Does Iron Supplementation Improve Performance in Iron-Deficient Nonanemic Athletes?
Rubeor, Amity; Goojha, Carmen; Manning, Jeffrey; White, Jordan
Supplementing iron-deficient nonanemic (IDNA) athletes with iron to improve performance is a trend in endurance sports. To investigate the benefits of iron on performance, identify a ferritin level cutoff in IDNA athletes, and determine which iron supplementation regimens are most effective. A search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, and Cochrane databases was performed in 2014 including all articles. Citations of pertinent review articles were also searched. In 2017, the search was repeated. Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 3 evidence, written in the English language, that researched iron supplementation in nonanemic athletes and reported performance outcomes. Systematic review. Level 3. The search terms used included athletic performance, resistance training, athletes, physical endurance, iron, iron deficiency, supplement, non-anemic, low ferritin, ferritin, ferritin blood level, athletes, and sports. A total of 1884 studies were identified through the initial database search, and 13 were identified through searching references of relevant review articles. A subsequent database search identified 46 studies. Following exclusions, 12 studies with a total of 283 participants were included. Supplementing IDNA athletes with iron improved performance in 6 studies (146 participants) and did not improve performance in the other 6 studies (137 participants). In the 6 studies that showed improved performance with iron supplementation, all used a ferritin level cutoff of ≤20 μg/L for treatment. Additionally, all studies that showed improved performance used oral iron as a supplement. The evidence is equivocal as to whether iron supplementation in IDNA athletes improves athletic performance. Supplementing athletes with ferritin levels <20 μg/L may be more beneficial than supplementing athletes with higher baseline ferritin levels.
Sensory enhancing insoles improve athletic performance during a hexagonal agility task.
Miranda, Daniel L; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Gravelle, Denise C; Petersen, Kelsey; Ryzman, Rachael; Niemi, James; Lesniewski-Laas, Nicholas
Athletes incorporate afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors of their plantar feet to provide information about posture, stability, and joint position. Sub-threshold stochastic resonance (SR) sensory enhancing insoles have been shown to improve balance and proprioception in young and elderly participant populations. Balance and proprioception are correlated with improved athletic performance, such as agility. Agility is defined as the ability to quickly change direction. An athlete's agility is commonly evaluated during athletic performance testing to assess their ability to participate in a competitive sporting event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SR insoles during a hexagonal agility task routinely used by coaches and sports scientists. Twenty recreational athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Each athlete was asked to perform a set of hexagonal agility trials while SR stimulation was either on or off. Vicon motion capture was used to measure feet position during six successful trials for each stimulation condition. Stimulation condition was randomized in a pairwise fashion. The study outcome measures were the task completion time and the positional accuracy of footfalls. Pairwise comparisons revealed a 0.12s decrease in task completion time (p=0.02) with no change in hopping accuracy (p=0.99) when SR stimulation was on. This is the first study to show athletic performance benefits while wearing proprioception and balance improving equipment on healthy participants. With further development, a self-contained sensory enhancing insole device could be used by recreational and professional athletes to improve movements that require rapid changes in direction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sleep and Athletic Performance.
Watson, Andrew M
Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.
Sleep of professional athletes: Underexploited potential to improve health and performance.
Tuomilehto, Henri; Vuorinen, Ville-Pekka; Penttilä, Elina; Kivimäki, Marko; Vuorenmaa, Markus; Venojärvi, Mika; Airaksinen, Olavi; Pihlajamäki, Jussi
Sleep disorders have become increasingly prevalent affecting health and working ability. Restorative sleep may be considered important for athletes' successful recovery and performance. However, some athletes seem to experience major problems in sleeping. Thus far, there is limited scientific information about their sleep. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of sleep and the prevalence of sleep disorders as well as the impact of a structured sleep counselling protocol in professional athletes. A total of 107 professional ice hockey players participated in the study. The exploratory observational 1-year follow-up study consisted of questionnaire-based sleep assessment followed by general sleep counselling and, when needed, polysomnography and an individual treatment plan. One in every four players was found to have a significant problem in sleeping. All athletes considered sleep essential for their health and three in every four players considered that counselling would improve their performance. Counselling and individual treatment were found to improve significantly the quality of sleep with the mean alteration of 0.6 (95% CI 0.2-1.0, P = 0.004) in a scale from 0 to 10. Our results support that sleep problems are common in professional athletes. However, systematic examination, counselling and individual treatment planning can improve the quality of their sleep.
Four-Week Unstructured Break Improved Athletic Performance in Collegiate Rugby Players.
Jensen, Courtney D; Gleason, Derrick; VanNess, Mark
Jensen, CD, Gleason, D, and VanNess, JM. Four-week unstructured break improved athletic performance in collegiate rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1671-1677, 2018-This study analyzed the changes in athletic performance and anthropometric characteristics in collegiate male club rugby athletes (n = 14) after a 4-week winter break. All measurements were collected before and after the break. Body composition was assessed by body mass index and hydrostatic weighing. Performance measurements were as follows: V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, vertical jump, 10-yard sprint, squat max, and bench press max. Before testing, each subject was acclimated to the protocols to reduce learning effects. During the 4-week break, no workouts were provided for the athletes; it was unsupervised and unstructured. Participants were required to maintain and submit self-reported nutritional and activity logs during this period. After the break, the athletes demonstrated a 5.0% improvement in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (absolute increase of 2.25 ml·kg·min), 6.8% improvement in vertical jump (1.50 inches), and a 14.3% increase in squat max (38.64 lb). Although increases in body mass (1.0%) were not significant, the body fat percentage exhibited a relative increase of 19.3% (absolute change from 13.35 to 15.93%). A significant discriminate function analysis indicated statistical differences between groups based on these variables. Self-reported behavior logs confirmed participation in >3 days of moderate to intense physical activity per week but somewhat poor dietary habits. These results indicate that collegiate rugby athletes may not need prescribed exercise routines during seasonal breaks in the athletic schedule. However, it may be beneficial to provide structured nutritional advice during unsupervised periods.
A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.
García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á
García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES < 0.4). No changes (p ≥ 0.05, ES < 0.4) were observed in RPE, HRmean, and BLa. A linear regression analysis showed that ΔCMJ predicted both the ΔRu_time (R = 0.559; p = 0.008) and the ΔOverall_time (R = 0.391; p = 0.048). This low-volume, HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and
An Examination of Differences in Division I FBS Student-Athlete Academic and Athletic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nichols, Marissa K.
The student-athlete literature is rife with studies that examine the factors that appear to improve or inhibit academic or athletic performance. However, internal characteristics that may influence variations in performance have been understudied, and athletic performance tends to be examined separately from academic performance. This study…
Performance-enhancing drug use in young athletes.
Laos, Carla; Metzl, Jordan D
This article explores the issue of performance-enhancing drug use in adolescent athletes. The article describes current substances that are being used by adolescent athletes, explains their positive and negative effects, examines factors contributing to their increased use in adolescent athletes, and discusses approaches to educating adolescents about alternate means of enhancing their athletic performance. It is hoped that this information will be useful toward encouraging young athletes to pursue, safe, healthy, and natural means of performance enhancement, such as practice and strength training, to improve sports performance in a safe, effective manner.
Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.
Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y
Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p < 0.001, d = 0.35), whereas Tmax at 90% MAS was 42% longer (p < 0.001, d = 0.74). Sprint interval training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.
Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes
Oranchuk, Dustin J.; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y.
Abstract Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617–623, 2018—Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4–7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p < 0.001, d = 0.35), whereas Tmax at 90% MAS was 42% longer (p < 0.001, d = 0.74). Sprint interval training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes. PMID:29076961
Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walters, Peter Hudson
Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…
Caffeine improves muscular performance in elite Brazilian Jiu-jitsu athletes.
Diaz-Lara, Francisco Javier; Del Coso, Juan; García, Jose Manuel; Portillo, Luis J; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier
Scientific information about the effects of caffeine intake on combat sport performance is scarce and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of caffeine to improve Brazilian Jiu-jitsu (BJJ)-specific muscular performance. Fourteen male and elite BJJ athletes (29.2 ± 3.3 years; 71.3 ± 9.1 kg) participated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover experiment. In two different sessions, BJJ athletes ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo. After 60 min, they performed a handgrip maximal force test, a countermovement jump, a maximal static lift test and bench-press tests consisting of one-repetition maximum, power-load, and repetitions to failure. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeine increased: hand grip force in both hands (50.9 ± 2.9 vs. 53.3 ± 3.1 kg; respectively p < .05), countermovement jump height (40.6 ± 2.6 vs. 41.7 ± 3.1 cm; p = .02), and time recorded in the maximal static lift test (54.4 ± 13.4 vs. 59.2 ± 11.9 s; p < .01).The caffeine also increased the one-repetition maximum (90.5 ± 7.7 vs. 93.3 ± 7.5 kg; p = .02), maximal power obtained during the power-load test (750.5 ± 154.7 vs. 826.9 ± 163.7 W; p < .01) and mean power during the bench-press exercise test to failure (280.2 ± 52.5 vs. 312.2 ± 78.3 W; p = .04). In conclusion, the pre-exercise ingestion of 3 mg kg(-1) of caffeine increased dynamic and isometric muscular force, power, and endurance strength in elite BJJ athletes. Thus, caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in BJJ.
High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.
Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (P<0.05), relative peak power (P<0.05), and mean power (P<0.05) were observed only in HIIT group compared to HICR group. A greater improvement of aerobic capacity was observed in HIIT group (8.8%) compared to the HICR group (1.7%). In relation to physical fitness, the HIIT group improved in the vertical jump while the HICR group did not change. Both the HIIT and HICR groups showed greater improvements in T-test and sit-ups during the intervention period. This study shows the effectiveness of eleven sessions of HIIT in producing significant improvements in anaerobic capacity relevant to successful Taekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.
Strength training for athletes: does it really help sports performance?
McGuigan, Michael R; Wright, Glenn A; Fleck, Steven J
The use of strength training designed to increase underlying strength and power qualities in elite athletes in an attempt to improve athletic performance is commonplace. Although the extent to which strength and power are important to sports performance may vary depending on the activity, the associations between these qualities and performance have been well documented in the literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of strength training research to determine if it really helps improve athletic performance. While there is a need for more research with elite athletes to investigate the relationship between strength training and athletic performance, there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation in team sports.
Somatotype, training and performance in Ironman athletes.
Kandel, Michel; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Clarys, Peter
The aim of this study was to describe the physiques of Ironman athletes and the relationship between Ironman's performance, training and somatotype. A total of 165 male and 22 female competitors of the Ironman Switzerland volunteered in this study. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured, and 12 training and history variables were recorded with a questionnaire. The variables were compared with the race performance. The somatotype was a strong predictor of Ironman performance (R=0.535; R(2)=0.286; sign. p<0.001) in male athletes. The endomorphy component was the most substantial predictor. Reductions in endomorphy by one standard deviation as well as an increased ectomorphy value by one standard deviation lead to significant and substantial improvement in Ironman performance (28.1 and 29.8 minutes, respectively). An ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could be established. Age and quantitative training effort were not significant predictors on Ironman performance. In female athletes, no relationship between somatotype, training and performance was found. The somatotype of a male athlete defines for 28.6% variance in Ironman performance. Athletes not having an ideal somatotype of 1.7-4.9-2.8 could improve their performance by altering their somatotype. Lower rates in endomorphy, as well as higher rates in ectomorphy, resulted in a significant better race performance. The impact of somatotype was the most distinguished on the run discipline and had a much greater impact on the total race time than the quantitative training effort. These findings could not be found in female athletes.
A novel sleep optimisation programme to improve athletes' well-being and performance.
Van Ryswyk, Emer; Weeks, Richard; Bandick, Laura; O'Keefe, Michaela; Vakulin, Andrew; Catcheside, Peter; Barger, Laura; Potter, Andrew; Poulos, Nick; Wallace, Jarryd; Antic, Nick A
To improve well-being and performance indicators in a group of Australian Football League (AFL) players via a six-week sleep optimisation programme. Prospective intervention study following observations suggestive of reduced sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness in an AFL group. Athletes from the Adelaide Football Club were invited to participate if they had played AFL senior-level football for 1-5 years, or if they had excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] >10), measured via ESS. An initial education session explained normal sleep needs, and how to achieve increased sleep duration and quality. Participants (n = 25) received ongoing feedback on their sleep, and a mid-programme education and feedback session. Sleep duration, quality and related outcomes were measured during week one and at the conclusion of the six-week intervention period using sleep diaries, actigraphy, ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Profile of Mood States, Training Distress Scale, Perceived Stress Scale and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Sleep diaries demonstrated an increase in total sleep time of approximately 20 min (498.8 ± 53.8 to 518.7 ± 34.3; p < .05) and a 2% increase in sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). There was a corresponding increase in vigour (p < 0.001) and decrease in fatigue (p < 0.05). Improvements in measures of sleep efficiency, fatigue and vigour indicate that a sleep optimisation programme may improve athletes' well-being. More research is required into the effects of sleep optimisation on athletic performance.
Application of the Athlete's Performance Passport for Doping Control: A Case Report.
Iljukov, Sergei; Bermon, Stephane; Schumacher, Yorck O
The efficient use of testing resources is a key issue in the fight against doping. The longitudinal tracking of sporting performances to identify unusual improvements possibly caused by doping, so-called "athlete's performance passport" (APP) is a new concept to improve targeted anti-doping testing. In fact, unusual performances by an athlete would trigger a more thorough testing program. In the present case report, performance data is modeled using the critical power concept for a group of athletes based on their past performances. By these means, an athlete with unusual deviations from his predicted performances was identified. Subsequent target testing using blood testing and the athlete biological passport resulted in an anti-doping rule violation procedure and suspension of the athlete. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the APP approach where athlete's performance is monitored and might serve as an example for the practical implementation of the method.
Application of the Athlete's Performance Passport for Doping Control: A Case Report
Iljukov, Sergei; Bermon, Stephane; Schumacher, Yorck O.
The efficient use of testing resources is a key issue in the fight against doping. The longitudinal tracking of sporting performances to identify unusual improvements possibly caused by doping, so-called “athlete's performance passport” (APP) is a new concept to improve targeted anti-doping testing. In fact, unusual performances by an athlete would trigger a more thorough testing program. In the present case report, performance data is modeled using the critical power concept for a group of athletes based on their past performances. By these means, an athlete with unusual deviations from his predicted performances was identified. Subsequent target testing using blood testing and the athlete biological passport resulted in an anti-doping rule violation procedure and suspension of the athlete. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the APP approach where athlete's performance is monitored and might serve as an example for the practical implementation of the method. PMID:29651247
Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower-extremity biomechanics in female athletes.
Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Palumbo, Joseph P; Hewett, Timothy E
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive neuromuscular training program on measures of performance and lower-extremity movement biomechanics in female athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements in measures of performance would be demonstrated concomitant with improved biomechanical measures related to anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Forty-one female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (age, 15.3 +/- 0.9 years; weight, 64.8 +/- 9.96 kg; height, 171.2 +/- 7.21 cm) underwent 6 weeks of training that included 4 main components (plyometric and movement, core strengthening and balance, resistance training, and speed training). Twelve age-, height-, and weight-matched controls underwent the same testing protocol twice 6 weeks apart. Trained athletes demonstrated increased predicted 1 repetition maximum squat (92%) and bench press (20%). Right and left single-leg hop distance increased 10.39 cm and 8.53 cm, respectively, and vertical jump also increased from 39.9 +/- 0.9 cm to 43.2 +/- 1.1 cm with training. Speed in a 9.1-m sprint improved from 1.80 +/- 0.02 seconds to 1.73 +/- 0.01 seconds. Pre- and posttest 3-dimensional motion analysis demonstrated increased knee flexion-extension range of motion during the landing phase of a vertical jump (right, 71.9 +/- 1.4 degrees to 76.9 +/- 1.4 degrees ; left, 71.3 +/- 1.5 degrees to 77.3 +/- 1.4 degrees ). Training decreased knee valgus (28%) and varus (38%) torques. Control subjects did not demonstrate significant alterations during the 6-week interval. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the combination of multiple-injury prevention-training components into a comprehensive program improves measures of performance and movement biomechanics.
Adolescent athletes and the demand and supply of drugs to improve their performance.
Laure, Patrick; Binsinger, Caroline
The aim of this study was to gather information into the principal methods and means employed to supply adolescents with doping agents and others substances used to improve their sporting performance. We conducted a nation wide study in France among adolescent athletes, using a self-completed questionnaire. Exploitable questionnaires (n = 6402) were returned, corresponding to 48.9% for the girls and 51.1% for the boys, both aged on average from 16.1 ± 2.2 years. These adolescents practise on average 10.0 ± 5.2 hours of sport per week. 21.9% participate on a national or international competition level. Of our respondents, 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.5% - 4.5%) say they have been enticed into using products which are prohibited for athletes. 10.3% of the adolescents say that they have received substances to improve their performance at least once from an average of two different people. It was mostly a friend, their parents and the family doctor. On average, in 33.2% of the cases, the adolescent received the product without asking for it, and in nearly half the cases (46.6%), the adolescent paid for the product. We feel that it is necessary to better understand the ways in which this black market functions: for example; the initial sources of the products sold, the number and the 'profiles' of the dealers, the general organisation of the market and the sums of money involved. Key PointsThis study confirms the existence of a 'black market' for products to improve performance, which is directed at adolescent athletes engaged in high-level competitions.This market is characterized by its ease of accessibility and also the diversity of its 'suppliers', the two main sources being friends and parents.
Balance ability and athletic performance.
The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for
Genetic influence on athletic performance.
Guth, Lisa M; Roth, Stephen M
To summarize the existing literature on the genetics of athletic performance, with particular consideration for the relevance to young athletes. Two gene variants, ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X, have been consistently associated with endurance (ACE I/I) and power-related (ACTN3 R/R) performance, though neither can be considered predictive. The role of genetic variation in injury risk and outcomes is more sparsely studied, but genetic testing for injury susceptibility could be beneficial in protecting young athletes from serious injury. Little information on the association of genetic variation with athletic performance in young athletes is available; however, genetic testing is becoming more popular as a means of talent identification. Despite this increase in the use of such testing, evidence is lacking for the usefulness of genetic testing over traditional talent selection techniques in predicting athletic ability, and careful consideration should be given to the ethical issues surrounding such testing in children. A favorable genetic profile, when combined with an optimal training environment, is important for elite athletic performance; however, few genes are consistently associated with elite athletic performance, and none are linked strongly enough to warrant their use in predicting athletic success.
Genetic influence on athletic performance
Guth, Lisa M.; Roth, Stephen M.
Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature on the genetics of athletic performance, with particular consideration for the relevance to young athletes. Recent findings Two gene variants, ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X, have been consistently associated with endurance (ACE I/I) and power-related (ACTN3 R/R) performance, though neither can be considered predictive. The role of genetic variation in injury risk and outcomes is more sparsely studied, but genetic testing for injury susceptibility could be beneficial in protecting young athletes from serious injury. Little information on the association of genetic variation with athletic performance in young athletes is available; however, genetic testing is becoming more popular as a means of talent identification. Despite this increase in the use of such testing, evidence is lacking for the usefulness of genetic testing over traditional talent selection techniques in predicting athletic ability, and careful consideration should be given to the ethical issues surrounding such testing in children. Summary A favorable genetic profile, when combined with an optimal training environment, is important for elite athletic performance; however, few genes are consistently associated with elite athletic performance, and none are linked strongly enough to warrant their use in predicting athletic success. PMID:24240283
Effects of Resistance Training in Youth Athletes on Muscular Fitness and Athletic Performance: A Conceptual Model for Long-Term Athlete Development
Granacher, Urs; Lesinski, Melanie; Büsch, Dirk; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Prieske, Olaf; Puta, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert; Behm, David G.
During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD), resistance training (RT) is an important means for (i) stimulating athletic development, (ii) tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii) inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i) to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii) to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii) to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research. In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating) training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity, and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i) to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females), (ii) to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters), and (iii) to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes. PMID:27242538
Improving the TAMI for use with athletes.
Madan, Christopher R; Singhal, Anthony
Athletes have been shown to have greater movement imagery abilities than non-athletes. However, since these differences were observed using questionnaires where participants subjectively judged the vividness of performing imagined movements, it is possible that responses could be biased by other factors such as social desirability. One possible solution is to use an objective test, such as the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI; Madan, C. R., & Singhal, A. (2013). Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45, 153-166.). Unfortunately, young adults perform relatively well on the TAMI, leaving little room for statistical sensitivity in observing higher scores. Here we propose an alternate scoring method for the TAMI that resolves this limitation by weighing items according to their difficulty. We apply this scoring method to existing data and show that this improves the TAMI's selectivity to measuring ability in movement imagery, rather than related imagery processes. Thus, we have successfully improved the TAMI to be more suited for use with athletic populations.
Sleep, circadian rhythms, and athletic performance.
Thun, Eirunn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Flo, Elisabeth; Harris, Anette; Pallesen, Ståle
Sleep deprivation and time of day are both known to influence performance. A growing body of research has focused on how sleep and circadian rhythms impact athletic performance. This review provides a systematic overview of this research. We searched three different databases for articles on these issues and inspected relevant reference lists. In all, 113 articles met our inclusion criteria. The most robust result is that athletic performance seems to be best in the evening around the time when the core body temperature typically is at its peak. Sleep deprivation was negatively associated with performance whereas sleep extension seems to improve performance. The effects of desynchronization of circadian rhythms depend on the local time at which performance occurs. The review includes a discussion of differences regarding types of skills involved as well as methodological issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.
Mikicin, Mirosław; Kowalczyk, Marek
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.
Plyometric Training Effects on Athletic Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes: A Systematic Review.
Bedoya, Abigail A; Miltenberger, Matthew R; Lopez, Rebecca M
The purpose of this systematic review was to critically analyze the literature to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on athletic performance in youth soccer athletes. A total of 7 studies were included in this review after meeting the following criteria: (a) used plyometric training programs to assess athletic performance, (b) subjects were soccer athletes aged preadolescent up to 17 years, and (c) were published from 2000 to January 2014. Study methods were assessed using the PEDro scale with scores ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed similarities and differences in methodologies and procedures among the included studies. Athletic performance consisting of kicking distance, speed, jumping ability, and agility significantly improved because of plyometric training interventions. The current evidence suggests that plyometric training should be completed 2 days per week for 8-10 weeks during soccer practice with a 72-hour rest period between plyometric training days. The initial number of foot contacts should be 50-60 per session and increase to no more than 80-120 foot contacts per session for this age group to prevent overuse injuries. A total of 3-4 plyometric training exercises should be performed 2-4 sets for 6-15 repetitions per training session. The evidence and the literature suggest that plyometric training for this age group should only be implemented using recommended safety guidelines such as those published by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the National Strength and Conditioning Association and under appropriate supervision by trained personnel.
Nitrate supplementation improves physical performance specifically in non-athletes during prolonged open-ended tests: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Campos, Helton O; Drummond, Lucas R; Rodrigues, Quezia T; Machado, Frederico S M; Pires, Washington; Wanner, Samuel P; Coimbra, Cândido C
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v. graded-exercise tests) influence the effects of NO3 - supplementation on performance. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted and reported according to the guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. A systematic search of electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus and ProQuest, was performed in August 2017. On the basis of the search and inclusion criteria, fifty-four and fifty-three placebo-controlled studies evaluating the effects of NO3 - supplementation on performance in humans were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. NO3 - supplementation was ergogenic in non-athletes (mean effect size (ES) 0·25; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·38), particularly in evaluations of performance using long-duration open-ended tests (ES 0·47; 95 % CI 0·23, 0·71). In contrast, NO3 - supplementation did not enhance the performance of athletes (ES 0·04; 95 % CI -0·05, 0·15). After objectively classifying the participants into different performance levels, the frequency of trials showing ergogenic effects in individuals classified at lower levels was higher than that in individuals classified at higher levels. Thus, the present study indicates that dietary NO3 - supplementation improves physical performance in non-athletes, particularly during long-duration open-ended tests.
Sleep-hygiene Education improves Sleep Indices in Elite Female Athletes.
O'Donnell, Shannon; Driller, Matthew W
The importance of sleep in providing psychophysiological recovery in elite athletes is often overlooked. In other populations (eg shift workers and adolescent students), sleep hygiene education may serve to acutely improve sleep indices. However, this is yet to be examined in an elite athlete setting. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a sleep hygiene education session on sleep indices in elite athletes. The study involved 26 elite female netball athletes performing one week of baseline sleep monitoring (PRE), followed by a sleep hygiene education session and a further week of sleep monitoring (POST) in a single group, pre- post design. The sleep hygiene education session focused on providing information on the importance of sleep for athletes and practical tips to improve sleep quality and quantity. Sleep monitoring was performed using wrist actigraphy to assess total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%), total time in bed (TTB), sleep latency (SL), wake episodes per night (WE), sleep onset variance (SOV), wake variance (WV) wake episode duration (WED), sleep onset time (SOT), and wake time (WT). There was a significant improvement in TST (mean ± SD; 22.3 ± 39.9 minutes, p=0.01) PRE to POST sleep hygiene education session, the difference associated with a small effect (ES: 0.39). A significant improvement PRE to POST was found for WV (p=0.03), and for WED (p=0.03). There were no significant differences for SE%, SL, TTB, WE, SOV, SOT, WT. The current study reports that a sleep hygiene education session is effective in improving sleep quantity in elite female athletes in an acute setting.
The Effects of Isolated and Integrated ‘Core Stability’ Training on Athletic Performance Measures
Reed, Casey A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Background Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. Objective This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. Data sources A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June2011). Study selection A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. Results In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Limitations Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic
Sleep Interventions Designed to Improve Athletic Performance and Recovery: A Systematic Review of Current Approaches.
Bonnar, Daniel; Bartel, Kate; Kakoschke, Naomi; Lang, Christin
Athletes experience various situations and conditions that can interfere with their sleep, which is crucial for optimal psychological and physiological recovery as well as subsequent performance. Conventional sleep screening and intervention approaches may not be efficacious for athletes given their lifestyle, the demands of training and travel associated with interstate/international competition. The present systematic review aimed to summarize and evaluate sleep intervention studies targeting subsequent performance and recovery in competitive athletes. Based on the findings, a secondary aim was to outline a possible sleep intervention for athletes, including recommendations for content, mode of delivery and evaluation. A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines in May 2016 with an update completed in September 2017. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria comprising a total of 218 participants in the age range of 18-24 years with athletes from various sports (e.g., swimming, soccer, basketball, tennis). A modified version of the quality assessment scale developed by Abernethy and Bleakley was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. The included studies implemented several sleep interventions, including sleep extension and napping, sleep hygiene, and post-exercise recovery strategies. Evidence suggests that sleep extension had the most beneficial effects on subsequent performance. Consistent with previous research, these results suggest that sleep plays an important role in some, but not all, aspects of athletes' performance and recovery. Future researchers should aim to conduct sleep interventions among different athlete populations, compare results, and further establish guidelines and intervention tools for athletes to address their specific sleep demands and disturbances.
[Athletic performance, self-esteem and temperamental profile : Which relationship?].
Masmoudi, Jawaher; Trigui, Dorsa; Feki, Ines; Bâati, Imen; Jaoua, Abdelaziz
Several authors emphasize the close relationship between self-esteem and athletic performance; such a relationship may raise the following question: by saying "strong" or "without any physical condition", is it a fair presentation of the individual's abilities or he reveals the most fundamental aspects of his personality, such as emotional temperament? To evaluate self-esteem, physical self and temperamental profile in a group of sportsmen, and to look for a relationship between these variables and athletic performance. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study in 80 young handball players of the "senior" category. We assessed self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, physical self-using the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI), and temperamental profile using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Athletic performance was evaluated by the team coach by means of a score ranging from 1 to 10. High self-esteem was correlated to female gender (p=0.03), to an early start of physical activity (p<0.01), and certain dimensions of the physical self: perceived physical value (p=0.02), appearance (p<0.01), and the global score (p=0.01). Athletic performance was correlated to high self-esteem (p<0.01) and to two dimensions of the physical self: the global score (p=0.01) and the perceived physical value (p<0.01). Hyperthymic temperament was associated with high self-esteem (p=0.001). Good athletic performance was associated with hyperthymic (p<0.01) and cyclothymic (p<0.01) temperament. Low athletic performance was associated with depressive (p=0.04) and irritable (p=0.01) temperament. Our study shows the close relationship between selfesteem, temperamental profile and athletic performance. We suggest that the intervention of a psychiatrist or a psychologist aimed at improving sportsmen's' self-esteem might help to achieve better athletic performance. In this intervention, the individual temperamental
[Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].
Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B
In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, P<0.0001). Fifty-six athletes (41 %) subjectively estimated their sleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS
Athletic performance outcomes following lumbar discectomy in professional basketball players.
Anakwenze, Okechukwu A; Namdari, Surena; Auerbach, Joshua D; Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary D; Lonner, Baron S; Huffman, G R; Sennett, Brian J
Retrospective case-control study. To quantify the athletic performance profiles after lumbar discectomy (LD) in a cohort of National Basketball Association (NBA) players in comparison with a control group of matched NBA players who did not undergo LD during the same study period. LD provides symptomatic relief and improved functional outcomes in the majority of patients as assessed by validated measures such as Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Among professional athletes, however, the goal of lumbar HNP treated by discectomy is not only to improve functional status but also, ultimately, to return the player to preinjury athletic performance levels. No study to date has compared the athletic performance profiles before and after discectomy in professional athletes. An analysis of NBA games summaries, weekly injury reports, player profiles, and press releases was performed to identify 24 NBA players who underwent LD for symptomatic lumbar HNP between 1991 and 2007. A 1:2 case: control study was performed using players without history of lumbar HNP who were matched for age, position, experience, and body mass index as control subjects (n = 48). Paired t tests were conducted on the following parameters: games played, minutes per game, points per 40 minutes, rebounds per 40 minutes, assists per 40 minutes, steals per 40 minutes, blocks per 40 minutes, and shooting percentage. For each athletic performance outcome, between-group comparisons evaluating preindex to postindex season performance were done (index season = season of surgery). In the LD group, 18 of 24 players (75%) returned to play again in the NBA, compared with 42 of 48 players (88%, P = 0.31) in the control group. One year after surgery, between-group comparisons revealed statistically significant increase in blocked shots per 40 minutes in the LD (0.18) versus control group (-0.33; P = 0.008) and a smaller decrease in rebounds per 40 minutes in the LD (-0
The Value of Sleep on Athletic Performance, Injury, and Recovery in the Young Athlete.
Copenhaver, Elizabeth A; Diamond, Alex B
Adequate sleep can easily become compromised as student-athletes try to balance the multiple demands on their time. People with sleep deficiency are at increased risk for acute illnesses, traumatic sports injuries, and development of chronic diseases. Training sessions or competitions during extremely early or late hours can interfere with circadian and homeostatic rhythms. Adjusting the training schedule to improve sleep duration has a significantly positive impact on several aspects of athletic performance. Pediatricians should increase the time dedicated in well-child visits for sleep hygiene and evaluate for sleep disorders at all ages. Parents, coaching staff, teachers, and pediatricians should advocate for improved education on the importance of sleep during adolescence. Future sleep research specific to adolescent athletes can further delineate requirements specific to sport, gender, training times, and surrounding competitions. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e106-e111.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes.
Simpson, N S; Gibbs, E L; Matheson, G O
Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e.g., illness and injury risk, and weight maintenance) have all been shown to be negatively affected by insufficient sleep or experimentally modeled sleep restriction. However, healthy adults are notoriously poor at self-assessing the magnitude of the impact of sleep loss, underscoring the need for increased awareness of the importance of sleep among both elite athletes and practitioners managing their care. Strategies to optimize sleep quality and quantity in athletes include approaches for expanding total sleep duration, improving sleep environment, and identifying potential sleep disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The effects of isolated and integrated 'core stability' training on athletic performance measures: a systematic review.
Reed, Casey A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E
Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance. This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance. A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June 2011). A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review. Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion. In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results. Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance
Does Nutrition Knowledge and Practice of Athletes Translate to Enhanced Athletic Performance? Cross-Sectional Study Amongst Nigerian Undergraduate Athletes
Folasire, Oluyemisi F.; Akomolafe, Abiola A.; Sanusi, Rasaki A.
rate (β= .454 C.I=0.011 to 0.045, p=0.003), Lean muscle mass (β =.297 C.I=.059 to 0.562, p=0.024) and the weight (β =.228, C.I=1.852 to .489, p=0.047). Conclusion: Having good nutrition knowledge or practice did not directly determine athletic performance. However, there is the need for nutrition education interventions, to improve athlete’s performance by promoting adequate energy intake, lean muscle mass and appropriate weight gain in athletes. PMID:26156896
Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?
Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J
Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.
Biomechanical and Performance Differences Between Female Soccer Athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III
Smith, Rose; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Holleran, Adam; Treadway, Erin; Hewett, Timothy E
Context: The recent increase in women's varsity soccer participation has been accompanied by a lower extremity injury rate that is 2 to 6 times that of their male counterparts. Objective: To define the differences between lower extremity biomechanics (knee abduction and knee flexion measures) and performance (maximal vertical jump height) between National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III female soccer athletes during a drop vertical jump. Design: Mixed 2 × 2 design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-four female collegiate soccer players (Division I: n = 19; Division III: n = 15) participated in the study. The groups were similar in height and mass. Intervention(s): Each subject performed a maximal vertical jump, followed by 3 drop vertical jumps. Main Outcome Measure(s): Kinematics (knee abduction and flexion angles) and kinetics (knee abduction and flexion moments) were measured with a motion analysis system and 2 force platforms during the drop vertical jumps. Results: Knee abduction angular range of motion and knee abduction external moments were not different between groups (P > .05). However, Division I athletes demonstrated decreased knee flexion range of motion (P = .038) and greater peak external knee flexion moment (P = .009) compared with Division III athletes. Division I athletes demonstrated increased vertical jump height compared with Division III (P = .008). Conclusions: Division I athletes demonstrated different sagittal-plane mechanics than Division III athletes, which may facilitate improved performance. The similarities in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors (knee abduction torques and angles) may correlate with the consistent incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury across divisions. PMID:18174935
Prime Time Light Exposures Do Not Seem to Improve Maximal Physical Performance in Male Elite Athletes, but Enhance End-Spurt Performance.
Knaier, Raphael; Schäfer, Juliane; Rossmeissl, Anja; Klenk, Christopher; Hanssen, Henner; Höchsmann, Christoph; Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno
Many sports competitions take place during television prime time, a time of the day when many athletes have already exceeded their time of peak performance. We assessed the effect of different light exposure modalities on physical performance and melatonin levels in athletes during prime time. Seventy-two young, male elite athletes with a median (interquartile range) age of 23 (21; 29) years and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 63 (58; 66) ml/kg/min were randomly assigned to three different light exposure groups: bright light (BRIGHT), blue monochromatic light (BLUE), and control light (CONTROL). Each light exposure lasted 60 min and was scheduled to start 17 h after each individual's midpoint of sleep (median time: 9:17 pm). Immediately after light exposure, a 12-min time trial was performed on a bicycle ergometer. The test supervisor and participants were blinded to the light condition each participant was exposed to. The median received light intensities and peak wavelengths (photopic lx/nm) measured at eye level were 1319/545 in BRIGHT, 203/469 in BLUE, and 115/545 in CONTROL. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for individual VO2max, total work performed in 12 min did not significantly differ between the three groups. The amount of exposure to non-image forming light was positively associated with the performance gain during the time trial, defined as the ratio of the work performed in the first and last minute of the time trial, and with stronger melatonin suppression. Specifically, a tenfold increase in the exposure to melanopic light was associated with a performance gain of 8.0% (95% confidence interval: 2.6, 13.3; P = 0.004) and a melatonin decrease of -0.9 pg/ml (95% confidence interval: -1.5, -0.3; P = 0.006). Exposure to bright or blue light did not significantly improve maximum cycling performance in a 12-min all-out time trial. However, it is noteworthy that the estimated difference of 4.1 kJ between BRIGHT and CONTROL might represent an important
Neuromuscular factors associated with decline in long-distance running performance in master athletes.
Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori
This review focuses on neuromuscular factors that may affect endurance performance in master athletes. During the last decade, due to the rapid increase in the number of master or veteran participants in endurance sporting competitions, many studies attempted to identify metabolic factors associated with the decrease in endurance, especially long-distance running performance with ageing, focusing on decreases in maximal oxygen consumption. However, neuromuscular factors have been less studied despite the well-known phenomena of strength loss with ageing. For master athletes to perform better in long-distance running events, it is important to reduce muscle fatigue and/or muscle damage, to improve locomotion efficiency and to facilitate recovery. To date, no consensus exists that regular endurance training is beneficial for improving locomotion efficiency, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle damage, and enhancing recovery capacity in master athletes. Some recent studies seem to indicate that master athletes have similar muscle damage to young athletes, but they require a longer recovery time after a long-distance running event. Further analyses of these parameters in master athletes require more experimental and practical interest from researchers and coaches. In particular, more attention should be directed towards the capacity to maintain muscle function with training and the role of neuromuscular factors in long-distance performance decline with ageing using a more cellular and molecular approach.
Acute effects of verbal feedback on upper-body performance in elite athletes.
Argus, Christos K; Gill, Nicholas D; Keogh, Justin Wl; Hopkins, Will G
Argus, CK, Gill, ND, Keogh, JWL, and Hopkins, WG. Acute effects of verbal feedback on upper-body performance in elite athletes. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3282-3287, 2011-Improved training quality has the potential to enhance training adaptations. Previous research suggests that receiving feedback improves single-effort maximal strength and power tasks, but whether quality of a training session with repeated efforts can be improved remains unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of verbal feedback on upper-body performance in a resistance training session consisting of multiple sets and repetitions in well-trained athletes. Nine elite rugby union athletes were assessed using the bench throw exercise on 4 separate occasions each separated by 7 days. Each athlete completed 2 sessions consisting of 3 sets of 4 repetitions of the bench throw with feedback provided after each repetition and 2 identical sessions where no feedback was provided after each repetition. When feedback was received, there was a small increase of 1.8% (90% confidence limits, ±2.7%) and 1.3% (±0.7%) in mean peak power and velocity when averaged over the 3 sets. When individual sets were compared, there was a tendency toward the improvements in mean peak power being greater in the second and third sets. These results indicate that providing verbal feedback produced acute improvements in upper-body power output of well-trained athletes. The benefits of feedback may be greatest in the latter sets of training and could improve training quality and result in greater long-term adaptation.
Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.
Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U
To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P < or = 0.05) improvements in jump and sprint performances after training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P < or = 0.05) changes in the force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength
Predictive genomics DNA profiling for athletic performance.
Kambouris, Marios; Ntalouka, Foteini; Ziogas, Georgios; Maffulli, Nicola
Genes control biological processes such as muscle, cartilage and bone formation, muscle energy production and metabolism (mitochondriogenesis, lactic acid removal), blood and tissue oxygenation (erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilatation), all essential in sport and athletic performance. DNA sequence variations in such genes confer genetic advantages that can be exploited, or genetic 'barriers' that could be overcome to achieve optimal athletic performance. Predictive Genomic DNA Profiling for athletic performance reveals genetic variations that may be associated with better suitability for endurance, strength and speed sports, vulnerability to sports-related injuries and individualized nutritional requirements. Knowledge of genetic 'suitability' in respect to endurance capacity or strength and speed would lead to appropriate sport and athletic activity selection. Knowledge of genetic advantages and barriers would 'direct' an individualized training program, nutritional plan and nutritional supplementation to achieving optimal performance, overcoming 'barriers' that results from intense exercise and pressure under competition with minimum waste of time and energy and avoidance of health risks (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and musculoskeletal injuries) related to exercise, training and competition. Predictive Genomics DNA profiling for Athletics and Sports performance is developing into a tool for athletic activity and sport selection and for the formulation of individualized and personalized training and nutritional programs to optimize health and performance for the athlete. Human DNA sequences are patentable in some countries, while in others DNA testing methodologies [unless proprietary], are non patentable. On the other hand, gene and variant selection, genotype interpretation and the risk and suitability assigning algorithms based on the specific Genomic variants used are amenable to patent protection.
The Relationship Between Asymmetry and Athletic Performance: A Critical Review.
Maloney, Sean J
Maloney, SJ. The relationship between asymmetry and athletic performance: A critical review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Symmetry may be defined as the quality to demonstrate an exact correspondence of size, shape, and form when split along a given axis. Although it has been widely asserted that the bilateral asymmetries are detrimental to athletic performance, research does not wholly support such an association. Moreover, the research rarely seeks to distinguish between different types of bilateral asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetries describe bilateral differences in anthropometric attributes, such as nostril width and ear size, and are thought to represent the developmental stability of an organism. There is evidence to suggest that fluctuating asymmetries may be related to impaired athletic performance, although contradictory findings have been reported. Sporting asymmetries is a term that may better describe bilateral differences in parameters, such as force output or jump height. These asymmetries are likely to be a function of limb dominance and magnified by long-standing participation within sport. Sporting asymmetries do not seem to carry a clear influence on athletic performance measures. Given the vast discrepancy in the methodologies used by different investigations, further research is warranted. Recent investigations have demonstrated that training interventions can reduce sporting asymmetries and improve performance. However, studies have not sought to determine whether the influence of sporting asymmetry is independent of improvements in neuromuscular parameters. It may be hypothesized that the deficient (weaker) limb has a greater potential for adaptation in comparison to the strong limb and may demonstrate greater responsiveness to training.
Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.
The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by thesemore » drugs can be quite important.« less
Prime Time Light Exposures Do Not Seem to Improve Maximal Physical Performance in Male Elite Athletes, but Enhance End-Spurt Performance
Knaier, Raphael; Schäfer, Juliane; Rossmeissl, Anja; Klenk, Christopher; Hanssen, Henner; Höchsmann, Christoph; Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno
Many sports competitions take place during television prime time, a time of the day when many athletes have already exceeded their time of peak performance. We assessed the effect of different light exposure modalities on physical performance and melatonin levels in athletes during prime time. Seventy-two young, male elite athletes with a median (interquartile range) age of 23 (21; 29) years and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 63 (58; 66) ml/kg/min were randomly assigned to three different light exposure groups: bright light (BRIGHT), blue monochromatic light (BLUE), and control light (CONTROL). Each light exposure lasted 60 min and was scheduled to start 17 h after each individual's midpoint of sleep (median time: 9:17 pm). Immediately after light exposure, a 12-min time trial was performed on a bicycle ergometer. The test supervisor and participants were blinded to the light condition each participant was exposed to. The median received light intensities and peak wavelengths (photopic lx/nm) measured at eye level were 1319/545 in BRIGHT, 203/469 in BLUE, and 115/545 in CONTROL. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for individual VO2max, total work performed in 12 min did not significantly differ between the three groups. The amount of exposure to non-image forming light was positively associated with the performance gain during the time trial, defined as the ratio of the work performed in the first and last minute of the time trial, and with stronger melatonin suppression. Specifically, a tenfold increase in the exposure to melanopic light was associated with a performance gain of 8.0% (95% confidence interval: 2.6, 13.3; P = 0.004) and a melatonin decrease of −0.9 pg/ml (95% confidence interval: −1.5, −0.3; P = 0.006). Exposure to bright or blue light did not significantly improve maximum cycling performance in a 12-min all-out time trial. However, it is noteworthy that the estimated difference of 4.1 kJ between BRIGHT and CONTROL might represent an
Carbohydrates, Muscle Glycogen, and Improved Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherman, W. Mike
One way to improve athletic performance without harming the athlete's health is diet manipulation. This article explores the relationship between muscular endurance and muscle glycogen and discusses a diet and training approach to competition. (Author/MT)
Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes
Ayers, JL; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, TG
Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed. PMID:27601779
Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes.
Ayers, J L; DeBeliso, M; Sevene, T G; Adams, K J
Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
Baseline Neurocognitive Performance and Clearance for Athletes to Return to Contact.
Asken, Breton M; Clugston, James R; Snyder, Aliyah R; Bauer, Russell M
Computerized neurocognitive assessments are commonly used to manage sport-related concussion. Variations in baseline performance may influence neurocognitive performance after injury as well as the amount of time needed for an athlete to be cleared for return to sport participation. To investigate the relationship between mean baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) scores and postconcussion reliable decline as well as the association between postconcussion cognitive decline and days missed after injury. Cross-sectional study. University concussion databank. A total of 84 collegiate athletes who sustained a concussion between 2008 and 2015 were studied. For each ImPACT composite score (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time), athletes were grouped based on the presence or absence of reliable decline and on the presence of reliable decline in 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 cognitive domains. Outcome measures were baseline ImPACT composite scores and days missed due to concussion. Athletes with a reliable decline in visual memory scored higher on baseline visual memory than did athletes with no decline or an improvement (t 82 = -2.348, P = .021, d = 0.65). When comparing athletes who displayed a reliable decline with those who showed no change or an improvement in any composite score, days missed did not differ. The number of composite scores with a reliable decline demonstrated no main effect on days missed (P = .530). Athletes who exhibited cognitive decline in most or all of the composite scores did not miss more days after injury than athletes with a decline in fewer or none of the composite scores. Athletes should be educated regarding the lack of association between baseline neurocognitive scores and the presence or absence of a reliable decline after concussion, as well as the fact that, on average, individuals with a reliable decline across multiple domains did not miss more time after
Nutritional Considerations for Performance in Young Athletes
Smith, JohnEric W.; Holmes, Megan E.; McAllister, Matthew J.
Nutrition is an integral component to any athletes training and performance program. In adults the balance between energy intake and energy demands is crucial in training, recovery, and performance. In young athletes the demands for training and performance remain but should be a secondary focus behind the demands associated with maintaining the proper growth and maturation. Research interventions imposing significant physiological loads and diet manipulation are limited in youth due to the ethical considerations related to potential negative impacts on the growth and maturation processes associated with younger individuals. This necessary limitation results in practitioners providing nutritional guidance to young athletes to rely on exercise nutrition recommendations intended for adults. While many of the recommendations can appropriately be repurposed for the younger athlete attention needs to be taken towards the differences in metabolic needs and physiological differences. PMID:26464898
Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance
Arciero, Paul J.; Ward, Emery
The training regimens of modern-day athletes have evolved from the sole emphasis on a single fitness component (e.g., endurance athlete or resistance/strength athlete) to an integrative, multimode approach encompassing all four of the major fitness components: resistance (R), interval sprints (I), stretching (S), and endurance (E) training. Athletes rarely, if ever, focus their training on only one mode of exercise but instead routinely engage in a multimode training program. In addition, timed-daily protein (P) intake has become a hallmark for all athletes. Recent studies, including from our laboratory, have validated the effectiveness of this multimode paradigm (RISE) and protein-feeding regimen, which we have collectively termed PRISE. Unfortunately, sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model and therefore limit an athletes' ability to succeed. Thus, it is the purpose of this review to provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs) with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance. PMID:25949823
Biomarkers in Sports and Exercise: Tracking Health, Performance, and Recovery in Athletes
Fragala, Maren S.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Queen, Robin M.; Pryor, John Luke; Casa, Douglas J.
Abstract Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Kavouras, SA, Queen, RM, Pryor, JL, and Casa, DJ. Biomarkers in sports and exercise: tracking health, performance, and recovery in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2920–2937, 2017—Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs. Our approach was to review the current literature and recommend a collection of validated biomarkers in key categories of health, performance, and recovery that could be used for this purpose. We determined that a comprehensive performance set of biomarkers should include key markers of (a) nutrition and metabolic health, (b) hydration status, (c) muscle status, (d) endurance performance, (e) injury status and risk, and (f) inflammation. Our review will help coaches, clinical sport professionals, researchers, and athletes better understand how to comprehensively monitor physiologic changes, as they design training cycles that elicit maximal improvements in performance while minimizing overtraining and injury risk. PMID:28737585
National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Evaluation of Dietary Supplements for Performance Nutrition
Buell, Jackie L; Franks, Rob; Ransone, Jack; Powers, Michael E; Laquale, Kathleen M; Carlson-Phillips, Amanda
Objectives To help athletic trainers promote a “food-first” philosophy to support health and performance, understand federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances, and become familiar with reliable resources for evaluating the safety, purity, and efficacy of dietary supplements. Background The dietary supplement industry is poorly regulated and takes in billions of dollars per year. Uneducated athletes need to gain a better understanding of the safety, eligibility, and efficacy concerns associated with choosing to take dietary supplements. The athletic trainer is a valuable athletic team member who can help in the educational process. In many cases, athletic trainers are asked to help evaluate the legality, safety, and efficacy of dietary supplements. For this position statement, our mission is to provide the athletic trainer with the necessary resources for these tasks. Recommendations Proper nutrition and changes in the athlete's habitual diet should be considered first when improved performance is the goal. Athletes need to understand the level of regulation (or lack thereof) governing the dietary supplement industry at the international, federal, state, and individual sport-participation levels. Athletes should not assume a product is safe simply because it is marketed over the counter. All products athletes are considering using should be evaluated for purity (ie, truth in labeling), safety, and efficacy. PMID:23672334
Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes.
Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Švedas, Edmundas; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Abaravičius, Jonas Algis
For athletes, the main purpose of nutrition is to ensure the compensation of increased energy consumption and the need for nutrients in the athlete's body, thereby enabling maximum adaptation to physical loads. The aim of this study was to determine the habits of highly trained endurance athletes depending on sports type, sex and age in order to improve the planning and management of the training of athletes using targeted measures. In 2009-2012, the dietary habits of 146 endurance athletes were analyzed. The actual diet of Lithuania endurance athletes was investigated using a 24-h dietary survey method. Data on the athletes' actual diet were collected for the previous day. It was found that 80.8% of endurance athletes used lower-than-recommended amounts of carbohydrates in their diet, and more than 70% of athletes used higher-than-recommended levels of fat, saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. The diet of female athletes was low in carbohydrates, dietary fiber, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, and zinc. Athletes aged 14-18 years tended to consume quantities of protein that were either lower than recommended or excessive. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevens, Debbie; Cadorette, Deborah
The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help…
From big data to rich data: The key features of athlete wheelchair mobility performance.
van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Veeger, H E J
Quantitative assessment of an athlete׳s individual wheelchair mobility performance is one prerequisite needed to evaluate game performance, improve wheelchair settings and optimize training routines. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) based methods can be used to perform such quantitative assessment, providing a large number of kinematic data. The goal of this research was to reduce that large amount of data to a set of key features best describing wheelchair mobility performance in match play and present them in meaningful way for both scientists and athletes. To test the discriminative power, wheelchair mobility characteristics of athletes with different performance levels were compared. The wheelchair kinematics of 29 (inter-)national level athletes were measured during a match using three inertial sensors mounted on the wheelchair. Principal component analysis was used to reduce 22 kinematic outcomes to a set of six outcomes regarding linear and rotational movement; speed and acceleration; average and best performance. In addition, it was explored whether groups of athletes with known performance differences based on their impairment classification also differed with respect to these key outcomes using univariate general linear models. For all six key outcomes classification showed to be a significant factor (p<0.05). We composed a set of six key kinematic outcomes that accurately describe wheelchair mobility performance in match play. The key kinematic outcomes were displayed in an easy to interpret way, usable for athletes, coaches and scientists. This standardized representation enables comparison of different wheelchair sports regarding wheelchair mobility, but also evaluation at the level of an individual athlete. By this means, the tool could enhance further development of wheelchair sports in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Key Nutritional Strategies to Optimize Performance in Para Athletes.
Scaramella, Jacque; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Broad, Elizabeth
Para athletes are a high-risk population for inadequate dietary intake leading to insufficiencies in nutrients important to athletic performance. This is partly due to minimal support and resources, especially in sport nutrition education, combined with limited prior nutrition knowledge and risks associated with different impairment types. Inadequate energy, carbohydrate, protein, iron, and vitamin D status are of particular concern in Para athletes. Assessment of these key nutrients, along with sport nutrition education, is needed to empower Para athletes with the knowledge to understand their individual nutrition needs and maximize athletic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How Does Sport Psychology Actually Improve Athletic Performance? A Framework to Facilitate Athletes' and Coaches' Understanding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gee, Chris J.
The popularity of sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades. Few within the realm of competitive athletics would argue with the importance of being mentally prepared prior to an athletic competition as well as the need to maintain that particular mindset during a…
Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.
Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B
Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.
Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes
Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis
g·dL-1, p < 0.05), suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05) and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1) after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball). Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes. Key points Grape extract consumption improves the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in sportsmen. Grape extract consumption enhances physical performance in one category of sportsmen (Handball). The performance enhancement might be caused by the protective action of grape extract during physical exercise. PMID:24150013
Academic and Athletic Motivation as Predictors of Academic Performance of Division I College Student-Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Christina Michelle
Division I intercollegiate student-athletes represent a unique population of college students on college campuses today because they face competing demands between the student and athlete roles. Without the proper environment and motivation for academic performance, some Division I student-athletes are unable to obtain a college degree and leave…
Performance Development in Adolescent Track and Field Athletes According to Age, Sex and Sport Discipline
Tønnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas
Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192
Noncognitive Predictors of Student Athletes' Academic Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simons, Herbert D.; Van Rheenen, Derek
Examines the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance in 200 Division I athletes. Studies the noncognitive variables of athletic-academic commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables. Finds all four noncognitive…
Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs
We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary leg force (-6.4 %, effect size = -0.43, 1 study), leg power (4.7 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.30, 6 studies), flexibility (4.6 %, effect size = -0.12 to 0.22, 2 studies), and athletic performance (-1.9 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.26, 6 studies) in 191 (103 male, 88 female) athletes representing eight sports (overall effect size = 0.28). Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 10.2 % chronic effect on maximal voluntary leg force (14.6 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.44, 5 studies), leg power (10.7 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.42, 9 studies), flexibility (16.5 %, effect size = 0.57 to 0.61, 2 studies), and athletic performance (-1.2 %, weighted mean effect size = 0.45, 5 studies) in 437 (169 male, 268 female) athletes (overall effect size = 0.44). Whole body vibration has small and inconsistent acute and chronic effects on athletic performance in competitive and/or elite athletes. These findings lead to the hypothesis that neuromuscular adaptive processes following whole body vibration are not specific enough to enhance athletic performance. Thus, other types of exercise programs (e.g., resistance training) are recommended if the goal is to improve athletic performance.
Athletic performance and urban air pollution.
Shephard, R J
Air pollution may affect athletic performance. In Los Angeles, contaminants include carbon monoxide, ozone, peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) and nitrogen oxides, whereas in older European cities, such as Sarajevo, "reducing smog" of sulfur dioxide is the main hazard. The carbon monoxide and ozone levels expected in Los Angeles this summer could affect the athletes' performance in endurance events at the Olympic Games. Carbon monoxide may also impair psychomotor abilities, and PAN causes visual disturbances. The only likely physiologic consequence from reducing smog is an increase in the workload of the respiratory system and thus a decrease in endurance performance. While carbon monoxide has been blamed for myocardial infarctions, nitrogen oxides for pulmonary edema and sulfur dioxide for deaths due to respiratory failure, the only illnesses that are likely to be more frequent than usual among young athletes exposed to high levels of these pollutants are upper respiratory tract infections. Therapeutic tactics include the avoidance of pollution, the administration of oxygen, vitamin C and vitamin E, and general reassurance. PMID:6744156
Examining the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy on performance outcomes in elite paralympic athletes.
Wood, A G; Barker, J B; Turner, M J; Sheffield, D
Traditionally a psychotherapeutic intervention, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is receiving increasing attention within the extant literature as an intervention to enhance the athletic performance and psychological well-being of competitive athletes. Whilst the benefits of REBT on psychological health are established, less is understood about the effects on athletic performance. This study aimed to examine the immediate and maintained effects of REBT on physiological, psychological, and performance outcomes with elite Paralympic athletes. Using a single-case research design, eight athletes recruited from the same Paralympic sport (M=40.12, SD=12.99) received five, one-to-one REBT sessions. Measures of irrational beliefs were collected weekly, whereas the remaining psychological and physiological measures were collected at a pre-, post-, and at a 9-month follow-up time point. Visual and statistical analyzes of the data indicates reductions in irrational beliefs were coupled with reductions in systolic blood pressure indicative of an adaptive physiological response, improved athletic performance during competition simulations, and reductions in avoidance goals. Furthermore, social validation data indicated greater self-awareness, emotional control, and enhanced focus during competition as a result of the REBT intervention. This study contributes to growing literature supporting the efficacy of REBT as an intervention that not only facilitates psychological health but also enhances athletic performance. Results are discussed with reference to theory, limitations, and future recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Biomarkers in Sports and Exercise: Tracking Health, Performance, and Recovery in Athletes.
Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Kavouras, Stavros A; Queen, Robin M; Pryor, John Luke; Casa, Douglas J
Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs. Our approach was to review the current literature and recommend a collection of validated biomarkers in key categories of health, performance, and recovery that could be used for this purpose. We determined that a comprehensive performance set of biomarkers should include key markers of (a) nutrition and metabolic health, (b) hydration status, (c) muscle status, (d) endurance performance, (e) injury status and risk, and (f) inflammation. Our review will help coaches, clinical sport professionals, researchers, and athletes better understand how to comprehensively monitor physiologic changes, as they design training cycles that elicit maximal improvements in performance while minimizing overtraining and injury risk.
The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players
Mah, Cheri D.; Mah, Kenneth E.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Dement, William C.
Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Setting: Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Participants: Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Interventions: Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2–4 week baseline followed by a 5–7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Results: Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated a faster timed sprint following sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P < 0.001). Shooting accuracy improved, with free throw percentage increasing by 9% and 3-point field goal percentage increasing by 9.2% (P < 0.001). Mean PVT reaction time and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores decreased following sleep extension (P < 0.01). POMS scores improved with increased vigor and decreased fatigue subscales (P < 0.001). Subjects also reported improved overall ratings of physical and mental well-being during practices and games. Conclusions: Improvements in specific measures of basketball performance after sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance. Citation: Mah CD; Mah KE; Kezirian EJ; Dement WC
What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?
Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew
Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430
Accreditation and Continuous Quality Improvement in Athletic Training Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peer, Kimberly S.; Rakich, Jonathon S.
Describes the application of the continuous quality improvement model, commonly associated with the business sector, to entry-level athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. After discussing historical perspectives on athletic training education programs, the paper…
The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance
Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo
Summary Purpose: in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. Methods: we searched PubMed using the terms “sports injuries”, “athletic performance” and “genetics” over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. Results: most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. Conclusions: genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these. PMID:24367777
Cooling and performance recovery of trained athletes: a meta-analytical review.
Poppendieck, Wigand; Faude, Oliver; Wegmann, Melissa; Meyer, Tim
Cooling after exercise has been investigated as a method to improve recovery during intensive training or competition periods. As many studies have included untrained subjects, the transfer of those results to trained athletes is questionable. Therefore, the authors conducted a literature search and located 21 peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials addressing the effects of cooling on performance recovery in trained athletes. For all studies, the effect of cooling on performance was determined and effect sizes (Hedges' g) were calculated. Regarding performance measurement, the largest average effect size was found for sprint performance (2.6%, g = 0.69), while for endurance parameters (2.6%, g = 0.19), jump (3.0%, g = 0.15), and strength (1.8%, g = 0.10), effect sizes were smaller. The effects were most pronounced when performance was evaluated 96 h after exercise (4.3%, g = 1.03). Regarding the exercise used to induce fatigue, effects after endurance training (2.4%, g = 0.35) were larger than after strength-based exercise (2.4%, g = 0.11). Cold-water immersion (2.9%, g = 0.34) and cryogenic chambers (3.8%, g = 0.25) seem to be more beneficial with respect to performance than cooling packs (-1.4%, g= -0.07). For cold-water application, whole-body immersion (5.1%, g = 0.62) was significantly more effective than immersing only the legs or arms (1.1%, g = 0.10). In summary, the average effects of cooling on recovery of trained athletes were rather small (2.4%, g = 0.28). However, under appropriate conditions (whole-body cooling, recovery from sprint exercise), postexercise cooling seems to have positive effects that are large enough to be relevant for competitive athletes.
Recovery interventions and strategies for improved tennis performance
Kovacs, Mark S; Baker, Lindsay B
Improving the recovery capabilities of the tennis athlete is receiving more emphasis in the research communities, and also by practitioners (coaches, physical trainers, tennis performance specialists, physical therapists, etc). The purpose of this article was to review areas of recovery to limit the severity of fatigue and/or speed recovery from fatigue. This review will cover four broad recovery techniques commonly used in tennis with the belief that the interventions may improve athlete recovery and therefore improve adaptation and future performance. The four areas covered are: (1) temperature-based interventions, (2) compressive clothing, (3) electronic interventions and (4) nutritional interventions. PMID:24668374
Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.
Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M
Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.
Emotional Intelligence and Emotions Associated with Optimal and Dysfunctional Athletic Performance
Lane, Andrew M.; Devonport, Tracey J.; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal
This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key points Athletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions. Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions. Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance. PMID:24149631
Emotional intelligence and emotions associated with optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance.
Lane, Andrew M; Devonport, Tracey J; Soos, Istvan; Karsai, Istvan; Leibinger, Eva; Hamar, Pal
This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes. Key pointsAthletes reporting high scores of self-report emotional intelligence tend to experience pleasant emotions.Optimal performance is associated with pleasant emotions and dysfunctional performance is associated with unpleasant emotions.Emotional intelligence might help athletes recognize which emotional states help performance.
Normalizing the performances of athletes in Olympic weightlifting.
Sinclair, R G
A method of comparing the performances of athletes of disparate bodyweights in Olympic weightlifting is developed that is able to accommodate the fact that, of the ten bodyweight classes contested, the lighter nine have upper limits assigned to them while the heaviest has only a lower limit. The results are presented so as to answer the question "What would a given athlete weighing x kilograms total if he were a +110 kg. athlete of the same level of ability?"
[The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].
The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports.
Impact of air pollutants on athletic performance
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact uponmore » the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.« less
The effects of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals: a literature synthesis
Drouin, Jillian L.; McAlpine, Caitlin T.; Primak, Kari A.; Kissel, Jaclyn
Context: The effect of the application of kinesiotape to skin overlying musculature on measurable athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals has not been well established. Objective: To systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the effect of kinesiotape on athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy, active individuals. Methods: An electronic search strategy was conducted in MANTIS, Cochrane Library and EBSCO databases. Retrieved articles that met the eligibility criteria were rated for methodological quality by using an adaption of the critical appraisal criteria in Clinical Epidemiology by Sackett et al. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven articles had positive results in at least one athletic-based performance measure compared to controls. Conclusion: Evidence is lacking to support the use of kinesiotape as a successful measure for improving athletic-based performance outcomes in healthy individuals. However, there is no evidence to show that kinesiotape has a negative effect on any of the performace measures. PMID:24302784
Educational intervention on water intake improves hydration status and enhances exercise performance in athletic youth.
Kavouras, S A; Arnaoutis, G; Makrillos, M; Garagouni, C; Nikolaou, E; Chira, O; Ellinikaki, E; Sidossis, L S
We aimed to evaluate whether an intervention program emphasizing in increased fluid intake can improve exercise performance in children exercising in the heat. Ninety-two young athletes participated in the study (age: 13.8 ± 0.4 years, weight: 54.9 ± 1.5 kg). Thirty-one (boys: 13, girls: 18) children served as the control group (CON) and 61 (boys: 30, girls: 31) as the intervention (INT). Volunteers had free access to fluids. Hydration was assessed on the basis of first morning urine. A series of field tests were used to evaluate exercise performance. All tests occurred outdoors in the morning (mean ambient temperature=28°C). After baseline testing, INT attended a lecture on hydration, and urine color charts were mounted in all bathrooms. Additionally, water accessibility was facilitated in training, dining and resting areas. Hydration status was improved significantly in the INT [USG: pre=1.031 ± 0.09, post=1.023 ± 0.012, P<0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water): pre=941 ± 30, post=782 ± 34, P<0.05], while no statistically significant changes were found in the CON [USG: pre=1.033 ± 0.011, post=1.032 ± 0.013, P>0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water) 970 ± 38 vs 961 ± 38, P>0.05]. Performance in an endurance run was improved significantly only in INT (time for 600 m: pre=189 ± 5 s, post=167 ± 4 s, P<0.05). Improving hydration status by ad libitum consumption of water can enhance performance in young children exercising in the heat. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Respiratory muscle endurance after training in athletes and non-athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sales, Ana Tereza do N; Fregonezi, Guilherme A de F; Ramsook, Andrew H; Guenette, Jordan A; Lima, Illia Nadinne D F; Reid, W Darlene
The objectives of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory muscle endurance (RME) and to determine the RME test that demonstrates the most consistent changes after RMT. Electronic searches were conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE CENTRAL, CINHAL and SPORTDiscus. The PEDro scale was used for quality assessment and meta-analysis were performed to compare effect sizes of different RME tests. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Isocapnic hyperpnea training was performed in 40% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed that RMT improves RME in athletes (P = 0.0007) and non-athletes (P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed differences among tests; maximal sustainable ventilatory capacity (MSVC) and maximal sustainable threshold loading tests demonstrated significant improvement after RMT (P = 0.007; P = 0.003 respectively) compared to the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) (P = 0.11) in athletes whereas significant improvement after RMT was only shown by MSVC in non-athletes. The effect size of MSVC was greater compared to MVV in studies that performed both tests. The meta-analysis results provide evidence that RMT improves RME in athletes and non-athletes and MSVC test that examine endurance over several minutes are more sensitive to improvement after RMT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Using Learning Preferences to Improve Coaching and Athletic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, Julia L.
Each individual learns in a different manner, depending on his or her perceptual or learning preferences (visual, auditory, read/write, or kinesthetic). In sport, coaches and athletes must speak a common language of instructions, verbal cues, and appropriate motor responses. Thus, developing a clear understanding of how to use students' learning…
A Comparison of Academic and Athletic Performance in the NCAA
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi
The Academic Progress Rate (APR) of 34 sports was investigated to determine whether the top athletic teams performed significantly better "academically" compared to their bottom counterparts. A "p" value of 0.0029 revealed that top athletic teams academically outperformed bottom athletic teams. Further analysis showed the…
Protein Recommendations for Weight Loss in Elite Athletes: A Focus on Body Composition and Performance.
Hector, Amy J; Phillips, Stuart M
There exists a large body of scientific evidence to support protein intakes in excess of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (0.8 g protein/kg/day) to promote the retention of skeletal muscle and loss of adipose tissue during dietary energy restriction. Diet-induced weight loss with as low as possible ratio of skeletal muscle to fat mass loss is a situation we refer to as high-quality weight loss. We propose that high-quality weight loss is often of importance to elite athletes in order to maintain their muscle (engine) and shed unwanted fat mass, potentially improving athletic performance. Current recommendations for protein intakes during weight loss in athletes are set at 1.6-2.4 g protein/kg/day. However, the severity of the caloric deficit and type and intensity of training performed by the athlete will influence at what end of this range athletes choose to be. Other considerations regarding protein intake that may help elite athletes achieve weight loss goals include the quality of protein consumed, and the timing and distribution of protein intake throughout the day. This review highlights the scientific evidence used to support protein recommendations for high-quality weight loss and preservation of performance in athletes. Additionally, the current knowledge surrounding the use of protein supplements, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), and other dietary supplements with weight loss claims will be discussed.
[Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance].
Domínguez, Raúl; Hernández Lougedo, Juan; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente
Carnosine, dipeptide formed by amino acids ß-alanine and L-histidine, has important physiological functions among which its antioxidant and related memory and learning. However, in connection with the exercise, the most important functions would be associated with muscle contractility, improving calcium sensitivity in muscle fibers, and the regulatory function of pH. Thus, it is proposed that carnosine is the major intracellular buffer, but could contribute to 7-10% in buffer or buffer capacity. Since carnosine synthesis seems to be limited by the availability of ß-alanine supplementation with this compound has been gaining increasing popularity among the athlete population. Therefore, the objective of this study literature review was to examine all those research works have shown the effect of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance. Moreover, it also has attempted to establish a specific dosage that maximizing the potential benefits, minimize paresthesia, the main side effect presented in response to supplementation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of nutritional intake in Canadian high-performance athletes.
Lun, Victor; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A
To determine the nutritional intake of Canadian high-performance athletes. Prospective survey study. Canadian sport center athletes. Three hundred twenty-four high-performance athletes (114 males and 201 females; mean age 21.3 +/- 13 years) from 8 Canadian sport centers participated in the study. Subjects prospectively completed 3-day dietary records, reporting all food, fluid, and supplement consumption. Dietary records were analyzed for total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients for food alone and food plus supplements for all subjects collectively and according to gender and competitive event. Average daily energy intake was 2533 +/- 843 Kcal/day with males consuming more calories than females (2918 +/- 927 and 2304 +/- 713 Kcal/day, respectively; P < 0.05). Both genders consumed below recommended levels. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat accounted for 53%, 19%, and 28% of daily calorie intake, respectively. Average daily carbohydrate and protein intake was 5.1 +/- 1.8 and 1.8 +/- 0.6 g/kg body weight, respectively. Protein intake, but not carbohydrate intake, met recommendations. Supplementation significantly increased athletes' energy, total carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake. Of 17 micronutrients assessed, intake ranged between 120% and 366% of recommended daily intake with food alone and between 134% to 680% of recommended daily intake with supplements. Canadian high-performance athletes do not consume adequate energy or carbohydrates. However, their intake of micronutrients exceed current recommended daily intakes, even when supplements are not considered, indicating that athletes make high-quality food choices. Supplementation significantly increased energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake.
Sleep, recovery, and performance: the new frontier in high-performance athletics.
The relationship of sleep to post-exercise recovery (PER) and athletic performance is a topic of great interest because of the growing body of scientific evidence confirming a link between critical sleep factors, cognitive processes, and metabolic function. Sleep restriction (sleep deprivation), sleep disturbance (poor sleep quality), and circadian rhythm disturbance (jet lag) are the key sleep factors that affect the overall restorative quality of the sleep state. This article discusses these theoretic concepts, presents relevant clinical cases, and reviews pilot data exploring the prevalence of sleep disturbance in two groups of high-performance athletes.
Low Proportion of Dietary Plant Protein among Athletes with Premenstrual Syndrome-Related Performance Impairment.
Yamada, Keiko; Takeda, Takashi
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is psychosomatic disorder that are limited to the late luteal phase in the menstrual cycle. PMS could impair athletic performance. To investigate associations between proportions of dietary plant and animal protein and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance, we surveyed 135 female athletes aged 18-23 years attending Kindai University. Participants belonged to authorized university clubs, all of which have high rankings in Japanese university sports. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on diet history, demographics, and PMS-related impairment of athletic performance. Total protein, animal protein, and plant protein intake were examined, and the proportion of dietary plant protein was calculated for each participant. We divided athletes into two groups: those without PMS-related impairment of athletic performance (n = 117) and those with PMS-related performance impairment (n = 18). A t-test was used to compare mean values and multivariable adjusted mean values between groups; adjustment variables were energy intake, body mass index, and daily training duration. Total protein intake was not significantly different between the groups. However, athletes whose performance was affected by PMS reported higher intake of animal protein (mean 50.6 g) than athletes whose performance was unaffected by PMS (mean 34.9 g). Plant protein intake was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (mean 25.4 g) than among athletes without impairment (mean 26.9 g). The proportion of dietary plant protein was lower among athletes with PMS-related impairment (39.3%) than those without impairment (45.9%). A low proportion of dietary plant protein may cause PMS-related athletic impairment among athletes.
Prevalence of Surgical Repair for Athletic Pubalgia and Impact on Performance in Football Athletes Participating in the National Football League Combine.
Knapik, Derrick M; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Nho, Shane J; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Voos, James E; Salata, Michael J
To examine the prevalence and impact of athletic pubalgia (AP) surgery in elite American football athletes participating in the National Football League (NFL) Combine. Results from 1,311 athletes participating in the Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated. Athletes with a history of AP repair were identified using the NFL Combine Database. Athlete history and available imaging was reviewed. NFL performance based on draft status, games played, games started, and current status in the NFL was gathered using publicly available databases. Statistical analysis was performed to detect for significant associations between athlete history and NFL performance in the presence of AP repair and pelvic pathology on postsurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AP repair was identified in 4.2% (n = 55) of athletes. MRI was performed in 35% (n = 19 of 55) with AP repair, of which 53% (n = 10 of 19) had positive pathology. Athletes with repair were not at risk of playing (P = .87) or starting (P = .45) fewer regular season games, going undrafted (P = .27), or not being on an active NFL roster (P = .51). Compared with athletes with negative imaging findings, positive pathology on MRI did not have a significant impact on games played (P = .74), games started (P = .48), draft status (P = .26), or being on an active roster (P = .74). Offensive linemen (P = .005) and athletes with a history of repair within 1 year of the Combine (P = .03) had a significantly higher risk of possessing positive pathology on MRI. Athletes with a history of successful AP surgery invited to the NFL Combine and those with persistent pathology on MRI are not at increased risk for diminished performance in the NFL. Offensive linemen and athletes less than 1 year out from surgery have a higher risk for positive MRI findings at the pubic symphysis. Level IV, prognostic study-case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Circadian rhythms, athletic performance, and jet lag
Manfredini, R.; Manfredini, F.; Fersini, C.; Conconi, F.
Rapid air travel across several time zones exposes the traveller to a shift in his/her internal biological clock. The result is a transient desynchronisation of the circadian rhythm, called jet lag, lasting until the rhythm is rephased to the new environmental conditions. The most commonly experienced symptoms are sleep disorders, difficulties with concentrating, irritability, depression, fatigue, disorientation, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Apart from the decrements in mental and physical performance directly consequent on such symptoms, competitive athletes are also exposed to the additional negative consequences of a shift from the optimal circadian window of performance. A brief summary of the possible negative effects of jet lag on athletic performance and potentially alleviating strategies is given. PMID:9631214
The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players.
Mah, Cheri D; Mah, Kenneth E; Kezirian, Eric J; Dement, William C
To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2-4 week baseline followed by a 5-7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated a faster timed sprint following sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P < 0.001). Shooting accuracy improved, with free throw percentage increasing by 9% and 3-point field goal percentage increasing by 9.2% (P < 0.001). Mean PVT reaction time and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores decreased following sleep extension (P < 0.01). POMS scores improved with increased vigor and decreased fatigue subscales (P < 0.001). Subjects also reported improved overall ratings of physical and mental well-being during practices and games. Improvements in specific measures of basketball performance after sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance.
[Performance of entero-insular axis in an athletic population: diet and exercise influence].
Rodriguez, Carmen; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Toro, Carmen; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Segura, Eduardo; Mangas, Alipio; Toro, Rocio
The relationship between physical exercise and appetite regulation can lead to improved competitive performance of athletes. Mediators of the entero-insular axis generate neurohumoral signals that influence on the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Determine the influence of diet and prolonged exercise on intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) in an athlete population. It is a prospective intervention study, conducted from October 2012 to March 2013. 32 healthy semiprofessional rugby players, aged 13-39 years were included. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken at time 0 and after six months of study. Athletes were randomized to a protein diet (PD) or Mediterranean diet (MD) and plasma levels of intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins were calculated. In the PD group, GLP-1 and GIP plasmatic levels showed a significant decrease (p <0.03; p <0.01 respectively). GLP-1 and ghrelin plasmatic concentration demonstrated a significant decrease (p <0.03 respectively) in those who experienced gain of muscle mass (MM). Finally, the athletes related to the PD who showed increased total weight and muscle mass presented significantly decreased GLP-1 concentration (p <0.03 and p<0.002, respectively). GLP-1 plasmatic concentration was decreased, with the PD suggesting to be more beneficial for the athletes in order to avoid hypoglycemia. Furthermore, muscle mass and total weight gain, linked to the PD, could enhance athletic performance in certain sport modalities. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Weight management in the performance athlete.
Manore, Melinda M
Management of weight is an ever-increasing challenge in societies where good tasting food is convenient, relatively inexpensive, and abundant. Developing a weight management plan is essential for everyone, including athletes that expend high amounts of energy in their sport. This brief review addresses the concept of dynamic energy balance and dietary approaches that can be successfully used with active individuals to facilitate weight loss, while retaining lean tissue and minimizing risks for disordered eating. Emphasis is placed on teaching athletes the benefits of consuming a low-energy-dense diet (e.g. high-fiber, high-water, low-fat foods), which allows for the consumption of a greater volume of food that is satiating but reduces energy intake. Other dietary behaviors important for weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss are also emphasized, such as eating breakfast, spreading food and protein intake throughout the day, eating after exercise, elimination of sweetened beverages, and avoiding fad diets. As the general population becomes heavier, more young athletes will come to their sport needing to alter bodyweight or composition to perform at their peak. Health professionals need to be prepared with effective and evidence-based dietary approaches to help the athletes achieve their bodyweight goals. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Can IGF-I polymorphism affect power and endurance athletic performance?
Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a key role in exercise-associated muscle growth and development. The regulatory region of the promoter of the IGF-I gene is labile, but changes in this region were studied mostly in the elderly and in relation to pathological states. C-1245T (rs35767) is a genetic variation in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene. The minor allele T was found to be associated with higher circulating IGF-I levels, and possibly with increased muscle mass. The aim of the current study was to analyze the frequency distribution of C-1245T SNP in athletic and nonathletic Israeli populations. One hundred and sixty-five athletes (78 endurance-type athletes, and 87 power-type athletes) and 159 nonathletic healthy individuals participated in the current study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral EDTA treated anti-coagulated blood using a standard protocol. Genotyping of the IGF1 C-1245T polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We found that the endurance and power athletes' allele and genotype frequencies were significantly different from those of the control group. Only 4.8% of the athletes were TT carriers, but none of the controls carried this genotype. The T allele was found to be more frequent in the top-level power athletes (international and Olympic level) compared to national level athletes, but such a difference was not found in endurance athletes. Our findings suggest a possible contribution for the relatively rare IGF-I TT genotype to endurance performance, and in particular to power sport excellence in Israeli athletes. © 2013.
Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmussen, Christopher J.
Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.
Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L.; Seyfert, Jonathan H.; VanBaak, Karin
Context: Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. Evidence Acquisition: A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Conclusion: Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention. PMID:26863894
Endurance running performance in athletes with asthma.
Freeman, W; Williams, C; Nute, M G
Laboratory assessment was made during maximal and submaximal exercise on 16 endurance trained male runners with asthma (aged 35 +/- 9 years) (mean +/- S.D.). Eleven of these asthmatic athletes had recent performance times over a half-marathon, which were examined in light of the results from the laboratory tests. The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the group was 61.8 +/- 6.3 ml kg-1 min-1 and the maximum ventilation (VEmax) was 138.7 +/- 24.7 l min-1. These maximum cardio-respiratory responses to exercise were positively correlated to the degree of airflow obstruction, defined as the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (expressed as a percentage of predicted normal). The half-marathon performance times of 11 of the athletes ranged from those of recreational to elite runners (82.4 +/- 8.8 min, range 69-94). Race pace was correlated with VO2max (r = 0.863, P less than 0.01) but the highest correlation was with the running velocity at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol l-1 (r = 0.971, P less than 0.01). The asthmatic athletes utilized 82 +/- 4% VO2max during the half-marathon, which was correlated with the %VO2max at 2 mmol l-1 blood lactate (r = 0.817, P less than 0.01). The results of this study suggest that athletes with mild to moderate asthma can possess high VO2max values and can develop a high degree of endurance fitness, as defined by their ability to sustain a high percentage of VO2max over an endurance race. In athletes with more severe airflow obstruction, the maximum ventilation rate may be reduced and so VO2max may be impaired. The athletes in the present study have adapted to this limitation by being able to sustain a higher %VO2max before the accumulation of blood lactate, which is an advantage during an endurance race. Therefore, with appropriate training and medication, asthmatics can successfully participate in endurance running at a competitive level.
Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.
A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…
The Impact of Sleep Duration on Performance Among Competitive Athletes: A Systematic Literature Review.
Kirschen, Gregory W; Jones, Jason J; Hale, Lauren
The athletic advantage of sleep, although commonly touted by coaches, trainers, and sports physicians, is still unclear and likely varies by sport, athletic performance metric, and length of sufficient or insufficient sleep. Although recent literature reviews have highlighted circadian and nutritional factors that influence different aspects of athletic performance, a systematic summary of the effects of sleep duration and sleep quality on performance among competitive athletes is lacking. Here we systematically review the relationship between sleep duration and sleep quality and objective athletic performance among competitive athletes across 19 studies representing 12 sports. Taken holistically, we find that the sports requiring speed, tactical strategy, and technical skill are most sensitive to sleep duration manipulations. Furthermore, longer-term sleep manipulations are more likely than acute sleep manipulations (whether deprivation or extension) to affect athletic performance. Thus, the importance of sleep for competitive athletes to achieve high performance is dependent on the demands of the sport as well as the length of sleep interventions. In light of the limited number of studies investigating sleep quality and performance, the potential relevance of subjective sleep quality remains an interesting question for future work.
IGF-I receptor 275124A>C (rs1464430) polymorphism and athletic performance.
Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon
To examine the prevalence of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) 275124A>C polymorphism, known to be associated with exercise-related cardiac hypertrophy, among elite endurance and power athletes. One hundred and fifty-nine athletes (118 men and 41 women, age: 35.9±12.2 yrs) participated in the study. We hypothesized that presence of the A allele will be significantly more common among endurance athletes (n=77) compared to power athletes (n=82) and non-physically active controls (n=68). Athletes within each group were further divided according to their individual best performance into elite athletes (those who had represented the country in international track-and-field or triathlon competitions or in the Olympic Games) and national-level athletes. The prevalence of the AA genotype was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the endurance athletes group (49%) compared to the power athletes group (33%), but did not differ from the control group (46%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the AA genotype between elite and national level endurance athletes (44% versus 52%, respectively). In contrast, among power athletes, the prevalence of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the elite compared to national level athletes (17% versus 42%, respectively; p<0.05). The results of the present study may suggest that the IGF-IR AA polymorphism is beneficial for endurance-type sports, but is not associated with elite endurance performance. In contrast, the presence of the AA genotype may be a disadvantage in power sports. All together the results of the present study suggest that IGF-IR polymorphism may differentiate between the two edges of the endurance-power athletic performance spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances.
Hooper, David R; Dulkis, Lexie L; Secola, Paul J; Holtzum, Gabriel; Harper, Sean P; Kalkowski, Ryan J; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; DuPont, William H; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Culley, Kevin P; Kraemer, William J
Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance of high-level athletes. Eleven Division I collegiate pitchers (age: 21.0 ± 2.9 years; height: 181.0 ± 4.6 cm; weight: 89.0 ± 13.0 kg; body fat: 12.0 ± 4.1%) and 10 Division I collegiate golfers (age: 20.0 ± 1.3 years; height: 178.1 ± 3.9 cm; weight: 76.4 ± 8.3 kg; body fat: 11.8 ± 2.6%) participated in the study. A counterbalanced within-group design was used. Subjects performed the respective baseball or golf protocol wearing either typical noncompressive (NC) or the experimental CG. Golfers participated in an assessment of driving distance and accuracy, as well as approach shot, chipping, and putting accuracy. Pitchers were assessed for fastball accuracy and velocity. In pitchers, there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvement in fastball accuracy (NC: 0.30 ± 0.04 vs. CG: 0.21 ± 0.07 cm). There were no differences in pitching velocity. In golfers, there were significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvements in driving accuracy (NC: 86.7 ± 30.6 vs. CG: 68.9 ± 18.5 feet), as well as approach shot accuracy (NC: 26.6 ± 11.9 vs. CG: 22.1 ± 8.2 feet) and chipping accuracy (NC: 2.9 ± 0.6 vs. CG: 2.3 ± 0.6 inch). There was also a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in comfort for the golfers (NC: 3.7 ± 0.8 vs. CG: 4.5 ± 1.0). These results demonstrate that comfort and performance can be improved with the use of CGs in high-level athletes being most likely mediated by improved proprioceptive cues during upper-body movements.
Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.
Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J
This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p < .001; partial η(2) = 0.06) and age (p < .001; partial η(2) = 0.01) on test performance. Younger athletes performed more poorly than older athletes, and Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.
The influence of athletic status on maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics and postural balance performance in Division I female soccer athletes and non-athlete controls.
Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Thiele, Ryan M; Conchola, Eric C; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance to discriminate between female collegiate soccer athletes and non-athlete controls. Ten athletes (mean ± SE: age = 19·20 ± 0·36 year; mass = 62·23 ± 3·12 kg; height = 162·43 ± 1·70 cm) and 10 non-athletes (age = 20·30 ± 0·40 year; mass = 69·64 ± 3·20 kg; height = 163·22 ± 2·10 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Postural balance was assessed using a commercially designed balance testing device, which provides a measurement of static stability based on sway index (SI). Results indicated that absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms (RTD50 and RTD50norm) were greater (P = 0·007 and 0·026), and postural SI was lower (P = 0·022) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes. However, no differences (P = 0·375-0·709) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms (RTD100-200 and RTD100-200norm). Significant relationships were also observed between RTD50 and RTD50norm and SI (r = -0·559 and -0·521; P = 0·010 and 0·019). These findings suggest that early rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between college-aged athletes and non-athletes. Coaches and practitioners may use these findings as performance evaluation tools to help in identifying athletes with both superior early rapid torque and balance performance abilities, which may possibly be an indicator of overall athletic potential. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John
Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200
The Impact of a Performance Profiling Intervention on Athletes' Intrinsic Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weston, Neil J. V.; Greenlees, Iain A.; Thelwell, Richard C.
Originally developed by Butler (1989) with the Great Britain Olympic boxing team, performance profiling is an assessment tool primarily used by sport psychologists to enhance athlete awareness. The completed profile provides the athlete, the coach, and psychologist with a visual representation of the athlete's perception of his or her performance…
African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Brien, Kathryn Mary
The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…
EFFECT OF ATHLETIC TAPING AND KINESIOTAPING® ON MEASUREMENTS OF FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS WITH CHRONIC INVERSION ANKLE SPRAINS
Karatas, Nihan; Baltaci, Gul
performance. (Standing heel rise test: Athletic taping- placebo taping p=0.035; athletic taping- non tape p=0.043; athletic tape- KT® p<0.001) (Vertical jump test: Athletic taping- placebo taping p=0.002: athletic taping- non tape p=0.002; KT®- athletic tape p<0.001) Conclusion: Kinesiotaping® had no negative effects on a battery of functional performance tests and improvements were seen in some functional performance tests. Clinical Relevance: Ankle taping using Kinesio Tex® Tape did not inhibit functional performance. PMID:22530190
IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete.
Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Phillips, Stuart M; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Lucas J C; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard Gm; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Soligard, Torbjørn; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation (if an antidoping rule violation results). A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialled in training or simulated competition before being used in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the antidoping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete's health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount; expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before an athlete embarks on supplement use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna
Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)
A Low Dose Caffeine and Carbohydrate Supplement does not Improve Athletic Performance during Volleyball Competition
PFEIFER, DAVID R.; ARVIN, KELSEY M.; HERSCHBERGER, COURTNEY N.; HAYNES, NICHOLAS J.; RENFROW, MATTHEW S.
Dietary supplements are widely used to enhance sport performance and the combination of carbohydrate and caffeine (CHO+CAF) has yielded particularly high performance gains. Though the effects of a CHO+CAF supplement have been studied in a laboratory environment, little research exists on the effects of supplementation during competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a CHO+CAF supplement on athletic performance in competition. Eight female collegiate volleyball players completed three testing sessions under three different conditions separated by approximately one week each: CHO+CAF supplement, placebo (PBO), and control (CTL) using a randomized, cross-over design. Blood glucose (BG) was assessed prior to supplementation and immediately after set three. The supplement and PBO were administered prior to play and between sets two and three. Following three sets of play, three performance tests were completed: vertical jump (VJ), agility (AGL), and repeated 30-m sprint ability (RSA). While CHO+CAF supplementation significantly increased BG, the performance tests were not different (p>.05) among the testing conditions. These findings suggest that the amount of the supplement used in this study is not beneficial to VJ, AGL, and RSA in female volleyball players. As these performance tests were largely anaerobic and non-glycolytic in nature, the ergogenicity of the supplement may have been underutilized. Additionally, coaches and athletes should not only be aware of what ingredients are in the supplements they choose, but the amount of those ingredients as they may modify the efficacy of the supplement to impact performance. PMID:28515832
Longitudinal Improvement in Balance Error Scoring System Scores among NCAA Division-I Football Athletes.
Mathiasen, Ross; Hogrefe, Christopher; Harland, Kari; Peterson, Andrew; Smoot, M Kyle
The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is a commonly used concussion assessment tool. Recent studies have questioned the stability and reliability of baseline BESS scores. The purpose of this longitudinal prospective cohort study is to examine differences in yearly baseline BESS scores in athletes participating on an NCAA Division-I football team. NCAA Division-I freshman football athletes were videotaped performing the BESS test at matriculation and after 1 year of participation in the football program. Twenty-three athletes were enrolled in year 1 of the study, and 25 athletes were enrolled in year 2. Those athletes enrolled in year 1 were again videotaped after year 2 of the study. The paired t-test was used to assess for change in score over time for the firm surface, foam surface, and the cumulative BESS score. Additionally, inter- and intrarater reliability values were calculated. Cumulative errors on the BESS significantly decreased from a mean of 20.3 at baseline to 16.8 after 1 year of participation. The mean number of errors following the second year of participation was 15.0. Inter-rater reliability for the cumulative score ranged from 0.65 to 0.75. Intrarater reliability was 0.81. After 1 year of participation, there is a statistically and clinically significant improvement in BESS scores in an NCAA Division-I football program. Although additional improvement in BESS scores was noted after a second year of participation, it did not reach statistical significance. Football athletes should undergo baseline BESS testing at least yearly if the BESS is to be optimally useful as a diagnostic test for concussion.
IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete.
Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Phillips, Stuart M; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Luc; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard G M; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Soligard, Torbjørn; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can offer benefits to the athlete, but others may be harmful to the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation if an anti-doping rule violation results. A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome, and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialed in training or simulated competition before implementation in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete's health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount, and expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before embarking on supplement use.
A Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Active Recovery Interventions on Athletic Performance of Professional-, Collegiate-, and Competitive-Level Adult Athletes.
Ortiz, Robert O; Sinclair Elder, Amanda J; Elder, Craig L; Dawes, J Jay
OrtizJr, RO, Sinclair Elder, AJ, Elder, CL, and Dawes, JJ. A systematic review on the effectiveness of active recovery interventions on athletic performance of professional-, collegiate-, and competitive-level adult athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Active recovery (AR) is a popular approach to enhancing athlete recovery from participation through physical action, and it has a perceived benefit in the recovery of athletes' enhancement of postexertional physiological status; however, it is unclear whether these recovery techniques enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AR interventions conducted postexertion on athletic performance among professional, collegiate, and competitive adult athletes. Articles were collected via 4 online databases restricted to publication in English between 1998 and 2014. After the evaluation of overlap among the databases and abstract review, 150 potential eligible studies remained. Twenty-six articles involving 471 subjects remained after full analysis. The primary exclusion factor was absence of AR types of interest or measures of performance. The review resulted in a wide variety of findings indicating the vagueness in AR approach and outcome measures, making it difficult to draw specific conclusions. The review demonstrated that AR interventions lasting 6-10 minutes revealed consistently positive effects on performance. The appropriate intensity level of AR sessions was inconclusive in the literature; however, blood lactate clearance rate as a recovery marker appeared unreliable. The review suggests that there are positive psychological outcomes from AR sessions, a need to determine if AR should be individualized in its application, and weak evidence regarding the efficacy of postexercise AR, particularly relating to performance. Future research is needed for reliable and accurate markers for fatigue, physiological recovery, performance, and markers of
[Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].
Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
A comparison of mental strategies during athletic skills performance.
Peluso, Eugenio A; Ross, Michael J; Gfeller, Jeffrey D; Lavoie, Donna J
The current study examined the effects of performance enhancement techniques (PET's) on motor skill performance. Specifically, one hundred fifty college student volunteers (Men = 41; 27.3% and Women = 109; 72.6%) were randomly assigned to one of the nine conditions (Cond): Cond 1 and 2, simultaneous, externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery out loud while putting); Cond 3 and 4, delayed externally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery out loud before putting); Cond 5 and 6, simultaneous, internally verbalized self-talk or imagery (e.g., participants were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery silently to oneself while putting); Cond 7 and 8, delayed internally verbalized (e.g., participant were instructed to say "aim, back, birdie "or engaged in imagery silently to oneself before putting); and Cond 9, no instruction control group. All participants were asked to perform a golf-putting task. Results indicated that participants who implemented several (PET's) increased their putting accuracy across overall difference score evaluations F (8, 141) = 4.01, p < 0.05 when compared to a no instruction control condition. Follow-up analyses indicated that participants who reportedly engaged in ten hours or less of athletic activities per week preferred self-talk strategies F (2, 119) = 4.38, p < 0.05 whereas participants who endorsed ten hours or more of athletic activity per week preferred imagery strategies F (2, 25) = 5.27, p < 0.05. Key PointsMental imagery and self-talk strategies are implemented by athletes in order to regulate arousal, reduce maladaptive behaviors, reconstruct negative thoughts, and to increase one's concentration and focus.Results of the current study suggest that participants who engaged in several performance enhancement techniques exhibited enhanced performance on
Effect of athletic taping and kinesiotaping® on measurements of functional performance in basketball players with chronic inversion ankle sprains.
Bicici, Seda; Karatas, Nihan; Baltaci, Gul
- placebo taping p=0.035; athletic taping- non tape p=0.043; athletic tape- KT® p<0.001) (Vertical jump test: Athletic taping- placebo taping p=0.002: athletic taping- non tape p=0.002; KT®- athletic tape p<0.001) Kinesiotaping® had no negative effects on a battery of functional performance tests and improvements were seen in some functional performance tests. Ankle taping using Kinesio Tex® Tape did not inhibit functional performance.
Scientometric analyses of studies on the role of innate variation in athletic performance.
Lombardo, Michael P; Emiah, Shadie
Historical events have produced an ideologically charged atmosphere in the USA surrounding the potential influences of innate variation on athletic performance. We tested the hypothesis that scientific studies of the role of innate variation in athletic performance were less likely to have authors with USA addresses than addresses elsewhere because of this cultural milieu. Using scientometric data collected from 290 scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000-2012, we compared the proportions of authors with USA addresses with those that listed addresses elsewhere that studied the relationships between athletic performance and (a) prenatal exposure to androgens, as indicated by the ratio between digits 2 and 4, and (b) the genotypes for angiotensin converting enzyme, α-actinin-3, and myostatin; traits often associated with athletic performance. Authors with USA addresses were disproportionately underrepresented on papers about the role of innate variation in athletic performance. We searched NIH and NSF databases for grant proposals solicited or funded from 2000-2012 to determine if the proportion of authors that listed USA addresses was associated with funding patterns. NIH did not solicit grant proposals designed to examine these factors in the context of athletic performance and neither NIH nor NSF funded grants designed to study these topics. We think the combined effects of a lack of government funding and the avoidance of studying controversial or non-fundable topics by USA based scientists are responsible for the observation that authors with USA addresses were underrepresented on scientific papers examining the relationships between athletic performance and innate variation.
Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.
Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong
The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.
Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes.
Zinn, Caryn; Wood, Matthew; Williden, Mikki; Chatterton, Simon; Maunder, Ed
Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii. to evaluate the athletes' experiences of the ketogenic diet during the 10-week intervention. Using a case study design, five New Zealand endurance athletes (4 females, 1 male) underwent a 10-week ketogenic dietary intervention. Body composition (sum of 8 skinfolds), performance indicators (time to exhaustion, VO 2 max, peak power and ventilatory threshold), and gas exchange thresholds were measured at baseline and at 10 weeks. Mean change scores were calculated, and analysed using t-tests; Cohen's effect sizes and 90% confidence limits were applied to quantify change. Individual interviews conducted at 5 weeks and a focus group at 10 weeks assessed athletes' ketogenic diet experiences. Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All athletes increased their ability to utilise fat as a fuel source, including at higher exercise intensities. Mean body weight was reduced by 4 kg ± SD 3.1 ( p = 0.046; effect size (ES):0.62), and sum of 8 skinfolds by 25.9 mm ± SD 6.9; ES: 1.27; p = 0.001). Mean time to exhaustion dropped by ~2 min (±SD 0.7; p = 0.004; ES: 0.53). Other performance outcomes showed mean reductions, with some increases or unchanged results in two individuals (VO2 Max: -1.69 ml.kg.min ± SD 3.4 ( p = 0.63); peak power: -18 W ± SD 16.4 ( p = 0.07), and VT2: -6 W ± SD 44.5 ( p = 0.77). Athletes reported experiencing reduced energy levels initially, followed by a return of high levels thereafter
The effect of massage on acceleration and sprint performance in track & field athletes.
Moran, Ryan N; Hauth, John M; Rabena, Robert
To examine the acute effects of pre-competition massage on acceleration and sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. Seventeen collegiate male (n = 9) and female (N = 8) track and field athletes participated in the study. Athletes were assigned to a counterbalanced, repeated measures designed experiment testing four treatment conditions of a pre-competition massage, dynamic warm-up, combination of a massage and warm-up, and a placebo ultrasound. The reliability between treatments was very high (ICC range: 0.94-0.98) and displayed a high internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.96). Inter-item correlations for treatments were strong at all time intervals (20-m r = 0.74-0.90; 30-m r = 0.87-0.95; 60-m r = 0.88-0.95). There were no significant differences between the four treatments and performance (p = 0.70). Massage decreased 60-meter sprint performance in comparison to the traditional warm-up, although the combination of the massage and warm-up appeared to have no greater difference than the warm-up alone. Massage prior to competition remains questionable due to a lack of effectiveness in improving sprint performance. Further, pre-competition massage may not be more effective as a pre-event modality, over a traditional warm-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The acute potentiating effects of back squats on athlete performance.
Crewther, Blair T; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J; Middleton, Matt K; Bunce, Paul J; Yang, Guang-Zhong
Crewther, BT, Kilduff, LP, Cook, CJ, Middleton, MK, Bunce, PJ, and Yang, G-Z. The acute potentiating effects of back squats on athlete performance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3319-3325, 2011-This study examined the acute potentiating effects of back squats on athlete performance with a specific focus on movement specificity and the individual timing of potentiation. Nine subelite male rugby players performed 3 protocols on separate occasions using a randomized, crossover, and counterbalanced design. Each protocol consisted of performance testing before a single set of 3 repetition maximum (3RM) back squats, followed by retesting at ∼15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, and 16 minutes. The 3 tests were countermovement jumps (CMJs), sprint performance (5 and 10 m), and 3-m horizontal sled pushes with a 100-kg load. Relationships between the individual changes in salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations and performance were also examined. The 3RM squats significantly (p < 0.001) improved CMJ height at 4 (3.9 ± 1.9%), 8 (3.5 ± 1.5%), and 12 (3.0 ± 1.4%) minutes compared with baseline values, but no temporal changes in sprinting and sled times were identified. On an individual level, the peak relative changes in CMJ height (6.4 ± 2.1%, p < 0.001) were greater than the 3-m sled (1.4 ± 0.6%), 5-m (2.6 ± 1.0%), and 10-m sprint tests (1.8 ± 1.0%). In conclusion, a single set of 3RM squats was found effective in acutely enhancing CMJ height in the study population, especially when the recovery period was individualized for each athlete. The study results also suggest that the potentiating effects of squats may exhibit some degree of movement specificity, being greater for those exercises with similar movement patterns. The current findings have practical implications for prescribing warm-up exercises, individualizing training programs, and for interpreting postactivation potentiation research.
Impact of 5-h phase advance on sleep architecture and physical performance in athletes.
Petit, Elisabeth; Mougin, Fabienne; Bourdin, Hubert; Tio, Grégory; Haffen, Emmanuel
Travel across time zones causes jet lag and is accompanied by deleterious effects on sleep and performance in athletes. These poor performances have been evaluated in field studies but not in laboratory conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in athletes, the impact of 5-h phase advance on the architecture of sleep and physical performances (Wingate test). In a sleep laboratory, 16 male athletes (age: 22.2 ± 1.7 years, height: 178.3 ± 5.6 cm, body mass: 73.6 ± 7.9 kg) spent 1 night in baseline condition and 2 nights, 1 week apart, in phase shift condition recorded by electroencephalography to calculate sleep architecture variables. For these last 2 nights, the clock was advanced by 5 h. Core body temperature rhythm was assessed continuously. The first night with phase advance decreased total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, stage 2 of nonrapid eye movement (N2), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with baseline condition, whereas the second night decreased N2 and increased slow-wave sleep and REM, thus improving the quality of sleep. After phase advance, mean power improved, which resulted in higher lactatemia. Acrophase and bathyphase of temperature occurred earlier and amplitude decreased in phase advance but the period was not modified. These results suggest that a simulated phase shift contributed to the changes in sleep architecture, but did not significantly impair physical performances in relation with early phase adjustment of temperature to the new local time.
The Influence of Compression Stocking on Jumping Performance of Athlete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salleh, M. N.; Lazim, H. M.; Lamsali, H.; Salleh, A. F.
Evidence of compression stocking effectiveness are mixed, with some researchers suggests that the stocking can enhance performance while others dispute the finding. One of the factors that are thought to cause the mixed results is level of pressure used in their studies. This research had organized a test on fourteen athletes. Their body was scanned and a customized compression stocking which can exert pressure correspond to the intended one was developed. An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of wearing compression stocking on jumping performance. The results show mixed outcomes. For the female athlete, there is a significant difference between wearing and not wearing compression stocking (p<0.05) on knee power. However, there is no significant difference for male athletes whether wearing or not.
Availability of a sports dietitian may lead to improved performance and recovery of NCAA division I baseball athletes.
Hull, Michael V; Neddo, Jonathan; Jagim, Andrew R; Oliver, Jonathan M; Greenwood, Mike; Jones, Margaret T
The purpose was to survey dietary habits (DH) and nutrient timing (NT) practices of baseball student-athletes (mean ± SD; 20.7 ± 1.4 yr.) from three NCAA Division I institutions, and examine the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) in regard to nutrition practices. Descriptive statistics and Pearson X 2 analyses were run. Responses on 10 DH and 5 NT items differed ( p ≤ 0.10) between athletes who sought dietary planning from a SD ( n = 36) versus those who consulted a strength and conditioning coach (SCC, n = 42). In regard to DH items, the SD group found it easier to eat before activity (92% vs. 71%, p = 0.03), did not consume fast food (31% vs. 14%, p = 0.02), caffeinated beverages (57% vs. 46%, p = 0.02), or soda (56% vs. 37%, p = 0.10), prepared their own meals more often (86% vs. 73%, p = 0.07), and took daily multi-vitamins (56% vs. 32%, p = 0.02). The SCC group ate more at burger locations (21% vs. 6%, p = 0.02). In regard to NT items, the SD group ate breakfast before training/lifting sessions (67% vs. 37%, p = 0.02), and had post-workout nutrition options provided (61% vs. 27%, p = 0.01). The SCC group reported pre-competition meals of fast food (58% vs. 45%, p = 0.01), and sport coaches who were less aware of healthy food options (39% vs. 65%, p = 0.05). The SD is as a valuable asset to an intercollegiate athletics program. In the current study, athletes from the SD group consumed less high calorie/low nutrient dense items, ate before exercise, and consumed healthier options post-exercise. The presence of a SD was linked to provision of healthier food options during team trips. The evidence-based eating strategies and dietary plan provided by a SD may lead to improved performance and recovery.
2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?
Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio
The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.
A Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment-Based Approach to Athletic Performance Enhancement: Theoretical Considerations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardner, Frank L.; Moore, Zella E.
While traditional cognitive-behavioral skills-training-based approaches to athletic performance enhancement posit that negative thoughts and emotions must be controlled, eliminated, or replaced for athlete-clients to perform optimally, recent evidence suggests that efforts to control, eliminate, or suppress these internal states may actually have…
Goal Profiles, Mental Toughness and its Influence on Performance Outcomes among Wushu Athletes
This study examined the association between goal orientations and mental toughness and its influence on performance outcomes in competition. Wushu athletes (n = 40) competing in Intervarsity championships in Malaysia completed Task and Ego Orientations in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI). Using cluster analysis techniques including hierarchical methods and the non-hierarchical method (k-means cluster) to examine goal profiles, a three cluster solution emerged viz. cluster 1 - high task and moderate ego (HT/ME), cluster 2 - moderate task and low ego (MT/LE) and, cluster 3 - moderate task and moderate ego (MT/ME). Analysis of the fundamental areas of mental toughness based on goal profiles revealed that athletes in cluster 1 scored significantly higher on negative energy control than athletes in cluster 2. Further, athletes in cluster 1 also scored significantly higher on positive energy control than athletes in cluster 3. Chi-square (χ2) test revealed no significant differences among athletes with different goal profiles on performance outcomes in the competition. However, significant differences were observed between athletes (medallist and non medallist) in self- confidence (p = 0.001) and negative energy control (p = 0.042). Medallist’s scored significantly higher on self-confidence (mean = 21.82 ± 2.72) and negative energy control (mean = 19.59 ± 2.32) than the non-medallists (self confidence-mean = 18.76 ± 2.49; negative energy control mean = 18.14 ± 1.91). Key points Mental toughness can be influenced by certain goal profile combination. Athletes with successful outcomes in performance (medallist) displayed greater mental toughness. PMID:24198700
Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill
Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…
Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan
The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…
Emotional States of Athletes Prior to Performance-Induced Injury
Devonport, Tracey J.; Lane, Andrew M.; Hanin, Yuri L.
Psychological states experienced by athletes prior to injured, best and worst performances were investigated retrospectively using a mixed methodology. Fifty-nine athletes volunteered to complete an individualized assessment of performance states based on the Individual Zones of Optimal fFunctioning (IZOF) model. A subsection (n = 30) of participants completed a standardized psychometric scale (Brunel Mood Rating Scale: BRUMS), retrospectively describing how they felt before best, worst, and injured performances. IZOF results showed similar emotion states being identified for injured and best performances. Analysis of BRUMS scores indicated a significant main effect for differences in mood by performance outcome, with post-hoc analyses showing best performance was associated with lower scores on depression and fatigue and higher vigor than injured performance and worst performance. Worst performance was associated with higher fatigue and confusion than injured performance. Results indicate that retrospective emotional profiles before injured performance are closer to successful performance, than unsuccessful, and confirm differences between successful and unsuccessful performance. Qualitative and quantitative approaches used to retrospectively assess pre-performance emotional states before three performance outcomes, produced complimentary findings. Practical implications of the study are discussed. Key Points Psychological states experienced by athletes prior to injured, best and worst performances were investigated retrospectively using a mixed methodology. Results indicate that retrospective emotional profiles before injured performance are closer to successful performance, than unsuccessful, and confirm differences between successful and unsuccessful performance, a finding that occurred using both methods. Future research should further examine the emotional antecedents of injury and that applied sport psychologists recognize the potential risk of injury
Risk Profile of Male College Athletes Who Use Performance-Enhancing Substances*
Buckman, Jennifer F.; Yusko, David A.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.
Objective: There is a general perception that use of performance-enhancing substances (PESs) does not fit the standard profile of substance use. This study sought to determine whether users of PESs report high-risk patterns of alcohol and other drug use and demonstrate risk behaviors associated with problematic substance use. Method: Anonymous self-report questionnaires were administered to a sample of 234 male student athletes. PES users were defined as college athletes who reported past-year use of a broad array of PESs (including stimulants, hormone precursors, and nutritional supplements). Results: Male athlete PES users (n = 73) compared with nonusers (n = 160) reported more problematic alcohol-use behaviors and more alcohol- and drug-use-related problems. The former compared with the latter was also more likely to report past-year use of tobacco products, marijuana, cocaine, psychedelics, and prescription drugs without a prescription. In addition, PES users demonstrated higher sensation seeking, and greater coping and enhancement motivations for drinking and marijuana use than non-PES users. Conclusions: Although banned PESs are not typically viewed as having a high addiction potential, male athletes who use these drugs may be more likely to participate in other problematic substance-use behaviors. Importantly, the male athletes in this study who reported PES use also participated in substance-use behaviors that can have profound negative effects on athletic performance. More research on the use of PESs in college athletes is needed. PMID:19895768
Physiological and performance changes in national and international judo athletes during block periodization training
Marques, Lucas; Franchini, Emerson; Drago, Gustavo; Aoki, Marcelo S.
Block periodization (BP) has been proposed as an alternative approach for application in the context of high-level sports. Despite its growing acceptance, there is no empirical evidence of BP adoption in high-level judo athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the maximal strength, muscle power, judo-specific performances, and hormonal concentration changes of state/national level (NG) and international level (IG) judo athletes subjected to BP. Twenty-one elite judo athletes (international level = 10; 21.7±1.9 years, 167.2±7.6 cm, 67.6±9.4 kg, 15.7±1.9 years of practice; national level = 11; 21.9±3.0 years, 167.5±9.1 cm, 71.8±16.5, 15.9±3.0 years of practice) were subjected to 13-week BP training (5-week accumulation phase [ACP], 5-week transmutation phase [TP], and 3-week realization phase [RP]). The judo-specific performance (SJFT) increased as there was observed a decrease in the SJFT index (final heart rate [HR] (bpm) + HR1 min after the test divided by the number of throws) for both NG (effect size [ES] = 0.83) and IG (ES = 0.53) from ACP to TP (p < 0.05). The row exercise maximal strength decreased (p < 0.05; ES = 1.35) after the ACP but returned to the baseline level after the TP, for the whole group (ES = 1.39). The athletes did seem to cope appropriately with the demands of BP, as besides increases in SJFT performance no significant changes were observed for cortisol and testosterone concentrations. This is the first study to demonstrate that judo athletes from different competitive levels subjected to BP improved SJFT, likely due to an appropriate balance between training loads and recovery. Thus, the BP approach may be a useful alternative periodization strategy for high-level judo athletes. PMID:29472740
On the relativity of athletic performance: a comparison perspective on performance judgments in sports.
Damisch, Lysann; Mussweiler, Thomas
Identifying the best performance at a specific point in time constitutes the central purpose of all competitive sports. In many sports, this decision is based on subjective performance judgments. In the present chapter, we consider how these judgments are formed by emphasizing the relative nature of person judgments and athletic performance judgments in particular. Specifically, we argue that athletic judgments are influenced by comparisons with prior performances thereby leading to similar judgmental consequences as have been observed in other comparison domains (e.g., social comparison). Particularly, we demonstrate that performance judgments are assimilated to judgments of the preceding performance if judges focus on similarities between the two. If judges focus on differences, however, contrast ensues. Strategies for preventing or correcting this judgmental bias are discussed.
Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Pierson, W.E.; Covert, D.S.; Koenig, J.Q.
Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest that air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, sulfur dioxide, which is a highly water-soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorptionmore » occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared to pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where milliseconds and millimeters often determine the success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.« less
Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.
Barnes, Matthew J
Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.
Physiological, Nutritional and Performance Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes
Santos, Jonatas FS; Esteves, João VDC; Panissa, Valeria LG; Julio, Ursula F; Franchini, Emerson
Abstract This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12.7 ± 4.8% of body fat, 59.2 ± 5.0% of muscle mass and their somatotype was dominated by the mesomorphic component (5.3 ± 2.0), followed by endomorphic (3.7 ± 1.5) and ectomorphic (1.4 ± 0.9) components. Nutritional assessment suggested a diet consisting of 54 ± 7% of carbohydrates, 19 ± 4% of protein and 27 ± 6% of lipids. Movement time on the handgrip tests was 0.42 ± 0.05 s, for handgrip strength, 53 ± 7 kgf was found for the dominant hand and 50 ± 9 kgf for the non-dominant hand. For the countermovement jump, the jiu-jitsu athletes reached 41 ± 5 cm. Athletes remained 30 ± 14 s in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono, and reached 27 ± 8 cm in the sit-and-reach test. Overall the sample presented average levels of body fat, elevated muscle mass and a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype. Diet was generally poor, with low carbohydrate intake, high protein intake and adequate lipid intake. Maximum isometric handgrip strength was consistent with observations of other athletes in this sport discipline. However, the performance in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono was lower than in other Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Movement time was comparable and lower body muscle power was worse compared to athletes in similar sports. Additionally, flexibility was rated as poor. PMID:28149429
Physiological, Nutritional and Performance Profiles of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Athletes.
Andreato, Leonardo V; Santos, Jonatas Fs; Esteves, João Vdc; Panissa, Valeria Lg; Julio, Ursula F; Franchini, Emerson
This study analysed the physiological, nutritional and performance profiles of athletes practicing Brazilian jiu-jitsu. To this end, 15 athletes that practiced Brazilian jiu-jitsu (aged: 28 ± 5 years; 8 brown belts and 7 black belts; training experience: 11 ± 4 years) underwent anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype), dietary evaluation (24 h recall) and physical fitness tests (movement time, dynamometer handgrip, kimono grip strength, vertical jump and sit-and-reach tests). The athletes had 12.7 ± 4.8% of body fat, 59.2 ± 5.0% of muscle mass and their somatotype was dominated by the mesomorphic component (5.3 ± 2.0), followed by endomorphic (3.7 ± 1.5) and ectomorphic (1.4 ± 0.9) components. Nutritional assessment suggested a diet consisting of 54 ± 7% of carbohydrates, 19 ± 4% of protein and 27 ± 6% of lipids. Movement time on the handgrip tests was 0.42 ± 0.05 s, for handgrip strength, 53 ± 7 kgf was found for the dominant hand and 50 ± 9 kgf for the non-dominant hand. For the countermovement jump, the jiu-jitsu athletes reached 41 ± 5 cm. Athletes remained 30 ± 14 s in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono, and reached 27 ± 8 cm in the sit-and-reach test. Overall the sample presented average levels of body fat, elevated muscle mass and a predominantly mesomorphic somatotype. Diet was generally poor, with low carbohydrate intake, high protein intake and adequate lipid intake. Maximum isometric handgrip strength was consistent with observations of other athletes in this sport discipline. However, the performance in the maximum static suspension test gripping a kimono was lower than in other Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Movement time was comparable and lower body muscle power was worse compared to athletes in similar sports. Additionally, flexibility was rated as poor.
Comparing Division IA Scholarship and Non-Scholarship Student-Athletes: A Discriminant Analysis of Academic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rubin, Lisa Melanie
Many research studies have examined the academic performance and graduation rates of college student-athletes. The limited focus on scholarship student-athletes has overlooked the majority of NCAA student-athletes, those participating in collegiate athletic programs without athletic scholarships. Therefore, this study contributes to a gap in the…
American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.
Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin
Should Athletic Training Educators Utilize Grades When Evaluating Student Clinical Performance?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scriber, Kent; Gray, Courtney; Millspaugh, Rose
Objective: To explore and address some of the challenges for assessing, interpreting, and grading athletic training students' clinical performance and to suggest athletic training educators consider using a more universal assessment method for professional consistency. Background: In years past students learned from teachers or mentors on an…
Performance-Based Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Professional Athletes Differ Between Sports.
Mai, Harry T; Chun, Danielle S; Schneider, Andrew D; Erickson, Brandon J; Freshman, Ryan D; Kester, Benjamin; Verma, Nikhil N; Hsu, Wellington K
Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives. Sport-specific performance statistics were collected before and after surgery for each athlete. Return to play (RTP) was defined as a successful return to the active roster for at least 1 regular-season game after ACLR. Of 344 professional athletes who met the inclusion criteria, a total of 298 (86.6%) returned to play. NHL players had a significantly higher rate of RTP (95.8% vs 83.4%, respectively; P = .04) and a shorter recovery time (258 ± 110 days vs 367 ± 268 days, respectively; P < .001) than athletes in all the other sports. NFL athletes experienced significantly shorter careers postoperatively than players in all the other sports (2.1 vs 3.2 years, respectively; P < .001). All athletes played fewer games ( P ≤ .02) 1 season postoperatively, while those in the NFL had the lowest rate of active players 2 and 3 seasons postoperatively (60%; P = .002). NBA and NFL players showed decreased performance at season 1 after ACLR ( P ≤ .001). NFL players continued to have lower performance at seasons 2 and 3 ( P = .002), while NBA players recovered to baseline performance. The data indicate that NFL athletes fare the worst after ACLR with the lowest survival rate, shortest postoperative career length, and sustained decreases in performance. NHL athletes fare the best with the highest rates of RTP, highest survival
IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete
Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Lucas J C; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard GM; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation (if an antidoping rule violation results). A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialled in training or simulated competition before being used in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the antidoping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete’s health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount; expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before an athlete embarks on supplement use. PMID:29540367
Resting sympatho-vagal balance is related to 10 km running performance in master endurance athletes.
Cataldo, Angelo; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Cerasola, Dario; Alagna, Saverio; Messina, Giuseppe; Zangla, Daniele; Traina, Marcello
Relationships between heart rate recovery after exercise (HRR, baseline heart rate variability measures (HRV), and time to perform a 10Km running trial (t10Km) were evaluated in "master" athletes of endurance to assess whether the measured indexes may be useful for monitoring the training status of the athletes. Ten "master" athletes of endurance, aged 40-60 years, were recruited. After baseline measures of HRV, the athletes performed a graded maximal test on treadmill and HRR was measured at 1 and 2 minutes from recovery. Subsequently they performed a 10Km running trial and t10Km was related to HRV and HRR indexes. The time to perform a 10Km running trial was significantly correlated with baseline HRV indexes. No correlation was found between t10Km and HRR. Baseline HRV measures, but not HRR, were significantly correlated with the time of performance on 10km running in "master" athletes. The enhanced parasympathetic function at rest appears to be a condition to a better performance on 10km running. HRV can be simple and useful measurements for monitoring the training stratus of athletes and their physical condition in proximity of a competition.
Strength and conditioning in adolescent female athletes.
Sommi, Corinne; Gill, Frances; Trojan, Jeffrey D; Mulcahey, Mary K
Despite evidence that strength and conditioning (S&C) programs decrease injury risk and increase sport performance, young females are rarely offered S&C programs comparable to those of their male counterparts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current body of available literature regarding S&C in adolescent female athletes, describe potential benefits, and generate recommendations for S&C programs for female adolescent athletes. This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Systematic searches of the PubMed and Google Scholar databases were conducted using the following keywords: 'female athletes,' 'injury prevention,' 'adolescent,' 'physical fitness,' 'strength,' 'female adolescent,' and 'conditioning.' Studies included in this review evaluated the effectiveness of S&C protocols and/or the habits and attitudes of coaches and athletic trainers working with female adolescent athletes. Seven articles evaluating S&C programs for the adolescent female athlete were used as the basis for this systematic review. These articles described current protocols and/or factors that should be taken into account when designing S&C programs. The identified articles focused on improving the strength of adolescent female athletes, decreasing the risk of injury, and exposing female athletes to the benefits of S&C that are routinely afforded to their male counterparts. Despite the critical potential benefits of S&C training, such as improved landing mechanics, coaches and athletic trainers do not routinely implement S&C programs for female adolescent athletes. The lack of such programs is largely due to misconceptions surrounding female athletes, such as the perception that females fear bulking up. S&C programs for adolescent female athletes should incorporate stretching of the hip adductors, targeted hamstring, gluteal and quadriceps strengthening, and a synergistic adaptation model
Athletic Performance at the National Basketball Association Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
Mehran, Nima; Williams, Phillip N; Keller, Robert A; Khalil, Lafi S; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are significant injuries in elite-level basketball players. In-game statistical performance after ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated; however, few studies have reviewed functional performance in National Basketball Association (NBA)-caliber athletes after ACL reconstruction. To compare NBA Combine performance of athletes after ACL reconstruction with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group of players with no previous reported knee injury requiring surgery. We hypothesized that there is no difference between the 2 groups in functional performance. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1092 NBA-caliber players who participated in the NBA Combine between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-one athletes were identified as having primary ACL reconstruction prior to participation in the combine. This study group was compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group in objective functional performance testing, including the shuttle run test, lane agility test, three-quarter court sprint, vertical jump (no step), and maximum vertical jump (running start). With regard to quickness and agility, both ACL-reconstructed athletes and controls scored an average of 11.5 seconds in the lane agility test and 3.1 seconds in the shuttle run test (P = .745 and .346, respectively). Speed and acceleration was measured by the three-quarter court sprint, in which both the study group and the control group averaged 3.3 seconds (P = .516). In the maximum vertical jump, which demonstrates an athlete's jumping ability with a running start, the ACL reconstruction group had an average height of 33.6 inches while the controls averaged 33.9 inches (P = .548). In the standing vertical jump, the ACL reconstruction group averaged 28.2 inches while the control group averaged 29.2 inches (P = .067). In athletes who are able to return to sport and compete at a high level such as the NBA Combine, there is no
Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Tekla S.
The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)
A national study of substance use behaviors among NCAA male athletes who use banned performance enhancing substances
Buckman, Jennifer F.; Farris, Samantha G.; Yusko, David A.
Background Reports of illicit substance use by college athletes have become commonplace in recent years, yet comparatively little effort has been put forth by the research community to understand these behaviors. Methods Data for this study came from a large, national dataset collected by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). This study compared substance use behaviors of male undergraduate student athletes who reported using ergogenic performance enhancing substances (e.g., anabolic steroids and peptide hormones) during college (PES users) to those who did not (PES non-users). Results A consistent pattern of higher substance use rates was observed among PES users compared to non-users, including heavier drinking, higher prevalence rates of cigarettes, marijuana, amphetamines, narcotics, and a variety of permissible and impermissible dietary supplements. An unexpected finding was that there were large discrepancies in reported prevalence rates between similar or overlapping survey items (e.g., past year use of “narcotics” versus “I have taken Vicodin, Oxycontin or Percocet with/without a prescription”). Conclusions These findings suggest that male college athletes who use PES while in college demonstrate a general tendency to engage in alcohol and drug use behaviors, regardless of whether these behaviors improve or impede athletic performance. The results further suggest that college athletes may not fully appreciate drug categorizations that are commonly employed to gauge substance use behaviors. Changes to drug education and prevention programs may be needed to enhance understanding of drug properties and actions. PMID:23688842
A national study of substance use behaviors among NCAA male athletes who use banned performance enhancing substances.
Buckman, Jennifer F; Farris, Samantha G; Yusko, David A
Reports of illicit substance use by college athletes have become commonplace in recent years, yet comparatively little effort has been put forth by the research community to understand these behaviors. Data for this study came from a large, national dataset collected by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). This study compared substance use behaviors of male undergraduate student athletes who reported using ergogenic performance enhancing substances (e.g., anabolic steroids and peptide hormones) during college (PES users) to those who did not (PES non-users). A consistent pattern of higher substance use rates was observed among PES users compared to non-users, including heavier drinking, higher prevalence rates of cigarettes, marijuana, amphetamines, narcotics, and a variety of permissible and impermissible dietary supplements. An unexpected finding was that there were large discrepancies in reported prevalence rates between similar or overlapping survey items (e.g., past year use of "narcotics" versus "I have taken Vicodin, Oxycontin or Percocet with/without a prescription"). These findings suggest that male college athletes who use PES while in college demonstrate a general tendency to engage in alcohol and drug use behaviors, regardless of whether these behaviors improve or impede athletic performance. The results further suggest that college athletes may not fully appreciate drug categorizations that are commonly employed to gauge substance use behaviors. Changes to drug education and prevention programs may be needed to enhance understanding of drug properties and actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane
Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752
Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise.
Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Hammes, Daniel; Coutts, Aaron J; Meyer, Tim
Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance.
Data-driven quantification of the effect of wind on athletics performance.
Moinat, M; Fabius, O; Emanuel, K S
So far, the relationship between wind and athletics performance has been studied mainly for 100 m sprint, based on simulation of biomechanical models, requiring several assumptions. In this study, this relationship is quantified empirically for all five horizontal jump and sprint events where wind is measured, with freely available competition results. After systematic scraping several elite and sub-elite results sites, the obtained results (n = 150,169) were filtered and matched to athletes. A quadratic mixed effects model with athlete and season as random effects was applied to express the influence of wind velocity on performance in each event. Whether this effect differs with performance level was investigated by applying the model on subgroups based on performance level. In the fitted quadratic model, the linear coefficients were significant (p < .001) for all events; the quadratic coefficients were significant for all events (p < .001) except long jump (p = .138). A 2.0 m s -1 tail wind provides an average advantage of 0.125, 0.140 and 0.146-s for the 100, 200 and 100/110 m hurdles, respectively, and an advantage of 0.058 and 0.102 m for long jump and triple jump, respectively. Performance level had a significant effect on the wind influence only for 100 m (p < .001). Amateur athletes (∼13 s) benefit 69% more from a 2.0 m s -1 tail wind than elite athletes (∼10 s). Practical formulas are presented for each event. These can easily be used correct results for wind speed, allowing better talent scouting and championship selection. This study demonstrates the efficacy of answering scientific questions empirically, through freely available data.
Is high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation a suitable tool for muscle performance improvement in both healthy humans and athletes?
Gondin, Julien; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David
We aimed at providing an overview of the currently acknowledged benefits and limitations of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training programs in both healthy individuals and in recreational and competitive athletes regarding muscle performance. Typical NMES resistance exercises are performed under isometric conditions and involve the application of electrical stimuli delivered as intermittent high frequencies trains (>40-50 Hz) through surface electrodes. NMES has been acknowledged as an efficient modality leading to significant improvements in isometric maximal voluntary strength. However, the resulting changes in dynamic strength, motor performance skills and explosive movements (i.e., jump performance, sprint ability) are still ambiguous and could only be obtained when NMES is combined with voluntary dynamic exercise such as plyometrics. Additionally, the effects of NMES on muscle fatigability are still poorly understood and required further investigations. While NMES effectiveness could be partially related to several external adjustable factors such as training intensity, current characteristics (e.g., intensity, pulse duration…) or the design of training protocols (number of contractions per session, number of sessions per week…), anatomical specificities (e.g., morphological organization of the axonal branches within the muscle) appear as the main factor accounting for the differences in NMES response. Overall, NMES cannot be considered as a surrogate training method, but rather as an adjunct to voluntary resistance training. The combination of these two training modalities should optimally improve muscle function.
National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes
Casa, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.
Objective: To present recommendations to optimize the fluid-replacement practices of athletes. Background: Dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes do not voluntarily drink sufficient water to prevent dehydration during physical activity. Drinking behavior can be modified by education, increasing accessibility, and optimizing palatability. However, excessive overdrinking should be avoided because it can also compromise physical performance and health. We provide practical recommendations regarding fluid replacement for athletes. Recommendations: Educate athletes regarding the risks of dehydration and overhydration on health and physical performance. Work with individual athletes to develop fluid-replacement practices that optimize hydration status before, during, and after competition. Imagesp224-a PMID:16558633
Elbow ulnar collateral ligament injuries in athletes: Can we improve our outcomes?
Redler, Lauren H; Degen, Ryan M; McDonald, Lucas S; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S
Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) most commonly occurs in the overhead throwing athlete. Knowledge surrounding UCL injury pathomechanics continues to improve, leading to better preventative treatment strategies and rehabilitation programs. Conservative treatment strategies for partial injuries, improved operative techniques for reconstruction in complete tears, adjunctive treatments, as well as structured sport specific rehabilitation programs including resistive exercises for the entire upper extremity kinetic chain are all important factors in allowing for a return to throwing in competitive environments. In this review, we explore each of these factors and provide recommendations based on the available literature to improve outcomes in UCL injuries in athletes. PMID:27114930
Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes.
Papacosta, Elena; Gleeson, Michael; Nassis, George P
The aims of this study were to identify the time course of change of salivary testosterone (sT), cortisol (sC), and IgA (SIgA); mood state; and performance capacity during a 2-week taper in judo athletes and to examine the diurnal variation in these salivary markers. Eleven male judo athletes completed 5 weeks of training: 1 week of normal training (NORM), 2 weeks of intensified training (INT), and 2 weeks of exponential tapering (TAPER). Once per week subjects completed vertical and horizontal countermovement jump tests, a grip strength test, a Special Judo Fitness Test, a multistage aerobic fitness test, a 3 × 300-m run test, and anthropometric measurement. Subjects also completed questionnaires to assess mood state and muscle soreness. Two daily saliva samples (at 0700 and 1900) were collected at the end of each week during NORM and INT and every day during TAPER. Increased morning sT, decreased evening sC, lower muscle soreness, and enhanced mood state (p < 0.05) were evident by the early phases of TAPER. A significant 7.0% improvement in 3 × 300-m performance time, a 6.9% improvement in the vertical jump (p < 0.05), and increased morning and evening SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.01) were observed during the middle-late phases of TAPER. The higher values of salivary variables were observed in the morning. This study indicates that salivary hormones display diurnal variation. Furthermore, changes in hormonal responses, mood state, and muscle soreness precede enhancements in performance and mucosal immunity, suggesting that judo athletes taper for at least a week before competition.
A PILOT STUDY OF CORE STABILITY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE: IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP?
Sharrock, Chris; Cropper, Jarrod; Mostad, Joel; Johnson, Matt
Study Design: Correlation study Objectives: To objectively evaluate the relationship between core stability and athletic performance measures in male and female collegiate athletes. Background: The relationship between core stability and athletic performance has yet to be quantified in the available literature. The current literature does not demonstrate whether or not core strength relates to functional performance. Questions remain regarding the most important components of core stability, the role of sport specificity, and the measurement of core stability in relation to athletic performance. Methods: A sample of 35 volunteer student athletes from Asbury College (NAIA Division II) provided informed consent. Participants performed a series of five tests: double leg lowering (core stability test), the forty yard dash, the T-test, vertical jump, and a medicine ball throw. Participants performed three trials of each test in a randomized order. Results: Correlations between the core stability test and each of the other four performance tests were determined using a General Linear Model. Medicine ball throw negatively correlated to the core stability test (r –0.389, p=0.023). Participants that performed better on the core stability test had a stronger negative correlation to the medicine ball throw (r =–0.527). Gender was the most strongly correlated variable to core strength, males with a mean measurement of double leg lowering of 47.43 degrees compared to females having a mean of 54.75 degrees. Conclusions: There appears to be a link between a core stability test and athletic performance tests; however, more research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the nature of this relationship. Ideally, specific performance tests will be able to better define and to examine relationships to core stability. Future studies should also seek to determine if there are specific sub-categories of core stability which are most important to allow for optimal training and
Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model.
Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M
Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games.
Managing the health of the elite athlete: a new integrated performance health management and coaching model
Dijkstra, H Paul; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Alonso, J M
Elite athletes endeavour to train and compete even when ill or injured. Their motivation may be intrinsic or due to coach and team pressures. The sports medicine physician plays an important role to risk-manage the health of the competing athlete in partnership with the coach and other members of the support team. The sports medicine physician needs to strike the right ethical and operational balance between health management and optimising performance. It is necessary to revisit the popular delivery model of sports medicine and science services to elite athletes based on the current reductionist multispecialist system lacking in practice an integrated approach and effective communication. Athlete and coach in isolation or with a member of the multidisciplinary support team, often not qualified or experienced to do so, decide on the utilisation of services and how to apply the recommendations. We propose a new Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model based on the UK Athletics experience in preparation for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Medical and Coaching Teams are managed by qualified and experienced individuals operating in synergy towards a common performance goal, accountable to a Performance Director and ultimately to the Board of Directors. We describe the systems, processes and implementation strategies to assist the athlete, coach and support teams to continuously monitor and manage athlete health and performance. These systems facilitate a balanced approach to training and competing decisions, especially while the athlete is ill or injured. They take into account the best medical advice and athlete preference. This Integrated Performance Health Management and Coaching model underpinned the Track and Field Gold Medal performances at the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:24620040
The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.
Krendl, Anne; Gainsburg, Izzy; Ambady, Nalini
Although the effects of negative stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance have been well researched, the effects of positive stereotypes on performance, particularly in the presence of observers, is not known. In the current study, White males watched a video either depicting Whites basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (positive stereotype), Black basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (negative stereotype), or a neutral sports video (control). Participants then shot a set of free throws, during which half the participants were also videotaped (observer condition), whereas the other half were not (no observer condition). Results demonstrated that positive stereotypes improved free throw performance, but only in the no observer condition. Interestingly, observer pressure interacted with the positive stereotype to lead to performance decrements. In the negative stereotype condition, performance decrements were observed both in the observer and no observer conditions.
Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sport Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption.
Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan
The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high-intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. A total of 18 male team sport athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40-m maximum shuttle run test, which incorporates 10 × 40-m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; noncaffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (%), did not differ (p = .209; effect size = 0.16; N = 18) between CAF (5.00 ± 2.84%) and PLA (5.43 ± 2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (<40 mg/day, n = 10) experienced an attenuation of sprint performance decrement during CAF relative to PLA (5.53 ± 3.12% vs. 6.53 ± 2.91%, respectively; p = .049; effect size = 0.33); an effect not observed in moderate/high habitual caffeine consumers (>130 mg/day, n = 6; 3.98 ± 2.57% vs. 3.80 ± 1.79%, respectively; p = .684; effect size = 0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.
Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.
Birrer, D; Morgan, G
The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
The use of Angiotensin-I converting enzyme i/d genetic polymorphism as a biomarker of athletic performance in humans.
De Mello Costa, Maria Fernanda; Slocombe, Ron
Angiotensin II is a key regulator of blood pressure and cardiovascular function in mammals. The conversion of angiotensin into its active form is carried out by Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE). The measurement of ACE concentration in plasma or serum, its enzymatic activity, and the correlation between an insertion/deletion (I/D) genetic polymorphism of the ACE gene have been investigated as possible indicators of superior athletic performance in humans. In this context, other indicators of superior adaptation to exercise resulting in better athletic performance (such as ventricular hypertrophy, VO2 max, and competition results) were mostly used to study the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and improved performance. Despite the fact that the existing literature presents little consensus, there is sufficient scientific evidence to warrant further investigation on the usage of ACE activity and the I/D ACE gene polymorphism as biomarkers of superior athletic performance in humans of specific ethnicities or in athletes involved in certain sports. In this sense, a biomarker would be a substance or genetic component that could be measured to provide a degree of certainty, or an indication, of the presence of a certain trait or characteristic that would be beneficial to the athlete's performance. Difficulties in interpreting and comparing the results of scientific research on the topic arise from dissimilar protocols and variation in study design. This review aims to investigate the current literature on the use of ACE I/D polymorphism as a biomarker of performance in humans through the comparison of scientific publications.
Effects of Sport-Specific Training Intensity on Sleep Patterns and Psychomotor Performance in Adolescent Athletes.
Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael
Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.
[ENERGY AND MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IN FEMALE ATHLETES].
Bernad Asencio, Laura; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel
Objetive: to determine the adequate intake of macronutrients to improve the nutritional status of women athletes and their sports performance. a search was performed in four databases: EBSCO, Proquest, Pubmed and OvidSP, using the keywords "protein intake" AND "athletes", "endurance athletes" AND "nutrition". original articles about protein intake in female athletes, published between 2009 and 2014, and whose source are indexed scientific journals. 722 articles were identified, of which only 1.4% were considered to be included. 100% were completed clinical trials and published abroad, 50% in the US. 20% were exclusive studies of female athletes and 80% included men and women in the sample. In 70% of studies female athletes presented energy deficiencies; in protein intake, 70% met the dietary recommendations; carbohydrate intake was inadequate in 90% of clinical trials and in 50% of cases women had a high intake of fat. there is lack about nutrition in female athletes in Europe and internationally. Female athletes consume less energy and macronutrients that male athletes. There is no consensus on the recommended protein range and there are differences in consumption depending on the type of exercise being performed. It is recommended to carry out an agreement between scientific institutions about energy intake and macronutrient in sport, with particular emphasis on women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Genetic aspects of athletic performance: the African runners phenomenon.
Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Pesquero, João Bosco; Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Borin, João Paulo; Montagner, Paulo César; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa
The current dominance of African runners in long-distance running is an intriguing phenomenon that highlights the close relationship between genetics and physical performance. Many factors in the interesting interaction between genotype and phenotype (eg, high cardiorespiratory fitness, higher hemoglobin concentration, good metabolic efficiency, muscle fiber composition, enzyme profile, diet, altitude training, and psychological aspects) have been proposed in the attempt to explain the extraordinary success of these runners. Increasing evidence shows that genetics may be a determining factor in physical and athletic performance. But, could this also be true for African long-distance runners? Based on this question, this brief review proposed the role of genetic factors (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, the Y chromosome, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme and the alpha-actinin-3 genes) in the amazing athletic performance observed in African runners, especially the Kenyans and Ethiopians, despite their environmental constraints.
Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on swim performance in youth athletes
Zajac, Adam; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Langfort, Jozef
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05). Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05). Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05) as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m. Key points Sodium bicarbonate is an effective ergogenic aid, also in youth athletes. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves swimming sprint performance. Sodium bicarbonate intake increases resting blood pH and bicarbonate level PMID:24150555
The Effects of Specialization and Sex on Anterior Y-Balance Performance in High School Athletes.
Miller, Madeline M; Trapp, Jessica L; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Sport specialization and movement asymmetry have been separately discussed as potential risk factors for lower extremity injury. Early specialization may lead to the development of movement asymmetries that can predispose an athlete to injury, but this has not been thoroughly examined. Athletes rated as specialized would exhibit greater between-limb anterior reach asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance on the Y-balance test (YBT) as compared with nonspecialized high school athletes, and these differences would not be dependent on sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. Two hundred ninety-five athletes (117 male, 178 female; mean age, 15.6 ± 1.2 years) from 2 local high schools participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and tennis responded to a questionnaire regarding sport specialization status and performed trials of the YBT during preseason testing. Specialization was categorized according to 3 previously utilized specialization classification methods (single/multisport, 3-point scale, and 6-point scale), and interactions between specialization and sex with Y-balance performance were calculated using 2-way analyses of variance. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry than other interaction groups. A consistent main effect was observed for sex, with men displaying greater anterior asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance than women. However, the interaction effects of specialization and sex on anterior Y-balance performance varied based on the classification method used. Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry on the YBT than multisport and female athletes. Specialization classification method is important because the 6- and 3-point scales may not accurately identify balance abnormalities. Male athletes performed worse than female athletes on both of the Y-balance tasks. Clinicians should be aware that single-sport male athletes may display deficits in dynamic balance, potentially
The Effects of Specialization and Sex on Anterior Y-Balance Performance in High School Athletes
Miller, Madeline M.; Trapp, Jessica L.; Post, Eric G.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; McGuine, Timothy A.; Brooks, M. Alison; Bell, David R.
Background: Sport specialization and movement asymmetry have been separately discussed as potential risk factors for lower extremity injury. Early specialization may lead to the development of movement asymmetries that can predispose an athlete to injury, but this has not been thoroughly examined. Hypothesis: Athletes rated as specialized would exhibit greater between-limb anterior reach asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance on the Y-balance test (YBT) as compared with nonspecialized high school athletes, and these differences would not be dependent on sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Two hundred ninety-five athletes (117 male, 178 female; mean age, 15.6 ± 1.2 years) from 2 local high schools participating in basketball, soccer, volleyball, and tennis responded to a questionnaire regarding sport specialization status and performed trials of the YBT during preseason testing. Specialization was categorized according to 3 previously utilized specialization classification methods (single/multisport, 3-point scale, and 6-point scale), and interactions between specialization and sex with Y-balance performance were calculated using 2-way analyses of variance. Results: Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry than other interaction groups. A consistent main effect was observed for sex, with men displaying greater anterior asymmetry and decreased anterior reach distance than women. However, the interaction effects of specialization and sex on anterior Y-balance performance varied based on the classification method used. Conclusion: Single-sport male athletes displayed greater anterior reach asymmetry on the YBT than multisport and female athletes. Specialization classification method is important because the 6- and 3-point scales may not accurately identify balance abnormalities. Male athletes performed worse than female athletes on both of the Y-balance tasks. Clinical Relevance
The Efficacy of Wrestling-Style Compression Suits to Improve Maximum Isometric Force and Movement Velocity in Well-Trained Male Rugby Athletes.
McMaster, Daniel T; Beaven, Christopher M; Mayo, Brad; Gill, Nicholas; Hébert-Losier, Kim
Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG) use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes. Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13-31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured. Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36). Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08) and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = -0.01). A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises. Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.
Sleep-related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes.
Kölling, Sarah; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Venter, Ranel; Halson, Shona L
The body of research that reports the relevance of sleep in high-performance sports is growing steadily. While the identification of sleep cycles and diagnosis of sleep disorders is limited to lab-based assessment via polysomnography, the development of activity-based devices estimating sleep patterns provides greater insight into the sleep behaviour of athletes in ecological settings. Overall, small sleep quantity and/or poor quality appears to exist in many athletic populations, though this may be related to training and competition context. Typical sleep-affecting factors are the scheduling of training sessions and competitions as well as impaired sleep-onset as a result of increased arousal prior to competition or due to the use of electronic devices before bedtime. Further challenges are travel demands which may be accompanied by jet-lag symptoms and disruption of sleep habits. Promotion of sleep may be approached via behavioural strategies, such as sleep hygiene, extending night-time sleep or daytime napping. Pharmacological interventions should be limited to clinically-induced treatments as evidence among healthy and athletic populations is lacking. To optimise and manage sleep in athletes, it is recommended to implement routine sleep monitoring on an individual basis.
[The influence of vibration training in combination with general magnetotherapy on dynamics of performance efficiency in athletes].
Mikheev, A A; Volchkova, O A; Voronitskiĭ, N E
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of a combined treatment including vibrostimulation and magnetotherapy on the working capacity of athletes. Participants of the study were 8 male judo wrestlers. It was shown that implementation of a specialized training program comprising seances of vibration loading and general magnetotherapy 40 and 60 min in duration respectively during 3 consecutive days produced marked beneficial effect on the hormonal status of the athletes. Specifically, the three-day long treatment resulted in a significant increase of blood cortisol and testosterone levels considered to be an objective sign of improved performance parameters in athletes engaged in strength and speed sports. The optimal length of vibration training during 3 days of specialized training is estimated at 20 to 40 minutes supplemented by general magnetotherapy for 60 minutes.
Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.
Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…
Performance-Based Outcomes Following Lisfranc Injury Among Professional American Football and Rugby Athletes.
Singh, Sameer K; George, Andrew; Kadakia, Anish R; Hsu, Wellington K
Professional National Football League (NFL) and rugby athletes have high rates of Lisfranc injuries. Although favorable return-to-play rates have been previously reported, a thorough assessment of postinjury performance is lacking. Professional NFL and rugby athletes who sustained a Lisfranc injury were identified using a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were determined for each athlete. League participation and game performance were collected 1 season prior to injury and up to 3 seasons after injury. Statistical analysis was performed, with P≤.05 being significant. A total of 47 athletes (NFL=35, rugby=12) with Lisfranc injuries were identified, having 23 ligamentous injuries and 24 fractures. Thirty-five (75%) were treated operatively. Among NFL players, 29 (83%) returned to play, taking 10.0±2.9 months to do so. Overall, NFL players started fewer games 2 and 3 seasons following surgery (P=.002 and .035, respectively) and showed a significant decline in performance 1 season after return compared with preinjury levels (21%; P=.05). Offensive players had a significantly greater decline in statistical performance compared with defensive counterparts (P=.02). Although professional NFL athletes return to play at a high rate (83%) following Lisfranc injury, their league participation and performance is significantly decreased on return. Ligamentous and bony injuries have similar prognoses; however, offensive players show greater declines in performance compared with defensive players. To best guide therapy, players, coaches, and team physicians should be aware of the impact of Lisfranc injuries on career performance and longevity. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Influence of different types of mouthguards on strength and performance of collegiate athletes: a controlled-randomized trial.
Duddy, Fergus A; Weissman, Jake; Lee, Rich A; Paranjpe, Avina; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor
Prevention of traumatic dental injuries relies on the identification of etiologic factors and the use of protective devices during contact sports. Mouthguards are considered to be an effective and cost-efficient device aimed at buffering the impacts or blows that might otherwise cause moderate to severe dental and maxillofacial injuries. Interestingly, besides their role in preventing injury, some authors claim that mouthguards can enhance athletic performance. Thus, the purpose of this controlled randomized trial was to evaluate and compare the effect of two different types of mouthguards on the athletic performance and strength of collegiate athletes. Eighteen college athletes ranging from 19 to 23 years participated in this study. Devices tested in this study included an over-the-counter boil-and-bite mouthguard (O-Flow™ Max Under Armour®) (UA) and a custom-made mouthguard (CM). Physical tests were carefully selected by the head athletic trainer and aimed at evaluating the strength and performance. The following sequence was carried out on each test day: (i) 3-stroke maximum power ergometer test, (ii) 1-min ergometer test, and (iii) a 1600-m run. A random assignment was developed to test all three experimental groups on each test day. Following the tests, each athlete completed a brief anonymous survey aimed at evaluating the athletes' overall satisfaction with each type of mouthguard. Custom-made mouthguards had no detrimental effect on athletic strength and performance and were reported by the athletes as being comfortable and not causing difficulty in breathing. In contrast, boil-and-bite mouthguards did not perform as well and were reported as being uncomfortable and causing breathing difficulties. Based on the results of this study, the use of custom-made mouthguards should be encouraged in contact sports as a protective measure, without concern for any negative effect on the athletic performance of the athletes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
The effects of inhaled L-methamphetamine on athletic performance while riding a stationary bike: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Dufka, F; Galloway, G; Baggott, M; Mendelson, J
L-methamphetamine (the non-abused isomer of methamphetamine) is banned in athletic competition because it may improve athletic performance, but there are no studies assessing its effects on performance. In the United States L-methamphetamine is formulated in the non-prescription Vick's Vapor Inhaler (VVI) nasal decongestant. VVIs sold elsewhere (we used ones from the UK) contain similar inactive ingredients (menthol, camphor and Siberian pine oil) but no L-methamphetamine. This study tested the effects of inhaled L-methamphetamine delivered from a widely available non-prescription product on athletic performance. In a 2-session double-blind placebo-controlled study 12 participants (ages 14-17) were dosed with 4 (session 1) and 12 (session 2) inhalations from VVIs with (USA) or without (UK) L-methamphetamine and then performed two 20 minute rides on a stationary bike with rides separated by a 30 minute rest. The main outcome measure was miles travelled during each 20 minute ride. Secondary outcome measures included postride urine toxicology; heart rate and blood pressure before, 1, 5 and 10 minutes postride; energy, performance, endurance, and ability to breathe; and VVI preference. Data were analysed using Excel statistical macros. After approximately 16 microg L-methamphetamine distance travelled was 5.26 (SD 0.53) miles vs 5.30 (0.55) with placebo; p = 0.81. After approximately 48 microg L-methamphetamine distance travelled was 5.30 (0.51) vs 5.35 (0.43) with placebo; p = 0.85. The approximately 16 microg dose increased systolic blood pressure from 72.6 (4.3) to 79.6 (6.6) mm Hg (p = 0.03) at 5 minutes postride but there were no other differences in outcomes. Modest doses of inhaled L-methamphetamine probably do not improve athletic performance but do minimally raise diastolic blood pressure.
EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES OF TRUNK EXERCISES ON BALANCE AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS
Kaneoka, Koji; Okubo, Yu; Shiraki, Hitoshi
Purpose/Background: Many athletes perform trunk stabilization exercises (SE) and conventional trunk exercises (CE) to enhance trunk stability and strength. However, evidence regarding the specific training effects of SE and CE is lacking and there have been no studies for youth athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the training effects of SE and CE on balance and athletic performance in youth soccer players. Methods: Twenty‐seven male youth soccer players were assigned randomly to either an SE group (n = 13) or CE group (n = 14). Data from nineteen players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analyses (SE, n = 10; CE, n = 9). Before and after the 12‐week intervention program, pre‐ and post‐testing comprised of a static balance test, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Cooper’s test, sprint, the Step 50, vertical jump, and rebound jump were performed. After pre‐testing, players performed the SE or CE program three times per week for 12 weeks. A two‐way repeated‐measures ANOVA was used to assess the changes over time, and differences between the groups. Within‐group changes from pre‐testing to post‐testing were determined using paired t‐tests. Statistical significance was inferred from p < 0.05. Results: There were significant group‐by‐time interactions for posterolateral (p = 0.022) and posteromedial (p < 0.001) directions of the SEBT. Paired t‐tests revealed significant improvements of the posterolateral and posteromedial directions in the SE group. Although other measurements did not find group‐by‐time interactions, within‐group changes were detected indicating significant improvements in the static balance test, Cooper’s test, and rebound jump in the only SE group (p < 0.05). Vertical jump and sprint were improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.05), but the Step 50 was not improved in either group (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Results suggested that the SE has specific
Evidence-Based Supplements for the Enhancement of Athletic Performance.
Peeling, Peter; Binnie, Martyn J; Goods, Paul S R; Sim, Marc; Burke, Louise M
A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); and (3) developing. Within each section, the relevant performance type, the potential mechanisms of action, and the most common protocols used in the supplement dosing schedule are summarized.
Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes: a pilot study.
Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence
Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.05, effect size = 0.60]), and second landing phase (5.09 ± 1.17 vs. 3.02 ± 0.41 N·NBW-1, respectively [p<0.001, effect size = 0.87]). The average loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the second landing phase (30.96 ± 18.84 vs. 12.06 ± 9.83 N·NBW·s-1, respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.68]). The peak loading rate was reduced from pre- to post-intervention during the first (220.26 ± 111.51 vs. 120.27 ± 64.57 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.64]), and second (99.52 ± 54.98 vs. 44.71 ± 30.34 N·NBW·s-1 respectively [p<0.01, effect size = 0.70]) landing phase. Body weight, average loading rate during the first landing phase, and jump height were not significantly different between week 0 and week 6
The asthmatic athlete: inhaled Beta-2 agonists, sport performance, and doping.
McKenzie, Donald C; Fitch, Kenneth D
The asthmatic athlete has a long history in competitive sport in terms of success in performance and issues related to doping. Well documented are detailed objective tests used to evaluate the athlete with symptoms of asthma or airway hyperresponsiveness and the medical management. Initiated at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games, the International Olympic Committee's Independent Asthma Panel required testing to justify the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists (IBAs) in Olympic athletes and has provided valuable guidelines to the practicing physician. This program was educational and documented the variability in prevalence of asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness and IBA use between different sports and different countries. It provided a standard of care for the athlete with respiratory symptoms and led to the discovery that asthmatic Olympic athletes outperformed their peers at both Summer and Winter Olympic Games from 2002 to 2010. Changes to the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List in 2010 permitted the use of 2 IBA produced by the same pharmaceutical company. All others remain prohibited. However, there is no pharmacological difference between the permitted and prohibited IBAs. As a result of these changes, asthmatic athletes are being managed differently based on a World Anti-Doping Agency directive that has no foundation in pharmacological science or in clinical practice.
Adaptation to hot environmental conditions: an exploration of the performance basis, procedures and future directions to optimise opportunities for elite athletes.
Guy, Joshua H; Deakin, Glen B; Edwards, Andrew M; Miller, Catherine M; Pyne, David B
Extreme environmental conditions present athletes with diverse challenges; however, not all sporting events are limited by thermoregulatory parameters. The purpose of this leading article is to identify specific instances where hot environmental conditions either compromise or augment performance and, where heat acclimation appears justified, evaluate the effectiveness of pre-event acclimation processes. To identify events likely to be receptive to pre-competition heat adaptation protocols, we clustered and quantified the magnitude of difference in performance of elite athletes competing in International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) World Championships (1999-2011) in hot environments (>25 °C) with those in cooler temperate conditions (<25 °C). Athletes in endurance events performed worse in hot conditions (~3 % reduction in performance, Cohen's d > 0.8; large impairment), while in contrast, performance in short-duration sprint events was augmented in the heat compared with temperate conditions (~1 % improvement, Cohen's d > 0.8; large performance gain). As endurance events were identified as compromised by the heat, we evaluated common short-term heat acclimation (≤7 days, STHA) and medium-term heat acclimation (8-14 days, MTHA) protocols. This process identified beneficial effects of heat acclimation on performance using both STHA (2.4 ± 3.5 %) and MTHA protocols (10.2 ± 14.0 %). These effects were differentially greater for MTHA, which also demonstrated larger reductions in both endpoint exercise heart rate (STHA: -3.5 ± 1.8 % vs MTHA: -7.0 ± 1.9 %) and endpoint core temperature (STHA: -0.7 ± 0.7 % vs -0.8 ± 0.3 %). It appears that worthwhile acclimation is achievable for endurance athletes via both short-and medium-length protocols but more is gained using MTHA. Conversely, it is also conceivable that heat acclimation may be counterproductive for sprinters. As high-performance athletes are often time-poor, shorter duration protocols may
Effects and dose–response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs
Objectives To quantify age, sex, sport and training type-specific effects of resistance training on physical performance, and to characterise dose–response relationships of resistance training parameters that could maximise gains in physical performance in youth athletes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Data sources Studies were identified by systematic literature search in the databases PubMed and Web of Science (1985–2015). Weighted mean standardised mean differences (SMDwm) were calculated using random-effects models. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Only studies with an active control group were included if these investigated the effects of resistance training in youth athletes (6–18 years) and tested at least one physical performance measure. Results 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analyses revealed moderate effects of resistance training on muscle strength and vertical jump performance (SMDwm 0.8–1.09), and small effects on linear sprint, agility and sport-specific performance (SMDwm 0.58–0.75). Effects were moderated by sex and resistance training type. Independently computed dose–response relationships for resistance training parameters revealed that a training period of >23 weeks, 5 sets/exercise, 6–8 repetitions/set, a training intensity of 80–89% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and 3–4 min rest between sets were most effective to improve muscle strength (SMDwm 2.09–3.40). Summary/conclusions Resistance training is an effective method to enhance muscle strength and jump performance in youth athletes, moderated by sex and resistance training type. Dose–response relationships for key training parameters indicate that youth coaches should primarily implement resistance training programmes with fewer repetitions and higher intensities to improve physical performance measures of youth athletes. PMID:26851290
Effects and dose-response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs
To quantify age, sex, sport and training type-specific effects of resistance training on physical performance, and to characterise dose-response relationships of resistance training parameters that could maximise gains in physical performance in youth athletes. Systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Studies were identified by systematic literature search in the databases PubMed and Web of Science (1985-2015). Weighted mean standardised mean differences (SMDwm) were calculated using random-effects models. Only studies with an active control group were included if these investigated the effects of resistance training in youth athletes (6-18 years) and tested at least one physical performance measure. 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Our analyses revealed moderate effects of resistance training on muscle strength and vertical jump performance (SMDwm 0.8-1.09), and small effects on linear sprint, agility and sport-specific performance (SMDwm 0.58-0.75). Effects were moderated by sex and resistance training type. Independently computed dose-response relationships for resistance training parameters revealed that a training period of >23 weeks, 5 sets/exercise, 6-8 repetitions/set, a training intensity of 80-89% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and 3-4 min rest between sets were most effective to improve muscle strength (SMDwm 2.09-3.40). Resistance training is an effective method to enhance muscle strength and jump performance in youth athletes, moderated by sex and resistance training type. Dose-response relationships for key training parameters indicate that youth coaches should primarily implement resistance training programmes with fewer repetitions and higher intensities to improve physical performance measures of youth athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
A descriptive comparison of sprint cycling performance and neuromuscular characteristics in able-bodied athletes and paralympic athletes with cerebral palsy.
Runciman, Phoebe; Derman, Wayne; Ferreira, Suzanne; Albertus-Kajee, Yumna; Tucker, Ross
This study investigated the sprint cycling performance and neuromuscular characteristics of Paralympic athletes with cerebral palsy (CP) during a fatiguing maximal cycling trial compared with those of able-bodied (AB) athletes. Five elite athletes with CP and 16 AB age- and performance-matched controls performed a 30-sec Wingate cycle test. Power output (W/kg) and fatigue index (%) were calculated. Electromyography was measured in five bilateral muscles and expressed in mean amplitude (mV) and median frequency (Hz). Power output was significantly higher in the AB group (10.4 [0.5] W/kg) than in the CP group (9.8 [0.5] W/kg) (P < 0.05). Fatigue index was statistically similar between the AB (27% [0.1%]) and CP (25% [0.1%]) groups. Electromyographic mean amplitude and frequency changed similarly in all muscle groups tested, in both affected and nonaffected sides, in the CP and AB groups (P < 0.05). Neuromuscular irregularities were identified in the CP group. The similarity in fatigue between the CP and AB groups indicates that elite athletes with CP may have a different exercise response to others with CP. The authors propose that this may result from high-level training over many years. This has rehabilitative implications, as it indicates near-maximal adaptation of the CP body toward normal levels.
ACTN3 R577X genotype and athletic performance in a large cohort of Japanese athletes.
Kikuchi, Naoki; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Murakami, Haruka; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Min, Seok-Ki; Mizuno, Masuhiko; Naito, Hisashi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Nakazato, Koichi; Fuku, Noriyuki
Recent meta-analyses of the literature confirmed the association between the RR+RX genotype of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and elite sprint/power athletic status in Europeans but not in Asians and Africans, while the association between the R577X genotype and elite endurance athlete status is less convincing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the ACTN3 R577X genotype and elite athlete status in a large Asian (Japanese) cohort of track and field athletes. One-thousand fifty-seven Japanese track and field athletes (627 sprint/power athletes and 430 endurance athletes) and 810 Japanese controls were genotyped for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) by using the TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay. Elite sprint/power athletes had a higher frequency of the RR+RX genotype than the controls (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.16-2.18; P = .003). A significant linear correlation was found between the RR + RX genotype and athlete status (i.e. regional < national < international) in sprint/power athletes (regional: 71%, national: 81%, international: 84%; P = .001 for trend) and long-distance runners (regional: 65%, national: 72%, international: 82%; P = .030 for trend). The data obtained for this large Asian (Japanese) cohort of track and field athletes served to confirm the association between the RR + RX genotype of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and elite sprint/power athlete status and also the association between the ACTN3 RR + RX genotype and long-distance running athletic status.
Approach to the Underperforming Athlete.
Solomon, Mary L; Weiss Kelly, Amanda K
Children and adolescents who participate in intense sports training may face physical and psychologic stresses. The pediatric health care provider can play an important role in monitoring an athlete's preparation by obtaining a proper sports history, assessing sleep hygiene, discussing nutrition and hydration guidelines, and evaluating physiologic causes of fatigue. Educating parents and athletes on the potential risks of high-intensity training, inadequate rest and sleep, and a poor diet may improve the athlete's performance and prevent symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Infectious mononucleosis must also be considered a cause of fatigue among adolescents. The signs and symptoms of overtraining and burnout are discussed in this article. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 1: Decision making under physical performance pressure in elite athletes.
Parkin, Beth L; Warriner, Katie; Walsh, Vincent
The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate. A number of studies have shown that conditions of elevated pressure influence athletes' decision quality (Kinrade et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2016), response times (Hepler, 2015; Smith et al., 2016) and risk taking (Pighin et al., 2015). However, almost all of this work has been undertaken in nonelite athletes and participants who do not routinely operate under conditions of high stress. Thus, there is very little known about the influence of pressure on decision making in elite athletes. This study investigated the influence of physical performance pressure on decision making in a sample of world-class elite athletes. This allowed an examination of whether findings from the previous work in nonelite athletes extend to those who routinely operate under conditions of high stress. How this work could be applied to improve insight and understanding of decision making among sport professionals is examined. We sought to introduce a categorization of decision making useful to practitioners in sport: gunslingers, poker players, and chickens. Twenty-three elite athletes who compete and have frequent success at an international level (including six Olympic medal winners) performed tasks relating to three categories of decision making under conditions of low and high physical pressure. Decision making under risk was measured with performance on the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision making under
National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid Replacement for Athletes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Case, Douglas J.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Hillman, Susan K.; Montain, Scott J.; Reiff, Ralph V.; Rich, Brent S. E.; Roberts, William O.; Stone, Jennifer A.
Presents recommendations from the National Athletic Trainers Association for optimizing the fluid replacement practices of athletes, explaining that dehydration can compromise athletic performance and increase the risk of exertional heat injury. Athletes must be educated about the risks of dehydration and overhydration. They must learn fluid…
Perceived Sleep Quality, Mood States, and Their Relationship With Performance Among Brazilian Elite Athletes During a Competitive Period.
Brandt, Ricardo; Bevilacqua, Guilherme G; Andrade, Alexandro
Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, and Andrade, A. Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1033-1039, 2017-We described the perceived sleep quality and mood states of elite athletes during a competitive period, and clarified their relationship to athletes' sport performance. Participants were 576 Brazilian elite athletes (404 men and 172 women) of individual and team sports. Mood states were evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, whereas perceived sleep quality was evaluated using a single question ("How would you evaluate the quality of your sleep in the last few days?"). Evaluations of mood state and sleep quality were performed up to 60 minutes before national and international sports competitions began. Descriptive and inferential statistics (including logistic regression) were used to evaluate the relationship of sleep quality and mood states with performance (i.e., winning or losing). Athletes typically had good sleep quality and mood states similar to the Iceberg profile (i.e., high vigor and low tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and mental confusion). The Wald test revealed that sleep, anger, tension, and vigor predicted athletes' performance. Specifically, poor sleep quality and low vigor and anger decreased the odds of winning, whereas higher tension increased these odds. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated that the results were sufficiently generalizable. Overall, we observed a significant relationship between sleep and mood states, which in turn both significantly influenced athletes' sports performance. Thus, coaching staff and athletes should monitor athletes' sleep quality before competitions to ensure athletes are in the optimal condition for performance.
Athletic Performance at the National Basketball Association Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Mehran, Nima; Williams, Phillip N.; Keller, Robert A.; Khalil, Lafi S.; Lombardo, Stephen J.; Kharrazi, F. Daniel
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are significant injuries in elite-level basketball players. In-game statistical performance after ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated; however, few studies have reviewed functional performance in National Basketball Association (NBA)–caliber athletes after ACL reconstruction. Purpose: To compare NBA Combine performance of athletes after ACL reconstruction with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group of players with no previous reported knee injury requiring surgery. We hypothesized that there is no difference between the 2 groups in functional performance. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 1092 NBA-caliber players who participated in the NBA Combine between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-one athletes were identified as having primary ACL reconstruction prior to participation in the combine. This study group was compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group in objective functional performance testing, including the shuttle run test, lane agility test, three-quarter court sprint, vertical jump (no step), and maximum vertical jump (running start). Results: With regard to quickness and agility, both ACL-reconstructed athletes and controls scored an average of 11.5 seconds in the lane agility test and 3.1 seconds in the shuttle run test (P = .745 and .346, respectively). Speed and acceleration was measured by the three-quarter court sprint, in which both the study group and the control group averaged 3.3 seconds (P = .516). In the maximum vertical jump, which demonstrates an athlete’s jumping ability with a running start, the ACL reconstruction group had an average height of 33.6 inches while the controls averaged 33.9 inches (P = .548). In the standing vertical jump, the ACL reconstruction group averaged 28.2 inches while the control group averaged 29.2 inches (P = .067). Conclusion: In athletes who are able to return to sport
The power of competence support: The impact of coaches and athlete leaders on intrinsic motivation and performance.
Fransen, K; Boen, F; Vansteenkiste, M; Mertens, N; Vande Broek, G
Grounded in the Cognitive Evaluation Theory, a mini-theory of Self-Determination Theory, this experimental field study sought to examine the impact of competence support of both coaches and athlete leaders on athletes' competence satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and subjective as well as objective performance. Male basketball players (N = 120) were allocated to groups of 5 players. These groups were then randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 experimental conditions. In these experimental conditions, either the coach, the athlete leader, or both provided motivational feedback to their team. The provision of motivational feedback by either the coach or the athlete leader was sufficient to increase athletes' competence satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and objective performance (i.e., enhanced execution time without a decrease in scoring percentage) relative to the control group. Interestingly, when both the coach and the athlete leader provided competence support, a surplus effect was observed on objective performance compared with when only the coach provided competence support. Furthermore, structural equation modeling revealed that players' competence satisfaction mediated the relationship between the provided competence support and players' intrinsic motivation, while a direct effect was observed on objective performance. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that also athlete leaders can adopt a motivating role, and that by doing so, their impact is as strong as the impact of the coach. Both coaches and athlete leaders can thus boost athletes' objective performance and foster competence satisfaction, with the latter resulting in increased intrinsic motivation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Professional Athletes' Return to Play and Performance After Operative Repair of an Achilles Tendon Rupture.
Trofa, David P; Miller, J Chance; Jang, Eugene S; Woode, Denzel R; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner
Most Achilles tendon ruptures are sports related. However, few studies have examined and compared the effect of surgical repair for complete ruptures on return to play (RTP), play time, and performance across multiple sports. To examine RTP and performance among professional athletes after Achilles tendon repair and compare pre- versus postoperative functional outcomes of professional athletes from different major leagues in the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who sustained a primary complete Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically between 1989 and 2013 were identified via public injury reports and press releases. Demographic information and performance-related statistics were recorded for 2 seasons before and after surgery and compared with matched controls. Statistical analyses were used to assess differences in recorded metrics. Of 86 athletes screened, 62 met inclusion criteria including 25 NBA, 32 NFL, and 5 MLB players. Nineteen (30.6%) professional athletes with an isolated Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically were unable to return to play. Among athletes who successfully returned to play, game participation averaged 75.4% ( P < .001) and 81.9% ( P = .002) of the total games played the season before injury at 1 and 2 years postoperatively, respectively. Play time was significantly decreased and athletes performed significantly worse compared with preoperative levels at 1 and 2 years after injury ( P < .001). When players were compared with matched controls, an Achilles tendon rupture resulted in fewer games played ( P < .001), decreased play time ( P = .025), and worse performance statistics ( P < .001) at 1 year but not 2 years postoperatively ( P > .05). When individual sports were compared, NBA players were most significantly affected, experiencing significant decreases in games played
Return to Play and Performance After Jones Fracture in National Basketball Association Athletes
Begly, John P.; Guss, Michael; Ramme, Austin J.; Karia, Raj; Meislin, Robert J.
Background: Basketball players are at risk for foot injuries, including Jones fractures. It is unknown how this injury affects the future play and performance of athletes. Hypothesis: National Basketball Association (NBA) players who sustain Jones fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal have high rates of return to play and do not experience a decrease in performance on return to competition when compared with preinjury and with control-matched peers. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Methods: Data on 26 elite basketball players with Jones fractures over 19 NBA seasons (1994-1995 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, player profiles, and online public databases. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, experience, and surgical treatment. Individual season statistics pre- and postinjury were collected. Twenty-six controls were identified by matched player position, age, and performance statistics. Results: The mean age at the time of injury was 24.8 years, mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m2, and the mean experience prior to injury was 4.1 NBA seasons. Return to previous level of competition was achieved by 85% of athletes. There was no change in player efficiency rating (PER) when pre- and postinjury performance was compared. When compared with controls, no decline in PER measured performance was identified. Conclusion: The majority of NBA players sustaining a Jones fracture return to their preinjury level of competition. These elite athletes demonstrate no decrease in performance on their return to play. Clinical Relevance: Jones fractures are well-studied injuries in terms of etiology, diagnosis, and management. However, the effect of these injuries on future performance of athletes is unknown. Using the findings of our study, orthopaedic surgeons may be better prepared to counsel and educate elite athletes who sustain a Jones fracture. PMID:26627111
Return to Play and Performance After Jones Fracture in National Basketball Association Athletes.
Begly, John P; Guss, Michael; Ramme, Austin J; Karia, Raj; Meislin, Robert J
Basketball players are at risk for foot injuries, including Jones fractures. It is unknown how this injury affects the future play and performance of athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who sustain Jones fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal have high rates of return to play and do not experience a decrease in performance on return to competition when compared with preinjury and with control-matched peers. Retrospective cohort study. Level 5. Data on 26 elite basketball players with Jones fractures over 19 NBA seasons (1994-1995 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, player profiles, and online public databases. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, experience, and surgical treatment. Individual season statistics pre- and postinjury were collected. Twenty-six controls were identified by matched player position, age, and performance statistics. The mean age at the time of injury was 24.8 years, mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m(2), and the mean experience prior to injury was 4.1 NBA seasons. Return to previous level of competition was achieved by 85% of athletes. There was no change in player efficiency rating (PER) when pre- and postinjury performance was compared. When compared with controls, no decline in PER measured performance was identified. The majority of NBA players sustaining a Jones fracture return to their preinjury level of competition. These elite athletes demonstrate no decrease in performance on their return to play. Jones fractures are well-studied injuries in terms of etiology, diagnosis, and management. However, the effect of these injuries on future performance of athletes is unknown. Using the findings of our study, orthopaedic surgeons may be better prepared to counsel and educate elite athletes who sustain a Jones fracture. © 2015 The Author(s).
Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: A tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes
Driller, Matthew W; Mah, Cheri D; Halson, Shona L
Introduction Existing sleep questionnaires to assess sleep behaviors may not be sensitive in determining the unique sleep challenges faced by elite athletes. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ) to be used as a practical tool for support staff working with elite athletes. Methods 564 participants (242 athletes, 322 non-athletes) completed the 18-item ASBQ and three previously validated questionnaires; the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A cohort of the studied population performed the ASBQ twice in one week to assess test-retest reliability, and also performed sleep monitoring via wrist-actigraphy. Results Comparison of the ASBQ with existing sleep questionnaires resulted in moderate to large correlations (r=0.32 - 0.69). There was a significant difference between athletes and non-athletes for the ASBQ global score (44±6 vs. 41±6, respectively, p<0.01) and for the PSQI, but not for the SHI or the ESS. The reliability of the ASBQ was acceptable (ICC=0.87) when re-tested within 7 days. There was a moderate relationship between ASBQ and total sleep time (r=-0.42). Conclusion The ASBQ is a valid and reliable tool that can differentiate the sleep practices between athletes and non-athletes, and offers a practical instrument for practitioners and/or researchers wanting to evaluate the sleep behaviors of elite athletes. The ASBQ may provide information on areas where improvements to individual athletes’ sleep habits could be made. PMID:29796200
Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes.
Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Pesce, Vito; Tafuri, Silvio; Novielli, Grazia; Moretti, Biagio
In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p < 0.0001; p = 0.04), with no differences between the volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p < 0.001; p = 0.006). However in both sports groups there weren't any gender differences in either part of the test (p = 0.18; p = 0.056). These results confirm that during athletic preparation in volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence.
Sports Activities High Performance Athletes Muslim Women in Indonesia and Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitri, M.; Sultoni, K.; Salamuddin, N.; Taib Harun, Mohd
Participation in sports activities was also influenced by sociological factors. This indirectly allows individuals more adaptable in high performance sports compared with individuals who did not engage in sports activities. This study aims to identify high performance sports athletes Muslim women in Indonesia and Malaysia in the sport. The quantitative approach was carried out by the study population consisted of Muslim women athletes Malaysia and Indonesia, which joined The 3rd Islamic Solidarity Games. The study sample consisted of 58 Malaysia and 57 Indonesia. Descriptive analysis also shows that sports activities like Muslim women athletes in the ranking of badminton (Malaysia 46.5% and Indonesia 38.6%), swimming (Malaysia 33.3% and Indonesia 57.9%), sports (Malaysia 27.5% and Indonesia at 22.8%), and balls volleyball (Malaysia and Indonesia 17.2%, 29.8%). The results of this study can serve as a guide for the government to make sports facilities more attractive community of Muslim women.
Psychological correlates of performance in female athletes during a 12-week off-season strength and conditioning program.
Jones, Margaret T; Matthews, Tracey D; Murray, Mimi; Van Raalte, Judy; Jensen, Barbara E
Examination of the relationship between performance testing and psychological measures before and after a 12-week strength and conditioning program was the study's purpose. Female NCAA Division-III soccer (n = 28), field hockey (n = 28), and softball (n = 19) athletes completed pre- and post-testing held 12 weeks apart. On day 1, athletes completed informed consent, 3 psychological measures (Profile of Mood States [POMS], Physical Self Perception Profile [PSPP], and Athlete's Self Perception of Physical Abilities [ASPPA]), and 2 strength tests (1 repetition maximum [1RM] bench, 1RM back squat). Day 2 consisted of the 30-yd sprint, pro agility run (PRO), vertical jump (VJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). All sports improved (p < 0.01) in 1RM bench and squat and reported increases in perceived Physical Strength on the PSPP (p < 0.01). Soccer athletes improved (p < 0.01) in VJ, SLJ, and PRO (p < 0.05). No differences were found in POMS scores. The POMS scores indicated that the athletes were not overtrained or experiencing staleness. A series of correlations showed relationships between physical and psychological measures. Specifically, Physical Strength was correlated with 1RM upper-body (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Physical Strength was correlated with ASPPA ratings of upper-body (r = 0.68, p < 0.01) and lower-body (r = 0.57, p < 0.01) strength. The PSPP Sport Competence correlated with ASPPA ratings of power (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and PRO (r = 0.38, p < 0.05). The study's results highlight the benefits of strength and conditioning. Furthermore, these results demonstrate how physical changes are related to athletes' physical self-perceptions and self-assessment of ability within their teams.
Contribution of vertical strength and power to sprint performance in young male athletes.
Meylan, C M P; Cronin, J; Oliver, J L; Hopkins, W G; Pinder, S
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible contribution of 1RM leg-press strength and jump peak power to 20-m sprint time in young athletes in three maturity groups based on age relative to predicted age of peak height velocity (PHV): Pre (- 2.5 to -1.0 years; n=25), Mid (- 1.0 to 0.5 years; n=26) and Post (0.5 to 2.0 years; n=15). Allometric scaling factors, representing percent difference in 20-m time per percent difference in strength and peak power, were derived by linear regression and were similar in the three maturity groups (-0.16%/% and -0.20%/% for strength and peak power, respectively). The moderate increase in sprint performance Pre to Mid PHV (5.7%) reduced to small (1.9%) and trivial but unclear (0.9%) magnitudes after adjustment for 1RM and peak power, while the moderate increase Mid to Post PHV (4.6%) were still moderate (3.4 and 3.0%) after adjustment. Thus percent differences in strength or power explained most of the maturity-related improvements in sprint performance before PHV age but only some improvements after PHV age. Factors in addition to strength and power should be identified and monitored for development of speed in athletes during puberty. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Athletes' perceptions toward substance use in Baghdad city.
Habeeb, Mohammed Baqer; Kasim, Wissam Jabbar; Khamees, Leith Abbas; Hawi, Mohammed Mukheilef; Khashoom, Qais Nea'amah
The majority of men's sports need high levels of strength and power. The effects of any given type of performance-enhancing substance are mostly directly related to its ergogenic effects (enhanced strength, higher energy production, and better recovery), anabolic potential (increased protein synthesis, especially in muscles), and/or stimulating properties (increased attention and loss of fear), which give a competitive advantage to athletes. A descriptive correlational study was conducted to identify bodybuilders' and athletes' perception toward substance use and to identify the relationship between substance use and those athletes' sociodemographic characteristics of age, level of education, social status, and monthly income. A purposive "nonprobability" sample of 172 bodybuilding athletes were recruited from gym users of Baghdad city. The study found that two fifths of those who used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were 19 years old or younger, less than one half were overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9), two fifths of participants enjoyed exercise/training to an extreme level, two fifths of study participants highly perceived the improvement of athletic performance, two fifths of the study participants highly perceived the importance of improving athletic performance, less than half of the study participants used AAS, one quarter of the study participants who used AAS had been influenced by their coaches to use such substances, and more than one third of the study participants who used AAS were using such substances in the form of oral tablets and intramuscular injection together.
The effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on athletic performance: recommendations for the maintenance of physical fitness.
Chaouachi, Anis; Leiper, John B; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chamari, Karim
The behavioural modifications that accompany Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) are usually associated with some alterations in the metabolic, physiological, and psychological responses of athletes that may affect sport performance. Muslim athletes who are required to train and/or compete during the month-long, diurnal fast must adopt coping strategies that allow them to maintain physical fitness and motivation if they are to perform at the highest level. This updated review aims to present the current state of knowledge of the effects of RIF on training and performance, focusing on key-factors that contribute to the effects of Ramadan on exercise performance: energy restriction, sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm perturbation, dehydration, and alterations in the training load. The available literature contain few studies that have examined the effects of RIF on physical performance in athletes and, to date, the results are inconclusive, so the effects of RIF on competition outcomes are not at present wholly understood. The diverse findings probably indicate individual differences in the adaptability and self-generated coping strategies of athletes during fasting and training. However, the results of the small number of well-controlled studies that have examined the effects of Ramadan on athletic performance suggest that few aspects of physical fitness are negatively affected, and where decrements are observed these are usually modest. Subjective feelings of fatigue and other mood indicators are often cited as implying additional stress on the athlete throughout Ramadan, but most studies show that these factors may not result in decreases in performance and that perceived exercise intensity is unlikely to increase to any significant degree. Current evidence from good, well-controlled research supports the conclusion that athletes who maintain their total energy and macronutrient intake, training load, body composition, and sleep length and quality are unlikely to
Food Power. A Coach's Guide to Improving Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.
This guide looks at the athlete's nutrient needs and presents recent findings from physiology- and nutrition-related research which have direct bearing on athletic performance. Contents include sections on: (1) nutrition basics; (2) water needs of athletes; (3) nutrient fuels for sports; (4) diets for athletes; (5) body composition; (6) weight…
AMPD1 rs17602729 is associated with physical performance of sprint and power in elite Lithuanian athletes.
Ginevičienė, Valentina; Jakaitienė, Audronė; Pranculis, Aidas; Milašius, Kazys; Tubelis, Linas; Utkus, Algirdas
The C34T genetic polymorphism (rs17602729) in the AMPD1 gene, encoding the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), is a common polymorphism among Caucasians that can impair exercise capacity. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine the C34T AMPD1 allele/genotype frequency distributions in Lithuanian athletes (n = 204, stratified into three groups: endurance, sprint/power and mixed) and compare them with the allele/genotype frequency distributions in randomly selected healthy Lithuanian non-athletes (n = 260) and (2) to compare common anthropometric measurements and physical performance phenotypes between the three groups of athletes depending on their AMPD1 genotype. The results of our study indicate that the frequency of the AMPD1 TT genotype was 2.4% in the control group, while it was absent in the athlete group. There were significantly more sprint/power-orientated athletes with the CC genotype (86.3%) compared with the endurance-orientated athletes (72.9%), mixed athletes (67.1%), and controls (74.2%). We determined that the AMPD1 C34T polymorphism is not associated with aerobic muscle performance phenotype (VO2max). For CC genotype the short-term explosive muscle power value (based on Vertical Jump test) of athletes from the sprint/power group was significantly higher than that of the endurance group athletes (P < 0.05). The AMPD1 CC genotype is associated with anaerobic performance (Vertical Jump). The AMPD1 C allele may help athletes to attain elite status in sprint/power-oriented sports, and the T allele is a factor unfavourable for athletics in sprint/power-oriented sports categories. Hence, the AMPD1 C allele can be regarded as a marker associated with the physical performance of sprint and power. Replications studies are required to confirm this association.
Effects of Exercise on Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition Performance in Professional Athletes.
Lee, Jin H; Howell, David R; Meehan, William P; Iverson, Grant L; Gardner, Andrew J
The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition (SCAT3) is currently considered the standard sideline assessment for concussions. In-game exercise, however, may affect SCAT3 performance and the diagnosis of concussions. To examine the influence of exercise on SCAT3 performance in professional male athletes. Controlled laboratory study. We examined the SCAT3 performance of 82 professional male athletes under 2 conditions: at rest and after exercise. Athletes reported significantly fewer total symptoms (mean, 1.0 ± 1.5 vs 1.6 ± 2.3 total symptoms, respectively; P = .008; Cohen d = 0.34), committed significantly fewer errors on the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mean, 3.5 ± 3.5 vs 4.6 ± 4.1 errors, respectively; P = .017; d = 0.31), and required significantly less time to complete the tandem gait test (mean, 9.5 ± 1.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.7 seconds, respectively; P = .02; d = 0.30) during the at-rest condition compared with the postexercise condition. The interpretation of in-game (sideline) SCAT3 results should consider the effects of postexercise fatigue levels on an athlete's performance, particularly if preseason baseline data have been collected when the athlete was well rested. Exercise appears to affect symptom burden and physical abilities, such as balance and tandem gait, more so than the cognitive components of the SCAT3.
Management of exercise-induced bronchospasm in NCAA athletic programs
Parsons, Jonathan P.; Pestritto, Vincent; Phillips, Gary; Kaeding, Christopher; Best, Thomas M.; Wadley, Gail; Mastronarde, John G.
Purpose The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is significantly higher in athletes than the general population, and can result in significant morbidity in young, competitive athletes. Guidelines emphasize that education and written treatment protocols improve clinical outcomes for asthmatics. Evidence also supports objective testing when exercise-induced bronchospasm is suspected, immediate availability of rescue inhalers, and involvement of asthma specialists in the care of asthmatic athletes. We sought to determine how EIB is managed at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports medicine programs. Methods A survey consisting of multiple-choice questions related to exercise-induced bronchospasm in athletes was sent electronically to 3200 athletic trainers affiliated with NCAA sports medicine programs. Results 541 athletic trainers responded. A minority of athletic trainers surveyed (21%) indicated an asthma management protocol exists at their institution. 22% indicated that pulmonologists are on staff in or consultants to the sports medicine department. Many indicated a short-acting beta-agonist is not required to be available at all practices (39%) and games (41%) and few athletic trainers indicated their programs utilize objective testing to diagnose EIB (17%). Regression modeling demonstrated education about EIB and involvement of pulmonologists significantly improved adherence to current consensus guidelines. Conclusions Based on our data, many NCAA sports medicine programs do not manage athletes with EIB according to current consensus guidelines. This may result in inaccurate diagnoses and may be detrimental to clinical outcomes and the overall health of student athletes. Providing education about EIB and involvement of pulmonologists significantly increase adherence to guidelines which likely improves clinical care of athletes and potentially athletic performance. PMID:19276862
The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes
Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.
Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268
Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.
The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future.
The Use of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme I/D Genetic Polymorphism as a Biomarker of Athletic Performance in Humans
De Mello Costa, Maria Fernanda; Slocombe, Ron
Angiotensin II is a key regulator of blood pressure and cardiovascular function in mammals. The conversion of angiotensin into its active form is carried out by Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE). The measurement of ACE concentration in plasma or serum, its enzymatic activity, and the correlation between an insertion/deletion (I/D) genetic polymorphism of the ACE gene have been investigated as possible indicators of superior athletic performance in humans. In this context, other indicators of superior adaptation to exercise resulting in better athletic performance (such as ventricular hypertrophy, VO2 max, and competition results) were mostly used to study the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and improved performance. Despite the fact that the existing literature presents little consensus, there is sufficient scientific evidence to warrant further investigation on the usage of ACE activity and the I/D ACE gene polymorphism as biomarkers of superior athletic performance in humans of specific ethnicities or in athletes involved in certain sports. In this sense, a biomarker would be a substance or genetic component that could be measured to provide a degree of certainty, or an indication, of the presence of a certain trait or characteristic that would be beneficial to the athlete’s performance. Difficulties in interpreting and comparing the results of scientific research on the topic arise from dissimilar protocols and variation in study design. This review aims to investigate the current literature on the use of ACE I/D polymorphism as a biomarker of performance in humans through the comparison of scientific publications. PMID:25586030
The Effects of Supplementary Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training on Morphological and Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sport Athletes.
Scott, Brendan R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Goods, Paul S R
Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes. Twenty-one semiprofessional Australian football athletes were assessed for 3-repetition maximum (3RM) and muscular endurance in the back squat, vastus lateralis muscle architecture, and performance in sprint and vertical jump tasks. Participants then undertook a 5-week training program, consisting of normal high-load resistance training supplemented by low-load squats with (LLBFR) or without (LL) BFR. Participants also performed regular conditioning and football training during this period. After the training intervention, participants again completed the pretraining testing battery. Squat 3RM and endurance increased from pretraining levels in both LL (3RM = 12.5% increase; endurance = 24.1% increase; p ≤ 0.007) and LLBFR (3RM = 12.3% increase; endurance = 21.2% increase; p = 0.007) groups, though there were no between-group differences. No post-training changes were observed for muscle architecture, or performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Although squat 3RM and endurance performance increased in both groups, adding BFR during supplemental exercise did not enhance these responses. Similarly, there were no large differences in the assessments of sprint, acceleration, and jumping performance between the groups after training. These findings suggest that although LLBFR did not negatively affect adaptive responses to resistance training, this training strategy may not provide added benefit for healthy Australian football athletes
Designing a warm-up protocol for elite bob-skeleton athletes.
Cook, Christian; Holdcroft, Danny; Drawer, Scott; Kilduff, Liam P
To investigate how different warm-ups influenced subsequent sled-pull sprint performance in Olympic-level bob-skeleton athletes as part of their preparation for the 2010 Winter Olympics. Three female and 3 male athletes performed 5 different randomized warm-ups of differing intensities, durations, and timing relative to subsequent testing, each 2 days apart, all repeated twice. After warm-ups, testing on a sled-pull sprint over 20 m, 3 repeats 3 min apart, took place. Performance testing showed improvement (P < .001, ES > 1.2) with both increasing intensity of warm-up and closeness of completion to testing, with 20-m sled sprinting being 0.1-0.25 s faster in higher-intensity protocols performed near testing In addition, supplementing the warm-ups by wearing of a light survival coat resulted in further performance improvement (P = .000, ES 1.8). Changing timing and intensity of warm-up and using an ancillary passive heat-retention device improved sprint performance in Olympic-level bob-skeleton athletes. Subsequent adoption of these on the competitive circuit was associated with a seasonal improvement in push times and was ultimately implemented in the 2010 Winter Olympics.
Behavioural and psychophysiological correlates of athletic performance: a test of the multi-action plan model.
Bertollo, Maurizio; Bortoli, Laura; Gramaccioni, Gianfranco; Hanin, Yuri; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio
The main purposes of the present study were to substantiate the existence of the four types of performance categories (i.e., optimal-automatic, optimal-controlled, suboptimal-controlled, and suboptimal-automatic) as hypothesised in the multi-action plan (MAP) model, and to investigate whether some specific affective, behavioural, psychophysiological, and postural trends may typify each type of performance. A 20-year-old athlete of the Italian shooting team, and a 46-year-old athlete of the Italian dart-throwing team participated in the study. Athletes were asked to identify the core components of the action and then to execute a large number of shots/flights. A 2 × 2 (optimal/suboptimal × automated/controlled) within subjects multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the differences among the four types of performance. Findings provided preliminary evidence of psychophysiological and postural differences among four performance categories as conceptualized within the MAP model. Monitoring the entire spectrum of psychophysiological and behavioural features related to the different types of performance is important to develop and implement biofeedback and neurofeedback techniques aimed at helping athletes to identify individual zones of optimal functioning and to enhance their performance.
Perceived Effects of Emotion Intensity on Athletic Performance: A Contingency-Based Individualized Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Hanin, Yuri
This study, based on the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model, examined the perceived effect of idiosyncratic emotions and bodily symptoms on athletic performance along the entire emotion-intensity range. The participants were 35 elite Italian athletes, 16 women and 19 men, competing in either figure skating or gymnastics. Idiosyncratic…
Development of a measurement and feedback training tool for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes.
Lembert, Sandra; Schachner, Otto; Raschner, Christian
Previous studies have shown that the start plays a critical role in sliding events and explains more than 55% of the variance of the final time in luge. Experts evaluate the contribution of the arm strokes to be 23% of the total starting performance. The aim of the present study was to develop a measurement and feedback training tool (Speedpaddler) for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes. The construction is an aluminium alloy framework with a customary belt conveyor system, which is driven by two synchronized servo motors. Training is possible with constant speeds up to 12 m · s(-1) or several speed curves, which simulate the acceleration of different luge tracks. The construction facilitates variations in the inclination and speed of the conveyor belts and thereby the resistance and movement speed. If the athlete accelerates the conveyor belts during arm-paddling, the torque of the motors decreases. Torque measurements and high-speed video offer valuable insights into the several technique criteria. Comparisons of arm-paddle cycle durations on ice and on the Speedpaddler with 18 luge athletes (national team and juniors) showed no statistical differences. The Speedpaddler might be a useful tool to improve starting performance all year round.
Accessory Navicular Syndrome in Athlete vs General Population.
Jegal, Hyuk; Park, Young Uk; Kim, Jin Su; Choo, Ho Sik; Seo, Young Uk; Lee, Kyung Tai
Symptomatic accessory navicular syndrome (ANS) typically develops in young athletes. The symptoms are exacerbated during exercise or while walking, affecting the sports performance of athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic findings and clinical course in athletes with accessory navicular syndrome (ANS) in comparison with a nonathletic population. Seventy-nine patients with ANS between August 2012 and August 2013 were included. Overall, 29 were athletes and 50 were not athletes, and 19 (2 athletes and 17 nonathletes) of them improved after at least 6 months of conservative treatment. The records of 60 patients (64 consecutive feet) of ANS treated by modified Kidner operation were evaluated retrospectively. The study population included 27 athletes (31 feet) and 33 nonathletes (33 feet). Clinical features and radiologic findings were compared between them. Overall, 34% of the nonathletes improved after conservative treatment, but only 6.9% of athletes improved (P < .001). Mean age at surgery in the athlete group was 16.1 years (range, 12-26), and 24.3 years (range, 12-52) in the nonathlete group (P < .001). There was a history of trauma in 23 feet (74%) of the athlete group and in 13 feet (39%) of the nonathlete group (P = .006). Eighteen feet (58%) in the athlete group and 11 feet (32%) in the nonathlete group showed movement between the 2 bones (P = .047). Bone marrow edema was observed in both navicular and accessory navicular in all of the athletes (27/27, 100%). But it was only present in 80% (16/20) for nonathletes (P = .012). The radiologic findings and clinical course of athletes were different from that of the general population. Their symptoms were more refractory to conservative treatment than the nonathletes group. Therefore, early operative treatment could be considered in cases of symptomatic ANS especially for athletes. Level III, retrospective comparative case series. © The Author(s) 2016.
Athletes' precompetitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performance.
Lastella, Michele; Lovell, Geoff Peter; Sargent, Charli
This investigation examined precompetitive sleep behaviour of 103 athletes and how it relates to precompetitive mood and subsequent performance. Results revealed that on the night before competition athletes slept well under the recommended target of eight hours of sleep for healthy adults, with almost 70% of athletes experiencing poorer sleep than usual. It was found that anxiety, noise, the need to use the bathroom and early event times were amongst the most commonly reported causes of disrupted sleep in athletes on the night prior to competition. The negative moods of fatigue and tension were both significantly negatively correlated with precompetitive relative sleep quality (r = -0.28, P = 0.004, r = -0.21, P = 0.030, respectively) and total sleep time (r = -0.23, P = 0.023, r = -0.20, P = 0.044, respectively). Additionally, tension was positively correlated with number of awakenings (r = -0.20, P = 0.045). Vigour was seen to be significantly positively associated with relative sleep quality (r = 0.24, P=0.013). The relationships between relative sleep quality and fatigue, tension and vigour accounted for approximately 4 - 5% of the variance in mood scores. Disrupted sleep did not demonstrate any significant relationship with relative sporting performance. Conclusions from the present investigation are that athletes may be at particular risk of disrupted sleep on the night prior to competition, and this disruption can negatively relate to an athlete's precompetitive mood states.
Performance-Based Outcomes after Operative Management of Athletic Pubalgia / Core Muscle Injury in National Football League Players
Lynch, Thomas Sean; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gibbs, Daniel Bradley; Park, Caroline; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Christopher S.
Objectives: Athletic pubalgia is a condition in which there is an injury to the core musculature that precipitates groin and lower abdominal pain, particularly in cutting and pivoting sports. These are common injury patterns in the National Football League (NFL); however, the effect of surgery on performance for these players has not been described. Methods: Athletes in the NFL that underwent a surgical procedure for athletic pubalgia / core muscle injury (CMI) were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record since 2004. Outcome data was collected for athletes who met inclusion criteria which included total games played after season of injury / surgery, number of Pro Bowls voted to, yearly total years and touchdowns for offensive players and yearly total tackles sacks and interceptions for defensive players. Previously validated performance scores were calculated using this data for each player one season before and after their procedure for a CMI. Athletes were then matched to control professional football players without a diagnosis of athletic pubalgia by age, position, year and round drafted. Statistical analysis was used to compare pre-injury and post-injury performance measures for players treated with operative management to their case controls. Results: The study group was composed of 32 NFL athletes who underwent operative management for athletic pubalgia that met inclusion criteria during this study period, including 18 offensive players and 16 defensive players. The average age of athletes undergoing this surgery was 27 years old. Analysis of pre- and post-injury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after surgical intervention; however, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of Pro Bowls that affected athletes participated in before surgery (8) compared to the season after surgery (3). Analysis of durability, as measured by total number of games played
The athlete biological passport: ticket to a fair Commonwealth Games.
Bucknall, Vittoria; Rehman, Haroon; Bassindale, Thomas; Clement, Rhys Ge
In summer 2014, the world watched as Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and athletes pushed the boundaries of human performance. Sport has developed into a multi-billion pound industry leading to the development of a 'win at any cost' mentality in some individuals. The abuse of performance-enhancing drugs has developed into a sophisticated arms race between those unfairly enhancing performance and those wishing to preserve the dignity of sport and the health of the competitors. The challenge for the Commonwealth games organising committee was to ensure that competition remained fair and that athletes were kept safe. The athlete biological passport is a system implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency directed towards enhancing the identification of those athletes accountable for the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. This article exemplifies which drugs are currently being exploited and how the athlete biological passport has evolved to improve their detection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Contributing factors to performance of a medicine ball explosive power test: a comparison between jump and nonjump athletes.
Stockbrugger, Barry A; Haennel, Robert G
The present study examined the factors contributing to performance of a backward overhead medicine ball throw (B-MBT) across 2 types of athletes. Twenty male volleyball players (jump athletes) and 20 wrestlers (nonjump athletes) were evaluated on 4 measures of power, including B-MBT, chest medicine ball throw (C-MBT), countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), and power index (PI). The athletes also completed 3 measures of strength: a 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) bench press (BP), a 1RM leg press (LP), and combined BP + LP strength. Jump athletes demonstrated greater absolute scores for CMJ, C-MBT, and B-MBT (p < 0.05), whereas nonjump athletes demonstrated greater strength scores for BP and for BP + LP (p < 0.05). When performances were examined on a relative basis, jump athletes achieved superior scores for C-MBT (p < 0.05), whereas nonjump athletes had greater scores for BP, LP, and BP + LP (p < 0.05). For both groups, B-MBT had strong correlations with PI (r = 0.817 [jump] and 0.917 [nonjump]), whereas for C-MBT, only nonjump athletes demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.842). When expressed in relative terms, B-MBT was strongly correlated with C-MBT (r = 0.762 [jump] and 0.835 [nonjump]) and CMJ (r = 0.899 [jump] and 0.945 [nonjump]). Only nonjump athletes demonstrated strong correlations with strength for absolute LP (r = 0.801) and BP + LP (r = 0.810) strength. The interaction of upper- and lower-body strength and power in the performance of a B-MBT appears complex, with the contributing factors differing for athletes with divergent skill sets and performance demands.
Predicting athletic success motivation using mental skin and emotional intelligence and its components in male athletes.
Kajbafnezhad, H; Ahadi, H; Heidarie, A; Askari, P; Enayati, M
The aim of this study was to predict athletic success motivation by mental skills, emotional intelligence and its components. The research sample consisted of 153 male athletes who were selected through random multistage sampling. The subjects completed the Mental Skills Questionnaire, Bar-On Emotional Intelligence questionnaire and the perception of sport success questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. Regression analysis shows that between the two variables of mental skill and emotional intelligence, mental skill is the best predictor for athletic success motivation and has a better ability to predict the success rate of the participants. Regression analysis results showed that among all the components of emotional intelligence, self-respect had a significantly higher ability to predict athletic success motivation. The use of psychological skills and emotional intelligence as an mediating and regulating factor and organizer cause leads to improved performance and can not only can to help athletes in making suitable and effective decisions for reaching a desired goal.
Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.
Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson
Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.
Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes
Background In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. Results The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p < 0.0001; p = 0.04), with no differences between the volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p < 0.001; p = 0.006). However in both sports groups there weren’t any gender differences in either part of the test (p = 0.18; p = 0.056). Conclusions These results confirm that during athletic preparation in volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence. PMID:24447526
Sequencing Effects of Balance and Plyometric Training on Physical Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes.
Hammami, Raouf; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis
Hammami, R, Granacher, U, Makhlouf, I, Behm, DG, and Chaouachi, A. Sequencing effects of balance and plyometric training on physical performance in youth soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3278-3289, 2016-Balance training may have a preconditioning effect on subsequent power training with youth. There are no studies examining whether the sequencing of balance and plyometric training has additional training benefits. The objective was to examine the effect of sequencing balance and plyometric training on the performance of 12- to 13-year-old athletes. Twenty-four young elite soccer players trained twice per week for 8 weeks either with an initial 4 weeks of balance training followed by 4 weeks of plyometric training (BPT) or 4 weeks of plyometric training proceeded by 4 weeks of balance training (PBT). Testing was conducted pre- and posttraining and included medicine ball throw; horizontal and vertical jumps; reactive strength; leg stiffness; agility; 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprints; Standing Stork balance test; and Y-Balance test. Results indicated that BPT provided significantly greater improvements with reactive strength index, absolute and relative leg stiffness, triple hop test, and a trend for the Y-Balance test (p = 0.054) compared with PBT. Although all other measures had similar changes for both groups, the average relative improvement for the BPT was 22.4% (d = 1.5) vs. 15.0% (d = 1.1) for the PBT. BPT effect sizes were greater with 8 of 13 measures. In conclusion, although either sequence of BPT or PBT improved jumping, hopping, sprint acceleration, and Standing Stork and Y-Balance, BPT initiated greater training improvements in reactive strength index, absolute and relative leg stiffness, triple hop test, and the Y-Balance test. BPT may provide either similar or superior performance enhancements compared with PBT.
Effects of High-Velocity Resistance Training on Athletic Performance in Prepuberal Male Soccer Athletes.
Negra, Yassine; Chaabene, Helmi; Hammami, Mehréz; Hachana, Younés; Granacher, Urs
Negra, Y, Chaabene, H, Hammami, M, Hachana, Y, and Granacher, U. Effects of high-velocity resistance training on athletic performance in prepuberal male soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3290-3297, 2016-The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 12-week in-season low-to-moderate load high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) in addition to soccer training as compared with soccer training only on proxies of athletic performance in prepubertal soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players performed 2 different protocols: (a) regular soccer training with 5 sessions per week (n = 11; age = 12.7 ± 0.3 years) and (b) regular soccer training with 3 sessions per week and HVRT with 2 sessions per week (n = 13; age = 12.8 ± 0.2 years). The outcome measures included tests for the assessment of muscle strength (e.g., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat tests), jump ability (e.g., countermovement jump, squat jump [SJ], standing long jump [SLJ], and multiple 5-bound tests [MB5s]), linear speed (e.g., 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint tests), and change of direction (e.g., T-test and Illinois change of direction test). Results revealed significant group × test interactions for the SJ test (p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.59) and the SLJ test (p < 0.01, d = 0.83). Post hoc tests illustrated significant pre-post changes in the HVRT group (SJ: [INCREMENT]22%, p < 0.001, d = 1.26; SLJ: [INCREMENT]15%, p < 0.001, d = 1.30) but not in the control group. In addition, tendencies toward significant interaction effects were found for the 1RM half-squat (p = 0.08, d = 0.54) and the 10-m sprint test (p = 0.06, d = 0.57). Significant pre-post changes were found for both parameters in the HVRT group only (1RM: [INCREMENT]25%, p < 0.001, d = 1.23; 10-m sprint: [INCREMENT]7%, p < 0.0001, d = 1.47). In summary, in-season low-to-moderate load HVRT conducted in combination with regular soccer training is a safe and feasible intervention that has positive effects on maximal strength
Factors Contributing to Disparities in Baseline Neurocognitive Performance and Concussion Symptom Scores Between Black and White Collegiate Athletes.
Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Deitrick, Jamie McAllister
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) concussion guidelines state that all NCAA athletes must have a concussion baseline test prior to commencing their competitive season. To date, little research has examined potential racial differences on baseline neurocognitive performance among NCAA athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between Black and White collegiate athletes on baseline neurocognitive performance and self-reported symptoms. A total of 597 collegiate athletes (400 White, 197 Black) participated in this study. Athletes self-reported their race on the demographic section of their pre-participation physical examination and were administered the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) neurocognitive battery in a supervised, quiet room. Controlling for sex, data were analyzed using separate one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) on symptom score, verbal and visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time composite scores. Results revealed significant differences between White and Black athletes on baseline symptom score (F (1,542) = 5.82, p = .01), visual motor processing speed (F (1,542) = 14.89, p < .001), and reaction time (F (1,542) = 11.50, p < .01). White athletes performed better than Black athletes on baseline visual motor processing speed and reaction time. Black athletes reported higher baseline symptom scores compared to Whites. There was no statistical difference between race on verbal memory (p = .08) and that on visual memory (p = .06). Black athletes demonstrated disparities on some neurocognitive measures at baseline. These results suggest capturing an individual baseline on each athlete, as normative data comparisons may be inappropriate for athletes of a racial minority.
Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes.
Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G
In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are-on average-significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes.
Lower Body Symmetry and Running Performance in Elite Jamaican Track and Field Athletes
Trivers, Robert; Fink, Bernhard; Russell, Mark; McCarty, Kristofor; James, Bruce; Palestis, Brian G.
In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are–on average–significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m dashes than those running the longer events with turns. Nevertheless, across all events those with more symmetrical knees and ankles (but not feet) had better results compared to international standards. Regression models considering lower body symmetry combined with gender, age and weight explain 27 to 28% of the variation in performance among athletes, with symmetry related to about 5% of this variation. Within 100 m sprinters, the results suggest that those with more symmetrical knees and ankles ran faster. Altogether, our work confirms earlier findings that knee and probably ankle symmetry are positively associated with sprinting performance, while extending these findings to elite athletes. PMID:25401732
Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction Speed Performance in Male Athletes.
DosʼSantos, Thomas; Thomas, Christopher; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul
Dos'Santos, T, Thomas, C, Jones, PA, and Comfort, P. Mechanical determinants of faster change of direction speed performance in male athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 696-705, 2017-Mechanical variables during change of directions, for example, braking and propulsive forces, impulses, and ground contact times (GCT) have been identified as determinants of faster change of direction speed (CODS) performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical determinants of 180° CODS performance with mechanical characteristic comparisons between faster and slower performers; while exploring the role of the penultimate foot contact (PEN) during the change of direction. Forty multidirectional male athletes performed 6 modified 505 (mod505) trials (3 left and right), and ground reaction forces were collected across the PEN and final foot contact (FINAL) during the change of direction. Pearson's correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination were used to explore the relationship between mechanical variables and mod505 completion time. Independent T-tests and Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were conducted between faster (n = 10) and slower (n = 10) mod505 performers to explore differences in mechanical variables. Faster CODS performance was associated (p ≤ 0.05) with shorter GCTs (r = 0.701-0.757), greater horizontal propulsive forces (HPF) (r = -0.572 to -0.611), greater horizontal braking forces (HBF) in the PEN (r = -0.337), lower HBF ratios (r = -0.429), and lower FINAL vertical impact forces (VIF) (r = 0.449-0.559). Faster athletes demonstrated significantly (p ≤ 0.05, ES = 1.08-2.54) shorter FINAL GCTs, produced lower VIF, lower HBF ratios, and greater HPF in comparison to slower athletes. These findings suggest that different mechanical properties are required to produce faster CODS performance, with differences in mechanical properties observed between fast and slower performers. Furthermore, applying a greater proportion of braking force
Practice Makes Perfect: Correlations Between Prior Experience in High-level Athletics and Robotic Surgical Performance Do Not Persist After Task Repetition.
Shee, Kevin; Ghali, Fady M; Hyams, Elias S
Robotic surgical skill development is central to training in urology as well as in other surgical disciplines. Here, we describe a pilot study assessing the relationships between robotic surgery simulator performance and 3 categories of activities, namely, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics. A questionnaire was administered to preclinical medical students for general demographic information and prior experiences in surgery, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics. For follow-up performance studies, we used the Matchboard Level 1 and 2 modules on the da Vinci Skills Simulator, and recorded overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, workspace range, instrument collisions, instruments out of view, and drops. Task 1 was run once, whereas task 2 was run 3 times. All performance studies on the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator took place in the Simulation Center at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. All participants were medical students at the Geisel School of Medicine. After excluding students with prior hands-on experience in surgery, a total of 30 students completed the study. We found a significant correlation between athletic skill level and performance for both task 1 (p = 0.0002) and task 2 (p = 0.0009). No significant correlations were found for videogame or musical instrument skill level. Students with experience in certain athletics (e.g., volleyball, tennis, and baseball) tended to perform better than students with experience in other athletics (e.g., track and field). For task 2, which was run 3 times, this association did not persist after the third repetition due to significant improvements in students with low-level athletic skill (levels 0-2). Our study suggests that prior experience in high-level athletics, but not videogames or musical instruments, significantly influences surgical proficiency in robot-naive students. Furthermore, our study suggests that practice through task repetition can overcome initial differences
Improved bone metabolism in female elite athletes after vitamin K supplementation.
Craciun, A M; Wolf, J; Knapen, M H; Brouns, F; Vermeer, C
In female elite athletes strenuous exercise may result in hypoestrogenism and amenorrhoea. As a consequence a low peak bone mass and rapid bone loss are often seen in relatively young athletes. In postmenopausal women, increased intake of vitamin K may result in an increase of serum markers for bone formation, a decrease of urinary markers for bone resorption, and a decrease in urinary calcium loss. In the present paper we report an intervention study among eight female athletes, four of whom had been amenorrhoeic for more than one year, whereas the others had been using oral contraceptives. All participants received vitamin K supplementation (10 mg/day) during one month, and various bone markers were measured before and after treatment. At baseline the athletes not using oral contraceptives were biochemically vitamin K-deficient as deduced from the calcium binding capacity of the circulating bone protein osteocalcin. In all subjects increased vitamin K was associated with an increased calcium-binding capacity of osteocalcin. In the low-estrogen group vitamin K supplementation induced a 15-20% increase of bone formation markers and a parallel 20-25% decrease of bone resorption markers. This shift is suggestive for an improved balance between bone formation and resorption.
Countermovement Jump Performance with Increased Training Loads in Elite Female Rugby Athletes.
Gathercole, R; Sporer, B; Stellingwerff, T
Countermovement jump (CMJ) performance is typically analyzed through single-point concentric-based variables (e. g., peak power or force and height). However, methodological approaches examining movement strategies may be more sensitive to neuromuscular fatigue. 12 elite female rugby sevens athletes undertook weekly CMJ testing throughout a 6-week training block involving progressively increased training loads. Athletes self-reported training load (TRIMP) and wellness daily. 22 CMJ variables were assessed, incorporating analyses of force, velocity, power and time measured during eccentric and concentric jump phases. Differences over time were examined using the magnitude of change (effect sizes; ES) compared to baseline. Pearson correlations examined relationships between CMJ variables, wellness and TRIMP. TRIMP displayed large increases (mean ES; weeks 2-6: 2.47). Wellness decreased in week 3 (-0.41), with small reductions following (weeks 4-6: -0.34). Flight time (weeks 3-6: -1.84), peak displacement (weeks 2-6: -2.24), time to peak force (weeks 3-6: 2.58), force at zero velocity (F@0V) (weeks 5-6: -1.28) displayed multiple changes indicative of diminished neuromuscular function. Wellness scores and max rate of force development (mean; r=0.32), F@0V (r=0.28) and flight time (r=0.34) displayed positive correlations. Intensified training decreased CMJ output and altered CMJ mechanics. Longitudinal neuromuscular fatigue monitoring of team-sport athletes appears improved through CMJ mechanics analysis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Return-to-Play and Performance Outcomes of Professional Athletes in North America After Hip Arthroscopy From 1999 to 2016.
Schallmo, Michael S; Fitzpatrick, Thomas H; Yancey, Hunter B; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Luo, T David; Stubbs, Allston J
The effect of hip arthroscopy on athletic performance compared with preinjury levels for professional athletes in different sports remains unknown. In addition, while return rates have been reported for professional baseball, football, and hockey players, return rates have not been reported for professional basketball players. Professional athletes in 4 major North American sports would be able to return to their sport and preoperative level of performance at a high rate after arthroscopic hip surgery. Descriptive epidemiology study. Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who underwent hip arthroscopy were identified through a previously reported protocol based on public sources. Successful return to play (RTP) was defined as returning for at least 1 professional regular season game after surgery. Performance scores were calculated by use of previously established scoring systems. Each player served as his own control, with the season prior to surgery defined as baseline. To make comparisons across sports, the authors adjusted for expected season and career length differences between sports and calculated percentage changes in performance. The authors identified 227 procedures performed on 180 professional athletes between 1999 and 2016. Successful RTP was achieved in 84.6% (192/227) of the procedures. Compared with all other athletes, NBA athletes returned at a similar rate (85.7%, P ≥ .999). NFL offensive linemen returned at a significantly lower rate than all other athletes (61.1%, P = .010). NHL athletes returned at a significantly higher rate than all other athletes (91.8%, P = .048) and demonstrated significantly decreased performance during postoperative season 1 compared with baseline (-35.1%, P = .002). Lead leg surgery for MLB athletes (batting stance for hitters, pitching stance for pitchers) resulted in a 12.7% reduction in hitter performance score
Blurred lines: Performance Enhancement, Common Mental Disorders and Referral in the U.K. Athletic Population
Roberts, Claire-Marie; Faull, Andrea L.; Tod, David
Through the awareness-raising efforts of several high-profile current and former athletes, the issue of common mental disorders (CMD) in this population is gaining increasing attention from researchers and practitioners alike. Yet the prevalence is unclear and most likely, under-reported. Whilst the characteristics of the sporting environment may generate CMD within the athletic population, it also may exacerbate pre-existing conditions, and hence it is not surprising that sport psychology and sport science practitioners are anecdotally reporting increased incidences of athletes seeking support for CMD. In a population where there are many barriers to reporting and seeking help for CMD, due in part to the culture of the high performance sporting environment, anecdotal reports suggest that those athletes asking for help are approaching personnel who they are most comfortable talking to. In some cases, this may be a sport scientist, the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant. Among personnel in the sporting domain, there is a perception that the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant is best placed to assist athletes seeking assistance for CMD. However, sport psychology as a profession is split by two competing philosophical perspectives; one of which suggests that sport psychologists should work exclusively with athletes on performance enhancement, and the other views the athlete more holistically and accepts that their welfare may directly impact on their performance. To add further complication, the development of the profession of sport psychology varies widely between countries, meaning that practice in this field is not always clearly defined. This article examines case studies that illustrate the blurred lines in applied sport psychology practice, highlighting challenges with the process of referral in the U.K. athletic population. The article concludes with suggestions for ensuring the field of applied sport psychology is continually
Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study
Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Petrie, A; Fortune, F; Turner, W; Jones, J; Niggli, J; Engebretsen, L; Budgett, R; Donos, N; Clough, T; Porter, S
Background Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games. Methods Cross-sectional study at the dental clinic within the Polyclinic in the athletes’ village. Following informed consent, a standardised history, clinical examination and brief questionnaire were conducted. Results 302 athletes from 25 sports were recruited with data available for 278. The majority of athletes were from Africa, the Americas and Europe. Overall, the results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (55% athletes), dental erosion (45% athletes) and periodontal disease (gingivitis 76% athletes, periodontitis 15% athletes). More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Nearly half of the participants had not undergone a dental examination or hygiene care in the previous year. Conclusions The oral health of athletes attending the dental clinic of the London 2012 Games was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise athletic performance. PMID:24068332
Long-term effect of weight loss on body composition and performance in elite athletes.
Garthe, Ina; Raastad, Truls; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
When weight loss (WL) is needed, it is recommended that athletes do it gradually by 0.5-1 kg/wk through moderate energy restriction. However, the effect of WL rate on long-term changes in body composition (BC) and performance has not been investigated in elite athletes. To compare changes in body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), and performance 6 and 12 mo after 2 different WL interventions promoting loss of 0.7% vs. 1.4% of body weight per wk in elite athletes. Twenty-three athletes completed 6- and 12-mo postintervention testing (slow rate [SR] n = 14, 23.5 ± 3.3 yr, 72.2 ± 12.2 kg; fast rate [FR] n = 9, 21.4 ± 4.0 yr, 71.6 ± 12.0 kg). The athletes had individualized diet plans promoting the predetermined weekly WL during intervention, and 4 strength-training sessions per wk were included. BM, BC, and strength (1-repetition maximum) were tested at baseline, postintervention, and 6 and 12 mo after the intervention. BM decreased by ~6% in both groups during the intervention but was not different from baseline values after 12 mo. FM decreased in SR and FR during the intervention by 31% ± 3% vs. 23% ± 4%, respectively, but was not different from baseline after 12 mo. LBM and upper body strength increased more in SR than in FR (2.0% ± 1.3% vs. 0.8% ± 1.1% and 12% ± 2% vs. 6% ± 2%) during the intervention, but after 12 mo there were no significant differences between groups in BC or performance. There were no significant differences between groups after 12 mo, suggesting that WL rate is not the most important factor in maintaining BC and performance after WL in elite athletes.
Commercial Hype Versus Reality: Our Current Scientific Understanding of Gluten and Athletic Performance.
Lis, Dana M; Fell, James W; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Kitic, Cecilia M; Stellingwerff, Trent
Recent explosion in the prevalence of gluten-free athletes, exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims, has led to some professional athletes touting gluten-free diet as the secret to their success. Forty-one percent of athletes report adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is four-fold higher than the population-based clinical requirements. Many nonceliac athletes believe that gluten avoidance improves gastrointestinal well-being, reduces inflammation, and provides an ergogenic edge, despite the fact that limited data yet exist to support any of these benefits. There are several plausible associations between endurance-based exercise and gastrointestinal permeability whereby a GFD may be beneficial. However, the implications of confounding factors, including the risks of unnecessary dietary restriction, financial burden, food availability, psychosocial implications, alterations in short-chain carbohydrates (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols), and other wheat constituents emphasize the need for further evaluation.
Doping and Performance Enhancing Drug Use in Athletes Living in Sivas, Mid-Anatolia: A Brief Report
Özdemir, Levent; Nur, Naim; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Bulut, Okay; Sümer, Haldun; Tezeren, Gündüz
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of doping and performance enhancing drug use in athletes in Sivas, Turkey, and to analyze the main reasons for the use. This was a cross-sectional study based on a self-report questionnaire. The subjects filled the questionnaires under the supervision of the investigators during interviews. This questionnaire included 24 items describing the population in terms of demographics, sport practice, doping in sport and substance use. Moreover, we assessed the frequency of doping drug use. The number of respondents was 883, of which 433 athletes and 450 healthy non-athletes (control group). The mean age of the total volunteers was 21.8 ± 3.7 yrs. The male and female ratios were 78.2% and 21.8% respectively. Doping and performance enhancing drug usage rate was 8.0% (71cases in 883 subjects). Doping drug use among the athletes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (14.5%) compared with the non-athletes (1.8%). The agents used were anabolic steroids in 60.5%, l-carnitene in 12.7%, erythropoietin in 5.4%, Na-bicarbonate in 11.3% and creatinine in 14.1% of 71 cases. The reasons for doping use were to have a better body condition in 34 cases (47.9%) and to solve weight (gaining or loosing) problems in 8 (11.3%) cases. Since the potential side effects of doping drugs are not satisfactorily familiar to the most users, the education of athletes on the matter must be a top priority. Key Points Doping and performance enhancing drug use was 71 (8.0%) in 883 subjects, and it was significantly higher (14.5%) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes (1.8%) in Sivas, Turkey. The rate of athletes who experienced such drugs at least once in their life was 29.0%. The 52.4% of doping and performance enhancing drug users accepted that they were unaware of the drugs full and/or potential side effects. PMID:24453528
Impaired jump landing after exercise in recreational and in high-performance athletes.
Kuni, Benita; Cárdenas-Montemayor, Eloy; Bangert, Yannic; Rupp, Rüdiger; Ales, Janez; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Schmitt, Holger
The risk of sustaining injuries increases with fatigue. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of fatigue on dynamic postural control in jump landing and stabilization (ST) in athletes of different levels. In all, 18 high-performance ball sports athletes and 24 recreationally active subjects performed a jump test (JT) before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after a 30-minute treadmill run at the individual anaerobic threshold. An overhead ball switch hit during a forward jump triggered indicator lamps on either side of a force plate. After landing on the plate, ST on 1 leg (no light cue) or a second jump sideways (toward a light cue) was required. The ST force integral index was calculated for the ST trials. Dynamic postural control was significantly impaired in jump landing and ST in the first minute after the run: mean difference ± SD: 0.25 ± 0.48 m·s-1 (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.40 m·s-1, p = 0.043; analysis of variance). No significant group differences were found. Under fatigued conditions, dynamic postural control in jump landing was impaired in an unexpected ST task. Not only recreational but also high-performance athletes were affected. Ball sports athletes could add a training exercise to their workout, which alternates between periods of high effort and neuromuscular training. Resistance to fatigue effects should be checked on a regular basis using JTs.
Psychosocial correlates of disordered eating in female collegiate athletes: validation of the ATHLETE questionnaire.
Hinton, Pamela S; Kubas, Karen L
Female athletes may be at greater risk for disordered eating than their nonathletic peers, but the psychological antecedents of this dysfunctional behavior in athletes have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to develop an athletics-oriented measure of psychological predictors of disordered eating and to test its initial reliability and validity. Female athletes from 3 National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division I universities completed the ATHLETE, a written questionnaire designed to assess psychosocial factors associated with disordered eating in athletes. Five distinct and internally consistent factors (Drive for Thinness and Performance, Social Pressure on Eating, Performance Perfectionism, Social Pressure on Body Shape, and Team Trust) were positively associated with and predictive of disordered eating behaviors in female athletes. The ATHLETE is a reliable and valid measure of psychological predictors of disordered eating in athletics and will be useful in studying the etiology of disordered eating in female athletes.
Interrelationships between strength, anthropometrics, and strongman performance in novice strongman athletes.
Winwood, Paul W; Keogh, Justin W L; Harris, Nigel K
The sport of strongman is relatively new; hence, specific research investigating this sport is currently very limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between anthropometric dimensions and maximal isoinertial strength to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Twenty-three semiprofessional rugby union players with considerable resistance training and some strongman training experience (age 22.0 ± 2.4 years, weight 102.6 ± 10.8 kg, height 184.6 ± 6.5 cm) were assessed for anthropometry (height, body composition, and girth measurements), maximal isoinertial performance (bench press, squat, deadlift, and power clean), and strongman performance (tire flip, log clean, and press, truck pull, and farmer's walk). The magnitudes of the relationships were determined using Pearson correlation coefficients, and interpreted qualitatively according to Hopkins (90% confidence limits ∼±0.37). The highest relationship observed was between system force (body mass + squat 1-repetition maximum) and overall strongman performance (r = 0.87). Clear moderate to very large relationships existed between performance in all strongman events and the squat (r = 0.61-0.85), indicating the importance of maximal squat strength for strongman competitors. Flexed arm girth and calf girth were the strongest anthropometric correlates of overall strongman performance (r = 0.79 and 0.70, respectively). The results of this study suggest that body structure and common gymnasium-based exercise strength are meaningfully related to strongman performance in novice strongman athletes. Future research should investigate these relationships using more experienced strongman athletes and determine the relationships between changes in anthropometry, isoinertial strength, and strongman performance to determine the role of anthropometry and isoinertial strength in the sport of strongman.
Leadership and Management: Techniques and Principles for Athletic Training
Nellis, Stephen M.
Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training facility's mission. By applying good management and leadership skills, you can implement your mission statement, evaluate your results, and improve the performance of your athletic training facility. PMID:16558296
The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function
Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.
Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883
Dynamic Warm-Up Protocols, With and Without a Weighted Vest, and Fitness Performance in High School Female Athletes
Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, James E; Schwerdtman, Jeff A; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Hoffman, Jay R
Context: Recent authors have not found substantial evidence to support the use of static stretching for improving performance, so interest in dynamic warm-up procedures has risen. Our findings may improve the understanding of the acute effects of different types of pre-exercise protocols on performance and may help clinicians develop effective warm-up protocols for sports practice and competition. Objective: To examine the acute effects of 4 warm-up protocols with and without a weighted vest on anaerobic performance in female high school athletes. Design: Randomized, counterbalanced, repeated-measures design. Setting: High school fitness center. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy high school female athletes (age = 15.3 ± 1.2 years, height = 166.3 ± 9.1 cm, mass = 61.6 ± 10.4 kg). Intervention(s): After 5 minutes of jogging, subjects performed 4 randomly ordered warm-up protocols: (1) Five static stretches (2 × 30 seconds) (SS), (2) nine moderate-intensity to high-intensity dynamic exercises (DY), (3) the same 9 dynamic exercises performed with a vest weighted with 2% of body mass (DY2), and (4) the same 9 dynamic exercises performed with a vest weighted with 6% of body mass (DY6). Main Outcome Measure(s): Vertical jump, long jump, seated medicine ball toss, and 10-yard sprint. Results: Vertical jump performance was significantly greater after DY (41.3 ± 5.4 cm) and DY2 (42.1 ± 5.2 cm) compared with SS (37.1 ± 5.1 cm), and long jump performance was significantly greater after DY2 (180.5 ± 20.3 cm) compared with SS (160.4 ± 20.8 cm) ( P ≤ .05). No significant differences between trials were observed for the seated medicine ball toss or 10-yard sprint. Conclusions: A dynamic warm-up performed with a vest weighted with 2% of body mass may be the most effective warm-up protocol for enhancing jumping performance in high school female athletes. PMID:17273458
Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review
Domínguez, Raúl; Cuenca, Eduardo; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; García-Fernández, Pablo; Serra-Paya, Noemí; Estevan, María Carmen Lozano; Herreros, Pablo Veiga; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente
Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance. The aim of this literature review was to determine the effects of beetroot juice supplementation and the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A keyword search of DialNet, MedLine, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases covered publications from 2010 to 2016. After excluding reviews/meta-analyses, animal studies, inaccessible full-text, and studies that did not supplement with beetroot juice and adequately assess cardiorespiratory endurance, 23 articles were selected for analysis. The available results suggest that supplementation with beetroot juice can improve cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes by increasing efficiency, which improves performance at various distances, increases time to exhaustion at submaximal intensities, and may improve the cardiorespiratory performance at anaerobic threshold intensities and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Although the literature shows contradictory data, the findings of other studies lead us to hypothesize that supplementing with beetroot juice could mitigate the ergolytic effects of hypoxia on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. It cannot be stated that the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements has a positive or negative effect on cardiorespiratory endurance, but it is possible that the effects of supplementation with beetroot juice can be undermined by interaction with other supplements such as caffeine. PMID:28067808
The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.
Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim
Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.
Athletes and Supplements: Prevalence and Perspectives.
Garthe, Ina; Maughan, Ronald J
In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health. Dietary supplements are classified as a subcategory of food, so manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of product safety and efficacy, nor obtain approval from regulatory bodies before marketing supplements. This creates the potential for health risks, and serious adverse effects have been reported from the use of some dietary supplements. Athletes who compete in sports under an anti-doping code must also realize that supplement use exposes them to a risk of ingesting banned substances or precursors of prohibited substances. Government systems of regulations do not include specific laboratory testing for banned substances according to the WADA list, so a separate regulatory framework to evaluate supplements for their risk of provoking a failed doping test is needed. In the high-performance culture typical of elite sport, athletes may use supplements regardless of possible risks. A discussion around medical, physiological, cultural, and ethical questions may be warranted to ensure that the athlete has the information needed to make an informed choice.
Evening electronic device use: The effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes.
Jones, Maddison J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Halson, Shona; Miller, Joanna; Dunican, Ian; Clarke, Michael; Goodman, Carmel; Eastwood, Peter
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different types of tasks performed with or without an electronic device (tablet) on pre-sleep alertness, subsequent sleep quality and next-day athletic performance. Eight highly trained netball players attended a sleep laboratory for pre-sleep testing, polysomnographic sleep monitoring and next-day physical performance testing on 5 separate occasions (1 familiarisation and 4 experimental sessions). For 2 h prior to bedtime, athletes completed cognitively stimulating tasks (puzzles) or passive tasks (reading) with or without a tablet. Sleepiness tended to be greater after reading compared to completing puzzles without a tablet (d = 0.80), but not with a tablet. Melatonin concentration increased more so after reading compared to completing puzzles on a tablet (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in sleep quality or quantity or next-day athletic performance between any of the conditions. These data suggest that using a tablet for 2 h prior to sleep does not negatively affect subsequent sleep or next-day performance in athletes.
Collar height and heel counter-stiffness for ankle stability and athletic performance in basketball.
Liu, Hui; Wu, Zitian; Lam, Wing-Kai
This study examined the effects of collar height and heel counter-stiffness of basketball shoes on ankle stability during sidestep cutting and athletic performance. 15 university basketball players wore customized shoes with different collar heights (high and low) and heel counter-stiffness (regular, stiffer and stiffest) for this study. Ankle stability was evaluated in sidestep cutting while athletic performance evaluated in jumping and agility tasks. All variables were analysed using two-way repeated ANOVA. Results showed shorter time to peak ankle inversion for both high collar and stiff heel counter conditions (P < 0.05), while smaller initial ankle inversion angle, peak inversion velocity and total range of inversion for wearing high collar shoes (P < 0.05). No shoe differences were found for performance variables. These findings imply that the collar height might play a larger role in lateral stability than heel counter-stiffness, while both collar height and counter-stiffness have no effect on athletic performance.
Concussion management in United States college sports: compliance with National Collegiate Athletic Association concussion policy and areas for improvement.
Baugh, Christine M; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Filali, Naji A; Hiscox, Michael J; Glantz, Leonard H
In 2010, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) adopted its Concussion Policy and Legislation, which applies to more than 450,000 collegiate athletes annually. To date, there has been no examination of school-level compliance with the NCAA Concussion Policy. To examine whether stakeholders at NCAA schools report that their school has a concussion management plan and whether existing plans are consistent with the NCAA policy. Also examined were stakeholders' perceptions regarding concussion management at their institution and possible areas for improvement. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Surveys were sent by e-mail to coaches, sports medicine clinicians, and compliance administrators at all 1066 NCAA member institutions. Surveys asked population-specific questions about institutional concussion management. Individuals (N=2880) from 907 unique schools participated in this survey. Most respondents (n=2607; 92.7%) indicated their school had a concussion management plan. Most schools had all (82.1%) or some (15.2%) respondents indicate a concussion management plan was present. When asked to indicate all individuals who could have final responsibility for returning athletes to play after a concussion, 83.4% selected team doctor, 72.8% athletic trainer, 31.0% specialist physician, 6.8% coach, and 6.6% athlete. Most respondents (76.1%) indicated that their institution had a process for annual athlete concussion education; 91.2% required athletes to acknowledge their responsibility to report concussion symptoms. Nearly all respondents (98.8%) thought their school's concussion management plan protected athletes "well" or "very well." Top categories suggested for improvement included better coach education (39.7%), increasing sports medicine staffing (37.2%), and better athlete education (35.2%). Although a large majority of respondents indicated that their school has a concussion management plan, improvement is needed. Compliance with specified
Dietary recommendations and athletic menstrual dysfunction.
Manore, Melinda M
Exercise-induced or athletic menstrual dysfunction (amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea, anovulation, luteal phase deficiency, delayed menarche) is more common in active women and can significantly affect health and sport performance. Although athletic amenorrhoea represents the most extreme form of menstrual dysfunction, other forms can also result in suppressed estrogen levels and affect bone health and fertility. A number of factors, such as energy balance, exercise intensity and training practices, bodyweight and composition, disordered eating behaviours, and physical and emotional stress levels, may contribute to the development of athletic menstrual dysfunction. There also appears to be a high degree of individual variation with respect to the susceptibility of the reproductive axis to exercise and diet-related stresses. The dietary issues of the female athlete with athletic menstrual dysfunction are similar to those of her eumenorrhoeic counterpart. The most common nutrition issues in active women are poor energy intake and/or poor food selection, which can lead to poor intakes of protein, carbohydrate and essential fatty acids. The most common micronutrients to be low are the bone-building nutrients, especially calcium, the B vitamins, iron and zinc. If energy drain is the primary contributing factor to athletic menstrual dysfunction, improved energy balance will improve overall nutritional status and may reverse the menstrual dysfunction, thus returning the athlete to normal reproductive function. Because bone health can be compromised in female athletes with menstrual dysfunction, intakes of bone-building nutrients are especially important. Iron and zinc are typically low in the diets of female athletes if meat products are avoided. Adequate intake of the B vitamins is also important to ensure adequate energy production and the building and repair of muscle tissue. This review briefly discusses the various factors that may affect athletic menstrual dysfunction
Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia
Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.
Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Study Design: Case series. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a “crossover” sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Results: Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Clinical Relevance: Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI. PMID:24587869
Radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement in athletes with athletic pubalgia.
Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R
Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.
Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing and orienteering.
von Rosen, P; Heijne, A
The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. One hundred and sixty-two male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n = 59), cross-country skiing (n = 66), and orienteering (n = 37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (P = .003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5%-27.1%), during both preseason (P = .002) and competitive season (P = .031). Athletes who improved their ranking position (51%, n = 51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-10.0%) compared to those who decreased (49%, n = 49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0%-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than 40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n = 5) in the middle-ranked, and 17.3% (n = 9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Postural Stability in Healthy Child and Youth Athletes: The Effect of Age, Sex, and Concussion-Related Factors on Performance.
Paniccia, Melissa; Wilson, Katherine E; Hunt, Anne; Keightley, Michelle; Zabjek, Karl; Taha, Tim; Gagnon, Isabelle; Reed, Nick
Postural stability plays a key role in sport performance, especially after concussion. Specific to healthy child and youth athletes, little is known about the influence development and sex may have on postural stability while considering other subjective clinical measures used in baseline/preinjury concussion assessment. This study aims to describe age- and sex-based trends in postural stability in uninjured child and youth athletes at baseline while accounting for concussion-related factors. (1) Postural stability performance will improve with age, (2) females will display better postural stability compared to males, and (3) concussion-like symptoms will affect postural stability performance in healthy children and youth. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. This study comprised 889 healthy/uninjured child and youth athletes (54% female, 46% male) between the ages of 9 and 18 years old. Participants completed preseason baseline testing, which included demographic information (age, sex, concussion history), self-report of concussion-like symptoms (Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory [PCSI]-Child and PCSI-Youth), and measures of postural stability (BioSway; Biodex Medical Systems). Two versions of the PCSI were used (PCSI-C, 9- to 12-year-olds; PCSI-Y, 13- to 18-year-olds). Postural stability was assessed via sway index under 4 sway conditions of increasing difficulty by removing visual and proprioceptive cues. In children aged 9 to 12 years old, there were significant age- ( P < 0.05) and sex-based effects ( P < 0.05) on postural stability. Performance improved with age, and girls performed better than boys. For youth ages 13 to 18 years old, postural stability also improved with age ( P < 0.05). In both child and youth subgroups, postural stability worsened with increasing concussion-like symptoms ( P < 0.05). There are developmental and baseline symptom trends regarding postural stability performance. These findings provide a preliminary foundation for postconcussion
Review of Sports Performance Research with Youth, Collegiate, and Elite Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luiselli, James K.; Woods, Kathryn E.; Reed, Derek D.
This brief review summarizes translational and intervention research in the area of sports performance. We describe studies with youth, collegiate, and elite athletes; identify recent trends; and propose recommendations for future research.
Live-high train-low improves repeated time-trial and Yo-Yo IR2 performance in sub-elite team-sport athletes.
Inness, Matthew W H; Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
To determine the efficacy of live-high train-low on team-sport athlete physical capacity and the time-course for adaptation. Pre-post parallel-groups. Fifteen Australian footballers were matched for Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-YoIR2) performance and assigned to LHTL (n=7) or control (Con; n=8). LHTL spent 19 nights (3×5 nights, 1×4 nights, each block separated by 2 nights at sea level) at 3000-m simulated altitude (F I O 2 : 0.142). Yo-Yo IR2 was performed pre and post 5, 15, and 19 nights. A 2- and 1-km time-trial (TT) was performed pre and post intervention. Haemoglobin mass (Hb mass ) was measured in LHTL after 5, 10, 15, and 19 nights. A contemporary statistical approach using effect size, confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences was used to measure changes between groups. Compared to pre, Hb mass was possibly higher after 15 (3.8%, effect size (ES) 0.19, 90% confidence limits 0.05-0.33) and very likely higher after 19 nights (6.7%, 0.35, 0.10; 0.52). For Yo-Yo IR2, LHTL group change was not meaningfully different to Con after 5 nights, possibly greater after 15 (10.2%, 0.37, -0.29; 1.04), and likely greater after 19 nights (13.5%, 0.49, -0.16; 1.14). Both groups improved 2-km TT, with LHTL improvement possibly higher than CON (1.9%, 0.22, -0.18; 0.62). Only LHTL improved 1-km TT, with LHTL improvement likely greater than CON (4.6%, 0.56, -0.08; 1.04). Fifteen nights of LHTL was possibly effective, while 19 nights was effective at increasing Hb mass , Yo-Yo IR2 and repeated TT performance more than sea-level training. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trainability of Young Athletes and Overtraining
Matos, Nuno; Winsley, Richard J.
Exercise adaptations to strength, anaerobic and aerobic training have been extensively studied in adults, however, young people appear to respond differently to such exercise stimulus in comparison to adults. In addition, because overtraining in young athletes has received little attention, this important area is also discussed. Resistance training in children can be safe and effective. It has the potential to improve sport performance, enhance body composition and reduce the rate of sport incurred injury. Furthermore, with the appropriate stimulus, prepubertal and adolescent athletes can show significant increments in muscle strength (13 - 30%). Children can improve anaerobic power (3%-10% Mean Power and 4%-20% in Peak Power), although the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in children remain unclear. Children show a ‘reduced’ trainability of peak VO2 in comparison to adults. Nevertheless, their aerobic power is trainable, with improvements reported at approximately 5%. Moreover, improvements in other variables like exercise economy or lactate threshold may occur without significant changes in peak VO2 The limited evidence available indicates that overtraining is occurring in young athletes (30% prevalence), highlighting the importance of further research in to all the possible contributing factors - physiological, psychological and emotional - when investigating overtraining. Key pointsChildren’s strength, anaerobic and aerobic power is trainable, although the improvements may be smaller than seen in adults.Children can demonstrate significant gains in muscle strength with resistance training (13 - 30%).Improvements in mean power (3 - 10%) and peak power (4 - 20%) are reported in children.Aerobic fitness can improve with training in children by approximately 5%.Limited available evidence indicates an occurrence of overtraining in young athletes of around 30%. PMID:24149422
Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.
Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn
Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P < .001), reaction time (P < .001), and migraine-cognitive-fatigue symptoms (P < .001). There were no significant findings on the remaining dependent variables. Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.
Visual efficiency among teenaged athletes and non-athletes
Omar, Rokiah; Kuan, Yau Meng; Zuhairi, Nurul Atikah; Manan, Faudziah Abd; Knight, Victor Feizal
AIM To compare visual efficiency, specifically accom-modation, vergence, and oculomotor functions among athletes and non-athletes. METHODS A cross-sectional study on sports vision screening was used to evaluate the visual skills of 214 elementary students (107 athletes, 107 non-athletes), aged between 13 and 16y. The visual screening assessed visual parameters such as ocular motor alignment, accommodation, and vergence functions. RESULTS Mean visual parameters were compared between age-group matched athletes (mean age 14.82±0.98y) and non-athletes (mean age 15.00±1.04y). The refractive errors of all participants were corrected to maximal attainable best corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0.0. Accommodation function assessment evaluated amplitude of accommodation and accommodation facility. Vergence functions measured the near point of convergence, vergence facility, and distance fusional vergence at break and recovery point. Ocular motor alignment was not statistically significant between both groups. Athletes had a statistically significant amplitude of accommodation for both the right eye (t=2.30, P=0.02) and the left eye (t=1.99, P=0.05). Conversely, non-athletes had better accommodation facility (t=-2.54, P=0.01) and near point of convergence (t=4.39, P<0.001) when compared to athletes. Vergence facility was found to be better among athletes (t=2.47, P=0.01). Nevertheless, non-athletes were significantly better for both distance negative and positive fusional vergence. CONCLUSION Although the findings are still inconclusive as to whether athletes had superior visual skills as compared to non-athletes, it remains important to identify and elucidate the key visual skills needed by athletes in order for them to achieve higher performance in their sports. PMID:28944208
Lipidemic profile of athletes and non-athletes with similar body fat.
Petridou, Anatoli; Lazaridou, Despina; Mougios, Vassilis
Although chronic exercise is generally believed to improve the lipidemic profile, it is not clear whether this is due to exercise training or to other determinants such as the usually low body fat of athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare the lipidemic profile of young lean athletes and non-athletes matched for percentage body fat. Fourteen endurance athletes and fourteen sedentary men participated in the study. Participants provided two blood samples at the beginning and end of a 7-d period, during which they recorded physical activity and food intake. Athletes had significantly higher energy expenditure and energy intake but not significantly different macronutrient composition of their diet from non-athletes. No significant differences were found in serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations between groups. These data suggest that athletes and non-athletes with similar body fat do not differ in their lipidemic profiles.
Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.
Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman
Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. © The Author(s) 2016.
Perceptual and Motor Performance of Combat-Sport Athletes Differs According to Specific Demands of the Discipline.
Chen, Wei-Ying; Wu, Sheng K; Song, Tai-Fen; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Wang, Kuei-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Ching; Goodbourn, Patrick T
The specific demands of a combat-sport discipline may be reflected in the perceptual-motor performance of its athletes. Taekwondo, which emphasizes kicking, might require faster perceptual processing to compensate for longer latencies to initiate lower-limb movements and to give rapid visual feedback for dynamic postural control, while Karate, which emphasizes both striking with the hands and kicking, might require exceptional eye-hand coordination and fast perceptual processing. In samples of 38 Taekwondo athletes (16 females, 22 males; mean age = 19.9 years, SD = 1.2), 24 Karate athletes (9 females, 15 males; mean age = 18.9 years, SD = 0.9), and 35 Nonathletes (20 females, 15 males; mean age = 20.6 years, SD = 1.5), we measured eye-hand coordination with the Finger-Nose-Finger task, and both perceptual-processing speed and attentional control with the Covert Orienting of Visual Attention (COVAT) task. Eye-hand coordination was significantly better for Karate athletes than for Taekwondo athletes and Nonathletes, but reaction times for the upper extremities in the COVAT task-indicative of perceptual-processing speed-were faster for Taekwondo athletes than for Karate athletes and Nonathletes. In addition, we found no significant difference among groups in attentional control, as indexed by the reaction-time cost of an invalid cue in the COVAT task. The results suggest that athletes in different combat sports exhibit distinct profiles of perceptual-motor performance. © The Author(s) 2016.
Treatment of athletes with symptomatic intra-articular hip pathology and athletic pubalgia/sports hernia: a case series.
Larson, Christopher M; Pierce, Bradley R; Giveans, M Russell
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment in athletes with associated intra-articular hip pathology and extra-articular sports pubalgia. Between December 2003 and September 2009, 37 hips (mean patient age, 25 years) were diagnosed with both symptomatic athletic pubalgia and symptomatic intra-articular hip joint pathology. There were 8 professional athletes, 15 collegiate athletes, 5 elite high school athletes, and 9 competitive club athletes. Outcomes included an evaluation regarding return to sports and modified Harris Hip Score, Short Form 12 score, and visual analog scale score. We evaluated 37 hips at a mean of 29 months (range, 12 to 78 months) after the index surgery. Thirty-one hips underwent thirty-five athletic pubalgia surgeries. Hip arthroscopy was performed in 32 hips (30 cases of femoroacetabular impingement treatment, 1 traumatic labral tear, and 1 borderline dysplasia). Of 16 hips that had athletic pubalgia surgery as the index procedure, 4 (25%) returned to sports without limitations, and 11 (69%) subsequently had hip arthroscopy at a mean of 20 months after pubalgia surgery. Of 8 hips managed initially with hip arthroscopy alone, 4 (50%) returned to sports without limitations, and 3 (43%) had subsequent pubalgia surgery at a mean of 6 months after hip arthroscopy. Thirteen hips had athletic pubalgia surgery and hip arthroscopy at one setting. Concurrent or eventual surgical treatment of both disorders led to improved postoperative outcomes scores (P < .05) and an unrestricted return to sporting activity in 89% of hips (24 of 27). When surgery only addressed either the athletic pubalgia or intra-articular hip pathology in this patient population, outcomes were suboptimal. Surgical management of both disorders concurrently or in a staged manner led to improved postoperative outcomes scoring and an unrestricted return to sporting activity in 89% of hips. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy
Psycho-social factors determining success in high-performance triathlon: compared perception in the coach-athlete pair.
Ruiz-Tendero, Germán; Salinero Martín, Juan José
High-level sport can be analyzed using the complex system model, in which performance is constrained by many factors. Coaches' and athletes' perceptions of important positive and negative factors affecting performance were compared. Participants were 48 high-level international triathletes (n = 34) and their coaches (n = 14). They were personally interviewed via a questionnaire designed by four accredited experts, who selected groups of both positive and negative factors affecting performance. A list of factors was developed, in order of greater to lesser importance in the opinion of athletes and coaches, for subsequent analysis. Two ranked lists (positive and negative factors) indicated that athletes appear to rate personal environment factors (family, teammates, lack of support from relatives) higher, while the coaches tended to give more importance to technical and institutional aspects (institutional support, coach, medical support). There was complete agreement between coaches and triathletes about the top five positive factors. Negative factor agreement was somewhat lower (agreement on 3/5 factors). The most important positive factor for coaches and athletes was "dedication/engagement," while the most important factor adversely affecting performance was "injuries".
Team-Sport Athletes' Improvement of Performance on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2, but Not of Time-Trial Performance, With Intermittent Hypoxic Training.
Inness M, W H; Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
To determine the time course for physical-capacity adaptations to intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) in team-sport athletes and the time course for benefits remaining after IHT. A pre-post parallel-groups design was employed, with 21 Australian footballers assigned to IHT (n = 10) or control (CON; n = 11) matched for training load. IHT performed eleven 40-min bike sessions at 2500-m altitude over 4 wk. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) was performed before; after 3, 6, and 11 IHT sessions; and 30 and 44 d after IHT. Repeated time trials (2- and 1-km TTs, with 5 min rest) were performed before, after, and 3 wk after IHT. Hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) was measured in IHT before and after 3, 6, 9, and 11 sessions. Baseline Yo-Yo IR2 was similar between groups. After 6 sessions, the change in Yo-Yo IR2 in IHT was very likely higher than CON (27% greater change, effect size 0.77, 90% confidence limits 0.20;1.33) and likely higher 1 d after IHT (23%, 0.68, 0.05;1.30). The IHT group's change remained likely higher than CON 30 d after IHT (24%, 0.72, 0.12;1.33) but was not meaningfully different 44 d after (12%, 0.36, -0.24;0.97). The change in 2-km TT performance between groups was not different throughout. For 1-km TT, CON improved more after IHT, but IHT maintained performance better after 3 wk. Hb(mass) was higher after IHT (2.7%, 0.40, -0.40;1.19). Short-duration IHT increased Yo-Yo IR2 compared with training-load-matched controls in 2 wk. An additional 2 wk of IHT provided no further benefit. These changes remained until at least 30 d posttraining. IHT also protected improvement in 1-km TT.
Effects of Sport-Specific Training during the Early Stages of Long-Term Athlete Development on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, Cognitive, and Academic Performances.
Granacher, Urs; Borde, Ron
their non-athletic peers. Athletes' training volume amounted to 620 min/week over the 1-year period while their peers performed 155 min/week. After the intervention, significant differences were found in 6 out of 7 physical fitness tests ( p < 0.05; d = 0.75-1.40) and in the physical education grades ( p < 0.01; d = 2.36) in favor of the elite sports class. No significant between-group differences were found after the intervention in measures of body composition ( p > 0.05; d = 0.66-0.67), cognition and academics ( p > 0.05; d = 0.40-0.64). Our findings revealed no significant between-group differences in growth rate (deltas of pre-post-changes in body height and leg length). Discussion: Our results revealed that a school-based 1-year sport-specific training in combination with physical education improved physical fitness but did not negatively affect cognitive and academic performances of youth athletes compared to their non-athletic peers. It is concluded that sport-specific training in combination with physical education promotes youth athletes' physical fitness development during LTAD and does not impede their cognitive and academic development.
Enhancing appearance and sports performance: are female collegiate athletes behaving more like males?
Muller, Susan M; Gorrow, Teena R; Schneider, Sidney R
The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about the average number of times each week they performed specific supplementing, exercise, or dietary behaviors. The authors found differences associated with gender for 9 of the 18 behaviors. Specifically, 2 of these 9 behaviors were dietary, 1 was supplementary, 3 were physique concerns, and 3 involved personal motivation for weightlifting. Male athletes reported a higher drive for size, speed, and power, whereas female athletes were more concerned with body fat, more likely to restrict caloric intake, and more prone to consume weight loss supplements. No differences were found by gender regarding supplement use to increase body size.
Body composition and physical performance during a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's soccer season.
Silvestre, Ricardo; Kraemer, William J; West, Chris; Judelson, Daniel A; Spiering, Barry A; Vingren, Jakob L; Hatfield, Disa L; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body composition (BC) and physical performance tests (PT) resulting from a competitive season in soccer. Twenty-five male collegiate players (age = 19.9 +/- 1.3 years; height = 177.6 +/- 6.4 cm; body mass = 77.6 +/- 8.6 kg, and percentage body fat = 12.8 +/- 5.2%) were tested before (PRE) and after (POST) the 2003-2004 National Collegiate Athletic Association season. The following tests were performed: BC (anthropometric and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements), vertical jump (VJ), 9.1-m (9 m) and 36.5-m (36 m) sprint, lower-body power (LP), total body power (TP), and cardiorespiratory endurance (VO(2)max). Training was divided into soccer-specific training: field warm-up drills, practices, games, and additional conditioning sessions. A daily, unplanned, nonlinear periodization model was used to assign session volume and intensity for strength sessions (total repetitions < or =96 and workload was > or =80% of 1 repetition maximum). For the entire team, body mass significantly increased by 1.5 +/- 0.4 kg from PRE to POST due to a significant increase in total lean tissue (0.9 +/- 0.2 kg). Regionally, lean tissue mass significantly increased in the legs (0.4 +/- 0.0 kg) and trunk (0.3 +/- 0.1 kg). Physical performance variables were very similar for the entire team at PRE and POST; VJ (cm) = 61.9 +/- 7.1 PRE vs. 63.3 +/- 8.0 POST, 9.1-m (s) = 1.7 +/- 0.1 PRE and POST, 36.5-m (s) = 5.0 +/- 0.2 PRE and POST, predicted VO(2)max (ml.kg.min(-1))= 59.8 +/- 3.3 PRE vs. 60.9 +/- 3.4 POST. The only significant improvements across the season were for TP (17.3%) and for LP (10.7%). In conclusion, soccer athletes who begin a season with a high level of fitness can maintain, and in some cases improve, body composition and physical performance from before to after a competitive season. A correct combination of soccer-specific practices and strength and conditioning programs can maintain and develop physical performance
Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 3: Decision making under mental performance pressure in junior elite athletes.
Parkin, Beth L; Walsh, Vincent
Having investigated the decision making of world class elite and subelite athletes (see Parkin and Walsh, 2017; Parkin et al., 2017), here the abilities of those at the earliest stage of entry to elite sport are examined. Junior elite athletes have undergone initial national selection and are younger than athletes examined previously (mean age 13 years). Decision making under mental pressure is explored in this sample. During performance an athlete encounters a wide array of mental pressures; these include the psychological impact of errors, negative feedback, and requirements for sustained attention in a dynamic environment (Anshel and Wells, 2000; Mellalieu et al., 2009). Such factors increase the cognitive demands of the athletes, inducing distracting anxiety-related thoughts known as rumination (Beilock and Gray, 2007). Mental pressure has been shown to reduce performance of decision-making tasks where reward and loss contingencies are explicit, with a shift toward increased risk taking (Pabst et al., 2013; Starcke et al., 2011). Mental pressure has been shown to be detrimental to decision-making speed in comparison to physical stress, highlighting the importance of considering a range of different pressures encountered by athletes (Hepler, 2015). To investigate the influence of mental pressure on key indicators of decision making in junior elite athletes. This chapter concludes a wider project examining decision making across developmental stages in elite sport. The work further explores how psychological insights can be applied in an elite sporting environment and in particular tailored to the requirements of junior athletes. Seventeen junior elite athletes (10 males, mean age: 13.80 years) enrolled on a national youth athletic development program participated in the study. Performance across three categories of decision making was assessed under conditions of low and high mental pressure. Decision making under risk was measured via the Cambridge Gambling
Evolutionary pattern of improved 1-mile running performance.
Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J; Thiel, Christian
The official world records (WR) for the 1-mile run for men (3:43.13) and for women (4:12.58) have improved 12.2% and 32.3%, respectively, since the first WR recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations. Previous observations have suggested that the pacing pattern for successive laps is characteristically faster-slower-slowest-faster. However, modeling studies have suggested that uneven energy-output distribution, particularly a high velocity at the end of the race, is essentially wasted kinetic energy that could have been used to finish sooner. Here the authors report that further analysis of the pacing pattern in 32 men's WR races is characterized by a progressive reduction in the within-lap variation of pace, suggesting that improving the WR in the 1-mile run is as much about how energetic resources are managed as about the capacity of the athletes performing the race. In the women's WR races, the pattern of lap times has changed little, probably secondary to a lack of depth in the women's fields. Contemporary WR performances have been achieved a coefficient of variation of lap times on the order of 1.5-3.0%. Reasonable projection suggests that the WR is overdue for improving and may require lap times with a coefficient of variation of ~1%.
Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in High School and College Athletes for Reducing Stress and Injury, and Improving Quality of Life.
Petterson, Haley; Olson, Bernadette L
Clinical Scenario: Student athletes experience a variety of stressors from school and social activities, as well as the additional demands of sport participation. Mindfulness-based interventions can help increase mental awareness and acceptance, as well as mitigate negative thoughts and emotions. The use of mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for reducing thoughts of stress, injury reduction, and improving overall wellbeing. Does the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes aged 13-24 years reduce stress and injury as well as improve overall quality of life? The literature was searched for studies that investigated the use of mindfulness-based strategies for student-athletes specifically for reducing stress and injury and/or improving quality of life. The literature search returned 8 possible studies related to the clinical question and 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 randomized control trial, 2 nonrandomized control cohort studies). All 3 included studies demonstrated overall improved levels of mindfulness among student-athletes after the use of a mindfulness-based intervention. Mindfulness-based interventions had positive effects for reducing negative thoughts and levels of perceived stress. The number of injury occurrences were found to decrease following the integration of a mindfulness-based intervention within an athletic population. Clinical Bottom Line: There is sufficient evidence supporting the use of mindfulness-based interventions with student-athletes for increasing mindfulness, managing negative emotions and perceived stress, as well as improving overall well-being. There is also current literature that advocates the use of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing injury, but further research is needed for support. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support that the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes will reduce stress and improve overall well-being as well as
Cumming, Gordon R.
Fitness testing of athletes can be subdivided into tests of body build, strength, aerobic power, and tests specific to the athletic event. World class athletes seem to fall into specific body types for the individual events. The top athlete usually has very little of the endomorphic characteristics and should be lean. Strength testing should be used more frequently as weight and isometric training techniques are used by many athletes and coaches without specific goals. The aerobic power of many national class athletes may be only 10-30 percent above that of the general population, and high values were found only in cyclists and distance runners. It is emphasized that the scores of fitness tests are specific for each test and do not necessarily correlate at all with athletic performance which is also specific. Despite this limitation, fitness tests do have a place in athletics and should be utilized more fully and with more understanding by coaches and athletes. Imagesp48-a PMID:20468546
Performance trade-offs and ageing in the 'world's greatest athletes'.
Careau, Vincent; Wilson, Robbie S
The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within -individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among -individual variation in 'quality'. Although there is a current debate on how to unambiguously define and account for quality, no previous studies have partitioned trait correlations at the within- and among-individual levels. Here, we evaluate performance trade-offs among and within 1369 elite athletes that performed in a total of 6418 combined-events competitions (decathlon and heptathlon). Controlling for age, experience and wind conditions, we detected strong trade-offs between groups of functionally similar events (throwing versus jumping versus running) occurring at the among-individual level. We further modelled individual (co)variation in age-related plasticity of performance and found previously unseen trade-offs in throwing versus running performance that manifest through ageing. Our results verify that human performance is limited by fundamental genetic, environmental and ageing constraints that preclude the simultaneous improvement of performance in multiple dimensions. Identifying these constraints is fundamental to understanding performance trade-offs and predicting the ageing of motor function. © 2017 The Author(s).
Assessing performance in pre-season wrestling athletes using biomarkers.
Papassotiriou, Ionas; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe
Although regular training introduces the desired changes in athletes' metabolism towards optimal final performance, literature is rarely focusing on the metabolic responses off-competition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical indices during typical preseason training in wrestling athletes. Twenty male freestyle and Greco-roman wrestlers (14 to 31 years) followed a typical session of the preparatory phase. Capillary blood glucose and lactate concentrations were assessed immediately before and after training. Protein, microalbumin, creatinine and their ratio were estimated the next day in the first morning urine. Pre-training lactate concentrations were lower in Greco-roman than in freestyle wrestlers (1.8 (1.4 - 2.1) vs. 2.9 (2.1 - 3.1) mmol/L). Exertion resulted in a significant increase in lactate concentrations, by 3.2 (2.6 - 4.1) mmol/L in Greco-roman wrestlers and 4.5 (3.4 - 5.3) mmol/L in freestylers. These changes were found to correlate with athlete's sport experience (r s = 0.71, P < 0.001). Glucose concentrations were also significantly increased by 0.5 (0.1 - 0.8) mmol/L, in correlation with lactate change (r s = 0.49, P = 0.003). Twelve subjects exhibited urine albumin concentrations at 30 mg/L, and thirteen creatinine concentrations around 17.7 mmol/L. The corresponding ratio was found abnormal in 4 cases, especially when creatinine excretion and body fat were low. Wrestling training is associated with mobilization of both lactic and alactic anaerobic energy systems. The regular comprehensive monitoring of biochemical markers would be advantageous in determining the efficiency of the preparatory phase and the long-term physiological adaptations towards the competition phase, or athlete's overtraining.
Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations.
Versey, Nathan G; Halson, Shona L; Dawson, Brian T
Water immersion is increasingly being used by elite athletes seeking to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. Accelerated short-term (hours to days) recovery may improve competition performance, allow greater training loads or enhance the effect of a given training load. However, the optimal water immersion protocols to assist short-term recovery of performance still remain unclear. This article will review the water immersion recovery protocols investigated in the literature, their effects on performance recovery, briefly outline the potential mechanisms involved and provide practical recommendations for their use by athletes. For the purposes of this review, water immersion has been divided into four techniques according to water temperature: cold water immersion (CWI; ≤20 °C), hot water immersion (HWI; ≥36 °C), contrast water therapy (CWT; alternating CWI and HWI) and thermoneutral water immersion (TWI; >20 to <36 °C). Numerous articles have reported that CWI can enhance recovery of performance in a variety of sports, with immersion in 10-15 °C water for 5-15 min duration appearing to be most effective at accelerating performance recovery. However, the optimal CWI duration may depend on the water temperature, and the time between CWI and the subsequent exercise bout appears to influence the effect on performance. The few studies examining the effect of post-exercise HWI on subsequent performance have reported conflicting findings; therefore the effect of HWI on performance recovery is unclear. CWT is most likely to enhance performance recovery when equal time is spent in hot and cold water, individual immersion durations are short (~1 min) and the total immersion duration is up to approximately 15 min. A dose-response relationship between CWT duration and recovery of exercise performance is unlikely to exist. Some articles that have reported CWT to not enhance performance recovery have had methodological issues, such as failing
Performance and reliability of the Y-Balance TestTM in high school athletes.
Smith, Laura J; Creps, James R; Bean, Ryan; Rodda, Becky; Alsalaheen, Bara
Lower extremity injuries account for 32.9% of the overall injuries in high school athletes. Previous research has suggested that asymmetry greater than 4cm using the Y-Balance TestTM Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) in the anterior direction is predictive of non- contact injuries in adults and collegiate athletes. The prevalence of asymmetries or abnormal YBT-LQ performance is not well documented for adolescents. The primary purposes of this study are: 1) to characterize the prevalence of YBT-LQ asymmetries and performance in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents, 2) to examine possible differences in performance on the YBT-LQ between male and female adolescents, and 3) to describe the test-retest reliability of the YBT-LQ in a subsample of adolescents. Observational cross-sectional study. High-school athletes completed the YBT-LQ as main outcome measure. 51 male, 59 female high-school athletes participated in this study. Asymmetries greater than 4cm in the posteromedial (PM) reach direction were most prevalent for male (54.9%) and female (50.8%) participants. Females presented with slightly higher composite scores. Good reliability (ICC = 0.89) was found for the anterior (ANT) direction, and moderate reliability with 0.76 for posterolateral (PL) and 0.63 for PM directions. The MDC95 for the ANT direction was 6% and 12% for both the PL and PM directions. The YBT-LQ performance can be beneficial in assessing recovery in an injured extremity compared to the other limb. However, due to the large MDC95, noted in the PM and PL directions, the differences between sequential testing cannot be attributed to true change in balance unless they exceed the MDC95. In this study, 79% of the athletes presented with at least one asymmetry in YBT-LQ reach distances. Moderate reliability in the PL and PM directions warrants reexamination of the definition of asymmetry in these directions.
The effect of l-arginine supplementation on body composition and performance in male athletes: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial.
Pahlavani, N; Entezari, M H; Nasiri, M; Miri, A; Rezaie, M; Bagheri-Bidakhavidi, M; Sadeghi, O
Athletes used a lot of dietary supplements to achieve the more muscle mass and improve their athletic performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of l-arginine supplementation on sport performance and body composition in male soccer players. This double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 56 male soccer players, with age range of 16-35, who referred to sport clubs in Isfahan, Iran. Subjects were randomly assigned to either l-arginine or placebo groups. Athletes received daily either 2 g per day l-arginine supplement or the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin) for 45 days. Sport performance and also body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM) and lean body mass (LBM) were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Also, 3-day dietary records were collected at three different time points (before, in the middle of, and at the end of the study). The mean age of subjects was 20.85±4.29 years. Sport performance (VO 2 max) significantly increased in l-arginine supplementation group (4.12±6.07) compared with placebo group (1.23±3.36) (P=0.03). This increase remained significant even after adjustment of baseline values, physical activity and usual dietary intake of subjects throughout the study. No significant effect of l-arginine supplementation was found on weight, BMI, BFM and LBM. l-arginine supplementation (2 g per day) could increase the sport performance in male athletes, but had no effect on anthropometric measurements, including BMI, BFM and LBM. So, further studies are needed to shed light our findings.
Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.
Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio
To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.
Japanese University Athletes' Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…
The Analysis of Athletic Performance: Some Practical and Philosophical Considerations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nelson, Lee J.; Groom, Ryan
This article presents a hypothetical dialogue between a notational analyst (NA) recently schooled in the positivistic assessment of athletic performance, an "old-school" traditional coach (TC) who favours subjective analysis, and a pragmatic educator (PE). The conversation opens with NA and TC debating the respective value of quantitative and…
Performance Comparison of Student-Athletes and General College Students on the Functional Movement Screen and the Y Balance Test.
Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan
Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.
Effects of Exercise on Sport Concussion Assessment Tool–Third Edition Performance in Professional Athletes
Lee, Jin H.; Howell, David R.; Meehan, William P.; Iverson, Grant L.; Gardner, Andrew J.
Background: The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool–Third Edition (SCAT3) is currently considered the standard sideline assessment for concussions. In-game exercise, however, may affect SCAT3 performance and the diagnosis of concussions. Purpose: To examine the influence of exercise on SCAT3 performance in professional male athletes. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: We examined the SCAT3 performance of 82 professional male athletes under 2 conditions: at rest and after exercise. Results: Athletes reported significantly fewer total symptoms (mean, 1.0 ± 1.5 vs 1.6 ± 2.3 total symptoms, respectively; P = .008; Cohen d = 0.34), committed significantly fewer errors on the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mean, 3.5 ± 3.5 vs 4.6 ± 4.1 errors, respectively; P = .017; d = 0.31), and required significantly less time to complete the tandem gait test (mean, 9.5 ± 1.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.7 seconds, respectively; P = .02; d = 0.30) during the at-rest condition compared with the postexercise condition. Conclusion: The interpretation of in-game (sideline) SCAT3 results should consider the effects of postexercise fatigue levels on an athlete’s performance, particularly if preseason baseline data have been collected when the athlete was well rested. Clinical Relevance: Exercise appears to affect symptom burden and physical abilities, such as balance and tandem gait, more so than the cognitive components of the SCAT3. PMID:28944251
Supplement consumption in body builder athletes
Karimian, Jahangir; Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh
BACKGROUND: Widespread use of supplements is observed among world athletes in different fields. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of using supplements among body builder athletes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 men and 250 women from 30 different bodybuilding clubs. Participants were asked to complete a self-administered standardized anonymous check-list. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the respondents declared supplement use. Men were more likely to take supplements than women (86.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.001). Reasons for using supplements were reported to be for health (45%), enhancing the immune system (40%) and improving athletic performance (25%). Most athletes (72%) had access to a nutritionist but underused this resource. Coaches (65%) had the greatest influence on supplementation practices followed by nutritionists (30%) and doctors (25%) after them. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of supplement use among bodybuilders was high. Sex, health-related issues and sport experts were determinant factors of supplement use. PMID:22973330
Longitudinal Study Evaluating Postural Balance of Young Athletes.
Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon
Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries. © The Author(s) 2016.
Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.
Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.
Exercise in the Heat. II. Critical Concepts in Rehydration, Exertional Heat Illnesses, and Maximizing Athletic Performance
Casa, Douglas J.
Objective: To acquaint athletic trainers with the numerous interrelated components that must be considered when assisting athletes who exercise in hot environments. Useful guidelines to maximize performance and minimize detrimental health consequences are presented. Data Sources: The databases MEDLINE and SPORT Discus were searched from 1980 to 1999, with the terms. “body cooling,” “dehydration,” “exercise,” “heat illnesses,” “heat,” “fluid replacement,” “acclimatization,” “hydration,” “rehydration,” “performance,” and “intravenous,” among others. Data Synthesis: This paper provides an in-depth look at issues regarding physiologic and performance considerations related to rehydration, strategies to maximize rehydration, modes of rehydration, health consequences of exercise in the heat, heat acclimatization, body cooling techniques, and practice and competition modifications. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers have a responsibility to ensure that athletes who exercise in hot environments are prepared to do so in an optimal manner and to act properly to avoid the potentially harmful heat illnesses that can result from exercise in the heat. PMID:16558573
Effects of Sport-Specific Training during the Early Stages of Long-Term Athlete Development on Physical Fitness, Body Composition, Cognitive, and Academic Performances
Granacher, Urs; Borde, Ron
to their non-athletic peers. Athletes' training volume amounted to 620 min/week over the 1-year period while their peers performed 155 min/week. After the intervention, significant differences were found in 6 out of 7 physical fitness tests (p < 0.05; d = 0.75–1.40) and in the physical education grades (p < 0.01; d = 2.36) in favor of the elite sports class. No significant between-group differences were found after the intervention in measures of body composition (p > 0.05; d = 0.66–0.67), cognition and academics (p > 0.05; d = 0.40–0.64). Our findings revealed no significant between-group differences in growth rate (deltas of pre-post-changes in body height and leg length). Discussion: Our results revealed that a school-based 1-year sport-specific training in combination with physical education improved physical fitness but did not negatively affect cognitive and academic performances of youth athletes compared to their non-athletic peers. It is concluded that sport-specific training in combination with physical education promotes youth athletes' physical fitness development during LTAD and does not impede their cognitive and academic development. PMID:29085304
It Depends on the Partner: Person-Related Sources of Efficacy Beliefs and Performance for Athlete Pairs.
Habeeb, Christine M; Eklund, Robert C; Coffee, Pete
This study explored person-related sources of variance in athletes' efficacy beliefs and performances when performing in pairs with distinguishable roles differing in partner dependence. College cheerleaders (n = 102) performed their role in repeated performance trials of two low- and two high-difficulty paired-stunt tasks with three different partners. Data were obtained on self-, other-, and collective efficacy beliefs and subjective performances, and objective performance assessments were obtained from digital recordings. Using the social relations model framework, total variance in each belief/assessment was partitioned, for each role, into numerical components of person-related variance relative to the self, the other, and the collective. Variance component by performance role by task-difficulty repeated-measures analysis of variances revealed that the largest person-related variance component differed by athlete role and increased in size in high-difficulty tasks. Results suggest that the extent the athlete's performance depends on a partner relates to the extent the partner is a source of self-, other-, and collective efficacy beliefs.
Athletic trainers' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes.
Ensign, Kristine A; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M; Ridpath, B David
Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Cross-sectional study. E-mailed survey. A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P < .01 for all comparisons). Age and total score were related (P < .01). A difference was seen in the ATLGB scores between ATs who were aware of LGB student-athletes on their teams and ATs who were not (P < .001). Many ATs hold positive attitudes toward LGB student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes.
Acute Effect of Countermovement Jumping on Throwing Performance in Track and Field Athletes During Competition.
Karampatsos, Giorgos P; Korfiatis, Panagiotis G; Zaras, Nikolaos D; Georgiadis, Giorgos V; Terzis, Gerasimos D
Karampatsos, GP, Korfiatis, PG, Zaras, ND, Georgiadis, GV, and Terzis, GD. Acute effect of countermovement jumping on throwing performance in track and field athletes during competition. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 359-364, 2017-The purpose of the study was to investigate whether performing 3 consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJs) just before an attempt enhances performance in track and field throwers during competition. Twelve shot putters, 8 hammer throwers, 9 discus throwers, and 3 javelin throwers of both sexes participated in the study. They performed 3 maximal CMJs 85 ± 12 seconds before the second, fourth, and sixth attempt during 3 different official competitions of national level. Maximal strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]) in squat and bench press was measured 1 week after the competition. Mean throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs intervention (2.66 ± 4.3%, range of increase 0.02-18.98%, p = 0.0001). Similarly, maximum throwing performance was significantly higher after the CMJs (2.76 ± 3.29%, range of increase 0.09-13.93%, p = 0.0009). All but 2 athletes increased their best performance after the CMJs. The percentage increase in performance was similar between sexes (male athletes 2.56 ± 3.01%; female athletes 3.06 ± 3.76%, p = 0.677), but it was higher for the "lighter throws" (discus and javelin throw: 4.66 ± 4.11%) compared with the "heavier throws" (shot and hammer throw: 1.62 ± 2.04%, p = 0.008). The percentage increase in performance was not significantly correlated with 1RM squat or bench press, anthropometric characteristics, and personal best performance. These results suggest that performing 3 CMJs approximately 1 minute before an attempt may increase track and field throwing performance during competition.
Increasing Performance of Professional Soccer Players and Elite Track and Field Athletes with Peak Performance Training and Biofeedback: A Pilot Study.
Rijken, Noortje H; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G J
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B). Measurements were performed at baseline, post intervention and at 5 weeks follow-up. Objective measures: EEG and ECG. Subjective measures: Numeric Rating Scale for performance, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rest and Stress Questionnaire and Sports Improvement-60. Group characteristics were too distinct to compare the interventions. Linear mixed models were used to analyze differences within groups over time. In Group A, significant changes over time were present in alpha power at 5 of 7 EEG locations (p < 0.01-0.03). LF/HF ratio significantly increased (p = 0.02) and the concentration (p = 0.02) and emotional scale (p = 0.03) of the SIM-60 increased significantly (p = 0.04). In Group B, the HRV low frequency power and recovery scale of the REST-Q significantly increased (p = 0.02 and <0.01 resp.). Other measures remained stable or improved non-significantly. A mental coaching program combined with either HRV or EEG alpha power feedback may increase HRV and alpha power and may lead to better performance-related outcomes and stress reduction. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of either type of feedback and to compare effects with a control group.
Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates.
Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G; Bush, Heather M; Thomas, Staci M; Foss, Kim D Barber; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E
Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates. To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season. The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program. Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball). The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of 88.4% of athletes completed 2/3 of the intervention sessions
Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates
Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G.; Bush, Heather M.; Thomas, Staci M.; Foss, Kim D. Barber; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Context: Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates. Objective: To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports. Design: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Setting: Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season. Intervention(s): The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball). Results: The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of
Body composition and power performance improved after weight reduction in male athletes without hampering hormonal balance.
Huovinen, Heikki T; Hulmi, Juha J; Isolehto, Juha; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Puurtinen, Risto; Karila, Tuomo; Mackala, Krzysztof; Mero, Antti A
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week weight reduction period with high protein and reduced carbohydrate intake on body composition, explosive power, speed, serum hormones, and acid-base balance in male track and field jumpers and sprinters. Eight participants were assigned to a high weight reduction group (HWR; energy restriction 750 kcal·d) and 7 to a low weight reduction group (LWR; energy restriction 300 kcal·d). Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR by 740 ± 330 kcal·d and 130 ± 29 g·d, respectively. Furthermore, total body mass and fat mass decreased (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR by 2.2 ± 1.0 kg and 1.7 ± 1.6 kg, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM), serum testosterone, cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin did not change significantly. Ca ion and pH decreased (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR (3.1 ± 2.8% and 0.8 ± 0.8%, respectively), whereas (Equation is included in full-text article.)declined (p ≤ 0.05) in both groups by 19.3 ± 6.2% in HWR and by 13.1 ± 8.5% in LWR. The countermovement jump and 20-m sprint time improved consistently (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR, by 2.6 ± 2.5 cm and 0.04 ± 0.04 seconds, respectively. Finally, athletes with a fat percentage of 10% or more at the baseline were able to preserve FFM. In conclusion, altered acid-base balance but improved weight-bearing power performance was observed without negative consequences on serum hormones and FFM after a 4-week weight reduction of 0.5 kg·wk achieved by reduced carbohydrate but maintained high protein intake.
The use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications by United States college students to enhance athletic performance.
Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J
While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.
Effect of Plyometric Training on Vertical Jump Performance in Female Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Stojanović, Emilija; Ristić, Vladimir; McMaster, Daniel Travis; Milanović, Zoran
effects were observed in drop jump (DJ) height performance (ES = 3.59; 95 % CI -3.04 to 10.23). Most likely extremely large plyometric training effects on DJ height performance (ES = 7.07; 95 % CI 4.71-9.43) were observed following 12 weeks of plyometric training. In contrast, a possibly small positive training effect (ES = 0.30; 95 % CI -0.63 to 1.23) was observed following 6 weeks of plyometric training. Plyometric training is an effective form of training to improve VJ performance (e.g. CMJ, SJ and DJ) in female athletes. The benefits of plyometric training on VJ performance are greater for interventions of longer duration (≥10 weeks).
Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes
Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.
Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893
PPAR-α and PPARGC1A gene variants have strong effects on aerobic performance of Turkish elite endurance athletes.
Tural, Ercan; Kara, Nurten; Agaoglu, Seydi Ahmet; Elbistan, Mehmet; Tasmektepligil, Mehmet Yalcin; Imamoglu, Osman
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A gene Gly482Ser polymorphisms on aerobic performance of elite level endurance athletes. This study was carried out on 170 individuals (60 elite level endurance athletes and 110 sedentary controls). Aerobic performance of athletes and sedentary control groups were defined by maximal oxygen uptake capacity. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using GeneJet Genomic DNA Purification kit. Genotyping of the PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP methods, and statistical evaluations were carried out using SPSS 15.0. Mean age of athletes were 21.38 ± 2.83 (18-29) and control mean age were 25.92 ± 4.88 (18-35). Mean maximal oxygen consumption of athletes were 42.14 ± 7.6 ml/(kg min) and controls were 34.33 ± 5.43 ml/(kg min). We found statistically significant differences between the athlete and control groups with respect to both PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotype distributions (p = 0.006, <0.001, respectively) and allele frequencies (<0.001, <0.001, respectively). Additionally, when we examined PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotype distributions according to the aerobic performance test parameters, we found a statistically significant association between velocity, time and maximal oxygen consumption and PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genotypes (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study in Turkey examined PPAR-α intron 7G>C and PPARGC1A Gly482Ser gene polymorphisms in elite level endurance athletes. Our results suggest that PPAR-α and PPARGC1A genes have strong effect on aerobic performance of elit level athletes.
Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mandali, Swarna L.
Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…
Electrocardiographic Findings in National Basketball Association Athletes.
Waase, Marc P; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Whang, William; DiTullio, Marco R; DiFiori, John P; Callahan, Lisa; Mancell, Jimmie; Phelan, Dermot; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi; Engel, David J
While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population. The NBA has partnered with Columbia University Medical Center to annually perform a review of policy-mandated annual preseason ECGs and stress echocardiograms for all players and predraft participants. This observational study includes the preseason ECG examinations of NBA athletes who participated in the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons, plus all participants in the 2014 and 2015 NBA predraft combines. Examinations were performed from July 2013 to May 2015. Data analysis was performed between December 2015 and March 2017. Active roster or draft status in the NBA and routine preseason ECGs and echocardiograms. Baseline quantitative ECG variables were measured and ECG data qualitatively analyzed using 3 existing, athlete-specific interpretation criteria: Seattle (2012), refined (2014), and international (2017). Abnormal ECG findings were compared with matched echocardiographic data. Of 519 male athletes, 409 (78.8%) were African American, 96 (18.5%) were white, and the remaining 14 (2.7%) were of other races/ethnicities; 115 were predraft combine participants, and the remaining 404 were on active rosters of NBA teams. The mean (SD) age was 24.8 (4.3) years. Physiologic, training-related changes were present in 462 (89.0%) athletes in the study. Under Seattle criteria, 131 (25.2%) had abnormal findings, compared with 108 (20.8%) and 81 (15.6%) under refined and international criteria, respectively
Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Athletic Medicine
Kyle, James M.; Ellis, James M.; Cantwell, John; Courson, Ron; Medlin, Ron
Objective: To emphasize the importance of decreasing the response time by a trained target responder to increase the survival rate among athletes experiencing sudden cardiac arrest at an athletic event. Background: Death due to sudden cardiac arrest that is witnessed is preventable in many cases. However, most people who experience this condition die because of a prolonged response time from onset of the fatal arrhythmia to defibrillation by trained treatment providers. If athletic trainers or other members of the athletic care medical team are trained as target responders and equipped with automated electronic defibrillators, they can immediately treat an athlete who experiences a sudden, life-threatening tachyarrhythmia. This prompt response to the life-threatening emergency should result in a higher survival rate. Description: We review the causes of sudden cardiac arrest during athletic events, note some unusual clinical presentations, discuss improved methods of response and new equipment for treatment, and define the athletic trainer's role as a target responder trained to treat people experiencing sudden cardiac arrest at an athletic event. Clinical Advantages: An athletic care team willing to become part of an emergency response team can help improve the survival rate of athletes experiencing sudden cardiac arrest at an athletic event. PMID:12937464
Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666
Impact of Demographic Variables on African-American Student Athletes' Academic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reynolds, Lacey; Fisher, Dwalah; Cavil, J. Kenyatta
Since the passage of Proposition 48 (NCAA, 1984), African-American student-athletes entering National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) major colleges and universities have meet new challenges in their future as student-athletes. This major change altered the landscape of the future of college athletics particularly for students of color.…
Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.
Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U
Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P < 0.05, d = 0.86), 10-20-m sprint time (3%, P < 0.05, d = 2.56), and kicking performance (1%, P < 0.01, d = 1.28). No significant Group × test interactions were observed for any variable. In conclusion, trunk muscle strength, sprint, and kicking performance improved following CSTU and CSTS when conducted in combination with regular soccer training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Management of Asthma in Athletes
Miller, Michael G; Weiler, John M; Baker, Robert; Collins, James; D'Alonzo, Gilbert
Objective: To present guidelines for the recognition, prophylaxis, and management of asthma that lead to improvement in the quality of care certified athletic trainers and other heath care providers can offer to athletes with asthma, especially exercise-induced asthma. Background: Many athletes have difficulty breathing during or after athletic events and practices. Although a wide variety of conditions can predispose an athlete to breathing difficulties, the most common cause is undiagnosed or uncontrolled asthma. At least 15% to 25% of athletes may have signs and symptoms suggestive of asthma, including exercise-induced asthma. Athletic trainers are in a unique position to recognize breathing difficulties caused by undiagnosed or uncontrolled asthma, particularly when asthma follows exercise. Once the diagnosis of asthma is made, the athletic trainer should play a pivotal role in supervising therapies to prevent and control asthma symptoms. It is also important for the athletic trainer to recognize when asthma is not the underlying cause for respiratory difficulties, so that the athlete can be evaluated and treated properly. Recommendations: The recommendations contained in this position statement describe a structured approach for the diagnosis and management of asthma in an exercising population. Athletic trainers should be educated to recognize asthma symptoms in order to identify patients who might benefit from better management and should understand the management of asthma, especially exercise-induced asthma, to participate as active members of the asthma care team. PMID:16284647
Sleep and circadian rhythms in children and adolescents: relevance for athletic performance of young people.
Carskadon, Mary A
The amount and timing of sleep play significant roles in forming a solid foundation for competitive performance in young athletes. As children mature into and through adolescence, their need for sleep does not decline substantially, although the opportunity to sleep is limited by lifestyle choices, academic and practice schedules, and compelling changes in the biological processes. The biological changes include a more "permissive" pace for the accumulation of sleep pressure across the day in older adolescents and a longer day length in the more mature. These factors all favor later bedtimes and rising times as children pass into adolescence, and a concomitant delay in the optimal timing for waking activities. Among the important threats to athletic performance are insufficient sleep during training and competition and poor appreciation for the best time of day for competitive activities. The specific consequences of these issues for individual athletes are not clear, though when considering young people as a group, support for adequate sleep is a rational intervention to maximize performance.
Optimizing performance by improving core stability and core strength.
Hibbs, Angela E; Thompson, Kevin G; French, Duncan; Wrigley, Allan; Spears, Iain
Core stability and core strength have been subject to research since the early 1980s. Research has highlighted benefits of training these processes for people with back pain and for carrying out everyday activities. However, less research has been performed on the benefits of core training for elite athletes and how this training should be carried out to optimize sporting performance. Many elite athletes undertake core stability and core strength training as part of their training programme, despite contradictory findings and conclusions as to their efficacy. This is mainly due to the lack of a gold standard method for measuring core stability and strength when performing everyday tasks and sporting movements. A further confounding factor is that because of the differing demands on the core musculature during everyday activities (low load, slow movements) and sporting activities (high load, resisted, dynamic movements), research performed in the rehabilitation sector cannot be applied to the sporting environment and, subsequently, data regarding core training programmes and their effectiveness on sporting performance are lacking. There are many articles in the literature that promote core training programmes and exercises for performance enhancement without providing a strong scientific rationale of their effectiveness, especially in the sporting sector. In the rehabilitation sector, improvements in lower back injuries have been reported by improving core stability. Few studies have observed any performance enhancement in sporting activities despite observing improvements in core stability and core strength following a core training programme. A clearer understanding of the roles that specific muscles have during core stability and core strength exercises would enable more functional training programmes to be implemented, which may result in a more effective transfer of these skills to actual sporting activities.
Clinical Supervision of Athletic Training Students at Colleges and Universities Needs Improvement
Weidner, Thomas G.; Pipkin, Jennifer
Objectives: To assess the type and amount of clinical supervision athletic training students received during clinical education. Design and Setting: An online survey was conducted with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. Subjects: Head athletic trainers from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I (28), Division II (34), and Division III institutions (30). Thirty-four represented Commission on the Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs, 20 represented athletic training programs in Joint Review Commission on Athletic Training candidacy, and 35 offered the internship route. Measurements: Descriptive statistics were computed. Three sets of chi-square analyses were completed to assess associations among athletic training students with first-responder qualifications, program and institution characteristics, certified athletic trainer medical coverage of moderate- and increased-risk sports, and clinical supervision. A trend analysis of students' class standing and time spent in different types of clinical supervision was also completed. The alpha level was set at < .05. Results: Most of the athletic training students (83.7%), particularly in accredited programs, had first-responder qualifications. More than half of the head athletic trainers (59.8%) indicated that athletic training students were authorized to provide medical care coverage without supervision. A minimal amount of medical care coverage of moderate- and increased-risk sports was unsupervised. No significant difference between the size of the education or athletic program and type and amount of clinical supervision was noted. Freshman athletic training students spent more time in direct clinical supervision and less time in unsupervised experience, but the opposite was true for senior students. Conclusions: Athletic training students are being utilized beyond appropriate clinical supervision and the scope of clinical
[ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].
Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair
Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.
An Investigation of Scholar-Baller and Non Scholar-Baller Division I Football Student-Athletes' Academic, Athletic, Intrinsic Motivation and Athletic Identity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rasmussen, Janet M.
As less than 3% of student-athletes go on to play sport professionally, it is important that they are prepared for careers outside of athletics (Susanj & Stewart, 2005). Many football student-athletes have low grade point averages and graduation rates. Universities incorporate academic motivational programs to help combat low academic performance.…
The effects of growth hormone on body composition and physical performance in recreational athletes: a randomized trial.
Meinhardt, Udo; Nelson, Anne E; Hansen, Jennifer L; Birzniece, Vita; Clifford, David; Leung, Kin-Chuen; Graham, Kenneth; Ho, Ken K Y
Growth hormone is widely abused by athletes, frequently with androgenic steroids. Its effects on performance are unclear. To determine the effect of growth hormone alone or with testosterone on body composition and measures of performance. Randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study of 8 weeks of treatment followed by a 6-week washout period. Randomization was computer-generated with concealed allocation. (Australian-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry registration number: ACTRN012605000508673) Clinical research facility in Sydney, Australia. 96 recreationally trained athletes (63 men and 33 women) with a mean age of 27.9 years (SD, 5.7). Men were randomly assigned to receive placebo, growth hormone (2 mg/d subcutaneously), testosterone (250 mg/wk intramuscularly), or combined treatments. Women were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or growth hormone (2 mg/d). Body composition variables (fat mass, lean body mass, extracellular water mass, and body cell mass) and physical performance variables (endurance [maximum oxygen consumption], strength [dead lift], power [jump height], and sprint capacity [Wingate value]). Body cell mass was correlated with all measures of performance at baseline. Growth hormone significantly reduced fat mass, increased lean body mass through an increase in extracellular water, and increased body cell mass in men when coadministered with testosterone. Growth hormone significantly increased sprint capacity, by 0.71 kJ (95% CI, 0.1 to 1.3 kJ; relative increase, 3.9% [CI, 0.0% to 7.7%]) in men and women combined and by 1.7 kJ (CI, 0.5 to 3.0 kJ; relative increase, 8.3% [CI, 3.0% to 13.6%]) when coadministered with testosterone to men; other performance measures did not significantly change. The increase in sprint capacity was not maintained 6 weeks after discontinuation of the drug. Growth hormone dosage may have been lower than that used covertly by competitive athletes. The athletic significance of the observed improvements in
The effects of tapering on strength performance in trained athletes.
Gibala, M J; MacDougall, J D; Sale, D G
The optimum pre-competition taper procedure for "strength athletes" is not known. We examined voluntary strength and evoked contractile properties of the elbow flexors over a 10 day rest only (ROT) and a 10 day reduced volume taper (RVT) in 8 resistance trained males (23 +/- 2.1 years). Following 3 wks of standardized training of the elbow flexors, subjects were randomly assigned to one of the tapers. Upon completion, they resumed training for 3 wks and completed the other taper. No arm training was performed during the ROT, while high intensity, low volume training was done every second day during the RVT. Maximum isometric (MVC), low (0.52 rad.s-1; LV) and high velocity (3.14 rad.s-1; HV) concentric peak torque, and evoked isometric twitch contractile properties were measured before and after each training phase and every 48 h during each taper. ANOVA comparison of the tapers revealed that MVC increased (p < or = 0.05) over pre-taper values throughout the RVT (measurement days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10), as did LV at 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. MVC did not change over the ROT but LV was significantly higher on day 2 and lower on days 8 and 10. LV was also greater on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 during the RVT compared to the ROT. The evoked contractile properties remained largely unchanged. The data indicate that resistance-trained athletes can improve low velocity concentric strength for at least 8 days by greatly reducing training volume, but maintaining training intensity.
Effects of carbohydrate combined with caffeine on repeated sprint cycling and agility performance in female athletes
Background Caffeine (CAF) has been shown to improve performance during early phase of repeated sprint exercise; however some studies show that CAF also increases the magnitude of physical stress represented by augmented blood lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations during latter phase of repeated sprint exercise. No studies have investigated the efficacy of combined carbohydrate (CHO) and CAF consumption during repeated sprint exercise (RSE) in female athletes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CAF with CHO supplementation on RSE and agility. Methods Eleven female athletes completed four experimental trials performed 7 d apart in a double-blind, randomized, and counter-balanced crossover design. Treatments included CAF + PLA (placebo), CAF + CHO, PLA + CHO, and PLA + PLA. Participants ingested capsules containing 6 mg · kg−1 of CAF or PLA 60-min prior to RSE, and 0.8 g · kg−1 of CHO solution or PLA immediately before the RSE, which consisted of ten sets of 5 × 4-s sprints on the cycle ergometer with 20-s active recovery. The agility T-test (AT-test) was performed before and after the RSE. Blood samples were acquired to assess glucose, lactate, testosterone, and cortisol. Results During Set 6 of RSE, peak power and mean power were significantly higher in PLA + CHO than those in CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA, respectively (p < .05). Total work was significantly increased by 4.8% and 5.9% with PLA + CHO than those of CAF + CHO and CAF + PLA during Set 3. PLA + CHO also increased total work more than CAF + PLA and PLA + PLA did during Set 6 (p < .05). No significant differences in AT-test performance either before or after the RSE were occurred among treatments (p > .05). Blood lactate and glucose concentrations were significantly higher under CAF + CHO, CAF + PLA, and PLA + CHO versus PLA + PLA (p < .05), but no differences in
Resnik, S S; Lewis, L A; Cohen, B H
In general, painful feet can affect the performance of an athlete in any sport. To prevent skin diseases of the feet, the "Athlete's Foot" should be kept clean and dry with toenails trimmed. Properly fitting athletic shoes should be worn to avoid the formation of blisters. Wearing of sandals in locker and shower rooms, which prevents intimate contact with infecting organisms, can alleviate many of the problems that affect the feet.
Supervision and computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes: an initial investigation.
Kuhn, Andrew Warren; Solomon, Gary S
Computerized neuropsychological testing batteries have provided a time-efficient and cost-efficient way to assess and manage the neurocognitive aspects of patients with sport-related concussion. These tests are straightforward and mostly self-guided, reducing the degree of clinician involvement required by traditional clinical neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. To determine if self-reported supervision status affected computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes. Retrospective cohort study. Supervised testing took place in high school computer libraries or sports medicine clinics. Unsupervised testing took place at the participant's home or another location with computer access. From 2007 to 2012, high school athletes across middle Tennessee (n = 3771) completed computerized neurocognitive baseline testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]). They reported taking the test either supervised by a sports medicine professional or unsupervised. These athletes (n = 2140) were subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria and then matched based on age, sex, and number of prior concussions. We extracted demographic and performance-based data from each de-identified baseline testing record. Paired t tests were performed between the self-reported supervised and unsupervised groups, comparing the following ImPACT baseline composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor (processing) speed, reaction time, impulse control, and total symptom score. For differences that reached P < .05, the Cohen d was calculated to measure the effect size. Lastly, a χ(2) analysis was conducted to compare the rate of invalid baseline testing between the groups. All statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval level. Self-reported supervised athletes demonstrated better visual motor (processing) speed (P = .004; 95% confidence interval [0.28, 1.52]; d = 0.12) and faster reaction time (P
Declining performance of master athletes: silhouettes of the trajectory of healthy human ageing?
Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R
Analysis of world record performances by master athletes suggests an essentially linear decline with age until around the eighth decade after which performance decline accelerates. Because these records are obtained from highly trained individuals they can be viewed as being reflective of the diminution of integrative physiological prowess that occurs solely as a result of ageing, unaffected by the confounding effects of inactivity. It can also be argued that these performance profiles mirror and provide an insight into the trajectory of the physiology of the human ageing process. Here we propose a set point theory that hypothesises that a given threshold of physical activity is needed to age optimally and to maximise the 'healthspan'. Exercising at levels below the set point will result in ageing being contaminated by the unpredictable and pathological effects of inactivity. Exercise above this threshold stimulates adaptations towards maximising athletic performance, but is unlikely to have further beneficial effects on health. Thus the decades-long, controlled diminution in athletic performance, should not be seen as a disease process. The ageing process is separate from, and independent of, exercise-mediated processes that maintain or adapt physiological function. Whether an understanding of these mechanisms will also help uncover mechanisms underpinning the ageing process itself is open to question. However, any model which does not take into account the effects of activity will not adequately describe the inherent ageing process. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.
Sex differences in athletic performance emerge coinciding with the onset of male puberty.
Handelsman, David J
Male performance in athletic events begins to exceed that of age-matched females during early adolescence, but the timing of this divergence relative to the onset of male puberty and the rise in circulating testosterone remains poorly defined. This study is a secondary quantitative analysis of four published sources which aimed to define the timing of the gender divergence in athletic performance and relating it to the rise in circulating testosterone due to male puberty. Four data sources reflecting elite swimming and running and jumping track and field events as well as hand-grip strength in nonathletes were analysed to define the age-specific gender differences through adolescence and their relationship to the rising circulating testosterone during male puberty. The onset and tempo of gender divergence were very similar for swimming, running and jumping events as well as the hand-grip strength in nonathletes, and all closely paralleled the rise in circulating testosterone in adolescent boys. The gender divergence in athletic performance begins at the age of 12-13 years and reaches adult plateau in the late teenage years with the timing and tempo closely parallel to the rise in circulating testosterone in boys during puberty. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting.
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.
No Effect of Muscle Stretching within a Full, Dynamic Warm-up on Athletic Performance.
Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas D; Kvorning, Thue; Kay, Anthony D; Goh, Alvin G; Hilton, Bradley; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G
This study aimed to examine the effects of static and dynamic stretching routines performed as part of a comprehensive warm-up on flexibility and sprint running, jumping, and change of direction tests in team sport athletes. A randomized, controlled, crossover study design with experimenter blinding was conducted. On separate days, 20 male team sport athletes completed a comprehensive warm-up routine. After a low-intensity warm-up, a 5-s static stretch (5S), a 30-s static stretch (30S; 3 × 10-s stretches), a 5-repetition (per muscle group) dynamic stretch (DYN), or a no-stretch (NS) protocol was completed; stretches were done on seven lower body and two upper body regions. This was followed by test-specific practice progressing to maximum intensity. A comprehensive test battery assessing intervention effect expectations as well as flexibility, vertical jump, sprint running, and change of direction outcomes was then completed in a random order. There were no effects of stretch condition on test performances. Before the study, 18/20 participants nominated DYN as the most likely to improve performance and 15/20 nominated NS as least likely. Immediately before testing, NS was rated less "effective" (4.0 ± 2.2 on a 10-point scale) than 5S, 30S, and DYN (5.3-6.4). Nonetheless, these ratings were not related to test performances. Participants felt they were more likely to perform well when stretching was performed as part of the warm-up, irrespective of stretch type. However, no effect of muscle stretching was observed on flexibility and physical function compared with no stretching. On the basis of the current evidence, the inclusion of short durations of either static or dynamic stretching is unlikely to affect sprint running, jumping, or change of direction performance when performed as part of a comprehensive physical preparation routine.
The impact of patellar tendinopathy on sports and work performance in active athletes.
De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males; age 28.1 ± 8.2 years; Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment Patella 56.4 ± 12.3) participated in this survey. Sports performance, work ability and work productivity were assessed using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center overuse injury questionnaire, the single-item Work Ability Index and the Quantity and Quality questionnaire, respectively. Reduced sports performance was reported by 55% of the participants; 16% reported reduced work ability and 36% decreased work productivity, with 23% and 58%, respectively, for physically demanding work. This study shows that the impact of PT on sports and work performance is substantial and stresses the importance of developing preventive measures.
Gunslingers, poker players, and chickens 2: Decision-making under physical performance pressure in subelite athletes.
Parkin, Beth L; Walsh, Vincent
Having investigated the influence of acute physical exhaustion on decision-making in world-class elite athletes in Parkin et al. (2017), here a similar method is applied to subelite athletes. These subelite athletes were enrolled on a Team GB talent development program and were undergoing training for possible Olympic competition in 4-8 years. They differ from elite athletes examined previously according to expertise and age. While considered elite (Swann et al., 2015), the subelite athletes had approximately 8 years fewer sporting experience and were yet to obtain sustained success on the international stage. Additionally, the average age of the subelite sample is 20 years; thus, they are still undergoing the behavioral, cognitive, and neuronal changes that occur during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood (Blakemore and Robbins, 2012). Previous work has used broad definitions of elite status in sport, and as such overlooked different categories within the spectrum of elite athletes (Swann et al., 2015). Therefore it is important to consider subelite athletes as a discrete point on the developmental trajectory of elite sporting expertise. This work aims to investigate the influence of physical pressure on key indicators of decision-making in subelite athletes. It forms part of a wider project examining decision-making across different stages of the developmental trajectory in elite sport. In doing so, it aims to examine how to apply and develop psychological insights useful to an elite sporting environment. 32 subelite athletes (18 males, mean age: 20 years) participated in the study. Performance across three categories of decision-making was assessed under conditions of low and high physical pressure. Decision-making under risk was measured with performance of the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT; Rogers et al., 1999), decision-making under uncertainty with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART; Lejuez et al., 2002), and fast reactive responses and
Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.
Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L
The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs. To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States. A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study. Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry. The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P < .001). A Cohen d value of 0.97 indicated a large effect of sex on SLHOP performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful. We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional
An Examination of the Relationship between Collegiate Student-Athlete's Leadership Role in the Athletic Setting and Their Academic Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baumgarten, Darla K.
Academic performance of collegiate student-athletes compared to non-athletes has been studied extensively. Results of these studies have been mixed in their findings of student-athletes academic performance in comparison to the nonstudent-athlete population. These conflicting results may be due to differences in level of competition or demographic…
Dietary supplement usage, motivation, and education in young, Canadian athletes.
Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Stadnyk, Megan; Parnell, Jill A
To evaluate dietary supplement use in young Canadian athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, and their sources of information. A questionnaire tested for content validity and reliability was administered to 567 athletes between the ages of 11 and 25 years from the Canadian athletic community in face-to-face meetings. Demographics and sport variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine dietary supplementation patterns and sources of information regarding dietary supplement use between categories of gender, age, sport type, and competition level. Ninety-eight percent of athletes were taking at least one dietary supplement. Males were more likely to consume protein powder, energy drinks, recovery drinks, branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, and glutamine (p < .01); supplements typically associated with increased muscle mass. Athletes 11-17 years old focused on vitamin and mineral supplements; whereas, athletes 18-25 years old focused on purported ergogenic supplements. Strength training athletes were more likely to consume creatine, glutamine, and protein powders (p < .02). Reasons for supplement use included to stay healthy, increase energy, immune system, recovery, and overall performance. Primary sources of information were family and friends, coaches, and athletic trainers; with 48% of athletes having met with a dietitian. Preferred means of education included individual consultations, presentations, and the internet. The majority of young athletes are using dietary supplements with the belief they will improve performance and health; however, may not always have reliable information. Educational programs using individual consultations and electronic media are recommended for this demographic.
Landing Technique and Performance in Youth Athletes After a Single Injury-Prevention Program Session
Root, Hayley; Trojian, Thomas; Martinez, Jessica; Kraemer, William; DiStefano, Lindsay J.
Context Injury-prevention programs (IPPs) performed as season-long warm-ups improve injury rates, performance outcomes, and jump-landing technique. However, concerns regarding program adoption exist. Identifying the acute benefits of using an IPP compared with other warm-ups may encourage IPP adoption. Objective To examine the immediate effects of 3 warm-up protocols (IPP, static warm-up [SWU], or dynamic warm-up [DWU]) on jump-landing technique and performance measures in youth athletes. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Gymnasiums. Patients or Other Participants Sixty male and 29 female athletes (age = 13 ± 2 years, height = 162.8 ± 12.6 cm, mass = 37.1 ± 13.5 kg) volunteered to participate in a single session. Intervention(s) Participants were stratified by age, sex, and sport and then were randomized into 1 protocol: IPP, SWU, or DWU. The IPP consisted of dynamic flexibility, strengthening, plyometric, and balance exercises and emphasized proper technique. The SWU consisted of jogging and lower extremity static stretching. The DWU consisted of dynamic lower extremity flexibility exercises. Participants were assessed for landing technique and performance measures immediately before (PRE) and after (POST) completing their warm-ups. Main Outcome Measure(s) One rater graded each jump-landing trial using the Landing Error Scoring System. Participants performed a vertical jump, long jump, shuttle run, and jump-landing task in randomized order. The averages of all jump-landing trials and performance variables were used to calculate 1 composite score for each variable at PRE and POST. Change scores were calculated (POST − PRE) for all measures. Separate 1-way (group) analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable (α < .05). Results No differences were observed among groups for any performance measures (P > .05). The Landing Error Scoring System scores improved after the IPP (change = −0.40 ± 1.24 errors) compared with the
Does the Level of Cervical Disc Herniation Surgery Affect Performance-based Outcomes in National Football League Athletes?
Mai, Harry T; Burgmeier, Robert J; Mitchell, Sean M; Hecht, Andrew C; Maroon, Joseph C; Nuber, Gordon W; Hsu, Wellington K
Retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of a cervical disc herniation (CDH) procedure will uniquely impact performance-based outcomes in elite athletes of the National Football League (NFL). Comparative assessments of postsurgical outcomes in NFL athletes with CDH at different levels are unknown. Further, the surgical decision-making for these types of injuries in professional football athletes remains controversial. NFL players with a CDH injury at a definitive cervical level were identified through a review of publicly available archives. Injuries were divided into upper- (C2-C4) and lower-level (C4-T1) CDH. The impact on player outcomes was determined by comparing return to play statistics and calculating a "Performance Score" for each player on the basis of pertinent statistical data, both before and after surgery. A total of 40 NFL athletes met inclusion criteria. In the upper-level group, 10 of 15 (66.6%) players successfully returned to play an average of 44.6 games over 2.6 years. The lower-level cohort had 18 of 25 (72%) players return to play with an average of 44.1 games over 3.1 years. There was no significant difference in the rate of return to play (P = 0.71). Postsurgical performance scores of the upper and lower-level groups were 1.47 vs. 0.69 respectively, with no significant difference between these groups (P = 0.06). Adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation occurred in 10% of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion patients. In 50% of foraminotomy patients, a subsequent fusion was required. A uniquely high percentage of upper-level disc herniations develop in NFL athletes, and although CDH injuries present career threatening implications, an upper-level CDH does not preclude a player from successfully returning to play at a competitive level. In fact, these athletes showed comparable postsurgical performance to those athletes who underwent CDH procedures at lower cervical levels. 4.
Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Varies by Sport in Healthy Division I Collegiate Athletes.
Stiffler, Mikel R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Brooks, M Alison; Heiderscheit, Bryan C
Cross-sectional. To describe performance and asymmetry on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) by sex and sport, and to determine if differences exist within a collegiate athlete population. Performance on the SEBT may differ between sexes and levels of competition, though the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Investigation of performance and asymmetry differences between sports is limited. Sex- and sport-specific reference values likely need to be determined to best assess SEBT performance. Performance on the SEBT was retrospectively reviewed in 393 healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from 8 sports. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all variables. Normalized reach distance (percent limb length) and asymmetry between limbs were compared for the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions and for the composite (COMP) score using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of sex by sport, and a 1-way ANOVA to separately compare sports within each sex. Average normalized reach distance ranged from 62% to 69%, 84% to 97%, and 99% to 113% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively, and from 82% to 92% in the COMP score. Normalized asymmetry ranged from 3% to 4%, 5% to 8%, and 5% to 6% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively. A significant sex-by-sport interaction (P = .039) was observed in the ANT direction, with a sex effect for soccer players (P<.001; men less than women). Significant differences were observed in the PL and PM directions and in the COMP score among women's teams, with women's ice hockey players reaching the farthest (COMP, 90.0%). Among men's teams, significant differences were observed in all directions and in the COMP score. Men's ice hockey players (COMP, 91.9%) and wrestlers achieved the farthest distances (COMP, 88.8%). Performance on the SEBT varies by team, with a difference between sexes also present for
Strength-Power Performance of Visually Impaired Paralympic and Olympic Judo Athletes From the Brazilian National Team: A Comparative Study.
Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Winckler, Ciro; Bragança, Jaime R; da Fonseca, Roger A; Moraes-Filho, Josué; Zaccani, Wagner A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Kitamura, Katia; Pereira, Lucas A; Franchini, Emerson
Loturco, I, Nakamura, FY, Winckler, C, Bragança, JR, da Fonseca, RA, Filho, JM, Zaccani, WA, Kobal, R, Cal Abad, CC, Kitamura, K, Pereira, LA, and Franchini, E. Strength-power performance of visually impaired paralympic and olympic judo athletes from the brazilian national team: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 743-749, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the muscle power and maximal isometric strength capacities of Olympic and visually impaired Paralympic judo athletes. Twenty-eight elite judo athletes (7 men and 7 women per group) from the permanent Brazilian National Paralympic and Olympic teams took part in this study. After a specific warm-up, the athletes performed loaded jump squat (JS), bench press (BP), and standing barbell row (SBR) exercises to determine their values of maximum mean propulsive power (MPP) in these respective exercises. The maximal isometric strength (MIS) was also determined for both upper and lower limbs, through the use of BP and half-squat (HS) exercises. Finally, the jumping ability was assessed using unloaded squat jump (SJ). The magnitude-based inference was used to compare the groups. The Olympic judo athletes presented a likely higher SJ height than the Paralympic athletes. The Olympic group presented almost certainly higher MPP in the loaded JS and in the SBR exercises and likely higher MPP in the BP exercise. Importantly, in the MIS assessments the differences between groups in the HS and BP exercises were rated as unclear. In conclusion, our results showed that both Olympic and Paralympic judo athletes present similar levels of maximal isometric strength, but muscle power performance is superior in Olympic athletes.
Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff
Fallon, K E
Background The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non‐medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfilment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. Objective To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of <7 days' duration. Subjects 28 senior sports science or non‐medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. Methods A single questionnaire. Results The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short‐term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Conclusion Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for <1 week. This is at odds with currently available evidence of the diagnostic utility of these tests. Despite the current evidence base, individual factors in the athletes, coaches and doctors need to be considered when deciding on whether such testing has to be performed
Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff.
Fallon, K E
The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfillment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of <7 days' duration. 28 senior sports science or non-medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. A single questionnaire. The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short-term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for <1 week. This is at odds with currently available evidence of the diagnostic utility of these tests. Despite the current evidence base, individual factors in the athletes, coaches and doctors need to be considered when deciding on whether such testing has to be performed.
Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy.
Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen
The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc . Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination.
Psychological skills training and a mindfulness-based intervention to enhance functional athletic performance: design of a randomized controlled trial using ambulatory assessment.
Röthlin, Philipp; Birrer, Daniel; Horvath, Stephan; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Struggling to deliver performance in competitions is one of the main reasons why athletes seek the advice of sport psychologists. Psychologists apply a variety of intervention techniques, many of which are not evidence-based. Evidence-based techniques promote quality management and could help athletes, for example, to increase and maintain functional athletic behavior in competitions/games (i.e., being focused on task relevant cues and executing movements and actions in high quality). However, well-designed trials investigating the effectiveness of sport psychological interventions for performance enhancement are scarce. The planed study is founded by the Swiss National Science Foundation and examines the effectiveness of two interventions with elite and sub-elite athletes. A psychological skills training (PST) and a mindfulness-based intervention (MI), administered as group-program, will be compared to a waiting-list control group concerning how they enhance functional athletic behavior - which is a prerequisite for optimal performance. Furthermore, we will investigate underlying mechanisms (mediators) and moderators (e.g., task difficulty, individual characteristics, intervention-expectancy and intervention-integrity). The presented trial uses a randomized controlled design with three groups, comparing PST, MI and a waiting list control condition. Both group interventions will last 5 weeks, consist of four 2 h sessions and will be administered by a trained sport psychologist. Primary outcome is functional athletic behavior assessed using ambulatory assessment in a competition/game. As secondary outcomes competition anxiety, cognitive interference and negative outcome expectations will be assessed. Assessments are held at pre- and post-intervention as well as at 2 months follow up. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of the Swiss Federal Institute of Sport. Both PST and MI are expected to help improve functional behavior in athletes. By
Supplement use by Young Athletes
McDowall, Jill Anne
This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role
The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes.
Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet. No difference between the KD and NKD groups in weight, %body fat, BMI and fat free mass. However, the KD group, compared to the NKD group, finished 2,000 m sprint in less time after weight loss, and also felt less fatigue as measured by the Wingate test and showed less increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. This result suggests that KD diet can be helpful for weight category athletes, such as Taekwondo athletes, by improving aerobic capacity and fatigue resistance capacity, and also by exerting positive effect on inflammatory response.
Tapering Practices of Strongman Athletes.
Winwood, Paul W; Dudson, Mike K; Wilson, Daniel; Mclaren-Harrison, Justice K H; Redjkins, Vladislav; Pritchard, Hayden J; Keogh, Justin W L
Winwood, PW, Dudson, MK, Wilson, D, Mclaren-Harrison, JKH, Redjkins, V, Pritchard, HJ, and Keogh, JWL. Tapering practices of strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1181-1196, 2018-This study provides the first empirical evidence of how strongman athletes taper for strongman competitions. Strongman athletes (n = 454) (mean ± SD: 33.2 ± 8.0 years, 178.1 ± 10.6 cm, 108.6 ± 27.9 kg, 12.6 ± 8.9 years general resistance training, 5.3 ± 5.0 years strongman implement training) completed a self-reported 4-page internet survey on tapering practices. Analysis by sex (male and female), age (≤30 and >30 years), body mass (≤105 and >105 kg), and competitive standard (local/regional amateur, national amateur and professional) was conducted. Eighty-seven percent (n = 396) of strongman athletes reported that they used a taper. Athletes stated that their typical taper length was 8.6 ± 5.0 days, with the step taper the most commonly performed taper (52%). Training volume decreased during the taper by 45.5 ± 12.9%, and all training ceased 3.9 ± 1.8 days out from competition. Typically, athletes reported that training frequency and training duration stayed the same or decreased and training intensity decreased to around 50% in the last week. Athletes generally stated that tapering was performed to achieve recovery, rest, and peak performance; the deadlift, yoke walk, and stone lifts/work took longer to recover from than other lifts; assistance exercises were reduced or removed in the taper; massage, foam rolling, nutritional changes, and static stretching were strategies used in the taper; and, poor tapering occurred when athletes trained too heavy/hard or had too short a taper. These data will assist strongman athletes and coaches in the optimization of tapering variables leading to more peak performances. Future research could investigate the priming and preactivation strategies strongman athletes use on competition day.
Closed-kinetic chain upper-body training improves throwing performance of NCAA Division I softball players.
Prokopy, Max P; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Nordenschild, Edwin; Katch, Frank I; Gaesser, Glenn A; Weltman, Arthur
Closed-kinetic chain resistance training (CKCRT) of the lower body is superior to open-kinetic chain resistance training (OKCRT) to improve performance parameters (e.g., vertical jump), but the effects of upper-body CKCRT on throwing performance remain unknown. This study compared shoulder strength, power, and throwing velocity changes in athletes training the upper body exclusively with either CKCRT (using a system of ropes and slings) or OKCRT. Fourteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I softball player volunteers were blocked and randomly placed into two groups: CKCRT and OKCRT. Blocking ensured the same number of veteran players and rookies in each training group. Training occurred three times weekly for 12 weeks during the team's supervised off-season program. Olympic, lower-body, core training, and upper-body intensity and volume in OKCRT and CKCRT were equalized between groups. Criterion variables pre- and posttraining included throwing velocity, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), dynamic single-leg balance, and isokinetic peak torque and power (PWR) (at 180 degrees x s(-1)) for shoulder flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation (ER). The CKCRT group significantly improved throwing velocity by 2.0 mph (3.4%, p < 0.05), and the OKCRT group improved 0.3 mph (0.5%, NS). A significant interaction was observed (p < 0.05). The CKCRT group improved its 1RM bench press to the same degree (1.9 kg) as the OKCRT group (p < 0.05 within each group). The CKCRT group improved all measures of shoulder strength and power, whereas OKCRT conferred little change in shoulder torque and power scores. Although throwing is an open-chain movement, adaptations from CKCRT may confer benefits to subsequent performance. Strength coaches can incorporate upper-body CKCRT without sacrificing gains in maximal strength or performance criteria associated with an athletic open-chain movement such as throwing.
Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon
Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…
National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses
Binkley, Helen M.; Beckett, Joseph; Casa, Douglas J.; Kleiner, Douglas M.; Plummer, Paul E.
Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background: Certified athletic trainers evaluate and treat heat-related injuries during athletic activity in “safe” and high-risk environments. While the recognition of heat illness has improved, the subtle signs and symptoms associated with heat illness are often overlooked, resulting in more serious problems for affected athletes. The recommendations presented here provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and practical approach to the prevention, recognition, and treatment of heat illnesses. These recommendations can be modified based on the environmental conditions of the site, the specific sport, and individual considerations to maximize safety and performance. Recommendations: Certified athletic trainers and other allied health providers should use these recommendations to establish on-site emergency plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the prevention and recognition of heat-related illnesses and a well-developed plan to evaluate and treat affected athletes. Even with a heat-illness prevention plan that includes medical screening, acclimatization, conditioning, environmental monitoring, and suitable practice adjustments, heat illness can and does occur. Athletic trainers and other allied health providers must be prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize morbidity and mortality. PMID:12937591
The Diurnal Variation on Cardiovascular Endurance Performance of Secondary School Athlete Student
Chin, Chun-Yip; Chow, Gary Chi-Ching; Hung, Kwong-Chung; Kam, Lik-Hang; Chan, Ka-Chun; Mok, Yuen-Ting; Cheng, Nga-Mei
Background: The previous investigations in diurnal variation of endurance sports performance did not reach a consensus and have been limited. This study would be a valuable resource for endurance sports trainers and event managers to plan their training and competition in a specific time of day. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the diurnal variation in cardiovascular endurance performance in the young athletes. Materials and Methods: Thirty five athlete students (15.17 ± 1.62 years) participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), post-exercise percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR% post-ex), post-exercise body temperature (BTemppost-ex), and post exercise blood lactic acid level (LApost-ex) were measured in this study. Three non-consecutive testings: A) Morning (09:00-10:00; AM), B) Noon (12:00-13:00; NN) and C) Afternoon (16:00-17:00; PM) were conducted. Participants were required to follow the meal plan and resting schedule for all testing days. Results: VO2max was significantly higher at NN (F2. 68 = 3.29, P < 0.05, η2 = 0.088) in comparison with PM. The MHR%post-ex, BTemppost-ex, LApost-ex was not significantly different among three times of day. Conclusions: Diurnal effect on endurance performance was found and the highest exercise VO2max was identified at noon. Secondary school students or young athletes are recommended to have sports training related to VO2max at noon for the purpose of maximizing training effectiveness. PMID:26448833
Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236
Experiences and Attitudes of Collegiate Athletic Trainers Regarding Alcohol-Related Unintentional Injury in Athletes
Brenner, James W.; Metz, Stacie M.; Entriken, Jack; Brenner, Christina J.
Context: Alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI) has been an unexamined consequence of alcohol consumption by collegiate athletes. It has a potentially devastating effect on their athletic performances and careers. Awareness of this problem in athletes could have a huge effect on what athletic trainers (ATs) do to recognize, treat, and prevent it in a collegiate athlete population. Objective: To examine the experiences and attitudes among collegiate and university ATs about ARUI in the athletes in their care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1767 e-mail addresses for collegiate and university ATs within National Athletic Trainers' Association Districts 1, 2, 3, and 9. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated frequencies, percentages, and attitudes of ATs regarding ARUI in collegiate athletes during the 2010–2011 academic year. Results: The resulting sample size for the analysis was 459 (26.0%) participants of the initial total sample. More than 56% (n = 260) of the ATs reported that they had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed at least 1 ARUI in a collegiate athlete. On average, these ATs had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed 3 alcohol-related unintentional injuries within the 2010–2011academic year. About 73% (n = 331) of ATs agreed that ARUI is a serious problem. Nearly 80% (n = 358) indicated they believe ATs should receive more training to identify student–athletes with alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-related unintentional injury is a common and serious consequence of alcohol use among collegiate athletes. Many ATs also view it as a serious problem yet would like more training in how to address it. Alcohol-related unintentional injury may have important negative effects on the careers and athletic performances of athletes. Researchers need to determine how prevalent ARUI is in the collegiate athlete population and what ATs can do to address it. PMID:24377956
Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes
Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200–2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude. PMID:24282202
Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.
Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude.
Comparison of Exercise Performance in Recreationally Active and Masters Athlete Women.
Stone, Matthew S; Glenn, Jordan M; Vincenzo, Jennifer L; Gray, Michelle
Stone, MS, Glenn, JM, Vincenzo, JL, and Gray, M. Comparison of exercise performance in recreationally active and masters athlete women. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 565-571, 2018-Master athletes (MA) are an understudied, ever-growing cohort. As such, it is important to examine how age affects muscular power and fatigability. Of particular interest is muscular power maintenance and fatigue mitigation of MA compared with young, healthy adults. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences in peak power, average power, total work (WRK), and fatigue index (FI) between recreationally active (RA) younger adults and female MA during anaerobic cycling exercise. Two groups, RA (n = 15; 20.6 ± 0.8 years) and MA (n = 17; 50.5 ± 8.6 years), participated in this study. Peak power, APWR, WRK, and FI were measured during a 30-second Wingate maximum anaerobic cycling protocol at a predetermined resistance of 7.5% body mass. Peak power (p = 0.92; RA: 654.1 ± 114.5 W; MA: 658.6 ± 147.6 W), APWR (p = 0.09; RA: 429.8 ± 73.3 W; MA: 384 ± 73.8 W), WRK (p = 0.09; RA: 12,894.3 ± 2,198.3 J; MA: 18,044.3 ± 27,184.9 J), and FI (p = 0.30; RA: 11.8 ± 4.1 W·s; MA: 14 ± 5.2 W·s) were not significantly different between groups. Master athletes produce power and WRK comparable to rates of fatigue among RA. This suggests that MA can maintain physical ability similar to RA in multiple parameters of high-intensity exercise while mitigating fatigue comparably. These data allow for advancements in exercise training and performance outcomes in MA populations. Further research within the MA population is warranted regarding other aspects of exercise and sport performance.
Around 15-25% of people are likely to have athlete's foot at any one time. The infection can spread to other parts of the body and to other people. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical treatments for athlete's foot? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to April 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 11 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: improved foot hygiene, including socks, and hosiery; topical allylamines (naftifine, terbinafine); topical azoles; and topical ciclopirox olamine.
Nutritional practices of athletes in oman: a descriptive study.
Waly, Mostafa I; Kilani, Hashem A; Al-Busafi, Majid S
Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat. Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.
Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy
The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.
American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.
Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.
Relationship between Functional Classification Levels and Anaerobic Performance of Wheelchair Basketball Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula
Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…
Modeling and relationship of respiratory exchange ratio to athletic performance.
Bellar, David; Judge, Lawrence W
Previous research has related the results of tests of maximum aerobic capacity to performance for endurance athletes. These results are often only able to predict the running velocity of races such as the marathon. This investigation sought to determine the absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at various respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values (0.85, 0.90, 0.95, 1.0, 1.05, and 1.10) by using a third-order polynomial regression to model the physiological responses for V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER obtained from an assessment of maximum aerobic capacity. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2 determined was subsequently correlated to race performance. The participants in the study were selected from a population of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 crosscountry runners (male n = 7, female n = 7, age 20.5 ± 0.9 years; height 170.3 ± 8.2 cm; weight 59.7 ± 8.7 kg; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 57.0 ± 7.8 ml O2·kg·min). Third-order regression analysis resulted in strong curve fitting between the variables (r = 0.949 ± 0.03). Partial correlations (controlled for weight) were used to assess the relationship between oxygen consumption at the desired points of RER and race performance. The partial correlations revealed that the absolute oxygen consumptions at all RER points of interest were significantly correlated to race performance (r > 0.740, p < 0.01). There was a significant difference in the strength of the correlations for the points RER 0.95 (t = 2.68957, p = 0.01), 1.0 (t = 2.18516, p = 0.03), and 1.05 (t = 1.85668, p = 0.04) and the correlations found for RER 0.85. After converting the oxygen consumption at the RER points to estimated horizontal running speeds, only the estimate at RER 1.05 was not statistically different from the actual speed achieved in the culminating XC race. It can be suggested based upon these results that coaches of collegiate crosscountry runners who engage in metabolic testing of athletes examine the estimated running pace at
Effect of rapid weight loss on performance in combat sport male athletes: does adaptation to chronic weight cycling play a role?
Mendes, Sandro H; Tritto, Aline C; Guilherme, João Paulo L F; Solis, Marina Y; Vieira, Douglas E; Franchini, Emerson; Lancha, Antonio H; Artioli, Guilherme G
Studies failing to show a negative effect of rapid weight loss (RWL) on performance have been conducted in athletes who have been cycling weight for years. It has been suggested that chronic weight cycling could lead combat athletes to become resistant to the stresses associated with weight loss. To investigate the effects of RWL up to 5% of body mass on high-intensity intermittent performance in weight cyclers (WC) and non-weight cyclers (non-WC). Eighteen male combat athletes (WC: n=10; non-WC: n=8) reduced up to 5% of their body mass in 5 days. Body composition, high-intensity performance and plasma lactate were assessed preweight loss and postweight loss. Athletes had 4 h to re-feed and rehydrate following the weigh-in. Food intake was recorded during the weight loss and the recovery periods. Athletes significantly decreased body mass, lean body mass (most likely due to fluid loss) and fat mass following weight loss. No significant changes in performance were found from preweight loss to postweight loss in both groups. Plasma lactate was significantly elevated after exercise in both groups, but no differences were found between groups and in response to RWL. For all these variables no differences were observed between groups. Athletes from both groups ingested high amounts of energy and carbohydrates during the recovery period after the weigh-in. Chronic weight cycling does not protect athletes from the negative impact of RWL on performance. The time to recover after weigh-in and the patterns of food and fluid ingestion during this period is likely to play the major role in restoring performance to baseline levels.
Retention Initiatives Used by Professional Bachelor's Athletic Training Program Directors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.
Context: Retaining athletic training students has been identified as problematic by approximately half of athletic training program (ATP) directors. It is unknown what ATP directors do to improve athletic training student retention. Objective: To identify initiatives that ATP directors use to improve the retention rates of athletic training…
Dietary Supplements for Health, Adaptation, and Recovery in Athletes.
Rawson, Eric S; Miles, Mary P; Larson-Meyer, D Enette
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Omega 3-fatty acid supplementation may also reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mTBI. Replenishment of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency will likely improve some aspects of immune, bone, and muscle health. Probiotic supplementation can reduce the incidence, duration, and severity of upper respiratory tract infection, which may indirectly improve training or competitive performance. Preliminary data show that gelatin and/or collagen may improve connective tissue health. Some anti-inflammatory supplements, such as curcumin or tart cherry juice, may reduce inflammation and possibly delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not consistently increase strength and/or lean mass or reduce markers of muscle damage, but more research on recovery from injury that includes periods of extreme inactivity is needed. Several dietary supplements, including creatine monohydrate, omega 3-fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and curcumin/tart cherry juice could help athletes train and/or compete more effectively.
Writing on the Bus: Using Athletic Team Notebooks and Journals to Advance Learning and Performance in Sports
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…
Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.
Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anabolic-androgenic Steroid use and Psychopathology in Athletes. A Systematic Review
Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders are typical of athletes, like muscle dysmorphia. This raises the issue of whether AAS use causes these disorders in athletes, by determining neuroadaptive changes in the reward neural circuit or by exacerbating stress vulnerability, or rather these are athletes with premorbid abnormal personalities or a history of psychiatric disorders who are attracted to AAS use, prompted by the desire to improve their appearance and control their weights. This may predispose to eating disorders, but AASs also show mood destabilizing effects, with longterm use inducing depression and short-term hypomania; withdrawal/discontinuation may be accompanied by depression. The effects of AASs on anxiety behavior are unclear and studies are inconsistent. AASs are also linked to psychotic behavior. The psychological characteristics that could prompt athletes to use AASs have not been elucidated. PMID:26074746
Athlete and Non-Athlete Adjustment to College
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drum, Jennifer; Ladda, Shawn; Geary, Colette; Fitzpatrick, Corine
This study examined college adjustment between athletes and non-athletes at Manhattan College, a medium-sized college participating in NCAA Division I athletics located in the Bronx, New York. Groups included a total of fifty-two athletes, fifty-six non-athletes, twenty-five female athletes, twenty-seven male athletes, twenty-six female…
Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey
Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…
The rodeo athlete: sport science: part I.
Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew
Based on the tradition, history and lore of the American West, as well as the individualistic nature and lifestyle of the sport of rodeo, the rodeo athlete has achieved iconic status in sport, literature, art and entertainment. For over half a century, rodeo has become a staple of organized sport programmes in high schools, universities and international competitions. The origins of rodeo grew from ranch work dating back to the Spanish vaqueros in the 1700s. The sport was officially organized in 1929 and, by the 1930s, championships were determined and the sport of rodeo surpassed baseball and auto racing in spectator attendance. Since then, sponsorship has grown, resulting in extensive worldwide popularity through major media outlets. Despite growing popularity, few investigations exist regarding the scientific aspects of the sport. Rodeo competition is an activity that is basically intermittent in nature, with short periods of highly intense activity. When considering that experience and, thus, improvement in rodeo is achieved solely through constant and punishing practices involving actual and repetitive, human versus livestock competition, the practices closely imitate a sport-specific form of interval training. Studies, which address the anthropometric and performance characteristics of rodeo competitors, reveal that they are comparable to athletes in more traditional sports. The psychological constructs conducive to performance in rodeo have been varied and limited, with most research efforts focused on personality characteristics, sensation seeking and competitive anxiety. Nevertheless, when evaluated relative to higher levels of traditional sport performance, rodeo participants closely resemble their mainstream counterparts. Although efforts to quantify this non-traditional sport are still in the initial stages, information concerning what the optimal fitness level of rodeo athletes should be for maximal performance levels, in a basically anaerobic sport
Dynamics of muscle strength improvement during isokinetic rehabilitation of athletes with ACL rupture and chondromalacia patellae.
Desnica Bakrac, N
To assess quantitatively dynamics and extent of the increase in muscle strength during isokinetic rehabilitation. daily measurements of muscle strength; detailed testing at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation. Cybex Rehabilitation Center, Zagreb. 44 athletes (31 m, 13 F, age 16-35), 3 injury-defined groups: athletes with ACL rupture (non-reconstructed and reconstructed) and chondromalacia patellae. all subjects underwent isokinetic rehabilitation on Cybex Orthotron KT2 device, using individually designed protocols (extension and flexion exercises, concentric muscle contractions, 15 treatments). monitoring of daily progress on rehabilitation device and detailed testing on diagnostic device. All patients showed considerable improvement. Muscle strength improved on average 141% (SD=110) in ACL-reconstructed group, 144% (SD=130) for chondromalacia patellae group and 150% (SD=74) for ACL-non-reconstructed group, comparing to initial strength. Dynamic status tested on Cybex Otrhotron diagnostic device prior and after rehabilitation strongly correlated with final progress monitored on the rehabilitation device. Isokinetic rehabilitation is a quick and effective method in treating knee injuries in athletes. Both types of objective criteria have shown significant increase in muscle strength. The improvement of muscle strength was on the average 149% (SD=101), which is about 10% daily for 15 treatments. The greatest progress, 19% per day, occurred during first five days. The athletes were able to resume their sport activities as follows: patients from chondromalacia patellae group, and most of them from the non-reconstructed ACL group were back in competition within a month, while 75% from the ACL reconstructed group came back within 3 months, and the rest of them within 5 months.
Applying athletic principles to medical rounds to improve teaching and patient care.
Southwick, Frederick; Lewis, Michelle; Treloar, Dina; Cherabuddi, Kartikeya; Radhakrishnan, Nila; Leverence, Robert; Han, Xiaoxia; Cottler, Linda
Teaching hospital multidisciplinary work rounds are often inefficient, delaying the completion of patient care tasks and detracting from teaching. Participants often act as working groups rather than interdependent teams. Athletic principles were used to train multidisciplinary rounding teams to adopt the systems used by manufacturing to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care, as well as teamwork and didactic teaching. Experimental groups of general medical rounding teams-faculty member, house staff, medical students, bedside nurses, pharmacists, and a case manager-were introduced to individual job descriptions (playbooks), key customer-supplier relation ships, and efficient communication protocols, accompanied by weekly feed back (game films). A two-phase pilot 11-month prospective trial (February to July 2009 and September 2011 to January 2012) compared the experimental and control rounding teams on the basis of length of stay, 30-day readmission rates, and physician, student, and patient satisfaction. These interventions resulted in a 30% reduction in 30-day readmissions and, in the 2011-2012 phase, an 18% shorter length of stay. Anonymous surveys documented greater satisfaction of faculty, residents, and medical students, and student ratings of teaching were markedly improved. Patient satisfaction did not change. The new rounding system has the potential to reduce waste and improve the quality of patient care while improving caregiver satisfaction and medical student teaching. Adaptive leadership skills will be required to overcome resistance to change. The use of athletic analogies can improve teamwork and facilitate the adoption of a systems approach to the delivery of patient care.
Risk Factors for Reoperation and Performance-Based Outcomes After Operative Fixation of Foot Fractures in the Professional Athlete: A Cross-Sport Analysis.
Singh, Sameer K; Larkin, Kevin E; Kadakia, Anish R; Hsu, Wellington K
Professional athletes are predisposed to fractures of the foot due to large stresses placed on the lower extremity. These players are concerned with efficiently returning to play at a high level. Return-to-play rates after operative treatment have been previously reported, yet performance outcomes after such treatment are generally unknown in this population. Overall, professional athletes sustaining a foot fracture would return to play at high rates with little impact on postoperative performance or league participation. However, National Football League (NFL) athletes would have a significantly greater decline in performance due to the high-impact nature of the sport. Case series. Level 4. Athletes in the National Basketball League (NBA), NFL, Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) undergoing operative fixation of a foot fracture were identified through a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were collected for each sport. League participation and game performance data were collected before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed, with significance accepted as P ≤ 0.05. A total of 77 players undergoing 84 procedures met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 98.7% (76/77) of players were able to return to play, with a median time to return across all sports of 137 days. Players returned to preoperative performance levels within 1 season of surgery. Six players (7.8%) sustained refracture requiring reoperation, all of whom were in the NBA. Percentage of games started during the season after primary operative treatment was a predictive factor for reinjury (99% vs 40%, P = 0.001). Athletes returned to play at a high rate after foot fracture fixation, with excellent postoperative performance levels, regardless of sport and fracture location. NBA athletes sustaining fifth metatarsal and navicular fractures are at greater risk of reinjury compared with other
Instantaneous Assessment Of Athletic Performance Using High Speed Video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubbard, Mont; Alaways, LeRoy W.
We describe the use of high speed video to provide quantitative assessment of motion in athletic performance. Besides the normal requirement for accuracy, an essential feature is that the information be provided rapidly enough so that it my serve as valuable feedback in the learning process. The general considerations which must be addressed in the development of such a computer based system are discussed. These ideas are illustrated specifically through the description of a prototype system which has been designed for the javelin throw.
Internal Challenges Affecting Academic Performance of Student-Athletes in Ghanaian Public Universities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Apaak, Daniel; Sarpong, Emmanuel Osei
This paper examined internal challenges affecting academic performance of student-athletes in Ghanaian public universities, using a descriptive survey research design. Proportionate random sampling technique was employed to select Three Hundred and Thirty-Two (332) respondents for the study. The instrument used in gathering data for the study was…
Fluid Balance in Team Sport Athletes and the Effect of Hypohydration on Cognitive, Technical, and Physical Performance.
Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML <2%), suggesting that drinking opportunities were sufficient for most athletes to offset significant fluid losses. The effect of hydration status on team sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.
Paralympic Sprint Performance Between 1992 and 2012.
Grobler, Lara; Ferreira, Suzanne; Terblanche, Elmarie
The Paralympic Games have undergone many changes since their inception in 1960, one being the advances made in running-specific prostheses (RSPs) for track athletes with lower-limb amputations. To investigate the sprinting-performance changes in athletes with lower-limb amputations since 1992 to assess whether the influence of developments in RSP technology is evident. The results of the Olympic and Paralympic Games ranging between 1992 and 2012 for the 100-m and 200-m were collected, and performance trends, percentage change in performance, and competition density (CD) were calculated. The results indicate that the greatest performance increases were seen in athletes with lower-limb amputations (T42 = 26%, T44 = 14%). These performance improvements were greater than for Olympic athletes (<3%), as well as Paralympic athletes from other selected classes (<10%). The T42 and T44 classes also showed the lowest CD values. These results suggest that although there is an overall trend for improved Paralympic sprint performances, RSP technology has played a noteworthy role in the progression of performances of athletes with amputations. It is also hypothesized that the difference in the performance improvements between the T42 and T44 classes is due to the level of disability and therefore the extent to which technology is required to enable locomotion. It is evident that RSP technology has played a significant role in the progression of performances in athletes with lower-limb amputations.
A Study of Significance of Racial and Athletic Identification on Educational Perceptions among African American Male College Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuller, Rhema D.; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the racial and athletic identities of African American male college athletes to determine how the identities might impact the athletic and educational potential and performance of this specific group of college athletes. The study revealed that participants who responded negatively to a poor athletic…
Vibration training: could it enhance the strength, power, or speed of athletes?
Wilcock, Ian M; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Keogh, Justin W L
The aim of this literature review was to determine whether vibration training could produce chronic improvements in the physical performance of trained athletes. Although the main objective was to analyze any performance benefits, a brief review of possible mechanisms linked to performance enhancement is also included. Vibration causes an increase in the g-forces acting on the muscles, increasing the loading parameters of any exercise. Increased loading should aid muscle hypertrophy, and some authors have suggested that vibration may enhance neuromuscular potentiation. Considering the 6 studies on trained athletes, there does seem to be some evidence to suggest that vibration may provide a small benefit to maximal strength (1-repetition maximum) and power (countermovement jumps) of trained athletes. Speed does not seem to be enhanced by vibration training. There is a lack of evidence to support the theory that long-term vibration training increases neuromuscular potentiation in trained athletes. What mechanism(s) could be responsible for possible strength and power enhancement is unclear. Because whole-body vibration does not seem to be detrimental to performance when used in a controlled manner, it could provide an additional training stimulus for athletes. However, further research is required to determine optimum vibration training protocols and to clarify whether vibration training produces performance benefits greater than those of traditional training methods.
Using modeling to understand how athletes in different disciplines solve the same problem: swimming versus running versus speed skating.
de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Lucia, Alejandro; Bobbert, Maarten F; Hettinga, Florentina J; Porcari, John P
Every new competitive season offers excellent examples of human locomotor abilities, regardless of the sport. As a natural consequence of competitions, world records are broken every now and then. World record races not only offer spectators the pleasure of watching very talented and highly trained athletes performing muscular tasks with remarkable skill, but also represent natural models of the ultimate expression of human integrated muscle biology, through strength, speed, or endurance performances. Given that humans may be approaching our species limit for muscular power output, interest in how athletes improve on world records has led to interest in the strategy of how limited energetic resources are best expended over a race. World record performances may also shed light on how athletes in different events solve exactly the same problem-minimizing the time required to reach the finish line. We have previously applied mathematical modeling to the understanding of world record performances in terms of improvements in facilities/equipment and improvements in the athletes' physical capacities. In this commentary, we attempt to demonstrate that differences in world record performances in various sports can be explained using a very simple modeling process.
Effects of lunar phases on short-term, explosive physical performance among young trained athletes.
Yousfi, Narimen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Rouissi, Mehdi; Hammami, Amri; Tabben, Montassar; Chaouachi, Anis; Haddad, Monoem; Chamari, Karim
Beliefs that lunar phases affect human physiology started in ancient times. Research has recently revealed that a physical fitness index increased in sedentary students at the new moon (NM) and full moon (FM) compared to other moon phases. However, the effect of lunar cycle (moon illumination and gravitational pull) on physical performance in athletes was not examined. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether short-term explosive performance can be influenced by the different phases of the lunar cycle. Fourteen young male Taekwondo athletes (age: 16.9 ± 0.7 years, height: 159.7 ± 50.6 cm, body mass: 62.85 ± 7.84 kg) performed the following tests to assess the explosive physical performance during the different phases of the lunar cycle (NM, FQ (first quarter), FM, and LQ (last quarter)): maximal isometric manual contraction (dominant hand (MIMCD) and non-dominant hand (MIMCND)), maximal back isometric contraction (MBIC), squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 10-m sprint (10 m). The testing sessions during the different moon phases were performed in a counterbalanced order. The order of tests remained the same (MIMCD, MIMCND, MBIC, SJ, CMJ, and 10 m), and all sessions were performed in the evening (6:00 to 8:00 p.m.) on the first day of each evaluated lunar phase. Each parameter was measured over two consecutive lunar months in the calendar. Analysis of variance tests showed that there was no significant effect of lunar cycle on all explosive test measures, p > 0.05. Our results failed to identify any effect of lunar phase on evening explosive performance (mainly involving phosphagen pathway-based efforts) among young trained athletes. Therefore, it appears that moon phase/illumination does not affect short-term physical performance in young trained adolescents.
Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.
Cox, Pete J; Kirk, Tom; Ashmore, Tom; Willerton, Kristof; Evans, Rhys; Smith, Alan; Murray, Andrew J; Stubbs, Brianna; West, James; McLure, Stewart W; King, M Todd; Dodd, Michael S; Holloway, Cameron; Neubauer, Stefan; Drawer, Scott; Veech, Richard L; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran
Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations, while providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. Ketosis increased intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate and elevated insulin. These findings may hold clues to greater human potential and a better understanding of fuel metabolism in health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lower-Body Muscle Structure and Jump Performance of Stronger and Weaker Surfing Athletes.
Secomb, Josh L; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R; Lundgren, Lina; Tran, Tai T; Sheppard, Jeremy M
To identify whether there are any significant differences in the lower-body muscle structure and countermovement-jump (CMJ) and squat-jump (SJ) performance between stronger and weaker surfing athletes. Twenty elite male surfers had their lower-body muscle structure assessed with ultrasonography and completed a series of lower-body strength and jump tests including isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), CMJ, and SJ. Athletes were separated into stronger (n = 10) and weaker (n = 10) groups based on IMTP performance. Large significant differences were identified between the groups for vastus lateralis (VL) thickness (P = .02, ES = 1.22) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) pennation angle (P = .01, ES = 1.20), and a large nonsignificant difference was identified in LG thickness (P = .08, ES = 0.89). Furthermore, significant differences were present between the groups for peak force, relative peak force, and jump height in the CMJ and SJ (P < .01-.05, ES = 0.90-1.47) and eccentric peak velocity, as well as vertical displacement of the center of mass during the CMJ (P < .01, ES = 1.40-1.41). Stronger surfing athletes in this study had greater VL and LG thickness and LG pennation angle. These muscle structures may explain their better performance in the CMJ and SJ. A unique finding in this study was that the stronger group appeared to better use their strength and muscle structure for braking as they had significantly higher eccentric peak velocity and vertical displacement during the CMJ. This enhanced eccentric phase may have resulted in a greater production and subsequent utilization of stored elastic strain energy that led to the significantly better CMJ performance in the stronger group.
Linking Rhetorical Sensitivity with the Ability of an Athletic Training Student to Successfully Perform a Patient Medical Interview
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bertoncino, Thomas K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the self-reported rhetorical sensitivity of a sample of athletic training students is positively related to successfully performing a patient medical interview. Particularly, the study focused on if athletic training students' reported communication behaviors is related to their…
Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.
Collegiate Athletics: An Investigation into Athletic Persistence of Freshman Student-Athletes Participating in NCAA Division-III Varsity Athletic Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sombito, Lester Jamili
Understanding of the persistence of student-athletes in athletics at the D-III level is complex. This research study investigated the issue of student-athlete retention by focusing on Division III (D-III) student-athlete persistence in athletics by asking the following research question, "To what extent do freshman student-athletes persist in…
Effects of Different Conditioning Activities on 100-m Dash Performance in High School Track and Field Athletes.
Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Guttierres, Ana P M; Encarnação, Irismar G A; Lima, Jorge R P; Borba, Diego A; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Bemben, Michael G; Vieira, Carlos A; Bottaro, Martim
This study compared the effects of different conditioning activities on the 100-m dash performance of 11 male, high school track and field athletes (mean age = 16.3; SD = 1.2 years). Participants performed a 100-m dash seven minutes after each of four randomized conditioning protocols, with each condition and 100-m dash separated by 3-10 days. The conditioning protocols were (a) control, no conditioning activity; (b) weighted plyometric, three sets of 10 repetitions of alternate leg bounding with additional load of 10% of the body mass; (c) free sprint, two 20-m sprints; and (d) resisted sprint (RS), two 20-m resisted sprints using an elastic tubing tool. We obtained session ratings of perceived exertion (SRPE) immediately after each conditioning protocol. There were no significant differences between any of the three experimental conditioning activities on 100-m sprint time, but the RS protocol improved 100-m sprint time compared with the control (no conditioning) protocol ( p < .001). The RS also led to greater sprint velocity and higher SRPE compared with the control condition ( p < .01). There was no significant association between SRPE and 100-m performance ( p = .77, r = .05). These results suggest a benefit for young male track and field athletes to the elastic tubing warm-up activities prior to the 100-m dash.
Functional performance testing of the hip in athletes: a systematic review for reliability and validity.
Kivlan, Benjamin R; Martin, Robroy L
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for functional performance tests with evidence of reliability and validity that could be used for a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction. A search of PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were performed to identify movement, balance, hop/jump, or agility functional performance tests from the current peer-reviewed literature used to assess function of the hip in young, athletic subjects. The single-leg stance, deep squat, single-leg squat, and star excursion balance tests (SEBT) demonstrated evidence of validity and normative data for score interpretation. The single-leg stance test and SEBT have evidence of validity with association to hip abductor function. The deep squat test demonstrated evidence as a functional performance test for evaluating femoroacetabular impingement. Hop/Jump tests and agility tests have no reported evidence of reliability or validity in a population of subjects with hip pathology. Use of functional performance tests in the assessment of hip dysfunction has not been well established in the current literature. Diminished squat depth and provocation of pain during the single-leg balance test have been associated with patients diagnosed with FAI and gluteal tendinopathy, respectively. The SEBT and single-leg squat tests provided evidence of convergent validity through an analysis of kinematics and muscle function in normal subjects. Reliability of functional performance tests have not been established on patients with hip dysfunction. Further study is needed to establish reliability and validity of functional performance tests that can be used in a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction. 2b (Systematic Review of Literature).
Athlete's Heart and Left Heart Disease.
de Gregorio, Cesare; Di Nunzio, Dalia; Di Bella, Gianluca
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes. Sudden cardiac death can occur in apparently healthy individuals with unrecognized cardiovascular disease.Thus, panels of experts in sports medicine have promoted important pre-participation screening programmes aimed at determining sports eligibility and differentiating between physiological remodeling and cardiac disease.In this review, the most important pathophysiological and diagnostic issues are discussed.
The Clinical Validation of the Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire: an Instrument to Identify Athletes that Need Further Sleep Assessment.
Bender, Amy M; Lawson, Doug; Werthner, Penny; Samuels, Charles H
Previous research has established that general sleep screening questionnaires are not valid and reliable in an athlete population. The Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) was developed to address this need. While the initial validation of the ASSQ has been established, the clinical validity of the ASSQ has yet to be determined. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the clinical validity of the ASSQ. Canadian National Team athletes (N = 199; mean age 24.0 ± 4.2 years, 62% females; from 23 sports) completed the ASSQ. A subset of athletes (N = 46) were randomized to the clinical validation sub-study which required subjects to complete an ASSQ at times 2 and 3 and to have a clinical sleep interview by a sleep medicine physician (SMP) who rated each subjects' category of clinical sleep problem and provided recommendations to improve sleep. To assess clinical validity, the SMP category of clinical sleep problem was compared to the ASSQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.74) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.86) of the ASSQ were acceptable. The ASSQ demonstrated good agreement with the SMP (Cohen's kappa = 0.84) which yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 93%, positive predictive value of 87%, and negative predictive value of 90%. There were 25.1% of athletes identified to have clinically relevant sleep disturbances that required further clinical sleep assessment. Sleep improved from time 1 at baseline to after the recommendations at time 3. Sleep screening athletes with the ASSQ provides a method of accurately determining which athletes would benefit from preventative measures and which athletes suffer from clinically significant sleep problems. The process of sleep screening athletes and providing recommendations improves sleep and offers a clinical intervention output that is simple and efficient for teams and athletes to implement.
Game Changers: The Role Athletic Identity and Racial Identity Play on Academic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which athletic and racial identity predict the academic outcomes of Black student athletes participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Bowl Series football. The academic outcomes of Black student athletes are a growing concern to both scholars and…
A common polymorphism of the MCT1 gene and athletic performance.
Fedotovskaya, Olga N; Mustafina, Leysan J; Popov, Daniil V; Vinogradova, Olga L; Ahmetov, Ildus I
In red skeletal muscle, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is required for lactate to enter the myocytes for oxidation. The A1470T polymorphism (rs1049434) in the MCT1 gene was shown to be associated with lactate transport rates in human skeletal muscles. The aim of the study was to compare genotype and allele frequencies of the MCT1 gene polymorphism in 323 Russian athletes and 467 nonathletic controls and to investigate the association of the MCT1 gene A1470T polymorphism with maximal oxygen consumption and maximal lactate concentration in rowers (n = 79). Genotyping for the A1470T MCT1 polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Physiological measurements of 79 Russian rowers of national competitive standard were determined during an incremental test to exhaustion on a rowing ergometer. Frequencies of the A allele (71.8% vs 62.5%, P < .0001) and AA genotype (59.8% vs 39.4%, P < .0001) were significantly higher in endurance-oriented athletes (n = 142) than in the control group. Mean blood lactate concentration was higher in male rowers with the T allele (AT+TT 10.26 ± 1.89 mmol/L, AA 8.75 ± 1.69 mmol/L, P = .005). MCT1 gene A1470T polymorphism is associated with endurance athlete status and blood lactate level after intensive exercise.
Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa
The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…
Intermittent But Not Continuous Static Stretching Improves Subsequent Vertical Jump Performance In Flexibility-Trained Athletes.
Bogdanis, Gregory C; Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Smilios, Ilias; Bishop, David J
This study examined changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) height after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Sixteen male, elite-level gymnasts performed 90 s of intermittent (3 x 30 s with 30 s rest) or continuous stretching (90 s) of the quadriceps muscle. A single-leg stretching and jumping design was used, with the contra-lateral limb serving as a control. The same individuals performed both conditions with alternate legs in a randomized, counterbalanced order. One leg CMJ height was measured for the stretched and the control leg after warm-up, immediately after stretching, and at regular intervals for 10 min after stretching. Range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints was measured before, after, and 10 min post-stretching. Compared to the control leg, intermittent stretching increased CMJ height by 8.1±2.0%, 4 min into recovery (+2.2±2.0 cm, 95%CI: 1.0-3.4 cm, p=0.001), while continuous stretching decreased CMJ height by 17.5±3.3% immediately after (-2.9±1.7 cm, 95%CI: -2.0 to -3.7 cm, p=0.001) and by 12.0±2.7% one min after stretching (-2.2±2.1 cm, 95%CI: -1.2 to -3.2 cm, p=0.001). The increases in hip (2.9 and 3.6, p=0.001. d=2.4) and knee joint ROM (5.1 and 6.1, p=0.001. d=0.85) after the intermittent and continuous stretching protocols were not different. The opposite effects of intermittent vs. continuous stretching on subsequent CMJ performance suggests that stretching mode is an important variable when examining the acute effects of static stretching on performance in flexibility-trained athletes.
Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galicinao, Brianne M.
This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…
Estrogen Replacement Improves Verbal Memory and Executive Control in Oligomenorrheic/Amenorrheic Athletes in a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Baskaran, Charumathi; Cunningham, Brooke; Plessow, Franziska; Singhal, Vibha; Woolley, Ryan; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Slattery, Meghan; Lee, Hang; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Eddy, Kamryn; Misra, Madhusmita
Both estrogen and exercise may have cognition enhancing benefits; however, young oligomenorrheic/amenorrheic athletes (OA) with estrogen deficiency have not been evaluated for cognitive deficits. Our objective was to determine whether 6 months of estrogen replacement will impact cognitive domains in OA. We hypothesized that estrogen replacement would improve verbal memory and executive control in OA. We performed cognitive assessments at baseline and after 6 months in 48 OA (14-25 years) randomized to estrogen (EST+) (oral 30 µg ethinyl estradiol [n = 16] or transdermal 100 µg 17-β-estradiol patch [n = 13]) or no estrogen (EST-) (n = 19) in an ongoing clinical trial. Neurocognitive testing included California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) (for verbal memory) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test (D-KEFS-CWIT) (executive control). On average, subjects (mean ± SEM age: 19.9 ± 3.1 years, body mass index: 20.6 ± 2.3 kg/m²) participated in 10.3 ± 5.9 hours per week of weight-bearing activities of their lower limbs. The EST+ group performed better for CVLT-II verbal memory scores for immediate recall over 6 months of therapy compared to EST- (P < .05) even after controlling for baseline scores and age. Changes in D-KEFS-CWIT scores over 6 months did not differ between the groups. However, the EST+ group had greater improvements in inhibition-switching completion time over 6 months compared with the EST- group after controlling for baseline scores and age (P = .01). OA show improvements in verbal memory and executive control following 6 months of estrogen replacement. These findings in athletes, who are in their prime of neurocognitive development, underscore the need for future studies exploring cognition in OA. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00946192. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part II.
Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M
Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the Warrior. The authors have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Fort Campbell, KY. This is second of two companion papers and presents the last three steps of the research model and includes Design and Validation of the Interventions, Program Integration and Implementation, and Monitor and Determine the Effectiveness of the Program. An 8-week trial was performed to validate the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) to improve modifiable suboptimal characteristics identified in Part I. The experimental group participated in ETAP under the direction of a ETAP Strength and Conditioning Specialist while the control group performed the current physical training at Fort Campbell under the direction of a Physical Training Leader and as governed by FM 21-20 for the 8-week study period. Soldiers performing ETAP demonstrated improvements in several tests for strength, flexibility, performance, physiology, and the APFT compared to current physical training performed at Fort Campbell. ETAP was proven valid to improve certain suboptimal characteristics within the 8-week trial as compared to the current training performed at Fort Campbell. ETAP has long-term implications and with expected greater improvements when implemented into a Division pre-deployment cycle of 10-12 months which will result in further systemic adaptations for each variable.
Post-exercise Ingestion of Carbohydrate, Protein and Water: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis for Effects on Subsequent Athletic Performance.
McCartney, Danielle; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher
Athletes may complete consecutive exercise sessions with limited recovery time between bouts (e.g. ≤ 4 h). Nutritional strategies that optimise post-exercise recovery in these situations are therefore important. This two-part review investigated the effect of consuming carbohydrate (CHO) and protein with water (W) following exercise on subsequent athletic (endurance/anaerobic exercise) performance. Studies were identified by searching the online databases SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Investigations that measured endurance performance (≥ 5 min duration) ≤ 4 h after a standardised exercise bout (any type) under the following control vs. intervention conditions were included: Part 1: W vs. CHO ingested with an equal volume of W (CHO + W); and, Part 2: CHO + W vs. protein (PRO) ingested with CHO and an equal volume of W (PRO + CHO + W), where CHO or energy intake was matched. Publications were examined for bias using the Rosendal scale. Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted to evaluate intervention efficacy. The quality assessment yielded a Rosendal score of 63 ± 9% (mean ± standard deviation). Part 1: 45 trials (n = 486) were reviewed. Ingesting CHO + W (102 ± 50 g CHO; 0.8 ± 0.6 g CHO kg -1 h -1 ) improved exercise performance compared with W (1.6 ± 0.7 L); % Δ mean power output = 4.0, 95% confidence interval 3.2-4.7 (I 2 = 43.9). Improvement was attenuated when participants were 'Fed' (a meal 2-4 h prior to the initial bout) as opposed to 'Fasted' (p = 0.012). Part 2: 13 trials (n = 125) were reviewed. Ingesting PRO + CHO + W (35 ± 26 g PRO; 0.5 ± 0.4 g PRO kg -1 ) did not affect exercise performance compared with CHO + W (115 ± 61 g CHO; 0.6 ± 0.3 g CHO·kg body mass -1 h -1 ; 1.2 ± 0.6 L); % Δ mean power output = 0.5, 95% confidence interval - 0.5 to 1.6 (I 2 = 72.9). Athletes with limited time for recovery between
Introduction Around 15% to 25% of people are likely to have athlete's foot at any one time. The infection can spread to other parts of the body and to other people. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical treatments for athlete's foot? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: improved foot hygiene, including socks and hosiery; topical allylamines (naftifine and terbinafine); topical azoles (bifonazole, clotrimazole, econazole nitrate, miconazole nitrate, sulconazole nitrate, and tioconazole); and topical ciclopirox olamine. PMID:21696646
Around 15% to 25% of people are likely to have athlete's foot at any one time. The infection can spread to other parts of the body and to other people. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of topical treatments for athlete's foot? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: improved foot hygiene, including socks and hosiery; topical allylamines (naftifine and terbinafine); topical azoles (bifonazole, clotrimazole, econazole nitrate, miconazole nitrate, sulconazole nitrate, and tioconazole); and topical ciclopirox olamine.
Athletic Identity, Vocational Identity, and Occupational Engagement in College Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hook, Lacole L.
Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…
Relationship between Functional Movement Screen and Some Athletic Abilities in Karate Athletes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
In karate athletes, quality of movement and trunk control are important factors. Power output that is performed in short time requires functional movement capabilities. It's quite important to know that which athletic abilities are related to functional movement. Due to this concern, the aim of the study was to examine relationship between…
Nutritional supplement practices of professional Ugandan athletes: a cross-sectional study.
Muwonge, Haruna; Zavuga, Robert; Kabenge, Peninnah Aligawesa; Makubuya, Timothy
The use of nutritional supplements (NS) places athletes at great risk for inadvertent doping. Due to the paucity of data on supplement use, this study aimed to determine the proportion of Ugandan athletes using nutritional supplements and to investigate the athletes' motivation to use these supplements. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 359 professional athletes participating in individual (boxing, cycling, athletics) and team (basketball, rugby, football, netball, and volleyball) sports. The data were categorized, and a Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Of the 359 athletes, 48 (13.4%) used nutritional supplements. Carbohydrate supplements, energy drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, fish oils, and protein supplements were the most common supplements used by athletes. NS use was significantly more common among athletes who played rugby and basketball ( X 2 = 61.101, p < 0.0001), athletes who had played the sport for 5-10 years ( X 2 = 7.460, p = 0.024), and athletes who had attained a tertiary education ( X 2 = 33.377, p < 0.0001). The athletes' occupation had no bearing on whether they used supplements. Nutritionists/dieticians, retail stores and pharmacies were the most common sources of NS products, whereas health practitioners, online media and teammates were the most common sources of information regarding NS. Most athletes used NS to improve their physical performance and health. Compared to NS use by athletes elsewhere, NS use among Ugandan athletes was low. However, determinants of athlete NS use in the current study (category of sport and duration of time spent playing the sport) are similar to those reported elsewhere.
Mechanical Analysis of the Acute Effects of a Heavy Resistance Exercise Warm-Up on Agility Performance in Court-Sport Athletes
Sole, Christopher J.; Moir, Gavin L.; Davis, Shala E.; Witmer, Chad A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of heavy resistance exercise on agility performance in court-sport athletes. Five men (age: 20.6 ± 1.9 years; body mass: 79.36 ± 11.74 kg; body height: 1.93 ± 0.09 m) and five women (age 21.2 ± 2.7 years; body mass: 65.8 ± 10.18 kg; body height 1.77 ± 0.08 m) volunteered to participate in the present study. All subjects were NCAA Division II athletes who currently participated in tennis or basketball and all had previous resistance training experience of at least one year. In a counterbalanced design, agility performance during a 10 m shuttle test was assessed following either a dynamic warm-up (DW) or heavy resistance warm-up (HRW) protocol. The HRW protocol consisted of three sets of squats at 50, 60, and 90% of 1-RM. Agility performance was captured using an eight camera motion analysis system and the mechanical variables of stride length, stride frequency, stance time, flight time, average ground reaction force, as well as agility time were recorded. No significant differences were reported for the HRW and DW protocols for any of the mechanical variables (p>0.05), although there was a trend towards the HRW protocol producing faster agility times compared to the control protocol (p = 0.074). Based on the trend towards a significant effect, as well as individual results it is possible that HRW protocols could be used as an acute method to improve agility performance in some court-sport athletes. PMID:24511350
Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes.
Venderley, Angela M; Campbell, Wayne W
The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events. Vegetarian athletes can meet their protein needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. Muscle creatine stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. Creatine supplementation provides ergogenic responses in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes, with limited data supporting greater ergogenic effects on lean body mass accretion and work performance for vegetarians. The potential adverse effect of a vegetarian diet on iron status is based on the bioavailability of iron from plant foods rather than the amount of total iron present in the diet. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike must consume sufficient iron to prevent deficiency, which will adversely affect performance. Other nutrients of concern for vegetarian athletes include zinc, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium. The main sources of these nutrients are animal products; however, they can be found in many food sources suitable for vegetarians, including fortified soy milk and whole grain cereals. Vegetarians have higher antioxidant status for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol), and beta-carotene than omnivores, which might help reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Research is needed comparing antioxidant defences in vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes.
Trunk Muscle Activity during Drop Jump Performance in Adolescent Athletes with Back Pain.
Mueller, Steffen; Stoll, Josefine; Mueller, Juliane; Cassel, Michael; Mayer, Frank
In the context of back pain, great emphasis has been placed on the importance of trunk stability, especially in situations requiring compensation of repetitive, intense loading induced during high-performance activities, e.g., jumping or landing. This study aims to evaluate trunk muscle activity during drop jump in adolescent athletes with back pain (BP) compared to athletes without back pain (NBP). Eleven adolescent athletes suffering back pain (BP: m/f: n = 4/7; 15.9 ± 1.3 y; 176 ± 11 cm; 68 ± 11 kg; 12.4 ± 10.5 h/we training) and 11 matched athletes without back pain (NBP: m/f: n = 4/7; 15.5 ± 1.3 y; 174 ± 7 cm; 67 ± 8 kg; 14.9 ± 9.5 h/we training) were evaluated. Subjects conducted 3 drop jumps onto a force plate (ground reaction force). Bilateral 12-lead SEMG (surface Electromyography) was applied to assess trunk muscle activity. Ground contact time [ms], maximum vertical jump force [N], jump time [ms] and the jump performance index [m/s] were calculated for drop jumps. SEMG amplitudes (RMS: root mean square [%]) for all 12 single muscles were normalized to MIVC (maximum isometric voluntary contraction) and analyzed in 4 time windows (100 ms pre- and 200 ms post-initial ground contact, 100 ms pre- and 200 ms post-landing) as outcome variables. In addition, muscles were grouped and analyzed in ventral and dorsal muscles, as well as straight and transverse trunk muscles. Drop jump ground reaction force variables did not differ between NBP and BP ( p > 0.05). Mm obliquus externus and internus abdominis presented higher SEMG amplitudes (1.3-1.9-fold) for BP ( p < 0.05). Mm rectus abdominis, erector spinae thoracic/lumbar and latissimus dorsi did not differ ( p > 0.05). The muscle group analysis over the whole jumping cycle showed statistically significantly higher SEMG amplitudes for BP in the ventral ( p = 0.031) and transverse muscles ( p = 0.020) compared to NBP. Higher activity of transverse, but not straight, trunk muscles might indicate a specific
Improving athletes' perspectives of sport psychology consultation: a controlled evaluation of two interview methods.
Donohue, B; Dickens, Y; Lancer, K; Covassin, T; Hash, A; Miller, A; Genet, J
Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of the two semistructured interview formats. One interview focused on discussing the athlete's experiences in sports, and the other focused on delineating sport psychology and its potential benefits to the athlete. Upon being interviewed, athletes were readministered the ATSSPCQ. Discussing sport psychology and its personal benefits was more effective in enhancing athletes' perception of need for sport psychology than discussing sport experiences. However, neither interview format enhanced athletes' perceptions of openness to discuss personal issues with a sport psychology consultant and tolerance of stigma associated with sport psychology consultation. Indeed, participants who received the discussion of sports intervention reported a significant decrease in personal openness to discuss personal issues relevant to sports psychology from pre- to postintervention. Intervention effects were similar for male and female athletes. Study implications and future directions are discussed in light of these results.
Against Genetic Tests for Athletic Talent: The Primacy of the Phenotype.
New insights into the genetics of sport performance lead to new areas of application. One area is the use of genetic tests to identify athletic talent. Athletic performances involve a high number of complex phenotypical traits. Based on the ACCE model (review of Analytic and Clinical validity, Clinical utility, and Ethical, legal and social implications), a critique is offered of the lack of validity and predictive power of genetic tests for talent. Based on the ideal of children's right to an open future, a moral argument is given against such tests on children and young athletes. A possible role of genetic tests in sport is proposed in terms of identifying predisposition for injury. In meeting ACCE requirements, such tests could improve individualised injury prevention and increase athlete health. More generally, limitations of science are discussed in the identification of talent and in the understanding of complex human performance phenotypes. An alternative approach to talent identification is proposed in terms of ethically sensitive, systematic and evidence-based holistic observation over time of relevant phenotypical traits by experienced observers. Talent identification in sport should be based on the primacy of the phenotype.
Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania
Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas
Background With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. Methods In September–November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. Results The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2–3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Conclusions Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people. PMID:28352693
Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania.
Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas
With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. In September-November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2-3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people.
Medications for Sleep Schedule Adjustments in Athletes.
Baird, Matthew B; Asif, Irfan M
Sleep schedule adjustments are common requirements of modern-day athletes. Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies exist to facilitate circadian rhythm shifts to maximize alertness and performance during competition. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used pharmacologic agents and presents recommendations for the sports medicine provider. MEDLINE searches were performed using the following keywords: sleep aids, circadian rhythm adjustment, athletes and sleep, caffeine and sports, melatonin and athletes, and sleep aids and sports. Pertinent articles were extracted and discussed. Clinical review. Level 2. There are very few available studies investigating pharmacologic sleep aids in athletes. Data from studies involving shift workers and airline personnel are more abundant and were used to formulate recommendations and conclusions. Melatonin, caffeine, and nonbenzodiazepine sleep aids have a role in facilitating sleep schedule changes in athletes and maximizing sports performance through sleep enhancement.
Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness.
Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Jakeman, Philip M
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a single dose of citrulline malate (CM) on the performance of flat barbell bench presses as an anaerobic exercise and in terms of decreasing muscle soreness after exercise. Forty-one men performed 2 consecutive pectoral training session protocols (16 sets). The study was performed as a randomized, double-blind, 2-period crossover design. Eight grams of CM was used in 1 of the 2 training sessions, and a placebo was used in the other. The subjects' resistance was tested using the repetitions to fatigue test, at 80% of their predetermined 1 repetition maximum (RM), in the 8 sets of flat barbell bench presses during the pectoral training session (S1-4 and S1'-4'). The p-value was 0.05. The number of repetitions showed a significant increase from placebo treatment to CM treatment from the third set evaluated (p <0.0001). This increase was positively correlated with the number of sets, achieving 52.92% more repetitions and the 100% of response in the last set (S4'). A significant decrease of 40% in muscle soreness at 24 hours and 48 hours after the pectoral training session and a higher percentage response than 90% was achieved with CM supplementation. The only side effect reported was a feeling of stomach discomfort in 14.63% of the subjects. We conclude that the use of CM might be useful to increase athletic performance in high-intensity anaerobic exercises with short rest times and to relieve postexercise muscle soreness. Thus, athletes undergoing intensive preparation involving a high level of training or in competitive events might profit from CM.
[Electrical acupoint stimulation increases athletes' rapid strength].
Yang, Hua-yuan; Liu, Tang-yi; Kuai, Le; Gao, Ming
To search for a stimulation method for increasing athletes' performance. One hundred and fifty athletes were randomly divided into a trial group and a control group, 75 athletes in each group. Acupoints were stimulated with audio frequency pulse modulated wave and multi-blind method were used to investigate effects of the electric stimulation of acupoints on 30-meter running, standing long jumping and Cybex isokinetic testing index. The acupoint electric stimulation method could significantly increase athlete's performance (P < 0.05), and the biomechanical indexes, maximal peak moment of force (P < 0.05), force moment accelerating energy (P < 0.05) and average power (P < 0.05). Electrical acupoint stimulation can enhance athlete's rapid strength.
Inguinal Hernia in Athletes: Role of Dynamic Ultrasound.
Vasileff, William Kelton; Nekhline, Mikhail; Kolowich, Patricia A; Talpos, Gary B; Eyler, Willam R; van Holsbeeck, Marnix
Inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered cause of pain in athletes. Because of the anatomic complexity, lack of standard imaging, and the dynamic condition, there is no unified opinion explaining its underlying pathology. Athletes with persistent groin pain would have a high prevalence of inguinal hernia with dynamic ultrasound, and herniorrhaphy would successfully return athletes to activity. Case-control study. Level 3. Forty-seven amateur and professional athletes with sports-related groin pain who underwent ultrasound were selected based on history and examination. Patients with prior groin surgery or hip pathology were excluded. Clinical and surgical documentation were correlated with imaging. The study group was compared with 41 age-matched asymptomatic athletes. Ultrasound was positive for hernia with movement of bowel, bladder, or omental tissue anterior to the inferior epigastric vessels during Valsalva maneuver. The 47-patient symptomatic study group included 41 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 1 with indirect inguinal hernia, and 5 with negative ultrasound. Of 42 patients with hernia, 39 significantly improved with herniorrhaphy, 2 failed to improve after surgery and were diagnosed with adductor longus tears, and 1 improved with physical therapy. Five patients with negative ultrasound underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were diagnosed with hip labral tear or osteitis pubis. The 41-patient asymptomatic control group included 3 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 2 with indirect inguinal hernias, and 3 with femoral hernias. Inguinal hernias are a major component of groin pain in athletes. Prevalence of direct inguinal hernia in symptomatic athletes was greater than that for controls ( P < 0.001). Surgery was successful in returning these athletes to sport: 39 of 42 (93%) athletes with groin pain and inguinal hernia became asymptomatic. Persistent groin pain in the athlete may relate to inguinal hernia, which can be diagnosed with dynamic
Social Support in the Athletic Training Room: Athletes' Expectations of Staff and Student Athletic Trainers
Barefield, Scott; McCallister, Sarah
Objective: Social support has been identified repeatedly in the literature as being beneficial to individuals suffering from injury or illness. Because of the frequent interaction between athletic trainers and student athletes, the athletic trainer is in a unique position to provide a variety of social support to the athlete. The purpose of the study was (1) to identify the degree to which athletes actually receive each of eight types of social support; (2) to identify the types of social support athletes need or expect to receive from staff and student athletic trainers; and (3) to compare the athletes' satisfaction with the quality of the support received from athletic training staff and students. Design and Setting: A questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. It was administered at a Division I university. Subjects: Eighty-five student-athletes at a Division I university. Measurements: The survey consisted of 24 questions that used a five-point Likert rating scale. Results: There was no significant difference in the amount of social support received by athletes from staff and student athletic trainers, in athletes' expectations of staff and student athletic trainers with regard to provision of social support, or in the athletes' level of satisfaction with staff and student athletic trainers' provision of social support. Conclusions: Examined collectively, the findings indicate that athletes do not differentiate between staff and student athletic trainers with regard to the provision of social support. However, finding that athletes do not differentiate between staff and student athletic trainers in this area is significant in itself and has implications for athletic training education programs. PMID:16558469
Beetroot juice does not enhance altitude running performance in well-trained athletes.
Arnold, Josh Timothy; Oliver, Samuel James; Lewis-Jones, Tammy Maria; Wylie, Lee John; Macdonald, Jamie Hugo
We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) provided as concentrated beetroot juice supplement would improve endurance running performance of well-trained runners in normobaric hypoxia. Ten male runners (mean (SD): sea level maximal oxygen uptake, 66 (7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 10 km personal best, 36 (2) min) completed incremental exercise to exhaustion at 4000 m and a 10-km treadmill time-trial at 2500 m simulated altitude on separate days after supplementation with ∼7 mmol NO3(-) and a placebo at 2.5 h before exercise. Oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the incremental exercise test. Differences between treatments were determined using means [95% confidence intervals], paired sample t tests, and a probability of individual response analysis. NO3(-) supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration (NO3(-), 473 (226) nmol·L(-1) vs. placebo, 61 (37) nmol·L(-1), P < 0.001) but did not alter time to exhaustion during the incremental test (NO3(-), 402 (80) s vs. placebo 393 (62) s, P = 0.5) or time to complete the 10-km time-trial (NO3(-), 2862 (233) s vs. placebo, 2874 (265) s, P = 0.6). Further, no practically meaningful beneficial effect on time-trial performance was observed as the 11 [-60 to 38] s improvement was less than the a priori determined minimum important difference (51 s), and only 3 runners experienced a "likely, probable" performance improvement. NO3(-) also did not alter oxygen cost, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, or RPE. Acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation did not consistently enhance running performance of well-trained athletes in normobaric hypoxia.
Effects of dietary almond- and olive oil-based docosahexaenoic acid- and vitamin E-enriched beverage supplementation on athletic performance and oxidative stress markers.
Capó, X; Martorell, M; Busquets-Cortés, C; Sureda, A; Riera, J; Drobnic, F; Tur, J A; Pons, A
Functional beverages based on almonds and olive oil and enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could be useful in modulating oxidative stress and enhancing physical performance in sportsmen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with functional beverages on physical performance, plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids' and polyphenol handling, oxidative and nitrative damage, and antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in young and senior athletes. Athletes performed maximal exercise tests before and after one month of dietary supplementation and blood samples were taken immediately before and one hour after each test. The beverages did not alter performance parameters during maximal exercise. Supplementation increased polyunsaturated and reduced saturated plasma fatty acids while increasing the DHA erythrocyte content; it maintained basal plasma and blood polyphenol levels, but increased the blood cell polyphenol concentration in senior athletes. Supplementation protects against oxidative damage although it enhances nitrative damage in young athletes. The beverages enhance the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after exercise in young athletes.
Female athlete triad screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes: is the preparticipation evaluation form effective?
Mencias, Tara; Noon, Megan; Hoch, Anne Z
To evaluate the screening practices and preparticipation evaluation (PPE) forms used to identify college athletes at risk for the female athlete triad (triad). Phone and/or e-mail survey. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities. All 347 NCAA Division I universities were invited to participate in a survey, with 257 participating in the survey (74%) and 287 forms collected (83%). Information about the nature of the PPE was requested from team physicians and certified athletic trainers during a phone or e-mail survey. In addition, a copy of their PPE form was requested to evaluate for inclusion of the 12 items recommended by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition for primary screening for the triad. All 257 universities (100%) required a PPE for incoming athletes; however, only 83 universities (32%) required an annual PPE for returning athletes. Screening was performed on campus at 218 universities (85%). Eleven universities (4%) were using the recently updated fourth edition PPE. Only 25 universities (9%) had 9 or more of the 12 recommended items included in their forms, whereas 127 universities (44%) included 4 or less items. Relevant items that were omitted from more than 40% of forms included losing weight to meet the image requirements of a sport; using vomiting, diuretics, and/or laxatives to lose weight; and the number of menses experienced in the past 12 months. The current PPE forms used by NCAA Division I universities may not effectively screen for the triad.
National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing, Detecting, and Managing Disordered Eating in Athletes
Bonci, Christine M; Bonci, Leslie J; Granger, Lorita R; Johnson, Craig L; Malina, Robert M; Milne, Leslie W; Ryan, Randa R; Vanderbunt, Erin M
Objective: To present recommendations for the prevention, detection, and comprehensive management of disordered eating (DE) in athletes. Background: Athletes with DE rarely self-report their symptoms. They tend to deny the condition and are often resistant to referral and treatment. Thus, screenings and interventions must be handled skillfully by knowledgeable professionals to obtain desired outcomes. Certified athletic trainers have the capacity and responsibility to play active roles as integral members of the health care team. Their frequent daily interactions with athletes help to facilitate the level of medical surveillance necessary for early detection, timely referrals, treatment follow-through, and compliance. Recommendations: These recommendations are intended to provide certified athletic trainers and others participating in the health maintenance and performance enhancement of athletes with specific knowledge and problem-solving skills to better prevent, detect, and manage DE. The individual biological, psychological, sociocultural, and familial factors for each athlete with DE result in widely different responses to intervention strategies, challenging the best that athletics programs have to offer in terms of resources and expertise. The complexity, time intensiveness, and expense of managing DE necessitate an interdisciplinary approach representing medicine, nutrition, mental health, athletic training, and athletics administration in order to facilitate early detection and treatment, make it easier for symptomatic athletes to ask for help, enhance the potential for full recovery, and satisfy medicolegal requirements. Of equal importance is establishing educational initiatives for preventing DE. PMID:18335017
Sport-Specific Assessment of the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training in Young Athletes
Zemková, Erika; Hamar, Dušan
Neuromuscular training in young athletes improves performance and decreases the risk of injuries during sports activities. These effects are primarily ascribed to the enhancement of muscle strength and power but also balance, speed and agility. However, most studies have failed to demonstrate significant improvement in these abilities. This is probably due to the fact that traditional tests do not reflect training methods (e.g., plyometric training vs. isometric or isokinetic strength testing, dynamic balance training vs. static balance testing). The protocols utilized in laboratories only partially fulfill the current needs for testing under sport-specific conditions. Moreover, laboratory testing usually requires skilled staff and a well equipped and costly infrastructure. Nevertheless, experience demonstrates that high-technology and expensive testing is not the only way to proceed. A number of physical fitness field tests are available today. However, the low reliability and limited number of parameters retrieved from simple equipment used also limit their application in competitive sports. Thus, there is a need to develop and validate a functional assessment platform based on portable computerized systems. Variables obtained should be directly linked to specific features of particular sports and capture their complexity. This is essential for revealing weak and strong components of athlete performance and design of individually-tailored exercise programs. Therefore, identifying the drawbacks associated with the assessment of athlete performance under sport-specific conditions would provide a basis for the formation of an innovative approach to their long-term systematic testing. This study aims (i) to review the testing methods used for the evaluation of the effect of neuromuscular training on sport-specific performance in young athletes, (ii) to introduce stages within the Sport Longlife Diagnostic Model, and (iii) to propose future research in this topic
Sport-Specific Assessment of the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training in Young Athletes.
Zemková, Erika; Hamar, Dušan
Neuromuscular training in young athletes improves performance and decreases the risk of injuries during sports activities. These effects are primarily ascribed to the enhancement of muscle strength and power but also balance, speed and agility. However, most studies have failed to demonstrate significant improvement in these abilities. This is probably due to the fact that traditional tests do not reflect training methods (e.g., plyometric training vs. isometric or isokinetic strength testing, dynamic balance training vs. static balance testing). The protocols utilized in laboratories only partially fulfill the current needs for testing under sport-specific conditions. Moreover, laboratory testing usually requires skilled staff and a well equipped and costly infrastructure. Nevertheless, experience demonstrates that high-technology and expensive testing is not the only way to proceed. A number of physical fitness field tests are available today. However, the low reliability and limited number of parameters retrieved from simple equipment used also limit their application in competitive sports. Thus, there is a need to develop and validate a functional assessment platform based on portable computerized systems. Variables obtained should be directly linked to specific features of particular sports and capture their complexity. This is essential for revealing weak and strong components of athlete performance and design of individually-tailored exercise programs. Therefore, identifying the drawbacks associated with the assessment of athlete performance under sport-specific conditions would provide a basis for the formation of an innovative approach to their long-term systematic testing. This study aims (i) to review the testing methods used for the evaluation of the effect of neuromuscular training on sport-specific performance in young athletes, (ii) to introduce stages within the Sport Longlife Diagnostic Model, and (iii) to propose future research in this topic
Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in Japanese Collegiate Athletes.
Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Muroya, Miyuki; Shiina, Masami
To determine the prevalence and impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese collegiate athletes, with a focus on their disruption of athletic performance. Cross-sectional study. A university in Osaka, the largest city in western Japan. 232 female collegiate athletes. Premenstrual symptoms and social activities. The prevalence of each premenstrual symptom was high. The prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD was 8.6% and 2.9%, respectively, the same as in general high school students. The athletic performance of 44.3% of athletes was found to suffer in a game or in practice. "Elite athletes" (OR 8.63, 95% CI: 1.22-120.0), "Difficulty concentrating" (OR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.05-10.6), and "Fatigue or lack of energy" (OR 5.92, 95% CI: 1.32-34.5) increased the risk of poor athletic performance. This study showed that premenstrual symptoms affect not only the daily activities but also the athletic performance of collegiate athletes. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE HIP IN ATHLETES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW FOR RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
Martin, RobRoy L.
Purpose/Background: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for functional performance tests with evidence of reliability and validity that could be used for a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction. Methods: A search of PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were performed to identify movement, balance, hop/jump, or agility functional performance tests from the current peer-reviewed literature used to assess function of the hip in young, athletic subjects. Results: The single-leg stance, deep squat, single-leg squat, and star excursion balance tests (SEBT) demonstrated evidence of validity and normative data for score interpretation. The single-leg stance test and SEBT have evidence of validity with association to hip abductor function. The deep squat test demonstrated evidence as a functional performance test for evaluating femoroacetabular impingement. Hop/Jump tests and agility tests have no reported evidence of reliability or validity in a population of subjects with hip pathology. Conclusions: Use of functional performance tests in the assessment of hip dysfunction has not been well established in the current literature. Diminished squat depth and provocation of pain during the single-leg balance test have been associated with patients diagnosed with FAI and gluteal tendinopathy, respectively. The SEBT and single-leg squat tests provided evidence of convergent validity through an analysis of kinematics and muscle function in normal subjects. Reliability of functional performance tests have not been established on patients with hip dysfunction. Further study is needed to establish reliability and validity of functional performance tests that can be used in a young, athletic population with hip dysfunction. Level of Evidence: 2b (Systematic Review of Literature) PMID:22893860
A cross-sport comparison of performance-based outcomes of professional athletes following primary microfracture of the knee.
Schallmo, Michael S; Singh, Sameer K; Barth, Kathryn A; Freshman, Ryan D; Mai, Harry T; Hsu, Wellington K
The purpose of this study was to compare performance-based outcomes among professional athletes in four major North American sports following microfracture to treat symptomatic chondral defects of the knee. Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who underwent primary unilateral microfracture of the knee were identified through a previously reported protocol based on public sources. Successful return-to-play was defined as returning for at least one professional regular season game after surgery. Regular season player statistics and sport-specific performance scores were compiled for each player. Each player served as his own control, with the season prior to surgery defined as baseline. Comparisons across sports were enabled by adjusting for expected season and career length differences between sports and by calculating percent changes in performance. One hundred thirty one professional athletes who underwent microfracture were included. One hundred three athletes (78.6%) successfully returned to play. The ratio of games started-to-games played before surgery was found to be a significant positive independent predictor of returning (p = 0.002). Compared with their preoperative season, basketball and baseball players demonstrated significantly decreased performance one season after surgery (-14.8%, p = 0.029 and -12.9%, p = 0.002, respectively) that was recoverable to baseline by postoperative seasons 2-3 for baseball players but not for basketball players (-9.7%, p = 0.024). Knee microfracture surgery is associated with a high rate of return to the professional level. However, the impact of this procedure on postoperative performance varied significantly depending on sport. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.