolescent men's perspectives. It emphasizes that a greater understanding of adolescent men's perspectives could lead to a re-framing of adolescent pregnancy away from being seen solely as a woman's issue. Furthermore, it is argued that the inclusion of adolescent men would lead to more effective adolescent pregnancy prevention and counseling programmes. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Márton, Virág; Zádori, János; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Keresztúri, Attila
To evaluate whether vanishing twin (VT) pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) had a more adverse perinatal outcome than those after natural conception. Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study. Tertiary university hospital. Three hundred and six (78 after IVF-ICSI and 228 after natural conception) VT pregnancies over a 22-year period, with VT cases matched to primarily singleton controls. None. Obstetric and neonatal outcome data. The incidence of VT was statistically significantly higher after natural conception (18.2% of twins) than after IVF-ICSI (12.6% of twins). The odds of VT in pregnancies complicated with pregestational or gestational diabetes were disproportionally higher in IVF-ICSI cases than in spontaneously conceived VT pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.80 vs. 3.10 and 1.00 vs. 1.07, respectively). Previous induced abortion (AOR 1.34) or second-trimester fetal loss (AOR 3.3) increased the risk of VT pregnancies after spontaneous conception. Gestational diabetes mellitus in both the previous (AOR 5.41) and the present (AOR 2.3) pregnancy as well as chronic maternal diseases (AOR 3.5) and placentation anomalies all represented independent risk factors for VT after IVF-ICSI. Vanishing twin pregnancies had a lower prevalence and a worse perinatal outcome after IVF-ICSI as compared with those of their spontaneously conceived counterparts. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biron-Andréani, Christine; Bauters, Anne; Le Cam-Duchez, Véronique; Delahousse, Bénédicte; Lequerrec, Agnès; Dutrillaux, Fabienne; Boinot, Catherine; Saladin-Thiron, Catherine; Polack, Benoit; Gruel, Yves; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel
To assess the rate of early (first trimester) and late (second and third trimester) fetal loss in women who are factor V Leiden homozygous. Between December 1995 and February 2007, consecutive, unrelated white women who were factor V Leiden homozygous and who had been pregnant at least once were recruited from 10 French hemostasis units. For reasons of comparison, we included women who were factor V Leiden heterozygous and a group of noncarriers. The frequency of early and late fetal loss was assessed retrospectively and compared among the three groups. The effect of concomitant thrombophilic abnormalities was evaluated. The overall pregnancy outcome was reported. We analyzed 240 thromboprophylaxis-free pregnancies in 95 women who were factor V Leiden homozygous, 425 in 195 women who were factor V Leiden heterozygous, and 182 in 73 women who were noncarriers. The risk of late fetal loss was higher in women who were homozygous (13/95, 13.7%) compared with those who were noncarriers (1/73, 1.4%, odds ratio 11.41, 95% confidence interval 1.46-89.46, P=.002), whereas it was similar in women who were heterozygous and in noncarriers (6/195, 3.1% compared with 1/73, 1.4%, P=.68). The percentage of women with early fetal loss was similar in the three groups (P=.81). The live-birth rate was 80%, 84%, and 85%, respectively, for women who where homozygous, heterozygous, and noncarriers (P=.88). The factor V Leiden homozygous genotype increases the risk of late fetal loss. However, the overall likelihood of a positive outcome is high in our series of women who were homozygous. III.
Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda
Abstract The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased prevalence of depression), as well as adverse neonatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight [LBW]), preterm birth [PTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) and maternal and neonatal death. Discussion of the mechanisms of action are explored and include: maternal engagement in health behaviors that are considered “risky,” including smoking and alcohol and substance use, and new evidence regarding the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and resulting changes in hormones that may affect LBW and SGA infants and PTB. Clinical recommendations include a commitment for routine screening of IPV in all pregnant women who present for care using validated screening instruments. In addition, the provision of readily accessible prenatal care and the development of a trusting patient–provider relationship are first steps in addressing the problem of IPV in pregnancy. Early trials of targeted interventions such as a nurse-led home visitation program and the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program show promising results. Brief psychobehavioral interventions are also being explored. The approach of universal screening, patient engagement in prenatal care, and targeted individualized interventions has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of IPV and highlight the importance of this complex social disorder as a top priority in maternal and neonatal health. PMID:25265285
Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tohidi, Maryam; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Azizi, Fereidoun
Despite some studies indicating that thyroid antibody positivity during pregnancy has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, evidence regarding the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment of euthyroid/subclinical hypothyroid pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease on pregnancy outcome is limited. We aimed to assess whether pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease, but without overt thyroid dysfunction are affected by higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, we aimed to explore whether LT4 treatment improves the pregnancy outcome of affected women. A prospective study was carried out on pregnant women from the first trimester to delivery. The study was conducted among pregnant women receiving prenatal care in centers under coverage of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Of a total of 1746 pregnant women, screened for thyroid dysfunction, 1028 euthyroid TPOAb-negative (TPOAb(-)) and 131 thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive (TPOAb(+)) women without overt thyroid dysfunction entered the second phase of the study. TPOAb(+) women were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 65), treated with LT4 and group B (n = 66), received no treatment. The 1028 TPOAb(-) women (group C) served as a normal population control group. Primary outcomes were preterm delivery and miscarriage and secondary outcomes included placenta abruption, still birth, neonatal admission and neonatal TSH levels. Groups B and C displayed a lower rate of preterm deliveries compared with group A (RR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.1-0.85, P = 0.0229) and (RR = 0.23, shows the percentages of women with TSH values 95% CI: 0.14-0.40, P < 0.001) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of preterm labor between groups A and C (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.30-2.09, P = 0.64). The number needed to treat (NNT) for preterm birth was 1.7 (95% CI: 0.039-0.30). Treatment with LT4 decreases the risk of preterm
A, Gulraze; W, Kurdi; Fa, Niaz; Me, Fawzy
Background & Objectives : We report 17 years outcome of subsequent pregnancies of women with severe Mitral Stenosis (MS) who underwent Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty (MBV) during pregnancy and the follow up of the children born of such pregnancies. Twenty three pregnant patients suffering from severe MS (NYHA-New York Heart Association class III/IV) who underwent MBV by Inoue balloon catheter technique during second trimester were enrolled. The study was performed between January 1992 and December 2008 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during which time, details about the obstetric outcome and childhood development were recorded. Mean follow up period was 10± 5.5 years (range 1-17 years). MBV was successful in all patients with improvement in their NYHA class to I/II. All patients were followed until term and had uneventful course after MBV. Twenty two (95.6%) patients delivered 23 babies including a twin birth. These children exhibited normal growth and development according to their age. Nineteen patients had further pregnancies and gave birth to 38 live & healthy babies with one still birth and no unfavorable maternal outcome. Of these, 97.4% were singleton pregnancies while 2.6% were twin pregnancies. Spontaneous abortions were recorded in 21.5% and there was one still birth (2.5%) and one ectopic pregnancy (2.5%). Conclusion : Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty is a safe and useful procedure during pregnancy, with no short or long term adverse affects on the mothers and their obstetric future. The children born of subsequent pregnancies exhibited normal physical and mental development.
Blake, Susan M; Kiely, Michele; Gard, Charlotte C; El-Mohandes, Ayman A E; El-Khorazaty, M Nabil
Unintended pregnancy is associated with risk behaviors and increased morbidity or mortality for mothers and infants, but a woman's feelings about pregnancy may be more predictive of risk and health outcomes than her intentions. A sample of 1,044 black women who were at increased risk were enrolled at prenatal care clinics in the District of Columbia in 2001-2003. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed associations between pregnancy intentions or level of happiness about being pregnant and multiple psychosocial and behavioral risk factors, and identified correlates of happiness to be pregnant. Pregnancy intentions and happiness were strongly associated, but happiness was the better predictor of risk. Unhappy women had higher odds than happy women of smoking, being depressed, experiencing intimate partner violence, drinking and using illicit drugs (odds ratios, 1.7-2.6). The odds of being happy were reduced among women who had other children or a child younger than two, who were single or did not have a current partner, who had had more than one sexual partner in the past year and who reported that the baby's father did not want the pregnancy (0.3-0.6). In contrast, the odds of being happy were elevated among women who had better coping strategies (1.03), who had not used birth control at conception (1.6) and who had 1-2 household members, rather than five or more (2.1). Additional psychosocial screening for happiness about being pregnant and for partner characteristics, particularly the father's desire to have this child, may help improve prenatal care services and prevent adverse health outcomes.
Young, Melissa F; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Addo, O Yaw; Hao, Wei; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha
This study aimed to: (1) examine the role of multiple measures of prepregnancy nutritional status (weight, height, body composition) on birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm, birth weight, birth length, infant head circumference and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)); (2) assess relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during (gestational weight gain) pregnancy on birth outcomes. We used prospective data on maternal body size and composition collected from women who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of preconceptional micronutrient supplements (PRECONCEPT) on birth outcomes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n=1436). Anthropometric measurements were obtained before conception through delivery by trained health workers. The relationship between prepregnancy nutritional status indicators, gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth outcomes were examined using generalized linear models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Maternal prepregnancy weight (PPW) was the strongest anthropometric indicator predicting infant birth size. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PPW (5.4kg) was associated with a 283g (95%CI: 279-286) increase in birthweight. A similar and independent association was observed with birthweight for an increase of 1 SD in gestational weight gain (4kg) (250g; 95% CI: 245-255). Women with a PPW <43kg or who gained <8kg during their pregnancy were more likely to give birth to a SGA (OR 2.9: 95%CI 1.9-4.5, OR 3.3: 95%CI 2.2-5.1) or LBW infant (OR 3.1: 95%CI 1.5-6.2, OR 3.4: 95%CI 1.6-7.2), respectively. These findings indicate that clinical care and programs aimed at improving birth outcomes will have the greatest impact if they address maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy. Women with a PPW <43kg or a GWG <8kg are at greatest risk for poor birth outcomes in this setting. Preconception counseling and clinical care to obtain a healthy
Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell
The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to
Little, Bertis B; Snell, Laura M; Van Beveren, Toosje T; Crowell, R Becca; Trayler, Stacey; Johnston, Walter L
The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of residential substance abuse treatment on pregnancy outcome among gravidas in a gender-specific program. All clients (cases) who entered a residential substance abuse program for pregnant and postpartum women were eligible for inclusion in the study (n=95). Only those who were in treatment at the time of delivery were included in the present analysis (n=57). Two comparison groups were used: (1) substance abusers who received no treatment during pregnancy (positive control group) and (2) pregnant women who were not substance abusers (negative control group). Cases were matched to controls on ethnicity (negative and positive controls) and drug of choice (positive controls only). Medical records were reviewed and abstracted for cases and controls. The primary drug of choice was cocaine for 56% of clients in the study, heroin 15.8%, and alcohol 10.8%. Average length of time in treatment before delivery was 11.7 weeks. The frequency of pregnancy complications allowing treatment and position controls was significantly higher than the negative control group (p<0.0001). The frequency of perinatal infant complications was increased among treatment group infants (p<0.0001). Two infants in the treatment group were positive for a substance of abuse at birth. In the treatment versus positive control group, mean birth weight (BW) was 3227 versus 2800 g (p<0.01), estimated gestational age (EGA) was 38.9 versus 39 weeks, average head circumference (FOC) was 33.8 versus 32.5 cm (p<0.05), and mean birth length (BLT) was 48.7 cm versus 46.9 (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between treatment and negative control groups. Maternal syphilis was increased in frequency in the positive control group compared with the negative control group (p<0.07). Thirty-percent of mothers had sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) for which infants were at risk and treated prophylactically; no infant in the treatment group contracted a
Girard, Amy Webb; Olude, Oluwafunke
Nutrition education and counselling (NEC) is a commonly applied strategy to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy. However, with the exception special populations and specific diets, the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. Using a modified Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group method we systematically reviewed the literature and identified and abstracted 37 articles. We conducted meta-analyses for the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes including gestational weight gain, maternal anaemia, birthweight, low birthweight and preterm delivery. NEC significantly improved gestational weight gain by 0.45 kg, reduced the risk of anaemia in late pregnancy by 30%, increased birthweight by 105 g and lowered the risk of preterm delivery by 19%. The effect of NEC on risk of low birthweight was not significant. The effect of NEC was greater when provided with nutrition support, for example, food or micronutrient supplements or nutrition safety nets. The overall quality of the body of evidence was deemed low for all outcomes due to high heterogeneity, poor study designs and other biases. Additional well-designed research that is grounded in appropriate theories of behaviour change is needed to improve confidence in the effect of NEC. Further, cost-effectiveness research is needed to clarify the added benefit and sustainability of providing NEC with nutritional support and/or safety nets, especially in areas where food insecurity and gender bias may limit women's capacity to adhere to NEC messages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Barnado, April; Wheless, Lee; Meyer, Anna K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L
In a study of Gullah African-Americans, we compared pregnancy outcomes before and after systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis to controls to test whether there is a predisease state that negativelyaffects pregnancy outcomes. Cases and controls reporting at least one pregnancy were included. Controls were all Gullah African-American females. We collected demographic, socioeconomic and pregnancy data. We modelled pregnancy outcome associations with case status using multiple logistic regression to calculate ORs. After adjustment for age, years of education, medical coverage and pregnancy number, compared with controls, cases were more likely to have any adverse outcome (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.10), including stillbirth (OR 4.55, 95% CI 1.53 to 13.50), spontaneous abortion (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.00), preterm birth (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.58 to 4.20), low birth weight (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.61 to 4.34) and preeclampsia (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.01). The odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes all increased after SLE diagnosis compared with before diagnosis, even after adjustment for age, years of education, pregnancy number and medical coverage. From a large cohort of African-American women, our findings suggest there may be a predisease state that predisposes to adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Raatikainen, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Nonna; Heinonen, Seppo
Background The influence of unemployment in the family on pregnancy outcome is controversial. Only a few studies have involved investigation of the effect of unemployment of the father on pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of unemployment of one or both parents on obstetric outcome in conditions of free antenatal care attended by the entire pregnant population. Methods The data of 24 939 pregnancies included maternal risk factors, pregnancy characteristics and outcome, and was based on a self administered questionnaire at 20 weeks of pregnancy and on clinical records. Results Unemployment was associated with adolescent maternal age, unmarried status and overweight, anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption and prior pregnancy terminations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that after controlling for these maternal risk factors small differences only were found in pregnancy outcomes between unemployed and employed families. Unemployed women had significantly more often small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, at an OR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12 – 1.42) whereas, in families where both parents were unemployed, the risk of SGA was even higher at an OR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.18 – 1.73). Otherwise, pregnancy outcome was comparable in the groups studied. Conclusion Free antenatal care was unable to fully overcome the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with unemployment, SGA risk being highest when both parents are unemployed. PMID:16504118
Li, Da; Yang, Da-Lei; An, Jing; Jiao, Jiao; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Wu, Qi-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Xia
Emerging evidence suggests that assisted hatching (AH) techniques may improve clinical pregnancy rates, particularly in poor prognosis patients; however, there still remains considerable uncertainty. We conducted a meta-analysis to verify the effect of AH on pregnancy outcomes. We searched for related studies published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases from start dates to October 10, 2015. Totally, 36 randomized controlled trials with 6459 participants were included. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for whether by AH or not were estimated. We found a significant increase in clinical pregnancy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.00–1.36, I2 = 48.3%) and multiple pregnancy rates (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11–2.01, I2 = 44.0%) with AH when compared to the control. Numerous subgroup analyses stratified by hatching method, conception mode, extent of AH, embryos transfer status, and previous failure history were also carried out. Interestingly, significant results of clinical pregnancy as well as multiple pregnancy rates were observed among women who received intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and who received AH which the zona were completely removed. In summary, this meta-analysis supports that AH was associated with an increased chance of achieving clinical pregnancy and multiple pregnancy. Whether AH significantly changes live birth and miscarriage rates needs further investigations. PMID:27503701
Rook, Michelle; Vargas, Juan; Caughey, Aaron; Bacchetti, Peter; Rosenthal, Philip; Bull, Laura
Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has important fetal implications. There is increased risk for poor fetal outcomes, including preterm delivery, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, respiratory distress, fetal distress and demise. Methods One hundred and one women diagnosed with ICP between January 2005 and March 2009 at San Francisco General Hospital were included in this study. Single predictor logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of maternal clinical and biochemical predictors with fetal complications. Clinical predictors analyzed included age, race/ethnicity, gravidity, parity, history of liver or biliary disease, history of ICP in previous pregnancies, and induction. Biochemical predictors analyzed included serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein, and total bile acids (TBA). Results The prevalence of ICP was 1.9%. Most were Latina (90%). Labor was induced in the majority (87%) and most were delivered by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (84%). Fetal complications occurred in 33% of the deliveries, with respiratory distress accounting for the majority of complications. There were no statistically significant clinical or biochemical predictors associated with an increased risk of fetal complications. Elevated TBA had little association with fetal complications until reaching greater than 100 µmoL/L, with 3 out of 5 having reported complications. ICP in previous pregnancies was associated with decreased risk of fetal complications (OR 0.21, p = 0.046). There were no cases of late term fetal demise. Conclusions Maternal clinical and laboratory features, including elevated TBA, did not appear to be substantial predictors of fetal complications in ICP. PMID:22403605
Lee, Gi Su; Rhee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jong In
Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and clinical outcomes of Korean recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients. And also, we investigated the differences between primary and secondary RPL patients, between two and three or more pregnancy losses. Methods One hundred seventy eight women diagnosed as RPL were enrolled. We performed chromosomal analysis, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, natural killer cell proportion, anticardiolipin antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2glycoprotein-1 antibodies, antinuclear antibody, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, homocysteine, MTFHR gene, factor V Leiden mutation, and hysterosalphingography/hysteroscopic evaluation. Results The mean age was 34.03±4.30 years, and mean number of miscarriages was 2.69±1.11 (range, 2 to 11). Anatomical cause (13.5%), chromosomal abnormalities (5.6%), and endocrine disorders (34.3%) were observed in RPL women. Elevated natural killer cell and antiphospholipid antibodies were observed in 43.3% and 7.3% each. Among of 178 women, 77 women were pregnant. After management of those women, live birth rate was 84.4% and mean gestational weeks was 37.63±5.12. Women with three or more RPL compared with women with two RPL had more common anatomical cause such as intrauterine adhesions and lower rates of spontaneous pregnancy. Compare with secondary RPL women, immunological abnormalities were more common in primary RPL. However, miscarriage rates were not different. Conclusion Immunological factor including autoimmune and alloimmune disorders was most common etiology of RPL. Inherited thrombophilia showed different patterns with other ethnic countries. Miscarriage rates were not different between primary and secondary RPL, or between two and three or more miscarriages group. PMID:27668201
Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Ivarsson, Anneli; Mogren, Ingrid
Physical activity during pregnancy is generally considered safe and beneficial for both the pregnant woman and her fetus. The overall aim was to investigate pregnant women's pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy physical activity and its associations with maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant women living in northern Sweden between 2011 and 2012. Almost half of the participants (47.1%) achieved the recommended level of physical activity. Compared to the women who did not achieve the recommended level of exercise, these women had lower BMI, very good or good self-rated health, and a higher educational level. No significant associations could be established between physical activity levels and GDM, birth weight, or mode of delivery. Positively, a considerably high proportion of Swedish pregnant women achieved the recommended level of physical activity. Factors associated with recommended physical activity level were BMI ≤30 kg/m(2), very good or good self-rated health, and higher educational level. Our findings emphasize the need for health care professionals to early detect and promote fertile and pregnant women towards health-enhancing physical activity, especially those with low levels of physical activity and overweight/obesity, to improve overall health in this population. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dain, Lena; Ojha, Kamal; Bider, David; Levron, Jacob; Zinchenko, Viktor; Walster, Sharon; Dirnfeld, Martha
To evaluate the effect of local endometrial injury (LEI) on clinical outcomes in ovum donation recipients. Retrospective cohort analysis of ovum donation cycles conducted from 2005 to 2012. Two private IVF centers. Total 737 ovum donation cycles. LEI by endometrial "scratch" with the use of a Pipelle catheter. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. No statistically significant differences were found in clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates in cycles subjected to LEI compared with those without. Combination of LEI with fibroid uterus resulted with significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates compared with LEI in normal uterine anatomy. This is the first study done in ovum recipients who underwent LEI by a "scratch" procedure after failed implantation. Unlike most previous reports, which found improved pregnancy rates with the use of "scratch effect" or "minor endometrial injury" after repeated implantation failures in standard IVF with own eggs, we did not find any changes in implantation rates in a population of egg recipients following this procedure. In view of a possible positive effect of LEI in cycles with a previous four or more failures, prospective randomized controlled studies are warranted to better define the target population who may benefit from this intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka
This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure.
Madazli, R; Yuksel, M A; Oncul, M; Tuten, A; Guralp, O; Aydin, B
The aim of this study was to describe maternal and fetal characteristics associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and to determine clinical and biochemical predictors of fetal complications. A total of 89 singleton pregnancies with ICP were analysed, retrospectively. All data concerning laboratory results, symptom onset time, treatment response, delivery time and infant information were recorded in the study protocol. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32.6 ± 3.4 weeks; mean time of delivery was 36.8 ± 1.9 weeks. Binary logistic regression revealed that gestational age at diagnosis was predictive of preterm delivery (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.3, p = 0.001). The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), fetal growth restriction, fetal distress and preterm delivery were significantly higher in patients who were diagnosed before 30 weeks than after 34 weeks' gestation (p < 0.01). Gestational age at diagnosis is an important independent factor predicting adverse perinatal outcomes in patients with ICP.
Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Salvador, Joaquín; Jané, Mireia
To describe social and economic inequalities in non-fatal pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age births) in the neighbourhoods of the city of Barcelona (Spain), according to maternal age and maternal country of origin, between 1991 and 2005. A cross-sectional ecological study was carried out using the 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona as the unit of analysis. The study population comprises the 192,921 live births to resident women aged 12-49 residing from 1991 to 2005. Information was gathered from births registry. Prevalence of low birth-weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age, was calculated for each of the 38 neighbourhoods of mothers' residence, stratifying results by maternal age and country of origin. The indicator of neighbourhood socio-economic level was the unemployment rate. Quartile maps along with Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression were performed between indicators. The present study reports socio-economic inequalities in pregnancy outcomes among neighbourhoods in Barcelona (Spain): the more disadvantaged neighbourhoods have worse pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age births) in all women age groups. These inequalities do not exist among immigrant women, and some groups of foreign mothers even have lower rates of low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age births than autochthonous women. The existing inequalities suggest that policy efforts to reduce these inequalities are not entirely successful and should focus on improving pregnancy and delivery care in less privileged women in a country with universal access to health care.
Sun, Luming; Zou, Gang; Wei, Xing; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Okun, Nanette; Duan, Tao
The chorionicity–based evaluation of the perinatal risk in twin pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is lacking. A retrospective review was performed of all twin pregnancies monitored prenatally and delivered at our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Chorionicity was diagnosed by ultrasound examination at first trimester and confirmed by postnatal pathology. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were prospectively recorded. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in a logistic regression model. A total of 1153 twin pregnancies were analyzed. The occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was 3 times as frequent in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after ART as in those spontaneous counterparts (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.1–3.2). The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancies (ICP) was significantly higher in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneous DCDA pregnancies (aOR 3.3; 95%CI 1.3–5.6). Perinatal outcomes did not differ between two conception methods, either in MCDA or DCDA twin pregnancies. Based on differentiation of chorionicity, ART is associated with the increased risk of PPROM in MCDA twin pregnancies and with a higher rate of ICP in DCDA twin gestations. ART does not increase adversity of perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. PMID:27243373
Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan
This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324
Dungy-Poythress, L J
While cocaine abuse in pregnancy is associated with a number of negative outcomes for both mothers and infants, it is unclear to what extent cocaine is specifically responsible for these negative outcomes and how its effects are distinct from those associated with substance abuse in general. Use of other drugs commonly associated with cocaine abuse, such as alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, has also been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Untoward pregnancy effects often ascribed to cocaine abuse in pregnancy may be more appropriately attributed to these or other drugs or to the unhealthy life-style associated with the long-term abuser rather than to cocaine itself. Epidemiologic data concerning cocaine use in pregnancy describe only associations of drug use and do not prove causality. Future research and longitudinal studies are needed to examine the roles of maternal and environmental factors in predicting differences in cocaine-exposed and nonexposed pregnancies.
De Sancho, Maria T; Khalid, Sana; Christos, Paul J
To assess the rate and type of maternal and infant complications among pregnant women receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Retrospective study of pregnant women on LMWH referred to two university hematology clinics from January 2001 to December 2010. We recorded the number of pregnancies, indication, dose and dose adjustments for LMWH, pregnancy outcomes (live births, maternal and infant complications) and side effects of LMWH. There were 89 pregnancies in 76 women. The most common indication for LMWH was a history of adverse outcome of pregnancy associated with thrombophilia. LMWH was adjusted in 75 and 45% of pregnancies in women on therapeutic and prophylactic doses, respectively. Live birth rate was 97%. There were 25 maternal and 11 infant complications. Side effects were minimal and included decreased bone mineral density and bleeding. LMWH use among pregnant women is associated with successful pregnancy outcomes. Although side effects were minimal, maternal and infant complications occurred in 28 and 12% of cases, respectively.
Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Inan, Cihan; Altintas, Ahmet Salih; Okten, Sabri Berkem; Sayin, Niyazi Cenk
Objective: To document the neonatal outcomes of preterm birth in twin pregnancies and to investigate whether perinatal and obstetric parameters are associated with clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective trial was conducted on data gathered from 176 preterm twins delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of our tertiary care center. Data extracted from medical files of 88 pregnant women who gave preterm birth (at 260/7 to 366/7 gestational weeks) to twins were analyzed. Maternal/fetal descriptive and obstetric parameters, sonographic data, route of delivery, indication for cesarean section, birth weight, Apgar scores, head circumference, umbilical cord length and placental weight were noted. Results: The average age of the pregnant women was 28.8±6.4 years and ultrasonographic gestational age was 31.9±2.6 weeks. Apgar scores at 1st minute were affected significantly by fetal body weight (p=0.001), gestational age (p=0.001), height (p=0.004) and head circumference (p=0.011). None of these variables exhibited a noteworthy effect on Apgar scores at 5th minute. Conclusion: Efforts must be made to achieve advancement of gestational age until delivery in the follow-up preterm of twins. A well-established algorithm with special emphasis to risk factors is necessary to standardize and popularize the appropriate management strategy. PMID:27648040
Kabbali, Nadia; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Harandou, Mustapha; Tagnaouti, Mounia; Bentata, Yassamine; Laouad, Inass; Ramdani, Benyounes; Bayahia, Rabia; Oualim, Zouhair; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of acute AKI in pregnancy and to emphasize on its management modalities in Moroccan hospitals. This is a national prospective study performed over six months from July 1 to December 31 2010 on AKI developing in pregnant patients, both preand post-partum period. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease were excluded from the study. Outcome was considered unfavorable when complete recovery of renal function was not achieved and/or maternal death occurred. Forty-four patients were included in this study. They were 29.6 ± 6 years old and mostly illiterate (70.6%). Most AKI occurred in the post-partum period, with 66% of the cases occurring in those who did not receive antenatal care. The main etiologies were pre-eclampsia (28 cases), hemorrhagic shock (six cases) and septic events (five cases). We noted three cases of acute fatty liver, one case of obstructive kidney injury and one case of lupus nephritis. Hemodialysis was necessary in 17 (38.6%) cases. The outcome was favorable in 29 patients. The maternal mortality rate was 11.4%. Two poor prognostic factors were identified: Age over 38 years and sepsis. AKI is a severe complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Its prevention necessitates the improvement of the sanitary infrastructure and the establishment of the obligatory antenatal care.
Mascarenhas, Mariano; Kamath, Mohan S.; Muthukumar, K; Mangalaraj, Ann M.; Chandy, Achamma; Aleyamma, TK
OBJECTIVES: The overwhelming numbers of twins following assisted reproductive technology (ART) are dichorionic twins, but monochorionic twins account for around 0.9% of post ART pregnancies. The data for post ART-monochorionic pregnancy outcomes are scarce due to the rarity of this condition. Hence, we evaluated the obstetric outcomes of monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies conceived on ART. SETTINGS: University teaching hospital. STUDY DESIGN: A case–control study of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) and dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) pregnancies conceived following ART treatment. Charts of all women who conceived following ART from 2008 to 2013 were screened. Among them, the monochorionic twins diagnosed in the first trimester were included and their obstetric outcome was followed-up. For comparison, an equal number of dichorionic twin pregnancies from age and body mass index matched mothers was selected. RESULTS: The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. MCDA group had a higher miscarriage rate (50%) than the DCDA group (10%), with three seconds trimester miscarriages in the MCDA group. The live birth rates were lower in the MCDA versus DCDA group (40% vs. 90%). Among triplet pregnancies with a monochorionic component, the live birth rate was only 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Monochorionic pregnancies following ART have poorer obstetric outcomes when compared to dichorionic pregnancies. For monochorionic pregnancies following ART, intensive antenatal surveillance at a tertiary level obstetric and neonatal center may help optimize the outcome. PMID:25191025
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.
adolescent relationships prior to pregnancy may improve Black adolescent mothers’ birth outcomes. Intervening on long-term violence may be particularly important. PMID:24366966
Pessonnier, A; Ko-Kivok-Yun, P; Fournie, A
A monochorial monoamniotic twin pregnancy was conducted to term with the delivery of two live infants. The diagnostic problems are due to the rarity of this type of twin pregnancy. The main complications are recalled, essentially related to funicular and dystocic problems at delivery. Such pregnancies require careful management. A caesarean section should always be entertained.
Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J.; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A.; Serra-Majem, Luis
Objectives To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. Methods A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Results Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52–2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01–4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27–3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13–7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12–8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46–22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25–3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03–2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05–1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14–1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53–2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28–2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35–2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56–2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12–3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01–1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62–8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50–8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41–8.54). Conclusion Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote
He, Song; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Tan, Thiam Chye
To investigate the association of serum progesterone in first trimester with low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes at term, and preterm premature rupture of membranes in a general population. We conducted a cohort study of 263 women with low-risk singleton intrauterine pregnancies who had a spot serum progesterone measurement in the first trimester in a Singapore tertiary maternity hospital. Study outcomes were retrieved from clinical records. Follow-up data were available for 131 women. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of low serum progesterone (<35 nmol/L) with LBW and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Low serum progesterone was associated with a significantly increased risk of LBW (adjusted odds ratio: 5.28 [1.02, 27.3]; p=0.047). Low serum progesterone was associated with a significantly increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in univariate analysis (unadjusted odds ratio: 8.43 [1.31, 54.2]; p=0.025). Low serum progesterone in the first trimester is a significant risk factor for LBW and possibly other placental dysfunction disorders such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the associations.
Barker, M; Baird, J; Lawrence, W; Vogel, C; Stömmer, S; Rose, T; Inskip, H; Godfrey, K; Cooper, C
Recently, large-scale trials of behavioural interventions have failed to show improvements in pregnancy outcomes. They have, however, shown that lifestyle support improves maternal diet and physical activity during pregnancy, and can reduce weight gain. This suggests that pregnancy, and possibly the whole periconceptional period, represents a 'teachable moment' for changes in diet and lifestyle, an idea that was made much of in the recent report of the Chief Medical Officer for England. The greatest challenge with all trials of diet and lifestyle interventions is to engage people and to sustain this engagement. With this in mind, we propose a design of intervention that aims simultaneously to engage women through motivational conversations and to offer access to a digital platform that provides structured support for diet and lifestyle change. This intervention design therefore makes best use of learning from the trials described above and from recent advances in digital intervention design.
Mecacci, Federico; Pieralli, Annalisa; Bianchi, Barbara; Paidas, Michael J
Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous disorders equally characterized by the same pathogenetic mechanism: an immunological reaction against self antigens promoted by antibodies, immuno-complex formation, and self-reactive T lymphocytes. Autoimmune diseases may be separated into organ-restricted diseases and systemic ones. The damage of single organs produced by antibodies focused against specific cellular antigens characterizes the first group of diseases, whereas the latter are produced by a systemic inflammatory process initiated by inappropriate and excess immune activation that leads to immuno-complex formation and deposition onto sensitive tissues. Since connective and vascular tissue are principally damaged in these disorders, systemic autoimmune diseases are more commonly known as "connective tissue diseases" (CTD) and include: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, Sjogren syndrome, and others. Although they are considered as different from a pathogenetic point of view, they overlap in many aspects, such as general symptoms as fever and fatigue, chronical ongoing, steroid therapy. As patients suffering from CTD are predominantly young women between the ages of 20 and 40 years, which is the period of the highest childbearing potential, particular interest must be regarded to the impact that these diseases and their therapies have on pregnancy and, conversely, the effect of pregnancy on these disorders, which may have long-lasting implications for mothers and neonates. Adverse fetal outcomes, maternal disease flares, and drug potential teratogenic risk are the main reasons why women suffering from CTD and who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant are considered a high-risk population. These patients require integrated, interdisciplinary care, addressing every aspect of rheumatology, obstetrics, and neonatology to reduce maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications.
Laughon, S.K.; Catov, J.; Powers, R.W.; Roberts, J.M.; Gandley, R.E.
BACKGROUND The association of elevated serum uric acid with the development of hypertension is established outside of pregnancy. We investigated whether first trimester uric acid was associated with the development of the following: gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, these outcomes stratified by presence of hyperuricemia at delivery since this denotes more severe disease, preterm birth or small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS Uric acid was measured in 1541 banked maternal plasma samples from a prior prospective cohort study that were collected at a mean gestational age of 9.0 (± 2.5) weeks. Polytomous regressions were performed and adjusted for parity and pre-pregnancy body mass index. RESULTS First trimester uric acid in the highest quartile (>3.56 mg/dL) compared to lowest three quartiles was associated with an increased risk of developing preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.03–3.21) but not gestational hypertension. In women with hypertensive disease complicated by hyperuricemia at delivery, high first trimester uric acid was associated with a 3.22-fold increased risk of hyperuricemic gestational hypertension and a 3.65-fold increased risk of hyperuricemic preeclampsia. High first trimester uric acid was not associated with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia without hyperuricemia at delivery, preterm birth, or SGA. In women who developed hypertensive disease, elevated uric acid at delivery was only partly explained by elevated uric acid in the first trimester (r2 = .23). CONCLUSIONS First trimester elevated uric acid was associated with later preeclampsia and more strongly with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension with hyperuricemia. PMID:21252861
Plessinger, M A
Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced in animal studies involving prenatal exposures to amphetamines. The differential effects of amphetamines between genetic strains of mice and between species demonstrate that pharmacokinetics and the genetic disposition of the mother and developing embryo can have an enormous influence on enhancing or reducing these potential risks. The effects of prenatal exposure to amphetamines in producing altered behavior in humans appear less compelling when one considers other confounding variables of human environment, genetics, and polydrug abuse. In view of the animal data concerning altered behavior and learning tasks in comparison with learning deficits observed in humans, the influence of the confounding variables in humans may serve to increase the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to prenatal exposure to amphetamines. These factors and others may predispose the developing conceptus to the damaging effects of amphetamines by actually lowering the threshold of susceptibility at the sites where damage occurs. Knowledge of the effects of prenatal exposure of the fetus and the mother to designer amphetamines is lacking. Based on the few studies in which designer drugs have been examined in animal models, more questions are raised than answered. Possible reasons why no malformations or significant fetal effects were found in the study by St. Omer include the genetic strain of rat used, the conservative exposure profile, or the fact that the placenta metabolized MDMA before reaching the embryo. These questions underscore the need for further investigations concerning the prenatal exposure effects of designer compounds and
Zhu, Jun-Ming; Ma, Wei-Guo; Peterss, Sven; Wang, Long-Fei; Qiao, Zhi-Yu; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Elefteriades, John A; Sun, Li-Zhong
Aortic dissection in pregnancy is a rare but lethal catastrophe. Clinical experiences are limited. We report our experience in 25 patients focusing on etiology, management strategies, and outcomes. Between June 1998 and February 2015, we treated 25 pregnant women (mean age, 31.6 ± 4.7 years) in whom aortic dissection developed at a mean of 28 ± 10 gestational weeks (GWs). Type A aortic dissection (TAAD) was present in 20 (80%) and type B (TBAD) in 5 (20%). Marfan syndrome was seen in 17 (68%). Management strategy was based on dissection type and GWs. TAADs were managed surgically in 19 (95.0%) and medically in 1 (5.0%). Maternal and fetal mortalities were, respectively, 14.3% (1 of 7) and 0 (0 of 7) in the "delivery first" group (7 of 20), 16.7% (1 of 6) and 33.3% (2 of 6) in "single-stage delivery and aortic repair" group (6 of 20), 16.7% (1 of 6) and 66.7% (4 of 6) in "aortic repair first" group (6 of 20), and 100% (1 of 1) and 100% (1 of 1) in the "medical management" group (1 of 20). TBADs were managed surgically in 60% (3 of 5) and endovascularly and medically in 20% each (1 of 5). No maternal deaths occurred. Fetal mortality was 100% in the surgical group and 0% in the other groups. During late follow-up, which was complete in 95.2% (20 of 21), 3 maternal and 2 fetal deaths occurred in the TAAD group. Overall maternal survival was 68.6% at 5 years. Marfan syndrome predominates among women with aortic dissection in pregnancy. For TAADs, after 28 GWs, delivery followed by surgical repair can achieve maternal and fetal survival adequately; before 28 GWs, maternal survival should be prioritized given the high risk of fetal death. For TBADs in pregnancy, nonsurgical management is preferred. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bose, Carl L; Bauserman, Melissa; Goldenberg, Robert L; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pasha, Omrana; Carlo, Waldemar A; Garces, Ana; Moore, Janet L; Miodovnik, Menachem; Koso-Thomas, Marion
The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) supports and conducts clinical trials in resource-limited countries by pairing foreign and U.S. investigators, with the goal of evaluating low-cost, sustainable interventions to improve the health of women and children. Accurate reporting of births, stillbirths, neonatal deaths, maternal mortality, and measures of obstetric and neonatal care is critical to efforts to discover strategies for improving pregnancy outcomes in resource-limited settings. Because most of the sites in the Global Network have weak registration within their health care systems, the Global Network developed the Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), a prospective, population-based registry of pregnancies at the Global Network sites to provide precise data on health outcomes and measures of care. Pregnant women are enrolled in the MNHR if they reside in or receive healthcare in designated groups of communities within sites in the Global Network. For each woman, demographic, health characteristics and major outcomes of pregnancy are recorded. Data are recorded at enrollment, the time of delivery and at 42 days postpartum. From 2010 through 2013 Global Network sites were located in Argentina, Guatemala, Belgaum and Nagpur, India, Pakistan, Kenya, and Zambia. During this period, 283,496 pregnant women were enrolled in the MNHR; this number represented 98.8% of all eligible women. Delivery data were collected for 98.8% of women and 42-day follow-up data for 98.4% of those enrolled. In this supplement, there are a series of manuscripts that use data gathered through the MNHR to report outcomes of these pregnancies. Developing public policy and improving public health in countries with poor perinatal outcomes is, in part, dependent upon understanding the outcome of every pregnancy. Because the worst pregnancy outcomes typically occur in countries with limited health registration systems and vital records, alternative
Background The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) supports and conducts clinical trials in resource-limited countries by pairing foreign and U.S. investigators, with the goal of evaluating low-cost, sustainable interventions to improve the health of women and children. Accurate reporting of births, stillbirths, neonatal deaths, maternal mortality, and measures of obstetric and neonatal care is critical to efforts to discover strategies for improving pregnancy outcomes in resource-limited settings. Because most of the sites in the Global Network have weak registration within their health care systems, the Global Network developed the Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), a prospective, population-based registry of pregnancies at the Global Network sites to provide precise data on health outcomes and measures of care. Methods Pregnant women are enrolled in the MNHR if they reside in or receive healthcare in designated groups of communities within sites in the Global Network. For each woman, demographic, health characteristics and major outcomes of pregnancy are recorded. Data are recorded at enrollment, the time of delivery and at 42 days postpartum. Results From 2010 through 2013 Global Network sites were located in Argentina, Guatemala, Belgaum and Nagpur, India, Pakistan, Kenya, and Zambia. During this period, 283,496 pregnant women were enrolled in the MNHR; this number represented 98.8% of all eligible women. Delivery data were collected for 98.8% of women and 42-day follow-up data for 98.4% of those enrolled. In this supplement, there are a series of manuscripts that use data gathered through the MNHR to report outcomes of these pregnancies. Conclusions Developing public policy and improving public health in countries with poor perinatal outcomes is, in part, dependent upon understanding the outcome of every pregnancy. Because the worst pregnancy outcomes typically occur in countries with limited health registration
Background Studies from the United States and the United Kingdom have found that imprisoned women are less likely to experience poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes than other disadvantaged women. This population-based study used both community controls and women with a history of incarceration as a control group, to investigate whether imprisoned pregnant women in New South Wales, Australia, have improved maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods Retrospective cohort study using probabilistic record linkage of routinely collected data from health and corrective services in New South Wales, Australia. Comparison of the maternal and perinatal outcomes of imprisoned pregnant women aged 18–44 years who gave birth between 2000–2006 with women who were (i) imprisoned at a time other than pregnancy, and (ii) community controls. Outcomes of interest: onset of labour, method of birth, pre-term birth, low birthweight, Apgar score, resuscitation, neonatal hospital admission, perinatal death. Results Babies born to women who were imprisoned during pregnancy were significantly more likely to be born pre-term, have low birthweight, and be admitted to hospital, compared with community controls. Pregnant prisoners did not have significantly better outcomes than other similarly disadvantaged women (those with a history of imprisonment who were not imprisoned during pregnancy). Conclusions In contrast to the published literature, we found no evidence that contact with prison health services during pregnancy was a “therapunitive” intervention. We found no association between imprisonment during pregnancy and improved perinatal outcomes for imprisoned women or their neonates. A history of imprisonment remained the strongest predictor of poor perinatal outcomes, reflecting the relative health disadvantage experienced by this population of women. PMID:24968895
Rubin, Rainbow; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin; Blount, Benjamin C; Miller, Mark D; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; DeLorenze, Gerald; Liaw, Jane; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Steinmaus, Craig
At high medicinal doses perchlorate is known to decrease the production of thyroid hormone, a critical factor for fetal development. In a large and uniquely exposed cohort of pregnant women, we recently identified associations between environmental perchlorate exposures and decreased maternal thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Here, we investigate whether perchlorate might be associated with birthweight or preterm birth in the offspring of these women. Maternal urinary perchlorate, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, birthweight, gestational age, and urinary nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide were collected in 1957 mother-infant pairs from San Diego County during 2000-2003, a period when the county's water supply was contaminated with perchlorate. Associations between perchlorate exposure and birth outcomes were examined using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, weight, race/ethnicity, and other factors. Perchlorate was not associated with birth outcomes in the overall population. However, in analyses confined to male infants, log10 maternal perchlorate concentrations were associated with increasing birthweight (β=143.1gm, p=0.01), especially among preterm births (β=829.1g, p<0.001). Perchlorate was associated with male preterm births ≥2500g (odds ratio=3.03, 95% confidence interval=1.09-8.40, p-trend=0.03). Similar associations were not seen in females. This is the first study to identify associations between perchlorate and increasing birthweight. Further research is needed to explore the differences we identified related to infant sex, preterm birth, and other factors. Given that perchlorate exposure is ubiquitous, and that long-term impacts can follow altered birth outcomes, future research on perchlorate could have widespread public health importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Santis, Marco; Carducci, Brigida; De Santis, Lidia; Lucchese, Angela; Straface, Gianluca
To assess pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a woman accidentally exposed to Verteporfin photodynamic therapy in the third week of pregnancy. Post-conception counselling and prospective follow-up by telephone interview at Telefono Rosso (Teratology Information Service) were carried out. The baby was examined at birth and at 26 months. The outcome of the pregnancy was normal and a healthy female child with a normal birthweight was born. The baby's follow-up was normal at 26 months. This is the first reported case of a childbearing woman being accidentally exposed to Verteporfin during pregnancy. No fetal or neonatal adverse effects were documented.
Phillips, Katie M; Heiser, Alyssa; Gaudin, Robert; Hadlock, Tessa A; Jowett, Nate
The incidence of Bell's palsy (BP) is elevated in the late phases of pregnancy. Controversy exists as to whether pregnancy is a risk factor for worse outcomes in BP, and whether such outcomes are the result of factors intrinsic to pregnancy or the tendency to withhold medical therapy in this cohort. Long-term facial function outcomes in cases of pregnancy-associated BP (PABP) were compared against outcomes in cases affecting nonpregnant adult women of child-bearing age by a blinded expert using the electronic clinician-graded facial function scale (eFACE) facial grading system. Fifty-one pregnancy-associated cases and 58 nonpregnancy-associated cases were included. Among patients who received early corticosteroid therapy, significantly worse static, synkinesis, and composite facial function eFACE scores were demonstrated among cases of PABP compared to nonpregnancy-associated cases (static median = 86 vs. 92.5, P = 0.005; synkinesis median = 79 vs. 86, P = 0.007; composite median = 78 vs. 84, P = 0.023). Among those not treated with corticosteroids, significantly worse dynamic and composite facial function eFACE scores were demonstrated in cases of PABP compared to those for nonpregnancy-associated cases (dynamic median = 74 vs. 92.5, P = 0.038; composite median = 73 vs. 86.5, P = 0.038). A trend toward improved outcomes was demonstrated within both groups for those treated with corticosteroids compared to those who were not. In comparison to cases unrelated to pregnancy, late-term PABP is associated with worse long-term outcomes to a degree that cannot solely be explained by differences in medical therapy. 4. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Uchida, Sayaka; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Kagami, Maki; Miki, Fumie; Hihara, Hanako; Katakura, Satomi; Yoshimasa, Yushi; Masuda, Hirotaka; Uchida, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Mamoru
Because subclinical hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] > 4.5 IU/mL) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, including early pregnancy loss, TSH is recommended to be titrated to ≤2.5 mIU/L in levothyroxine-treated women before pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether borderline-subclinical hypothyroidism (borderline-SCH; 2.5 < TSH ≤ 4.5 IU/mL) affects the outcome of subsequent pregnancies in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (uRPL). After workup for antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-phospholipid syndrome, thrombophilia, uterine abnormalities, hormone disorders, and/or chromosomal abnormalities, 317 women with a history of uRPL were enrolled. The women were classified into two groups: borderline-SCH, and euthyroidism (0.3 ≤ TSH ≤ 2.5 IU/mL). All women had normal serum free thyroxine (T4) and did not receive levothyroxine before or during the subsequent pregnancy. There were no significant differences in age, number of previous pregnancy losses, number of live births, or body mass index between the borderline-SCH (n = 56) and the euthyroid (n = 261) groups, but the rate of ANA positivity differed significantly (53.6% vs 33.7%, respectively; P = 0.005). The subsequent pregnancy rate did not differ between the two groups (55.4%, 31/56 vs 51.3%, 134/261, respectively). The pregnancy loss rate (<22 weeks of gestation) tended to be higher in the borderline-SCH than the euthyroid group (29.0%, 9/31 vs 17.9%, 24/134), although not significantly so (P = 0.16). Although some subset of uRPL is though to be due to as-yet-unidentified cause(s), borderline-SCH is unlikely to be involved in uRPL. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Dostal, M; Weber-Schoendorfer, C; Sobesky, J; Schaefer, C
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is related to parity, and its symptoms may worsen during pregnancy. Treatment with levodopa or dopamine agonists is the first-line therapy for RLS; however, there are limited data on treatment in pregnancy. We therefore assessed the safety of levodopa, pramipexole, rotigotine, and ropinirole in pregnancy. Prospective documentation of pregnancies exposed to levodopa, pramipexole, rotigotine, and ropinirole between 1998 and 2011 was evaluated as to their outcome (teratogenicity or fetotoxicity) by the Berlin Institute for Clinical Teratology and Drug Risk Assessment in Pregnancy. We were able to complete 59 pregnancy outcomes exposed to RLS pharmacotherapy. For specific treatments, the numbers of exposed pregnancies/live born children/spontaneous abortions/induced abortions/malformations were as follows: levodopa only: 38/29 (one pair of twins)/3/7/3; pramipexole only: 12/9/3/0/0; rotigotine only: 2/2/0/0/0; ropinirole only: 3/2/0/1/0; levodopa combined with pramipexole: 3/3/0/0/0; levodopa combined with ropinirole: 1/1/0/0/0. No major birth defects were found with any RLS treatment, and three infants exposed to levodopa had minor anomalies. In our small prospective case series, there was no increased risk above baseline for major malformations or other adverse outcomes for levodopa and pramipexole. If necessary, levodopa treatment may be considered as an alternative to cabergoline, for which safety has been well documented in pregnancy. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.
Thomson, Benjamin; Joseph, Geena; Clark, William F.; Hladunewich, Michelle; Patel, Amit; Blake, Peter; Eastabrook, Genevieve; Matsui, Doreen; Sharma, Ajay; House, Andrew
Background Outside of pregnancy, anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, there is limited knowledge regarding de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes in de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy. Studies were selected from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases and conference proceedings, without language restriction. Results Data from eight patients were derived from seven case reports and one unpublished case. Most (6/8) patients presented after the first trimester. During pregnancy, acute kidney injury (5/8), anemia (5/8), hematuria (8/8) and proteinuria (8/8) were common. When hemodialysis was required antepartum (5/8), renal function recovery to independence of renal replacement was unlikely (2/5). While pulmonary involvement was common (5/8), no permanent damage was reported (0/8). The majority of cases ended in live births (6/8) although prematurity (6/6), intrauterine growth restriction (2/6), small for gestational age (4/6) and complications of prematurity (1/6) were common. When anti-GBM levels were tested in the living newborn, they were detectable (2/5), but no newborn renal or lung disease was reported (0/6). Complications in pregnancy included gestational diabetes (3/8), hyperemesis gravidarum (2/8) and preeclampsia (2/8). Conclusions Live births can be achieved in de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy, but are commonly associated with adverse maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Only with awareness of common presentations, and management strategies can outcomes be optimized. PMID:25878776
De la Cruz, Rolando; Fuentes, Claudio; Meza, Cristian; Lee, Dae-Jin; Arribas-Gil, Ana
We propose a semiparametric nonlinear mixed-effects model (SNMM) using penalized splines to classify longitudinal data and improve the prediction of a binary outcome. The work is motivated by a study in which different hormone levels were measured during the early stages of pregnancy, and the challenge is using this information to predict normal versus abnormal pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this paper is to compare models and estimation strategies on the basis of alternative formulations of SNMMs depending on the characteristics of the data set under consideration. For our motivating example, we address the classification problem using a particular case of the SNMM in which the parameter space has a finite dimensional component (fixed effects and variance components) and an infinite dimensional component (unknown function) that need to be estimated. The nonparametric component of the model is estimated using penalized splines. For the parametric component, we compare the advantages of using random effects versus direct modeling of the correlation structure of the errors. Numerical studies show that our approach improves over other existing methods for the analysis of this type of data. Furthermore, the results obtained using our method support the idea that explicit modeling of the serial correlation of the error term improves the prediction accuracy with respect to a model with random effects, but independent errors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elguero, Sonia; Wyman, Allison; Hurd, William W; Barker, Nichole; Patel, Bansari; Liu, James H
To investigate the effect of empiric use of luteal phase progesterone supplementation to improve endometrial receptivity in women undergoing treatment with clomiphene citrate in combination with intrauterine insemination (CC-IUI). Retrospective cohort analysis. University fertility center. 426 CC-IUI cycles from 292 patients with unexplained infertility. Patients were treated with micronized intravaginal progesterone 100 mg twice daily beginning approximately three days after CC-IUI. Clinical pregnancy per initiated cycle as defined by presence of fetal heart rate on ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate was higher in patients receiving luteal phase support compared to patients not receiving luteal phase support (odds ratio: 2.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-4.14) after adjusting for all factors in the analysis using a multivariate logistic regression model. Age at the start of the cycle, BMI and CC dose were not shown to have an effect on clinical pregnancy rates. Patients with endometrial lining (EML) thickness 6-8 mm and >8 mm had increased clinical pregnancy rates compared to EML <6 mm independent of luteal phase progesterone use. Patients who appear to receive the greatest benefit of progesterone supplementation are in the 6-8 mm EML cohort. Luteal phase progesterone supplementation in CC-IUI cycles can improve endometrial receptivity as judged by the improved clinical pregnancy rates as the primary outcome.
Geenes, Victoria; Chappell, Lucy C; Seed, Paul T; Steer, Philip J; Knight, Marian; Williamson, Catherine
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disease, characterized by maternal pruritus and raised serum bile acids. Our objectives were to describe the epidemiology and pregnancy complications associated with severe ICP and to test the hypothesis that adverse perinatal outcomes are increased in these women. A prospective population-based case-control study with national coverage was undertaken using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). Control data for comparison were obtained from women with healthy pregnancy outcome through UKOSS (n = 2,232), St Mary’s Maternity Information System (n = 554,319), and Office for National Statistics (n = 668,195). The main outcome measures investigated were preterm delivery, stillbirth, and neonatal unit admission. In all, 713 confirmed cases of severe ICP were identified, giving an estimated incidence of 9.2 per 10,000 maternities. Women with severe ICP and a singleton pregnancy (n = 669) had increased risks of preterm delivery (164/664; 25% versus 144/2200; 6.5%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.17 to 6.98), neonatal unit admission (80/654; 12% versus 123/2192; 5.6%; adjusted OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.97 to 3.65), and stillbirth (10/664; 1.5% versus 11/2205; 0.5%; adjusted OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.49) compared to controls. Seven of 10 stillbirths in ICP cases were associated with coexisting pregnancy complications. These differences remained significant against national data. Risks of preterm delivery, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and stillbirth rose with increasing maternal serum bile acid concentrations. Conclusion: In the largest prospective cohort study in severe ICP to date, we demonstrate significant increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth. Our findings support the case for close antenatal monitoring of pregnancies affected by severe ICP. (Hepatology 2014;59:1482-1491) PMID:23857305
Gutman, Julie; Mwandama, Dyson; Wiegand, Ryan E; Ali, Doreen; Mathanga, Don P; Skarbinski, Jacek
Malaria during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and increased perinatal mortality, especially among primigravidae. Despite increasing prevalence of malarial parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), SP continues to be recommended for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Women without human immunodeficiency virus infection were enrolled upon delivery. Data on the number of SP doses received during pregnancy were recorded. The primary outcome was placental infection demonstrated by histologic analysis. Secondary outcomes included malaria parasitemia (in peripheral, placental, cord blood specimens) at delivery and composite birth outcome (small for gestational age, preterm delivery, or low birth weight). RESULTS.: Of 703 women enrolled, 22% received <2 SP doses. Receipt of ≥ 2 SP doses had no impact on histologically confirmed placental infection. IPTp-SP was associated with a dose-dependent protective effect on composite birth outcome in primigravidae, with an adjusted prevalence ratio of 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], .30-.82), 0.30 (95% CI, .19-.48), and 0.18 (95% CI, .05-.61) for 1, 2, and ≥ 3 doses, respectively, compared with 0 doses. IPTp-SP did not reduce the frequency of placental infection but was associated with improved birth outcomes. Few women received no SP, so the true effect of IPTp-SP may be underestimated. Malawian pregnant women should continue to receive IPTp-SP, but alternative strategies and antimalarials for preventing malaria during pregnancy should be investigated.
Slama, Rémy; Ballester, Ferran; Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Iniguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Philippat, Claire; Rey, Sylvie; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Vrijheid, Martine
Adverse pregnancy outcomes entail a large health burden for the mother and offspring; a part of it might be avoided by better understanding the role of environmental factors in their etiology. Our aims were to review the assessment tools to characterize fecundity troubles and pregnancy-related outcomes in human populations and their sensitivity to environmental factors. For each outcome, we reviewed the possible study designs, main sources of bias, and their suggested cures. In terms of study design, for most pregnancy outcomes, cohorts with recruitment early during or even before pregnancy allow efficient characterization of pregnancy-related events, time-varying confounders, and in utero exposures that may impact birth outcomes and child health. Studies on congenital anomalies require specific designs, assessment of anomalies in medical pregnancy terminations, and, for congenital anomalies diagnosed postnatally, follow-up during several months after birth. Statistical analyses should take into account environmental exposures during the relevant time windows; survival models are an appropriate approach for fecundity, fetal loss, and gestational duration/preterm delivery. Analysis of gestational duration could distinguish pregnancies according to delivery induction (and possibly pregnancy-related conditions). In conclusion, careful design and analysis are required to better characterize environmental effects on human reproduction.