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Sample records for improve stone passage

  1. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  2. Tamsulosin and the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children: A multi-institutional cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tasian, Gregory E.; Cost, Nicholas G.; Granberg, Candace F.; Pulido, Jose E.; Rivera, Marcelino; Schwen, Zeyad; Schulte, Marion; Fox, Janelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tamsulosin is associated with increased passage of ureteral stones in adults, but its effectiveness in children is uncertain. We determined the association between tamsulosin and the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in children. Methods We performed a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of children ≤ 18 years who presented between 2007 and 2012 with a ureteral stone ≤ 10 mm and were managed with tamsulosin or oral analgesics alone. The outcome was spontaneous stone passage defined as radiographic clearance and/or patient report of passage. Subjects prescribed tamsulosin were matched with subjects prescribed analgesics alone using nearest neighbor propensity score matching to adjust for treatment selection. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between tamsulosin and spontaneous passage of ureteral stones, adjusting for stone size and location. Results Of 449 children with ureteral stones, 334 were eligible for inclusion, and complete data were available for 274 children from 4 institutions (99 tamsulosin; 175 analgesics alone). Following case matching, there were no differences in patient age, gender, weight, height, stone size, or stone location between the 99 subjects prescribed tamsulosin and the 99 propensity-score matched subjects prescribed analgesics alone. In the tamsulosin cohort, 55% of ureteral stones passed versus 44% in the analgesics alone cohort (p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis adjusting for stone size and location, tamsulosin was associated with spontaneous passage of ureteral stones (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.49–7.34). Conclusions The odds of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones were higher in children prescribed tamsulosin versus analgesics alone. PMID:24518765

  3. Anisodamine accelerates spontaneous passage of single symptomatic bile duct stones ≤ 10 mm

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Ding, Xue-Mei; Ke, Shan; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Rui-Liang; Ning, Chun-Min; Xin, Zong-Hai; Sun, Wen-Bing

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rate of spontaneous passage of single and symptomatic common bile duct (CBD) stones ≤ 10 mm in diameter in 4 wk with or without a 2-wk course of anisodamine. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken. A total of 197 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Ninety-seven patients were assigned randomly to the control group and the other 100 to the anisodamine group. The anisodamine group received intravenous infusions of anisodamine (10 mg every 8 h) for 2 wk. The control group received the same volume of 0.9% isotonic saline for 2 wk. Patients underwent imaging studies and liver-function tests every week for 4 wk. The rate of spontaneous passage of CBD stones was analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of spontaneous passage of CBD stones was significantly higher in the anisodamine group than that in the control group (47.0% vs 22.7%). Most (87.2%, 41/47) stone passages in the anisodamine group occurred in the first 2 wk, and passages in the control group occurred at a comparable rate each week. Factors significantly increasing the possibility of spontaneous passage by univariate logistic regression analyses were stone diameter (< 5 mm vs ≥ 5 mm and ≤ 10 mm) and anisodamine therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were significantly associated with spontaneous passage. CONCLUSION: Two weeks of anisodamine administration can safely accelerate spontaneous passage of single and symptomatic CBD stones ≤ 10 mm in diameter, especially for stones < 5 mm. PMID:24151390

  4. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  5. STONES: Passing a stone in your sleep might be easier than you think

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Passing kidney calculi can be excruciatingly painful for patients, likened to childbirth in intensity. The mechanism of the simple act of passing a stone, however, is not well understood. A recent research article examined a novel approach for optimizing kidney stone clearance—sleep position, a simple noninvasive concept that might improve urinary stone passage. PMID:21878879

  6. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Renholods, Jon F.; Brown, Richard S.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  7. Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

  8. How to improve lithotripsy and chemolitholysis of brushite-stones: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, D; Jacobs, D; Hesse, A; Müller, S C; Zhong, P; Preminger, G M

    1999-08-01

    Because of their resistance to fragmentation, treatment of brushite stones is a big problem. This study was performed to look for an improvement in therapeutic strategies by using artificial stones made of brushite (Bon(n)-stones), which are comparable to their natural counterparts. Using an ultrasound transmission technique, longitudinal wave propagation speeds were measured at different time intervals during treatment with hemiacidrin. From these and density measurements, transverse wave speed, wave impedance and dynamic mechanical properties of the artificial stones were calculated. Moreover, the microhardness of artificial stones was measured and investigations on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) combined with initial chemolytic treatment of the stones were performed. The suggestion was confirmed that stone fragility and thus SWL can be improved by varying the physical properties of brushite stones through treatment with hemiacidrin. Additionally, we demonstrated the efficacy of Suby G in dissolving artificial brushite stones using an experimental arrangement simulating the physiological conditions in the upper urinary tract. Moreover, the efficacy of four different intracorporeal lithotripsy devices (electrohydraulic, pneumatic, laser and ultrasound) was tested and it was shown that electrohydraulic lithotripsy seems to be the best system for comminution of brushite stones.

  9. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-08-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma.

  10. Restoring river connectivity: prioritizing passage improvements for diadromous fishes and lampreys.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A D; Cowx, I G

    2012-06-01

    Physical obstructions are becoming increasingly recognized as major factors influencing the migrations, population structures, spawning success and recruitment of freshwater organisms. This paper presents a simple but effective method, intended for use by environmental managers, government agencies and conservation bodies, of rapidly assessing and prioritizing barriers to the migrations of diadromous fishes and lampreys for passage improvements. A prioritization matrix was developed using information on fish stock status, the passage efficiency of fishes at individual structures, the distance from the tidal limit and the passability of downstream barriers, and the quantity and quality of habitat upstream of each structure. Importantly, the 'Likelihood of access' was incorporated into the matrix to account for passage efficiency at downstream barriers. Barriers ranked as the highest priority for passage improvements were those characterized by poor fish stocks upstream, low passage efficiency, easy passage from downstream, and a large quantity and high quality of habitat upstream. Prioritization of migration barriers should ensure that access improvements are targeted to achieve optimum benefits.

  11. Story of Stone Soup: A Recipe to Improve Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

  12. Story of Stone Soup: a recipe to improve health disparities.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C

    2010-01-01

    Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development.

  13. The development of advanced hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.

    2001-09-01

    Recent efforts to improve the survival of hydroelectric turbine-passed juvenile fish have explored modifications to both operation and design of the turbines. Much of this research is being carried out by power producers in the Columbia River basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the public utility districts), while the development of low impact turbines is being pursued on a national scale by the U.S. Department of Energy. Fisheries managers are involved in all aspects of these efforts. Advanced versions of conventional Kaplan turbines are being installed and tested in the Columbia River basin, and a pilot scale version of a novel turbine concept is undergoing laboratory testing. Field studies in the last few years have shown that improvements in the design of conventional turbines have increased the survival of juvenile fish. There is still much to be learned about the causes and extent of injuries in the turbine system (including the draft tube and tailrace), as well as the significance of indirect mortality and the effects of turbine passage on adult fish. However, improvements in turbine design and operation, as well as new field, laboratory, and modeling techniques to assess turbine-passage survival, are contributing toward resolution of the downstream fish passage issue at hydroelectric power plants.

  14. Accuracy of Suture Passage During Arthroscopic Remplissage—What Anatomic Landmarks Can Improve It?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Grant H.; Degen, Ryan M.; Liu, Joseph N.; Kahlenberg, Cynthia A.; Dines, Joshua S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent data suggest that inaccurate suture passage during remplissage may contribute to a loss of external rotation, with the potential to cause posterior shoulder pain because of the proximity to the musculotendinous junction. Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of suture passage during remplissage and identify surface landmarks to improve accuracy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Arthroscopic remplissage was performed on 6 cadaveric shoulder specimens. Two single-loaded suture anchors were used for each remplissage. After suture passage, position was recorded in reference to the posterolateral acromion (PLA), with entry perpendicular to the humeral surface. After these measurements, the location of posterior cuff penetration was identified by careful surgical dissection. Results: Twenty-four sutures were passed in 6 specimens: 6 sutures (25.0%) were correctly passed through the infraspinatus tendon, 12 (50%) were through the infraspinatus muscle or musculotendinous junction (MTJ), and 6 (25%) were through the teres minor. Suture passage through the infraspinatus were on average 25 ± 5.4 mm inferior to the PLA, while sutures passing through the teres minor were on average 35.8 ± 5.7 mm inferior to the PLA. There was an odds ratio of 25 (95% CI, 2.1-298.3; P < .001) that the suture would be through the infraspinatus if the passes were less than 3 cm inferior to the PLA. Sutures passing through muscle and the MTJ were significantly more medial than those passing through tendon, measuring on average 8.1 ± 5.1 mm lateral to the PLA compared with 14.5 ± 5.5 mm (P < .02). If suture passes were greater than 1 cm lateral to the PLA, it was significantly more likely to be in tendon (P = .013). Conclusion: We found remplissage suture passage was inaccurate, with only 25% of sutures penetrating the infraspinatus tendon. Passing sutures 1 cm lateral and within 3 cm inferior of the PLA improves the odds of successful infraspinatus tenodesis

  15. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2015-02-19

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values

  16. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  17. Evaluation of Technetium Getters to Improve the Performance of Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lawter, Amanda R.; Stephenson, John R.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-11-01

    short-term (63 day) leach tests conducted on both LAW and secondary waste Cast Stone monoliths indicated that 99Tc diffusivities were at or near diffusivities where the groundwater at the 100-m down-gradient well would exceed the allowable maximum permissible 99Tc concentrations. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of Tc in the Cast Stone waste form. One method to improve the performance of the Cast Stone waste form is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc inside Cast Stone.

  18. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sear, Sheri

    2001-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  19. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    2000-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  20. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    1999-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Personnel of three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and

  1. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  2. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  3. Dams in the Mekong River Basin: Options for Improved Sediment and Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong River and its tributaries comprise one of the most productive fish habitats in the world today. The economic value of the Mekong fishery in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam is among the highest in the world, providing income and food security to tens of millions of people. However, the construction of multiple dams in the basin will reduce sediment discharge, which will adversely impact nutrient transport and habitat quality and availability, and disrupt fish migration routes. Thus, of considerable interest is the identification of alternatives to the location, design and operation of planned hydropower dams that could improve sediment passage, enable migratory fish passage, and sustain fish production for local use. This paper describes the results of simulation studies designed to identify and evaluate such alternatives, as well as their potential impact on hydropower production. Dam sites in Cambodia and Lao PDR on tributaries and on the mainstream Mekong River will be discussed. Evaluations of sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing and bypassing will be discussed. This study is intended to inform decision makers in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam about potential alternatives to current plans as they prepare decisions regarding the development of over 100 hydropower dams throughout the basin.

  4. Treatment Protocols to Reduce Injury and Improve Stone Breakage in SWL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAteer, James A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; Williams, James C.; Lingeman, James E.

    2008-09-01

    Here we provide a capsule summary of key observations showing that adverse effects can be reduced and stone breakage outcomes can be improved by the choice of the treatment protocol used in SWL. The take home message is—technique in lithotripsy can be used to significant advantage. SW-rate is key, and so is the sequence of SW delivery. Patient studies have shown that stone breakage is significantly improved at 60SW/min compared to a rate of 120SW/min, and laboratory experiments with pigs show that acute SWL injury to the kidney can be reduced dramatically by further slowing the SW firing rate to 30SW/min. The sequence of SW administration has a profound effect on the kidney, and renal injury is significantly reduced when the treatment protocol incorporates a priming dose of SW's followed by a brief pause before treatment is resumed. Continued developments in lithotripsy technology are welcome and will hopefully lead to improved SWL systems. Current experience suggests, however, that technology is not a substitute for expert technique, and attention to the fundamentals of SW delivery is essential to achieve the best possible outcomes regardless of the lithotripter at hand.

  5. Finding of no significant impact. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diverson Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. The proposed fish passage improvements would have effects on the anadromous and resident fish populations which, viewed in the context of the Umatilla River basin, would be beneficial. Resident fish would receive incidental benefits from reduced mortalities at the diversion structures. However, given the regional context, as specified in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, in which the proposed passage improvements would be implemented and the large increase in anadromous fish production necessary to restore historical population levels, the proposed actions are not considered to have significant environmental impacts.

  6. Improvement of Armor Stone Performance for Protection of Great Lakes Coastal Navigation Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakikhani, M.; Harrelson, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Evaluating long-term performance and deterioration of armor stones are essential for maritime structures to protect harbors or navigable areas. Armor rocks are impacted by the natural elements such as seasonal weather, and repeated cycles of temperature (e.g., flowing water, wetting and drying, wave action, freeze and thaw, etc.). The rock's behavior in the field may vary greatly from the laboratory test results. The design process for the determination of armor stone sizes is complex and various factors must be considered in order to fully understand how the design parameters have an indirect effect on stone performance. Numerous investigators have studied to develop relationships for the minimum stable weight of a rubble-mound armor unit for given wave conditions. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate major factors affecting the armor stone durability. The effects of scaling on the test results of various samples of rock types used in Great Lakes coastal projects have been investigated. To consider the combined effects of environmental stresses on armor stone, testing have been done to evaluate the performance of stone subjected to both freezing and thawing and wetting and drying. The stone quarries and sites were evaluated and sampled to determine the stone sources, and their surrounding environments. Long-term performance or deterioration of armor stones have been quantitatively monitored and characterized by the changes in dimensions measured. A degradation numerical model has been developed that relates the laboratory test results to the modification of the mass distribution and reduction at the project site. The paper presentation will describe and illustrate the latest results and developed tools for the armor stone evaluations. We will introduce new approaches that may be used to evaluate the quality and durability with reference to breakage and integrity.

  7. Fish Passage Improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon, Final Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1985-05-01

    This report contains the results and conclusions from the biological assessment and outlines several alternative plans for solving fish passage problems at the dam. A recommended plan, based on consensus of the fisheries agencies and the tribes, is described, and the rationale for that decision is discussed. Data needs for final designs, a tentative construction schedule, and a discussion of operation and maintenance needs are presented.

  8. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Aesthetic value improvement of the ruby stone using heat treatment and its synergetic surface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2015-02-01

    The surface behavior of the natural ruby stones before and after heat treatment with metal oxide additives like: zinc oxide (ZnO) and lead oxide (PbO) have been studied. The surface appearance of the ruby stones processed with the metal oxides changed whereas the bulk densities of the stones remained within the range of 3.9-4.0 g/cm3. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxides on the surface of the ruby have been examined using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical compositions based on the XPS survey scans are in good agreement with the expected composition. The phase and crystallinity of the ruby stones original and heat-treated were obtained from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The change in peak separation between R1 and R2 - peaks in photoluminescence spectra and the contrary binding energy shift of the Al 2p peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra have been explicated. Moreover, in this work we describe the change in surface chemical and physical characteristics of the ruby stone before and after heat treatment.

  10. The Efficacy of Medical Expulsive Therapy (MET) in Improving Stone-free Rate and Stone Expulsion Time, After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) for Upper Urinary Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Grivas, Nikolaos; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Rountos, Thomas; Fiamegos, Alexandros; Stavrou, Sotirios; Venetis, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In this meta-analysis, we included randomized studies on medical expulsive therapy implemented following shock wave lithotripsy for renal and ureteral stones. Pooled results demonstrated the efficacy of α-blockers, nifedipine, Rowatinex, and Uriston in increasing stone clearance. In addition, the time to stone elimination, the intensity of pain, the formation of steinstrasse, and the need for auxiliary procedures were reduced mainly with α-blockers. Expulsion rate was not correlated with the type of α-blocker, the diameter, and the location of stone. Our results show that medical expulsive therapy for residual fragments after shock wave lithotripsy should be implemented in clinical practice.

  11. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, J S; Cole, F E; Romani, W; Husserl, F E; Fuselier, H A; Kok, D J; Erwin, D T

    2000-04-01

    Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a "Stone Belt" where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in "normal" patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in "normal" urines.At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments.

  13. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SB. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 55. Sharma R, ...

  14. Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances — for example, ... through a strainer to catch stones that you pass. Lab analysis will reveal the makeup of your ...

  15. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  16. Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  17. Dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  18. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, Supplement B, White River Falls Fish Passage, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-04-01

    White River Falls are located in north central Oregon approximately 25 miles south of the City of The Dalles. The project site is characterized by a series of three natural waterfalls with a combined fall of 180 ft. In the watershed above the falls are some 120 miles of mainstem habitat and an undetermined amount of tributary stream habitat that could be opened to anadromous fish, if passage is provided around the falls. The purpose of this project is to determine feasibility of passage, select a passage scheme, and design and construct passage facilities. This report provides information on possible facilities that would pass adult anadromous fish over the White River Falls. 25 references, 29 figures, 12 tables. (ACR)

  19. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  20. Optimizing Stone-free Rates With Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Thanmaya G; Assimos, Dean G

    2015-01-01

    Ureteroscopy is being increasingly utilized in the treatment and management of patients with renal and ureteral stones. Improving stone-free rates with ureteroscopy decreases the need for ancillary procedures and improves patient outcomes and satisfaction. This article reviews contemporary literature regarding the efficacy of a wide range of currently available techniques for improving stone-free rates with this procedure. PMID:26543430

  1. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon Supplement 5: White River Falls Fish Passage, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Robert

    1984-04-01

    Biological and physical characteristics of White River drainage were studied in 1983 to determine the feasibility of introducing anadromous salmonids into the watershed. Access to White River by anadromous fish is presently blocked by waterfalls located 3.4 km from the confluence with the Deschutes River. Mortality of juvenile chinook salmon from a 43 m free fall at White River Falls does not appear to be significant during high flows (300 to 500 cfs) but may be significant at low flows (115 to 150 cfs). At low flow the recapture of fish released in the south channel above the falls was 54% lower than the recapture of control fish released below the falls. The recapture of two releases in the north channel was 37% lower than the recapture of control groups. We surveyed 94 km of the lower reaches of 7 tributaries below the boundary of the Mt. Hood National Forest. We identified 8325 m/sup 2/ of anadromous spawning gravel of which 52% was good quality, 20 water withdrawals for irrigation that took a total of 33 cfs of water, 13 barriers to upstream migration of which 3 were waterfalls of 3.1 to 7.6 m, and 138 major holding and rearing pools. Maximum water temperatures of 25/sup 0/C or greater and diurnal fluctuations of around 10/sup 0/C were recorded in the lower reaches of several streams. The maximum water temperature in upper reaches of streams above the forest boundary was 13 to 14/sup 0/C. Habitat improvement opportunities identified in surveys of the lower reaches included barrier modifications for upstream passage, in-stream structures to develop pools and retain gravels, structures to reduce bank erosion, and streamside fensing to protect riparian zones. 10 references, 34 figures, 20 tables.

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program Final EIS (DOE EIS /SA-156) - Upper Salmon River Anadromous Fish Passage Improvement Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Carl J.

    2004-07-13

    BPA proposes to fund IDFG to plan and complete construction of fish passage improvements and water conservation activities that are contained within IDFG’s Statement of Work (SOW) for the period 7/1/04 to 6/30/05. The funding request contained in their SOW is part of an ongoing IDFG effort to fund anadromous fish passage projects that fall outside the scope of the Mitchell Act. The proposed SOW activities fall within the following four categories: Phase I-Planning and Design (gather data, perform investigations, and exchange information; perform surveys and assessments to be compliant; survey project sites and perform engineering designs; perform contract and project management); Phase II-Construction and Implementation (procure materials and supplies, prepare contracts and solicit bids, plant native seedlings, complete capital improvements); Phase III-Operation and Maintenance (maintain office operations); and Phase IV- Monitoring and Evaluation (monitor and evaluate post-project effects, reporting). The SOW culminates with proposed construction of 18 capital improvement projects (Table 1 attached). The types of capital improvements include: screening gravity water diversions; consolidating and/or eliminating ditches; evaluating and screening pump diversions; evaluating and implementing water conservation activities; constructing screens along migration routes and rearing areas for hatchery and wild salmon; improving upstream and downstream passage for anadromous fish; and maximize benefits to aquatic habitat. Because each of the proposed projects in the SOW is still in the planning stages, the specifics of each still need to be completed.

  3. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy improves stone-free rates for impacted proximal ureteral stones: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zi-Ming; Gao, Shan; Qu, Hong-Chen; Li, Kai; Li, Ning; Liu, Chun-Lai; Zhu, Xing-Wang; Liu, Yi-Li; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary stones are common medical disorders and the treatment of impacted proximal ureteral stones (IPUS) is still a challenge for urologists. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MI-PCNL) and ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) in the treatment of IPUS via a meta-analysis. Methods We collected studies using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1978 to November 2016 and analyzed them using Stata 12.0 and RevMan 5.3. Odds ratios (ORs) and standard mean difference (SMD) were calculated for binary and continuous variables respectively, accompanied with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All study procedures followed the PRISMA guidelines. Results Five prospective studies were included in our meta-analysis, with 242 MI-PCNL and 256 URL cases. MI-PCNL was associated with a longer postoperative hospital stay than URL (SMD, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.27 to 5.55). However, no significant difference was observed in operative time (SMD, -0.38; 95% CI, -3.15 to 2.38). In addition, MI-PCNL had higher initial (OR, 11.12; 95% CI, 5.56 to 22.24) and overall stone-free rates (OR, 8.70; 95% CI, 3.23 to 23.45) than URL, along with lower possibilities of surgical conversion (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.49) and postoperative shock wave lithotripsy (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.18). Regarding complications, no significant differences were observed between MI-PCNL and URL (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.93 to 2.10), except for hematuria (OR, 4.80; 95% CI, 1.45 to 15.94). Conclusions MI-PCNL is optimal and should be considered as the preferred treatment method for IPUS, as it has better efficacy and a safety profile similar to that of URL. However, further high quality studies with larger sample size are required in future. PMID:28152097

  4. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... ureter. As urine can become very concentrated as it passes through the kidneys. When the urine becomes ... being stretched, and when stones form and distend it, the stretching can be very painful. Often, people ...

  5. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kidney Stones KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidney Stones Print A ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  6. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kidney Stones KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidney Stones A A ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  7. Intrarenal stone manipulation: summary of recent experience.

    PubMed

    Ball, T P

    1978-01-01

    Since first described in 1975, non-operative external manipulation of small intrarenal calculi has been done on 30 individuals. This procedure has facilitated stone passage successfully in 80 per cent of the cases and, thus far, has been free of significant complication. Fluoroscopic control and materials available in most radiology departments allow for intrarenal manipulation to dislodge small calculi in virtually any calix, permitting spontaneous and usually asymptomatic passage. The procedure and subsequent management are described in detail.

  8. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  9. Renal stones in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Robertson, William G

    2003-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a problem that is generally increasing in the tropics as it is in most Western countries. There are 2 main types of the disorder-bladder stones in children, a form of the disorder that disappeared from Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and upper urinary tract stones in adults. The former has been decreasing in most countries in the so-called endemic bladder stone belt with gradual improvements in levels of nutrition. However, as living standards increase, particularly in the urban areas of the more affluent developing countries, so the incidence of upper urinary tract stones in adults is increasing. The types of stones formed depend mainly on the composition of urine, which, in turn, reflects the type of diet consumed in the countries concerned. The main factor that leads to the formation of bladder stones in children is a nutritionally poor diet that is low in animal protein, calcium, and phosphate, but high in cereal and is acidogenic. This leads to the formation of urine with a relatively high content of ammonium and urate ions and consequently to the formation of ammonium acid urate crystals and stones. In countries where there is also a high intake of oxalate from local leaves and vegetables, urinary oxalate is increased and, as a result, the ammonium acid urate stones often contain calcium oxalate as well. The stone problem in the tropics is compounded by low urine volumes resulting in some areas from poor drinking water, which causes chronic diarrhea, and in others from the hot climate and fluid losses through the skin. As nutrition improves in these countries, the formation of bladder stones gives way to upper urinary tract stones consisting of calcium oxalate, often mixed with calcium phosphate or uric acid, such as are formed in most Western countries.

  10. Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... great pain. The following may be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor's help: Extreme pain in your back ... won't pass on its own, you may need treatment. It can be done with shock waves; with a ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  11. Membrane with supported internal passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Salinas, Carlos E. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface comprising permanent tubes preferably placed at the ends of the fluid passages. The invention also provides an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane.

  12. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  13. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  14. 15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad rightofway) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of passage (formerly Spicket Street; later, railroad right-of-way) between Wilder Mill (on left) and Paper Machine Building (on right), showing collapsed area of stone arch bridge spanning raceway in foreground; view to south - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  15. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis.

  16. Does reading a single passage of literary fiction really improve theory of mind? An attempt at replication.

    PubMed

    Panero, Maria Eugenia; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Black, Jessica; Goldstein, Thalia R; Barnes, Jennifer L; Brownell, Hiram; Winner, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 111(5) of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (see record 2016-50315-003). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1. These omissions do not undermine the results in the primary analyses, which all included ART and ART Condition (as covariates). Any variation across research groups, including this difference in reading exposure measurement, is accounted for in the multilevel analyses. Therefore, the Table 2 title should appear as Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) Scores by Condition and Overall Unadjusted Means for the Current Study and Kidd and Castano (2013), as Well as the Zero-Order Pearson's Correlations Between RMET and ART Scores Overall and by Condition. The ART data columns should be deleted, and the table note should begin as follows: RMET scores were transformed to correct for skew prior to correlational analyses. The section title above the Discussion section should appear as Comparison of Our RMET Scores to Kidd and Castano Data, with the first two sentences appearing as follows: To determine whether the responses in our sample were similar to what Kidd and Castano (2013) found, we compared our mean performance on the RMET to theirs. Our grand mean (26.28) was significantly higher than theirs (25.18), t(1=, 374) = 3.71, p< .001, d = 0.21. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Fiction simulates the social world and invites us into the minds of characters. This has led various researchers to suggest that reading fiction improves our understanding of others' cognitive and emotional states. Kidd and Castano (2013) received a great deal of attention by providing support for this claim. Their article reported that reading segments of literary fiction (but not popular fiction or nonfiction) immediately and significantly improved

  17. Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

  18. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage preparation of a coherent superposition of ThO H3Δ1 states for an improved electron electric-dipole-moment measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, C. D.; O'Leary, B. R.; West, A. D.; Baron, J.; Hess, P. W.; Hoffman, C.; Kirilov, E.; Overstreet, C. B.; West, E. P.; DeMille, D.; Doyle, J. M.; Gabrielse, G.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental searches for the electron electric-dipole moment (EDM) probe new physics beyond the standard model. The current best EDM limit was set by the ACME Collaboration [Science 343, 269 (2014), 10.1126/science.1248213], constraining time-reversal symmetry (T ) violating physics at the TeV energy scale. ACME used optical pumping to prepare a coherent superposition of ThO H3Δ1 states that have aligned electron spins. Spin precession due to the molecule's internal electric field was measured to extract the EDM. We report here on an improved method for preparing this spin-aligned state of the electron by using stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of 75 %±5 % , representing a significant gain in signal for a next-generation EDM experiment. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in systems such as ours, where molecular ensembles with large phase-space distributions are transferred via weak molecular transitions with limited laser power and limited optical access.

  19. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  20. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

  1. Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

  2. Improvement of oxygen-containing functional groups on olive stones activated carbon by ozone and nitric acid for heavy metals removal from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Bohli, Thouraya; Ouederni, Abdelmottaleb

    2016-08-01

    Recently, modification of surface structure of activated carbons in order to improve their adsorption performance toward especial pollutants has gained great interest. Oxygen-containing functional groups have been devoted as the main responsible for heavy metal binding on the activated carbon surface; their introduction or enhancement needs specific modification and impregnation methods. In the present work, olive stones activated carbon (COSAC) undergoes surface modifications in gaseous phase using ozone (O3) and in liquid phase using nitric acid (HNO3). The activated carbon samples were characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, SEM, pHpzc, FTIR, and Boehm titration. The activated carbon parent (COSAC) has a high surface area of 1194 m(2)/g and shows a predominantly microporous structure. Oxidation treatments with nitric acid and ozone show a decrease in both specific surface area and micropore volumes, whereas these acidic treatments have led to a fixation of high amount of surface oxygen functional groups, thus making the carbon surface more hydrophilic. Activated carbon samples were used as an adsorbent matrix for the removal of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at 30 °C, and the data are well fitted to the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir equation. Results show that oxidized COSACs, especially COSAC(HNO3), are capable to remove more Co(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Nitric acid-oxidized olive stones activated carbon was tested in its ability to remove metal ions from binary systems and results show an important maximum adsorbed amount as compared to single systems.

  3. Pathogenesis of Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.

    2008-09-01

    All stones share similar presenting symptoms, and urine supersaturation with respect to the mineral phase of the stone is essential for stone formation. However, recent studies using papillary biopsies of stone formers provide a view of the histology of renal crystal deposition which suggests that the early sequence of events leading to stone formation may differ depending on the type of stone and on the urine chemistry leading to supersaturation. Three general patterns of crystal deposition are seen: interstitial apatite plaque in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, which is the site of stone attachment; tubule deposition of apatite, seen in all calcium phosphate stone formers; and mixtures of apatite and another crystal phase, such as cystine or calcium oxalate, seen in patients with cystinuria or enteric hyperoxaluria. The presence of apatite crystal in either the interstitial or tubule compartment (and sometimes both) of the renal medulla in stone formers is the rule, and has implications for the initial steps of stone formation and the potential for renal injury.

  4. Improved performance of electrodes based on carbonized olive stones/S composites by impregnating with mesoporous TiO2 for advanced Lisbnd S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Noelia; Caballero, Álvaro; Morales, Julián; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    Carbons obtained from biomass have attracted a lot of attention for use as electrodes for Li-ion batteries. Less attention has been paid to their use in Lisbnd S batteries in spite of the higher energy densities. Here, we optimized the electrochemical properties of an activated carbon (OSAC) obtained from olive stones with the help of mesoporous TiO2. The OSAC@TiO2/S hybrid composite exhibited improved electrochemical performance compared with the OSAC/S composite. The presence of TiO2 increased the delivered capacity of the cell by more than 60%, and the rate capability was notably improved. The cell could operate at current densities of 3350 mA g-1 (2 C), releasing an average capacity of 500 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency close to 100%. This improvement in the electrochemical performance is attributed to the sorbent properties of TiO2 towards Li polysulfides and its facility to insert Li, which enhances the electronic and ionic conductivity of the hybrid composite.

  5. Stone volume is best predictor of operative time required in retrograde intrarenal surgery for renal calculi: implications for surgical planning and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Igor; Cardona-Grau, Diana K; Rehfuss, Alexandra; Birney, Alan; Stavrakis, Costas; Leinwand, Gabriel; Herr, Allen; Feustel, Paul J; White, Mark D

    2016-11-01

    Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is highly successful at eliminating renal stones of various sizes and compositions. As urologists are taking on more complex procedures using RIRS, this has led to an increase in operative (OR) times. Our objective was to determine the best predictor of OR time in patients undergoing RIRS. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing unilateral RIRS for solitary stones over a 10 year time span. Stones were fragmented and actively extracted using a basket. Variables potentially affecting OR time such as patient age, sex, BMI, lower pole stone location, volume, Hounsfield units (HU), composition, ureteral access sheath (UAS) use, and pre-operative stenting were collected. Multivariable linear and stepwise regression was used to evaluate the predictors of OR time. There were 118 patients that met inclusion criteria. The median stone volume was 282.6 mm(3) (IQR 150.7-644.7) and the mean OR time was 50 min (±25.9 SD). On univariate linear regression, stone volume had a moderate correlation with OR time (y = 0.022x + 38.2, r (2) = 0.363, p < 0.01). On multivariable stepwise regression, stone volume had the strongest impact on OR time, increasing time by 2.0 min for each 100 mm(3) increase in stone volume (p < 0.001). UAS added 13.5 (SE 3.9, p = 0.001) minutes and renal lower pole location added 9 min (SE 4.3, p = 0.03) in each case they were used. Pre-operative stenting, HU, calcium oxalate stone composition, sex, and age had no significant effect on OR time. Amongst the main stone factors in RIRS, stone volume has the strongest impact on operative time. This can be used to predict the length of the procedure by roughly adding 2 min per 100 mm(3) increase in stone volume.

  6. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  7. Taking advantage of hyperspectral imaging classification of urinary stones against conventional infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Francisco; Lumbreras, Felipe; Serrat, Joan; Siener, Roswitha; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of urinary stones is mandatory for the best management of the disease after the stone passage in order to prevent further stone episodes. Thus the use of an appropriate methodology for an individualized stone analysis becomes a key factor for giving the patient the most suitable treatment. A recently developed hyperspectral imaging methodology, based on pixel-to-pixel analysis of near-infrared spectral images, is compared to the reference technique in stone analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The developed classification model yields >90% correct classification rate when compared to IR and is able to precisely locate stone components within the structure of the stone with a 15 µm resolution. Due to the little sample pretreatment, low analysis time, good performance of the model, and the automation of the measurements, they become analyst independent; this methodology can be considered to become a routine analysis for clinical laboratories.

  8. Spontaneous passage of glass beads from the canine gallbladder: facilitation by sphincterotomy.

    PubMed

    Hutton, S W; Sievert, C E; Vennes, J A; Shafer, R B; Duane, W C

    1988-04-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which ablation of the sphincter of Oddi prevents gallstone formation, we assessed passage of glass beads out of the gallbladders of dogs with sphincterotomy and sham sphincterotomy. One month after bead implantation, dogs with an intact sphincter passed 52%, 26%, 22%, 10%, 0%, and 0% of beads with diameters of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 mm, respectively. For the same respective bead diameters, dogs with a sphincterotomy passed 90%, 90%, 88%, 75%, 75%, and 42% of beads (p less than 0.05 for all bead diameters). No beads were in the common bile duct of any dog. In separate dogs studied by cholescintigraphy, sphincterotomy significantly increased gallbladder ejection fraction from 0.46 to 0.76 (p less than 0.01). In addition, sphincterotomy significantly lowered resting gallbladder volume from 24.4 to 15.8 ml (p less than 0.025) and lowered cholecystokinin-stimulated gallbladder volume from 13.3 to 5.9 ml (p less than 0.025). These data indicate that even with an intact sphincter, small solids can pass from the gallbladder and into the duodenum. Sphincterotomy facilitates passage of solids, apparently by general improvement in gallbladder emptying. Facilitated passage of crystals, microliths, or small stones seems the most likely explanation for prevention of gallstone formation by sphincterotomy.

  9. First Passage under Restart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Arnab; Reuveni, Shlomi

    2017-01-01

    First passage under restart has recently emerged as a conceptual framework suitable for the description of a wide range of phenomena, but the endless variety of ways in which restart mechanisms and first passage processes mix and match hindered the identification of unifying principles and general truths. Hope that these exist came from a recently discovered universality displayed by processes under optimal, constant rate, restart—but extensions and generalizations proved challenging as they marry arbitrarily complex processes and restart mechanisms. To address this challenge, we develop a generic approach to first passage under restart. Key features of diffusion under restart—the ultimate poster boy for this wide and diverse class of problems—are then shown to be completely universal.

  10. Chiller plant CFC, energy and operational improvements{hor_ellipsis} or, killing three birds with one stone

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper explores the hidden opportunities that exist when planning CFC abatement or modernization projects for central cooling plants, both small and large. It is critically important to perform an in-depth, comprehensive, and integrated re-evaluation of the entire cooling plant, its auxiliaries and its distribution system. By doing so, numerous system improvements can be identified and implemented which will reduce operating costs, simplify maintenance, improve plant operations, enhance plant reliability and even improve building comfort. Among the improvement measures are more efficient chillers, cooling tower replacement and optimization, plant re-sizing, optimizing, primary and auxiliary equipment {open_quotes}mix{close_quotes}chilled water variable flow conversion, multiple-plant integration, installation of dedicated cooling systems and fuel substitution. These measures can all independently, or concurrently, contribute to dramatically improved cooling operations. The paper refers to numerous actual projects that have already employed these techniques and also discusses the major CFC abatement compliance dates. The hidden opportunities presented and explained in this paper can do much to take the{open_quote}sting{close_quote} out of an otherwise onerous regulatory {open_quotes}predicament{close_quotes} and, perhaps most significantly, help to secure funding from management for much-needed projects sooner rather than later.

  11. Epidemiology of stone disease across the world.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Igor; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Rodgers, Allen; Talati, Jamsheer; Lotan, Yair

    2017-02-17

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide with rates ranging from 7 to 13% in North America, 5-9% in Europe, and 1-5% in Asia. Due to high rates of new and recurrent stones, management of stones is expensive and the disease has a high level of acute and chronic morbidity. The goal of this study is to review the epidemiology of stone disease in order to improve patient care. A review of the literature was conducted through a search on Pubmed(®), Medline(®), and Google Scholar(®). This review was presented and peer-reviewed at the 3rd International Consultation on Stone Disease during the 2014 Société Internationale d'Urologie Congress in Glasgow. It represents an update of the 2008 consensus document based on expert opinion of the most relevant studies. There has been a rising incidence in stone disease throughout the world with a narrowing of the gender gap. Increased stone prevalence has been attributed to population growth and increases in obesity and diabetes. General dietary recommendations of increased fluid, decreased salt, and moderate intake of protein have not changed. However, specific recommended values have either changed or are more frequently reported. Geography and environment influenced the likelihood of stone disease and more information is needed regarding stone disease in a large portion of the world including Asia and Africa. Randomized controlled studies are lacking but are necessary to improve recommendations regarding diet and fluid intake. Understanding the impact of associated conditions that are rapidly increasing will improve the prevention of stone disease.

  12. "Does reading a single passage of literary fiction really improve theory of mind? An attempt at replication": Correction to Panero et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    Reports an error in "Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication" by Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R. Goldstein, Jennifer L. Barnes, Hiram Brownell and Ellen Winner (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 19, 2016, np). In the article, due to an error in stimulus construction, four items (three authors, one foil) were omitted from the ART presented to all participants tested by Research Group 1. These omissions do not undermine the results in the primary analyses, which all included ART and ART Condition (as covariates). Any variation across research groups, including this difference in reading exposure measurement, is accounted for in the multilevel analyses. Therefore, the Table 2 title should appear as Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) Scores by Condition and Overall Unadjusted Means for the Current Study and Kidd and Castano (2013), as Well as the Zero-Order Pearson's Correlations Between RMET and ART Scores Overall and by Condition. The ART data columns should be deleted, and the table note should begin as follows: RMET scores were transformed to correct for skew prior to correlational analyses. The section title above the Discussion section should appear as Comparison of Our RMET Scores to Kidd and Castano Data, with the first two sentences appearing as follows: To determine whether the responses in our sample were similar to what Kidd and Castano (2013) found, we compared our mean performance on the RMET to theirs. Our grand mean (26.28) was significantly higher than theirs (25.18), t(1=, 374) = 3.71, p< .001, d = 0.21. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-44825-001.) Fiction simulates the social world and invites us into the minds of characters. This has led various researchers to suggest that reading fiction improves our

  13. Passage Feedback with IRIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kiduk; Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Newby, Gregory B.

    2001-01-01

    Compares a user-defined passage feedback system to a document feedback system for information retrieval, based on TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) guidelines. Highlights include a description of IRIS, an interactive retrieval system; text processing; ranking; term weights; feedback models, including the adaptive linear model; and suggestions for…

  14. A history of urinary stone.

    PubMed

    Modlin, M

    1980-10-18

    Urinary stone was well known to the ancient Greeks, as the reference to it in the Oath of Hippocrates shows. The oldest renal stone on record actually comes from an Egyptian mummy. For obvious reasons our forefathers were better acquainted with bladder stones than renal stones until the advent of radiography. Interesting aspects of the story are the gradual decline in the incidence of bladder stones and their apparent replacement by renal stones.

  15. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-02-29

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  16. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  17. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  18. Passage Retrieval and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    queries, is IDF(t) = log „ # docs. in corpus + 1 0.5 + # docs. t appears in « . (6) This rather ad hoc scoring formula is implemented in the Lemur ...problems with passage R-precision as an evaluation metric. Fernando was instrumental in extending the Lemur toolkit to make all of these experiments...and C. Zhai. The lemur toolkit for language modeling and information retrieval. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/∼ lemur /, 2003. [6] C. Buckley and E. M

  19. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  20. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  1. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  2. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care providers to be the best screening test to look for stones. Computerized tomography (CT) scans use a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create threedimensional (3-D) images. A CT ...

  3. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures. PMID:27512433

  4. Skimming and Skipping Stones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

  5. Pulp stones: a review.

    PubMed

    Goga, R; Chandler, N P; Oginni, A O

    2008-06-01

    Pulp stones are a frequent finding on bitewing and periapical radiographs but receive relatively little attention in textbooks. A review of the literature was therefore performed, initially using the PubMed database and beginning the search with 'pulp calcifications' and 'pulp stones'. Each term provided more than 400 references, many of which related to pulp calcification in general rather than pulp stones, and focussed largely on the problems these changes presented to clinicians. A manual search using references from this source was carried out. Contemporary textbooks in endodontology were also consulted, and an historic perspective gained from a number of older books and references. The factors involved in the development of the pulp stones are largely unknown. Further research may determine the reasons for their formation, but with current endodontic instruments and techniques this is unlikely to alter their relevance to clinicians.

  6. Stones in special situations.

    PubMed

    Duvdevani, Mordechai; Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Bensalah, Karim; Peyronnet, Benoit; Krambeck, Amy; Khadji, Sanjay; Muslumanuglu, Ahmet; Leavitt, David; Divers, Jude; Okeke, Zeph; Smith, Arthur; Fox, Janelle; Ost, Michael; Gross, Andreas J; Razvi, Hassan

    2017-03-07

    There are several special situations in which urinary lithiasis presents management challenges to the urologist. An in-depth knowledge of the pathophysiology, unique anatomy, and treatment options is crucial in order to maintain good health in these patients. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the management of the following scenarios: bladder stones, stones in bowel disease, during pregnancy, in association with renal anomalies, with skeletal deformities, in urinary diversions, and in children.

  7. First-passage properties of molecular spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Oleg; Mohr, David; Stefanovic, Darko

    2013-07-01

    Molecular spiders are synthetic catalytic DNA-based nanoscale walkers. We study the mean first-passage time for abstract models of spiders moving on a finite two-dimensional lattice with various boundary conditions and compare it with the mean first-passage time of spiders moving on a one-dimensional track. We evaluate by how much the slowdown on newly visited sites, owing to catalysis, can improve the mean first-passage time of spiders and show that in one dimension, when both ends of the track are an absorbing boundary, the performance gain is lower than in two dimensions, when the absorbing boundary is a circle; this persists even when the absorbing boundary is a single site.

  8. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  9. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap…

  10. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow

  11. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Female stone disease: the changing trend.

    PubMed

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P < 0.001). There were significant variations in urine biochemical parameters. There was a definite increase in the excretion of urinary calcium over the years (P < 0.001). The excretion rate of oxalate in urine of females also increased steadily over the years (P < 0.001). The magnesium in urine of females reduced over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary citric acid has however shown an increase over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary excretion of phosphorus (P < 0.001) and urinary uric acid (P < 0.001) showed a decreasing trend. There was a considerable increase in the percentage of females with high calcium:magnesium ratio over the years (P < 0.001). There was a definite decrease in female patients with hypercalcemia over the years. Serum phosphorus and magnesium also increased significantly with the passage of time. Serum uric acid did not vary significantly through the years. The decrease in the excretion rate of magnesium which is inhibitory to stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This

  13. Kidney stones and lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... have pain and nausea when the stone pieces pass. This can happen soon after treatment and may ... water in the weeks after treatment. This helps pass any pieces of stone that still remain. Your ...

  14. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  15. Upper York Creek Dam Removal, Fish Passage, and Ecosystem Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Upper York Creek Dam Removal, Fish Passage, and Ecosystem Restoration part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. Definition and Facts for Kidney Stones in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Kidney Stones in Children Definition & Facts for Kidney Stones What are kidney stones? Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like pieces ... stone may get stuck along the way. Do kidney stones have another name? The scientific name for ...

  17. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  18. First passage failure: Analysis alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    PAEZ,THOMAS L.; NGUYEN,H.P.; WIRSCHING,PAUL H.

    2000-04-17

    Most mechanical and structural failures can be formulated as first passage problems. The traditional approach to first passage analysis models barrier crossings as Poisson events. The crossing rate is established and used in the Poisson framework to approximate the no-crossing probability. While this approach is accurate in a number of situations, it is desirable to develop analysis alternatives for those situations where traditional analysis is less accurate and situations where it is difficult to estimate parameters of the traditional approach. This paper develops an efficient simulation approach to first passage failure analysis. It is based on simulation of segments of complex random processes with the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, use of these simulations to estimate the parameters of a Markov chain, and use of the Markov chain to estimate the probability of first passage failure. Some numerical examples are presented.

  19. A Passage into Critical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Shows how a single passage might be handled by New Criticism, structuralism, deconstructionism, psychological criticism, and feminist criticism. Concludes that a plurality of critical approaches is better than a unity of approach. (RS)

  20. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  1. A comparison of Stone Cone versus lidocaine jelly in the prevention of ureteral stone migration during ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Bastawisy, Mohamed; Gameel, Tarek; Radwan, Mohamed; Ramadan, Ahmed; Alkathiri, Mutie; Omar, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intracorporeal lithotripsy modalities and stone removal devices have been created to facilitate endoscopic management of ureteral stones. These devices, along with improved techniques, have resulted in stone-free rates greater than 95% with low morbidity. However, problems remain that preclude consistent 100% stone-free rates with endoscopic treatment of ureteral calculi. Retrograde migration during ureteroscopic procedures remains a significant problem. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the Stone Cone device and instillation of lubricating lidocaine jelly as two methods to prevent retrograde stone migration during ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Patients and methods: This study included patients suffering from ureteral stones that were treated with intracorporeal lithotripsy using the pneumatic Lithoclast. These patients were divided into two groups. In group I, the Stone Cone device was used, while in group II, lidocaine jelly 2% concentration was used. Results: This study included 40 patients with a mean age of 38.6 ± 9.3 years (20 patients in each group). There was no significant difference between the groups with regards to stone site, size or state of the upper urinary tract by excretory urography. The pneumatic Lithoclast allowed successful fragmentation of all calculi into small fragments. Upward stone migration did not occur in patients in the Stone Cone group, while in the lidocaine jelly group it occurred in three patients (15%). The operative time in the Stone Cone group ranged between 30 and 55 minutes (mean, 41.8 ± 5.3), while in the lidocaine jelly group it ranged between 40 and 71 minutes (mean, 51.4 ± 3.4), and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The Stone Cone is safe and efficient in preventing proximal stone migration during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. It maintained continuous ureteral access and demonstrated a statistically significant advantage over the

  2. Toxicology of the nasal passages

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this work include: Comparative Anatomy and Function of the Nasal Passages; Light Microscopic Examination of the Rat Nasal Passages: Preparation and Morphologic Features; Histopathology of Acute and Subacute Nasal Toxicity; Pathology of Chronic Nasal Toxic Responses Including Cancer; Responses of the Nasal Mucociliary Apparatus to Airborne Irritants; Effects of Chemical Exposure on Olfaction in Humans, Possible Consequences of Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Monooxygenases in Nasal Tissues.

  3. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS, (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-69) - Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Spiering, Colleen

    2001-11-15

    BPA proposes to fund a project with the Colville Confederated Tribes that will improve spawning and rearing specifically for summer steelhead in the Omak Creek Watershed. Efforts to achieve this objective include improved livestock and forestry management and barrier removal. These techniques include exclusionary fencing, spring developments, hardened-rock crossings, road decommissioning, culvert removal and placement, riparian vegetation planting and installation of instream structures. The result of implementing these techniques will reduce fine sediment delivered to the stream channel which will result in increased hatching success of summer steelhead. Also, reestablishing riparian vegetation will provide canopy and enclose the stream channel resulting in reduced stream temperatures. Two “on-the-ground” projects are proposed for this year. One project consists of installing three instream structures and planting riparian vegetation to provide bank stability along approximately 200’ of privately owned stream bank of Omak Creek. Also a fence will be constructed to exclude the landowner’s horses. The second project consists of removal of an inadequate sized culvert (5’ diameter) and replacement with a larger bottomless arch (6’ x 12’). This project will also include seven instream structures to stabilize the stream bank both upstream and downstream of the culvert and direct flows through the center of the bottomless arch.

  4. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  5. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  6. Recurrent uric acid stones.

    PubMed

    Kamel, K S; Cheema-Dhadli, S; Shafiee, M A; Davids, M R; Halperin, M L

    2005-01-01

    A 46-year-old female had a history of recurrent uric acid stone formation, but the reason why uric acid precipitated in her urine was not obvious, because the rate of urate excretion was not high, urine volume was not low, and the pH in her 24-h urine was not low enough. In his discussion of the case, Professor McCance provided new insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stone formation. He illustrated that measuring the pH in a 24-h urine might obscure the fact that the urine pH was low enough to cause uric acid to precipitate during most of the day. Because he found a low rate of excretion of NH(4)(+) relative to that of sulphate anions, as well as a high rate of citrate excretion, he speculated that the low urine pH would be due to a more alkaline pH in proximal convoluted tubule cells. He went on to suspect that there was a problem in our understanding of the function of renal medullary NH(3) shunt pathway, and he suggested that its major function might be to ensure a urine pH close to 6.0 throughout the day, to minimize the likelihood of forming uric acid kidney stones.

  7. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-μM concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  8. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy--a versatile technique for both simple and complex renal stone.

    PubMed

    Hossain, T M S; Asaduzzaman, M; Uddin, M N; Rahman, M H; Jahan, M U; Bhuiyan, A K M Z I

    2013-12-01

    Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy is currently the preferred first line treatment for simple & complex renal calculi. The technique also being used increasingly for smaller stones that have failed ESWL. Aim of the study is to share our experience in PCNL in course of time. This study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2012, 131 patient's with 142 renal units of 5-75 yrs of age, PCNL were performed in NIKDU, BSMMU & JBFH. Stone were classified into simple (isolated renal pelvis or isolated calyceal stones) or complex (partial or complete staghorn stones, renal pelvic stone with accompanying calyceal stones). The stone size was 1.5-5cm approximately. We asses our initial puncture technique, need for multi-tract, supra 12th rib access, stone free rate, operative duration, postoperative complication, number of transfusion and hospital stay. Operative durations were 60 min -180 minutes. Puncture technique improved in course of time. 14 patients need multi-puncture and tract, all are supra 12th access. Out of 142 renal units 120 (83%) were stone free after first procedure, another 22 need and auxiliary procedure, (5 2nd look PCNL, 6 URS, 11 ESWL) to become stone free result in a 95% stone free rate. Complications occurred in 17 procedures which dealt accordingly. This study revealed PCNL is an effective, versatile safe and cosmetically acceptable procedure for all age groups in simple and complex renal stone.

  9. Environmental Assessment : Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-01-01

    Existing fish passage facilities at Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam currently do not effectively pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. At Tumwater Dam, the proposed action includes the construction of a new fish ladder which will improve water flow characteristics and, subsequently, fish passage. In order to improve fish passage at Dryden Dam, a new fish ladder will be constructed to replace the existing ladder and another ladder will be constructed. The proposed action will supplement mitigation of adverse hydroelectric impacts to the fisheries of the Columbia River basin. The proposal to fund the Tumwater Dam and Dryden Dam Fish Passage facilities does not appear to constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment and would not require an environmental impact statement.

  10. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  11. Assessing upstream fish passage connectivity with network analysis.

    PubMed

    McKay, S Kyle; Schramski, John R; Conyngham, Jock N; Fischenich, J Craig

    2013-09-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is critical to the structure, function, and dynamic process of river ecosystems. Dams, road crossings, and water diversions impact connectivity by altering flow regimes, behavioral cues, local geomorphology, and nutrient cycling. This longitudinal fragmentation of river ecosystems also increases genetic and reproductive isolation of aquatic biota such as migratory fishes. The cumulative effects on fish passage of many structures along a river are often substantial, even when individual barriers have negligible impact. Habitat connectivity can be improved through dam removal or other means of fish passage improvement (e.g., ladders, bypasses, culvert improvement). Environmental managers require techniques for comparing alternative fish passage restoration actions at alternative or multiple locations. Herein, we examined a graph-theoretic algorithm for assessing upstream habitat connectivity to investigate both basic and applied fish passage connectivity problems. First, we used hypothetical watershed configurations to assess general alterations to upstream fish passage connectivity with changes in watershed network topology (e.g., linear vs. highly dendritic) and the quantity, location, and passability of each barrier. Our hypothetical network modeling indicates that locations of dams with limited passage efficiency near the watershed outlet create a strong fragmentation signal but are not individually sufficient to disconnect the system. Furthermore, there exists a threshold in the number of dams beyond which connectivity declines precipitously, regardless of watershed topology and dam configuration. Watersheds with highly branched configurations are shown to be less susceptible to disconnection as measured by this metric. Second, we applied the model to prioritize barrier improvement in the mainstem of the Truckee River, Nevada, USA. The Truckee River application demonstrates the ability of the algorithm to address conditions common in fish

  12. The Rosetta stone method.

    PubMed

    Date, Shailesh V

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of amino acid sequences from different organisms often reveals cases in which two or more proteins encoded for separately in a genome also appear as fusions, either in the same genome or that of some other organism. Such fusion proteins, termed Rosetta stone sequences, help link disparate proteins together, and suggest the likelihood of functional interactions between the linked entities, describing local and global relationships within the proteome. These relationships help us understand the role of proteins within the context of their associations, and facilitate assignment of putative functions to uncharacterized proteins based on their linkages with proteins of known function.

  13. Use of Stone Cone minimizes stone migration during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Springhart, W Patrick; Tan, Yeh Hong; Albala, David M; Perelman, Jason; Teichman, Joel M; Preminger, Glenn M

    2006-05-01

    We describe a simple and effective method using the Stone Cone to prevent migration of stone fragments into the ureter during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This maneuver may reduce the need for antegrade ureteroscopy to remove residual fragments, thereby saving time and obviating the need for placement of an occlusion balloon.

  14. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  15. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  16. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  17. Ultrasonic lithotripsy of bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Cetin, S; Ozgür, S; Yazicioğlu, A; Unsal, K; Ilker, Y

    1988-01-01

    In the second half of 1985, 15 patients with 25 bladder stones were treated with Lutzeyer's Ultrasonic Lithotriptor. Of the patients 13 underwent additional operations, mostly transurethral resection of the prostate. The average duration of lithotripsy was 30.5 minutes. Some difficulties were experienced especially when drilling hard stones and as a complication late urethral bleeding occurred in one patient.

  18. Treatment of urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, J E

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of open surgery with minimally invasive techniques for treating stones in the renal tract has greatly reduced patients' morbidity and mortality and the period of hospitalisation and convalescence. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy does not require anaesthesia and requires little analgesia so that treatment can be given on an outpatient basis, and there is no wound to heal. Only a small puncture site is needed for percutaneous endoscopic lithotomy, and with the advent of prophylactic antibiotics there are few complications. Of renal stones, about 85% can now be successfully treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy alone, and almost all of the stones too large or hard for lithotripsy can be treated endoscopically, with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes being used to fragment the stone. Stones in the upper and lower thirds of the ureter can be treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy, but stones in the middle third, which cannot normally be visualised to allow focusing of the shockwaves, usually require ureteroscopy. Nearly all bladder stones can be treated by transurethral endoscopy with an electrohydraulic probe. Only the largest renal tract stones still require open surgery. Images FIG 10 p1415-a p1415-b p1416-a p1416-b p1417-a PMID:8274898

  19. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-μs, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-μm-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  20. The exposome for kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual’s exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  1. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  2. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    ScienceCinema

    Colotelo, Alison

    2016-08-18

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  3. Biopsy proven medullary sponge kidney: clinical findings, histopathology, and role of osteogenesis in stone and plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Williams, James C; Sommer, Andre J; Lingeman, James E; Phillips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2015-05-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation.

  4. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  5. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  6. Alpha blockers for treatment of ureteric stones: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K; Rogers, Mary A M; Sukumar, Shyam; Yan, Phyllis; Kuntz, Gretchen M; Dahm, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of alpha blockers in the treatment of patients with ureteric stones. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Embase, LILACS, and Medline databases and scientific meeting abstracts to July 2016. Review methods Randomized controlled trials of alpha blockers compared with placebo or control for treatment of ureteric stones were eligible.Two team members independently extracted data from each included study. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who passed their stone. Secondary outcomes were the time to passage; the number of pain episodes; and the proportions of patients who underwent surgery, required admission to hospital, and experienced an adverse event. Pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the primary outcome with profile likelihood random effects models. Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias and the GRADE approach were used to evaluate the quality of evidence and summarize conclusions. Results 55 randomized controlled trials were included. There was moderate quality evidence that alpha blockers facilitate passage of ureteric stones (risk ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 1.61). Based on a priori subgroup analysis, there seemed to be no benefit to treatment with alpha blocker among patients with smaller ureteric stones (1.19, 1.00 to 1.48). Patients with larger stones treated with an alpha blocker, however, had a 57% higher risk of stone passage compared with controls (1.57, 1.17 to 2.27). The effect of alpha blockers was independent of stone location (1.48 (1.05 to 2.10) for upper or middle stones; 1.49 (1.38 to 1.63) for lower stones). Compared with controls, patients who received alpha blockers had significantly shorter times to stone passage (mean difference −3.79 days, −4.45 to −3.14; moderate quality evidence), fewer episodes of pain (−0

  7. Mechanisms of human kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Coe, Fredric L; Williams, James; Lingeman, James E

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms of kidney stone formation and growth are not completely known, even though human stone disease appears to be one of the oldest diseases known to medicine. With the advent of the new digital endoscope and detailed renal physiological studies performed on well phenotyped stone formers, substantial advances have been made in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the most common type of stone former, the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former as well as nine other stone forming groups. The observations from our group on human stone formers and those of others on model systems have suggested four entirely different pathways for kidney stone formation. Calcium oxalate stone growth over sites of Randall's plaque appear to be the primary mode of stone formation for those patients with hypercalciuria. Overgrowths off the ends of Bellini duct plugs have been noted in most stone phenotypes, do they result in a clinical stone? Micro-lith formation does occur within the lumens of dilated inner medullary collecting ducts of cystinuric stone formers and appear to be confined to this space. Lastly, cystinuric stone formers also have numerous small, oval, smooth yellow appearing calyceal stones suggestive of formation in free solution. The scientific basis for each of these four modes of stone formation are reviewed and used to explore novel research opportunities.

  8. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  9. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  10. Digital waveguide adiabatic passage part 1: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkus, Jesse A.; Steel, M. J.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2017-03-01

    Spatial adiabatic passage represents a new way to design integrated photonic devices. In conventional adiabatic passage designs require smoothly varying waveguide separations. Here we show modelling of adiabatic passage devices where the waveguide separation is varied digitally. Despite digitisation, our designs show robustness against variations in the input wavelength and refractive index contrast of the waveguides relative to the cladding. This approach to spatial adiabatic passage opens new design strategies and hence the potential for new photonics devices.

  11. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Peter A. Bibb, Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O....

  12. Channel Modification for Fish Passage on Umatilla River, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguine, William L.

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the construction of modifications to the bed of the Umatilla River and to the Threemile Dam fish ladder to improve fish passage during periods of low flow. The report also provides a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the modified channel in improving fish passage. (ACR)

  13. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  14. Outcome of bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones in a single session

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaque, Majid; Gupta, C. L.; Shah, Imtiyaz; Khanday, M. Ashraf; Khanday, Samina Ali

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones as a single-stage procedure in terms of clearance of the stones, complications of the procedure and duration of hospital stay. A successful outcome was considered when both ureters were free of stones without any major complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with bilateral ureteric stones were treated ureteroscopically from March 2006 to September 2009 in the department of Surgery (Urology unit). Majority of the patients were in their third and fourth decade of life with 38 males and 22 females. A single session bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones was done using a 7.8 Fr semirigid ureteroscope. A 0.038-inch guide wire was used and advanced under direct vision, and monitored by C-arm X-ray image intensifier. Balloon dilatation of the intramural ureters was required in 82 renal units. The stones were either extracted directly or disintegrated into small pieces by lithotripsy (pneumatic) before extraction. Ureteric stenting was required in 39 patients. Patients were followed for a period of 3-12 months. Results: A total of 60 patients (120 renal units) with bilateral ureteric stones were treated ureteroscopically. The stone size in the treated patients was in the range 6-20 mm. The stones were radio-opaque in 47 patients and radiolucent in 13 patients. Single stone was present in all except two patients. Operative time ranged between 40 and 120 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 51 (85%) patients following single-session procedure of which 39 (76.4%) were stonefree intraoperatively and another 12 (23.5%) were cleared of the stones in 4 weeks follow-up. Six patients were stonefree unilaterally. Failed procedures were managed with repeated ureteroscopy, DJ stenting and ESWL or open ureterolithotomy. Intraoperatively false passage or minor ureteric perforations were seen in six patients. Postoperative complications included abdominal pain in 10, persistent fever in 4 and

  15. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Yasser Ali; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Shehab, Mohamed Ahmed; Mohamed, Hazem Abdelsabour Dief; Emara, Absel-Aziz Ali; Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed Ali; Ghanem, Maged Mohammed; ELHelaly, Hesham Abdel Azim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine the predicting success of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) using a combination of computed tomography based metric parameters to improve the treatment plan. Patients and Methods: Consecutive 180 patients with symptomatic upper urinary tract calculi 20 mm or less were enrolled in our study underwent extracorporeal SWL were divided into two main groups, according to the stone size, Group A (92 patients with stone ≤10 mm) and Group B (88 patients with stone >10 mm). Both groups were evaluated, according to the skin to stone distance (SSD) and Hounsfield units (≤500, 500–1000 and >1000 HU). Results: Both groups were comparable in baseline data and stone characteristics. About 92.3% of Group A rendered stone-free, whereas 77.2% were stone-free in Group B (P = 0.001). Furthermore, in both group SWL success rates was a significantly higher for stones with lower attenuation <830 HU than with stones >830 HU (P < 0.034). SSD were statistically differences in SWL outcome (P < 0.02). Simultaneous consideration of three parameters stone size, stone attenuation value, and SSD; we found that stone-free rate (SFR) was 100% for stone attenuation value <830 HU for stone <10 mm or >10 mm but total number SWL sessions and shock waves required for the larger stone group were higher than in the smaller group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, SFR was 83.3% and 37.5% for stone <10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD 90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. On the other hand, SFR was 52.6% and 28.57% for stone >10 mm, mean HU >830, SSD <90 mm and SSD >120 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU), and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies. PMID:27141192

  16. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  17. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  18. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  19. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  20. Samoan Passage Abyssal Mixing Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickett, J. B.; Voet, G.; Alford, M. H.; Girton, J. B.; Carter, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    The majority of the bottom water entering the North Pacific, about 6 Sv of mostly Antarctic origin, flows northward through the Samoan Passage (SP), where previous hydrographic studies have inferred extremely strong watermass modification as it transits the complicated, narrow passage. Global-scale numerical models at best poorly resolve this critical aspect of the global ocean circulation and the processes that affect it. We are in the midst of conducting a major next-generation experiment, coupling hydrographic/lowered ADCP and microstructure profiler measurements with simultaneous high-resolution profiling moorings and detailed numerical simulations. Our goals are to: (1) quantify the flow and its pathways through the SP, and compare them to measurements made 20 years ago as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), 2) quantify, with direct measurements, the turbulence and mixing the flow undergoes and the processes that lead to it, and 3) use the resulting knowledge to determine the best strategy for future monitoring of the SP. Here we present initial results from the first two of the experiment's three cruises, which have provided a detailed view of the flow magnitude, pathways and turbulence as it transits the passage's sills. Bathymetry, stratification, rotation, and inertia all play important roles in selecting the pathways taken by the flow, with the lighter layers siphoning off through the shallower sills to the west and the densest water following the deeper main eastern channel. Flows in this main channel are initially O(0.1 m/s), accelerating to > 0.4 m/s at the northernmost of the two major sills, leading to strong shears and warming of the bottom water from 0.66 to 0.72 C through mixing within the stratified overflow and entrainment of overlying water. Direct microstructure measurements show large vertical diffusivities of 10^{-4}-10^{-3} m^2/s throughout the passage and up to 10^{-2} m^2/s past the northern sill, where the flow

  1. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  2. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    PubMed

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  3. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Leave no (spilled) stone unturned.

    PubMed

    Wilton, P B; Andy, O J; Peters, J J; Thomas, C F; Patel, V S; Scott-Conner, C E

    1993-01-01

    Stones are sometimes spilled at the time of cholecystectomy. Retrieval may be difficult, especially during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Little is known about the natural history of missed stones which are left behind in the peritoneal cavity. We present a case in which a patient developed an intraabdominal abscess around such a stone. The abscess recurred after drainage and removal of the stone was needed for resolution. This case suggests that care should be taken to avoid stone spillage, and that stones which are spilled into the abdomen should be retrieved.

  4. Treating stones in transplanted kidneys.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Sadideen, H; Goldsmith, D

    2013-02-01

    The formation of calculi in renal allografts is an uncommon complication in renal transplant recipients, with a reported incidence of 0.2-1.7% according to retrospective studies. Although the majority of these stones appear to form de novo following renal transplantation (RTX), there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that more often than previously thought they may be transplanted with the donor graft itself. The etiology and pathophysiology of renal graft stones is multifactorial. A combination of metabolic and urodynamic factors predispose to stone formation and these are generally found more frequently in allograft rather than native kidneys. In addition tertiary hyperparathyroidism (following RTX) plays an important role. Renal allograft stones can pose significant challenges for the clinician. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and must be prompt, as these patients' reliance on a solitary kidney for their renal function leaves them susceptible to significant morbidity. However, reports in the literature come largely from anecdotal experience and case reports, meaning that there is a limited consensus regarding how best to manage the condition. We suggest that interventional treatment should be guided primarily by stone size and individual patient presentation. Good outcomes have been reported with shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopy, but optimal management of the risk factors leading to calculi formation (i.e., prevention) will remain the most cost-effective management.

  5. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  6. Nephrolithiasis, stone composition, meteorology, and seasons in Malta: Is there any connection?

    PubMed Central

    Buttigieg, Jesmar; Attard, Stephanie; Carachi, Alexander; Galea, Ruth; Fava, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of seasons and meteorology on the incidence of nephrolithiasis has been studied in various regions around the globe, but seldom in the Mediterranean. Aims: This retrospective analysis aims at investigating these putative effects in the Maltese Islands, whose climate is typically Mediterranean, followed by a systematic review of the literature. Materials and Methods: Submission rate and chemical composition of all kidney stones after spontaneous passage or surgical removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were analyzed according to seasons and corresponding meteorology. Results: A total of 389 stones were analyzed. A higher stone submission rate was observed in summer compared to winter (31.6% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.0008) and in the warm period compared to the cold period (57.1% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.0001). Significant correlation was established between the monthly number of stones and mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), mean monthly temperature (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and mean monthly Humidex (r = 0.49, P = 0.007). Humidex was found to be an independent predictor for stone submission (β = 0.49, P = 0.007). The majority of stones contained calcium (83.3%), combined with oxalate (77.6%), phosphate (14.7%), and carbonate (2.8%). Some stones (11.8%) contained a mixture of >1 negatively charged molecules. Urate (11.6%), cysteine (4.6%), and ammonium-magnesium-phosphate (0.5%) constituted the rest. There was no association between chemical composition and seasons. Literature review included 25 articles. Higher ambient temperature and warm seasons were the most commonly encountered risk factors for both presentation and etiology of nephrolithiasis. Conclusions: A significant positive correlation was noted between ambient temperature and stone submission rate, which was significantly higher during the warm months in Malta. PMID:27453655

  7. Asymptomatic gall stones--revisited.

    PubMed

    Supe, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    India has a large burden of individuals harboring asymptomatic gallstones. Based on Markov model decision and cost analysis, selective and concomitant cholecystectomy is recommended for special indications like hemolytic disorders and stones in endemic areas. Expectant management should be adopted in all others. The evolution of laparoscopy should not alter the indications of cholecystectomy. Since more than 90% patients with asymptomatic gallstones remain clinically "silent", routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not indicated for the vast majority of subjects with asymptomatic cholelithiasis. Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become much safer, there remains associated morbidity and mortality. The risks of the operation outweigh the complications if stones are left in-situ. Patients should be counseled about the natural history and available management options, their advantages and disadvantages, and should be part of the decision making process. Prophylactic routine cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be performed selectively or concomitantly in a specific subgroup of patients.

  8. [Rare cases of bladder stones].

    PubMed

    Sampalmieri, Gregorio; Moretti, Antonello; Sampalmieri, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We present here two special cases of urolithiasis. The first one shows a giant bladder lithiasis resulting in severe renal insufficiency in a 63-year-old patient, who had previously had nicturia (2-3 times), occasional episodes of urinary frequency and burning micturition, in the absence of renal colic, hematuria or interrupted urination. The second case referes to an 85-year-old man suffering from prostatic enlargement and bladder stones, hospitalized to undergo intervention of trans-vesical prostatic adenomectomy, during which two star-shaped stones were found without obvious symptoms.

  9. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  10. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  11. Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000186.htm Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms ...

  12. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  13. Acid-base metabolism: implications for kidney stones formation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard

    2006-04-01

    The physiology and pathophysiology of renal H+ ion excretion and urinary buffer systems are reviewed. The main focus is on the two major conditions related to acid-base metabolism that cause kidney stone formation, i.e., distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and abnormally low urine pH with subsequent uric acid stone formation. Both the entities can be seen on the background of disturbances of the major urinary buffer system, NH3+ <--> NH4+. On the one hand, reduced distal tubular secretion of H+ ions results in an abnormally high urinary pH and either incomplete or complete dRTA. On the other hand, reduced production/availability of NH4+ is the cause of an abnormally low urinary pH, which predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Most recent research indicates that the latter abnormality may be a renal manifestation of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Despite opposite deviations from normal urinary pH values, both the dRTA and uric acid stone formation due to low urinary pH require the same treatment, i.e., alkali. In the dRTA, alkali is needed for improving the body's buffer capacity, whereas the goal of alkali treatment in uric acid stone formers is to increase the urinary pH to 6.2-6.8 in order to minimize uric acid crystallization.

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease in Kidney Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Lieske, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent population studies have found symptomatic kidney stone formers to be at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although kidney stones are not commonly identified as the primary cause of ESRD, they still may be important contributing factors. Paradoxically, CKD can be protective against forming kidney stones because of the substantial reduction in urine calcium excretion. Among stone formers, those with rare hereditary diseases (cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria, Dent disease, and 2,8 dihydroxyadenine stones), recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite stones, hypertension, and diabetes seem to be at highest risk for CKD. The primary mechanism for CKD from kidney stones is usually attributed to an obstructive uropathy or pyelonephritis, but crystal plugs at the ducts of Bellini and parenchymal injury from shockwave lithotripsy may also contribute. The historical shift to less invasive surgical management of kidney stones has likely had a beneficial impact on the risk for CKD. Among potential kidney donors, past symptomatic kidney stones but not radiographic stones found on computed tomography scans were associated with albuminuria. Kidney stones detected by ultrasound screening have also been associated with CKD in the general population. Further studies that better classify CKD, better characterize stone formers, more thoroughly address potential confounding by comorbidities, and have active instead of passive follow-up to avoid detection bias are needed. PMID:21784825

  15. The association between bacteria and urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    Urinary stone disease (USD) is an increasing clinical problem in both children and adults. One in ten individuals will experience a urinary stone, yet the mechanisms responsible for urinary stones remain largely unknown. Bacteria have long been recognized to contribute to struvite urinary stones; however, the role of bacteria in the development of the more common calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stones has not been extensively investigated. However, several findings do indicate a possible association between urinary stones and bacteria, including the high rate of urinary tract infections (UTI) in urinary stone patients and multiple case series of culture-positive urinary stones, including stones composed of CaOx or CaPhos. New technology, such as next generation sequencing, may be used to lend additional insight regarding the association between urinary stones and bacteria. In 2015, we published the initial bacterial sequencing results from five urinary stones, from which we sequenced multiple types of bacterial DNA. Whether these bacteria are causal, disease modifying or passively present remains to be determined. However, initial exploration of underlying mechanisms for this association indicate that bacteria aggregate selectively to crystals, that their presence is associated with increased clumping of crystals, and that they stimulate incorporation of proteins into the stone matrix. PMID:28217697

  16. Impact of Stone Removal on Renal Function: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kyle; Keys, Tristan; Mufarrij, Patrick; Assimos, Dean G

    2011-01-01

    Stone removal can improve renal function by eradicating obstruction and, in certain cases, an underlying infection. Stone-removing procedures, however, may negatively impact functional integrity. Many things may impact the latter, including the procedures used, the methods of assessing function, the time when these assessments are made, the occurrence of complications, the baseline condition of the kidney, and patient-related factors. In the majority of cases, little significant functional impairment occurs. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of this subject, including the cumulative effects of multiple procedures violating the renal parenchyma and long-term functional outcomes. PMID:21935339

  17. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  18. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  19. The use of genetic engineering for the improvement of stone fruit virus resistance as a model case for the success and challenges of this technology in fruit tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the most important virus disease of stone fruits (peaches, nectarines, apricots, and cherries). Since the first report of PPV from Bulgaria in the early 20th century, the virus has invaded virtually the entire European continent and has been spreadin...

  20. Behaviour and locomotor activity of a migratory catostomid during fishway passage.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana T; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z; Dawson, Jeffery W; Katopodis, Christos; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations.

  1. Behaviour and Locomotor Activity of a Migratory Catostomid during Fishway Passage

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana T.; Hatry, Charles; Thiem, Jason D.; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Hatin, Daniel; Zhu, David Z.; W. Dawson, Jeffery; Katopodis, Christos; J. Cooke, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Fishways have been developed to restore longitudinal connectivity in rivers. Despite their potential for aiding fish passage, fishways may represent a source of significant energetic expenditure for fish as they are highly turbulent environments. Nonetheless, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage of fish is still limited. We examined swimming behaviour and activity of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum) during its upriver spawning migration in a vertical slot fishway. We used an accelerometer-derived instantaneous activity metric (overall dynamic body acceleration) to estimate location-specific swimming activity. Silver redhorse demonstrated progressive increases in activity during upstream fishway passage. Moreover, location-specific passage duration decreased with an increasing number of passage attempts. Turning basins and the most upstream basin were found to delay fish passage. No relationship was found between basin-specific passage duration and activity and the respective values from previous basins. The results demonstrate that successful fishway passage requires periods of high activity. The resultant energetic expenditure may affect fitness, foraging behaviour and increase susceptibility to predation, compromising population sustainability. This study highlights the need to understand the physiological mechanisms underpinning fishway passage to improve future designs and interpretation of biological evaluations. PMID:25853245

  2. Calcium and calcium magnesium carbonate specimens submitted as urinary tract stones.

    PubMed

    Gault, M H; Chafe, L; Longerich, L; Mason, R A

    1993-02-01

    Of 8,129 specimens submitted as urinary stones from 6,095 patients, 67 from 15 patients were predominantly calcium carbonate or calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite) by infrared analysis. Detailed study of 1 man and 4 women who submitted 3 or more such specimens showed that all were of aragonite calcium carbonate crystal form in 2 women and all calcite in the man. All 3 patients had a long history of nephrolithiasis preceding submission of calcium carbonate stones. There was frequent and often painful spontaneous passage of many small stones. Medullary sponge kidney was reported in 2 patients. Specimens submitted by the other 2 women included dolomite and quartz artifacts. Of the other 10 patients 4 had calcite and 1 had aragonite (possibly true stones). Five patients had artifacts with dolomite in 3 and mixed specimens in 2. True calcium carbonate kidney stones and calcium carbonate artifacts may be difficult to distinguish, and dolomite and quartz artifacts may require x-ray diffraction for clear-cut diagnosis.

  3. Adolescent Rites of Passage: An Experiential Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venable, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the origins and context of adolescence as a cultural phenomenon and illustrates how rites of passage can nurture healthy developmental changes in adolescents. Describes and evaluates the application of a rite of passage during a backpacking experience that was designed to usher teens from adolescence to adulthood in a Christian context.…

  4. Passage-Related Reading Comprehension Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, J. Jaap

    Studies showing that even though certain factual questions are directly related to information in passages they are also easier to answer without reference to the passage are the basis for this study which attempted to define qualities of relationship which might be responsible for the ease of answerability. Three Tests of Acquisition of…

  5. 24 CFR 3280.108 - Interior passage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... passage. (a) Interior doors having passage hardware without a privacy lock, or with a privacy lock not...) Each manufactured home interior door, when provided with a privacy lock, shall have a privacy lock that has an emergency release on the outside to permit entry when the lock has been locked by a...

  6. Risk Taking and Rites of Passage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott; Martin, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, young people earned adult roles through observing, imitating, and interacting with adults around them. Rituals of initiation such as the Jewish bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah are very important rite of passage ceremonies. Many churches confer baptism, confirmation, or catechism as rites of passage to adulthood. Without such…

  7. Kidney stones: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Priscilla; Noble, Helen; Al-Modhefer, Abdul-Kadhum; Walsh, Ian

    2016-11-10

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing, and approximately 12 000 hospital admissions every year are due to this condition. This article will use a case study to focus on a patient diagnosed with a calcium oxalate kidney stone. It will discuss the affected structures in relation to kidney stones and describe the pathology of the condition. Investigations for kidney stones, differential diagnosis and diagnosis, possible complications and prognosis, will be discussed. Finally, a detailed account of management strategies for the patient with kidney stones will be given, looking at pain management, medical procedures and dietary interventions.

  8. Systemic implications of urinary stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovshilovskaya, Bogdana; Miller, Joe; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is the third most common condition affecting the urinary tract. It contributes to a great deal of morbidity for both men and women, and cost the United States (US) over 5.3 billion dollars in 2000 alone. Moreover, it is associated with systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, these systemic diseases may be contributing to the rising incidence in urinary stone disease. Previously described mechanisms of stone formation attribute stone development and growth to the urinary milieu. While this may partly influence the process, it cannot account for the associations between systemic diseases and stones observed in large community-based studies. Here we present a review of the evidence demonstrating a link between urinary stone disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. We believe a vascular etiology for the initiation of urinary stones may tie these processes together. PMID:26816692

  9. Comparison of textbook passages, nonfiction trade book passages and fiction trade book passages as instructional tools for learning science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    This study examined the impact of different types of text on student achievement in elementary school science. Gender was also examined to see if the type of text passage read had any differential effect on boys' and girls' achievement. This study was a pretest/posttest/retention test design. Eighty-four fourth grade students from a public charter elementary school in South Florida were randomly assigned a passage from a physical science textbook, a physical science nonfiction trade book, a physical science fiction trade book, a biological science textbook or a biological science nonfiction trade book. Results in the physical science content area revealed that students in the textbook passage group had higher posttest and retention test results than students in the nonfiction and fiction trade book passage groups. There was no difference on the posttest results of students in the biological science textbook and nonfiction trade book passage groups. Students in the biological science textbook passage group had higher retention results than students in the biological science nonfiction passage group. Gender results in the physical science content area revealed that boys had a higher retention score than girls in the fiction trade book passage group. There were no gender achievement differences as a result of the text passage read in the biological science content area. It was concluded that no definitive answer as to the efficacy of textbooks versus trade books was possible based upon results of the study. Recommendations for future research include examining the effects of different types of texts in conjunction with other authentic teaching methods.

  10. A review of Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Irby, Pierce B.

    2011-02-01

    The clinical solid-state Holmium:YAG laser lithotripter (λ=2120 nm) is capable of operating at high pulse energies, but its efficient operation is limited to low pulse rates during lithotripsy. The diode-pumped experimental Thulium Fiber Laser (λ=1908 nm) is limited to low pulse energies, but can operate at high pulse rates. This review compares stone ablation threshold, ablation rate, and retropulsion effects for Ho:YAG and TFL. Laser lithotripsy complications also include optical fiber bending failure resulting in endoscope damage and low irrigation rates leading to poor visibility. Both problems are related to fiber diameter and limited by Ho:YAG laser multimode spatial beam profile. This study exploits TFL spatial beam profile for higher power transmission through smaller fibers. A short taper is also studied for expanding TFL beam at the distal tip of a small-core fiber. Stone mass loss, stone crater depths, fiber transmission losses, fiber burn-back, irrigation rates, and deflection through a flexible ureteroscope were measured for tapered fiber and compared with conventional fibers. The stone ablation threshold for TFL was four times lower than for Ho:YAG. Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG increased linearly with pulse energy. Retropulsion with TFL was minimal at pulse rates < 150 Hz, then rapidly increased at higher pulse rates. TFL beam profile provides higher laser power through smaller fibers than Ho:YAG laser, potentially reducing fiber failure and endoscope damage and allowing greater irrigation rates for improved visibility and safety. Use of a short tapered distal fiber tip also allows expansion of the laser beam, resulting in decreased fiber tip damage compared to conventional fibers, without compromising fiber bending, stone ablation efficiency, or irrigation rates.

  11. The elementome of calcium-based urinary stones and its role in urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Krishna; Killilea, David W.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J.; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2016-01-01

    Urolithiasis affects around 10% of the US population with an increasing rate of prevalence, recurrence and penetrance. The causes for the formation of most urinary calculi remain poorly understood, but obtaining the chemical composition of these stones might help identify key aspects of this process and new targets for treatment. The majority of urinary stones are composed of calcium that is complexed in a crystalline matrix with organic and inorganic components. Surprisingly, mitigation of urolithiasis risk by altering calcium homeostasis has not been very effective. Thus, studies to identify other therapeutic stone-specific targets, using proteomics, metabolomics and microscopy techniques, have been conducted, revealing a high level of complexity. The data suggest that numerous metals other than calcium and many nonmetals are present within calculi at measurable levels and several have distinct distribution patterns. Manipulation of the levels of some of these elemental components of calcium-based stones has resulted in clinically beneficial changes in stone chemistry and rate of stone formation. The elementome—the full spectrum of elemental content—of calcium-based urinary calculi is emerging as a new concept in stone research that continues to provide important insights for improved understanding and prevention of urinary stone disease. PMID:26334088

  12. Monte Carlo integration over stepping stone models for spatial genetic inference using approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Baird, Stuart J E; Santos, Filipe

    2010-09-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) substitutes simulation for analytic models in Bayesian inference. Simulating evolutionary scenarios under Kimura's stepping stone model (KSS) might therefore allow inference over spatial genetic process where analytical results are difficult to obtain. ABC first creates a reference set of simulations and would proceed by comparing summary statistics over KSS simulations to summary statistics from localities sampled in the field, but: comparison of which localities and stepping stones? Identical stepping stones can be arranged so two localities fall in the same stepping stone, nearest or diagonal neighbours, or without contact. None is intrinsically correct, yet some choice must be made and this affects inference. We explore a Bayesian strategy for mapping field observations onto discrete stepping stones. We make Sundial, for projecting field data onto the plane, available. We generalize KSS over regular tilings of the plane. We show Bayesian averaging over the mapping between a continuous field area and discrete stepping stones improves the fit between KSS and isolation by distance expectations. We make Tiler Durden available for carrying out this Bayesian averaging. We describe a novel parameterization of KSS based on Wright's neighbourhood size, placing an upper bound on the geographic area represented by a stepping stone and make it available as m Vector. We generalize spatial coalescence recursions to continuous and discrete space cases and use these to numerically solve for KSS coalescence previously examined only using simulation. We thus provide applied and analytical resources for comparison of stepping stone simulations with field observations.

  13. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  14. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  15. Preventing stone retropulsion during intracorporeal lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Elashry, Osama M; Tawfik, Ahmad M

    2012-12-01

    Several studies of ureteroscopic treatment for ureteral stones have reported that most stone clearance failures can be attributed to stone fragment retropulsion. Stone retropulsion can result in increased operative time and cost-resulting from the need to change from the semi-rigid ureteroscope to a flexible instrument to chase migrated calculi-and additional procedures to treat residual migrated fragments are often required. The degree of migration depends mainly on the energy source used for lithotripsy; pneumatic and electrohydraulic lithotripters are associated with a greater degree of retropulsion than lasers. Different stone-trapping strategies and devices have been developed to minimize stone migration. Novel devices include the Lithovac(®) suction device, the Passport(™) balloon, the Stone Cone(™), the PercSys Accordion(®), the NTrap(®), and stone baskets such as the LithoCatch(™), the Parachute(™), and the Escape(®). Some authors have also reported on the use of lubricating jelly and BackStop(®) gel (a reverse thermosensitive polymeric plug); these devices are instilled proximal to the stone prior to the application of kinetic energy in order to prevent retrograde stone migration.

  16. Applications of chirped Raman adiabatic rapid passage to atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotru, Krish; Butts, David L.; Kinast, Joseph M.; Johnson, David M. S.; Radojevic, Antonije M.; Timmons, Brian P.; Stoner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    We present robust atom optics, based on chirped Raman adiabatic rapid passage (ARP), in the context of atom interferometry. Such ARP light pulses drive coherent population transfer between two hyperfine ground states by sweeping the frequency difference of two fixed-intensity optical fields with large single photon detunings. Since adiabatic transfer is less sensitive to atom temperature and non-uniform Raman beam intensity than standard Raman pulses, this approach should improve the stability of atom interferometers operating in dynamic environments. In such applications, chirped Raman ARP may also provide advantages over the previously demonstrated stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique, which requires precise modulation of beam intensity and zeroing of the single photon detuning. We demonstrate a clock interferometer with chirped Raman ARP pulses, and compare its stability to that of a conventional Raman pulse interferometer. We also discuss potential improvements to inertially sensitive atom interferometers. Copyright 2011 by The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cooled Panel With Thermostats In All Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1994-01-01

    Simple shape-memory-alloy or bimaterial thermostatic valve incorporated in each passage of multiple-passage cooled panel, according to proposal. Thermostatic valves all set to same opening/closing temperature, so they regulate flows in all passages to equalize or nearly equalize temperature across panel in presence of transient, nonuniform surface heating. Concept beneficial in application in which overheating causes damage and both overcooling and excessive circulation of coolant occurs in absence of regulation if cooling capacity of panel made large enough to handle peak heat load. Potential applications include cooled structures for advanced hypersonic aircraft and engines.

  18. Average-passage flow model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  19. Management of stone disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Azili, Mujdem Nur; Ozturk, Fatma; Inozu, Mihriban; Çayci, Fatma Şemsa; Acar, Banu; Ozmert, Sengul; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating and treating renal stone disease in infants are technically challenging. In this study, we evaluated the surgical treatment of renal stones in children under 1 year of age. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients under 1 year old who were treated with ESWL, endourological or open surgical procedures for renal stone disease between January, 2009 and December, 2012. The patients' age, gender, stone size, stone location and number, complications, stone-free status, and postoperative complications were recorded. 19 of 121 infants with a mean age of 10.2 ± 3.07 months were treated with surgical procedures. Six (75%) of eight cystinuria patients required a surgical intervention. Retrograde endoscopic management was performed in thirteen patients (63.4%) as an initial surgical approach. There were three major (15.7%) complications. The rate of open surgical procedures was 31.6% (6 of 19 infants). The cutoff value of stone size for open surgery was 10 mm. There was a significant relationship between the conversion to open procedures and stone size, stone location, and symptom presentation especially the presence of obstruction (p < 0.05). After repeated treatments, the stone clearance rate of RIRS reached 84.6%. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe treatment method for renal stones in infants and can be used as a first-line therapy in most patients under 1 year old. This is especially important if an associated ureteral stone or lower pole stone that requires treatment is present and for patients with cystinuria, which does not respond favorably to ESWL.

  20. Guaifenesin stone matrix proteomics: a protocol for identifying proteins critical to stone formation.

    PubMed

    Kolbach-Mandel, A M; Mandel, N S; Cohen, S R; Kleinman, J G; Ahmed, F; Mandel, I C; Wesson, J A

    2016-07-19

    Drug-related kidney stones are a diagnostic problem, since they contain a large matrix (protein) fraction and are frequently incorrectly identified as matrix stones. A urine proteomics study patient produced a guaifenesin stone during her participation, allowing us to both correctly diagnose her disease and identify proteins critical to this drug stone-forming process. The patient provided three random midday urine samples for proteomics studies; one of which contained stone-like sediment with two distinct fractions. These solids were characterized with optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Immunoblotting and quantitative mass spectrometry were used to quantitatively identify the proteins in urine and stone matrix. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the sediment was 60 % protein and 40 % guaifenesin and its metabolite guaiacol. Of the 156 distinct proteins identified in the proteomic studies, 49 were identified in the two stone-components with approximately 50 % of those proteins also found in this patient's urine. Many proteins observed in this drug-related stone have also been reported in proteomic matrix studies of uric acid and calcium containing stones. More importantly, nine proteins were highly enriched and highly abundant in the stone matrix and 8 were reciprocally depleted in urine, suggesting a critical role for these proteins in guaifenesin stone formation. Accurate stone analysis is critical to proper diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones. Many matrix proteins were common to all stone types, but likely not related to disease mechanism. This protocol defined a small set of proteins that were likely critical to guaifenesin stone formation based on their high enrichment and high abundance in stone matrix, and it should be applied to all stone types.

  1. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake

  2. Research and development of fish passage technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, P.A.

    1986-12-01

    Any fish passage provided at TVA's John Sevier Fossil Plant (JSF) would involve only warmwater species. Although some anadromous (marine) warmwater species (e.g., American shad, blueback herring) are currently passed upstream and downstream through structures deliberately built for that purpose, effectiveness of this technology for passage of adults and young of potential target species (e.g., paddlefish and sauger/walleye) in Cherokee Reservoir is unproven. Downstream passage is by far the larger and more poorly understood subject of fish migration and should be investigated first. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is conducting research on downstream fish passage (Project RP 2694). It will ultimately be necessary to adapt this information to the target species and site specificity at JSF.

  3. Skeptical notes on a physics of passage.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Nick

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the mathematical representation of time in physics. In existing theories, time is represented by the real numbers, hence their formal properties represent properties of time: these are surveyed. The central question of the paper is whether the existing representation of time is adequate, or whether it can or should be supplemented: especially, do we need a physics incorporating some kind of "dynamical passage" of time? The paper argues that the existing mathematical framework is resistant to such changes, and might have to be rejected by anyone seeking a physics of passage. Then it rebuts two common arguments for incorporating passage into physics, especially the claim that it is an element of experience. Finally, the paper investigates whether, as has been claimed, causal set theory provides a physics of passage.

  4. Terrestrial passage theory of the moon illusion.

    PubMed

    Reed, C F

    1984-12-01

    Theories of the celestial, or moon, illusion have neglected geometric characteristics of movement along and above the surface of the earth. The illusion occurs because the characteristics of terrestrial passage are attributed to celestial passage. In terrestrial passage, the visual angle subtended by an object changes discriminably as an essentially invariant function of elevation above the horizon. In celestial passage, by contrast, change in visual angle is indiscriminable at all elevations. If a terrestrial object gains altitude, its angular subtense fails to follow the expansion projected for an orbital course: Angular diminution or constancy is equivalent to distancing. On the basis of terrestrial projections, a similar failure of celestial objects in successive elevations is also equivalent to distancing. The illusion occurs because of retinal image constancy, not--as traditionally stated--despite it.

  5. Approach to the Adult Kidney Stone Former

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent and costly condition with high recurrence rate. A medical evaluation to identify abnormalities responsible for nephrolithiasis and guide subsequent therapy has been advocated to reduce the risk of stone recurrence. The evaluation of kidney stone formers generally comprises an extensive medical history to identify metabolic, environmental, dietary and/or genetic factors contributing to stone formation. Imaging studies are utilized to evaluate and follow stone burden. Laboratory studies including stone composition analysis and serum and urinary chemistries are commonly obtained to further assess for any underlying systemic disorders, to detect environmental and metabolic processes contributing to stone disease, and to guide initial and follow-up dietary and pharmacological therapy. The nature and extent of such an evaluation is discussed in this review article. PMID:22654574

  6. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  7. Active attenuation of propeller blade passage noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalas, J. M.; Tichy, J.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic measurements are presented to show that active cancellation can be used to achieve significant reduction of blade passage noise in a turboprop cabin. Simultaneous suppression of all blade passage frequencies was attained. The spatial volume over which cancellation occurred, however, is limited. Acoustic intensity maps are presented to show that the acoustic input to the fuselage was sufficiently non-localized so as to require more judicious selection of cancellation speaker location.

  8. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection.

  9. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  10. From stones to rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  11. Sediment Transport through Road Culverts Retrofit for Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M.; Cashman, E.; Siegfried, L.; Smith, W. J.; Dillon, A.

    2007-12-01

    A critical component of watershed restoration includes improved mobility within the watershed for fish and other aquatic organisms. At the large scale, this effort includes installation of fish ladders around dams and at smaller scales replacement or retrofit of road culverts or installation of roughened channels to mitigate steep channel slopes. A project to quantify changes in culvert hydraulic performance and hydraulic capacity for three culvert shapes and six fish passage retrofit designs was initiated in June 2005. In 2007, laboratory physical model experiments were conducted to evaluate sediment transport and trapping characteristics of these designs over a range of flows. Generally, experimental results indicate trapped sediment in culverts retrofit to improve fish passage decreases the effectiveness of the retrofit due to sediment deposition in areas with lower velocities (where fish can rest). Other observations include: 1. Trapped sediment reduced the effective culvert barrel roughness and, thus, decreased water depths and increased velocities through the culvert, compared to clear water experiments with the retrofit baffles. 2. High flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height greater than 0.5) successfully cleared trapped sediment under conditions of minimal transport from upstream 3. Preliminary results indicate moderate flows (culvert barrel water depth/culvert height between 0.25 to 0.5) in combination with moderate sediment feed rates caused the greatest accumulation of trapped sediment These experiments highlight the importance of including sediment accumulation in design and analysis, and potentially impact design recommendations for culverts retrofit for fish passage and other similar fish passage improvement structures.

  12. The Rosetta Stone Methodology - A Benefits-Driven Approach to SPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLoughlin, Fionbarr; Richardson, Ita

    The Rosetta Stone Methodology (RSM) has been developed which allows organizations to undertake Software Process Improvement (SPI) based on business- and organizational-driven goals and objectives. The methodology itself is fully customizable and allows organizations to make adjustments to the model where they feel it appropriate. To demonstrate the usefulness, appropriateness and practicality of this new approach, the Rosetta Stone IGSI-ISM to CMMI Instance mapping (RS-ICMMI) is developed. To aid in understanding, the Measurement and Analysis (MA) process area is used as an example of how to apply the methodology. The Rosetta Stone Methodology and the RS-ICMMI instance have been validated by experts.

  13. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  14. Microbial biofilms on building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppert, M.; Kemmling, A.; Kämper, M.

    2003-04-01

    Microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestric ecosystems as well as on man-made material. The organisms take part in biogenic weathering on natural rocks as well as on building stone [1]. Though the presence of biofilms on stone monuments exposed to the outdoor environment is obvious, thin films also occur on monuments under controllable indoor environment conditions. Numerous biofilm organisms produce large volumes of extracellular polymer (EP), mainly polysaccharides. Hydrated, gel-like EP acts as glue between the organisms and the material surface and forms a protected environment for the microbial cells. The contact zone between EP and the material surface is the crucial reactive interface of the bio-organic cover and the underlying building material. At this interface, all hazardous compounds (e.g. organic acids), after diffusion transfer via EP, react with the material surface. Upon dehydration, volume of EP greatly decreases. The thin, varnish-like EP layer still protects the dormant cells from irreversible inactivation. Periodic shrinking and swelling of the EP induces mechanical stress on the stone surface, epecially when the polymer penetrates small pores and cavities in the underlying material surface. Thus, monitoring and structure/functional analysis of EP and EP production by organisms is important to understand biogenic weathering phenomena and building stone deterioration. The study presented here describes biofilms on the surfaces of building material in outdoor and indoor environments. The application of marker techniques and visualization of samples with light and electron microscopy illustrates the role of EP at microscale. EP forms the matrix that encloses microorganisms, dust particles and mineral grains in a rigid film. EP penetrates small pore spaces of the underlying substratum and may also facilitate subsequent penetration of the microorganisms into the material. EP seals the material surface and cements the superficial layer

  15. A Lion of a Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

    This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  16. A Voyage around the Recumbent Stone Circles of North-East Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henty, Liz

    2015-05-01

    This paper details new archaeoastronomical research undertaken at the Recumbent Stone Circles (RSCs) of Scotland. Research to date has concentrated on the recumbent arrangement and the major theorists such as Thom, Ruggles and Burl, proposed that the recumbent and pillars are aligned to the lunar standstills or the passage of the moon over the recumbent. This research took a different voyage around the circles, which included checking all the stones of the circle for solar and stellar alignments as well as lunar alignments. It looks at nine RSCs, using both new plans drawn up by RCAHMS and plans published by Thom. The research was prompted by preliminary research, reported on at SEAC 2010, which detailed fieldwork completed at three sites. Because of the earlier focus on the recumbent, the RSCs have generally been interpreted in terms of a lunar narrative. By contrast, the aims of this research were to examine the circle in its entirety examining each circle stone for possible solar, lunar and stellar alignments using the dates of 2500 BC and 2000 BC. The results for all the circle stones showed that there were just as many solar as lunar alignments and that some stellar alignments may have been important symbolically.

  17. Synthesis of juvenile salmonid passage studies at The Dalles Dam volume II: 2001 - 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Beeman, J.W.; Duran , I.N.; Puls, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. From 2001, when Ploskey et al. (2001a) completed their review of 1982-2000 research, through 2005, the USACE has funded over $20M of research in at least 40 studies. The purpose of this current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2005.

  18. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 2: Coolant passages with trips normal and skewed to the flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.; Steuber, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modem turbine blades. This experimental program is one part of the NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) Initiative, which has as its overall objective the development and verification of improved analysis methods that will form the basis for a design system that will produce turbine components with improved durability. The objective of this program was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. The experimental work was broken down into two phases. Phase 1 consists of experiments conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model. A detailed discussion of these results was presented in volume 1 of a NASA Report. In Phase 2 the large scale model was modified to investigate the effects of skewed and normal passage turbulators. The results of Phase 2 along with comparison to Phase 1 is the subject of this Volume 2 NASA Report.

  19. Archaeomagnetic studies of Maori Hangi Stones from New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinger, R.; Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Global palaeosecular variation models still suffer from a paucity of high quality data from the SW Pacific region. Over the past two years we have worked to fill this gap with archaeomagnetic data - directions and palaeointensities - by studying the thermoremanent magnetization of Maori hangi cooking stones. Used as heat retainers, these stones are heated, frequently above the Curie temperatures of constituent magnetic minerals, before being buried in earth ovens. After removal of the food, hangi sites are often abandoned with the stones still in situ, carrying a record of the magnetic field in which they were last cooled. We have sampled a range of archaeological hangi sites throughout New Zealand, dating to early prehistoric times (ca 700 BP). The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with NRM intensities up to 30 A/m, to greywackes and schists from the main axial ranges, with NRMs as weak as 10-4A/m. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several specimens from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical specimens) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using a Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. The palaeodirections fall between declinations of 348o and 24.5o, and inclinations of -46.4o and -72.4o, with palaeointensities between 43.7±1.4 and 81.3±6.1 mT. Most fall within the expected range of secular variation for New Zealand. However the palaeointensity of 81.34±6.08mT, from an

  20. Non-invasive differentiation of kidney stone types using X-ray dark-field radiography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-04-15

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection.

  1. [In vivo dissolving of gall-stones: the effect of chenodeoxycholic acid. (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fromm, H; Eschler, A; Töllner, D; Canzler, H; Schmidt, F W

    1975-08-08

    Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was administered for an average of 15 months to 14 patients with gall-stones. The gall-stones were radiolucent in all but one instance (solitary calcified stone). Stones dissolved completely after 12 and 15 months of therapy, respectively, in two patients, while in four the size of the stones diminished. No change occurred in the remaining patients. In five patients multiple stones dissolved, while in one a radiolucent solitary stone dissolved. In one patient, with a negative cholecystogram for a time before being treated with CDCA, the gall-bladder perforated while on treatment. CDCA was well tolerated by all patients: upper abdominal discomfort disappeared during CDCA treatment in two patients and improved in nine. Only side-effect was occasional mild diarrhoea in five patients. Bile was analysed in seven patients, supersaturation with cholesterol being found in five. Biliary lipid composition became normal during CDCA treatment in these five patients. Serum triglyceride levels fell during CDCA administration in ten of eleven patients in which serum measurements were made; the greatest fall occurred in the five patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. The fall in triglyceride levels was associated with a diminution of the pre-beta-lipo-protein fraction and the chylomicron fraction. No significant change occurred in serum cholesterol levels.

  2. Two-year-old girl with impacted ureteral stone successfully treated with a single session of combined percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Teruaki; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Unno, Rei; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Hamakawa, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Ando, Ryosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Yasui, Takahiro

    2017-03-14

    Impacted stones frequently cause changes in the ureter, including edema of the ureteral wall, stone embedding in the ureteral mucosa or ureteral bending, which often preclude spontaneous passing of the stone and increase the risk of complications during surgery. When stone impaction is suspected preoperatively, management should be adapted accordingly. However, surgical treatment strategies remain controversial in pediatric patients because of the scarcity of cases reported. We describe the case of a 2-year-old girl with a right impacted ureteral stone who presented with gross hematuria and pyuria, but no metabolic risk factors or hematological abnormalities. Ureteroscopy was carried out in the presence of a percutaneous nephrostomy catheter. At the 7-month follow up, hydronephrosis had improved from grade 3 to grade 1, and the ureter was free from residual or recurrent stones. No complications were noted. We believe that percutaneous nephrostomy before the lithotripsy facilitates treatment for impacted stones in pediatric patients.

  3. Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a…

  4. Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

  5. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  6. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  7. Uropontin in urinary calcium stone formation.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, J R

    1994-01-01

    Normal urine is frequently supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. Thus, urinary inhibitors of crystallization appear to have an important role in preventing urinary stone formation. Uropontin was isolated by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and has the same N-terminal sequence as osteopontin derived from bone. This urinary form of osteopontin is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth at concentrations (approximately 0.1 microM) that normally prevail in human urine. Interaction with calcium oxalate monohydrate in vivo was shown by analysis of EDTA extracts of calcium stones. Uropontin is an abundant component of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones and present in only trace quantities in calcium oxalate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite stones. However, the precise role of uropontin in the pathogenesis of urinary stone formation is not known and is the subject of ongoing investigations.

  8. Kidney Stone Risk Following Modern Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828

  9. First passage time distribution in heterogeneity controlled kinetics: going beyond the mean first passage time

    PubMed Central

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The first passage is a generic concept for quantifying when a random quantity such as the position of a diffusing molecule or the value of a stock crosses a preset threshold (target) for the first time. The last decade saw an enlightening series of new results focusing mostly on the so-called mean and global first passage time (MFPT and GFPT, respectively) of such processes. Here we push the understanding of first passage processes one step further. For a simple heterogeneous system we derive rigorously the complete distribution of first passage times (FPTs). Our results demonstrate that the typical FPT significantly differs from the MFPT, which corresponds to the long time behaviour of the FPT distribution. Conversely, the short time behaviour is shown to correspond to trajectories connecting directly from the initial value to the target. Remarkably, we reveal a previously overlooked third characteristic time scale of the first passage dynamics mirroring brief excursion away from the target. PMID:26852802

  10. Gallstone ileus with a giant stone and associated multiple stones.

    PubMed

    Ozbalci, G S; Tanrikulu, Y; Kismet, K; Dinc, S; Akkus, M A

    2012-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction. Gallstone ileus accounts for only about 1-3 % of cases of mechanical obstructions of the small bowel. It usually occurs in the elderly with a female predominance and may result in high mortality rates. The diagnosis is difficult and early diagnosis reduces the mortality. Terminal ileum is the most common site of gallstone impaction. We report a case of gallstone ileus in an 81-year-old female patient who was admitted to our clinic for abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation. The ultrasonography of abdomen revealed a decrease in bowel motion, and dilated bowel segments. Intraoperatively, a giant gallstone and associated multiple stones were found in the ileum 80 cm from the ileocecal valve and extracted from a longitudinal enterotomy (Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  11. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  12. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  13. Experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraft, Daniel; Halfmann, Thomas; Genov, Genko T.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of composite adiabatic passage (CAP) for robust and efficient manipulation of two-level systems. The technique represents a altered version of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), driven by composite sequences of radiation pulses with appropriately chosen phases. We implement CAP with radio-frequency pulses to invert (i.e., to rephase) optically prepared spin coherences in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. We perform systematic investigations of the efficiency of CAP and compare the results with conventional π pulses and RAP. The data clearly demonstrate the superior features of CAP with regard to robustness and efficiency, even under conditions of weakly fulfilled adiabaticity. The experimental demonstration of composite sequences to support adiabatic passage is of significant relevance whenever a high efficiency or robustness of coherent excitation processes need to be maintained, e.g., as required in quantum information technology.

  14. The Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Laidre, Kristin L; Quakenbush, Lori T; Citta, John J

    2012-04-23

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is predicted to open up the Northwest Passage, shortening shipping routes and facilitating the exchange of marine organisms between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Here, we present the first observations of distribution overlap of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the two oceans in the Northwest Passage, demonstrating this route is already connecting whales from two populations that have been assumed to be separated by sea ice. Previous satellite tracking has demonstrated that bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska enter the ice-infested channels of the Canadian High Arctic during summer. In August 2010, two bowhead whales from West Greenland and Alaska entered the Northwest Passage from opposite directions and spent approximately 10 days in the same area, documenting overlap between the two populations.

  15. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  16. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  17. Differentiation of uric acid versus non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodine using dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Qu, M.; Leng, S.; McCollough, C. H.

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the feasibility of differentiating uric acid from non-uric acid kidney stones in the presence of iodinated contrast material was evaluated using dual-energy CT (DECT). Iodine subtraction was accomplished with a commercial three material decomposition algorithm to create a virtual non-contrast (VNC) image set. VNC images were then used to segment stone regions from tissue background. The DE ratio of each stone was calculated using the CT images acquired at two different energies with DECT using the stone map generated from the VNC images. The performance of DE ratio-based stone differentiation was evaluated at five different iodine concentrations (21, 42, 63, 84 and 105 mg/ml). The DE ratio of stones in iodine solution was found larger than those obtained in non-iodine cases. This is mainly caused by the partial volume effect around the boundary between the stone and iodine solution. The overestimation of the DE ratio leads to substantial overlap between different stone types. To address the partial volume effect, an expectation-maximization (EM) approach was implemented to estimate the contribution of iodine and stone within each image pixel in their mixture area. The DE ratio of each stone was corrected to maximally remove the influence of iodine solutions. The separation of uric-acid and non-uric-acid stone was improved in the presence of iodine solution.

  18. Aftermath of Grade 3 Ureteral Injury from Passage of a Ureteral Access Sheath: Disaster or Deliverance?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan M.; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Kaler, Kamaljot

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The ureteral access sheath (UAS) has revolutionized the management of urinary pathology in the upper tract by providing rapid repeatable access to the upper urinary tract. However, in many practices, it remains a controversial tool in endourology given concerns of possible ureteral injury and presumed long-term sequela from those injuries. This case suggests that these concerns may be more hypothetical than real. Case Presentation: A 32-year-old female with a history of recurrent nephrolithiasis presented with left-sided symptomatic renal colic. She was found to have bilateral nephrolithiasis plus a left 6 × 5 mm proximal ureteral stone with associated moderate hydroureteronephrosis. The patient failed a trial of passage and as such was taken to the operating room for an elective ureteroscopy (URS) during which she sustained a Grade 3 ureteral splitting injury, measuring ∼2–3 cm, to the distal ureter from passage of the 16F UAS. At the end of the procedure a 7/10F endopyelotomy stent was placed. On follow-up URS at 6 weeks, there was no visual evidence of ureteral injury. A Lasix renal scan obtained 8 weeks after stent removal showed no evidence of obstruction. Conclusion: High-grade ureteral injuries sustained from UAS passage are rare. However, when injuries of this nature occur, the concern over long-term damage to the ureter may well be overstated. PMID:27868091

  19. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  20. Smooth Passage For The Jetfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Flying Princess is a Boeing Jetfoil, one of a family of commercial waterjets built by Boeing Marine Systems, a division of The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington. The new Jetfoil offers a number of advantages over earlier hydrofoils, a major one being a smooth ride in rough waters. NASA technology contributed to jolt-free passenger comfort. Hydrofoils skim the surface at speeds considerably greater than those of conventional ships because there is little friction between hull and water. Hulls are raised above the water by the lift of the foils, which resemble and function like an airplane wing. The foils are attached to the hull by rigid struts, which ordinarily cause a vessel operating in coastal seas to follow the contour of the waves. In wind-whipped waters, this makes for a rough ride. Seeking to increase passenger acceptance, Boeing Marine System engineers looked for ways to improve rough-water ride quality. Langley Research Center conducts continuing ride quality research. Initially, it was aimed at improving aircraft ride; it was later expanded to include all modes of transportation. Research includes studies of vibration, acceleration, temperature, humidity, passenger seats and posture, and the psychological aspects of passenger reaction to vehicle ride. As part of the program, Langley developed instrumentation, ride quality models and methods of data analysis.

  1. The passage of bacteria through surgical drapes.

    PubMed Central

    Blom, A.; Estela, C.; Bowker, K.; MacGowan, A.; Hardy, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    The passage of bacteria through surgical drapes is a potential cause of wound infection. Previous studies have shown that liquids and human albumin penetrate certain types of drapes. We studied the passage of bacteria through seven different types of surgical drape and an operating tray. Bacteria easily penetrated all the woven re-usable fabrics within 30 min. The disposable non-woven drapes proved to be impermeable, as did the operating tray. We recommend the use of non-woven disposable drapes or woven drapes with an impermeable operating tray in all surgical cases. PMID:11103158

  2. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  3. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  4. Neck swelling with renal stone.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K; Taous, A; Sultana, S Z; Sharif, A; Hossain, M M; Mostafa, G; Hussain, M A; Azim, M A; Siddique, M A

    2010-10-01

    Since the advent of screening of calcium and imaging techniques (CT and MRI), hyperparathyroidism has been detected with increasing frequency. Although in the past, most patients present with severe bone and renal diseases, a large number of patients are asymptomatic. Number of parathyroid glands and their ectopic locations in individuals are the problem of its management. Parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia may be a part of Multiple Endocrine neoplasia type II. This is the story of a boy of 18 years who had got admitted in the department of Otolaryngology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital with the complaints of a neck swelling, abdominal discomfort, inability to walk, frequency of micturation for almost same duration of 1 year. After search, hypercalcaemia, bilateral renal stone, raised parathormone level and enlarged one parathyroid gland in lower pole of left thyroid lobe was identified. Clinically it was diagnosed as parathyroid adenoma which was proved histologically after surgical excision. Many controversies still exist regarding the treatment policy of parathyroid adenoma.

  5. A "Rosetta Stone" for AViz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Joan; Glanz, Hila; Izrael, Nadir

    The Computational Physics group at the Technion has developed a visualization code, AViz, for atomistic visualization. AViz can visualize atoms, vector spins, quadrupoles, electronic densities, polymers and more. The required input of data files in the standard .xyz format can be prepared from a wide range of private and public domain simulation codes; and in the event that these are not the natural output of the code, conversion can be made. In order to extend its use, especially for industrial simulations, it is highly desirable to simplify the translation from simulation output to visualization input. We describe some steps towards the goal of providing a "Rosetta Stone" for such translation that can lead to better understanding. A recent simulation of liquid crystals is used as an example.

  6. Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwelaert, Javier; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were treated with an electromagnetic lithotripter and the initiation and growth of cracks was observed using microCT. The images show that the orientation of the stones with respect to the shock changes the dominant mechanism for fragmentation. Vertical stones developed a spall-like crack near the distal surface, which propagated from the surface to the interior of the stone. Initiation of a secondary spall-like crack was observed proximal to the first crack. Little surface damage was observed. Horizontal stones presented pitting in the proximal surface and erosion in lateral faces, indicating the action of cavitation. Angled stones presented both spall-like fracture in either the leading or the distal corners and surface damage (pitting) in the proximal surface. Experiments are being performed to follow the development of cracks in human kidney stones. [Work supported by the Whitaker Foundation.

  7. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  8. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

  9. B-mode Ultrasound Versus Color Doppler Twinkling Artifact in Detecting Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Jonathan D.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Shah, Anup R.; Dighe, Manjiri K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Moshiri, Mariam; Paun, Marla; Lu, Wei; Bailey, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To compare color Doppler twinkling artifact and B-mode ultrasonography in detecting kidney stones. Patients and Methods Nine patients with recent CT scans prospectively underwent B-mode and twinkling artifact color Doppler ultrasonography on a commercial ultrasound machine. Video segments of the upper pole, interpolar area, and lower pole were created, randomized, and independently reviewed by three radiologists. Receiver operator characteristics were determined. Results There were 32 stones in 18 kidneys with a mean stone size of 8.9±7.5 mm. B-mode ultrasonography had 71% sensitivity, 48% specificity, 52% positive predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value, while twinkling artifact Doppler ultrasonography had 56% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 62% positive predictive value, and 68% negative predictive value. Conclusions When used alone, B-mode is more sensitive, but twinkling artifact is more specific in detecting kidney stones. This information may help users employ twinkling and B-mode to identify stones and developers to improve signal processing to harness the fundamental acoustic differences to ultimately improve stone detection. PMID:23067207

  10. Fabrication of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials for conservation of historic stone sculptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yurong; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    The present work was aimed to develop a new kind of stone conservation materials (TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating) by a facile sol-gel method for the protection of decayed sandstones of Chongqing Dazu stone sculptures in China. The hydrophobic property, surface morphology, water vapor permeability, ultraviolet aging resistance and mechanical properties were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating as a stone conservation material. The results showed that the addition of hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH) contributed to improve the hydrophobic properties and incorporation of PEO-PPO-PEO (F127) surfactant resulted in the formation of superficial protrusions with micro- and nanoscopic structures and overall alteration of surface morphology and roughness, thus preventing the coating materials from cracking. After treatment with TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials, the ultraviolet aging resistance and mechanical properties of stone were also improved without the obvious effects on the breathability and color of the stone, indicating promising applications of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials for conservation of historic stone sculptures.

  11. Numerical Assessment of Four-Port Through-Flow Wave Rotor Cycles with Passage Height Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, D. E.; Lindau, Jules W.

    1997-01-01

    The potential for improved performance of wave rotor cycles through the use of passage height variation is examined. A Quasi-one-dimensional CFD code with experimentally validated loss models is used to determine the flowfield in the wave rotor passages. Results indicate that a carefully chosen passage height profile can produce substantial performance gains. Numerical performance data are presented for a specific profile, in a four-port, through-flow cycle design which yielded a computed 4.6% increase in design point pressure ratio over a comparably sized rotor with constant passage height. In a small gas turbine topping cycle application, this increased pressure ratio would reduce specific fuel consumption to 22% below the un-topped engine; a significant improvement over the already impressive 18% reductions predicted for the constant passage height rotor. The simulation code is briefly described. The method used to obtain rotor passage height profiles with enhanced performance is presented. Design and off-design results are shown using two different computational techniques. The paper concludes with some recommendations for further work.

  12. Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" as Historiographic Metafiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaden, Barbara Z.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that what makes Charles Johnson's "Middle Passage" significant and eminently teachable is that it is an accessible example of "historiographic metafiction"--bestselling postmodern novels set in the past. Notes that students find the novel "easy" and enjoyable and that teaching the novel with some of its intertexts, such as H. Melville's…

  13. Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Michele

    2008-11-25

    The January-July runoff volume above the Dalles Dam in 2007 was 89% of the average runoff volume for the 1971-2000 historical record. The April-July runoff volume at Lower Granite Dam was 68% of the 1971-2000 historical record. Over the 79 year historical record from 1929 through 2007, the 2007 January-July runoff volume at the Dalles was the 50th lowest year out of the 79th year record. The January through July runoff volume at Lower Granite was the 65th lowest runoff year out of 79 on record. This year can be characterized by steadily decreasing snowpack which was below average in the Columbia Basin by the end of April. The combination of runoff volume, decreasing snowpack and reservoir operations resulted in spring migration flows at McNary Dam averaging 239 Kcfs, slightly above the Biological Opinion flow objective of 237 Kcfs. However the spring period migration flows in the Snake River averaged 61 Kcfs at Lower Granite Dam, substantially below the Biological Opinion flow objective of 85 Kcfs. Summer migration period Biological Opinion flow objectives averaged 163 Kcfs at McNary Dam, substantially below the summer flow objective of 200 Kcfs. Summer migration period flows in the Snake River at Lower Granite Dam averaged 29 Kcfs, also substantially below the Biological Opinion flow objective of 50 Kcfs. Overall spring migrants in the Columbia River experienced better migration flows than spring migrants in the Snake River reach. Summer migration flow objectives were not achieved in either the Columbia or Snake rivers. The 2007 FCRPS Operations Agreement represents an expanded and improved spill program that goes beyond the measures contained in the 2004 Biological Opinion. During the spring period, spill now occurs for twenty-four hours per day at all projects, except for John Day Dam where the daily program remains at 12 hours. A summer spill program provides spill at all the fish transportation collector projects (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental

  14. Pathogenesis and treatment of calcium stones.

    PubMed

    Parks, J H; Coe, F L

    1996-09-01

    Calcium stones arise from imbalances between urinary excretions of insoluble salts and water. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperparathyroidism are the calcium disorders usually associated with elevated levels of calcium in the urine. Renal tubular acidosis is associated with a disordered acid-base status that results in low urine citrate. Hypocitraturia itself is a cause of calcium stones because it leaves urine calcium free to complex with either oxalate or phosphate. Elevated urine oxalate is commonly associated with dietary excesses, bowel disease, and, rarely, primary hyperoxaluria. Hyperuricosuria, usually of dietary origin, when reversed can cause a fall in new calcium stones.

  15. Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-François Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough.

  16. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  17. Pattern of family history in stone patients.

    PubMed

    Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2009-12-01

    Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003-2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were classified as group 1--first order single (one person in the immediate family-father, mother, siblings, or children), group 2--first order multiple (more than one member in the above group), group 3--second order single (one person in the blood relatives in family--grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc.) and group 4--second order multiple (more than one member in the above group). Of the 2,157 patients studied, 349 patients gave positive history of stone disease constituting 16.18%. Of these, 321 were males and 28 were females. Subdivision of the family members showed that 282 patients (80.80%) had single family member with stones and the rest 67 (19.20%) had multiple family members with history of stone disease. Group 1 which constituted one family member in the immediate family had 255 involvements (father: 88, mother: 16, brother: 135, sister: 2, son: 10, and daughter: 4); Group 2 with multiple members in the immediate family constituted 51 relatives; of these, father and brother combination was the most common with 35 occurrences. Group 3 with one person in the distant relatives in family namely grandparents, grand children, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. constituted 27 occurrences and Group 4 with more than one member in the distant family constituted 16 occurrences. It is concluded that single family member involvement was more than multiple involvements. Males predominated. Stone occurrence was more in the immediate family members than distant relatives. Brothers formed the most common group to be involved with stone disease. Study of stone risk in the family members should

  18. Leave no "stone" unturned: understanding the genetic bases of calcium-containing urinary stones in children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S E; Stapleton, F B

    2000-01-01

    Urinary stones in children are being recognized with increasing frequency. Formerly thought to be the result of dehydration, urinary obstruction, or infection, most urinary calculi in children now are recognized to have an underlying metabolic abnormality. A number of challenges face pediatricians in evaluating and treating children with urinary stone disease. Often the clinical symptomatology is nonspecific and lacks the excruciating renal colic seen in adults. Furthermore, diagnostic clinical laboratory values vary with age and must be differentiated from normal values reported for adult patients. Both environmental and genetic factors are responsible for urinary stones. Many stones have a hereditary basis. Exciting new information is developing about the genetic propensity for urinary stones. Current medical therapies attempt either to reduce the production of a lithogenic solute or to increase urinary solubility. New therapies for prevention and treatment of urinary stone disease are likely to evolve as our understanding of the pathogenesis of these conditions grows.

  19. Desert Stone Mantles: Quantification and Significance of Self-Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgitt, David; Rosser, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Desert stone mantles exhibit sorting patterns which are evidence of self-organisation. Previous investigations of stone mantles developed on Late Tertiary and Quaternary basalts in arid northeastern Jordan, revealed distinct variations in the nature of stone cover both downslope and between lithologies of different age. However, manual field measurements of clast size and shape did not preserve information about the spatial configuration of the stone surface. Improved digital image capture and analysis techniques, including using a kite-based platform for vertical photography of the surface, has permitted the nature of stone mantles to be examined and modelled in greater detail. Image analysis has been assisted by the strong contrast in colour between the basalt clasts and the underlying surface enabling a binary classification of images, from which data on size, shape and position of clasts can be readily acquired. Quantification of self-organisation through a box-counting technique for measuring fractal dimension and a procedure using Thiessen polygons to determine ‘locking structures' indicates a general increase in organisation of the stone mantle downslope. Recognition of emergent behaviour requires an explanation in terms of positive feedback between controlling process and the influence of surface form. A series of rainfall simulation and infiltration experiments have been undertaken on plots to assess the variation in surface hydrology as a response to variations in ground surface and slope profile form. The relative contribution of runoff events of varying size and the degree to which the ground surface configuration accelerates or restricts modification of the surface influences the overall evolution of slope profiles via the erosion, transfer and deposition of both surface clasts and the underlying fine grained sediments. Critical to this modification is the interplay between the surface configuration, rainfall and runoff. The experiments presented

  20. Passage behavior of radio-tagged subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reagan, R.E.; Evans, S.D.; Wright, L.S; Farley, M.J.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Flow augmentation, spill, surface collection, and improved turbine guidance systems have been identified as potential management actions to improve passage efficiency and survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), along with regional, state, and federal resource agencies, has designed and implemented studies to determine which management actions would provide significant biological benefits to juvenile salmonids. From 1994 to 2004, the USACE has contracted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior in relation to passage improvement tests at Lower Granite, John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams. 

  1. An impacted pancreatic stone in the papilla induced acute obstructive cholangitis in a patient with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kwang-Ho; Kwon, Chang-Il; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Kim, Won Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung Pyo; Park, Pil Won

    2012-03-01

    Obstructive jaundice is very rarely caused by impaction of a pancreatic stone in the papilla. We report here on a case of obstructive jaundice with acute cholangitis that was caused by an impacted pancreatic stone in the papilla in a patient with chronic pancreatitis. A 48-year-old man presented with acute obstructive cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography with the reconstructed image revealed distal biliary obstruction that was caused by a pancreatic stone in the pancreatic head, and there was also pancreatic ductal dilatation and parenchymal atrophy of the pancreatic body and tail with multiple calcifications. Emergency duodenoscopy revealed an impacted pancreatic stone in the papilla. Precut papillotomy using a needle knife was performed, followed by removal of the pancreatic stone using grasping forceps. After additional sphincterotomy, a large amount of dark-greenish bile juice gushed out. The patient rapidly improved and he has remained well.

  2. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  3. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  4. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  5. Pulmonary function tests in stone crushers.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Sachin B; Mane, Satish B; Handergulle, Sunita S; Kekan, Dinkar

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional type of observational study was conducted at 7 various stone crusher units on 120 male stone crushers and 120 healthy male controls. Values of FEF25-27% and PEFR were recorded on computerized spirometer and were compared between workers and age matched controls group. The value of FEF25-75% and PEFR was significantly reduced in stone crushers as compared to controls. Also as the duration of exposure increases the values of flow rates goes on decreasing among workers. Stone crushers of Marathwada region of Maharashtra exposed to silica dust were prone to develop lung disorders as indicated by reduced value of FEF25-75% and PEFR.

  6. Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease.

    PubMed

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R L; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1985-01-01

    This investigation indicates that there are important associations between urinary stone disease and a person's primary liquid intake. Based on data collected from 2295 caucasian male patients from two geographical regions, the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Rockies (including Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah and Wyoming) an important (p less than 0.01) positive association was found between urinary stone disease and soda (carbonated beverage) consumption within both geographical regions. It was also found that negative associations exist between urinary stone disease and both beer consumption and coffee consumption in the Rockies and that no important associations exist between urinary stone disease and any of milk, water, or tea, when these beverages represent a person's primary liquid intake. Moreover, soda can be viewed almost synonymously as sugared cola, since few subjects had diet sodas or sugared non-cola soda as primary fluid. No cause/effect relationships are implied in this paper.

  7. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone.../FONSI on the planning Web site at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/planning/BigStoneNWR/index.html . A...

  8. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  9. Environmental history recorded in aeolian deposits under stone pavements, Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Dietze, Elisabeth; Lomax, Johanna; Fuchs, Markus; Kleber, Arno; Wells, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature - stone pavement - traps aeolian fines and forms a special accretionary archive. Seven stone pavement-covered sections on basalt flows in the eastern Mojave Desert are condensed into a composite section, comprising five sedimentological units supported by an OSL-based chronology. Three of the units are of accretionary nature and each is covered by a stone pavement. They were deposited > 50.9-36.6 ka, < 36.6-14.2 ka and < 14.2 ka, and they are intimately coupled with the history of nearby Lake Mojave, which advances the current understanding of regional aeolian activity. End-member modeling analysis of grain-size distributions yielded seven sediment transport regimes. The accretionary system operates in two modes: A) episodic formation of a stone pavement by lateral processes once a vesicular horizon has formed on a barren surface; and B) accretion of dust and eventual burial of the clast layer. These findings improve current concepts about stone pavement evolution and their environmental proxy function in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.

  10. Anti-erosion stone bunds influence rodent dynamics and crop damage in Ethiopian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Welegerima, Kiros; Teferi, Mekonen; Yirga, Gidey; Haile, Mitiku; Sluydts, Vincent; Bauer, Hans; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-05-01

    In areas of subsistence agriculture, a variety of soil conservation methods have been implemented in the last few decades to improve crop yields, however these can have unintended consequences such as providing habitat for rodent pests. We studied rodent population dynamics and estimated crop damage in high and low stone bund density fields for four cropping seasons in Tigray highlands, northern Ethiopia. Stone bunds are physical structures for soil and water conservation, and potentially habitat for rodents. We used a general model to relate the proportion of crop damage to rodent abundance, stone bund density and crop stages. We found a positive correlation between rodent abundance and crop damage, and significant variation in rodent abundance and crop damage between high and low stone bund density fields. Furthermore, crop damage also varied significantly between crop stages. We concluded that Mastomys awashensis and Arvicanthis dembeensis were the two most important crop pests in the highlands causing significant damage. Fields with high stone bund density (~10 m average distance apart) harbor more rodents and endure a significantly higher proportion of crop damage compared to fields with lower stone bund density (~15 m average distance apart). The fact that rodent abundances peaked during the reproductive stage of the crop and around harvest implies the need for management intervention before these crop stages are attained.

  11. Is there a difference between presence of single stone and multiple stones in flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy for renal stone burden <300mm2?

    PubMed Central

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan; Sarilar, Omer; Berberoglu, Ahmet Yalcin; Baykal, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we aim to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of flexible ureterorenoscopy (f-URS) for solitary and multiple renal stones with <300 mm2 stone burden. Patients' charts who treated with f-URS for kidney stone between January 2010 and June 2015 were reviewed, retrospectively. Patients with solitary kidney stones (n:111) were enrolled in group 1. We selected 111 patients with multiple kidney stones to serve as the control group and the patients were matched at a 1:1 ratio with respect to the patient's age, gender, body mass index and stone burden. Additionally, patients with multiple stones were divided into two groups according to the presence or abscence of lower pole stones. Stone free status was accepted as complete stone clearence and presence of residual fragments < 2 mm. According to the study design; age, stone burden, body mass index were comparable between groups. The mean operation time was longer in group 2 (p= 0.229). However, the mean fluoroscopy screening time in group 1 and in group 2 was 2.1±1.7 and 2.6±1.5 min, respectively and significantly longer in patients with multiple renal stones (P=0.043). The stone-free status was significantly higher in patients with solitary renal stones after a single session procedure (p=0.02). After third month follow up, overall success rate was 92.7% in Group 1 and 86.4% in Group 2. Our study revealed that F-URS achieved better stone free status in solitary renal stones <300 mm2. However, outcomes of F-URS were acceptable in patients with multiple stones. PMID:27583350

  12. Heat Transfer Experiments in the Internal Cooling Passages of a Cooled Radial Turbine Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted (1) to experimentally measure, assess and analyze the heat transfer within the internal cooling configuration of a radial turbine rotor blade and (2) to obtain heat transfer data to evaluate and improve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures and turbulent transport models of internal coolant flows. A 1.15 times scale model of the coolant passages within the NASA LERC High Temperature Radial Turbine was designed, fabricated of Lucite and instrumented for transient beat transfer tests using thin film surface thermocouples and liquid crystals to indicate temperatures. Transient heat transfer tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers of one-fourth, one-half, and equal to the operating Reynolds number for the NASA Turbine. Tests were conducted for stationary and rotating conditions with rotation numbers in the range occurring in the NASA Turbine. Results from the experiments showed the heat transfer characteristics within the coolant passage were affected by rotation. In general, the heat transfer increased and decreased on the sides of the straight radial passages with rotation as previously reported from NASA-HOST-sponsored experiments. The heat transfer in the tri-passage axial flow region adjacent to the blade exit was relatively unaffected by rotation. However, the heat transfer on one surface, in the transitional region between the radial inflow passage and axial, constant radius passages, decreased to approximately 20 percent of the values without rotation. Comparisons with previous 3-D numerical studies indicated regions where the heat transfer characteristics agreed and disagreed with the present experiment.

  13. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  14. Water hardness and urinary stone disease.

    PubMed

    Shuster, J; Finlayson, B; Scheaffer, R; Sierakowski, R; Zoltek, J; Dzegede, S

    1982-08-01

    On the macrogeographic scale, a strong negative association exists in the United States between water hardness and urinary stone disease. This investigation studies the association on the microgeographical scale, where it is possible to control for confounding environmental factors. The study was conducted on 2,295 patients from 2 regions: the Carolinas which had soft water and high stone incidence, and the Rockies which had hard water and low stone incidence. Home tap water samples from urinary stone patient hospitalizations were compared with that of controls, concurrent inguinal hernia patient hospitalization. After adjusting for environmental factors, no significant difference (p = 0.59) between the 2 groups was obtained in tap water calcium, magnesium, and sodium concentrations. An incidental but potentially important finding was that those consuming water from a private well had an estimated relative risk of 1.5 (p less than 0.01) compared to those using public water. While no cause-effect relationship is suggested, stone-formers might consider avoiding private well water. On the other hand, water hardness should be a minor concern with respect to stone formation.

  15. Bereavement: an incomplete rite of passage.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer

    A bereavement ritual observed during anthropological fieldwork in Peru gives basis to this article which asserts that bereavement has become an incomplete rite of passage. The article reviews the role of ritual and rites of passage, examines other anthropologic examples of death and bereavement rituals, and identifies the lack of post-funeral ritual for many bereaved individuals in the United States. While funerary rituals which end with the funeral and burial of the dead are helpful in providing immediate structure for the bereaved, they are not congruent with the long-term emotional needs and reconstruction of meaning within grief. The author acknowledges value of both private ritual and reunions of the community of mourners, and recommends that bereavement counselors and/or the funeral industry offer to help bereaved construct a "ritual of remembrance and new meaning" after time has allowed them to move along in meaning reconstruction processes of making sense, finding benefits, and identity change.

  16. Psychotherapy as a rite of passage.

    PubMed

    Beels, C Christian

    2007-12-01

    Some psychotherapies may work because they resemble rites of passage. To explore this idea, this article describes an "individual" case of depression in which drug, cognitive, and narrative approaches fell short of effectiveness, and change occurred in a series of experiences that resemble a rite of passage. This resemblance is illuminated by examining two apparently quite different healing processes--Alcoholics Anonymous and multifamily group therapy in schizophrenia--to explore the elements they have in common with the case described: the acceptance of what Victor Turner called a liminal experience, and the importance of witnesses to the ritual support for that acceptance. The discussion contributes to a loosening of the distinctions between the processes of individual, family, group, and other social therapies and leads to questions about the expert knowledge the therapist provides.

  17. Trapped Ion Quantum Computation by Adiabatic Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Xuni; Wu Chunfeng; Lai, C. H.; Oh, C. H.

    2008-11-07

    We propose a new universal quantum computation scheme for trapped ions in thermal motion via the technique of adiabatic passage, which incorporates the advantages of both the adiabatic passage and the model of trapped ions in thermal motion. Our scheme is immune from the decoherence due to spontaneous emission from excited states as the system in our scheme evolves along a dark state. In our scheme the vibrational degrees of freedom are not required to be cooled to their ground states because they are only virtually excited. It is shown that the fidelity of the resultant gate operation is still high even when the magnitude of the effective Rabi frequency moderately deviates from the desired value.

  18. Terrestrial-passage theory: failing a test.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charles F; Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial-passage theory proposes that the 'moon' and 'sky' illusions occur because observers learn to expect an elevation-dependent transformation of visual angle. The transformation accompanies daily movement through ordinary environments of fixed-altitude objects. Celestial objects display the same visual angle at all elevations, and hence are necessarily non-conforming with the ordinary transformation. On hypothesis, observers should target angular sizes to appear greater at elevation than at horizon. However, in a sample of forty-eight observers there was no significant difference between the perceived angular size of a constellation of stars at horizon and that predicted for a specific elevation. Occurrence of the illusion was not restricted to those observers who expected angular expansion. These findings fail to support the terrestrial-passage theory of the illusion.

  19. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  20. Intraductal mono-octanoin for the direct dissolution of bile duct stones: experience in 343 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K R; Hofmann, A F

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of mono-octanoin, a cholesterol solvent for the direct dissolution of stones in the biliary tract, was assessed by collating case reports on 343 patients provided by 222 physicians who used the material between 1977 and 1983. Most patients had previously undergone cholecystectomy, with common duct exploration, the majority within the preceding six weeks. In most, sphincterotomy was impossible or if carried out, had not induced stone passage. Stone dissolution was considered preferable to surgery, especially in patients who were frail, elderly, or had multiple medical problems. Treatment was unequivocally successful in 88 patients (26%) and was a valuable adjunct to interventional treatment in another 29 subjects (8%). In 70 patients (20%), calculi became smaller, but remained within the biliary tree. Thus, mono-octanoin was judged to have been useful in 54% of patients. Treatment was ineffective in 124 cases (36%). In the remaining 32 patients (9%), treatment was aborted because of side effects. Such side effects were common, occurring in 67% of cases, and in 41% of patients they were multiple. Abdominal pain was the most common complication. Other side effects reported were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Side effects were usually dose related and responded to reduction in infusion rate. Side effects were life threatening in 12 patients (5%), but there were no permanent sequelae and no deaths occurred. These data indicate that mono-octanoin is moderately effective, generally second line, but sometimes first line, treatment for retained biliary duct calculi. PMID:3949248

  1. Response of Juvenile Pacific Lamprey to Turbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.

    2009-09-14

    To help determine the Pacific lamprey’s ability to survive turbine passage, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted laboratory tests designed to simulate a fish’s passage through the turbine environment. Juvenile Pacific lamprey were subjected to two of three aspects of passage: pressure drop and shear stress. The third aspect, blade strike, was not tested.

  2. Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at its center, looking east through the doorway linking the two perpendicular axes. The door at the end of the passage opens onto a passage running under the entrance portico bearing ground floor exterior doors at each end. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Safe Passage: Making It through Adolescence in a Risky Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    The primary job of parents is to ensure safe passage for their children from infancy through adolescence to adulthood. Research has indicated many things schools can do to turn the privilege of safe passage into a right. Three research-based programs that work to achieve safe passage are described. The first is Caring Connection, a "one-stop-shop"…

  4. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  5. Inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, Fernando; Grilo, Clara; LaPoint, Scott; Tracey, Jeff; Clevenger, Anthony P; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts) for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina) to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages). We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers) individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk.

  6. Inter-Individual Variability of Stone Marten Behavioral Responses to a Highway

    PubMed Central

    Ascensão, Fernando; Grilo, Clara; LaPoint, Scott; Tracey, Jeff; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts) for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina) to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages). We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers) individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk. PMID:25072639

  7. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  8. Metaphylaxis, diet and lifestyle in stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The most common urinary stones (calcium salts, uric acid) form due to genetic factors and lifestyle. This review describes why, if and how medication and lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of formation. Methods Previous reports were reviewed to obtain information on three aspects of urolithiasis, i.e. epidemiology, mechanisms linking lifestyle and urolithiasis and lifestyle intervention for preventing urolithiasis. Results Epidemiological evidence links the prevalence of urinary stone formation to general lifestyle factors. Detailed analysis has identified individual lifestyle elements that affect the risk of urinary stone formation. Currently there are several concepts that explain the mechanism of stone formation. Urinary markers like calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and urinary pH are involved in all these concepts. Many studies show that changing (combinations of) specific lifestyle elements has a favourable effect on these urinary markers. Based on this evidence, protocols have been developed that use a combination of these lifestyle changes and medication to prevent stone formation. In well-controlled studies where patients are optimally informed and continuously motivated, these protocols clearly reduce the stone formation rate. In general practice the result is less clear, because the time and tools are insufficient to maintain long-term patient compliance in the use of medication and lifestyle advice. Conclusion The risk of stone formation can be reduced in general practice when the patient’s compliance is optimised by providing individualised advice, continuous information, and feedback and incorporation of the advice into a regular lifestyle. The use of ‘e-tools’ might enable this without increasing the time required from the physician. PMID:26558032

  9. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  10. Medical and dietary therapy for kidney stone prevention.

    PubMed

    Gul, Zeynep; Monga, Manoj

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention.

  11. Probiotics for prevention of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary supersaturation is one key determinant of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urinary stone formation, and urinary excretions of oxalate and citrate are two key determinants. Each is influenced by gastrointestinal processes. Methods Open label and randomized placebo studies have examined the effect of oral probiotic preparations on urinary supersaturation and oxalate excretion. Cross sectional studies in humans have studied the association of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization status and urinary oxalate excretion and prevalence of urinary stones. The intestinal microbiome of representative animals adapted to a high oxalate diet has been defined. Results The fecal content of O. formigenes, the best studied oxalate-degrader, varies depending on stone status. However, trials with probiotics designed to degrade oxalate including those containing O. formigenes, Lactobacillus, and/or Bifidobacterium spp., have been disappointing. Multiple intestinal segments of animals on a high oxalate diet contains diverse communities of microorganisms that can function together to degrade and detoxify a large oxalate load. Conclusions Although the intestinal microbiome seems likely to play a role to modify gastrointestinal absorption of lithogenic substances and hence urinary stone risk, whether we can develop tools to manipulate it and decrease this kidney stone risk remains to be determined. PMID:28217694

  12. Development of pharmacotherapies for drug addiction: a Rosetta stone approach.

    PubMed

    Koob, George F; Kenneth Lloyd, G; Mason, Barbara J

    2009-06-01

    Current pharmacotherapies for addiction represent opportunities for facilitating treatment and are forming a foundation for evaluating new medications. Furthermore, validated animal models of addiction and a surge in understanding of neurocircuitry and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of addiction - such as the neuroadaptive changes that account for the transition to dependence and the vulnerability to relapse - have provided numerous potential therapeutic targets. Here, we emphasize a 'Rosetta Stone approach', whereby existing pharmacotherapies for addiction are used to validate and improve animal and human laboratory models to identify viable new treatment candidates. This approach will promote translational research and provide a heuristic framework for developing efficient and effective pharmacotherapies for addiction.

  13. Inverse design of a turbine cascade passage and DNS of a stationary and rotating serpentine passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Gregory Michael

    2005-12-01

    Experimental investigations of the flow physics past a single stationary transonic turbine blade in a cascade are complicated by the periodic nature of the problem. Typically up to seven blades in a cascade are required to guarantee periodicity about the center blade that, in turn, requires large compressors at transonic speeds. One possibility to circumvent the constraint of so many blades, and allow the necessary optical access, is to place a single blade in a passage consisting of two plexiglass walls that are designed to obtain certain representative periodic flowfield characteristics. Using an optimization procedure based on the method of steepest descent and the RANS equations, the walls were designed to ensure that the Surface Isentropic Mach Number (SIMN) distribution on the blade matched the SIMN of the same blade in an infinite cascade. The experimental setup imposed an additional constraint requiring the flow remained attached along both passage walls. A robust and autonomous design method using a weighted composite cost function was developed and successfully applied. Excellent agreement was achieved between CFD of the infinite cascade SIMN, CFD of the designed double passage SIMN, and the experimentally measured SIMN. Serpentine passages are found in a number of engineering applications including turbine blade cooling passages. The serpentine passage is an ideal candidate for conducting a thorough DNS study due to its geometric simplicity but complex flow physics. The serpentine passage geometry investigated has dimensions 12pidelta x 2delta x 3pidelta and radius of curvature delta/r c = 0.5 in the curved section. Simulations of a test matrix consisting of two different Reynolds numbers, Retau = 180 and Retau = 250, subjected to two different orthogonal rotation numbers, Ro tau = 0 and Rotau = 5 was conducted. Whereas the stationary case results in a symmetric flowfield for the two U-bends constituting the passage, the effect of rotation coupled with

  14. Turbine engine component with cooling passages

    DOEpatents

    Arrell, Douglas J [Oviedo, FL; James, Allister W [Orlando, FL

    2012-01-17

    A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

  15. Spontaneous emission in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Bergmann, K.

    2005-11-15

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on the population transfer efficiency in stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). The approach uses adiabatic elimination of weakly coupled density matrix elements in the Liouville equation, from which a very accurate analytic approximation is derived. The loss of population transfer efficiency is found to decrease exponentially with the factor {omega}{sub 0}{sup 2}/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the spontaneous emission rate and {omega}{sub 0} is the peak Rabi frequency. The transfer efficiency increases with the pulse delay and reaches a steady value. For large pulse delay and large spontaneous emission rate STIRAP degenerates into optical pumping.

  16. Kidney Stone Volume Estimation from Computerized Tomography Images Using a Model Based Method of Correcting for the Point Spread Function

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Wang, Jia; Qu, Mingliang; Leng, Shuai; Liu, Yu; Krambeck, Amy; McCollough, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We propose a method to improve the accuracy of volume estimation of kidney stones from computerized tomography images. Materials and Methods The proposed method consisted of 2 steps. A threshold equal to the average of the computerized tomography number of the object and the background was first applied to determine full width at half maximum volume. Correction factors were then applied, which were precalculated based on a model of a sphere and a 3-dimensional Gaussian point spread function. The point spread function was measured in a computerized tomography scanner to represent the response of the scanner to a point-like object. Method accuracy was validated using 6 small cylindrical phantoms with 2 volumes of 21.87 and 99.9 mm3, and 3 attenuations, respectively, and 76 kidney stones with a volume range of 6.3 to 317.4 mm3. Volumes estimated by the proposed method were compared with full width at half maximum volumes. Results The proposed method was significantly more accurate than full width at half maximum volume (p <0.0001). The magnitude of improvement depended on stone volume with smaller stones benefiting more from the method. For kidney stones 10 to 20 mm3 in volume the average improvement in accuracy was the greatest at 19.6%. Conclusions The proposed method achieved significantly improved accuracy compared with threshold methods. This may lead to more accurate stone management. PMID:22819107

  17. Image segmentation for stone-size inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jui-Pin; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    1995-04-01

    Object size inspection is an important task and has various applications in computer vision, for example, automatic control stone-breaking machines. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for image segmentation on size inspection of almost round stones with strong textures or almost no textures. We use one camera and multiple light sources at difference positions to take one image when each of the light sources is on. Then we compute the image differences and threshold them to extract edges. We will explain, step by step, picture taking, edge extraction, noise removal, and edge gap filling. Experimental results will be presented. Through various experiments, we find our algorithm robust on various stones and under noise.

  18. Laser ablation of gall bladder stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafi, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Bhatia, K. S.; Abdulah, A. H.; Kokaj, Y.; Mathew, K.; Quinn, F.; Qabazard, A.

    1999-06-01

    Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed.

  19. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  20. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Spillway, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, John R.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2007-05-24

    The objective of this study was to determine detailed vertical, horizontal, intensive, and diel distributions of juvenile salmonid passage at the spillway at The Dalles Dam from April 12 to July16, 2006. These data are being applied in the Spillway Improvements Program to position release pipes for direct injury and mortality studies and to provide baseline data for assessment of the vortex suppression devices scheduled for deployment in 2007. We estimated fish distributions from hydroacoustic data collected with split-beam transducers arrayed across Bays 1 through 9 and 14. Spill at ~20 kcfs per bay was bulked at Bays 1-6, although the other bays were opened at times during the study to maintain a 40% spill percentage out of total project discharge. The vertical distribution of fish was skewed toward the surface during spring, but during summer, passage peaked at 2-3 m above the spillway ogee. Fish passage rates (number per hour) and fish densities (number per kcfs) were highest at Bay 6, followed by passage at Bay 5. This result comports with spillway horizontal distribution data from radio telemetry and hydroacoustic studies in 2004. The vertical and horizontal distribution of fish passage at bays 5 and 6 was much more variable during spring than summer and more variable at bay 5 than bay 6. Diel distribution data revealed that fish passage was highest during 0600-0700 h in spring; otherwise passage was reasonably uniform on a diel basis. This study substantiates the purpose of the spillway vortex suppression device to re-distribute downstream migrants away from Bay 6 toward Bays 1-5.

  1. Medical prevention and treatment of urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Colussi, G; De Ferrari, M E; Brunati, C; Civati, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite revolutionary developments in minimally invasive methods for the removal of stones in the last 15 years, the medical prevention of urinary stones remains very rewarding, due to the continual increase in the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in western countries, the high recurrence rate of the disease, its complications, discomfort and the costs of lithotripsy. Medical prevention is highly effective (50-95% efficacy in different series) and cost-convenient; its basic elements are appropriate metabolic evaluation, adequate hydration, "common sense" diet, and, in selected cases, drugs of proven efficacy. Clinical-metabolic evaluation should aim at the recognition of specific types of nephrolithiasis, and sort out secondary and/or remediable cases, define urinary risk factors, assess patients' compliance and the side effects of any therapy during follow-up. Hydration has proved effective in clinical trials and population-based observational studies; "fluids" may consist of water (any kind), coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), tea, beer and wine; grapefruit juice appears to have an unexplained ill effect. Despite the lack of clinical demonstration that dietary manipulations reduce the recurrences of stones, biochemical and epidemiological data suggest that high sodium, animal protein and sucrose intake increase the risk. Undue reductions in Ca intake also appear to be detrimental both for stone recurrences and bone mineralisation: "adequate" Ca intake (800-1000 mg/day) should be encouraged, but only in food since supplemental Ca, as drugs, appears to increase the risk of stones. Effective drugs are available for cystine, uric acid, infected stones and several secondary causes of Ca nephrolithiasis; in "idiopathic" Ca nephrolithiasis, thiazides, allopurinol, K and K-Mg citrate and possibly neutral K phosphate have been shown to be effective, at least in specific metabolic contexts.

  2. Use of radionuclide renal imaging for clinical followup after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Michaels, E K; Pavel, D G; Orellana, P; Montes, A; Olea, E

    1992-09-01

    Patients treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are usually evaluated by excretory urography within 1 month after treatment to determine the clearance of stone debris and rule out asymptomatic obstruction. In an attempt to obtain more precise functional information, we used 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and 131iodine-hippurate radionuclide renal imaging studies, and a plain abdominal radiograph as the initial followup study after ESWL of 64 kidneys in 55 patients. Of 53 kidneys studied within 60 days after ESWL 42 had abnormal radionuclide renal imaging studies demonstrating pelviocaliceal stasis, excretory delay or poor function, 8 of which required subsequent interventions for obstructing stone debris. Five patients had excretory delay after ESWL that was unexpected based on a pre-ESWL excretory urogram showing normal function without dilation. A subset of 23 patients with large stone burden or anatomical deformity from a prior operation had baseline radionuclide renal imaging studies before ESWL; function improved in 4 and worsened in 5 by radionuclide renal imaging studies after completion of treatment. A total of 19 patients had radionuclide renal imaging studies earlier (within 17 days) after ESWL because of poor function and/or large stone burden, and as expected they had evidence of obstruction from stone debris, which necessitated further followup. Our experience suggests that followup of ESWL by radionuclide renal imaging studies provides specific functional information that is of particular value in the management of patients with obstructing stone debris and/or diminished renal function. Radionuclide renal imaging studies may also reveal unsuspected obstruction or functional impairment after ESWL of uncomplicated stones, and is recommended as routine followup after ESWL.

  3. Application thinking on Bian-stone of the acousto-optic effect in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shu; Chen, Gui-Zhen; Liu, Song-Hao

    2009-08-01

    In order to identify the relations between the Si-Bin Bian-stone of the mineral composition characteristics and Bian-stone of the good infrared emission features. A detailed study of the Sibin Bian-stone samples was conducted by using the laser Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The study is to provide theoretical physical support for Bian-stone in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. And Thermal tomography technology (TTM) is intended to be carried out to assess the effects of Bian-stone. The Raman spectroscopic study confirmed the existence of fine-grained pyrite, anatase, calcitepyrite and graphite. It is believed that the combination of good thermal properties of the above 4 minerals make the Sibin Bian-stone as a useful material with very good physiotherapical functions. The ultrasonic has a resonance with the body's biological molecules so that it can improve meridians microcirculation. Hence, the Sibin Bian-stones can be used to make acupuncture tools for stimulating the circulation of the blood in vessels and relieving pains of human beings by utilizing its infrared thermal radiation property. TTM which accepts the heat produced by the metabolism process of life can reflect the energy status information, TTM will be introduced to evaluate effect at the overall level of the abdomen from the thermal image and analyze to derive a comprehensive diagnosis. In sum, this experiment is explored to provide a new idea for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine.

  4. [Stone Cone® in ureteroscopic ballistic lithotripsy of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Arancio, M; Guglielmetti, S; Delsignore, A; Landi, A; Marchetti, C; Mina, A; Marcato, M; Martinengo, C

    2008-01-01

    Stone Cone® (Microvasive-Boston Scientific Corp, USA) is a device which prevents retrograde calculus migration during endoscopic ureterolithotripsy. We have studied the safety and efficacy of this device in endoscopic ureterolithotripsy with ballistic energy in proximal ureteral stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From 01/02/2006 to 01/02/2008 we carried out 36 ureterorenoscopies (URS) for proximal ureteral stones (average age: 46, range: 15-73). A ballistic energy was used for stones fragmentation. In 18 patients (Group A) we carried out URS with the aid of Stone Cone®, which was not used in the other 18 patients (Group B). Semirigid 8 Ch or 10 Ch Storz ureteroscope and ballistic lithotriptor Swiss Lithoclast Master EMS® were used. In cases of migration, edema, and ureteral damage, a ureteral stent was used. RESULTS. In Group B patients (URS performed without Stone Cone®) the migration of the whole stone, or of clinically significant fragments, occurred 8 times (45%). All of these patients underwent external shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) at a center equipped with a lithotriptor. A ureteral stent was placed in 14 cases (78%). In Group A, the migration of a stone requiring ESWL treatment occurred only once (5%). The ureteral stent was placed 8 times (45%). We had no significant complications during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS. The Stone Cone® is a safe and easy-to-use device. The cost of this device can be balanced by the reduction of postoperative ESWL treatments for lithiasic fragments pushing up into the kidneys (p<0.01), and of ureteral stent applications at the end of the procedure (p<0.05).

  5. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  6. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  7. Four Major Factors Contributing to Intrahepatic Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xi; Yin, Baobing

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic stone is prevalent in Asian countries; though the incidence declines in recent years, the number of patients is still in a large quantity. Because of multiple complications, high recurrence rates, serious systemic damage, and a lack of extremely effective procedure for the management, it is more important to find out the etiology and pathogenesis of intrahepatic stones to prevent the disease from happening and developing rather than curing. A number of factors contribute to the development of the disease, such as cholestasis, infection, and anatomic abnormity of bile duct and bile metabolic defect. The four factors and possible pathogenesis will be discussed in detail in the review. PMID:28163717

  8. Bilateral kidney matrix stones: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Lahyani, Mounir; Rhannam, Yassine; Slaoui, Amine; Touzani, Alae; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn attya

    2016-01-01

    Kedney matrix stones are a rare form of calculi. Flank pain and urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common presentations of matrix calculi. The diagnosis is usually made at surgery, but some preoperative radiographic findings might be suggestive. Open surgery was the method of choice for treatment. However, combination of ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) was found to be safe and effective. We report a rare case of renal and ureteral matrix stones that were diagnosed and treated by open surgery. We also describe its clinical, radiological and therapeutic features through a review of the literature. PMID:28292065

  9. Internal Wave Observations in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firing, Y. L.; Chereskin, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Internal wave energy in Drake Passage is investigated using an ongoing time series (>8 years) of shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (SADCP) data collected on transits of the U.S. Antarctic supply vessel as well as 287 full-depth lowered ADCP and CTD profiles made on five process cruises that were part of the cDrake experiment (cdrake.org). The lateral and vertical distributions of upward- and downward-propgating internal wave energy are examined in the context of local bathymetry and background currents. Downward-propagating energy predominates in the surface layer, but over steep topography in some parts of Drake Passage upward-propagating energy is elevated even 1000 m above topography. The generation of internal wave energy by geostrophic flow over topography in the area is estimated and compared to the total observed internal wave energy during the cruises, while the time variability of this contribution to the internal wave energy is investigated using a 4-year time series of bottom currents from the cDrake project. Shear spectra and the shear-strain relationship are compared with the Garrett and Munk model (Garrett and Munk, 1975) and with the spectral shapes and variance ratios found in other regions by other authors.

  10. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  11. Ice Thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Howell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first-ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. Results show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. There are few other data to compare with to evaluate if the ice of the Northwest Passage has transitioned as other parts of the Arctic have. Although likely thinner than some 20 or more years ago, ice conditions must still be considered severe, and the Canadian Arctic Archipelao may well be considered the last ice refuge of the Arctic. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice break-up and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  12. Transplacental passage of insulin complexed to antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, W A; Yalow, R S

    1981-01-01

    The passage of plasma proteins across the placental barrier in humans is known to be highly selective. Thus, free maternal insulin has been reported not to cross the normal maternofetal barrier, although insulin-binding antibodies have been detected in newborn infants whose diabetic mothers received insulin therapy. In this report we demonstrate, with the use of a human antiserum that permits distinction between human and animal insulins, that insulin in the cord blood of each of two neonates of insulin-treated diabetic mothers was, in part, animal insulin. The higher the antibody titer of the mother the greater was the total insulin in the cord plasma and the greater was the fraction that was animal insulin. In case 1 cord plasma insulin was 0.7 unit/liter, of which 10% was animal insulin; in case 2 cord plasma insulin was 3.5 units/liter, of which 25% was animal insulin. The demonstration that antigen restricted from transplacental passage can be transferred while complexed to antibody raises the question whether such fetal exposure would induce partial or total immunologic unresponsiveness subsequently if the fetus were rechallenged with the same antigen. PMID:7027265

  13. View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing third drop, stone pier in center, cement piers to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  14. 44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is the only stone window sill in the house. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  16. 45. VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ALONG ACCESS ROAD TO SITE LOOKING NORTHWEST. NOTICE OTHER STONE HOUSES ALONG RIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  17. VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ALONG ACCESS ROAD TO SITE LOOKING NORTHWEST. NOTICE OTHER STONE HOUSES ALONG RIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  18. 2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  19. 3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  20. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  1. 1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. 2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  3. 3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  4. 1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  5. 9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining wall/railing and stone curbing. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 2. CANNON GATES. DETAIL OF NORTHWEST GATE STONE WALL TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CANNON GATES. DETAIL OF NORTHWEST GATE STONE WALL TO LEFT IS A REMNANT OF THE ORIGINAL FACILITY BOUNDARY FENCE. IT IS CONSTRUCTED IN BLUE PUDDING STONE. - Picatinny Arsenal, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  9. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  10. 15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ON NORTH SIDE, STONE WALL AND METAL RAILING ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Lake Street Bridge, Spanning Ruddiman Creek at Lake Shore Drive, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  11. Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

  12. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  13. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials.

  14. [Multiple pulp stones: report of a case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-jie; Luo, Xin; Li, Ren; Dong, Wei; Qi, Meng-chun

    2015-08-01

    Pulp stones were denaturation of pulp tissue, which were usually found in the pulp chamber. Generally, they were associated with caries and pulposis, and the occurrence of pulp stone increased with age. Pulp stones were frequently found by radiographic examination, and appeared as radiopaque lesions which were round or ovoid in shape. We reported an unusual case of multiple pulp stones with normal clinical crowns in a young female patient and analyzed the possible etiology.

  15. Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.

    PubMed

    Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

    2013-06-01

    Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ≤15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ≤3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (≤15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy.

  16. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Batten, G.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Kim, Jin A.; Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Hughes, James S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  17. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown author

    1994-04-01

    The 1993 downstream migration of juvenile salmon experienced much better outmigration conditions than in recent years. Higher flows occurred in the spring, due to above-average spring precipitation and larger runoff volumes. Higher flows in the summer period resulted from implementation of Opinion flow targets. All indicators, passage indices, proportion of marks reaptured, and migration duration and pattern, indicate that fall chinook juveniles in particular benefitted from the passage conditions provided in 1993. Wild and hatchery spring chinook and steelhead responded to the conditions provided with faster travel times and a higher proportion reaching sample sites, when compared to past years, indicating improved survival. High uncontrolled runoff resulted in higher spill levels, benefitting fish passage, but also minor incidence of gas bubble trauma. Large scale problems were not observed. Very low returns of chinook jacks and one salt steelhead reflected the dismal outmigration conditions provided under the 1992 mitigation measures.

  18. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  19. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  20. 29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN, SHOWING THE MAKER'S MARK. STONE FROM THE GARFIELD COMPANY WERE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH THE BEEHIVE AND RECTANGULAR OVENS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  1. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  6. A Radiographic Correlation between Renal and Pulp Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ertas, E Tarim; Inci, M; Demirtas, A; Ertas, H; Yengil, E; Sisman, Y; Gokce, C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pulp stones and renal stones. This study also aimed to report associations between the presence of pulp stone and gender, age, tooth type, dental arches and sides. Patients and Methods: Data were collected through examination of bitewing radiographs of 116 kidney stone patients and a similar number of age-matched controls, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University. Two oral radiologists examined the radiographs to identify pulp stones. The Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to investigate the correlations between the presence of pulp chamber calcification and age, gender, dental status and kidney stone. Results: Pulp chamber opacities were detected in 199 (19.3%) out of the 1031 examined teeth, and in 84 (72.4%) out of the 116 kidney stone patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control group (p = 0.882). The occurrence of pulp stones was significantly higher in molars than premolars and similar prevalences were found between dental arches and sides. Conclusion: In this study, no correlation was found between the presence of pulp stones and kidney stones in the investigated group. Therefore, the presence of pulp stones does not seem to be correlated with that of kidney stones. PMID:25803378

  7. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  8. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  9. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  10. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  11. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Juvenile Steelhead at McNary Dam, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, James S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Woodley, Christa M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Batton, George; Carlson, Thomas J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Deng, Zhiqun; Etherington, D. J.; Fu, Tao; Greiner, Michael J.; Ingraham, John M.; Kim, Jin A.; Li, Xi; Martinez, Jayson J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Rayamajhi, Bishes; Seaburg, Adam; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Wagner, Katie A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2013-12-23

    The study was designed to evaluate the passage and survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and juvenile steelhead at McNary Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. This study supports the USACE’s continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  12. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

  14. Migrating salivary stones: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Drage, Nicholas A; Brown, Jackie E; Makdissi, Jamil; Townend, John

    2005-04-01

    Patients with salivary calculi are normally managed by removal of the calculus or, if necessary, the affected gland. If it is left untreated, a stone may migrate into the adjacent tissues. We present three patients in whom salivary calculi tracked to the surface of the skin. Two were removed under local anaesthetic, and the third patient was lost to follow up.

  15. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    PubMed

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone.

  16. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  17. User s Manual for Armor Stone Evaluation Model (ARMOR): Great Lakes Armor Stone Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    MCNP) Program Great Lakes Armor Stone Rapid Deterioration work unit ERDC TR-15-6 ii Abstract Protecting entrances to navigation channels or...resources of CHL and the District and/or Division. 1.2 Purpose of the study Protecting entrances to navigation channels, harbors, or other coastal...used as an optimizing tool to determine how oversized an armor stone should initially be to still provide the desired level of protection after the

  18. The Eskimos of the Northwest Passage

    PubMed Central

    Davies, L. E. C.; Hanson, S.

    1965-01-01

    In 1959 and 1960, during the annual survey conducted by the Federal Northern Health Services in the area of the Northwest Passage, the diet and living conditions of some 1500 Eskimos who live in this area were studied and blood and urine samples were obtained from 40-50% of this population. Hemoglobin, blood cell morphology, serum protein-bound iodine, serum proteins, serum lipids and serum total cholesterol estimations, urinalyses, and agglutination studies for brucellosis were carried out. Hemoglobin levels were in the normal range; however, increased contact with civilization appeared to be associated with lower hemoglobin levels. Eleven per cent of the Eskimos showed eosinophilia. Serum proteins were normal. Serum lipids and serum cholesterol levels were higher in Eskimo children living in a government residential school than in a comparable group living on the Barren Lands. Serum protein-bound iodine levels were in the upper euthyroid range. Diabetes mellitus occurs among Eskimos. Sporadic cases of brucellosis also occur. PMID:14246293

  19. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  20. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  1. A novel TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite converts a very friable stone into a self-cleaning building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, Luís; Elhaddad, Farid; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2013-06-01

    A TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite material was formed inside the pore structure of a very friable carbonate stone by simple spraying of a sol containing silica oligomers, titania particles and a non-ionic surfactant (n-octylamine). The resulting nanomaterial provides an effective adhesive and crack-free surface layer to the stone, and gives it self-cleaning properties. In addition, it efficiently penetrates into the pores of the stone, significantly improving its mechanical resistance, and is thus capable of converting an extremely friable stone into a building material with self-cleaning properties. Another important advantage of the nanocomposite is that it substantially improves protection against salt crystallization degradation mechanisms. In the trial described, the untreated stone is reduced to a completely powdered material after 3 cycles of NaSO4 crystallization degradation, whereas stone treated with this novel product remains practically unaltered after 30 cycles. For comparison purposes, two commercial products (with consolidant and photocatalytic properties) were also tested, and both alternative materials produced coatings that crack and provide less mechanical resistance to the stone than this product. These results also confirm the valuable role played by n-octylamine in reducing the capillary pressure responsible for consolidant cracking, and in promoting silica polymerization inside the pores of the non-reactive pure carbonate stone.

  2. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    PubMed

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted.

  3. Deep temperature variability in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firing, Yvonne L.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; King, Brian A.; Desbruyères, Damien G.

    2017-01-01

    Observations made on 21 occupations between 1993 and 2016 of GO-SHIP line SR1b in eastern Drake Passage show an average temperature of 0.53°C deeper than 2000 dbar, with no significant trend, but substantial year-to-year variability (standard deviation 0.08°C). Using a neutral density framework to decompose the temperature variability into isopycnal displacement (heave) and isopycnal property change components shows that approximately 95% of the year-to-year variance in deep temperature is due to heave. Changes on isopycnals make a small contribution to year-to-year variability but contribute a significant trend of -1.4 ± 0.6 m°C per year, largest for density (γn) > 28.1, south of the Polar Front (PF). The heave component is depth-coherent and results from either vertical or horizontal motions of neutral density surfaces, which trend upward and northward around the PF, downward for the densest levels in the southern section, and downward and southward in the Subantarctic Front and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). A proxy for the locations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts is constructed from the repeat hydrographic data and has a strong relationship with deep ocean heat content, explaining 76% of deep temperature variance. The same frontal position proxy based on satellite altimeter-derived surface velocities explains 73% of deep temperature variance. The position of the PF plays the strongest role in this relationship between ACC fronts and deep temperature variability in Drake Passage, although much of the temperature variability in the southern half of the section can be explained by the position of the SACCF.

  4. Tectonic reconstructions for paleobathymetry in Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Jokat, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    A minimum-complexity tectonic reconstruction, based on published and new basin opening models, depicts how the Scotia Sea grew by Cenozoic plate divergence, dismembering a Jurassic sheared margin of Gondwana. Part of the Jurassic-early Cretaceous ocean that accreted to this margin forms the core of the Central Scotia Plate, the arc plate above a trench at the eastern end of the Scotia Sea, which migrated east away from the Antarctic and South American plates. A sequence of extensional basins opened on the western edge of the Central Scotia Plate at 50-30 Ma, decoupled from the South American Plate to the northwest by slow motion on a long transform fault. Succeeding the basins, seafloor spreading started around 30 Ma on the West Scotia Ridge, which propagated northwards in the 23-17 Ma period and ceased to operate at 6 Ma. The circuits of plate motions inside and outside the Scotia Arc are joined via rotations that describe Antarctic-Central Scotia plate motion in Powell Basin until 20 Ma, and along the South Scotia Ridge thereafter. The modelled relative motion at the northern edge of the Scotia Sea is thus constrained only by the plate circuit, but nonetheless resembles that known coarsely from the geological record of Tierra del Fuego. A paleobathymetric interpretation of nine time slices in the model shows Drake Passage developing as an intermediate-depth oceanographic gateway at 50-30 Ma, with deep flow possible afterwards. Initially, this deep flow would have been made tortuous by numerous intermediate and shallow barriers. A frontal pattern resembling that in the modern Scotia Sea would have awaited the clearance of significant barriers by continuing seafloor spreading in the Scotia Sea at ~ 18.5 Ma, at Shag Rocks Passage, and after 10 Ma southeast of South Georgia.

  5. Risk Factors for Stone Recurrence after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rangel, Laureano J.; LeRoy, Andrew J.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated more than 30% of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients will experience a stone recurrence over a 20 year period. The goal of our study was to identify risk factors for stone recurrence after PCNL. Chart review identified 754 patients treated with PCNL for urolithiasis from March of 1983 to July 1984 at our institution. Of this cohort, 87 patients continued to receive medical care at our clinic and had been evaluated within the last 5 years. Of the 87 patients, 80 had recent radiographic imaging. Average follow-up was 19.2 years and 32 (40.0%) experienced at least 1 stone recurrence. There was no difference in preoperative BMI (p = 0.453) or change in BMI (p = 0.964) between patients that did and did not have a stone recurrence. Renal stone location (p = 0.605) and stone size (p = 0.238) were not predictive of recurrence. Patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were less likely to recur (38.7% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.004) and those with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were more likely to recur (31.1% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006) compared to other compositions. Diabetes mellitus was not associated with recurrent stones (p = 0.810). Those patients with residual stones or fragments <3 mm were more likely to recur and to recur earlier than patients rendered entirely stone free at time of PCNL (p = 0.015). Stone recurrences were associated with the late development of renal insufficiency (25% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). In conclusion, stone composition, as well as the presence of residual fragments was associated with recurrent symptomatic stone events after PCNL. Recurrent stone events were significantly associated with the risk of developing renal insufficiency, further stressing the need for complete stone clearance at time of PCNL.

  6. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope. It was used from 1992 onward to obtain highly accurate astrometric positions of various Solar System bodies that were targets of several NASA space missions. In addition, Ron observed astrometric calibration regions for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He collaborated in projects to predict and observe stellar and planetary occultations, determine the masses of certain asteroids, and improve the orbits of numerous planetary satellites. In his letter recalling Ron Stone's career, Bill van Altena wrote, "I also knew and respected Ron as a scientist who worked to do the very best that he could with the FASTT system and produced an outstanding set of data that will be remembered as setting the standards for the best that could be done with drift scanning astrometry." Ron used FASTT observations of radio stars and the brightest quasars to confirm the tie between the optical and radio reference frames. He developed extensive software for automated reduction of FASTT observations. During his last year of life, he took on the additional responsibility of bringing another new telescope, the 1.3-meter, into operation, and was making good progress in this effort until his illness forced him to relinquish the task. Besides his professional interests, Ron was a avid outdoorsman. During his years in Williams Bay, he rode a motorcycle and enjoyed SCUBA diving. He is one of the few people to have gone diving in Lake Geneva. He liked nothing better than hiking and exploring wilderness areas. As his brother, Dwight, recalled, "If he saw a mountain, he had to climb it!"

  7. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The

  8. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis.

  9. Temporal trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Indridason, Olafur S; Haraldsson, Gudjon; Kjartansson, Olafur; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports show an increased occurrence of kidney stone disease worldwide. To further evaluate and quantify this observation, we examined recent trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease in the adult population of Iceland over a 24-year period. Computerized databases of all major hospitals and medical imaging centers in Iceland were searched for International Classification of Diseases, radiologic and surgical procedure codes indicative of kidney stones in patients aged 18 years and older. The time trends in stone frequency of 5945 incident patients (63% men) were assessed by Poisson regression analysis. The majority of patients (90.5%) had symptomatic stone disease. The total incidence of kidney stones rose significantly from 108 per 100,000 in the first 5-year interval of the study to 138 per 100,000 in the last interval. The annual incidence of symptomatic stones did not increase significantly in either men or women. There was, however, a significant increase in the annual incidence of asymptomatic stones over time, from 7 to 24 per 100,000 for men and from 7 to 21 per 100,000 for women. The increase in the incidence of asymptomatic stones was only significant for women above 50 years of age and for men older than 40 years. Thus, we found a significant increase in the incidence of kidney stone disease resulting from increased detection of asymptomatic stones. This was largely due to a more frequent use of high-resolution imaging studies in older patients.

  10. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  11. Stress-stones-stress-recurrent stones: a self-propagating cycle? Difficulties in solving this dichotomy.

    PubMed

    Arzoz-Fabregas, Montserrat; Roca-Antonio, Josep; Ibarz-Servio, Luis; Jappie-Mahomed, Dalielah; Rodgers, Allen

    2017-03-21

    Numerous studies have reported an association between stress and urolithiasis. Although urinary risk factors have been measured in several of these, compelling evidence of a causal relationship has not been established. A shortcoming is that alterations in single urinary parameters rather than ratios and quotients, which provide a more synergistic risk evaluation, have been measured. Recently, we speculated about a possible association between chronic stress and stone recurrence. This presents an intriguing dichotomy of whether stress causes stones or vice versa, or whether they are linked in a self-propagating stress-stones-stress-recurrence cycle. We investigated the latter hypothesis in a retrospective case-control designed study in which we calculated urinary ratios and quotients which are regarded as diagnostic indicators of stone risk. These included Ca/Cr, Ox/Cr, Mg/Cr, Cit/Cr, urate/Cr and citrate-magnesium-calcium ratios, activity product quotient for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and relative supersaturation of CaOx, brushite and uric acid. Overnight urinary data from 128 participants comprising 31 first time (FS), 33 recurrent (RS) CaOx stone formers and 64 controls were used. All subjects had been previously assessed for chronic stress dimensions, as well as for stress caused by their stone episodes per se. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression (with a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests) and simple linear regression were used to analyse various components of the data. Although RS had more stressful life events, with greater intensity of perception than FS, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding any of the urinary risk factors. No significant association between stressful life events and any of the urinary ratios or quotients was observed. A direct causal link between stress and stone recurrence was not indicated. We believe that future studies should shift their focus from traditional urinary risk factors to other

  12. Multiple Uric Acid Bladder Stones: Clinical Presentation and Endoscopic Management

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Shen, Shujane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bladder urinary calculi occur in 3%–8% of men with bladder outlet obstruction, and although most of them are composed of calcium, in a few cases uric acid bladder stones are diagnosed. Case Presentation: We present clinical images and therapeutic management of a 65-year-old diabetic man with significant prostate enlargement and >30 bladder stones, the largest being 17 mm. Despite the large stone burden, the patient was managed by cystolithotripsy. Remarkably, stone composition analysis revealed 100% uric acid stone. Intraoperative and postoperative course were uneventfully. Conclusion: Uric acid bladder stone pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial with local and systemic factors contributing in different manners and even large stone burdens may be cystoscopically managed. PMID:28265592

  13. Insights on the pathology of kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Coe, Fredric L; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that Randall's plaque develops in unique anatomical sites of the kidney and that its formation is conditioned by specific stone-forming pathophysiologies. To test this hypothesis, we performed intraoperative mapping studies with biopsies of papilla from the kidneys of 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers, four intestinal bypass for obesity patients and ten brushite stone formers, and obtained papillary specimens from four non-stone formers after nephrectomy. Both light and electron microscopic examination of tissue changes along with infrared and electron diffraction analyses of mineral composition were performed. Distinct patterns of mineral deposition and papillary pathology were discovered in each of the three different stone forming groups. CaOx stone formers had predictable sites of interstitial apatite crystals beginning at the thin loops of Henle and spreading to the urothelium. These plaque areas are termed Randall's plaque and are thought to serve as sites for stone attachment. The papilla and medullary tubules appeared normal. The intestinal bypass patients only had intraluminal sites of crystalline material in the medullary collecting ducts. The brushite stone formers had the most severe form of cortical and medullary changes with sites of Randall's plaque, and yellowish intraluminal deposits in medullary collecting ducts. All deposits were determined to be apatite. The metabolic and surgical pathologic finding in three distinct groups of stone formers clearly shows that "the histology of the renal papilla from a stone former is particular to the clinical setting". It is observations like these that we believe will provide the insights to allow the stone community to generate better clinical treatments for kidney stone disease, as we understand the pathogenesis of stone formation for each type of stone former.

  14. Laparoscopic Stone Surgery With the Aid of Flexible Nephroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol; Woo, Seung Hyo; Kim, Dae Kyung; Min, Sun-Ho; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of laparoscopic pyelo- and ureterolithotomies with the aid of flexible nephroscopy. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 71 patients with complex renal stones or large and impacted proximal ureteral stones. Patients underwent laparoscopic pyelo- or ureterolithotomies with or without the removal of small residual stones by use of flexible nephroscopy between July 2005 and July 2010. Operative success was defined as no residual stones in the intravenous pyelogram at 12 weeks postoperatively. Perioperative results and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results The patients' mean age was 54.7±13.7 years, and 53 males (74.6%) and 18 females (25.4%) were included. The mean maximal stone size was 19.4±9.4 mm. A total of 47 cases were complex renal stones and 24 cases were impacted ureteral stones. Mean operative time was 139.0±63.7 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 61 cases (85.9%), and no further ancillary treatment was needed for clinically insignificant residual fragments in 7 cases (9.9%). For complex renal stones, the complete stone-free rate and clinically significant stone-free rate were 80.9% and 93.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of flexible nephroscopy for complex renal stones can reduce the risk of residual stones. A major complication occurred in one case, in which open conversion was performed. Conclusions Laparoscopic stone surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate, especially with the aid of flexible nephroscopy, and is not associated with procedure-specific complications. PMID:25045447

  15. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the

  16. Laterality of nephrocalcinosis in kidney stone formers with severe hypocitraturia

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jesse D.; Eisner, Brian H.; Tseng, Timothy Y.; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the hypothesis that the distribution of nephrocalcinosis in patients with severe hypocitraturia should be symmetric. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with profound hypocitraturia defined as a 24-h urine citrate <50 mg at the time of initial presentation were identified from the metabolic stone clinic database at our academic medical center. Two independent blinded reviewers evaluated all of the abdominal radiographs for the segmental distribution of macroscopic nephrocalcinosis. RESULTS A total of 44 patients met study criteria, with an equal distribution of males and females and a mean age of 55.4 ± 13.7 years. Mean urinary citrate was 28 ± 11 mg/day. Nephrocalcinosis was present in at least one renal segment in 22 patients (50%). Of the 22 patients with nephrocalcinosis, 9 patients (41%) had unilateral nephrocalcinosis and 13 patients (59%) had bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Of the 35 kidneys with nephrocalcinosis, 14 kidneys (40%) had nephrocalcinosis in only one renal segment, 13 kidneys (37%) had nephrocalcinosis in two segments and eight kidneys (23%) had nephrocalcinosis involving all three segments. CONCLUSIONS Despite the systemic nature of severe hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis is frequently asymmetric and focal in nature. This suggests that local factors intrinsic to the renal medullary interstitium, such as vascular injury, must play a role in the formation of nephrocalcinosis. Further study to elucidate these intrinsic local factors may further improve the treatment and prevention of urinary stone disease. PMID:20590541

  17. Surface Layer Turbulence During a Frontal Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, M; Lundquist, J K

    2004-06-15

    calculations using these techniques are employed using data from both the sonic and hotwire anemometers, when possible. Unfortunately, direct calculations of {var_epsilon} were not possible during a part of the frontal passage because the high wind speeds concurrent with the frontal passage demand very high frequency resolution, beyond that possible with the hotwire anemometer, for direct {var_epsilon} calculations. The calculations resulting from these three techniques are presented for the cold front as a time series. Quantitative comparisons of the direct and indirect calculation techniques are also given. More detail, as well as a discussion of energy spectra, can be found in Piper & Lundquist(2004).

  18. Bilingual Listeners' Perception of Temporally Manipulated English Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Farooq, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study measured, objectively and subjectively, how changes in speech rate affect recognition of English passages in bilingual listeners. Method: Ten native monolingual, 20 English-dominant bilingual, and 20 non-English-dominant bilingual listeners repeated target words in English passages at five speech rates (unprocessed, two…

  19. INTERIOR VIEW, SECONDSTORY PASSAGE FROM THE EAST CHAMBER OVER THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SECOND-STORY PASSAGE FROM THE EAST CHAMBER OVER THE SALOON. THE STAIRS UP FROM THE MAIN PASSAGE ACCOMMODATE THE ADDED HEIGHT OF THE SALOON’S CEILING. THE ARCHED DOOR OPENING AT CENTER ACCESSES THE SERVICE STAIR - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.

    2006-01-01

    Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…

  1. Optimal Number of Gaps in C-Test Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of the optimal number of gaps in C-Test passages. An English C-Test battery containing four passages each having 40 blanks was given to 104 undergraduate students of English. The data were entered into SPSS spreadsheet. Out of the complete data with 160 blanks seven additional datasets were constructed. In the first…

  2. 49 CFR 195.120 - Passage of internal inspection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.120 Passage of internal inspection... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passage of internal inspection devices. 195.120 Section 195.120 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  3. Safety and efficacy of using the stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Waleed; Teleb, Mohamed; Dawod, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of using a stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device (N-Trap®, Cook Urological, Bloomington, IN, USA) to avoid stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones. Patients and methods This retrospective comparative study included 436 patients treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy for a single ureteric stone from February 2011 to January 2014. The diagnosis of a stone was confirmed by plain spiral computed tomography in all cases. Patients were divided according to the ureteric occlusion device applied to avoid stone retropulsion during pneumatic lithotripsy into three groups; group 1 (156) had no instruments used, group 2 (140) in whom the stone cone was applied, and group 3 (140) in whom the N-Trap was used. Patient demographics, stone criteria, operative duration and complications, and success rates (complete stone disintegration with no upward migration) were reported and analysed statistically. Results The stone was in the lower ureter in >55% of patients in all groups. The mean (SD) of maximum stone length was 9.8 (2.5), 10.4 (2.8) and 9.7 (2.9) in groups 1–3, respectively. The use of the stone cone or N-Trap did not significantly increase the operative duration (P = 0.13) or complication rates (P = 0.67). There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) favouring groups 2 and 3 for retropulsion and success rates, being 83.3% in group 1, 97.1% in group 2 and 95.7% in group 3. Conclusion The stone cone and N-Trap gave high success rates in preventing stone retropulsion during ureteric pneumatic lithotripsy. Both devices caused no increase in operative duration or complications when used cautiously. PMID:26413324

  4. Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism, kidney stones, and idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Johansson, H; Thorén, L; Werner, I; Grimelius, L

    1975-05-01

    Eighty-four patients with recurrent kidney stones, serum calcium levels in the upper normal quartile, and most of whom with hypercalciuria had their parathyroids surgically explored. Parathyroid adenomata were found in 19 patients, hyperplasia in 39, and normal parathyroids in 26. Postoperatively there was a significant fall in serum calcium and urinary calcium excretion in all three groups. At clinical follow-up 2 to 5 years postoperatively there was no case of kidney stone recurrence among the adenoma patients. In the hyerplasia group there were recurrences tn 25 percent. The corresponding figure for the patients with normal parathyroids was 48 percent. The concept of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism and the relationship between this syndrome and idiopathic hypercalciuria are discussed. Some prinicpal therapeutic measures are recommended.

  5. Last Passage Percolation and Traveling Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comets, Francis; Quastel, Jeremy; Ramírez, Alejandro F.

    2013-08-01

    We consider a system of N particles with a stochastic dynamics introduced by Brunet and Derrida (Phys. Rev. E 70:016106, 2004). The particles can be interpreted as last passage times in directed percolation on {1,…, N} of mean-field type. The particles remain grouped and move like a traveling front, subject to discretization and driven by a random noise. As N increases, we obtain estimates for the speed of the front and its profile, for different laws of the driving noise. As shown in Brunet and Derrida (Phys. Rev. E 70:016106, 2004), the model with Gumbel distributed jumps has a simple structure. We establish that the scaling limit is a Lévy process in this case. We study other jump distributions. We prove a result showing that the limit for large N is stable under small perturbations of the Gumbel. In the opposite case of bounded jumps, a completely different behavior is found, where finite-size corrections are extremely small.

  6. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages.

    PubMed

    Mittal, B; Deutsch, M; Iwatsuki, S

    1985-04-01

    We analyzed the records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From our data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  7. Primary cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Iwatsuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The records of 22 patients with cancers of extrahepatic biliary passages (EHBP) were analyzed to understand their natural histories and patterns of failure and to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments. None of the preoperative investigations consistently defined the entire extent of tumor. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) was the most helpful (100%) in accurately defining the site of ductal obstruction. Computed tomography was helpful in diagnosing liver metastases in 53% and primary tumor mass in 23% of patients. The most common sites of tumor failure or persistence were: liver (67%), tumor bed (56%), peritoneum (22%), porta hepatis and lymph nodes (17%). The median survival for the entire group was 6.8 months. Surgery plays an important role in managing these tumors and in defining tumor extent for subsequent adjuvant irradiation. Patients receiving radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF had a longer median survival (11 months) than patients receiving less than 70 TDF (4.4 months). All three patients, who were alive and free of disease greater than 1 year, received radiation doses greater than or equal to 70 TDF. From the data, it is difficult to comment on the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The authors have made suggestions regarding radiation volume and doses to various structures. The need for entering these patients into multi-institutional clinical trials is stressed.

  8. Nonadiabatic Transitions in Adiabatic Rapid Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T.; Miao, X.; Metcalf, H.

    2006-05-01

    Optical forces much larger than the ordinary radiative force can be achieved on a two-level atom by multiple repetitions of adiabatic rapid passage sweeps with counterpropagating light beams. Chirped light pulses drive the atom-laser system up a ladder of dressed state energy sheets on sequential trajectories, thereby decreasing the atomic kinetic energy. Nonadiabatic transitions between the energy sheets must be avoided for this process to be effective. We have calculated the nonadiabatic transition probability for various chirped light pulses numerically. These results were compared to the first Demkov-Kunike model and the well-known Landau-Zener model. In addition, an analytical form of the nonadiabatic transition probability has been found for linearly chirped pulses and an approximate form for generic symmetric finite-time pulses has been found for the entire parameter space using the technique of unitary integration. From this, the asymptotic transition probability in the adiabatic limit was derived. T. Lu, X. Miao, and H. Metcalf, Phys., Rev. A 71 061405(R) (2005). Yu. Demkov and M. Kunike, Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Fis. Khim., 16, 39 (1969); K.-A. Suominen and B. Garraway, Phys. Rev. A45, 374 (1992)

  9. Bigeodesics in First-Passage Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damron, Michael; Hanson, Jack

    2017-01-01

    In first-passage percolation, we place i.i.d. continuous weights at the edges of Z^2 and consider the weighted graph metric. A distance-minimizing path between points x and y is called a geodesic, and a bigeodesic is a doubly-infinite path whose segments are geodesics. It is a famous conjecture that almost surely, there are no bigeodesics. In the 1990s, Licea-Newman showed that, under a curvature assumption on the "asymptotic shape," all infinite geodesics have an asymptotic direction, and there is a full measure set {D subset [0,2π)} such that for any {θ in D}, there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in direction {θ}. In this paper, we show that there are no bigeodesics with one end directed in any deterministic direction, assuming the shape boundary is differentiable. This rules out existence of ground state pairs for the related disordered ferromagnet whose interface has a deterministic direction. Furthermore, it resolves the Benjamini-Kalai-Schramm "midpoint problem" (Benjamini et al. in Ann Probab 31, p. 1976, 2003). under the extra assumption that the limit shape boundary is differentiable.

  10. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children.

  11. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  12. [A case of palatine tonsil stone].

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, B; Pogorzelski, A

    1993-01-01

    The authors presented a case of big stone of palatine tonsil surgical treated successfully. Qualitative and quantitative examination of tonsillith chemical composition was carried out with a LINK 90 spectrometer. It was found that the main components were calcium (Ca/K alpha), (Ca/K beta) about 60% and phosphorus (P) about 30%. Potassium (K), chlorine (Cl), sulphur (S), aluminum (Al and magnesium (Mg) were found in trace amounts.

  13. Initial presentation in psychiatry emergency room led to diagnosis of many urinary bladder stones in a male patient.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Nagaraja, Aarathi; Mahmood, Aza K

    2013-01-01

    The first case of man who presented to psychiatry emergency room for evaluation of abnormal behavior because of urinary stones was reported. Careful evaluation of patient led to a diagnosis of 37 urinary bladder stones in an Egyptian man with obstructive uropathy and metabolic defects in the form of hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects can lead to successful outcome in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery. A 61-year-old Egyptian man presented to psychiatry emergency room because he was found lying on floor in bathroom to urinate by his wife who thought her husband needed psychiatric evaluation. Patient gave history of frequent urination and dysuria on and off for 3 years. In the last 3 months before his presentation to emergency room, he got into a habit of lying down on his left side when he went to bathroom to urinate because it was easier for him to pass urine. Renal consultation requested because of presence of red blood cells in urinalysis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed bilateral hydronephrosis and multiple bladder stones. Twenty-four-hour urine collection showed low urinary citrate and high oxalate. Patient underwent open vesicolithotomy and removal of 36 stones. Stone analysis showed 75% uric acid and 25% calcium oxalate. Patient did very well after surgery, and 1 month later, he underwent transuretheral resection of prostate without any complications. Now patient has no difficulty passing urine and he has no recent attack of urinary tract infection. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects in men with urinary bladder stones would hopefully provide clinicians with the proper diagnostic tools to more specifically treat such patients with improved success in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery.

  14. X-ray characterisation of bulk stones from the patina to the depth stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet-Imbault, B.; Rannou, I.; Muller, F.

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study on monumental limestone alteration is to characterise the superficial stone called patina where transformation processes due to air and water occur. We present results on stones from the Chambord castle, so Tuffeau limestone, from the Loire Valley. Three samples has been studied and compared in relationship with their position on the monument (outside or inside). In order to describe these samples, different techniques have been used : chemical analysis, optical microscopy. The three main phases are calcite (CaCO{3}), quartz and opal (SiO{2}), with various granulometry. X-ray diffraction has been performed on bulk samples. A special sample holder allows to analyse very thin zones, so to describe the mineralogical composition from the epidermis to the depth stone [1]. The stones are constituted of small crystallites which differ in dimension and orientation. This conducts to a semi-quantitative description. Protecting layer of the stone is associated to the rate of dissolution of calcite in patina zone.

  15. Gall stones and carcinoma gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S C; Misra, V; Singh, P A; Roy, A; Misra, S P; Gupta, A K

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and fifty surgically resected gall bladder specimens were included in the study to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of gall stones and histochemical alteration in sequential changes of metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia in gall bladder epithelium. Multiple sections were processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid Schiff's stain, Alcian blue (pH 2.5)/Periodic acid, Orcein/Alcian blue (pH 2.5) and Alcian Blue/Periodic acid/Potassium borohydride saponifications stains. Details of gall stones present were also noted. Prevalence of gall stones in gall bladders with metaplastic, dysplastic and neoplastic mucosal changes was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those gall bladders which had no epithelial changes. Increase in sialomucin with a corresponding decrease in sulphomucin was observed from metaplasia to malignancy. Neutral mucin increased in metaplastic cells but was significantly reduced in neoplastic cells. Loss of O-acylation in sialmucin was also present in neoplastic cells. The histochemical changes suggest that chronic injury due to cholelithiasis induces appearance of neutral mucin positive metaplastic cells, which may further dedifferentiate to sialomucin containing dysplastic or neoplastic cells if the stimulation persists.

  16. Minimally invasive surgical treatment for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Dayron; Sacco, Dianne E

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventions for stone disease in the United States are mainly founded on 3 surgical procedures: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. With the advancement of technology, treatment has shifted toward less invasive strategies and away from open or laparoscopic surgery. The treatment chosen for a patient with stones is based on the stone and patient characteristics. Each of the minimally invasive techniques uses an imaging source, either fluoroscopy or ultrasound, to localize the stone and an energy source to fragment the stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses a shock wave energy source generated outside the body to fragment the stone. In contrast, with ureteroscopy, laser energy is placed directly on the stone using a ureteroscope that visualizes the stone. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy requires dilation of a tract through the back into the renal pelvis so that instruments can be inserted directly onto the stone to fragment or pulverize it. The success of the surgical intervention relies on performing the least invasive technique with the highest success of stone removal.

  17. Hyperspectral imaging based techniques in ornamental stone characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2005-11-01

    Ornamental stones are usually utilized for many purposes, ranging from structural to aesthetic ones. In this wide range of utilization, many different industrial sectors are involved. For all of them it is very important, at a different level, that these materials satisfy not only specific physical-chemical-mechanical requirements, but also some attributes that are much more difficult to quantify, that is those attributes strictly related to the final pictorial aspect of the stone manufactured goods. Stone pictorial-aesthetic characteristics are strongly influenced by stone surface status, that is by the surfaces reflectance properties. Such a property depends from stone compositional-textural characteristics and from the working procedures applied. The first set of attributes are related to stone mineral composition and their micro/macro arrangement, the others are related to the tools utilized and the actions applied in terms of operation sequence and workers knowledge-expertise. Each stone and each macro-operation carried out lead to a stone product whose finishing has to follow a specific rule: "optimal" polishing procedures for a stone can lead to very poor results for others. The study was addressed to evaluate the possibility to introduce a new hyperspectral imaging based approach to quantify the level of polishing of stone products and, at the same time, trying to perform also a pictorial-aesthetic characterization trough the identification of natural and/or working defects.

  18. On the hydrological-hydraulic modelling of hillslope dry-stone walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlotto, Chiara; Michelini, Tamara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    Terraces are among the most evident human signatures on the landscape as they cover large cultivated territories of the Earth. The importance of dry-stone walls to realize bench terraces has always played a key role in the management of the agricultural hilly/mountain areas. These works are generally built to allow tractors and ploughs to operate under acceptable conditions, to make human work in the slopes easy and comfortable, and to promote irrigation. Few studies in literature are available on rainfall-runoff transformation and flood risk mitigation in terrace areas. Then, research results in this field are still scarce. Bench terraces reduce the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively controlling the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. As to the hydrological response, a terraced slope should result in a reduction in the peak runoff at the toe of hillslope and in a delay in the passage of the peak flows. This fact occurs mainly due to the change of the original land topography. The goal of this study is highlighting the benefit in terms of runoff reduction, which is provided by sequence of dry-stone walls under different space arrangements along the hillslope. In particular, the FLO-2D model was recursively applied to a schematic hillslope simulating both the local variations of the hydrological soil characteristics and the morphological stepped profile of the bench terraces. The simulations have been carried out by varying the main parameters underlying the design of the terrace system (spacing, height and number of terraces). The results have shown an interesting clear linkage between the peak-discharge reduction of the overland flows and the area extent, which is consolidated by means of the dry-stone walls. The modelling outcomes well support and inform design criteria, cost-benefit analysis and the assessment of the functionality level of this historical consolidation

  19. Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy for stones in anomalous-kidneys: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Khadgi, Sanjay; Shrestha, Babu; Ibrahim, Hamdy; Shrestha, Sunil; ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Al-Kandari, Ahmed M

    2016-10-04

    To evaluate safety and efficacy of minipercutaneous nephrolithotomy (Mini-PNL) in management of stones in different types of renal anomalies. Patients with stones ≥2 cm or SWL-resistant stones in anomalous-kidneys treated by Mini-PNL between March 2010 and September 2012 were included prospectively. Mini-PNL was done under regional anesthesia in prone position with fluoroscopic guidance through 18 Fr sheath using semirigid ureteroscope (8.5/11.5 Fr) and pneumatic lithotripter. All patients were followed-up for 2-3 years. Stone-free rate was defined as absence of residual fragments ≥2 mm. Student-T, Mann-Whitney, Chi square (χ (2)), Fisher-exact, one way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analysis. Mini-PNL was performed for 59 patients (20 horseshoe, 15 malrotated, 7 polycystic, 13 duplex and 4 ectopic pelvic-kidneys). Mean age was 40.18 ± 12.75 (14-78) years. Mean stone burden was 31.72 ± 21.43 (7.85-141.3) mm(2). Two tracts were required in 7 (11.9 %) patients. Tubeless Mini-PNL with double-J insertion was performed in all patients except two. Operative time was 50.17 ± 18.73 (15-105) min. Hemoglobin loss was 0.44 ± 0.30 (0-1.4) g/dL. Complications were reported in 15 (25.4 %) patients. No pleural injury, sepsis, perinephric-collection or renal-pelvis perforation were reported. Stone-free rate was 89.8 % (converted to open-surgery in one patient, second-look PNL in two patients, auxiliary SWL in three patients). Stone-free rate improved to 98.3 % after retreatment and auxiliary SWL. Site of puncture was mostly upper calyceal in horseshoe-kidney (80 %), mid calyceal in polycystic-kidney (85.7 %) and lower calyceal in duplex-kidney (46.2 %). Punctures were also significantly infracostal in horseshoe-kidney (100 %) and supracostal in both duplex (53.8 %) and malrotated-kidneys (66.7 %). Mini-PNL is safe for management of stones in anomalous-kidney with SFR comparable to standard-PNL but with less complications.

  20. Quantifying mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to simulated hydro-turbine passage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Gingerich, Andrew J.; Stephenson, John R.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Welch, Abigail E.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Johnson, Robert L.; Skalski, John R.; Seaburg, Adam; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-02-01

    A proportion of juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids travel through one or more turbines during seaward migration in the Columbia and Snake River every year. Despite this understanding, limited information exists on how these fish respond to hydraulic pressures found during turbine passage events. In this study we exposed juvenile Chinook salmon to varied acclimation pressures and subsequent exposure pressures (nadir) to mimic the hydraulic pressures of large Kaplan turbines (ratio of pressure change). Additionally, we varied abiotic (total dissolved gas, rate of pressure change) and biotic (condition factor, fish length, fish weight) factors that may contribute to the incidence of mortal injury associated with fish passing through hydro-turbines. We determined that the main factor associated with mortal injury of juvenile Chinook salmon during simulated turbine passage was the ratio between acclimation and nadir pressures. Condition factor, total dissolved gas, and the rate of pressure change were found to only slightly increase the predictive power of equations relating probability of mortal injury to conditions of exposure or characteristics of test fish during simulated turbine passage. This research will assist engineers and fisheries managers in operating and improving hydroelectric facility efficiency while minimizing mortality and injury of turbine-passed juvenile Chinook salmon. The results are discussed in the context of turbine development and the necessity of understanding how different species of fish will respond to the hydraulic pressures of turbine passage.

  1. An adaptive weighted ensemble procedure for efficient computation of free energies and first passage rates

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Divesh; Bahar, Ivet

    2012-01-01

    We introduce an adaptive weighted-ensemble procedure (aWEP) for efficient and accurate evaluation of first-passage rates between states for two-state systems. The basic idea that distinguishes aWEP from conventional weighted-ensemble (WE) methodology is the division of the configuration space into smaller regions and equilibration of the trajectories within each region upon adaptive partitioning of the regions themselves into small grids. The equilibrated conditional/transition probabilities between each pair of regions lead to the determination of populations of the regions and the first-passage times between regions, which in turn are combined to evaluate the first passage times for the forward and backward transitions between the two states. The application of the procedure to a non-trivial coarse–grained model of a 70-residue calcium binding domain of calmodulin is shown to efficiently yield information on the equilibrium probabilities of the two states as well as their first passage times. Notably, the new procedure is significantly more efficient than the canonical implementation of the WE procedure, and this improvement becomes even more significant at low temperatures. PMID:22979844

  2. Effect of Fin Passage Length on Optimization of Cylinder Head Cooling Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Graham, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat transfer performance of baffled cooling fins on cylinder heads of small, air-cooled, general-aviation aircraft engines was analyzed to determine the potential for improving cooling fin design. Flow baffles were assumed to be installed tightly against the fin end edges, an ideal baffle configuration for guiding all flow between the fins. A rectangular flow passage is thereby formed between each set of two adjacent fins, the fin base surface, and the baffle. These passages extend around each side of the cylinder head, and the cooling air absorbs heat as it flows within them. For each flow passage length, the analysis was concerned with optimizing fin spacing and thickness to achieve the best heat transfer for each fin width. Previous literature has been concerned mainly with maximizing the local fin conductance and has not considered the heating of the gas in the flow direction, which leads to higher wall temperatures at the fin passage exits. If the fins are close together, there is a large surface area, but the airflow is restricted.

  3. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most

  4. Quantification of Urinary Stone Composition in Mixed Stones Using Dual-Energy CT: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Huang, Alice; Montoya, Juan; Duan, Xinhui; Williams, James C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using dual-energy computed tomography to accurately quantify uric acid and non-uric-acid components in urinary stones having mixed composition. Materials and Methods A total of 24 urinary stones were analyzed with microCT to serve as the reference standard for uric acid and non-uric-acid composition. These stones were placed in water phantoms to simulate body attenuation of slim to obese adults and scanned on a third-generation dual-source scanner using dual-energy modes adaptively selected based on phantom size. CT number ratio, which is distinct for different materials, was calculated for each pixel of the stones. Each pixel was then classified as uric acid and non-uric-acid by comparing the CT number ratio with preset thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. Minimal, maximal and root-mean-square errors were calculated by comparing composition to the reference standard and the threshold with the minimal root-mean-square-error was determined. A paired t-test was performed to compare the stone composition determined with dual-energy CT with the reference standard obtained with microCT. Results The optimal CT number ratio threshold ranged from 1.27 to 1.55, dependent on phantom size. The root-mean-square error ranged from 9.60% to 12.87% across all phantom sizes. Minimal and maximal absolute error ranged from 0.04% to 1.24% and from 22.05% to 35.46%, respectively. Dual-energy CT and the reference microCT did not differ significantly on uric acid and non-uric-acid composition (P from 0.20 to 0.96, paired t-test). Conclusion Accurate quantification of uric acid and non-uric-acid composition in mixed stones is possible using dual-energy CT. PMID:27224260

  5. Geoefficiency of the Passage of the Chelyabinsk Meteoroid Through the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmatulin, Ravil; Pashinin, Alexander; Lipko, Yury; Khomutov, Sergey

    On 15 February 2013, a superbolide of about 17-metre diameter and about 17 thousand tons entered the Earth's atmosphere with a speed of around 18 km/s and at 03:20:33 UT exploded over Chelyabinsk at an altitude of 22 km. After the fall of the Tunguska Cosmic Body (TCB) on 30 June 1908, this is the second largest celestial body penetration into the Earth's atmosphere for the past 100 years. In the period prior to the explosion, the 17-thousand-ton block consisting of stones, metal and ice streaked through all the layers of the Earth's magnetic field - magnetosphere, plasmasphere and ionosphere. And if we assume that the passage of the celestial body through the Earth's magnetosphere was geoeffective, then the useful signal has to be traced after the meteoroid penetration into the Earth's magnetosphere 80-60 min before its explosion in the atmosphere. The analysis of АЕ AU, AL, AO and Kp indices has revealed that the bolide travelled through the Earth's magnetosphere during an extremely magnetoquiet period. The analysis of records from induction magnetometers of mid-latitude observatories Mondy (φ= 51.4°, λ= 100.5°) and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (φ= 53.1°, λ= 158.4°) has shown the presence of a noise burst in geomagnetic variations over a frequency range 0.2-5 Hz in a time interval 02:45-02:58 UT, i.e. 35 min before the meteoroid explosion. The noise burst registered at the mid-latitude observatories against the quiet background of the geomagnetic field might have been caused by the interaction of the meteoroid with the Earth's plasmasphere. The analysis of the literature describing magnetic effects appearing during the passage and explosion of the Tunguska meteorite in the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere on 30 June 1908 has revealed that some researchers detected changes in the geomagnetic field variations 80 min before the explosion itself.

  6. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  7. The passage of fast electrons through matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorini, Adam P.

    This work regards the passage of fast electrons through matter, and in particular how electrons scatter and lose energy within a solid. The basic quantum theory of these scattering processes was first considered in the early- to mid-20th century by Bohr, Bethe, Fermi, and others. This work extends our understanding of how a relativistic electron scatters off, and loses energy to, a complex many-body system. The main idea of this work is that it is now possible to calculate, from first-principles, the inelastic losses of relativistic electrons in condensed matter. We present ab initio calculations based on a real-space Green's function approach, implemented in the FEFF8 computer program[1]. Our work focuses on three topics: Relativistic stopping power and associated loss parameters, electron energy loss spectroscopy in high energy transmission electron microscopes, and the inelastic electron scattering mixed dynamic form factor. We calculate, for the first time, ab initio stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths in real materials. The stopping powers are calculated over a broad energy range, from ten eV to above ten MeV. We also present the first ab initio calculations of the "mean excitation energy". We develop a relativistic theory of inelastic electron scattering, based on ab initio calculations of dielectric response, and the generalized Lorenz gauge. Using our relativistic dielectric theory, we calculate the EELS magic angle ratio for boron nitride and for graphite. In these anisotropic materials we find large relativistic corrections to the magic angle for high energy electron microscopes. We also predict and calculate large deviations in the EELS magic angle from the relativistic vacuum predictions in the low energy-loss regime. Finally, we present calculations of mixed dynamic form factor.

  8. Welsh Slate: A Candidate for Global Heritage Stone Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Jana; Hughes, Terry; Lott, Graham

    2013-04-01

    Slate is the iconic stone of Wales, and has a temporal and geographic record of usage such that it is considered worthy of consideration for Global Heritage Stone status. The reputation of Welsh slate is built on the quality and durability of the stone, enabling it to be used in a wide range of contexts from industrial roofing, through domestic housing to higher prestige buildings. Although metamorphic slates are present in several across Wales, the highest quality roofing material was extracted from just two areas in north-west Wales; the Cambrian Slate Belt, around Bethesda to Nantlle, working purple and green slates of the Llanberis Slate Formation and a second area to the south around Blaenau Ffestiniog - the Ordovician Slate Belt - which works grey slates of the Nant Francon Supergroup. These two areas are considered to form the core of the Welsh Slate Province. Welsh slate has been extracted for at least 2000 years, as evidenced by their presence as roofing slates in Roman forts in North Wales dating from 77AD. Slates from medieval churches and castles in north Wales indicate extraction continued throughout this period. In the 16th century exportation of Welsh slate commenced, initially limited to Ireland and those parts of England where it could be transported by boat. The second half of 18th century saw the first major expansion of the industry, facilitated by improved road transportation and some mechanisation, and subsequently in the 1830s by repeal of punitive boat taxes: production increased substantially through the late 19th century supported by the introduction of steam railways, and both production and exports peaked around 1900. The industry is still active today, although on a much reduced scale, with an estimate of around 20% of output being exported. Considerable reserves of this high quality slate resource remain in North Wales and it is important to ensure that they are protected to maintain continuity of supply to the heritage sector and are

  9. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  10. Artificial aggregate made from waste stone sludge and waste silt.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yu; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2010-11-01

    In this research, waste stone sludge obtained from slab stone processing and waste silt from aggregate washing plants were recycled to manufacture artificial aggregate. Fine-powdered stone sludge was mixed with waste silt of larger particle size; vibratory compaction was applied for good water permeability, resulting in a smaller amount of solidifying agent being used. For the densified packing used in this study, the mix proportion of waste stone sludge to waste silt was 35:50, which produced artificial aggregate of more compact structure with water absorption rate below 0.1%. In addition, applying vibratory compaction of 33.3 Hz to the artificial aggregate and curing for 28 days doubled the compressive strength to above 29.4 MPa. Hence, recycling of waste stone sludge and waste silt for the production of artificial aggregate not only offers a feasible substitute for sand and stone, but also an ecological alternative to waste management of sludge and silt.

  11. Do thiazides prevent recurrent idiopathic renal calcium oxalate stones?

    PubMed

    Wolf, H; Brocks, P; Dahl, C

    1983-01-01

    In a double-blind controlled clinical trial 62 patients with recurrent idiopathic renal calcium oxalate stone formation were allocated either to treatment with bendroflumethiazide, 2.5 mg three times a day, or placebo. In each group the rate of stone formation during medication (average follow-up period 36 months) was compared with the rate of stone formation before medication (average control period 36 months). In both groups a similar striking fall in the rate of stone formation was found, indicating that thiazides in this study did not alter the spontaneous course of idiopathic renal calcium oxalate stone formation. It is doubtful whether life-long prophylaxis with thiazide is justified in patients with a moderate rate of stone formation.

  12. Development of latent fingermarks from rocks and stones.

    PubMed

    Hefetz, Ido; Cohen, Amit; Cohen, Yaron; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, stones have been used in the commission of crimes due to their widespread availability. Stones can be used as a lethal weapon that sometimes might be the only evidence in a serious case. The common perception, even in professional fingermark circles, is that stones do not yield identifiable latent fingermarks. The authors of this research paper examined the feasibility of developing fingermarks from seven types of stones using three latent fingermark techniques: magnetic powder, cyanoacrylate fuming, and ninhydrin. The paper will demonstrate that by classifying stones and rocks according to their natural properties (porosity, permeability, and the nature of surface area), even application of the simplest development techniques can produce good results. In conclusion, chert and limestone yielded the most qualitative and quantitative results using magnetic powder. The time factor is also important in recovering latent fingermarks on stones and rocks.

  13. Assessment of kidney stone and prevalence of its chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Pandeya, A; Prajapati, R; Panta, P; Regmi, A

    2010-09-01

    Kidney stone analysis is the test done on the stone which cause problems when they block the flow of urine through or out of the kidneys. The stones cause severe pain and are also associated with morbidity and renal damage. There is also no clear understanding on the relative metabolic composition of renal calculi. Hence, the study is aimed to find out the chemical composition of it which can guide treatment and give information that may prevent more stones from forming. The study was carried out on the stones that had been sent to the department of Biochemistry (n = 99; M = 61; F = 38; Mean age: 33.6 +/- 14.4 years) Approximately 98.9% of stones were composed of oxalate, 95.9% of Calcium, 85.8% of phosphate, 62.6% of Urate, 46.4% of Ammonium and very few percentages of Carbonate.

  14. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  15. A case of hydrocele stone with its composition analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Mikami, Koji; Takeshima, Yuta; Takeuchi, Takumi

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocele stones are freely mobile calcified bodies lying between the tunica vaginalis layers, and they are relatively rare. We present here another case of hydrocele stone incidentally discovered when castration was being undergone for the endocrine treatment of prostate cancer. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed as stage D2 prostate cancer with his prostate-specific antigen 387 ng/ml. A white smooth stone of 11 mm in diameter was incidentally found moving freely in the right hydrocele space during castration. The hydrocele stone was of yellow hard center with white materials around it. Crystallographical analysis of the hydrocele stone by a infrared spectrophotometer showed that the center was composed of 64% calcium carbonate and 36% calcium phosphate, while the outer portion was protein. Our case is the fourth where crystallographical analysis was reported for hydrocele stones.

  16. WPW syndrome: the 'Rosetta stone' of rhythmology. The history of the Rosetta stone.

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2009-03-01

    Prior to the 'discovery' of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, interpreting the respective phenomena was akin to reading hieroglyphic characters; thus a clear pathophysiological understanding and practical clinical diagnosis were impossible. The epochal work by Wolff, Parkinson, and White, which resulted in the electrophysiologically correct interpretation of circus movements as the cause of tachycardic rhythm disorders, can therefore indeed be compared to the deciphering of hieroglyphic writing by Champollion in 1822 with the aid of the Rosetta stone. After intensive archaeological and graphological examinations by the Society of Antiquaries, the Rosetta stone finally made its way to the British Museum, where it can still be viewed and admired today.

  17. Performance of nanocomposites for preservation of artistic stones

    SciTech Connect

    Giancristofaro, Cristina; Pilloni, Luciano; Rinaldi, Antonio; Persia, Franca; D'Amato, Rosaria; Caneve, Luisa

    2014-06-19

    In this work, the effectiveness of nanocomposite surface treatments as protective systems for artistic stones was evaluated. Pyrolitic silica and titania nanoparticles were dispersed in a commercial silicon-based polymer and applied on marble and travertine samples. Artificial aging processes, both in climatic chamber and in solar box, were carried out to simulate real degradation processes in terms of photo-thermal effects and physical-chemical damage. The performances of the nanocomposites used as consolidant were evaluated comparatively by means of diverse diagnostic techniques, namely: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF), ultrasonic technique, colorimetry, total immersion water absorption and contact angle. The results show that some properties of conservation materials can be improved by the presences of nanoparticles because they induce substantial changes of surface morphology of the coating layer and counter the physical damage observed during artificial weathering.

  18. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  19. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  20. Measurements of subtidal flow in the Lesser Antilles Passages

    SciTech Connect

    Mazeika, P.A.; Kinder, T.H.; Burns, D.A.

    1983-05-20

    During 1977 we obtained current meter records for up to 284 days length in the two southernmost passages of the Lesser Antilles, St. Vincent Passage, and Grenada Passage. The sub-inertial velocity variances accounted for 15--77% of the total record variances and the amplitudes of these sub-inertial fluctuations were similar to record means. The deepest current meters (25--150 m above bottom) had oscillations of about a 14 day period, whereas shallower current meters (greater than 400 m above bottom) were dominated by fluctuations with greater than 30 day periods.

  1. Heat transfer in serpentine passages with turbulence promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Local heat transfer rates and overall pressure losses were determined for serpentine passages of square cross section. The flow entered an inlet leg, turned 180 deg and then passed through an outlet leg. Results were obtained for a passage with smooth walls for three different bend geometries and the effect of turbulence promoters was investigated. Turbulence promoters between 0.6 and 15% of the passage height were tested. Local heat transfer rates are determined from thermocouple measurements on a thin electrically heated Inconel foil and pressure drop is measured along the flow path.

  2. Estimating the Rate of Occurrence of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Goodenow, D.; Gokoglu, S.; Kassemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in urine chemistry, during and post flight, potentially increases the risk of renal stones in astronauts. Although much is known about the effects of space flight on urine chemistry, no inflight incidence of renal stones in US astronauts exists and the question "How much does this risk change with space flight?" remains difficult to accurately quantify. In this discussion, we tackle this question utilizing a combination of deterministic and probabilistic modeling that implements the physics behind free stone growth and agglomeration, speciation of urine chemistry and published observations of population renal stone incidences to estimate changes in the rate of renal stone presentation. The modeling process utilizes a Population Balance Equation based model developed in the companion IWS abstract by Kassemi et al. (2016) to evaluate the maximum growth and agglomeration potential from a specified set of urine chemistry values. Changes in renal stone occurrence rates are obtained from this model in a probabilistic simulation that interrogates the range of possible urine chemistries using Monte Carlo techniques. Subsequently, each randomly sampled urine chemistry undergoes speciation analysis using the well-established Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS) code to calculate critical values, such as ionic strength and relative supersaturation. The Kassemi model utilizes this information to predict the mean and maximum stone size. We close the assessment loop by using a transfer function that estimates the rate of stone formation from combining the relative supersaturation and both the mean and maximum free stone growth sizes. The transfer function is established by a simulation analysis which combines population stone formation rates and Poisson regression. Training this transfer function requires using the output of the aforementioned assessment steps with inputs from known non-stone-former and known stone-former urine chemistries. Established in a Monte Carlo

  3. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  4. Gall stones and chronic pancreatitis: the black box in between.

    PubMed

    Yan, M-X; Li, Y-Q

    2006-04-01

    The relation between gall stones and chronic pancreatitis is uncertain; there are differing opinions on this issue. Firstly, gall stones are the most common reason for acute pancreatitis, but it cannot cause chronic pancreatitis. Secondly, a connection between gall stones and chronic inflammation of the pancreas might exist. Numerous studies or investigations have shown that changes associated with chronic pancreatitis are common in gallstone patients. Although it seems that gall stones might be a cause of chronic pancreatitis according to these findings, clinical and experimental studies are still needed for confirmation, and further studies are required to determine the mechanisms involved.

  5. Stability of cholesterol gall stones after 165 years of burial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alan H B; Bellantoni, Nicholas F

    2003-05-01

    A woman who died in 1837 was exhumed for the purposes of moving the grave to another location. During the excavation, small white deposits of stone were uncovered in the right abdominal region, inferior to the rib cage and superior to the ilium blade. These stones were analyzed for cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium following solubilization using methyl tert-butyl ether as a solvent. The results of these clinical chemistry analyses showed that these stones consisted primarily of cholesterol. Under these particular soil conditions encountered in this case, cholesterol gall stones are stable for at least 165 years.

  6. Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Do Kidney Stone Formers Have A Kidney Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, Anna L.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disorder affecting approximately one in eleven people and is associated with multiple complications including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Significant epidemiologic associations with chronic kidney disease and ESRD have been noted and are reviewed herein, but debate persists in the literature as to whether kidney stone formation is a pathogenic process contributing to kidney disease. Corroborating evidence supporting the presence of kidney disease in stone formers includes the variability of renal function by stone type, the positive association of stone size with renal dysfunction, the presence of markers of renal injury in the urine of even asymptomatic stone formers, and direct evidence of renal tissue injury on histopathology. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include recurrent obstruction and comorbid conditions such as recurrent urinary tract infections and structural abnormalities. Recent work evaluating the renal histopathology of different groups of stone formers adds further granularity, suggesting variability in mechanisms of renal injury by stone type and confirming the pathogenic effects of crystal formation. Genetic abnormalities leading to stone formation including cystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria, among others, contribute to the burden of disease in the stone-forming population. PMID:26376133

  8. Spin-Label CW Microwave Power Saturation and Rapid Passage with Triangular Non-Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) and Adiabatic Rapid Passage (ARP) EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132

  9. Spin-label CW microwave power saturation and rapid passage with triangular non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) and adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kittell, Aaron W; Hyde, James S

    2015-06-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10(-3) to 10(-7) s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy.

  10. Capillary priming characteristics of a dual passage heat pipe in zero-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    Technical improvements of a long life heat rejection system, suitable for long duration high power missions, that can be constructed and deployed in orbit is discussed. A mathematical model is formulated and a computer program developed which describes the transient priming characteristics of a dual passage heat pipe. An experimental test package is described for flight in the KC-135 Zero-g Aircraft, to be used to verify the modeling predictions.

  11. Fish passage in a western Iowa stream modified by grade control structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litvan, M.E.; Pierce, C.L.; Stewart, T.W.; Larson, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Grade control structures (GCSs) are commonly used in streams of western Iowa to control bank erosion and channel headcutting but may be barriers to fish passage. From May 2002 to May 2006, we used mark-recapture methods to evaluate fish passage over a total of five GCSs, ranging in slope (run : rise) from 13:1 to 18:1 in Turkey Creek, Cass County, Iowa. Three structures, over which limited fish movement was documented from 2002 to 2004, were modified in the winter of 2004-2005 to facilitate fish passage. Before modification, the majority of recaptured fish were recaptured at the station where they were originally marked; only 1% displayed movement between sites and either upstream or downstream over a GCS. After modification fish passage improved, 14% of recaptured fish displayed movement either upstream or downstream over a GCS. Individuals of four target species - channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, black bullhead A. melas, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus - passed over at least one modified structure. The majority of documented movements over GCSs were in the upstream direction and occurred in late spring and early summer, when streamflow was relatively high. Although we documented low numbers of fish passing both upstream and downstream over GCSs, these structures are probably barriers to fish movement during periods of low flow and when there is a structural failure, such as in-channel movement of riprap. Grade control structures are pervasive in western Iowa streams; nearly every low-order stream contains at least one instream structure. To sustain fish populations, management efforts should focus on constructing or modifying GCSs to allow fish passage. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  13. Management of waste from stone processing industry.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-10-01

    Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  15. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Mugrauer, M.; Adam, Ch.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Fiedler, S.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M.; Kramm, U.; Marka, C.; Moualla, M.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Roell, T.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Seeliger, M.; Spaleniak, I.; Tetzlaff, N.; Trepl, L.

    2011-02-01

    Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young) or accretion growth (being smaller when young). We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  16. Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

  17. Cystine calculi: challenging group of stones.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kamran; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Mohammad Shamim

    2006-12-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder in renal tubular and intestinal transport of dibasic amino acids, which results in increased urinary excretion of cystine, ornithine, lysine and arginine. It affects 1 in 20 000 people and is caused by a defect in the rBAT gene on chromosome 2. Development of urinary tract cystine calculi is the only clinical manifestation of this disease. Owing to recurrent episodes of stone formation, these patients require a multi-modal approach to management. The role of medical management and minimally invasive surgery was reviewed for the treatment of cystinuria.

  18. Cystine calculi: challenging group of stones

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kamran; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Mohammad Shamim

    2006-01-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder in renal tubular and intestinal transport of dibasic amino acids, which results in increased urinary excretion of cystine, ornithine, lysine and arginine. It affects 1 in 20 000 people and is caused by a defect in the rBAT gene on chromosome 2. Development of urinary tract cystine calculi is the only clinical manifestation of this disease. Owing to recurrent episodes of stone formation, these patients require a multi‐modal approach to management. The role of medical management and minimally invasive surgery was reviewed for the treatment of cystinuria. PMID:17148700

  19. BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 101, CENTRAL ENTRY/ PASSAGE SHOWING LEAD FLOOR, STEEL WALLS AND ASBESTOS CEILING - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block four exercise yard with original passage to cell re-exposed, looking from the baseball field, facing west, with scale - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. First passage time statistics for two-channel diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    We present rigorous results for the mean first passage time and first passage time statistics for two-channel Markov additive diffusion in a 3-dimensional spherical domain. Inspired by biophysical examples we assume that the particle can only recognise the target in one of the modes, which is shown to effect a non-trivial first passage behaviour. We also address the scenario of intermittent immobilisation. In both cases we prove that despite the perfectly non-recurrent motion of two-channel Markov additive diffusion in 3 dimensions the first passage statistics at long times do not display Poisson-like behaviour if none of the phases has a vanishing diffusion coefficient. This stands in stark contrast to the standard (one-channel) Markov diffusion counterpart. We also discuss the relevance of our results in the context of cellular signalling.

  2. Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of keystone sculpted head in the arched passage to the lobby vestibule - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, ACCESS TO POST OFFICE BUILDING, VIEW TO WEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 61. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, UNDER HURON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA, UNDER HURON ROAD, BAGGAGE ELEVATOR, VIEW TO WEST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 55. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA UNDER HURON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. RAILROAD FACILITIES, TRUCKING PASSAGE, MAIL TRANSPORT AREA UNDER HURON ROAD, LEVEL 85, VIEW TO EAST - Terminal Tower Building, Cleveland Union Terminal, 50 Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Hydropower R&D: Recent Advances in Turbine Passage Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Bennie Nelson; Cada, G. F.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that re often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

  7. Newel post and balustrade (west passage), column (seminary), crown molding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Newel post and balustrade (west passage), column (seminary), crown molding (second floor), window sill (second floor), and baseboard (second floor). - Russian Bishop's House, 501 Lincoln Street, Sitka, Sitka Borough, AK

  8. 73. STAIR PASSAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SECOND FLOOR, LOCATED AT EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. STAIR PASSAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SECOND FLOOR, LOCATED AT EAST END OF HOUSE OVER FIRST FLOOR KITCHEN WING, BETWEEN TWO BEDROOMS - Carter's Grove, U.S. Route 60 vicinity, Williamsburg, Williamsburg, VA

  9. 4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW NORTHWEST, ALLEYWAY PASSAGE BETWEEN 216 AND 218 KING STREET SHOWING MASONRY ARCHED CONSTRUCTION SUPPORTING UPPER STORIES - King Street, 200 Block, 216 King Street (Commercial Building), Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Basement, passage beneath main entrance porch, showing circular skylight opening, view to northwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  11. 11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Second floor, northwest chamber, south wall. Former passage to southwest chamber (door blocked off on far side) on left; closet on right. - Conner Homestead, House, Epping Road (State Route 101), Exeter, Rockingham County, NH

  12. View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the garden wall and passage with wrought iron gate to the northwest of the house (duplicate of HABS No. SC-115-14) - William Washington House, 8 South Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  13. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF FISH PASSAGE BETWEEN THE SOUTH END OF POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  16. Automatic system for monitoring fish passage at dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castignolles, Nathalie; Cattoen, Michel; Larinier, M.

    1994-09-01

    Devices called fishways or fish passes are constructed in rivers to help migratory fish get over obstacles (dams). There counting windows are used to monitor fish passage by video-based counting. Our goal is to design and construct a vision system to automate this process. Images are taken by a video camera fitted with an electronic shutter in a backlit fishway. They are stored on optical disks in real time but are processed in delayed time. Faced with high volumes of data, a compression is necessary and an electronic board has been designed to accomplish it in real time. The coding method used is based on a run description of binarized images. Then, a tracking process is implemented on a micro-computer to count the fish crossing the pass. It includes fish recognition, which is based on a Bayesian classification process. In order to reduce processing times, recognition operations (labelling, parameter extraction) are accomplished on coded images. Classification results are satisfactory and are improved by the temporal redundancy generated by the tracking process. Image processing time permits the user, on average, to process images faster than they have been stored. Thus there is no data accumulation. At the end of the processing it is possible to edit a result file, to choose a fish, view its crossing images and change its species if wrong.

  17. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of stones in lower calices of kidney].

    PubMed

    Martov, A G; Peniukova, I V; Moskalenko, S A; Peniukov, V G; Peniukov, D V; Balykov, I S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the study aimed to evaluation of possible relationship between anatomical structure of the renal pelvis of the kidney, the size of the stone and the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of stones in lower calices of kidney, defined as "stone-free state". ESWL was performed in 285 patients. Sizes of stones varied from 5 to 25 mm. With interval distribution of stone sizes, the greatest number of cases was detected with size of 5 to 12 mm. The destruction of stone required one ESWL session in 196 cases, and three sessions only in 12 cases. The total number of pulses per one stone did not exceed 9500, and more than 70% of the stones have been effectively destroyed with less than 3000 pulses. The result of treatment was assessed 3-4 months after the last ESWL session on the basis of ultrasound and X-ray examination using nominal (dichotomous) scale. In addition, for verification of significant (expected and unexpected) correlations, exploratory analysis of the correlation matrices of factors possibly affecting the discharge of stone fragments was performed. Positive treatment outcome was recorded in 212 (74.4%) patients. Residual stone fragments (> or = 5 mm) were identified in 73 (25.6%) patients; in 69 patients fragments corresponded to the initial localization and 4 fragments were located in the pelvis and calices of middle and lower segments of the kidney. Statistical processing found no association between the size of the stone and the number of ESWL sessions required for its destruction (P = 0,4056). The analysis of relationship between the nature of the complications and size of stone revealed differences, but there were no significant differences in median test (p = 0.1067). Based on exploratory analysis and correlations identified, in-depth evaluation was carried out on three factors: the size of the stone, length of lower calices neck, and pyelocaliceal corner. Width of lower calices neck as a

  18. Algorithms for Brownian first-passage-time estimation.

    PubMed

    Adib, Artur B

    2009-09-01

    A class of algorithms in discrete space and continuous time for Brownian first-passage-time estimation is considered. A simple algorithm is derived that yields exact mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for linear potentials in one dimension, regardless of the lattice spacing. When applied to nonlinear potentials and/or higher spatial dimensions, numerical evidence suggests that this algorithm yields MFPT estimates that either outperform or rival Langevin-based (discrete time and continuous space) estimates.

  19. Flow in Rotating Serpentine Coolant Passages With Skewed Trip Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, David G.N.; Steuber, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in serpentine turbine blade cooling passages with skewed trip strips. The measurements were obtained at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of 25,000 and 0.24 to assess the influence of trips, passage curvature and Coriolis force on the flow field. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by skewed trips with the passage rotation produces a swirling vortex and a corner recirculation zone. With trips skewed at +45 deg, the secondary flows remain unaltered as the cross-flow proceeds from the passage to the turn. However, the flow characteristics at these locations differ when trips are skewed at -45 deg. Changes in the flow structure are expected to augment heat transfer, in agreement with the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. The present results show that trips are skewed at -45 deg in the outward flow passage and trips are skewed at +45 deg in the inward flow passage maximize heat transfer. Details of the present measurements were related to the heat transfer measurements of Johnson, et al. to relate fluid flow and heat transfer measurements.

  20. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  1. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage through Bonneville Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Schilt, Carl R.; Kim, Jina; Johnson, Peter N.; Hanks, Michael E.; Patterson, Deborah S.; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J

    2005-12-22

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2004. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of four studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 15 and July 15, 2004, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, (2) B2 fish guidance efficiency and gap loss, (3) smolt approach and fate at the B2 Corner Collector (B2CC), and (4) B2 vertical barrier screen head differential.

  2. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  3. Online Discussion on #KidneyStones: A Longitudinal Assessment of Activity, Users and Content

    PubMed Central

    Bultitude, Matthew; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Haferkamp, Axel; Heidenreich, Axel; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Neisius, Andreas; Knoll, Thomas; Thomas, Christian; Tsaur, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Twitter is a popular microblogging platform for the rapid dissemination of information and reciprocal exchange in the urological field. We aimed to assess the activity, users and content of the online discussion, #KidneyStones, on Twitter. Methods We investigated the Symplur Signals analytics tool for Twitter data distributed via the #KidneyStones hashtag over a one year period. Activity analysis reflected overall activity and tweet enhancements. We assessed users’ geolocations and performed an influencer analysis. Content analysis included the most frequently used words, tweet sentiment and shares for top tweets. Results 3,426 users generated over 10,333 tweets, which were frequently accompanied by links (49%), mentions (30%) and photos (13%). Users came from 106 countries across the globe and were most frequently from North America (63%) and Europe (16%). Individual and organisational healthcare professionals made up 56% of the influencers of the Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones. Besides the words ‘kidney’ (used 4,045 times) and ‘stones’ (3,335), ‘pain’ (1,233), ‘urine’ (1,158), and ‘risk’ (1,023) were the most frequently used words. 56% of tweets had a positive sentiment. The median (range) number of shares was 85 (62–587) for the top 10 links, 45.5 (17–94) for the top 10 photos, and 44 (22–95) for the top 10 retweets. Conclusion The rapidly growing Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones engaged multiple stakeholders in the healthcare sector on a global scale and reached both professionals and laypeople. When used effectively and responsibly, the Twitter platform could improve prevention and medical care of kidney stone patients. PMID:27537406

  4. Kidney stone formation and antioxidant effects of Cynodon dactylon decoction in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Golshan, Alireza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Mohamadian Roshan, Nema; Abbasnezhad, Abbasali; Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Zarei, Batool; Aghaee, Azita

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10). One group was left without treatment and four groups received ethylene glycol (1% v/v) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Three doses of Cynodon dactylon aqueous decoction (12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg BW) were added to the drinking water of groups 3-5. Finally, water intake, 24-hour urine volume, MDA, total thiol concentration and FRAP value were measured in the serum and kidney tissues. The CaOx depositions were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Compared to the ethylene glycol-treated group, 200 mg/kg C. dactylon, lowered stone incidents, decreased urine volume, increased FRAP/g Cr (43%) and thiol content (p<0.05) with no significant alteration of water intake, MDA decreased significantly compared to C. dactylon 12.5 (p<0.01). Kidney weight increased and body weight decreased in ethylene glycol-treated group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: A minimum dose of 200 mg/kg C. dactylon reduced stone formation and simultaneously increased total antioxidant power of serum and preserved MDA content and water. PMID:28348973

  5. Environmental history recorded in eolian deposits under stone pavements, eastern Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Stephen; Fuchs, Markus; Dietze, Elisabeth; Lomax, Johanna; Kleber, Arno; Dietze, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by the limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature of arid landscapes - stone pavement - traps eolian fines and can form an accretionary archive, growing with time and thereby recording essential information about the conditions under which it evolves. Based on a regional example in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA, seven stone pavement-covered soil-sediment sections on 560 and 270 ka old basalt flows are condensed to a correlation framework, comprising five distinct, successive sedimentological units. An OSL-based chronology enables correlation of this new sediment archive with other environmental archives from the region. Three of the stratigraphic units are of accretionary nature and the top of each unit is mantled by a new generation of stone pavement. These stratigraphic units were deposited between >32.3-20.4 ka, 20.4-16.5 ka and younger than 16.5 ka, appearing to be strongly coupled with the history of the nearby ancient Lake Mojave and enhancing our knowledge of the eolian activity in this area. End-member modelling analysis of sampled grain-size distributions allows identification of a local detritus component, four separate eolian components and two distinct clay enrichment components, contributing different quantities of sediment sources to the five stratigraphic units. These findings improve current concepts about the evolution of stone pavements and their role as conveyers of information about environmental conditions in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary sediment deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.

  6. Modeling of fugitive dust emission and control measures in stone crushing industry.

    PubMed

    Sivacoumar, R; Mohan Raj, S; Chinnadurai, S Jeremiah; Jayabalou, R

    2009-05-01

    Stone crushing in India is a small scale industry, where most of the operations are performed manually. A cluster of 72 stone crushing units located at Trisoolam in Chennai is a source of high levels of dust generation in the vicinity of the crushers and in the communities surrounding them. An ambient air quality monitoring network was designed and operated over 3 months (June-August, 2006) at 17 sites across the Trisoolam area. Wind speed and direction were monitored continuously every 1 hour to determine the upwind and downwind directions for the air quality monitoring program. The TSPM concentration at the source varied 1268-4108 microg/m(3) with a mean of 2759 microg/m(3), whereas in ambient air varied 65-417 microg/m(3) with a mean of 190 microg/m(3). The percentage of particulate fractions PM(2.5), PM(10), PM(15), and PM(30) was 14.3, 36.6, 45 and 73.5% of the total dust respectively. The settleable particulate matter was found to be 45% and the maximum percent of particles is in the range of 3-5 microm (8 %). Both ambient dust concentration and occupational exposure level exceeded Indian National Standards at most of the locations. Mathematical models viz., FDM, ISCST3 and AERMOD were employed for prediction of dust emission from stone crushers on the surrounding areas. The impact zone for measured concentration varied 211-1350 m with a mean of 784 m. The impact zone for predicted concentrations of FDM, ISCST3 and AERMOD varied 153-2650 m, 143-1056 m, 135-1225 m with a mean of 1335 m, 501 m and 679 m respectively. The control measures adopted at these stone crushing units are not sufficient enough to bring down the concentration within the stipulated limits. There is a scope for further improvement of control measures at these stone crushing units.

  7. Flow in serpentine coolant passages with trip strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G.-N.

    1995-01-01

    Under the subject contract, an effort is being conducted at Scientific Research Associates, Inc. (SRA) to obtain flow field measurements in the coolant passage of a rotating turbine blade with ribbed walls, both in the stationary and rotating frames. The data obtained will be used for validation of computational tools and assessment of turbine blade cooling strategies. The configuration of the turbine blade passage model is given, and the measuring plane locations are given. The model has a four-pass passage with three 180 turns. This geometry was chosen to allow analyses of the velocity measurements corresponding to the heat transfer results obtained by Wagner. Two passes of the passage have a rectangular cross-section of 1.0 in x 0.5 in. Another two passes have a square cross-section of 0.5 in x 0.5 in. Trips with a streamwise pitch to trip height (P/e) = 5 and trip height to coolant passage width (e/Z) = 0.1, were machined along the leading and trailing walls. These dimensions are typical of those used in turbine blade coolant passages. The trips on these walls are staggered by the half-pitch. The trips are skewed at +/- 45 deg, and this allows the effect of trip orientation to be examined. Experiments will be conducted with flow entering the model through the 1.0 in x 0.5 in rectangular passage (Configuration C) and the 0.5 in x 0. 5 in square passage (Configuration D) to examine the effect of passage aspect ratio. Velocity measurements were obtained with a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000, based on the hydraulic diameter of and bulk mean velocity in the half inch square passage. The coordinate system used in presenting the results for configurations C and D, respectively, is shown. The first, second and third passes of the passage will be referred to as the first, second and third passages, respectively, in later discussion. Streamwise distance (x) from the entrance is normalized by the hydraulic diameter (D). Vertical (y) and tangential (z) distances are

  8. River pollution caused by natural stone industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktriani, Ani; Darmajanti, Linda; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi

    2017-03-01

    The natural stone industry is classified as small industry. Current wastewater treatment still causes pollution in the river. This thesis aims to analyze the performance of wastewater treatment in natural stones industry. The data was collected from water quality test (parameters: temperature, pH, DO, and TSS). The wastewater treatment performance was in a slightly higher position compared to the 2nd class quality standards of Government Regulation No. 82/2001. The parameter that exceeded quality standards was the concentration of TSS, which was up to 240.8 mg/l. The high concentration of TSS was affected by the absence of sludge management schedule, which resulted in non-optimal precipitation. Besides that, the design of sedimentation basin was still not adapted with wastewater debit. Referring to the results, this study suggests the government of Cirebon District to provide wastewater treatment development through the village staff. Furthermore, the government also needs to give strict punishment to business owner who does not treat waste correctly and does not have a business license. Moreover, the sale value of sludge as byproduct of wastewater treatment needs to be increased.

  9. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  10. Experimental model to study sedimentary kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Grases, F; Llobera, A

    1998-01-01

    An experimental model to reproduce, to some extent, the conditions prevailing during the formation of the so-called sedimentary urinary stones, was developed. The results obtained demonstrated that in the absence of organic matter no calcium phosphate crystals were deposited in cavities with scarce liquid renovation. Nevertheless, in such case a regular hydroxyapatite layer was developed on the walls around the cavity. The presence of crystallization inhibitors cannot stop indefinitely the crystal development. Therefore, phytate manifested important inhibitory effects in concentrations normally found in urine (0.77-1.54 x 10(-6) mol/l), whereas citrate only manifested important inhibitory effects when found at high urinary concentrations (2.64 x 10(-3) mol/l). When mucin (a glycoprotein) was present in the urine, a clear deposit of calcified organic material was formed. The organic matter appeared mixed with the spherulites of hydroxyapatite, this demonstrating the capacity of the glycoprotein agglomerates to act as heterogeneous nucleants of calcium salts and their important role in the formation of sedimentary stones. The structural features of the obtained in vitro deposits were compared with the fine structure of human sedimentary phosphate calculi. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated a good correspondence between in vitro experiments and in vivo observations.

  11. Adjuvant therapy after surgical stone management.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Michael N; Monga, Manoj; Preminger, Glenn M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the most widely researched adjuvant medical therapies for the surgical management of urolithiasis. Articles were identified and reviewed from PubMed and Medline databases with MeSH headings focusing on the various surgical treatments of urolithiasis and adjuvant therapy. Additional articles were retrieved from references and conference proceedings. Surgical treatments reviewed included shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Adjuvant therapy was considered medical or complementary therapy as an adjunct to these surgical interventions. Adjuvant therapy for the surgical management of urolithiasis has been documented to increase stone-free rates, reduce stone remission rates, prevent renal damage, and decrease postoperative morbidity. A variety of agents have been studied, ranging from antioxidants to alpha-blockers and to alkalinizing agents. Additionally, there is increasing interest in complementary adjuvant therapy (ie, acupuncture). Adjuvant therapy is a fertile area for research in the surgical management of urolithiasis. The optimal agents have yet to be determined and therefore further investigation is warranted and necessary.

  12. DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

  13. 26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. 1. STONE PORTAL AND CULVERT UNDER SOUTHSIDE DRIVE 30 YDS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STONE PORTAL AND CULVERT UNDER SOUTHSIDE DRIVE 30 YDS. EAST OF JUNCTION WITH WAWONA ROAD (HIGHWAY 49), SOUTH ELEVATION. NOTE STONE FLOORING OUTSIDE OF CULVERT, CONCRETE LINING INSIDE CULVERT. - Bridalveil Fall Culverts, Spanning small watercourses on Southside Drive, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  15. 259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner Overlook. This is a common feature at all overlooks on the parkway. All stone on the parkway, except for the Linn Cove Viaduct was quarried from within fifty miles of where it was used. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  16. Scanning electron microscopic and profilometric study of different sharpening stones.

    PubMed

    Andrade Acevedo, Roberto Antonio; Cardozo, Ana Karina Veloso; Sampaio, José Eduardo César

    2006-01-01

    Scaling and root planing contribute to the recovery of periodontal health. All periodontal instruments loose their fine cutting angle after use. To maintain this angle, correct sharpening is required using specifically designed stones. The characteristics of sharpening stones can be compared to the blade of the instruments and also transported to root surface during instrumentation. Root smoothness is related to the quality of the blade. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 9 sharpening stones by scanning electron microscopic and profilometric analyses. Ceramic and Neumar stones were very fine and both may be recommended to maintain the sharpness of the instruments. Arkansas, Thompson and CE stones presented greater roughness with very regular and round particles, and are suitable for maintenance of the cutting angle. In addition, these stones may be indicated for the routine sharpening of the instruments that are partly dull. Oxide Aluminum, Carborundum and JON stones were the coarsest with large irregular particles and may be indicated for initial sharpening of totally dull instruments with completion of sharpening with finer stones.

  17. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  18. I.F. Stone: The Practice of Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lule, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Identifies four key emphases in life-long radical journalist I. F. Stone's approach to reporting: his strategic approach to documents, his commitment to history, his devotion to on-the-scene research, and his independence from sources. Considers limitations and adaptations of Stone's approach for the practice of reporting and for understanding the…

  19. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  20. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  1. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  2. A multi-year analysis of passage and survival at McNary Dam, 2004-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah S.; Walker, C.E.; Perry, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 6 years (2004–09) of passage and survival data collected at McNary Dam to determine how dam operations and environmental conditions affect passage and survival of juvenile salmonids. A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how environmental variables and dam operations relate to passage behavior of juvenile salmonids at McNary Dam. We used the Cormack-Jolly-Seber release-recapture model to determine how the survival of juvenile salmonids passing through McNary Dam relates to environmental variables and dam operations. Total project discharge and the proportion of flow passing the spillway typically had a positive effect on survival for all species and routes. As the proportion of water through the spillway increased, the number of fish passing the spillway increased, as did overall survival. Additionally, survival generally was higher at night. There was no meaningful difference in survival for fish that passed through the north or south portions of the spillway or powerhouse. Similarly, there was no difference in survival for fish released in the north, middle, or south portions of the tailrace. For subyearling Chinook salmon migrating during the summer season, increased temperatures had a drastic effect on passage and survival. As temperature increased, survival of subyearling Chinook salmon decreased through all passage routes and the number of fish that passed through the turbines increased. During years when the temporary spillway weirs (TSWs) were installed, passage through the spillway increased for spring migrants. However, due to the changes made in the location of the TSW between years and the potential effect of other confounding environmental conditions, it is not certain if the increase in spillway passage was due solely to the presence of the TSWs. The TSWs appeared to improve forebay survival during years when they were operated.

  3. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United

  4. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Haribalan; Jain, Ravi; Douglas, Richard G.; Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery) on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics. PMID:27249219

  5. Deterioration Types of Stones Used in Suleymaniye Mosque (Istanbul, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alptekin Bilen, Candan; Erisis, Sinem; Er, Selman; Yilmaz, Murat; Angi, Serkan; Tugrul, Atiye

    2016-10-01

    Suleymaniye Mosque located in the historic peninsula of Istanbul, is one of the most important monument of classical Ottoman Architecture. Different types of natural stones having varied lithological characteristics were used in the mosque. Chemical composition, mineralogical, petrographic characteristics and external conditions such as atmospheric effects, earthquake and human impacts have deteriorated these stones over time. The aim of this study is to investigate different natural stones and their deterioration types used in Suleymaniye Mosque. According to the results obtained, generally different types of granites, marbles, limestones, pudding stones, porphyry, serpentinite were used in Suleymaniye Mosque. Detachment, material loss, biological colonization, discoloration and deposits have been determined as a deterioration types on these stones.

  6. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland.

  7. Adult chinook salmon passage at Little Goose Dam in relation to spill operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jepson, M.A.; Caudill , C.C.; Clabough, T.S.; Peery, C.A.; Beeman, J.W.; Fielding, S.

    2009-01-01

    Spill patterns at Little Goose Dam in 2007 were modified in anticipation of a spillway weir installation intended to improve downstream passage of juvenile salmonids. However, in spill pattern was associated with reduced daily counts of adult salmon passing the dam. Consequently, the behaviors and upstream passage times of radio-tagged adult spring–summer Chinook salmon were evaluated in response to three spillway discharge patterns at Little Goose Dam during 2008. Simultaneously, tailrace conditions were characterized by monitoring the downstream paths of GPS-equipped drogues. Two of the spill treatments (i.e., Bulk and Alternate) were variations of patterns thought to mimic those produced if a spillway weir was installed. The third treatment (Uniform) was characterized by spilling similar volumes of water through most spillbays.

  8. Berroqueña stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma José

    2014-05-01

    In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroqueña stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcalá Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de España in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 µm. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroqueña stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER

  9. Eucisia schist a natural stone from Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Silvia; Carvalho, Cristina; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the "Xisto" (Portuguese word for "schist", lato sensum) as geological resource of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (TMAD) region, by its economic and social impact. The main outcome of this contribution is to improve the knowledge about mineralogy, fabric, chemistry and technology of the "Eucisia schist", belonging to "Douro Group"- Variscan basement. in order to promote its exploitation and use as a natural stone. The Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (TMAD) region is located in the NW sector of the Hesperian Massif of the Variscan Chain. The studied site is geologically located in Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) corresponding to an Autochthonous terrain during Variscan orogeny, [1, 2 and 3]. The Variscan basement was structured by three sucessive phases of Variscan deformation: D1, D2 and D3. In CIZ only D1 and D3 are represented. The metamorphic evolution of the NW of Hesperian Massif is characterized by a syn-D2 regional orogenic metamorphism of Barrovian type which changed to high temperature and low pressure between D2 and D3 phases. "Eucisia schist" is a stone with very fine grain, gray colour with a brownish to greenish patine, a well-marked foliation, generally parallel to the stratification and a metamorphism of low grade (greenschist facies). "Eucisia schist" under petrographic and geochemical studies corresponds to a phyllite with chlorite. The content of major elements, particularly Al2O3 and trace elements such as V, discriminate the relative abundance of pelitic component on the rock. Higher values of Al2O3 (19.66%) and V (105ppm) correspond to a significant involvement of a clay matrix. The physical and mechanical tests as compressive strength (CS), flexural strength (FS), apparent density (AD), open porosity (OP), water absorption (WA), abrasion resistance (AR) and resistance to ageing by thermal shock (RTS) were determinant to define the suitable applications of studied phyllite. The results concerning the studied stone are

  10. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture

  11. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  12. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Fish Passage Through Bonneville Dam in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Hughes, James S.; Bouchard, Kyle E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Schilt, Carl R.; Hanks, Michael E.; Kim, Jina; Skalski, John R.; Hedgepeth, J.; Nagy, William T.

    2006-12-04

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conduct fish-passage studies at Bonneville Dam in 2005. These studies support the Portland District's goal of maximizing fish-passage efficiency (FPE) and obtaining 95% survival for juvenile salmon passing Bonneville Dam. Major passage routes include 10 turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 1 (B1), an 18-bay spillway, and eight turbines and a sluiceway at Powerhouse 2 (B2). In this report, we present results of two studies related to juvenile salmonid passage at Bonneville Dam. The studies were conducted between April 16 and July 15, 2005, encompassing most of the spring and summer migrations. Studies included evaluations of (1) Project fish passage efficiency and other major passage metrics, and (2) smolt approach and fate at B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C from the B1 forebay. Some of the large appendices are only presented on the compact disk (CD) that accompanies the final report. Examples include six large comma-separated-variable (.CSV) files of hourly fish passage, hourly variances, and Project operations for spring and summer from Appendix E, and large Audio Video Interleave (AVI) files with DIDSON-movie clips of the area upstream of B1 Sluiceway Outlet 3C (Appendix H). Those video clips show smolts approaching the outlet, predators feeding on smolts, and vortices that sometimes entrained approaching smolts into turbines. The CD also includes Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Files (PDF) of the entire report and appendices.

  13. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  14. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  15. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  16. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  17. Effect of wall edge suction on the performance of a short annular dump diffuser with exit passage flow resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of wall edge suction on the performance of a short annular dump diffuser having a perforated plate flow resistance device in the exit passage was evaluated. Testing was conducted with air at near ambient pressure and temperature at inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.27 with suction rates up to 13.5 percent. Results show that pressure recovery downstream of the perforated plate was improved significantly by suction. Optimum performance was obtained with the flow resistance plate located at one inlet passage height downstream of the dump plane.

  18. Frequency domain properties of hydraulic bushing with long and short passages: System identification using theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tan; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-05-01

    Fluid-filled bushings with tunable stiffness and damping properties are now employed in vehicles to improve ride characteristics and to reduce vibration and noise. Since scientific literature on this topic is sparse, a bushing prototype which can provide various combinations of long and short flow passages is designed and built. Several common fluid-filled bushing configurations are experimentally examined for their dynamic stiffness and pressure spectra. Linear time-invariant models (with lumped fluid elements) are proposed for a hydraulic bushing with two parallel flow passages. Next, a model with only a long capillary tube passage (an inertia track) is examined. Further, peak magnitude and loss angle frequencies are analytically found. Several methods for the identification of bushing parameters (up to 50 Hz) are suggested. The linear models are validated by comparing predictions with measured stiffness magnitude and loss angle spectra. Finally, the principal features of a practical device are diagnosed using analytical models and measurements for two excitation amplitudes.

  19. Incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Jaffer Sathick, Insara J; Dhondup, Tsering; Erickson, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the inception of the databases through March 2016. Studies assessing the incidence of kidney stones in kidney transplant recipients were included. We applied a random-effects model to estimate the incidence of kidney stones. RESULTS Twenty one studies with 64416 kidney transplant patients were included in the analyses to assess the incidence of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. The estimated incidence of kidney stones was 1.0% (95%CI: 0.6%-1.4%). The mean duration to diagnosis of kidney stones after kidney transplantation was 28 ± 22 mo. The mean age of patients with kidney stones was 42 ± 7 years. Within reported studies, approximately 50% of kidney transplant recipients with kidney stones were males. 67% of kidney stones were calcium-based stones (30% mixed CaOx/CaP, 27%CaOx and 10%CaP), followed by struvite stones (20%) and uric acid stones (13%). CONCLUSION The estimated incidence of kidney stones in patients after kidney transplantation is 1.0%. Although calcium based stones are the most common kidney stones after transplantation, struvite stones (also known as “infection stones”) are not uncommon in kidney transplant recipients. These findings may impact the prevention and clinical management of kidney stones after kidney transplantation. PMID:28058231

  20. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  1. Laser cleaning of graffiti on stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Victoria; Kostadinov, Ivan; Zahariev, Peter; Grozeva, Margarita; Miloushev, Ilko

    2016-01-01

    In present days graffiti is a common problem that many restorers have to deal with due to both its unaesthetic appearance and damaging nature for the surface beneath. We report laser cleaning of graffiti paints (black, white, blue, green and red) on limestone and granite. The efficiency of two laser systems is compared: high repetition rate (20 kHz) Copper Bromide Vapor Laser (CuBrVL) generating wavelength 510.6 nm and low repetition rate (up to 10 Hz) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generating fundamental wavelength 1064 nm and its second harmonic 532 nm. The surface condition of the stone samples before and after cleaning is evaluated by means of optical microscopy. On that base, suitable working parameters are chosen in order to avoid under- or over-cleaning.

  2. An impacted minor papilla stone in a patient with pancreas divisum that caused acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Isono, Yoshiaki; Matsusaki, Shimpei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Tochio, Tomomasa; Kumazawa, Hiroaki; Sase, Tomohiro; Saito, Tomonori; Okano, Hiroshi; Baba, Youichirou; Mukai, Katsumi

    A 75-year-old woman with epigastric pain was admitted to our emergency department. She was diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis based on the results of blood tests and abdominal computed tomography (CT). The abdominal CT and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed pancreas divisum. Abdominal CT also showed a stone in the minor papilla, with impaction of the stone being the most likely cause of the acute episode. Therefore, endoscopic sphincterotomy of the minor papilla and endoscopic naso-pancreatic duct drainage were performed to remove the stone and decrease the internal pressure of the pancreatic duct. These procedures improved the patient's clinical status. The naso-pancreatic drainage tube was removed, and her pancreatitis has not recurred. Herein, we report a rare case of an impacted minor papilla stone in a patient with pancreas divisum that caused an acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis.

  3. A Comparison of English Reading Passages for Elicitation of Speech Samples from Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    Oral reading passages are often used to elicit speech samples from clinical populations. Few objective guidelines exist, however, to guide one's selection from among the many existing passages. Therefore, this study was undertaken to describe phonetic, lexical, and structural characteristics of 15 oral reading passages. The passages differed…

  4. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  5. Outpatient Transurethral Cystolithotripsy of Large Bladder Stones by Holmium Laser

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Hosein; Razaghi, Mohammad Reza; Javanmard, Babak; Yaghoob, Mohammad; Hasanzadeh Hadad, Amin; Amani, Maryam; Golmohammadi Taklimi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To assessment of the efficacy and safety of transurethral cystolithotripsy of large bladder stones by holmium laser in the outpatient setting. Methods: In a prospective study, 48 consecutive adult patients with large bladder stones, were enrolled for transurethral cystolithotripsy. Patients older than 18 years, with bladder stones larger than 2 cm were enrolled. Urethral stricture, active urinary infection, and any anesthetic contraindications for operation, were the exclusion criteria. Demographic characteristics of patients, outcomes and complications related to operation and post operation period, were recorded. Results: Patients mean age was 46 ± 7.3 years. Male to female ratio was 45/3. Mean body mass index of patients was 28.5 ± 3.5. Mean stone size was 3.7 ± 1.6 cm. Mean operation time was 43.5 ± 15.5 minutes. Nearly complete stone clearance (98.5%) was achieved in all patients. Mean hospital stay was 6.5 ± 1.3 hours. No major complications were seen. Mean visual analog pain score (VAS) was 4.2 ± 2.1 and 1.4 ± 0.6, during and 1 hour after operation, respectively. During follow up of 22.4 ± 12.5 months, recurrence of bladder stone was not seen. No case of urethral stricture was detected. Conclusion: Transurethral holmium laser lithotripsy is an effective and safe alternative in selected patients with large bladder stones. This procedure can be easily performed in the outpatient setting. PMID:27330691

  6. [Gluttony and penance--laxatives and 'liver stones'].

    PubMed

    van Hooft, Jeanin; Oude Elferink, Ronald; Seppen, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    Gluttony is not only a mortal sin, it is also an important cause of medical problems. After sinning a penance must be paid and for this mortal sin the most obvious penance is laxation. Alternative medicine provides help: numerous types of laxative that claim to have positive effects on mental health, detoxification and aid in weight loss are to be found on the internet. The most surprising claim is that laxatives expel gall stones. These 'liver-cleansing' treatments result in the excretion of soft, stone-like structures in the faeces which may be seen by patients as being gall stones. Such 'liver stones' have been described in the literature and it is understood that they develop from the olive oil that is taken with the course of laxatives. That passing such stones is not associated with a reduction in gall stones is hardly surprising. Although laxation has been regarded as beneficial since ancient times, it is not effective in removing gall stones.

  7. Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chowbey, Pradeep; Sharma, Anil; Goswami, Amit; Afaque, Yusuf; Najma, Khoobsurat; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct. CONCLUSION: Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones. PMID:26622110

  8. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  9. Kidney stones and the ketogenic diet: risk factors and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Amitha; Kossoff, Eric H; Furth, Susan L; Pyzik, Paula L; Vining, Eileen P G

    2007-04-01

    A cohort study was performed of children started on the ketogenic diet for intractable epilepsy from 2000 to 2005 (n = 195). Children who developed kidney stones were compared with those without in terms of demographics, urine laboratory markers, and intervention with urine alkalinization (potassium citrate). Thirteen children (6.7%) developed kidney stones. The use of oral potassium citrate significantly decreased the prevalence of stones (3.2% vs 10.0%, P = .049) and increased the mean time on the ketogenic diet before a stone was first noted (260 vs 149 patient-months, P = .29). The prevalence of kidney stones did not correlate with younger age or use of carbonic anhydrate inhibitors (eg, topiramate or zonisamide) but trended toward higher correlation with the presence of hypercalciuria (92% vs 71%, P = .08). No child stopped the diet due to stones; in fact, the total diet duration was longer (median 26 vs 12 months, P < .001). Kidney stones continue to occur in approximately 1 in 20 children on the ketogenic diet, and no statistically significant risk factors were identified in this cohort. As oral potassium citrate was preventative, prospective studies using this medication empirically are warranted.

  10. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-07

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

  11. Clearance of refractory bile duct stones with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R; Jenkins, A; Thompson, R; Ede, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used since the mid-1980s to fragment bile duct stones which cannot be removed endoscopically. Early machines required general anaesthesia and immersion in a waterbath.
AIMS—To investigate the effectiveness of the third generation Storz Modulith SL20 lithotriptor in fragmenting bile duct stones that could not be cleared by mechanical lithotripsy.
METHODS—Eighty three patients with retained bile duct stones were treated. All patients received intravenous benzodiazepine sedation and pethidine analgesia. Stones were targeted by fluoroscopy following injection of contrast via a nasobiliary drain or T tube. Residual fragments were cleared at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
RESULTS—Complete stone clearance was achieved in 69 (83%) patients and in 18 of 24 patients (75%) who required more than one ESWL treatment. Stone clearance was achieved in all nine patients (100%) with intrahepatic stones and also in nine patients (100%) referred following surgical exploration of the bile duct. Complications included six cases of cholangitis and one perinephric haematoma which resolved spontaneously.
CONCLUSION—Using the Storz Modulith, 83% of refractory bile duct calculi were cleared with a low rate of complications. These results confirm that ESWL is an excellent alternative to surgery in those patients in whom endoscopic techniques have failed.


Keywords: lithotripsy; bile duct calculi; extracorporeal lithotripsy PMID:11034593

  12. Accurate stone analysis: the impact on disease diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Neil S; Mandel, Ian C; Kolbach-Mandel, Ann M

    2017-02-01

    This manuscript reviews the requirements for acceptable compositional analysis of kidney stones using various biophysical methods. High-resolution X-ray powder diffraction crystallography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are the only acceptable methods in our labs for kidney stone analysis. The use of well-constructed spectral reference libraries is the basis for accurate and complete stone analysis. The literature included in this manuscript identify errors in most commercial laboratories and in some academic centers. We provide personal comments on why such errors are occurring at such high rates, and although the work load is rather large, it is very worthwhile in providing accurate stone compositions. We also provide the results of our almost 90,000 stone analyses and a breakdown of the number of components we have observed in the various stones. We also offer advice on determining the method used by the various FTIR equipment manufacturers who also provide a stone analysis library so that the FTIR users can feel comfortable in the accuracy of their reported results. Such an analysis on the accuracy of the individual reference libraries could positively influence the reduction in their respective error rates.

  13. Epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Coward, R; Peters, C; Duffy, P; Corry, D; Kellett, M; Choong, S; van't, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: The previous epidemiological study of paediatric nephrolithiasis in Britain was conducted more than 30 years ago. Aims: To examine the presenting features, predisposing factors, and treatment strategies used in paediatric stones presenting to a British centre over the past five years. Methods: A total of 121 children presented with a urinary tract renal stone, to one adult and one paediatric centre, over a five year period (1997–2001). All children were reviewed in a dedicated stone clinic and had a full infective and metabolic stone investigative work up. Treatment was assessed by retrospective hospital note review. Results: A metabolic abnormality was found in 44% of children, 30% were classified as infective, and 26% idiopathic. Bilateral stones on presentation occurred in 26% of the metabolic group compared to 12% in the infective/idiopathic group (odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.03 to 7.02). Coexisting urinary tract infection was common (49%) in the metabolic group. Surgically, minimally invasive techniques (lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and endoscopy) were used in 68% of patients. Conclusions: There has been a shift in the epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK over the past 30 years. Underlying metabolic causes are now the most common but can be masked by coexisting urinary tract infection. Treatment has progressed, especially surgically, with sophisticated minimally invasive techniques now employed. All children with renal stones should have a metabolic screen. PMID:14612355

  14. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements Inside the Human Nasal Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James; Hopkins, Lisa; Sreenivas, K. R.; Wexler, Anthony; Prasad, Ajay

    1998-11-01

    In some applications (such as biological flows) the flow passage exhibits a highly complex geometry. A method is described by which such a flow passage is rendered as a three-dimensional model. A computer model of an adult human nasal cavity was generated from digitized computed tomography (CT) scan images, using the I-DEAS modeling package, and was converted to a stereolithographic file for rapid prototyping. Rapid prototyping yielded a water soluble negative of the airway. Silicone elastomer was poured over the negative, which was washed out after the silicone hardened. This technique can be used to obtain an accurate, transparent, silicone, replicate model of any arbitrary geometry. If the working fluid is refractive-index matched to the silicone, it is possible to obtain PIV measurements in any cross-section. We demonstrate the technique by creating a double-scale model of the human nasal passage, and obtaining PIV measurements.

  15. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-10-01

    In the following discussion I suggest that the reason there is no consensus on whether the passage of time is physical is that our current best theory of spacetime, general relativity, lacks such a concept. This means that the sense-experience of passage, appealed to by those who claim it is physical, cannot be properly expressed: it is not even a fact. I draw attention to work in the literature on a model of a growing, granular spacetime--arising within a proposed theory of quantum spacetime called causal set theory--that does contain the concept of passage as the coming into being or birth of atoms of spacetime. I present an example from the history of science of a sense-experience that cannot be understood within one theory but is revealed to be an important fact within a better successor theory.

  16. Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dridi, G.; Guerin, S.; Hakobyan, V.; Jauslin, H. R.; Eleuch, H.

    2009-10-15

    We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on parallel adiabatic passage by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3{pi}, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically picosecond and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.

  17. The effect of cell passage number on osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics of D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kwist, K; Bridges, W C; Burg, K J L

    2016-08-01

    Cell line passage number is an important consideration when designing an experiment. At higher passages, it is generally understood that cell health begins to decline and, when this occurs, the result can be variable data. However, there are no specific guidelines regarding optimal passage range, and this information is dependent on cell type. To explore these variabilities, low passage D1 cells were thawed (passage 3) and passaged serially until a much higher number (passage 34). Samples were taken every five passages and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase and triglyceride; also, the gene expression of both adipogenic and osteogenic markers was tested. The results indicate that the growth rate of these cells did slow down after passage 30. However, expression of the osteogenic characteristics seemed to cycle, with the highest levels seen at passage 4 and 24. The adipocyte expression levels remained the same throughout the study.

  18. Epidemiology of bladder stone of children: precipitating events.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2016-04-01

    Urological surgery evolved from the ancient practice of removing primary bladder stones from young boys. Bladder stones, once ubiquitous, long ago disappeared from the developed world while pockets of disease still exist in developing countries. Two epidemiological studies identified as precipitating events of bladder stone formation the practice of substitutive carbohydrate feedings to newborns. In Southeast Asia, masticated rice is fed to newborns in stone-endemic villages while in England, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries pap or panada was used to hand-feed infants when breast milk was not available. Fresh milk from dairy animals was deemed preferable to pap. Lack of access to dairy cattle enhanced need for hand-feeding. In an epidemiological study, during mid-nineteenth century in England the prevalence of dairy cattle was inversely related to the prevalence of bladder stones. These epidemiological data relate stone formation to nutrition during the first few days or weeks of life. It is surmised that frequent use of or exclusive reliance on carbohydrate foods replacing milk feedings leads to a relative dietary deficiency in phosphates and the formation of insoluble urinary salts. Girls, with short, nontortuous urethras may pass much of the calculus debris without retaining nuclei in the bladder. In some males, stone nuclei are formed and retained. The growth of stones is determined thereafter by the net effect of depository and resorptive mechanisms operating over time distributing over many years the age that patients present for surgical stone removal. The role of early introduction of carbohydrate foods and reduced milk intake of neonates has not been incorporated into recommendations for feeding newborns in endemic countries nor comprehensively modeled in animals.

  19. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  20. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.