Science.gov

Sample records for improved cold starts

  1. Partial oxidation for improved cold starts in alcohol-fueled engines: Phase 2 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol fuels exhibit poor cold-start performance because of their low volatility. Neat alcohol engines become difficult, if not impossible, to start at temperatures close to or below freezing. Improvements in the cold-start performance (both time to start and emissions) are essential to capture the full benefits of alcohols as an alternative transportation fuel. The objective of this project was to develop a neat alcohol partial oxidation (POX) reforming technology to improve an alcohol engine`s ability to start at low temperatures (as low as {minus}30 C) and to reduce its cold-start emissions. The project emphasis was on fuel-grade ethanol (E95) but the technology can be easily extended to other alcohol fuels. Ultimately a compact, on-vehicle, ethanol POX reactor was developed as a fuel system component to produce a hydrogen-rich, fuel-gas mixture for cold starts. The POX reactor is an easily controllable combustion device that allows flexibility during engine startup even in the most extreme conditions. It is a small device that is mounted directly onto the engine intake manifold. The gaseous fuel products (or reformate) from the POX reactor exit the chamber and enter the intake manifold, either replacing or supplementing the standard ethanol fuel consumed during an engine start. The combustion of the reformate during startup can reduce engine start time and tail-pipe emissions.

  2. Engine Cold Start

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    have a high surface to volume ratio for the combustion chamber , and high gas velocities during compression that results in high heat transfer rates...into the pre- chambers during the injection event to augment ignition. Except for a thermostatically controlled cold start advance, the mechanical fuel...Kistler Cylinder Pressure Transducer, 6052B (Main- Chamber ) • Kistler 5018 Charge Amplifiers • Kistler Fuel Line Pressure Transducer, 4065A1000 with

  3. Alcohol cold starting - A theoretical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two theoretical computer models have been developed to study cold starting problems with alcohol fuels. The first model, a droplet fall-out and sling-out model, shows that droplets must be smaller than 50 microns to enter the cylinder under cranking conditions without being slung-out in the intake manifold. The second model, which examines the fate of droplets during the compression process, shows that the heat of compression can be used to vaporize small droplets (less than 50 microns) producing flammable mixtures below freezing ambient temperatures. While droplet size has the greater effect on startability, a very high compression ratio can also aid cold starting.

  4. Cold-start hydrocarbon emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This article describes an effective, energy-efficient strategy for dealing with this problem using HC traps and heat-exchange related catalyst beds that have been successfully tested. The worldwide regulatory climate for continued and dramatic reductions in vehicle exhaust emissions will continue unabated for some time. The best known of these mandates includes California Air Resources Board`s Low Emission Vehicle (CARB LEV) program, the Ozone Transport Commission`s recent petition to the EPA for partial adoption of CARB`s LEV program, and the European Economic Community`s proposed staged multi-tier approach to reduce auto exhaust pollution. Since up to 70% of hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions occur during the cold-start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), significant reductions in total FTP HC emissions must include a cold-start HC abatement strategy.

  5. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  6. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, T.; O'Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  7. Improved genome-scale multi-target virtual screening via a novel collaborative filtering approach to cold-start problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hansaim; Gray, Paul; Xie, Lei; Poleksic, Aleksandar

    2016-12-01

    Conventional one-drug-one-gene approach has been of limited success in modern drug discovery. Polypharmacology, which focuses on searching for multi-targeted drugs to perturb disease-causing networks instead of designing selective ligands to target individual proteins, has emerged as a new drug discovery paradigm. Although many methods for single-target virtual screening have been developed to improve the efficiency of drug discovery, few of these algorithms are designed for polypharmacology. Here, we present a novel theoretical framework and a corresponding algorithm for genome-scale multi-target virtual screening based on the one-class collaborative filtering technique. Our method overcomes the sparseness of the protein-chemical interaction data by means of interaction matrix weighting and dual regularization from both chemicals and proteins. While the statistical foundation behind our method is general enough to encompass genome-wide drug off-target prediction, the program is specifically tailored to find protein targets for new chemicals with little to no available interaction data. We extensively evaluate our method using a number of the most widely accepted gene-specific and cross-gene family benchmarks and demonstrate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms for predicting the interaction of new chemicals with multiple proteins. Thus, the proposed algorithm may provide a powerful tool for multi-target drug design.

  8. Improved genome-scale multi-target virtual screening via a novel collaborative filtering approach to cold-start problem

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hansaim; Gray, Paul; Xie, Lei; Poleksic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Conventional one-drug-one-gene approach has been of limited success in modern drug discovery. Polypharmacology, which focuses on searching for multi-targeted drugs to perturb disease-causing networks instead of designing selective ligands to target individual proteins, has emerged as a new drug discovery paradigm. Although many methods for single-target virtual screening have been developed to improve the efficiency of drug discovery, few of these algorithms are designed for polypharmacology. Here, we present a novel theoretical framework and a corresponding algorithm for genome-scale multi-target virtual screening based on the one-class collaborative filtering technique. Our method overcomes the sparseness of the protein-chemical interaction data by means of interaction matrix weighting and dual regularization from both chemicals and proteins. While the statistical foundation behind our method is general enough to encompass genome-wide drug off-target prediction, the program is specifically tailored to find protein targets for new chemicals with little to no available interaction data. We extensively evaluate our method using a number of the most widely accepted gene-specific and cross-gene family benchmarks and demonstrate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms for predicting the interaction of new chemicals with multiple proteins. Thus, the proposed algorithm may provide a powerful tool for multi-target drug design. PMID:27958331

  9. Strategic Delusions - The Cold Start Doctrine: Proactive Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Strategic Delusions – The Cold Start Doctrine: Proactive Strategy A Monograph by MAJ...Delusions - The Cold Start Doctrine: Proactive Strategy Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Muhammad...ofnuclear-armed club, which should have introduced a degree of deterrent certainty; the ground reality has not changed much. The introduction of Cold

  10. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  11. Cold-start link prediction in multi-relational networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shun-yao; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Mei

    2017-10-01

    During the last decade, interaction data have accumulated exponentially in many fields and provide a new opportunity for cold start link prediction. It seems necessarily to take full advantages of diversified information. However, correlation between different interactions has to be pre-tested. Therefore, this paper abstracts complex systems as multi-relational networks, and employs latent space network model to extract low-dimensional factors of sub-networks and adopts likelihood ratio test to examine correlation between factors. Then, regression between target sub-networks and correlated auxiliary sub-networks could be established for cold start link prediction. Experiments on 8 bioinformatic data sets validate the effectiveness and potential of our strategy for network correlation analysis and cold-start link prediction.

  12. Cold-start characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mishler, Jeff; Mukundan, Rangachary; Wang, Yun; Mishler, Jeff; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics, species transport, and solid water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. A simplitied analysis is developed to enable the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction on cell performance during coldstart. Supporting neutron imaging data are also provided to reveal the real-time water evolution. Temperature-dependent voltage changes due to the reaction kinetics and ohmic loss are also analyzed based on the ionic conductivity of the membrane at subfreezing temperature. The analysis is valuable for the fundamental study of PEFC cold-start.

  13. Yes, Head Start Improves Reading!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet J.

    This study evaluated the effect of a Head Start program on children's intelligence and reading achievement test scores over a three year period. Each of 25 Head Start children was paired with a non-Head Start child of the same reace, sex, age, socioeconomic status, date of school entrance, kindergarten experience, promotion record, and type of…

  14. Solid fiber Z-pinches: ''Cold-start'' computations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computations have been performed to study the behavior of solid deuterium fiber Z-pinch experiments performed at Los Alamos and the Naval Research Laboratory. The computations use a tabulated atomic data base and ''cold-start'' initial conditions. The computations predict that the solid fiber persists longer in existing experiments than previously expected and that the discharge actually consists of a relatively low-density, hot plasma which has been ablated from the fiber. The computations exhibit m = 0 behavior in the hot, exterior plasma prior to complete ablation of the solid fiber. The m = 0 behavior enhances the fiber ablation rate. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Promoting cold-start items in recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs.

  16. Promoting Cold-Start Items in Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs. PMID:25479013

  17. Pseudo one-dimensional analysis of polymer electrolyte fuel cell cold-start

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Partha P; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; Wang, Yun; Mishlera, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the electrochemical kinetics, oxygen transport, and solid water formation in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) during cold start. Following [Yo Wang, J. Electrochem. Soc., 154 (2007) B1041-B1048], we develop a pseudo one-dimensional analysis, which enables the evaluation of the impact of ice volume fraction and temperature variations on cell performance during cold-start. The oxygen profile, starvation ice volume fraction, and relevant overpotentials are obtained. This study is valuable for studying the characteristics of PEFC cold-start.

  18. A Fuel-Based Approach to Estimating Motor Vehicle Cold-Start Emissions.

    PubMed

    Singer, Brett C; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Harley, Robert A; Kendall, Gary R; Hesson, James M

    1999-02-01

    The temporary ineffectiveness of motor vehicle emission controls at startup causes emission rates to be much higher for a short period after starting than during fully warmed, or stabilized, vehicle operation. Official motor vehicle emission inventories estimate that excess emissions during cold-start operation contribute a significant fraction of all hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from California vehicles. In an effort to verify these estimates under real-world conditions, vehicle emissions were measured in an underground parking garage in Oakland, CA, during March 1997. Hot stabilized emissions were measured as vehicles arrived at the garage in the morning, and cold-start emissions were measured as vehicles exited in the afternoon; the incremental, or excess, emissions associated with vehicle starting were calculated by difference. Composite emissions from ~135 vehicles were sampled during each of six morning and six afternoon periods. Measured stabilized exhaust emissions were 19 ± 2 g nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), 223 ± 17 g CO, and 8.6 ± 1.3 g NOx per gal of gasoline consumed. Cold-start emissions of 69 ± 2 g NMHC/gal, 660 ± 15 g CO/gal, and 27.8 ± 1.2 g NOx/gal were measured for vehicles spending an average of ~60 sec in the garage after starting in the afternoon. Using second-by-second emissions data from California's light-duty vehicle surveillance program, average fuel use during cold start was estimated to be ~0.07 gal, and the cold-start period was estimated to last for ~200 sec. When cold-start emission factors measured in the garage were scaled to represent the full 200-sec cold-start period, incremental start emission factors of 2.1 g NMHC, 16 g CO, and 2.1 g NOx per vehicle start were calculated. These emission factors are lower than those used by California's motor vehicle emission inventory model (MVEI 7G) by 45% for NMHC, 65% for CO, and 12% for NOx. This suggests that the importance of cold-start

  19. Cold-start and chemical characterization of emissions from mobile sources in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R

    2010-10-01

    In this work tailpipe and evaporative emissions from a set of normal and high emitter vehicle models, year 2006-2008 (low mileage) certified when new to meet the Tier 1 emission standard, were characterized for criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons), and a suite of unregulated emissions including aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, monocyclic aromatic compounds, 1,3 butadiene, n-hexane and acrolein. Data were obtained under the three different driving conditions of the United States Federal Test Procedure, FTP-75 cycle. High emissions of both regulated and unregulated pollutants were observed in the cold-start phase of the driving cycle for low mileage Tier 1 normal and high emitters engines. Data were compared with results obtained for a set of MY > 1992-2005 that included vehicles with no catalytic converters, Tier 0 and MY 2000-5 Tier 1 emission standard with high mileage. The calculated average cold-start emissions for normal emitters in grams are 0.93, 8.21 and 1.06 for NMHC CO, and NOx, respectively for Tier 1 low mileage vehicles. The reductions in emissions for Tier 1 normal emitters are 76%, 56% and 56% for NMHC, CO and NOx, respectively, but 58%, 30% and 25% for the high emitters. Differences in emission can be ascribed to the mileage accumulation more than technological improvements. Cold-start emissions account in the USA roughly 10% of emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. In Mexico the fractions are likely to be higher because one must account also for the contribution of Tier 0 and the running exhausts emissions of vehicles with no catalytic converters.

  20. Assessment and Correlation of Customer and Rater Response to Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Satisfcation Versus Fuel Volatility Level- TWD Vehicles ............................................... 9 XIII. Comparison of Customer and Rater Results...AD-A271 775 CRC Report No. 585 ASSESSMENT AND CORRELATION OF CUSTOMER AND RATER RESPONSE TO COLD-START AND WARMUP DRIVEABILITY -bA A K-70-&q _C -oo0...404) 396-3404 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ASSESSMENT AND CORRELATION OF CUSTOMER AND RATER RESPONSE TO COLD-START AND WARMUP DRIVEABILITY

  1. Modeling of cold start processes and performance optimization for proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yibo; Luo, Yueqi; Yu, Shuhai; Jiao, Kui

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a cold start model for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks is developed, and a novel start-up method, variable heating and load control (VHLC), is proposed and evaluated. The main idea is to only apply load to the neighboring still-active cells, and to apply external heating to certain cells inside the stack simultaneously (load is not applied to the cells fully blocked by ice, although these cells can gain heat from neighboring cells). With the VHLC method, it is found that the stack voltage first increases, then decreases due to the full blockage of ice in some of the individual cells, and finally the dead cells are heated by the other active cells and activated again one by one. Based on this method, the external heating power and the stack self-heating ability are utilized more efficiently. With proper implementation of the VHLC method, it is demonstrated that the cold stat performance can be improved significantly, which is critically important for PEMFC in automotive applications.

  2. Cold start characteristics of ethanol as an automobile fuel

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1982-01-01

    An alcohol fuel burner and decomposer in which one stream of fuel is preheated by passing it through an electrically heated conduit to vaporize the fuel, the fuel vapor is mixed with air, the air-fuel mixture is ignited and combusted, and the combustion gases are passed in heat exchange relationship with a conduit carrying a stream of fuel to decompose the fuel forming a fuel stream containing hydrogen gas for starting internal combustion engines, the mass flow of the combustion gas being increased as it flows in heat exchange relationship with the fuel carrying conduit, is disclosed.

  3. Improving cold chain systems: Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Ashvin; Brison, Michael; LeTallec, Yann

    2017-04-19

    While a number of new vaccines have been rolled out across the developing world (with more vaccines in the pipeline), cold chain systems are struggling to efficiently support national immunization programs in ensuring the availability of safe and potent vaccines. This article reflects on the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) experience working since 2010 with national immunization programs and partners to improve vaccines cold chains in 10 countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Mozambique, Lesotho and India - to identify the root causes and solutions for three common issues limiting cold chain performance. Key recommendations include: Collectively, the solutions detailed in this article chart a path to substantially improving the performance of the cold chain. Combined with an enabling global and in-country environment, it is possible to eliminate cold chain issues as a substantial barrier to effective and full immunization coverage over the next few years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Comparison of exhaust emissions resulting from cold- and hot-start motorcycle driving modes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Ye, Hui-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the emissions of criteria air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbons [HCs], and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) from motorcycle exhaust at cold- and hot-start driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. Seven four-stroke carburetors and two fuel-injection motorcycles were tested. As expected, the emission factors (g/km) of CO and HCs increased during cold-start driving. The ratio of emission factors (g/km) for cold- and hot-start driving cycles ranged from 1.1-1.5 (for CO) to 1.2-2.8 (for HCs). However, the difference of NOx emissions between the cold- and hot-start cycles was not pronounced. Further, the cold-/hot-start ratios of CO and HCs from 50-cm3 motorcycles were higher than those of 100- and 125-cm3 motorcycles; however, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission was the lowest for the four-stroke motorcycles. High engine temperature and poor combustion efficiency of smaller cylinder-capacity motorcycles may contribute a significant amount of exhaust emission. Additionally, the fuel-base emission factor (g/L-fuel) ratios were low compared with the distance-base emission factor (g/km) in cold- and hot-start driving. This indicates that the effect of catalyst efficiency was greater than the effect of fuel combustion in the tested motorcycles. A comparison of emission ratios of motorcycles and passenger cars shows that the warm-up may be more important for cars, especially under low-temperature conditions. However, the motorcycle contributes a large proportion of CO and HC emissions in many Asian counties. The difference between cold- and hot-start emissions may affect inventory

  5. Statistic analysis of operational influences on the cold start behaviour of PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszcipok, M.; Riemann, D.; Kronenwett, U.; Kreideweis, M.; Zedda, M.

    For portable fuel cell systems a multitude of applications have been presented over the past few years. Most of these applications were developed for indoor use, and not optimised for outdoor conditions. The key problem concerning this case is the cold start ability of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). This topic was first investigated by the automotive industry, which has the same requirements for alternative traction systems as for conventional combustion engines. The technical challenge is the fact that produced water freezes to ice after shut-down of the PEMFC and during start-up when the temperature is below 0 °C. To investigate the basic cold start behaviour isothermal, potentiostatic single cell experiments were performed and the results are presented. The cold start behaviour is evaluated using the calculated cumulated charge transfer through the membrane which directly corresponds with the amount of produced water in the PEMFC. The charge transfer curves were mathematically fitted to obtain only three parameters describing the cold start-up with the cumulated charge transfer density and the results are analysed using the statistical software Cornerstone 4.0. The results of the statistic regression analyses are used to establish a statistic-based prediction model of the cold start behaviour which describes the behaviour of the current density during the experiment. The regression shows that the initial start current mainly depends on the membrane humidity and the operation voltage. After the membrane humidity has reached its maximum, the current density drops down to zero. The current decay also depends on the constant gas flows of the reactant gases. Ionic conductivity of the membrane and charge transfer resistance were investigated by a series of ac impedance spectra during potentiostatic operation of the single cell at freezing temperatures. Cyclic voltammetry and polarisation curves between cold start experiments show degradation

  6. Improvements in Cold-Plate Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaffetti, Mark A.; Taddey, Edmund P.; Laurin, Michael B.; Chabebe, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Five improvements are reported in cold-plate fabrication. This cold plate is part of a thermal control system designed to serve on space missions. The first improvement is the merging of the end sheets of the cold plate with the face sheets of the structural honeycomb panel. The cold plate, which can be a brazed assembly, uses the honeycomb face sheet as its end sheet. Thus, when the honeycomb panel is fabricated, the face sheet that is used is already part of the cold plate. In addition to reducing weight, costs, and steps, the main benefit of this invention is that it creates a more structurally sound assembly. The second improvement involves incorporation of the header into the closure bar to pass the fluid to a lower layer. Conventional designs have used a separate header, which increases the geometry of the system. The improvement reduces the geometry, thus allowing the cold plate to fit into smaller area. The third improvement eliminates the need of hose, tube, or manifold to supply the cooling fluid externally. The external arrangement can be easily damaged and is vulnerable to leakage. The new arrangement incorporates an internal fluid transfer tube. This allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features. The fourth improvement eliminates separate fabrication of cold plate(s) and structural members followed by a process of attaching them to each other. Here, the structural member is made of material that can be brazed just as that of the cold plate. Now the structural member and the cold plate can be brazed at the same time, creating a monolithic unit, and thus a more structurally sound assembly. Finally, the fifth improvement is the elimination of an additional welding step that can damage the braze joints. A tube section, which is usually welded on after the braze process, is replaced with a more structurally sound configuration that can be brazed at the same time as the rest of the cold plate.

  7. Low temperature operation and influence parameters on the cold start ability of portable PEMFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszcipok, M.; Zedda, M.; Riemann, D.; Geckeler, D.

    The start up behaviour of PEM fuel cells below 0 °C is one of the most challenging tasks to be solved before commercialisation. The automotive industry started to develop solutions to reduce the start up time of fuel cell systems in the middle of the nineties. The strategies varied from catalytic combustion of hydrogen on the electrode catalyst to fuel starvation or external stack heating via cooling loops to increase the stack temperature. Beside the automotive sector the cold start ability is as well important for portable PEMFC applications for outdoor use. But here the cold start issue is even more complicated, as the fuel cell system should be operated as passive as possible. Below 0 °C freezing of water inside the PEMFC could form ice layers in the electrode and in the gas diffusion layer. Therefore the cell reaction is limited or even inhibited. Product water during the start up builds additional barriers and leads to a strong decay of the output power at isothermal operating conditions. In order to find out which operational and hardware parameters affect this decay, potentiostatic experiments on single cells were performed at isothermal conditions. These experiments comprise investigations of the influence of membrane thickness and different GDL types as well as the effect of gas flow rates and humidification levels of the membrane. As pre stage to physical based models, empirical based prediction models are used to gain a better understanding of the main influence parameters during cold start. The results are analysed using the statistical software Cornerstone 4.0. The experience of single cell investigations are compared to start up behaviour of portable fuel cell stacks which are operated in a climate chamber at different ambient temperatures below 0 °C. Additional flow sharing problems in the fuel cell stack could be seen during cold start up experiments.

  8. Cold starting of fluorescent lamps - part I: a description of the transient regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Reinhard; Garner, Richard; Paul, Irina; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we give a proposal for the transient behaviour of a cold-started fluorescent lamp, from the generation of the first conductive channel over the normal and abnormal glow discharge and the glow-to-arc (GTA) transition to the arc discharge in the steady state. Starting from the equilibrium voltage-current characteristics of the lamp and considering recent experimental results a qualitative description of the transient regime is developed, which was so far not available in the literature.

  9. Starting Small for Big School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharff, Helen A.; DeAngelis, Deirdre A.; Talbert, Joan E.

    2010-01-01

    In the Scaffolded Apprenticeship Model (SAM), a school improvement strategy in place in New York City; Boston, Massachusetts; and Oakland, California, teacher teams improve their schools by studying and closing high-leverage learning gaps for small groups of struggling students as a strategy for systemic change. SAM's goal is for each school to…

  10. Starting Small for Big School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharff, Helen A.; DeAngelis, Deirdre A.; Talbert, Joan E.

    2010-01-01

    In the Scaffolded Apprenticeship Model (SAM), a school improvement strategy in place in New York City; Boston, Massachusetts; and Oakland, California, teacher teams improve their schools by studying and closing high-leverage learning gaps for small groups of struggling students as a strategy for systemic change. SAM's goal is for each school to…

  11. A Power Management Scheme Using A Time-Shared Inductor for Energy Harvester Applications with Low Cold-Start Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, David King Wai

    Performance of energy harvesters is investigated for Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. Analysis reveals the inductor can be time-shared between energy harvesting and load regulation in an energy-effcient manner by leveraging IoT systems' low activity factor. However, such implementations can impair the harvester's capability during cold-start. Subsequently, the system has to compromise its input/output voltage range and/or increase the inductance. Two novel architectures - Zero Reference, Self-Starving Ring Oscillator and Dickson- Linked Voltage Doubler - are developed to enhance the converter's cold-start. Post-layout simulations demonstrate the proposed solution can cold-start from 225mV input using 4.7H inductor, translating to 25% improvement over existing solutions. Besides time-sharing the inductor, the periodic nature of IoT applications is exploited to enhance dynamic response of load regulation. A Preemptive Concurrent Control (PCC) scheme is established and presented. Experimental results show the PCC surpasses existing solutions in dynamic response and achieves same specications using 10x less capacitance.

  12. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Hydrocarbon and NOx Adsorber

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jae-Soon; Daw, C Stuart; Parks, II, James E; Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    We presents a study of the potential for using low-cost sorbent materials (i.e. Ag-Beta-zeolite and Fe-Mn-Zr transition metal oxides) to temporally trap hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions during cold-start periods in HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles. The adsorption behavior of the candidate sorbent materials was characterized in our laboratory flow reactor experiments. The parameters were then used to develop a one-dimensional, transient device model which has been implemented in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to simulate a passive HC and NOx absorber device. The results show that such an absorber can substantially reduce HC and NOx emissions by storing them when the 3-way catalyst is too cool to function and re-releasing them when the exhaust temperature rises. These improved emission controls do not involve any penalty in fuel consumption or require any change in engine operation. The cost of these sorbent materials is also much less than conventional 3-way catalysts.

  13. Start Here for Improving Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike

    2004-01-01

    For all the current controversy surrounding issues of student achievement and accountability, we forget there is far less controversy about a shared desire on all sides to see more kids learn, to reduce the achievement gap, and to improve the quality of the complex work of teaching in all schools, whether they are affluent or not. So what if there…

  14. Alternative EHC heating patterns and their impact on cold-start emissions performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kubsh, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    Electrically heated catalytic converter (EHC) heating patterns which utilize zones covering less than the available face cross-sectional area have been evaluated for cold start FTP performance. In this work a closer look is given to the concept of partial cross-sectional heating of the EHC as a means of reducing EHC energy demands. A specially designed EHC prototype that includes provisions for electrically heating various extents of the EHC cross-section has been evaluated in both low-mileage and simulated high-mileage conditions using the FTP driving cycle. The impact of various `zoned` EHC heating patterns on cold-start emission performance is presented and discussed. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A personal sampler for aircraft engine cold start particles: laboratory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David

    2003-01-01

    Industrial hygienists in the U.S. Air Force are concerned about exposure of their personnel to jet fuel. One potential source of exposure for flightline ground crews is the plume emitted during the start of aircraft engines in extremely cold weather. The purpose of this study was to investigate a personal sampler, a small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitator (ESP), for assessing exposure to aircraft engine cold start particles. Tests were performed in the laboratory to characterize the sampler's collection efficiency and to determine the magnitude of adsorption and evaporation artifacts. A low-temperature chamber was developed for the artifact experiments so tests could be performed at temperatures similar to actual field conditions. The ESP collected particles from 0.5 to 20 micro m diameter with greater than 98% efficiency at particle concentrations up to 100 mg/m(3). Adsorption artifacts were less than 5 micro g/m(3) when sampling a high concentration vapor stream. Evaporation artifacts were significantly lower for the ESP than for PVC membrane filters across a range of sampling times and incoming vapor concentrations. These tests indicate that the ESP provides more accurate exposure assessment results than traditional filter-based particle samplers when sampling cold start particles produced by an aircraft engine.

  16. Cold-start emissions of modern passenger cars at different low ambient temperatures and their evolution over vehicle legislation categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves; Alvarez, Robert

    The emissions of modern gasoline and diesel passenger cars are reduced by catalysts except in cold-starting. Since catalysts require a certain temperature (typically above 300 °C) to work to full efficiency, emissions are significantly higher during the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's propulsion systems. The additional emissions during a warm-up phase, known as "cold-start extra emissions" (CSEEs) for emission inventory modelling, are mostly assessed by emission measurements at an ambient temperature of 23 °C. However, in many European countries average ambient temperatures are below 23 °C. This necessitates emission measurements at lower temperatures in order to model and assess cold-start emissions for real-world temperature conditions. This paper investigates the influence of regulated pollutants and CO 2 emissions of recent gasoline and diesel car models (Euro-4 legislation) at different ambient temperatures, 23, -7 and -20 °C. We present a survey and model of the evolution of cold-start emissions as a function of different car generations (pre-Euro-1 to Euro-4 legislations). In addition the contribution of CSEEs to total fleet running emissions is shown to highlight their increasing importance. For gasoline cars, it turns out that in average real-world driving the majority of the CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) total emissions are due to cold-start extra emissions. Moreover, the cold-start emissions increase considerably at lower ambient temperatures. In contrast, cold-start emissions of diesel cars are significantly lower than those of gasoline cars. Furthermore, the transition from Euro-3 to Euro-4 gasoline vehicles shows a trend for a smaller decline for cold-start extra emissions than for legislative limits. Particle and NO x emission of cold-starts are less significant.

  17. Ice-Crystallization Kinetics during Fuel-Cell Cold-Start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dursch, Thomas James, Jr.

    Proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) show promise in automotive applications because of their high efficiency, high power density, and potentially low emissions. To be successful in automobiles, PEMFCs must permit rapid startup with minimal energy from subfreezing temperatures, known as cold-start. In a PEMFC, reduction of oxygen to water occurs in the cathode catalyst layer (CL). Under subfreezing conditions, water generated during startup solidifies and hinders access of gaseous oxygen to the catalytic sites in the cathode CL, severely inhibiting cell performance and potentially causing cell failure. Achieving cold-start is difficult in practice, due to potential flooding, sluggish reaction kinetics, durability loss, and rapid ice crystallization. Currently, however, few studies focus on the fundamentals of ice crystallization during cold-start. Elucidation of the mechanisms and kinetics of ice formation within PEMFC porous media is, therefore, critical to successful cell startup and high performance at low temperatures. First, an experimental method is presented for obtaining isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in water-saturated gas-diffusion layers (GDLs). Ice formation is initially studied in the GDL because this layer retains a significant amount of product water during cold-start. Isothermal ice-crystallization and ice-nucleation rates are obtained in commercial Toray GDLs as functions of subcooling using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A nonlinear ice-crystallization rate expression is developed using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory, in which the heat-transfer-limited growth rate is determined from the moving-boundary Stefan problem. Predicted ice-crystallization rates are in excellent agreement with experiment. A validated rate expression is thus available for predicting ice-crystallization kinetics in GDLs. Ice-crystallization kinetics is also considered under experimental settings similar to real PEMFC operating

  18. Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

    2008-01-01

    Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

  19. Assessment and correlation of customer and rater response to cold-start and warmup driveability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A program was conducted from January 14 through March 8, 1991, at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, to establish a relationship between demerits observed in CRC Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability assessments to customer satisfaction levels, and to determine which of several performance deficiencies associated with low volatility gasolines are most troublesome to customers during normal vehicle warmup. Customers used their vehicles in daily service, and a subset of the test fleet was evaluated by trained raters using the established CRC test procedure. There were 7,206 driveability performance assessments by customers which were correlated with 661 trained-rater cold-start driveability evaluations. One hundred sixty-seven SwRI employees participated in the program. Hesitation was the most widely observed problem and was the primary cause of dissatisfaction. The gasoline-ethanol and hydrocarbon-only fuel sets had distinctly different malfunction patterns. Hesitation was strongly associated with gasoline ethanol blends, while surge and stumble were strongly associated with hydrocarbon-only fuels. The current total weighted demerit (TWD) system was found to correlate poorly with customer satisfaction; however, customer observations of problems correlated no better with customer satisfaction. If TWD is to be an indicator of customer perception of driveability performance there should be uniform weighting of rater-observed malfunctions, and start-time should be assigned a greater weighting and a shorter grace period.

  20. Cold start fuel consumption of a diesel and a petrol car

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, T.C.; Waters, M.H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the fuel consumption of a petrol and a diesel car when starting from cold. The cars were the 1.1 liter petrol VW Golf and the 1.5 liter diesel version, which have the same passenger accommodation and nearly identical road performance. It was found that the diesel car used less fuel in the warm-up period than the petrol, both when being driven at constant speed on a test track and with the engine idling and the car stationary. (Copyright (c) Crown Copyright 1980.)

  1. Evidence of cold bubble-like structure in START density limit plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, C.; Jenkins, I.; Martin, R.; Sykes, A.; Walsh, M. J.

    2008-09-15

    Cold bubble (CB) structures were observed in START density limit studies for the first time in a low aspect ratio tokamak. They seem related to minor and major disruption processes, clearly identified here as a trigger to those events. Enormous discrepancies on the CB velocities in several devices are reported. This shows that the physical mechanisms related to the time scales for its propagation should be revised. Several models related to CB formation and its role in the disruptive process or just in a plasma with the presence of sawteeth qualitatively predict a great part of the observations.

  2. On-board generation of a highly volatile starting fuel to reduce automobile cold-start emissions.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Marcus D; Matthews, Ronald D

    2006-09-15

    The on-board distillation system (OBDS) was developed to extract, from gasoline, a high-volatility fuel for exclusive use during the starting and warm-up periods. The use of OBDS distillate fuel results in much improved mixture preparation, allowing combinations of air/fuel ratio and ignition timing that are not possible with gasoline, even with a fully warm engine. The volatility of the distillate is a function of the parent fuel volatility; however, the variability in distillate quality can be diminished via manipulation of the OBDS operating conditions. Thus, it is possible to develop aggressive starting calibrations that are relatively immune to variations in pump gasoline volatility. The key benefits provided bythe OBDS fuel relative to standard gasoline were found to be (1) improved mixture preparation allowing a 70% reduction of cranking fuel requirements, elimination of air-fuel mixture enrichment during the warm-up period, and significant extension of warm-up ignition timing retard; (2) a 57% decrease in catalyst light-off time, (3) emissions reductions over the FTP drive cycle of 81% for regulated hydrocarbons (NMOG); (4) emissions index (NMOG) approaching that of SULEV/PZEV vehicles; and (5) an apparent 1% increase in fuel economy over the FTP drive cycle.

  3. Cold starting of fluorescent lamps - part II: experiments on glow times and electrode damaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Reinhard; Paul, Irina; Hilscher, Achim; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we present experiments on cold start and the resulting electrode damaging (reducing lamp life) of AC driven fluorescent lamps. The crucial parameter is the glow time, determined from time resolved measurements of lamp voltage and current. The relation between the energy consumed during glow phase and the glow time is studied. It turns out that there is no common threshold of energy until the glow-to-arc transition takes place, but strong energy input into the lamp yields short glow times. The transient behaviour from the glow to the arc regime is investigated and the stable operation points of the arc discharge are determined, yielding an arc discharge voltage-current characteristics of the lamp type investigated. The electrode damage is investigated as a function of the open source voltage and the ballast resistance. Subsequent cold starts lead to an increase of the glow time due to electrode damaging, i.e., the electrode damage accumulates. Different regeneration procedures and their effectiveness are compared. Regeneration burning turns out to be more effective than heating up the electrode. A criterion for avoiding high electrode damage is obtained, indicating that the average power during glow time should exceed 20 W.

  4. Improved cold tolerance and its mechanism in cold-acclimated rats by high fat diet feeding.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, A; Doi, K; Yahata, T; Ohno, T

    1977-08-01

    Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to cold were studied in cold-acclimated rats on high fat diet (CAHF). Cold tolerance at-5 degrees C was assessed by fall of colonic temperature of clipped rats after 18 h of fasting. Rate of fall in colonic temperature was greatest in warm-acclimated control rats (WAST), slowest in cold-acclimated rats on standard diet (CAST), and remained unchanged in CAHF during cold exposure for 240 min. Increment in blood free fatty acid (FFA) concentration 80 min after cold exposure was greatest in WAST, less in CAST, and least in CAHF. Blood glucose decreased similarly in WAST and CAST after cold exposure, while it remained unchanged in CAHF. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate also increased similarly in WAST and CAST, while it did not change in CAHF. Nonshivering thermogenesis tested by noradrenaline was greatest in CAHF, followed by CAST and WAST. Shivering induced by cold exposure was less pronounced in CAST than in WAST and did not develop in CAHF; changes in colonic temperature were inversely related to the extent of shivering during cold exposure for 90 min. These results suggest that an integrating effect of cold and high fat diet could improve cold tolerance much more than cold acclimation itself, possibly through enhanced nonshivering thermogenesis caused by metabolic modifications such as increased lipid use and gluconeogenesis.

  5. An item-oriented recommendation algorithm on cold-start problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2011-09-01

    Based on a hybrid algorithm incorporating the heat conduction and probability spreading processes (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 107 (2010) 4511), in this letter, we propose an improved method by introducing an item-oriented function, focusing on solving the dilemma of the recommendation accuracy between the cold and popular items. Differently from previous works, the present algorithm does not require any additional information (e.g., tags). Further experimental results obtained in three real datasets, RYM, Netflix and MovieLens, show that, compared with the original hybrid method, the proposed algorithm significantly enhances the recommendation accuracy of the cold items, while it keeps the recommendation accuracy of the overall and the popular items. This work might shed some light on both understanding and designing effective methods for long-tailed online applications of recommender systems.

  6. Cold start fuel/air mixture supply device for spark ignition internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.E.D.

    1984-06-05

    A combined accelerator pump and cold start fuel/air mixture supply device has an automatic throttle valve in a mixture supply passage, a fuel control valve controlling flow of fuel drawn into the passage through an inlet upstream of the throttle valve, and an air valve upstream of the fuel inlet. A primary spring tends to seat the air valve. A light, secondary spring urges a plunger against the air valve to augment the load of the primary spring for a predetermined time interval after the engine begins to run under its own power. A valve in a pipe opens automatically at the end of the predetermined time interval to apply engine inlet manifold depression to the end of the plunger remote from the air valve and thereby to separate the plunger from the air valve so that only the primary spring acts on the air valve.

  7. Time Resolved Measurements of Speciated Tailpipe Emissions from Motor Vehicles: Trends with Emission Control Technology, Cold Start Effects, and Speciation.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Greg T; Zhao, Yunliang; Saliba, Georges; Frodin, Bruce; Maddox, Christine; Weber, Robert J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Maldonado, Hector; Sardar, Satya; Robinson, Allen L; Goldstein, Allen H

    2016-12-20

    Experiments were conducted at the California Air Resources Board Haagen-Smit Laboratory to understand changes in vehicle emissions in response to stricter emissions standards over the past 25 years. Measurements included a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for a wide range of spark ignition gasoline vehicles meeting varying levels of emissions standards, including all certifications from Tier 0 up to Partial Zero Emission Vehicle. Standard gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HLPC) analyses were employed for drive-cycle phase emissions. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer measured time-resolved emissions for a wide range of VOCs. Cold-start emissions occur almost entirely in the first 30-60 s for newer vehicles. Cold-start emissions have compositions that are not significantly different across all vehicles tested and are markedly different from neat fuel. Hot-stabilized emissions have varying importance depending on species and may require a driving distance of 200 miles to equal the emissions from a single cold start. Average commute distances in the U.S. suggest the majority of in-use vehicles have emissions dominated by cold starts. The distribution of vehicle ages in the U.S. suggests that within several years only a few percent of vehicles will have significant driving emissions compared to cold-start emissions.

  8. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  9. Flames and liquid fuel in an SI engine cylinder during cold start

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.; Clasen, E.; Chang, C.; Rhee, K.

    1996-05-01

    The flame propagations in the very first firing and subsequent cycles in an SI engine during cold start were studied to gain a better understanding of reaction fronts associated with liquid fuel (regular unleaded) in the cylinder. This work was performed using the Rutgers high-speed spectral infrared digital imaging system on a single-cylinder engine with optical access. The engine was mounted with a production engine head mated with a conventional pon fuel injection (PFI) system. In the study, four images in respective spectral bands were simultaneously obtained at successive instants of time, which was done for eight sequential cycles. This multiple-band successive-imaging was repeated in intervals of about two minutes over a period of more than twenty-five minutes after the engine start. During this experiment, the temperature changes at the intake port, the water jacket and the exhaust gas were monitored. In addition, pressure-time data was obtained from individual cycles in order to gain some insight into the overall in-cylinder reactions. The first firing cycle exhibited almost invariably weak flame propagation, which was followed by very intense flame fronts in the next cycle. Note that the flame propagation in the first cycle seems to only indicate consumption of the filel vapor available in the cycle. The flames in the third cycle were also intense in some cases, but mostly weaker than those in the second. Upon formation of the flame front in the beginning of combustion, some exceedingly strong local reactions started to grow, but no earlier than l5CA after TDC.

  10. Improved Starting Materials for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An improved type of starting materials for the fabrication of silicon-based imaging integrated circuits that include back-illuminated photodetectors has been conceived, and a process for making these starting materials is undergoing development. These materials are intended to enable reductions in dark currents and increases in quantum efficiencies, relative to those of comparable imagers made from prior silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting materials. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the improved starting materials and process. A prior SOI starting material, depicted in the upper part the figure, includes: a) A device layer on the front side, typically between 2 and 20 m thick, made of p-doped silicon (that is, silicon lightly doped with an electron acceptor, which is typically boron); b) A buried oxide (BOX) layer (that is, a buried layer of oxidized silicon) between 0.2 and 0.5 m thick; and c) A silicon handle layer (also known as a handle wafer) on the back side, between about 600 and 650 m thick. After fabrication of the imager circuitry in and on the device layer, the handle wafer is etched away, the BOX layer acting as an etch stop. In subsequent operation of the imager, light enters from the back, through the BOX layer. The advantages of back illumination over front illumination have been discussed in prior NASA Tech Briefs articles.

  11. Urgent-start peritoneal dialysis: a quality improvement report.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Arshia

    2012-03-01

    Compared with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a cost-effective and patient-centered option with an early survival advantage, yet only 7% of patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States receive PD. PD underutilization is due in part to nephrologists' unfamiliarity with directly starting PD in patients who present with kidney failure requiring urgent initiation of dialysis. Quality improvement report. Single-center study whereby 18 patients who presented urgently with chronic kidney disease stage 5 without a plan for dialysis modality were offered PD as the initial modality of dialysis. Concurrently, 9 patients started on PD therapy nonurgently were included as the comparative group. An urgent-start PD program was developed to support and standardize the process by which patients without a plan for dialysis modality were started on PD. This included rapid PD access placement, PD nursing education, and administrative support. Standardized protocols were created for modality selection, initial prescription, and prevention and management of complications. Short-term (90-day) clinical outcomes (Kt/V, hemoglobin, iron saturation, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, calcium, and albumin) and complications (peritonitis, exit-site infections, leaks, and catheter malfunction) were compared between the urgent-start and non-urgent-start PD groups. Short-term clinical outcomes were similar between the 2 groups for all parameters except uncorrected serum calcium level, which was lower in the urgent-start group (P = 0.02). Peritonitis, exit-site infection, catheter-related complications, and other complications were similar between the 2 groups, although the number of minor leaks was higher in the urgent-start group. This is a single-center nonrandomized study with a small sample size. Our structured program shows safety and feasibility in starting PD in patients with kidney failure who present without a plan for dialysis modality. The steps laid out in this

  12. Investigation of Diesel combustion using multiple injection strategies for idling after cold start of passenger-car engines

    SciTech Connect

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Salavert, J.M.; Martin, J.

    2010-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to better understand the combustion behaviour in a low compression ratio DI Diesel engine when multiple injection strategies are applied just after the engine cold starts in low temperature conditions (idling). More specifically, the aim of this study was twofold: on one hand, to understand the effect of the multiple injection strategies on the indicated mean effective pressure; on the other hand, to contribute to the understanding of combustion stability characterized by the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure. The first objective was fulfilled by analyzing the rate of heat release obtained by in-cylinder pressure diagnosis. The results showed that the timing of the pilot injection closest to the main injection was the most influential parameter based on the behaviour of the rate of heat release (regardless of the multiple injection strategy applied). For the second objective, the combustion stability was found to be correlated with the combustion centroid angle. The results showed a trend between them and the existence of a range of centroid angles where the combustion stability is strong enough. In addition, it was also evident that convenient split injection allows shifting the centroid to such a zone and improves combustion stability after start. (author)

  13. Cold start extra emissions as a function of engine stop time: Evolution over the last 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Jean-Yves; Weilenmann, Martin; Stilli, Jan

    Cars with catalysts show a significant increase in exhaust emissions at engine start. These extra emissions are expressed as the difference, over a particular driving cycle, between emissions generated when the vehicle is started and when the engine or the catalyst are stably warm. Experimental data, suitable for the assessment of cold start emissions, are usually available for completely cooled engines. Most results originate from tests at ambient temperature of 20-30 °C and with an engine stop time of at least 12 h. On the other hand, data including shorter stop times are very rare. The present work investigates the influence of exhaust emissions with shorter stop times, i.e. 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. The main goal consists in the comparison of emissions exhausted by recent car models (Euro-4) against emissions assessed in the framework of a similar campaign 10 years ago (FAV1/Euro-1 vehicles). A short survey of the current extra emission estimation methods is presented in this paper. It is shown that some methods are not suited for providing correct estimations in all cases. We discuss the fact that different estimation methods can show either similar or completely different results depending on the evolution behaviour of the hot emissions. Due to new technologies, e.g. the catalyst and improved engine control algorithms, emissions have been considerably reduced over the last 10 years. In this study it is determined how the relative extra emissions, i.e. extra emissions relative to the extra emissions for the standard stop time of 12 h, expressed as a function of stop time have changed. We may claim with caution that for medium stop times of 0.5-4 h the average relative extra emissions of Euro-4 vehicles are well below the average of the relative extra emissions of Euro-1 vehicles.

  14. Michigan Middle Start Studies of Middle Start School Improvement, Lake Middle School: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalan, Pritha

    This case study documented the collaboration of Lake Middle School (pseudonym for a school in Michigan) with Middle Start, a middle-grades reform model and its progress and struggles implementing the model. Middle Start was coordinated by the Michigan Middle Start Partnership, and alliance that provided technical assistance, professional…

  15. Optimizing the performance of catalytic traps for hydrocarbon abatement during the cold-start of a gasoline engine.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, B; Navlani-García, M; García, T; Navarro, M V; Lozano-Castelló, D; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2014-08-30

    A key target to reduce current hydrocarbon emissions from vehicular exhaust is to improve their abatement under cold-start conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of factorial analysis to design a highly efficient catalytic trap. The impact of the synthesis conditions on the preparation of copper-loaded ZSM-5 is clearly revealed by XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, NH3-TPD, SEM and TEM. A high concentration of copper nitrate precursor in the synthesis improves the removal of hydrocarbons, providing both strong adsorption sites for hydrocarbon retention at low temperature and copper oxide nanoparticles for full hydrocarbon catalytic combustion at high temperature. The use of copper acetate precursor leads to a more homogeneous dispersion of copper oxide nanoparticles also providing enough catalytic sites for the total oxidation of hydrocarbons released from the adsorption sites, although lower copper loadings are achieved. Thus, synthesis conditions leading to high copper loadings jointly with highly dispersed copper oxide nanoparticles would result in an exceptional catalytic trap able to reach superior hydrocarbon abatement under highly demanding operational conditions.

  16. Improving the cold chain for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J S

    1977-01-01

    The cold chain may be defined as a system for transporting and storing vaccines at very low temperataures, particularly in tropical countries. In Ghana, efforts are being made, with the assistance of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and test a new cold chain technology. Emphasis is on local production in order to meet the needs of the countrywide immunization program, and, if possible, of similar programs in other West African nations. Focus in this discussion is on the losses resulting from mishandling of vaccines during storage and in transit through various stages in the cold chain as well as the problems, requirements, and proposed solutions. In most countries with immunization programs, breakdowns in refrigeration during the transport and storage of vaccines in remote rural areas or at the regional and national central stores have led to great losses of vaccine. The losses are often caused by inappropriate management and technology. The most promising recent development in the area of storage is an enzyme-based time/temperature indicator contained in a paper tab which is attached to the vaccine packet. In order to reduce to a minimum the handling of vaccines at the national central store it is proposed that the ministry of health submit details of regional requirements in their requisition to the manufacturer. Then the manufacturer can make presealed packages which are dispatched by air to the national central store and from there to the regions, while they are still sealed. Insulated boxes for this purpose have been tested in Sweden and been shown to maintain deep-freezing temperatures for 5 days. Road communications to the regional centers are good in Ghana and the 5-day cold boxes give adequate safety margins. The plan for the immunization program in Ghana is to employ a combination of teams from both fixed and mobile centers. 3 contacts, 3 months apart, will be made by the fixed teams; mobile teams will make 2 contacts, 2 months apart. Mobile

  17. Impact of underestimating the effects of cold temperature on motor vehicle start emissions of air toxics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard; Touma, Jawad S; Fernandez, Antonio; Brzezinski, David; Bailey, Chad; Scarbro, Carl; Thurman, James; Strum, Madeleine; Ensley, Darrell; Baldauf, Richard

    2007-12-01

    Analyses of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification data, California Air Resources Board surveillance testing data, and EPA research testing data indicated that EPA's MOBILE6.2 emission factor model substantially underestimates emissions of gaseous air toxics occurring during vehicle starts at cold temperatures for light-duty vehicles and trucks meeting EPA Tier 1 and later standards. An unofficial version of the MOBILE6.2 model was created to account for these underestimates. When this unofficial version of the model was used to project emissions into the future, emissions increased by almost 100% by calendar year 2030, and estimated modeled ambient air toxics concentrations increased by 6-84%, depending on the pollutant. To address these elevated emissions, EPA recently finalized standards requiring reductions of emissions when engines start at cold temperatures.

  18. Effect of cold-adapted microbial agent inoculation on enzyme activities during composting start-up at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qinghong; Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhechao; Zhao, Yue; Xie, Xinyu; Wu, Junqiu; Lu, Qian; Wei, Zimin

    2017-11-01

    In order to put forward a method to promote composting start-up at low ambient temperature, the cold-adapted microbial agent (CAMA) was inoculated in chicken manure (CM), and compared the enzymes activities, including urease, proteases, β-glucosidase and invertase, with no CAMA group (CK). In this study, the temperature of CM reached 50°C in 53h, but it in CK was only around 30°C during the composting process. Moreover, the enzymes exhibited higher activity in CM than CK, indicating the effectiveness of CAMA. Furthermore, redundancy analysis was conducted to study the relationships of CAMA, with enzymes activities and temperature. Results showed that the positive effect of CAMA on the enzyme activities were achieved by affecting the bacterial community structure. Accordingly, we provide a method to guide CAMA inoculation for promoting compost start-up in cold area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Seed Germination and Peanut Yields by Cold Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Li, Jiangang; Shen, Minchong; Hou, Jinfeng; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua; Jiang, Jiafeng

    2016-10-01

    This study explored the effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, plant growth, and peanut yield. Cold plasma treatment improved germination and seedling growth, and the 120 W treatment produced the best effect. Germination potential and germination rate were markedly raised by 150% and 21%, respectively. Germination was accelerated and the uniformity of emergence improved. The apparent contact angle was decreased by 53%. Seedling shoot and root dry weights increased by 11% and 9%. Leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll contents, and dry weight at the fruiting stage, together with plant height, stem diameter, and root dry weight at the mature stage were all markedly raised by the cold plasma treatment. The cold plasma treatment enhanced yield components, such as branch numbers per plant, pod numbers per plant, and 100 pod weights by 8%, 13%, and 9%, respectively, compared to the control. Furthermore, the yield improved by 10%. These results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved germination, plant growth, and yield, which might be due to the cold plasma increasing the leaf area, nitrogen concentrations, and chlorophyll contents. supported by National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2012BAD05B04), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41201241), “Strategic Priority Research Program” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDB15030301) and Jiangsu Province Science and Technology Support Program (No. BE2013452)

  20. CRC Volatility Program on the Effect of Oxygenated Fuels and Altitude on Cold-Start Drivability at Low Ambient Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    t CRC eport No. 569 CRC VOLATILITY PROGRAM ON THE EFFECT OF OXYGENATED FUELS AND ALTITUDE ON COLD-START DRIVEABILITY AT LOW AMBIENT TEMPERATURES...Research Committee of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. ABSTRACT The 1988 CRC driveability program investigated the effects of altitude and fuel...and gasoline-MTBE blends. The altitude change between the two sites was found to have no statistically significant effect on driveability for the

  1. Cold rearing improves cold-flight performance in Drosophila via changes in wing morphology.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Melanie R; Harrison, Jon F; Kirkton, Scott D; Roberts, Stephen P

    2008-07-01

    We use a factorial experimental design to test whether rearing at colder temperatures shifts the lower thermal envelope for flight of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen to colder temperatures. D. melanogaster that developed in colder temperatures (15 degrees C) had a significant flight advantage in cold air compared to flies that developed in warmer temperatures (28 degrees C). At 14 degrees C, cold-reared flies failed to perform a take-off flight approximately 47% of the time whereas warm-reared flies failed approximately 94% of the time. At 18 degrees C, cold- and warm-reared flies performed equally well. We also compared several traits in cold- and warm-developing flies to determine if cold-developing flies had better flight performance at cold temperatures due to changes in body mass, wing length, wing loading, relative flight muscle mass or wing-beat frequency. The improved ability to fly at low temperatures was associated with a dramatic increase in wing area and an increase in wing length (after controlling for wing area). Flies that developed at 15 degrees C had approximately 25% more wing area than similarly sized flies that developed at 28 degrees C. Cold-reared flies had slower wing-beat frequencies than similarly sized flies from warmer developmental environments, whereas other traits did not vary with developmental temperature. These results demonstrate that developmental plasticity in wing dimensions contributes to the improved flight performance of D. melanogaster at cold temperatures, and ultimately, may help D. melanogaster live in a wide range of thermal environments.

  2. Effect of a Smart Start Playground Improvement Grant on Child Care Playground Hazards. Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Jonathan; Guthrie, Christine

    Smart Start (North Carolina) playground improvement grants were awarded to cover playground safety assessment, planning and evaluation, quality enhancements (such as fencing, surfacing, and new equipment), and safety programs. Visual inspections were conducted of the safety of child care home and center playgrounds after Smart Start-sponsored…

  3. Improvement of cold resistance and performance of broilers by acute cold exposure during late embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Ruzal, M; Giloh, M; Druyan, S; Piestun, Y; Yahav, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fine-tune previous acute cold exposure treatments of broiler embryos during late embryogenesis to improve lifelong cold resistance and performance. Six hundred Cobb hatching eggs were incubated under standard conditions and then exposed to 3 treatments: control; cold treatment in which embryos were exposed to 15°C for 30 min on d 18 and 19 of incubation (30 × 2); and cold treatment similar to 30 × 2 but with 60-min exposures (60 × 2). Egg shell temperature (T(egg)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored pre- and posttreatment. Upon hatching, hatchability, body weight, and body temperature were recorded. From 14 to 35 d of age, three quarters of the chickens in each treatment were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the remaining birds were raised under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The T(egg) and HR decreased significantly in response to increased exposure time on d 18 of incubation. On d 19 of incubation, before the second cold exposure, the 30 × 2 group showed greater T(egg) and HR than the controls, and during the second exposure they maintained these parameters better than the 60 × 2 embryos. No treatment effect on hatchability was observed. At 35 d of age ascites incidence among 30 × 2 chickens under AIC was significantly less than that among the controls (P < 0.01), and body weight of these chickens under either SBC or AIC was significantly higher than that of the controls. Under SBC relative breast muscle weight was significantly higher in 60 × 2 chickens, whereas the relative heart weight was higher in both cold-treated groups than in the controls. It can be concluded that repeated short acute cold exposures during late embryogenesis significantly reduced ascites incidence and improved growth rate under either SBC or AIC. These results may be related to a prenatal epigenetic adaptation of the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems to low ambient temperature.

  4. The use Na, Li, K cations for modification of ZSM-5 zewolite to control hydrocarbon cold-start emission

    SciTech Connect

    Golubeva V.; Rohatgi U.; Korableva, A.; Anischenko, O.; Kustov, L.; Nissenbaum, V; Viola, M.B.

    2012-08-29

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling hydrocarbon emissions from cold-start of engines by investigating the adsorbents which could adsorb the hydrocarbons at cold temperatures and hold them to 250-300 ?. The materials, that has been studied, are based on the modification of ZSM-5 (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 35) zeolite with Li, K, Na cations. It has been shown that the introduction of Li, Na and K in an amount that is equivalent to the content of Al in zeolite results in occurrence of toluene temperature desorption peaks at high-temperatures. The toluene temperature desorption curves for 5%Li-ZSM-5 and 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolites are identical and have peak toluene desorption rate between 200 to 400 ?. Upon analysis of toluene adsorption isotherms for 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 and 5%Li-ZSM-5, it was concluded that the toluene diffusion inside of the modified zeolites channels is extremely slow and the sorption capacity of 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 is higher than with 5%Li-ZSM-5. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 didn't change toluene temperature programmed desorption (TPD) rate of curve after the treatment in environment with 10% ?{sub 2}? at 750-800 ? for about 28 h. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is very promising as adsorbent to control the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions.

  5. Cold drink ingestion improves exercise endurance capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason K W; Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of drink temperature on cycling capacity in the heat. On two separate trials, eight males cycled at 66 +/- 2% VO2peak (mean +/- SD) to exhaustion in hot (35.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C) and humid (60 +/- 1%) environments. Participants ingested three 300-mL aliquots of either a cold (4 degrees C) or a warm (37 degrees C) drink during 30 min of seated rest before exercise and 100 mL of the same drink every 10 min during exercise. Rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, and sweat rate were recorded. Ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion were assessed. Exercise time was longer (P < 0.001) with the cold drink (63.8 +/- 4.3 min) than with the warm drink (52.0 +/- 4.1 min). Rectal temperature fell by 0.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P < 0.001) at the end of the resting period after ingestion of the cold drinks. There was no effect of drink temperature on mean skin temperature at rest (P = 0.870), but mean skin temperature was lower from 20 min during exercise with ingestion of the cold drink than with the warm drink (P < 0.05). Heart rate was lower before exercise and for the first 35 min of exercise with ingestion of the cold drink than with the warm drink (P < 0.05). Drink temperature influenced sweat rate (1.22 +/- 0.34 and 1.40 +/- 0.41 L x h(-1) for the cold and the warm drink, respectively; P < 0.05). Ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion (P < 0.01) during exercise were lower when the cold drink was ingested. Compared with a drink at 37 degrees C, the ingestion of a cold drink before and during exercise in the heat reduced physiological strain (reduced heat accumulation) during exercise, leading to an improved endurance capacity (23 +/- 6%).

  6. Qualification of CASMO5 / SIMULATE-3K against the SPERT-III E-core cold start-up experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Grandi, G.; Moberg, L.

    2012-07-01

    SIMULATE-3K is a three-dimensional kinetic code applicable to LWR Reactivity Initiated Accidents. S3K has been used to calculate several international recognized benchmarks. However, the feedback models in the benchmark exercises are different from the feedback models that SIMULATE-3K uses for LWR reactors. For this reason, it is worth comparing the SIMULATE-3K capabilities for Reactivity Initiated Accidents against kinetic experiments. The Special Power Excursion Reactor Test III was a pressurized-water, nuclear-research facility constructed to analyze the reactor kinetic behavior under initial conditions similar to those of commercial LWRs. The SPERT III E-core resembles a PWR in terms of fuel type, moderator, coolant flow rate, and system pressure. The initial test conditions (power, core flow, system pressure, core inlet temperature) are representative of cold start-up, hot start-up, hot standby, and hot full power. The qualification of S3K against the SPERT III E-core measurements is an ongoing work at Studsvik. In this paper, the results for the 30 cold start-up tests are presented. The results show good agreement with the experiments for the reactivity initiated accident main parameters: peak power, energy release and compensated reactivity. Predicted and measured peak powers differ at most by 13%. Measured and predicted reactivity compensations at the time of the peak power differ less than 0.01 $. Predicted and measured energy release differ at most by 13%. All differences are within the experimental uncertainty. (authors)

  7. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  8. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  9. Sampling and analysis of aircraft engine cold start particles and demonstration of an electrostatic personal particle sampler.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Alfredo; Leith, David; Boundy, Maryanne; Goodman, Randall; Smith, Les; Carlton, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Aircraft engines emit an aerosol plume during startup in extremely cold weather that can drift into areas occupied by flightline ground crews. This study tested a personal sampler used to assess exposure to particles in the plume under challenging field conditions. Area and personal samples were taken at two U.S. Air Force (USAF) flightlines during the winter months. Small tube-and-wire electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) were mounted on a stationary stand positioned behind the engines to sample the exhaust. Other ESPs were worn by ground crews to sample breathing zone concentrations. In addition, an aerodynamic particle sizer 3320 (APS) was used to determine the size distribution of the particles. Samples collected with the ESP were solvent extracted and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the plume consisted of up to 75 mg/m(3) of unburned jet fuel particles. The APS showed that nearly the entire particle mass was respirable, because the plumes had mass median diameters less than 2 micro m. These tests demonstrated that the ESP could be used at cold USAF flightlines to perform exposure assessments to the cold start particles.

  10. Multidimensional Modeling of Fuel Composition Effects on Combustion and Cold-starting in Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    equally important for both the gas and liquid phase. For the gas phase, a modified Redlich - Kwong equation of state is used (Prausnitz, [lo]). In the...improvements in the spray, ignition, combustion, and emission models. The code solves the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations , coupled with...for. Since the governing equations in the KIVA-II code are documented in Ref. [5], only the improved submodels will be discussed. Other improvements

  11. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  12. Moneyball for Head Start: Using Data, Evidence, and Evaluation to Improve Outcomes for Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Sara; Mitchel, Ashley LiBetti

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a valuable federal program that improves the lives of our nation's most vulnerable children and their families. Research shows that Head Start programs improve children's learning at school entry and have a positive impact on long-term life outcomes. Research also suggests that Head Start could have a stronger impact on children's…

  13. Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

  14. Energy efficiency improvement of electric drive of cold pilgering mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, D. A.; Savosteenko, N. V.; Gryzlov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Different ways to improve the energy efficiency of electric drives of cold pilgering mill are considered. Mathematical modeling methods represent studies according to which it is possible to evaluate quantitatively the energy savings. For example, cold pilgering mill 450 shows the mean square of the armature current of the main drive motor related to critical frequency of the speed loop. The possibility of energy saving by previous field weakening of the motor before the operating cycle of rolling is considered. The optimal energy saving points of supply and termination of the pulse are determined by the field weakening. The correlation of the parameters of the dynamic units and the change of the electric drive work schedule provides the greatest loss reduction in the main drive of the cold pilgering mill stand based on the conditions. Activities aimed at improving energy efficiency of electric drives of mills of this group are reviewed, which reduces the electric energy consumption for the cycle rolling by 20-25 %.

  15. Tradeoffs between global warming and day length on the start of the carbon uptake period in seasonally cold ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Cremonese, Edoardo; Hammerle, Albin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Galvagno, Marta; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcolla, Barbara; di Cella, Umberto Morra

    2013-12-16

    It is well established that warming leads to longer growing seasons in seasonally cold ecosystems. Whether this goes along with an increase in the net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake is much more controversial. We studied the effects of warming on the start of the carbon uptake period (CUP) of three mountain grasslands situated along an elevational gradient in the Alps. To this end we used a simple empirical model of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, calibrated and forced with multi-year empirical data from each site. We show that reductions in the quantity and duration of daylight associated with earlier snowmelts were responsible for diminishing returns, in terms of carbon gain, from longer growing seasons caused by reductions in daytime photosynthetic uptake and increases in nighttime losses of CO2. This effect was less pronounced at high, compared to low, elevations, where the start of the CUP occurred closer to the summer solstice when changes in day length and incident radiation are minimal.

  16. Walnut genetic improvement at the start of a new century

    Treesearch

    Keith E. Woeste; James R. McKenna

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, researchers in programs to improve black walnut for timber have struggled to meet some basic breeding objectives. Promising avenues of research had been identified by the early 1950s, and conventional methods to breed forest trees were widely adopted as suitable for walnut. Progress has been slow however, due to practical problems related to...

  17. To Improve Schools, Stop Guessing and Start Using Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John

    2011-01-01

    The data are clear: Unless the nation can find a better way to accelerate improvement in the quality of education and implement it in the next 10 years, this nation will lose its competitive edge against other nations and another generation of children will be lost. Eighty percent of Illinois high school graduates are not capable of doing the…

  18. To Improve Schools, Stop Guessing and Start Using Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John

    2011-01-01

    The data are clear: Unless the nation can find a better way to accelerate improvement in the quality of education and implement it in the next 10 years, this nation will lose its competitive edge against other nations and another generation of children will be lost. Eighty percent of Illinois high school graduates are not capable of doing the…

  19. Improved trapping and transport of cold atoms for magnetic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadge, Amruta; James, T.; Li, X.; Lu, Bo; Garridogonzalez, N.; Finke, A.; Mellor, C.; Fromhold, M.; Koller, C.; Orucevic, F.; Kruger, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Using cold atoms, a very sensitive and high resolution magnetic and electric field sensor can be realised. Ultra-close trapping of atoms would improve the resolution of cold-atom based surface probes. The limitation on the trapping distance arises from strongly distance-dependent effects such as Casimir force, Johnson noise etc. We are constructing an experimental system to trap atoms at surface separations of less than a micron. We will demonstrate the possibility of using special surfaces such as silicon nitride membranes and graphene for sub-micron trapping. We have designed a 10-layer printed circuit board, which can magnetically trap the cold atom cloud and transport it precisely to a desired location. This gives us the ability to study multiple samples within the same vacuum environment. In order to achieve higher atom number in the initial trapping stages, we use a dual-color MOT technique for Rb-87 atoms. Using this technique we achieve a significant increase in atom number and decrease in temperature. In this talk, I will present the results of the dual color MOT. I will also report on results related to magnetic transport and sub-micron trapping of atoms.

  20. COLD-PCR: improving the sensitivity of molecular diagnostics assays

    PubMed Central

    Milbury, Coren A; Li, Jin; Liu, Pingfang; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2011-01-01

    The detection of low-abundance DNA variants or mutations is of particular interest to medical diagnostics, individualized patient treatment and cancer prognosis; however, detection sensitivity for low-abundance variants is a pronounced limitation of most currently available molecular assays. We have recently developed coamplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (COLD-PCR) to resolve this limitation. This novel form of PCR selectively amplifies low-abundance DNA variants from mixtures of wild-type and mutant-containing (or variant-containing) sequences, irrespective of the mutation type or position on the amplicon, by using a critical denaturation temperature. The use of a lower denaturation temperature in COLD-PCR results in selective denaturation of amplicons with mutation-containing molecules within wild-type mutant heteroduplexes or with a lower melting temperature. COLD-PCR can be used in lieu of conventional PCR in several molecular applications, thus enriching the mutant fraction and improving the sensitivity of downstream mutation detection by up to 100-fold. PMID:21405967

  1. Methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emission data of gasoline-driven passenger cars representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Saxer, Christian J.; Wilhelm, Patrick

    The US urban driving cycle (FTP-75) is widely used to estimate both the emissions under hot engine conditions as well as those associated with the cold start. Applying fast analysis techniques such as chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS) the warm-up behavior of individual vehicles can be monitored at a time resolution of 1 s. CI-MS has been used to investigate the emissions of methane, benzene and the alkyl benzene class of compounds. The amount of the emissions at cold start influence was deduced from the time-resolved emission data of four gasoline-driven vehicle classes representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades. Overall, the emissions of five EURO-0, 20 EURO-1, 18 EURO-2 and so far of six EURO-3 passenger cars were recorded. The test vehicles were selected from the currently operating Swiss car fleet based on the car sales statistics. The average methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions are reported using both, the traditional bag method as well as the regression model. At room temperature a clear reduction of 94%, 81% and 85% was found for the methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emissions from EURO-0 to EURO-3 technology, respectively.

  2. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Program Impacts and Implications for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; Ricciuti, Anne; Tao, Fumiyo; Creps, Cindy; Swartz, Janet; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda; Rimdzius, Tracy

    The Even Start Literacy Program, established in 1989, aims to simultaneously improve the literacy of children and their parents through (1) early childhood education; (2) parenting education; (3) adult education; and (4) parent-child joint literacy activities. The report details findings from the third national Even Start evaluation. The…

  3. Global mapping transcriptional start sites revealed both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of cold adaptation in the methanogenic archaeon Methanolobus psychrophilus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Qi, Lei; Guo, Yang; Yue, Lei; Li, Yanping; Ge, Weizhen; Wu, Jun; Shi, Wenyuan; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2015-03-18

    Psychrophilic methanogenic Archaea contribute significantly to global methane emissions, but archaeal cold adaptation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hinted by that mRNA architecture determined secondary structure respond to cold more promptly than proteins, differential RNA-seq was used in this work to examine the genome-wide transcription start sites (TSSs) of the psychrophilic methanogen Methanolobus psychrophilus R15 and its response to cold. Unlike most prokaryotic mRNAs with short 5' untranslated regions (5' UTR, median lengths of 20-40 nt), 51% mRNAs of this methanogen have large 5' UTR (>50 nt). For 24% of the mRNAs, the 5' UTR is >150 nt. This implies that post-transcriptional regulation may be significance in the psychrophile. Remarkably, 219 (14%) genes possessed multiple gene TSSs (gTSSs), and 84 genes exhibited temperature-regulated gTSS selection to express alternative 5' UTR. Primer extension studies confirmed the temperature-dependent TSS selection and a stem-loop masking of ribosome binding sites was predicted from the longer 5' UTRs, suggesting alternative 5' UTRs-mediated translation regulation in the cold adaptation as well. In addition, 195 small RNAs (sRNAs) were detected, and Northern blots confirmed that many sRNAs were induced by cold. Thus, this study revealed an integrated transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation for cold adaptation in a psychrophilic methanogen.

  4. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  5. On the effect of Di-Ethyl-Ether (DEE) injection upon the cold starting of a biodiesel fuelled compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clenci, Adrian; Niculescu, Rodica; Iorga-Simǎn, Victor; Tricǎ, Alina; Danlos, Amélie

    2017-02-01

    The use of biodiesel fuel in compression ignition engines has the potential to reduce CO2, which can lead to a reduction in global warming and environmental hazards. Biodiesel is an attractive fuel, as it is made from renewable resources. A major drawback associated with the use of biodiesel, however, is its poor cold flow properties, which have a direct influence on the cold starting performance of the engine. This paper is a consequence of a study on assessing the cold-starting performance of a compression ignition engine fueled with different blends of fossil diesel fuel and biodiesel. Through experimental investigations, it was found that the engine starting at -20°C was no longer possible in the case of using B50 (50% diesel + 50% biofuel made from sunflower oil). In order to "force" the engine starting in this particular situation, Di-Ethyl-Ether (DEE) was injected into the intake manifold. DEE being a highly flammable substance, the result was a sudden and explosive engine starting, the peak pressure in the monitored cylinder in the first successful engine cycle being almost twice the one which is usually considered as normal. Thus, to explain the observed phenomena, we launched this work relying on the analysis of the in-cylinder instantaneous pressure evolution, which was acquired during cranking, stabilizing and idling phases. Moreover, since the cause of the sudden and explosive engine starting was the DEE, by using a CFD approach, we also obtained results regarding the inter-cylinder distribution of the injected DEE.

  6. Limited War Under the Nuclear Umbrella: An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    2010 Thesis Advisor: S . Paul Kapur Second Reader: Douglas Porch THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved...An Analysis of India’s Cold Start Doctrine and Its Implications for Stability on the Subcontinent 6. AUTHOR( S ) Quinn J. Rhodes 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  7. The cold start emissions of light-duty-vehicle fleets: a simplified physics-based model for the estimation of CO₂ and pollutants.

    PubMed

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Soltic, Patrik; Hausberger, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    The emissions from hot driving conditions, in which the exhaust-after-treatment systems are working properly, continue to decrease, which is why the emissions of cold starts have gained in importance. Traffic emission models are used to estimate and predict vehicle fleet emissions and the air quality of countries, regions, cities, etc. In addition to the statistical input of fleet activities, these models are mostly based on the use of separate emission sub-models for hot driving and cold start driving. In reality, the cold start models are almost entirely empirical and of limited accuracy. In this work, a model is developed that is based on physical reasoning, i.e., it is based on energy balances. Because many details, such as the thermal conductivities and the engine control decisions, are unknown, the model must be able to address different simplifications. The model can be parameterized with as few as two tests per vehicle. It is applied to several car samples (six to eight vehicles each) of different technical generations and shows reliable prediction for any combination of the driving pattern (including gradient), the ambient temperature, the stop time before the ride and the duration of the ride (if shorter than the warm-up phase). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality Improvement: Lessons Learned from an Infant Mental Health-based Early Head Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly; Schiffman, Rachel; McKelvey, Lorraine; Cunningham-DeLuca, Mary; Hawver, Marshelle

    2001-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement efforts are vital to high-quality early intervention services. This article describes an ongoing quality improvement project within an infant mental health-based Early Head Start program. Both strategies and challenges in implementing issues and lessons learned in the initial 2-year phase of the quality improvement…

  9. Comparison of Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) and Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Vehicle Emissions: Emission Certification Standards, Cold-Start, Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Potential, and Potential Climate Impacts.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Georges; Saleh, Rawad; Zhao, Yunliang; Presto, Albert A; Lambe, Andrew T; Frodin, Bruce; Sardar, Satya; Maldonado, Hector; Maddox, Christine; May, Andrew A; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Russell, Lynn M; Hagen, Fabian; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-06-06

    Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from 82 light-duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most-stringent emissions standard, superultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV). We quantified the effects of engine technology, emission certification standards, and cold-start on emissions. For vehicles certified to the same emissions standard, there is no statistical difference of regulated gas-phase pollutant emissions between PFIs and GDIs. However, GDIs had, on average, a factor of 2 higher particulate matter (PM) mass emissions than PFIs due to higher elemental carbon (EC) emissions. SULEV certified GDIs have a factor of 2 lower PM mass emissions than GDIs certified as ultralow-emission vehicles (3.0 ± 1.1 versus 6.3 ± 1.1 mg/mi), suggesting improvements in engine design and calibration. Comprehensive organic speciation revealed no statistically significant differences in the composition of the volatile organic compounds emissions between PFI and GDIs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Therefore, the secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation potential of the exhaust does not depend on engine technology. Cold-start contributes a larger fraction of the total unified cycle emissions for vehicles meeting more-stringent emission standards. Organic gas emissions were the most sensitive to cold-start compared to the other pollutants tested here. There were no statistically significant differences in the effects of cold-start on GDIs and PFIs. For our test fleet, the measured 14.5% decrease in CO2 emissions from GDIs was much greater than

  10. Recommendations to Improve Employee Thermal Comfort When Working in 40°F Refrigerated Cold Rooms.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana; Mead, Kenneth; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee's physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing. We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing, providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems.

  11. Recommendations to Improve Employee Thermal Comfort When Working in 40°F Refrigerated Cold Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana; Mead, Kenneth; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Cold rooms are commonly used for food storage and preparation, and are usually kept around 40°F following food safety guidelines. Some food preparation employees may spend 8 or more hours inside cold rooms. These employees may not be aware of the risks associated with mildly cold temperatures, dampness, and limited ventilation. We performed an evaluation of cold rooms at an airline catering facility because of concerns with exposure to cold temperatures. We spoke with and observed employees in two cold rooms, reviewed daily temperature logs, evaluated employee’s physical activity, work/rest schedule, and protective clothing. We measured temperature, percent relative humidity, and air velocities at different work stations inside the cold rooms. We concluded that thermal comfort concerns perceived by cold room employees may have been the result of air drafts at their workstations, insufficient use of personal protective equipment due to dexterity concerns, work practices, and lack of knowledge about good health and safety practices in cold rooms. These moderately cold work conditions with low air velocities are not well covered in current occupational health and safety guidelines, and wind chill calculations do not apply. We provide practical recommendations to improve thermal comfort of cold room employees. Engineering control recommendations include the redesigning of air deflectors and installing of suspended baffles. Administrative controls include the changing out of wet clothing, providing hand warmers outside of cold rooms, and educating employees on cold stress. We also recommended providing more options on personal protective equipment. However, there is a need for guidelines and educational materials tailored to employees in moderately cold environments to improve thermal comfort and minimize health and safety problems. PMID:25961447

  12. Effect of Starting Microstructure on the Grain Refinement in Cold-Rolled Low-Carbon Steel During Annealing at Two Different Heating Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Anish; Mandal, Madhumanti; Mandal, Abhisek; Basiruddin Sk, Md.; Mukherjee, Subrata; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2016-01-01

    Cold-rolled samples of different starting microstructures, namely ferrite-pearlite (F+P) and ferrite-martensite structures, with blocky martensite (F+Mb) and fibrous martensite (F+Mf) morphologies were reheated at two different heating rates (1 and 300 K/s) to sub-critical and inter-critical annealing temperatures [773 K to 1173 K (500 °C to 900 °C)] and immediately water quenched. Grain refinement after annealing of cold-rolled samples depends on the rate of recovery, recrystallization, transformation, and grain growth. Rapid recrystallization during annealing weakened the recrystallization-transformation interaction in F+P sample. Higher rate of ferrite recovery reduced the driving force for recrystallization, which weakened the recrystallization-transformation interaction during annealing of F+Mb sample. As a result, coarser grain structures were obtained after annealing of cold-rolled F+P and F+Mb starting structures. Strong recrystallization-transformation interaction and suppression of grain growth by uniformly distributed carbide particles and austenite islands (after transformation) offered finest ferrite grain size and best combination of strength and ductility in F+Mf sample.

  13. Cold climate mapping using satellite high resolution thermal imagery. [weather forecasting improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholic, J. F.; Sutherland, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to improve cold climate mapping and freeze forecasting techniques, thermal imagery from the NOAA-2 and -3 satellites and the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) were obtained and analyzed. Enhanced image transparencies showed detailed temperature patterns over the peninsula of Florida. The analysis was superior to hand-drawn isotherms drawn from the 300 to 500 thermograph stations presently in use. Satellite data on several cold nights with similar synoptic conditions showed that similar cold patterns existed. Thus, cold climate mapping is possible.

  14. Cold climate mapping using satellite high resolution thermal imagery. [weather forecasting improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholic, J. F.; Sutherland, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to improve cold climate mapping and freeze forecasting techniques, thermal imagery from the NOAA-2 and -3 satellites and the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) were obtained and analyzed. Enhanced image transparencies showed detailed temperature patterns over the peninsula of Florida. The analysis was superior to hand-drawn isotherms drawn from the 300 to 500 thermograph stations presently in use. Satellite data on several cold nights with similar synoptic conditions showed that similar cold patterns existed. Thus, cold climate mapping is possible.

  15. Stop Managing, Start Coaching! How Performance Coaching Can Enhance Commitment and Improve Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Jerry W.; Boughton, Nathaniel W.

    This book, which is intended for managers responsible for training and managing employees, outlines an approach to employee management and training that is based on the premise that, if managers are to enhance employees' commitment to the organization and improve productivity, they must first stop managing their employees and start coaching them.…

  16. Cold Plasma: an emerging antimicrobial intervention to improve food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  17. Plant plasma membrane proteomics for improving cold tolerance.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Li, Bin; Nakayama, Takato; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Plants are always exposed to various stresses. We have focused on freezing stress, which causes serious problems for agricultural management. When plants suffer freeze-induced damage, the plasma membrane is thought to be the primary site of injury because of its central role in regulation of various cellular processes. Cold tolerant species, however, adapt to such freezing conditions by modifying cellular components and functions (cold acclimation). One of the most important adaptation mechanisms to freezing is alteration of plasma membrane compositions and functions. Advanced proteomic technologies have succeeded in identification of many candidates that may play roles in adaptation of the plasma membrane to freezing stress. Proteomics results suggest that adaptations of plasma membrane functions to low temperature are associated with alterations of protein compositions during cold acclimation. Some of proteins identified by proteomic approaches have been verified their functional roles in freezing tolerance mechanisms further. Thus, accumulation of proteomic results in the plasma membrane is of importance for application to molecular breeding efforts to increase cold tolerance in crops.

  18. Later school start time is associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boergers, Julie; Gable, Christopher J; Owens, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insufficient sleep is a growing concern among adolescents and is associated with a host of adverse health consequences. Early school start times may be an environmental contributor to this problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a delay in school start time on sleep patterns, sleepiness, mood, and health-related outcomes. Boarding students (n = 197, mean age = 15.6 yr) attending an independent high school completed the School Sleep Habits Survey before and after the school start time was experimentally delayed from 8:00 a.m. to 8:25 a.m. The delay in school start time was associated with a significant (29 min) increase in sleep duration on school nights. The percentage of students receiving 8 or more hours of sleep on a school night increased to more than double, from 18% to 44%. Students in 9th and 10th grade and those with lower baseline sleep amounts were more likely to report improvements in sleep duration after the schedule change. Daytime sleepiness, depressed mood, and caffeine use were all significantly reduced after the delay in school start time. Sleep duration reverted to baseline levels when the original (earlier) school start time was reinstituted. A modest (25 min) delay in school start time was associated with significant improvements in sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, mood, and caffeine use. These findings have important implications for public policy and add to research suggesting the health benefits of modifying school schedules to more closely align with adolescents' circadian rhythms and sleep needs.

  19. Plyometric Long Jump Training With Progressive Loading Improves Kinetic and Kinematic Swimming Start Parameters.

    PubMed

    Rebutini, Vanessa Z; Pereira, Gleber; Bohrer, Roberta C D; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-09-01

    Rebutini, VZ, Pereira, G, Bohrer, RCD, Ugrinowitsch, C, and Rodacki, ALF. Plyometric long jump training with progressive loading improves kinetic and kinematic swimming start parameters. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2392-2398, 2016-This study was aimed to determine the effects of a plyometric long jump training program on torque around the lower limb joints and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start. Ten swimmers performed 3 identical assessment sessions, measuring hip and knee muscle extensors during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and kinetic and kinematics parameters during the swimming jump start, at 3 instants: INI (2 weeks before the training program, control period), PRE (2 weeks after INI measurements), and POST (24-48 hours after 9 weeks of training). There were no significant changes from INI to PRE measurements. However, the peak torque and rate of torque development increased significantly from PRE to POST measurements for both hip (47 and 108%) and knee (24 and 41%) joints. There were significant improvements to the horizontal force (7%), impulse (9%), and angle of resultant force (19%). In addition, there were significant improvements to the center of mass displacement (5%), horizontal takeoff velocity (16%), horizontal velocity at water entrance (22%), and peak angle velocity for the knee (15%) and hip joints (16%). Therefore, the plyometric long jump training protocol was effective to enhance torque around the lower limb joints and to control the resultant vector direction, to increase the swimming jump start performance. These findings suggest that coaches should use long jump training instead of vertical jump training to improve swimming start performance.

  20. Comparison of off-cycle and cold-start emissions from dedicated NGVS and gasoline vehicles. Final report, June 1995-August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.S.; Chan, L.M.

    1997-02-11

    This program compared pollutant emissions from original equipment manufacturer (OEM) produced natural gas vehicles, under realistic driving conditions such as cold start and hard accelerations, to emissions from similar vehicles using gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). The vehicles tested were Ford Crown Victorias, Dodge Caravans, and Dodge Ram Vans. Test results showed that the OEM NGVs produce much lower emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG), and toxic air contaminants, and generally lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) than similar vehicles using either gasoline or reformulated gasoline.

  1. Process redesign to improve first case surgical starts in an academic institution.

    PubMed

    Saw, Niharika; Vacanti, Joshua C; Liu, Xiaoxia; SaRego, Monica; Flanagan, Hugh; Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Urman, Richard D

    2015-04-01

    On time start of the first surgical case improves operating room (OR) utilization, physician, and patient satisfaction and decreases delays in subsequent cases. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary initiative to improve first patient in the room (FPIR) and first case on time start (FCOTS) metrics in a tertiary care setting. A multidisciplinary committee focused on first case start data collection. Reasons for both anesthesia and surgical delays were analyzed. Improvement efforts focused on the timely completion of surgical consent, a requirement of a surgical, anesthesia, and nurse team member presence at the patient's bedside by specific time, and parallel processing in the OR. Over 65,100 OR cases were analyzed between 2007 and 2014. There was a statistically significant improvement in FPIR (82.80% versus 69.60%, p < .0001) and FCOTS (66.60% versus 55.90%, p < .0001). Surgical consent completion rate increased from 35% baseline to 68%-100%, depending on the surgical subspecialty. Improvements appeared sustainable several years following process implementation for both FPIR (84.60% versus 69.60%, p < .0001) and FCOTS (67.60% versus 55.90%, p < .0001). Our study demonstrates a successful targeted, multidisciplinary initiative to improve first case surgical starts in an academic setting. Our approach was organizational rather than punitive or rewarding on an individual basis. Strategies included establishing concrete, time-specific goals and posting them visibly, empowering individuals to fulfill them, and ensuring no compromise in patient safety. In the complex environment of academic medicine including research protocols and teaching in the ORs, our organizational approach proved sustainable over several years.

  2. A fast-start pacing strategy speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and improves supramaximal running performance.

    PubMed

    Turnes, Tiago; Salvador, Amadeo Félix; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min) visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1) an incremental test; 2) three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3) two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS) that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4) an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029); subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037). Moreover, the mean VO2 response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025). In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2-3 min are improved and VO2 response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted.

  3. A Fast-Start Pacing Strategy Speeds Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake Kinetics and Improves Supramaximal Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Turnes, Tiago; Salvador, Amadeo Félix; Lisbôa, Felipe Domingos; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the present study was to investigate the effects of a fast-start pacing strategy on running performance and pulmonary oxygen uptake () kinetics at the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain. Eleven active male participants (28±10 years, 70±5 kg, 176±6 cm, 57±4 mL/kg/min) visited the laboratory for a series of tests that were performed until exhaustion: 1) an incremental test; 2) three laboratory test sessions performed at 95, 100 and 110% of the maximal aerobic speed; 3) two to four constant speed tests for the determination of the highest constant speed (HS) that still allowed achieving maximal oxygen uptake; and 4) an exercise based on the HS using a higher initial speed followed by a subsequent decrease. To predict equalized performance values for the constant pace, the relationship between time and distance/speed through log-log modelling was used. When a fast-start was utilized, subjects were able to cover a greater distance in a performance of similar duration in comparison with a constant-pace performance (constant pace: 670 m±22%; fast-start: 683 m±22%; P = 0.029); subjects also demonstrated a higher exercise tolerance at a similar average speed when compared with constant-pace performance (constant pace: 114 s±30%; fast-start: 125 s±26%; P = 0.037). Moreover, the mean response time was reduced after a fast start (constant pace: 22.2 s±28%; fast-start: 19.3 s±29%; P = 0.025). In conclusion, middle-distance running performances with a duration of 2–3 min are improved and response time is faster when a fast-start is adopted. PMID:25360744

  4. When should icodextrin be started to improve atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Takeyuki; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Hobo, Akinori; Furuta, Shinji; Kabu, Koki; Tonozuka, Yukio; Iida, Yoshiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) has many advantages over glucose-based PD. The present study aimed to investigate when icodextrin should be started for better management of cardiovascular status (as defined by echocardiography findings) and residual renal function (RRF). We retrospectively analyzed 40 patients treated with continuous ambulatory PD or automated PD. The patients were divided into these groups: Group A: started icodextrin within 2 weeks after PD onset. Group B: started icodextrin 1 year after PD onset. Group C: started icodextrin 2 years after PD onset. Group D: never used icodextrin during the study period. At the start of PD, we observed no significant difference in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) or urine volume (UV) between the groups. At 4 years, LVMI and UV were both significantly improved in group A compared with group D. The amelioration in LVMI was negatively associated with phosphate elimination. Our study showed that icodextrin preserved RRF and ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, the timing of icodextrin introduction in PD patients influenced the clinical effects, including progression of cardiac hypertrophy and RRF.

  5. Strapping rowers to their sliding seat improves performance during the start of single-scull rowing.

    PubMed

    van Soest, A J Knoek; de Koning, H; Hofmijster, M J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of strapping rowers to their sliding seat on performance during 75 m on-water starting trials was investigated. Well-trained rowers performed 75 m maximum-effort starts using an instrumented single scull equipped with a redesigned sliding seat system, both under normal conditions and while strapped to the sliding seat. Strapping rowers to their sliding seat resulted in a 0.45 s lead after 75 m, corresponding to an increase in average boat velocity of about 2.5%. Corresponding effect sizes were large. No significant changes were observed in general stroke cycle characteristics. No indications of additional boat heaving and pitching under strapped conditions were found. The increase in boat velocity is estimated to correspond to an increase in average mechanical power output during the start of on-water rowing between 5% and 10%, which is substantial but smaller than the 12% increase found in a previous study on ergometer starting. We conclude that, after a very short period of adaptation to the strapped condition, single-scull starting performance is substantially improved when the rower is strapped to the sliding seat.

  6. Fabrication and testing of an enhanced ignition system to reduce cold-start emissions in an ethanol (E85) light-duty truck engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D; Mallory, R; Todesco, M

    1997-09-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation of the potential for an enhanced ignition system to lower the cold-start emissions of a light-duty vehicle engine using fuel ethanol (commonly referred to as E85). Plasma jet ignition and conventional inductive ignition were compared for a General Motors 4-cylinder, alcohol-compatible engine. Emission and combustion stability measurements were made over a range of air/fuel ratios and spark timing settings using a steady-state, cold-idle experimental technique in which the engine coolant was maintained at 25 C to simulate cold-running conditions. These tests were aimed at identifying the degree to which calibration strategies such as mixture enleanment and retarded spark timing could lower engine-out hydrocarbon emissions and raise exhaust temperatures, as well as determining how such calibration changes would affect the combustion stability of the engine (as quantified by the coefficient of variation, or COV, of indicated mean effective pressure calculated from successive cylinder pressure measurements). 44 refs., 39 figs.

  7. Nicorandil pretreatment and improved myocardial protection during cold blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Iguchi, A; Tsuru, Y; Nakame, T; Satou, K; Tabayashi, K

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether pretreatment with nicorandil enhanced myocardial protection provided by cold (15 degrees C) high-potassium (25 mmol/l) blood cardioplegia during open heart surgery. Subjects were 40 patients with a variety of acquired heart diseases undergoing cardiac surgery involved cardiopulmonary bypass. They were randomly divided into two groups, 25 pretreated nicorandil (0.3 mg/kg) 30 minutes before aortic cross clamping, 15 not pretreated. After aortic cross clamping, the initial dose of cardioplegic solution (10 ml/kg) was administered through the ascending aorta and supplemental doses of cardioplegia (5 ml/kg) given each 30 minutes thereafter. Preoperative and postoperative cardiac troponin-T, myosin light chain 1 and cardiac enzymes were measured and hemodynamic data recorded. Postoperative serum creatine kinase and myosin light chain 1 were significantly lower in the nicorandil pretreatment group than in controls. Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and troponin-T were lower and cardiac output was higher after surgery in the nicorandil group, although not statistically significant. This data suggests that pretreatment with nicorandil enhances the myocardial protection achieved by cold blood cardioplegia.

  8. Improved retention of patients starting antiretroviral treatment in Karonga District, northern Malawi, 2005-2012

    PubMed Central

    Mzembe, Themba; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Kayange, Michael; Jahn, Andreas; Chimbwandira, Frank; Glynn, Judith R; Crampin, Amelia C

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs remains a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined whether and why retention in ART care has changed with increasing access. Methods Retrospective cohort study combining individual data from ART registers and interview data, enabling us to link patients across different ART clinics in Karonga District, Malawi. We recorded information on all adults (≥15 years) starting ART between July 2005 and August 2012, including those initiating due to pregnancy and breastfeeding (Option B+). Retention in care was defined as being alive and receiving ART at the end of study. Predictors of attrition were assessed using a multi-variable Cox-proportional hazards model. Results The number of clinics providing ART increased from one in 2005 to 16 in 2012. Six month retention increased from 73% (95%CI 71-76) to 93% (92-94) when comparing the 2005-06 and 2011-12 cohorts, and 12-month retention increased from 70% (67-73) to 92% (90-93). Over the study period, the proportion of patients starting ART at WHO stage 4 declined from 62% to 10%. Being a man, younger than 35 years, having a more advanced WHO stage and being part of an earlier cohort were all independently associated with attrition. Women starting ART for Option B+ experienced higher attrition than women of child-bearing age starting for other reasons. Conclusions In this area retention in care has increased dramatically. Improved health in patients starting ART and decentralization of ART care to peripheral health centres appear to be the major drivers for this change. PMID:24977375

  9. Luteal start vaginal micronized progesterone improves pregnancy success in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Mary D; McQueen, Dana; Winter, Michelle; Kliman, Harvey J

    2017-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of luteal start vaginal micronized P in a recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cohort. Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Not applicable. Women seen between 2004 and 2012 with a history of two or more unexplained pregnancy losses <10 weeks in size; endometrial biopsy (EB) performed 9-11 days after LH surge; and one or more subsequent pregnancy(ies). Women were excluded if concomitant findings, such as endometritis, maturation delay, or glandular-stromal dyssynchrony, were identified on EB. Vaginal micronized P was prescribed at a dose of 100-200 mg every 12 hours starting 3 days after LH surge (luteal start) if glandular epithelial nuclear cyclin E (nCyclinE) expression was elevated (>20%) in endometrial glands or empirically despite normal nCyclinE (≤20%). Women with normal nCyclinE (≤20%) who did not receive P were used as controls. Pregnancy success was an ongoing pregnancy >10 weeks in size. One hundred sixteen women met the inclusion criteria, of whom 51% (n = 59) had elevated nCyclinE and 49% (n = 57) had normal nCyclinE. Pregnancy success in the 59 women with elevated nCyclinE significantly improved after intervention: 6% (16/255) in prior pregnancies versus 69% (57/83) in subsequent pregnancies. Pregnancy success in subsequent pregnancies was higher in women prescribed vaginal micronized P compared with controls: 68% (86/126) versus 51% (19/37); odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.4). In this study, we found that the use of luteal start vaginal micronized P was associated with improved pregnancy success in a strictly defined cohort of women with RPL. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement of the U.S. Army Intermediate Cold Wet Boot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    thermal comfort of the human foot during exposure to cold ambient temperatures. 33-5 Figure 4. Photograph showing human volunteers during the 1990 ICWB...boot indicating that it would provide an increased level of thermal comfort . The then-current U.S. Army Intermediate Cold-Wet Boot, 34 33 32 31 E 30 E...has been recommended that the U.S. Army continue to evaluate future improvements in these materials designed to increase individual thermal comfort and

  11. Improved bonding strength of bioactive cermet Cold Gas Spray coatings.

    PubMed

    Gardon, M; Concustell, A; Dosta, S; Cinca, N; Cano, I G; Guilemany, J M

    2014-12-01

    The fabrication of cermet biocompatible coatings by means Cold Gas Spray (CGS) provides prosthesis with outstanding mechanical properties and the required composition for enhancing the bioactivity of prosthetic materials. In this study, hydroxyapatite/Titanium coatings were deposited by means of CGS technology onto titanium alloy substrates with the aim of building-up well-bonded homogeneous coatings. Powders were blended in different percentages and sprayed; as long as the amount of hydroxyapatite in the feedstock increased, the quality of the coating was reduced. Besides, the relation between the particle size distribution of ceramic and metallic particles is of significant consideration. Plastic deformation of titanium particles at the impact eased the anchoring of hard hydroxyapatite particles present at the top surface of the coating, which assures the looked-for interaction with the cells. Coatings were immersed in Hank's solution for 1, 4 and 7 days; bonding strength value was above 60 MPa even after 7 days, which enhances common results of HAp coatings obtained by conventional thermal spray technologies.

  12. Cold pressor test improves fear extinction in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Antov, Martin I; Melicherová, Ursula; Stockhorst, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    Fear extinction is an important paradigm to study the neural basis of anxiety and trauma- and stressor-related disorders and for modeling features of extinction learning and exposure-based psychotherapy. To date the effects of acute stress on extinction learning in humans are not well understood. Models of stress effects on emotional memory suggest that learning during the so-called first wave of the stress response will be enhanced. The first wave includes (among others) increases of noradrenaline in the brain and increased sympathetic tone, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the periphery while the second wave includes genomic glucocorticoid-actions. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a valid way to induce the first wave of the stress response. We thus hypothesized that the CPT will facilitate extinction. In a 2-day fear-conditioning procedure with 40 healthy men, using differential skin conductance responses as a measure of conditioned fear, we placed the CPT versus a control procedure prior to extinction training on Day 1. We tested for extinction learning on Day 1 and extinction retrieval on Day 2. During extinction training (Day 1) only the CPT-group showed a significant reduction in differential responding. This was still evident on Day 2, where the CPT group had less differential responding during early trials (retrieval) and a higher extinction retention index. This is the first human study to show that a simple procedure, triggering the first-wave stress response--the CPT--can effectively enhance fear extinction in humans.

  13. Sugar feeding improves survival of nondiapausing cold-stored Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, George D; Robich, Rebecca M

    2012-11-01

    The continuous culture of mosquitoes is a costly endeavor for vector biology laboratories. In addition to the resources that must be committed to colony maintenance, biological costs, including genetic drift and accidental colony loss, also can occur. Although alternatives do exist, their application to mosquitoes is limited. Mosquito cryopreservation remains elusive, and many important species lack a well-defined diapause. Previously, we demonstrated that cold storing nondiapausing mated adult females of the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens L. resulted in a nearly four-fold increase in longevity when measured at the LT50, allowing for cold storage for up to 10 wk. In the current study, we used sugar feeding during cold storage to significantly improve cold storage longevity. At 6 degrees C, the LT50 of cold stored females was 23 wk, and 100% mortality was not realized until 43 wk. Cold-stored females did exhibit reduced fecundity, but egg production returned to normal levels within two generations. These results suggest that cold storage without diapause induction is a viable option for Cx. pipiens, and with the addition of sugar feeding, a colony could be maintained with less than two generations per year.

  14. Comparative photosynthetic and metabolic analyses reveal mechanism of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass by exogenous melatonin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Xie, Yan; Amombo, Erick; Liu, Ao; Gitau, Margaret Mukami; Khaldun, A B M; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been reported to participate in plant development and abiotic stress responses. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of melatonin in the cold-sensitive (S) and the cold-tolerant (T) bermudagrass genotypes' response to cold stress. The genotypes were treated with 100 μM melatonin and exposed to 4 °C temperature for 3 days. In both genotypes, cold stress increased the endogenous melatonin levels, and more prominently in T than S. Physiological responses indicated that exogenous melatonin triggered antioxidant activities in both genotypes, while it alleviated cell damage in the T genotype response to cold stress. Melatonin treatment under cold stress increased fluorescence curve levels for both genotypes, and higher in T than S genotypes. In both genotypes, the alterations in photosynthetic fluorescence parameters after melatonin treatment highlighted the participation of melatonin in improving photosystem response to cold stress, particularly for the cold-tolerant genotype. The metabolic analyses revealed the alterations of 44 cold-responsive metabolites in the two genotypes, mainly including carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids. After exogenous melatonin treatment under cold condition, there was high accumulation of metabolites in the cold-tolerant regimes than their cold-sensitive counterparts. Collectively, the present study revealed differential modulations of melatonin between the cold-sensitive and the cold-tolerant genotypes in response to cold stress. This was mainly by impacting antioxidant system, photosystem II, as well as metabolic homeostasis.

  15. Intermittent cold exposure improves glucose homeostasis associated with brown and white adipose tissues in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tse-Yao; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Sun, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Aims The discovery of different shades of fat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. However, the effects of early and intermittent exposure to cold temperature on systemic metabolic changes in adult life remain unclear. Main methods To elucidate the impact of cold temperature exposure on metabolic function of adipose tissues, we investigated the glucose homeostasis, activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and “browning” of white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice in response to intermittent cold exposure. Mice were exposed to 4 °C, 2 hours per day and 5 days per week, for 14 weeks. Glucose homeostasis was tested via intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test; body fat mass was evaluated using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging; BAT activity was detected primarily by positron emission tomography/computed tomography; and WAT “browning” was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Key findings Our results showed that 14-week cold exposure improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin sensitivity, reduced the relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal WAT, increased expressions of UCP1 and PGC1α in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Significance Intermittent exposure to cold temperature in early life may improve systemic glucose homeostasis and induce WAT “browning”, suggesting that ambient cold temperature exposure may serve as a promising intervention to metabolic disorders. PMID:26281919

  16. How enhanced molecular ions in Cold EI improve compound identification by the NIST library.

    PubMed

    Alon, Tal; Amirav, Aviv

    2015-12-15

    Library-based compound identification with electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry (MS) is a well-established identification method which provides the names and structures of sample compounds up to the isomer level. The library (such as NIST) search algorithm compares different EI mass spectra in the library's database with the measured EI mass spectrum, assigning each of them a similarity score called 'Match' and an overall identification probability. Cold EI, electron ionization of vibrationally cold molecules in supersonic molecular beams, provides mass spectra with all the standard EI fragment ions combined with enhanced Molecular Ions and high-mass fragments. As a result, Cold EI mass spectra differ from those provided by standard EI and tend to yield lower matching scores. However, in most cases, library identification actually improves with Cold EI, as library identification probabilities for the correct library mass spectra increase, despite the lower matching factors. This research examined the way that enhanced molecular ion abundances affect library identification probability and the way that Cold EI mass spectra, which include enhanced molecular ions and high-mass fragment ions, typically improve library identification results. It involved several computer simulations, which incrementally modified the relative abundances of the various ions and analyzed the resulting mass spectra. The simulation results support previous measurements, showing that while enhanced molecular ion and high-mass fragment ions lower the matching factor of the correct library compound, the matching factors of the incorrect library candidates are lowered even more, resulting in a rise in the identification probability for the correct compound. This behavior which was previously observed by analyzing Cold EI mass spectra can be explained by the fact that high-mass ions, and especially the molecular ion, characterize a compound more than low-mass ions and therefore carries more

  17. Opportunities for Improved Management Efficiency of the Head Start Program: Performance Evaluation and High Risk Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Mary Sheila

    This report provides results of a review of the methodology used by the Office of Human Development Services (HDS) to measure Head Start performance and to control high risk Head Start agencies. The review was performed at HDS headquarters and regional locations nationwide. The review was based on a sample of 200 Head Start agencies and focused on…

  18. Improving Self-Regulation for Obesity Prevention in Head Start: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison L; Horodynski, Mildred A; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Contreras, Dawn; Lee, Hannah; Sturza, Julie; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E

    2017-05-01

    To determine the effect of an intervention to improve emotional and behavioral self-regulation in combination with an obesity-prevention program on the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in preschoolers. This was a cluster-randomized intervention trial in Head Start (HS) classrooms conducted in each of 4 academic years from 2011 to 2015. Participants (697 children; 49% boys; mean age: 4.1 ± 0.5 years; 48% white, 30% African American, 12% Hispanic) were randomly assigned by classroom to 1 of 3 intervention arms: (1) HS + Preschool Obesity Prevention Series (POPS) + Incredible Years Series (IYS) (HS enhanced by the POPS [program targeting evidence-based obesity-prevention behaviors] and the IYS [program to improve children's self-regulation]), (2) HS+POPS, or (3) HS. Primary outcomes were changes in prevalence of obesity, overweight/obesity, BMI z score, and teacher-reported child emotional and behavioral self-regulation; secondary outcomes were dietary intake, outdoor play, screen time, and parent nutrition knowledge and nutrition self-efficacy. HS+POPS+IYS improved teacher-reported self-regulation compared with HS+POPS (P < .001) and HS (P < .001), but there was no effect on the prevalence of obesity (16.4% preintervention to 14.3% postintervention in HS+POPS+IYS versus 17.3% to 14.4% in HS+POPS [P = .54] versus 12.2% to 13.0% in HS [P = .33]). There was no effect of HS+POPS compared with HS alone (P = .16). There was no effect on other outcomes except for sugar-sweetened beverage intake (HS+POPS+IYS resulted in a greater decline than HS; P = .005). An intervention for parents and children to improve HS preschoolers' emotional and behavioral self-regulation in combination with an obesity-prevention curriculum did not reduce obesity prevalence or most obesity-related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  20. Thermal face protection delays finger cooling and improves thermal comfort during cold air exposure.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Castellani, John W; Sawka, Michael N

    2011-12-01

    When people dress for cold weather, the face often remains exposed. Facial cooling can decrease finger blood flow, reducing finger temperature (T (f)). This study examined whether thermal face protection limits finger cooling and thereby improves thermal comfort and manual dexterity during prolonged cold exposure. T (f) was measured in ten volunteers dressed in cold-weather clothing as they stood for 60 min facing the wind (-15°C, 3 m s(-1)), once while wearing a balaclava and goggles (BAL), and once with the balaclava pulled down and without goggles (CON). Subjects removed mitts, wearing only thin gloves to perform Purdue Pegboard (PP) tests at 15 and 50 min, and Minnesota Rate of Manipulation (MRM) tests at 30 and 55 min. Subjects rated their thermal sensation and comfort just before the dexterity tests. T (f) decreased (p < 0.05 for time × trial interaction) by 15 min of cold exposure during CON (33.6 ± 1.4-28.7 ± 2.0°C), but not during BAL (33.2 ± 1.4-30.6 ± 3.2°C); and after 30 min T (f) remained warmer during BAL (23.3 ± 5.9°C) than CON (19.2 ± 3.5); however, by 50 min, T (f) was no different between trials (14.1 ± 2.7°C). Performance on PP fell (p < 0.05) by 25% after 50 min in both trials; MRM performance was not altered by cold on either trial. Subjects felt colder (p < 0.05) and more uncomfortable (p < 0.05) during CON, compared to BAL. Thermal face protection was effective for maintaining warmer T (f) and thermal comfort during cold exposure; however, local cooling of the hands during manual dexterity tests reduced this physiological advantage, and performance was not improved.

  1. Viral uncoating is directional: exit of the genomic RNA in a common cold virus starts with the poly-(A) tail at the 3'-end.

    PubMed

    Harutyunyan, Shushan; Kumar, Mohit; Sedivy, Arthur; Subirats, Xavier; Kowalski, Heinrich; Köhler, Gottfried; Blaas, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Upon infection, many RNA viruses reorganize their capsid for release of the genome into the host cell cytosol for replication. Often, this process is triggered by receptor binding and/or by the acidic environment in endosomes. In the genus Enterovirus, which includes more than 150 human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes causing the common cold, there is persuasive evidence that the viral RNA exits single-stranded through channels formed in the protein shell. We have determined the time-dependent emergence of the RNA ends from HRV2 on incubation of virions at 56°C using hybridization with specific oligonucleotides and detection by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We report that psoralen UV crosslinking prevents complete RNA release, allowing for identification of the sequences remaining inside the capsid. We also present the structure of uncoating intermediates in which parts of the RNA are condensed and take the form of a rod that is directed roughly towards a two-fold icosahedral axis, the presumed RNA exit point. Taken together, in contrast to schemes frequently depicted in textbooks and reviews, our findings demonstrate that exit of the RNA starts from the 3'-end. This suggests that packaging also occurs in an ordered manner resulting in the 3'-poly-(A) tail becoming located close to a position of pore formation during conversion of the virion into a subviral particle. This directional genome release may be common to many icosahedral non-enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses.

  2. Improved Birth Weight for Black Infants: Outcomes of a Healthy Start Program

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Ruth; James, Arthur; Charoth, Remitha M.; del Carmen Sweezy, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether participation in Healthy Babies Healthy Start (HBHS), a maternal health program emphasizing racial equity and delivering services through case management home visitation, was associated with improved birth outcomes for Black women relative to White women. Methods. We used a matched-comparison posttest-only design in which we selected the comparison group using propensity score matching. Study data were generated through secondary analysis of Michigan state- and Kalamazoo County–level birth certificate records for 2008 to 2010. We completed statistical analyses, stratified by race, using a repeated-measures generalized linear model. Results. Despite their smoking rate being double that of their matched counterparts, Black HBHS participants delivered higher birth-weight infants than did Black nonparticipants (P = .05). White HBHS participants had significantly more prenatal care than did White nonparticipants, but they had similar birth outcomes (P = .7 for birth weight; P = .55 for gestation). Conclusions. HBHS participation is associated with increased birth weights among Black women but not among White women, suggesting differential program gains for Black women. PMID:24354844

  3. Overexpression of GhDof1 improved salt and cold tolerance and seed oil content in Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Liang, Wei; Liu, Zhengjie; Wang, Yumei; Zhao, Yanpeng; Ijaz, Babar; Hua, Jinping

    2017-07-28

    A homologous GhDof1, which belongs to a large family of plant-specific transcription factor DOF, was isolated from Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). GhDof1 protein was located in the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, the core domain of transcriptional activity existed in the C-terminal, and the activity elements of GhDof1 promoter existed in the regions of -645∼ -469bp and -286∼ -132bp of transcriptional start codon. GhDof1 constitutively expressed in leaves, roots and stems, accumulated highest in leaves. The salinity and cold treatments induced GhDof1 transcript accumulation. The GhDof1-overexpressed cotton showed significantly higher salt and cold tolerance over the wild-type plants. Under salt stress, the root growth of overexpressed GhDof1 lines was promoted. The expression levels of stress-responsive genes, GhP5CS, GhSOD and GhMYB, were differently up-regulated in transgenic lines. Oil contents increased in some transgenic plants, and protein contents reduced compared with transformed receptor. These results suggested that GhDof1 was a functional transcription factor for improving the abiotic tolerance and seed oil content in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Perflubron emulsion prevents PMN activation and improves myocardial functional recovery after cold ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Gale, Stephen C; Gorman, Grace D; Copeland, Jack G; McDonagh, Paul F

    2007-03-01

    In cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal circulation activates neutrophils, which contribute to ischemia reperfusion injury and postoperative myocardial dysfunction. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are compounds that dissolve oxygen and have anti-inflammatory and neutrophil-stabilizing properties. We hypothesized that perflubron emulsion (PFE), a PFC, would attenuate neutrophil activation during simulated extracorporeal circulation (SECC) and would preserve myocardial functional recovery during reperfusion after cold ischemia. In a SECC, diluted blood was circulated for 120 min and subsequently used to reperfuse isolated rat hearts after 2 h of cold (12 degrees C) ischemia. Three groups were studied: noncirculated control; SECC/no additive; and SECC/PFE added. In control and SECC/no additive groups, whole blood was diluted 1:1 with plasmalyte. SECC/PFE blood was diluted 1:1 with plasmalyte and PFE (0.075 mL/mL diluted whole blood). Blood counts and neutrophil activation experiments were performed before and after 120 min of SECC. Reperfusion was accomplished using a modified Langendorff preparation. Left ventricular developed pressure, dP/dt, and coronary flow were measured at 10, 15, and 20 min of reperfusion. After 120 min SECC, neutrophil activation was significantly reduced in the SECC/PFE group compared to the SECC/no additive group (38.1 +/- 2.3% versus 51.7 +/- 1.0%, P < 0.05). Compared to cold ischemic hearts reperfused with fresh, non-recirculated blood, left ventricular developed pressure and dP/dt were significantly impaired in the cold ischemic hearts reperfused with SECC/no additive blood (P < 0.05). In contrast, myocardial functional recovery was not impaired in the hearts reperfused with SECC/PFE blood. SECC-induced neutrophil activation was attenuated with Perflubron treatment. In addition, the progressive impairment in myocardial functional recovery after cold ischemia was significantly improved with treatment. PFE has clinical potential to limit

  5. Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Avina; Mulligan, James; Egaña, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    A brief cold water immersion between 2 continuous high-intensity exercise bouts improves the performance of the latter compared with passive recovery in the heat. We investigated if this effect is apparent in normothermic conditions (∼19 °C), employing an intermittent high-intensity exercise designed to reflect the work performed at the high-intensity domain in team sports. Fifteen young active men completed 2 exhaustive cycling protocols (Ex1 and Ex2: 12 min at 85% ventilatory threshold (VT) and then an intermittent exercise alternating 30-s at 40% peak power (Ppeak) and 30 s at 90% Ppeak to exhaustion) separated by 15 min of (i) passive rest, (ii) 5-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C, and (iii) 10-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C. Core temperature, heart rate, rates of perceived exertion, and oxygen uptake kinetics were not different during Ex1 among conditions. Time to failure during the intermittent exercise was significantly (P < 0.05) longer during Ex2 following the 5- and 10-min cold-water immersions (7.2 ± 3.5 min and 7.3 ± 3.3 min, respectively) compared with passive rest (5.8 ± 3.1 min). Core temperature, heart rate, and rates of perceived exertion were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during most periods of Ex2 after both cold-water immersions compared with passive rest. The time constant of phase II oxygen uptake response during the 85% VT bout of Ex2 was not different among the 3 conditions. A postexercise, 5- to 10-min cold-water immersion increases subsequent intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with passive rest in normothermia due, at least in part, to reductions in core temperature, circulatory strain, and effort perception.

  6. Improving Instruction in Head Start Preschool Classrooms through Feedback and Support to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boat, Mary B.; Carr, Victoria; Barnett, David; Macmann, Gregg; Moomaw, Sally; Pan, Wei; Nichols, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the use of data-based feedback and support to teachers in Head Start classrooms to facilitate increased use of effective instructional and managerial practices. The authors conducted a study to examine the impact of providing Head Start preschool classroom teachers with data regarding their use of established instructional…

  7. An Integrated Curriculum to Improve Mathematics, Language, and Literacy for Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; Gadsden, Vivian L.; McDermott, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and field trial of an integrated Head Start curriculum (Evidence-Based Program for Integrated Curricula [EPIC]) that focuses on comprehensive mathematics, language, and literacy skills. Seventy Head Start classrooms (N = 1,415 children) were randomly assigned to one of two curriculum programs: EPIC or the…

  8. An Integrated Curriculum to Improve Mathematics, Language, and Literacy for Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John W.; Gadsden, Vivian L.; McDermott, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and field trial of an integrated Head Start curriculum (Evidence-Based Program for Integrated Curricula [EPIC]) that focuses on comprehensive mathematics, language, and literacy skills. Seventy Head Start classrooms (N = 1,415 children) were randomly assigned to one of two curriculum programs: EPIC or the…

  9. Osmyb4 expression improves adaptive responses to drought and cold stress in transgenic apples.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Gemma; Biricolti, Stefano; Locatelli, Franca; Baldoni, Elena; Mattana, Monica

    2008-10-01

    Constitutive expression of the rice cold-inducible Osmyb4 gene in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants improves adaptive responses to cold and drought stress, most likely due to the constitutive activation of several stress-inducible pathways and to the accumulation of several compatible solutes (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose, proline, glycine betaine and some aromatic compounds). Although the Osmyb4 gene seems able to activate stress responsive pathways in different species, we previously reported that its specific effect on stress tolerance depends on the transformed species. In the present work, we report the effects of the Osmyb4 expression for improving the stress response in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) plants. Namely, we found that the ectopic expression of the Myb4 transcription factor improved physiological and biochemical adaptation to cold and drought stress and modified metabolite accumulation. Based on these results it may be of interest to use Osmyb4 as a tool for improving the productivity of woody perennials under environmental stress conditions.

  10. COLD-PCR: a new platform for highly improved mutation detection in cancer and genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2009-04-01

    PCR is widely employed as the initial DNA amplification step for genetic testing and cancer biomarker detection. However, a key limitation of PCR-based methods, including real-time PCR, is the inability to selectively amplify low levels of variant alleles in a wild-type allele background. As a result, downstream assays are limited in their ability to identify subtle genetic changes that can have a profound impact on clinical decision-making and outcome or that can serve as cancer biomarkers. We developed COLD-PCR (co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR) [Li, Wang, Mamon, Kulke, Berbeco and Makrigiorgos (2008) Nat. Med. 14, 579-584], a novel form of PCR that amplifies minority alleles selectively from mixtures of wild-type and mutation-containing sequences irrespective of the mutation type or position on the sequence. Consequently, COLD-PCR amplification from genomic DNA yields PCR products containing high-prevalence variant alleles that can be detected. Since PCR constitutes a ubiquitous initial step for almost all genetic analysis, COLD-PCR provides a general platform to improve the sensitivity of essentially all DNA-variation detection technologies including Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, single molecule sequencing, mutation scanning, mutation genotyping or methylation assays. COLD-PCR combined with real-time PCR provides a new approach to boost the capabilities of existing real-time mutation detection methods. We replaced regular PCR with COLD-PCR before sequencing or real-time mutation detection assays to improve mutation detection-sensitivity by up to 100-fold and identified novel p53/Kras/EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) mutations in heterogeneous cancer samples that were missed by all existing methods. For clinically relevant micro-deletions, COLD-PCR enabled exclusive amplification and isolation of the mutants. COLD-PCR is expected to have diverse applications in the fields of biomarker identification and tracing, genomic

  11. The Educational Toolbox: Kick Start Your Educational Program in Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Rebecca L; Medbery, Rachel L; Vandermeer, Thomas J; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2015-01-01

    To disseminate materials and learning from the proceedings of the Association of Program Directors 2014 Annual Meeting workshop on the integration of quality improvement (QI) education into the existing educational infrastructure. Modern surgical practice demands an understanding of QI methodology. Yet, today׳s surgeons are not formally educated in QI methodology. Therefore, it is hard to follow the historical mantra of "see one, do one, teach one" in the quality realm. Participants were given a brief introduction to QI approaches. A number of concrete examples of how to incorporate QI education into training programs were presented, followed by a small group session focused on the identification of barriers to incorporation. Participants were provided with a worksheet to help navigate the initial incorporation of QI education in 3 steps. Participants were representative of all types of training programs, with differing levels of existing QI integration. Barriers to QI education included lack of resident interest/buy-in, concerns over the availability of educational resources (i.e., limited time to devote to QI), and a limited QI knowledge among surgical educators. The 3 steps to kick starting the educational process included (1) choosing a specific method of QI education, (2) incorporation via barrier, infrastructure, and stakeholder identification, and (3) implementation and ongoing assessment. Recent changes in the delivery of surgical care along with the new accreditation system have necessitated the development of QI education programs for use in surgical education. To continue to make surgery safer and ensure optimal patient outcomes, surgical educators must teach each resident to adopt quality science methodology in a meaningful way. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, M Antonietta; Murena, Fabio; Prati, M Vittoria

    2014-01-15

    Powered two-wheeler (PTW) vehicles complying with recent European type approval standards (stages Euro 2 and Euro 3) were tested on chassis dynamometer in order to measure exhaust emissions of about 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the range C1-C7, including carcinogenic compounds as benzene and 1,3-butadiene. The fleet consists of a moped (engine capacity ≤ 50 cm(3)) and three fuel injection motorcycles of different engine capacities (150, 300 and 400 cm(3)). Different driving conditions were tested (US FPT cycle, constant speed). Due to the poor control of the combustion and catalyst efficiency, moped is the highest pollutant emitter. In fact, fuel injection strategy and three way catalyst with lambda sensor are able to reduce VOC motorcycles' emission of about one order of magnitude with respect to moped. Cold start effect, that is crucial for the assessment of actual emission of PTWs in urban areas, was significant: 30-51% of extra emission for methane. In the investigated speed range, moped showed a significant maximum of VOC emission factor at minimum speed (10 km/h) and a slightly decreasing trend from 20 to 60 km/h; motorcycles showed on the average a less significant peak at 10 km/h, a minimum at 30-40 km/h and then an increasing trend with a maximum emission factor at 90 km/h. Carcinogenic VOCs show the same pattern of total VOCs. Ozone Formation Potential (OFP) was estimated by using Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale. The greatest contribution to tropospheric ozone formation comes from alkenes group which account for 50-80% to the total OFP. VOC contribution effect on greenhouse effect is negligible with respect to CO2 emitted. © 2013.

  13. A Professional Development Program to Improve Math Skills among Preschool Children in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendefur, Jonathan; Strother, Sam; Thiede, Keith; Lane, Cristianne; Surges-Prokop, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects on four-year-olds' knowledge of mathematics by introducing professional development and center-based mathematics activities around four mathematical domains to early educators' teaching in Head Start programs. Because of the need to provide necessary mathematical experiences to young children to…

  14. Outbursts From Glacial Lake Agassiz and Their Possible Impact on Thermohaline Circulation at the Start of the Younger Dryas, Preboreal Oscillation, and 8.2 ka Cold Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teller, J. T.; Leverington, D.; Mann, J.

    2001-12-01

    During the last deglaciation of North America, the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreated downslope, impounding lakes along its margin. The area and volume of these proglacial lakes varied substantially through time as a result of the changing location of the ice margin, topography of the newly deglaciated surface, elevation of the overflow outlet from the lake, and differential isostatic rebound. Glacial Lake Agassiz was the largest of these lakes from about 11.7 to 7.7 ka 14C yrs BP, although it varied dramatically in size and volume throughout most of its life. This lake reached a maximum of 841,000 km2 and 163,000 km3 about 8.4 ka cal yrs BP, after it merged with glacial Lake Ojibway; this is about 7 times the total volume of the modern Great Lakes and 2 times that of the Caspian Sea, the world's largest lake. On many occasions Lake Agassiz abruptly released large volumes of water through newly opened outlets, drawing down the level of the lake. We reconstructed the bathymetry of the lake for 13 lake stages by subtracting interpolated isobase data from a database of modern elevations; these bathymetric models were then used to quantify changes in lake volume through time, and to estimate the volumes catastrophically released from the lake. During the life of Lake Agassiz, 4 of the 5 largest catastrophic outbursts occurred at 12.9, 11.7, 11.2, and 8.4 ka cal yrs BP, which released 9500, 9300, 5900, and 163,000 km3 of freshwater, respectively (0.30, 0.29, 0.19, and 5.2 Sv if released in one year). Because these freshwater additions to the oceans occurred near the start of the three largest cooling events during this period of deglaciation--the Younger Dryas, Preboreal Oscillation, and the "8.2 ka cal yr cold event"--they may have been the trigger for changes in thermohaline circulation. The concurrent re-routing of baseline overflow from Lake Agassiz, which added another 0.034-0.17 Sv to the overflow, may have been integral in these changes and have helped sustain them.

  15. Empowering Head Start to Improve Access to Good Oral Health for Children from Low Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Huebner, Colleen; Graves, Janessa; Tut, Ohnmar

    2008-01-01

    Surveys over 20 years have documented worsening in the dental health of preschoolers. Healthy People 2010 Midcourse Review reports the country moving away from oral health goals for young children; the slip is 57%. Exacerbating this is the inability of Medicaid to provide for those in need. Most children receive examinations only: few receive comprehensive care. We urge Head Start grantees to adopt a new approach to oral health goals and in this paper offer: (1) a review of the problem and premises preventing a solution; (2) a proposal that Head Start adopt a public health perspective; and (3) specific roles staff and dental personnel can take to mount aggressive strategies to arrest tooth decay at the grantee site. PMID:18246416

  16. The Starting Early Starting Smart Integrated Services Model: Improving Access to Behavioral Health Services in the Pediatric Health Care Setting for At-Risk Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…

  17. The Starting Early Starting Smart Integrated Services Model: Improving Access to Behavioral Health Services in the Pediatric Health Care Setting for At-Risk Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integrate behavioral health services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…

  18. QTL pyramiding for improving of cold tolerance at fertilization stage in rice.

    PubMed

    Shinada, Hiroshi; Iwata, Natsuko; Sato, Takashi; Fujino, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Vigorous cold tolerance at the fertilization stage (CTF) is a very important characteristic for stable rice production in cold temperature conditions. Because CTF is a quantitatively inherited trait, pyramiding quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is effective for improving CTF levels in rice breeding programs. We previously identified three QTLs controlling CTF, qCTF7, qCTF8 and qCTF12, using backcrossed inbred lines derived from a cross between rice cultivar Eikei88223 (vigorous CTF) and Suisei (very weak CTF). However, pyramiding of these QTLs for the application of MAS in practical rice breeding programs have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of pyramiding QTLs for improvement of CTF level using eight possible genotype classes from the 152 F3 population derived from a cross between Eikei88223 and Suisei. Increasing of CTF levels in combinations between qCTF7 and qCTF12 and between qCTF8 and qCTF12 were detected. Furthermore, we compared the haplotype pattern around the QTLs for CTF among the rice cultivars from Hokkaido. These results are useful for improvement of new cultivars with high CTF levels using MAS and identification of genetic resources with the novel QTL(s) for CTF.

  19. Early gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist start improves follicular synchronization and pregnancy outcome as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  20. Improved random-starting method for the EM algorithm for finite mixtures of regressions.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Two methods for generating random starting values for the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm are compared in terms of yielding maximum likelihood parameter estimates in finite mixtures of regressions. One of these methods is ubiquitous in applications of finite mixture regression, whereas the other method is an alternative that appears not to have been used so far. The two methods are compared in two simulation studies and on an illustrative data set. The results show that the alternative method yields solutions with likelihood values at least as high as, and often higher than, those returned by the standard method. Moreover, analyses of the illustrative data set show that the results obtained by the two methods may differ considerably with regard to some of the substantive conclusions. The results reported in this article indicate that in applications of finite mixture regression, consideration should be given to the type of mechanism chosen to generate random starting values for the EM algorithm. In order to facilitate the use of the proposed alternative method, an R function implementing the approach is provided in the Appendix of the article.

  1. [Improving drug prescribing in the elderly: a new edition of STOPP/START criteria].

    PubMed

    Delgado Silveira, E; Montero Errasquín, B; Muñoz García, M; Vélez-Díaz-Pallarés, M; Lozano Montoya, I; Sánchez-Castellano, C; Cruz-Jentoft, A J

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate use of drugs in older patients may have an adverse impact on several individual health outcomes, such as increasing the prevalence of adverse drug reactions, morbidity and mortality, and geriatric syndromes, as well as on health care systems, such as increased costs and longer hospital stays. Explicit criteria of drug appropriateness are increasingly used to detect and prevent inappropriate use of drugs, either within a comprehensive geriatric assessment or as tool used by different multidisciplinary geriatric teams. STOPP-START criteria, first published in 2008 (in Spanish in 2009), are being adopted as reference criteria throughout Europe. The Spanish version of the new 2014 edition (recently published in English) of the STOPP-START criteria is presented here. A review of all the papers published in Spain using the former version of these criteria is also presented, with the intention of promoting their use and for research in different health care levels. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Snow Measurement Technology to Better Parameterise Cold Regions Hydrometeorology Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeroy, J.; Debeer, C.; Ellis, C.; Essery, R.; Helgason, W.; Kinar, N.; Link, T.; MacDonald, J.

    2008-12-01

    Marmot Creek Research Basin, in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada constitutes a long term cold regions hydrometeorological observatory with over 45 years of intensive observations in alpine and forested zones. Recently, novel combinations of measurement technology to snow have been deployed in Marmot Creek to advance the understanding of snow processes and to improve hydrometeorological models of streamflow and atmospheric variables. One advance has been the development and application of portable acoustic reflectometry to measure the density and structure of seasonal snowpacks using an audible sound wave. This has permitted the non-invasive measurement of snow water equivalent for both stationary and snow survey applications. Another advance has been the use of oblique time-lapse digital photography which is corrected for elevation and view angle from a LiDAR DEM to produce daily orthogonal snow covered area images of the alpine zone. These images are used to calculate snowcovered area and to develop and test improved snowcover melt and depletion algorithms. Deployment of 3-axis ultrasonic anemometers and fast hygrometers with collection of 10 Hz data and full correction for non-stationarity, axis rotation and other effects has shown that horizontal turbulence is often advected into mountain clearings and causes failure of traditional bulk transfer calculations of latent and sensible heat. For forest snow a hanging, weighed spruce tree and hanging, weighed sub-canopy troughs are used to capture intercepted snow load and unloaded snow fluxes respectively. These quantities provide the information needed to test detailed models of the snow interception and unloading processes. To quantify variations in sub-canopy energy for snowmelt, infrared imaging radiometers and narrow beam radiometers are used to measure thermal radiation exitance from needles, stems and trunks in forests of varying structure. These measurements are being used to develop improved models of

  3. The importance of parental expectations of cognitive improvement for their children with epilepsy prior to starting the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Farasat, Sharifeh; Kossoff, Eric H; Pillas, Diana J; Rubenstein, James E; Vining, Eileen P; Freeman, John M

    2006-03-01

    Although the success rates and complications of various treatment options for children with intractable epilepsy have been described, the actual expectations of parents for these treatments are less clear. Since 1998, parents at our institution have written their goals in a letter before starting their children on the ketogenic diet. One hundred consecutive letters were evaluated. The most common first goal was seizure improvement, second was anticonvulsant reduction, and third was cognitive improvement. Ninety percent requested improvement in cognition or alertness. These expectations were either met or exceeded at 6 months in 52-60% of children. Achieving or surpassing parental expectations for cognitive improvement correlated with longer diet duration (P=0.04), but meeting goals for seizure or anticonvulsant reduction did not. Cognitive improvement (P<0.001) and >90% seizure reduction (P=0.04) at 6 months positively correlated with longer eventual diet duration. Expectations for cognitive improvement need to be discussed prior to beginning the ketogenic diet.

  4. Single-site substitutions improve cold activity and increase thermostability of the dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Yan; Wu, Li-Ying; Liu, Gang; Feng, Hong

    2016-12-01

    To engineer dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) variants to improve cold activity and increase thermostability so these variants are suitable for the leather processing industry. Based on previous studies with bacterial alkaline proteases, double-site mutations (W106K/V149I and W106K/M124L) were introduced into the DHAP from Bacillus pumilus. Compared with the wild-type DHAP hydrolytic activity, the double-site variant W106K/V149I showed an increase in specific hydrolytic activity at 15 °C by 2.3-fold toward casein in terms of hydrolytic rate and 2.7-fold toward the synthetic peptide AAPF-pN by means of kcat/Km value. The thermostability of the variant (W106K/V149I) was improved with the half-life at 60 and 70 °C increased by 2.7- and 5.0-fold, respectively, when compared with the thermostability of the wild-type DHAP. Conclusively, an increase in the cold activity and thermostability of a bacterial alkaline protease was achieved by protein engineering.

  5. Cold adaptation improves the growth of seasonal influenza B vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsuh; Schoofs, Peter; Anderson, David A; Tannock, Gregory A; Rockman, Steven P

    2014-05-01

    Gene reassortment has proved useful in improving yields of influenza A antigens of egg-based inactivated vaccines, but similar approaches have been difficult with influenza B antigens. Current regulations for influenza vaccine seed viruses limit the number of egg passages and as a result resultant yields from influenza B vaccine seed viruses are frequently inconsistent. Therefore, reliable approaches to enhance yields of influenza B vaccine seed viruses are required for efficient vaccine manufacture. In the present study three stable cold-adapted (ca) mutants, caF, caM and caB derived from seasonal epidemic strains, B/Florida/4/2006, B/Malaysia/2506/2004 and B/Brisbane/60/2008 were prepared, which produced high hemagglutinin antigen yields and also increased viral yields of reassortants possessing the desired 6:2 gene constellation. The results demonstrate that consistent improvements in yields of influenza B viruses can be obtained by cold adaptation following extended passage. Taken together, the three ca viruses were shown to have potential as donor viruses for the preparation of high-yielding influenza B vaccine viruses by reassortment.

  6. Improved Arterial Blood Oxygenation Following Intravenous Infusion of Cold Supersaturated Dissolved Oxygen Solution

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. METHODS Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer’s lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. RESULTS Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05), with a corresponding normalization in arterial blood pH. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in core body temperature (P < 0.05) when compared to the baseline preinfusion state. CONCLUSIONS A cold, supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model. PMID:25249764

  7. Improved arterial blood oxygenation following intravenous infusion of cold supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution.

    PubMed

    Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer's lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05), with a corresponding normalization in arterial blood pH. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in core body temperature (P < 0.05) when compared to the baseline preinfusion state. A cold, supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model.

  8. Wear Improvement of Tools in the Cold Forging Process for Long Hex Flange Nuts

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Shao-Yi; Shih, Po-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been widely used in automotive production, manufacturing, aviation and 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer electronics). Despite its extensive use in fastener forming and die design, operator experience and trial and error make it subjective and unreliable owing to the difficulty of controlling the development schedule. This study used finite element analysis to establish and simulate wear in automotive repair fastener manufacturing dies based on actual process conditions. The places on a die that wore most quickly were forecast, with the stress levels obtained being substituted into the Archard equation to calculate die wear. A 19.87% improvement in wear optimization occurred by applying the Taguchi quality method to the new design. Additionally, a comparison of actual manufacturing data to simulations revealed a nut forging size error within 2%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of this theoretical analysis. Finally, SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces on the upper punch indicate that the primary wear mechanism on the cold forging die for long hex flange nuts was adhesive wear. The results can simplify the development schedule, reduce the number of trials and further enhance production quality and die life. PMID:28793589

  9. Improving cold storage and processing traits in potato through targeted gene knockout.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Benjamin M; Stoddard, Thomas J; Luo, Song; Demorest, Zachary L; Li, Jin; Cedrone, Frederic; Tibebu, Redeat; Davison, Shawn; Ray, Erin E; Daulhac, Aurelie; Coffman, Andrew; Yabandith, Ann; Retterath, Adam; Haun, William; Baltes, Nicholas J; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cold storage of potato tubers is commonly used to reduce sprouting and extend postharvest shelf life. However, cold temperature stimulates the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers. Upon high-temperature processing, these reducing sugars react with free amino acids, resulting in brown, bitter-tasting products and elevated levels of acrylamide--a potential carcinogen. To minimize the accumulation of reducing sugars, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to silence the vacuolar invertase gene (VInv), which encodes a protein that breaks down sucrose to glucose and fructose. Because RNAi often results in incomplete gene silencing and requires the plant to be transgenic, here we used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to knockout VInv within the commercial potato variety, Ranger Russet. We isolated 18 plants containing mutations in at least one VInv allele, and five of these plants had mutations in all VInv alleles. Tubers from full VInv-knockout plants had undetectable levels of reducing sugars, and processed chips contained reduced levels of acrylamide and were lightly coloured. Furthermore, seven of the 18 modified plant lines appeared to contain no TALEN DNA insertions in the potato genome. These results provide a framework for using TALENs to quickly improve traits in commercially relevant autotetraploid potato lines.

  10. Wear Improvement of Tools in the Cold Forging Process for Long Hex Flange Nuts.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Shao-Yi; Shih, Po-Yueh

    2015-09-25

    Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been widely used in automotive production, manufacturing, aviation and 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer electronics). Despite its extensive use in fastener forming and die design, operator experience and trial and error make it subjective and unreliable owing to the difficulty of controlling the development schedule. This study used finite element analysis to establish and simulate wear in automotive repair fastener manufacturing dies based on actual process conditions. The places on a die that wore most quickly were forecast, with the stress levels obtained being substituted into the Archard equation to calculate die wear. A 19.87% improvement in wear optimization occurred by applying the Taguchi quality method to the new design. Additionally, a comparison of actual manufacturing data to simulations revealed a nut forging size error within 2%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of this theoretical analysis. Finally, SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces on the upper punch indicate that the primary wear mechanism on the cold forging die for long hex flange nuts was adhesive wear. The results can simplify the development schedule, reduce the number of trials and further enhance production quality and die life.

  11. Evaluation of the Skill Training Improvement Program (STIP), Phase I: Starting Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    An evaluation was conducted of the Skills Training Improvement Program (STIP) to determine the types of projects established with STIP funds, to assess their success, and to measure the role played by the private sector in the program. Data was collected from three sources: the grant applications of all 141 CETA sponsors conducting the projects,…

  12. Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2012-01-01

    Proposals for school reform often focus on large and sometimes controversial systemic changes, such as charter schools, accountability standards, and changes to the way teachers are hired, fired, and compensated. Although these reforms may offer great opportunity to improve student outcomes, they may also be costly, face substantial implementation…

  13. Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2012-01-01

    Proposals for school reform often focus on large and sometimes controversial systemic changes, such as charter schools, accountability standards, and changes to the way teachers are hired, fired, and compensated. Although these reforms may offer great opportunity to improve student outcomes, they may also be costly, face substantial implementation…

  14. Unsaturated fatty acids from food and in the growth medium improve growth of Bacillus cereus under cold and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    de Sarrau, Benoît; Clavel, Thierry; Zwickel, Nicolas; Despres, Jordane; Dupont, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Nguyen-The, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    In a chemically defined medium and in Luria broth, cold strongly reduced maximal population density of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in anaerobiosis and caused formation of filaments. In cooked spinach, maximal population density of B. cereus in anaerobiosis was the same at cold and optimal temperatures, with normal cell divisions. The lipid containing fraction of spinach, but not the hydrophilic fraction, restored growth of B. cereus under cold and anaerobiosis when added to the chemically defined medium. This fraction was rich in unsaturated, low melting point fatty acids. Addition of phosphatidylcholine containing unsaturated, low melting point, fatty acids similarly improved B. cereus anaerobic growth at cold temperature. Addition of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine containing saturated, high melting point, fatty acids did not modify growth. Fatty acids from phospholipids, from spinach and from hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, although normally very rare in B. cereus, were inserted in the bacterium membrane. Addition of phospholipids rich in unsaturated fatty acids to cold and anaerobic cultures, increased fluidity of B. cereus membrane lipids, to the same level as those from B. cereus normally cold adapted, i.e. grown aerobically at 15 °C. B. cereus is therefore able to use external fatty acids from foods or from the growth medium to adapt its membrane to cold temperature under anaerobiosis, and to recover the maximal population density achieved at optimal temperature.

  15. Improved Metrological Traceability of Particle Size Values Measured with Line-Start Incremental Centrifugal Liquid Sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Vikram; Coleman, Victoria A; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Minelli, Caterina; Woehlecke, Holger; Roebben, Gert

    2017-08-22

    Line-start incremental centrifugal liquid sedimentation (disc-CLS) is a powerful method to determine particle size based on the principles of Stokes' law. Because several of the input quantities of the Stokes equation cannot be easily determined for this case of a rotating disc, the disc-CLS approach relies on calibrating the sedimentation time scale with reference particles. To use these calibrant particles for establishing metrological traceability, they must fulfill the same requirements as those imposed on a certified reference material, i.e., their certified Stokes diameter and density value must come with a realistic measurement uncertainty and with a traceability statement. As is the case for several other techniques, the calibrants do not always come with uncertainties for the assigned modal diameter and effective particle density. The lack of such information and the absence of a traceability statement make it difficult for the end-user to estimate the uncertainty of the measurement results and to compare them with results obtained by others. We present the results of a collaborative study that aimed at demonstrating the traceability of particle size results obtained with disc-CLS. For this purpose, the particle size and effective particle density of polyvinyl chloride calibrants were measured using different validated methods, and measurement uncertainties were estimated according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The results indicate that the modal Stokes diameter and effective particle density that are assigned to the calibrants are accurate within 5% and 3.5%, respectively, and that they can be used to establish traceability of particle size results obtained with disc-CLS. This conclusion has a great impact on the traceability statement of certified particle size reference materials, for which the traceability is limited to the size and density values of the calibrant particles.

  16. Improved adaptation to heat, cold, and solvent tolerance in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, D; Capozzi, V; Goffin, P; Hols, P; Spano, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    The effect of overproducing each of the three small heat shock proteins (Hsp; Hsp 18.5, Hsp 18.55, and Hsp 19.3) was investigated in Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1. Overproduction of the three genes, hsp 18.5, hsp 18.55, and hsp 19.3, translationally fused to the start codon of the ldhL gene yielded a protein of approximately 19 kDa, as estimated from Tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in agreement with the predicted molecular weight of small Hsps. Small Hsp overproduction alleviated the reduction in growth rate triggered by exposing exponentially growing cells to heat shock (37 or 40 degrees C) and cold shock (12 degrees C). Moreover, overproduction of Hsp 18.55 and Hsp 19.3 led to an enhanced survival in the presence of butanol (1% v/v) or ethanol (12% v/v) treatment suggesting a potential role of L. plantarum small Hsps in solvent tolerance.

  17. Cold preservation with hyperbranched polyglycerol-based solution improves kidney functional recovery with less injury at reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shadan; Liu, Bin; Guan, Qiunong; Chafeeva, Irina; Brooks, Donald E; Nguan, Christopher YC; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Du, Caigan

    2017-01-01

    Minimizing donor organ injury during cold preservation (including cold perfusion and storage) is the first step to prevent transplant failure. We recently reported the advantages of hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) as a novel substitute for hydroxyethyl starch in UW solution for both cold heart preservation and cold kidney perfusion. This study evaluated the functional recovery of the kidney at reperfusion after cold preservation with HPG solution. The impact of HPG solution compared to conventional UW and HTK solutions on tissue weight and cell survival at 4°C was examined using rat kidney tissues and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively. The kidney protection by HPG solution was tested in a rat model of cold kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury, and was evaluated by histology and kidney function. Here, we showed that preservation with HPG solution prevented cell death in cultured HUVECs and edema formation in kidney tissues at 4°C similar to UW solution, whereas HTK solution was less effective. In rat model of cold ischemia-reperfusion injury, the kidneys perfused and subsequently stored 1-hour with cold HPG solution showed less leukocyte infiltration, less tubular damage and better kidney function (lower levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) at 48 h of reperfusion than those treated with UW or HTK solution. In conclusion, our data show the superiority of HPG solution to UW or HTK solution in the cold perfusion and storage of rat kidneys, suggesting that the HPG solution may be a promising candidate for improved donor kidney preservation prior to transplantation. PMID:28337272

  18. Does a Non-Circular Chainring Improve Performance in the Bicycle Motocross Cycling Start Sprint?

    PubMed Central

    Mateo-March, Manuel; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Maximising power output during the initial acceleration phase of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race increases the chance to lead the group for the rest of the race. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular chainrings (Q-ring) on performance during the initial acceleration phase of a BMX race. Sixteen male cyclists (Spanish National BMX team) performed two counterbalanced and randomized initial sprints (3.95s), using Q- ring vs. circular chainring, on a BMX track. The sample was divided into two different groups according to their performance (Elite; n = 8 vs. Cadet; n = 8). Elite group covered a greater distance using Q-ring (+0.26 m, p = 0.02; D = 0.23), whilst the improvement for the Cadet (+0.04 m) was not significant (p = 0.87; D = -0.02). Also, there was no significant difference in power output for the Elite group, while the Cadet group revealed larger peak power with the circular chainring. Neither lactate level, nor heart rate showed significant differences due to the different chainring used. The non-circular chainring improved the initial acceleration capacity only in the Elite riders. Key Points This work provides novel results demonstrating very significant improvements in the sprint performance of BMX cycling discipline using a non-circular chainring system. This study seeks a practical application from scientific analysis All data are obtained in a real context of high competition using a sample comprised by the National Spanish Team. Some variables influencing performance as subjects’ physical fitness are discussed. Technical equipment approved by International Cycling Union is studied to check its potentially beneficial influence on performance. PMID:24570612

  19. Does a non-circular chainring improve performance in the bicycle motocross cycling start sprint?

    PubMed

    Mateo-March, Manuel; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Maximising power output during the initial acceleration phase of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race increases the chance to lead the group for the rest of the race. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular chainrings (Q-ring) on performance during the initial acceleration phase of a BMX race. Sixteen male cyclists (Spanish National BMX team) performed two counterbalanced and randomized initial sprints (3.95s), using Q- ring vs. circular chainring, on a BMX track. The sample was divided into two different groups according to their performance (Elite; n = 8 vs. Cadet; n = 8). Elite group covered a greater distance using Q-ring (+0.26 m, p = 0.02; D = 0.23), whilst the improvement for the Cadet (+0.04 m) was not significant (p = 0.87; D = -0.02). Also, there was no significant difference in power output for the Elite group, while the Cadet group revealed larger peak power with the circular chainring. Neither lactate level, nor heart rate showed significant differences due to the different chainring used. The non-circular chainring improved the initial acceleration capacity only in the Elite riders. Key PointsThis work provides novel results demonstrating very significant improvements in the sprint performance of BMX cycling discipline using a non-circular chainring system.This study seeks a practical application from scientific analysisAll data are obtained in a real context of high competition using a sample comprised by the National Spanish Team.Some variables influencing performance as subjects' physical fitness are discussed.Technical equipment approved by International Cycling Union is studied to check its potentially beneficial influence on performance.

  20. Mechanical pretreatment improving hemicelluloses removal from cellulosic fibers during cold caustic extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Liu, Yishan; Duan, Chao; Zhang, Hongjie; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Hemicelluloses removal is a prerequisite for the production of high-quality cellulose (also known as dissolving pulp), and further recovery and utilization of hemicelluloses, which can be considered as a typical Integrated Forest Biorefinery concept. In this paper, a process of combined mechanical refining and cold caustic extraction (CCE), which was applied to a softwood sulfite sample, was investigated. The results showed that the hemicelluloses removal efficiency and selectivity were higher for the combined treatment than that for the CCE alone. The combined treatment can thus decrease the alkali concentration (from 8% to 4%) to achieve a similar hemicelluloses removal. The improved results were due to the fact that the mechanical refining resulted in increases in pore volume and diameter, water retention value (WRV) and specific surface area (SSA), all of which can make positive contributions to the hemicelluloses removal in the subsequent CCE process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement in medium long-term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Cheng, Huadong; Meng, Yanling; Wan, Jinyin; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Yaning; Liu, Liang

    2016-07-01

    The medium-long term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock was improved.During the clock operation, Rb atoms were cooled and manipulated using cooling light diffusely reflected by the inner surface of a microwave cavity in the clock. This light heated the cavity and caused a frequency drift from the resonant frequency of the cavity. Power fluctuations of the cooling light led to atomic density variations in the cavity's central area, which increased the clock frequency instability through a cavity pulling effect. We overcame these limitations with appropriate solutions. A frequency stability of 3.5E-15 was achieved when the integrating time ? increased to 2E4 s.

  2. [Interviews with physicians in private practice as a starting point for quality improvement in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Spiessl, H; Semsch, I; Cording, C; Klein, H E

    2001-07-01

    Subjective criteria gain importance in care research and quality management. Therefore, psychiatrists in private practice and general practitioners working in the catchment area of a psychiatric hospital were surveyed by questionnaire evaluating expectations and satisfaction concerning their collaboration with the hospital. Psychiatrists and general practitioners rated legible interim discharge letters, good in-patient treatment, adequate diagnostics, and direct referral to the hospital as most important. Psychiatrists express dissatisfaction regarding prescription of expensive drugs, lack of involvement in planning new psychiatric institutions, delivery of discharge summaries, referring back the patient after in-patient care, and delay of hospital admission. As conclusion, quality management should pay more attention to ambulatory care physicians' points of view to reduce problems of interaction between clinicians and their colleagues in private practice and to improve the treatment continuity of psychiatric patients.

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy started at birth improves outcome in difficult-to-treat organs in mucopolysaccharidosis I mice.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Guilherme; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Martinelli, Bárbara Z; de Carvalho, Talita G; Meyer, Fabiola S; de Oliveira, Patrícia G; Meurer, Luise; Tavares, Angela; Matte, Ursula; Giugliani, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Since we previously observed that in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) the storage of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAG) occurs from birth, in the present study we aimed to compare normal, untreated MPS I mice (knockout for alpha-l-iduronidase-IDUA), and MPS I mice treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, Laronidase, 1.2mg/kg every 2 weeks) started from birth (ERT-neo) or from 2 months of age (ERT-ad). All mice were sacrificed at 6 months. Both treatments were equally effective in normalizing GAG levels in the viscera but had no detectable effect on the joint. Heart function was also improved with both treatments. On the other hand, mice treated from birth presented better outcomes in the difficult-to-treat aortas and heart valves. Surprisingly, both groups had improvements in behavior tests, and normalization of GAG levels in the brain and IDUA injection resulted in detectable levels of enzyme in the brain tissue 1h after administration. ERT-ad mice developed significantly more anti-IDUA-IgG antibodies, and mice that didn't develop antibodies had better performances in behavior tests, indicating that development of antibodies may reduce enzyme bioavailability. Our results suggest that ERT started from birth leads to better outcomes in the aorta and heart valves, as well as a reduction in antibody levels. Some poor vascularized organs, such as the joints, had partial or no benefit and ancillary therapies might be needed for patients. The results presented here support the idea that ERT started from birth leads to better treatment outcomes and should be considered whenever possible, a observation that gains relevance as newborn screening programs are being considered for MPS and other treatable lysosomal storage disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Development of a Bilingual Interactive Video to Improve Physical Activity and Healthful Eating in a Head Start Population

    PubMed Central

    Piziak, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic preschool population remains elevated, particularly among children in low income families below the poverty level. Obesity leads to the early onset of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely comprised of this high risk group. Their physical activity level is suboptimal in part due to lack of available outside play areas and time spent watching television and playing sedentary video games. Dietary intake is frequently high in sugar sweetened beverages and low in vegetables. The group is frequently bilingual with limited vocabulary and has not learned to read. Preserving their Mexican American culture is a concern. This article describes the development and assessment of a group of bilingual interactive video interventions to improve age appropriate physical activity while providing basic nutrition education focusing on increasing vegetable and water intake and decreasing sugar sweetened beverages. Suggestions for development and assessment of content were provided by focus groups of Head Start teachers, managers and dietitians in the Texas counties of Bastrop, Hidalgo and McLennon. A demonstration of the videos was conducted in Bastrop County. Teachers, students and managers felt that the videos provided excellent information, improved exercise participation and engaged the children. PMID:25517978

  5. Improved cultivation and metagenomics as new tools for bioprospecting in cold environments.

    PubMed

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Only a small minority of microorganisms from an environmental sample can be cultured in the laboratory leaving the enormous bioprospecting potential of the uncultured diversity unexplored. This resource can be accessed by improved cultivation methods in which the natural environment is brought into the laboratory or through metagenomic approaches where culture-independent DNA sequence information can be combined with functional screening. The coupling of these two approaches circumvents the need for pure, cultured isolates and can be used to generate targeted information on communities enriched for specific activities or properties. Bioprospecting in extreme environments is often associated with additional challenges such as low biomass, slow cell growth, complex sample matrices, restricted access, and problematic in situ analyses. In addition, the choice of vector system and expression host may be limited as few hosts are available for expression of genes with extremophilic properties. This review summarizes the methods developed for improved cultivation as well as the metagenomic approaches for bioprospecting with focus on the challenges faced by bioprospecting in cold environments.

  6. Cold homes, fuel poverty and energy efficiency improvements: A longitudinal focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Schmieder-Gaite, Tina; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter

    2017-08-01

    Cold homes and fuel poverty have been identified as factors in health and social inequalities that could be alleviated through energy efficiency interventions. Research on fuel poverty and the health impacts of affordable warmth initiatives have to date primarily been conducted using quantitative and statistical methods, limiting the way how fuel poverty is understood. This study took a longitudinal focus group approach that allowed exploration of lived experiences of fuel poverty before and after an energy efficiency intervention. Focus group discussions were held with residents from three low-income communities before (n = 28) and after (n = 22) they received energy efficiency measures funded through a government-led scheme. The results show that improving the energy efficiency of homes at risk of fuel poverty has a profound impact on wellbeing and quality of life, financial stress, thermal comfort, social interactions and indoor space use. However, the process of receiving the intervention was experienced by some as stressful. There is a need for better community engagement and communication to improve the benefits delivered by fuel poverty programmes, as well as further qualitative exploration to better understand the wider impacts of fuel poverty and policy-led intervention schemes.

  7. Improving the understanding and diagnosis of Earth system changes in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    I review key hydrological state variables and fluxes relevant to cold regions, specifically snow, permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, lakes, and wetlands, and comment on the ability of current models to represent the associated processes, and the quality of the data sets upon which model development and diagnosis efforts rest. Although snow processes are relatively well represented in current generation land surface models, at least at large scales for deep mountain snowpacks, the representation of high latitude snow processes remain complicated by the role of snow redistribution, and of sublimation during the shoulder (especially spring) season. Most credible land surface models now include representations of permafrost, some of which perform well when forced with local climate data; however their performance over large areas is limited by spatial variability of key processes, including soil thermal characteristics. Likewise, many land surface models now represent the hydrology and energetics of lakes, which cover a substantial portion of the landscape in many high latitude environs. However, accurate representation of lakes requires knowledge of certain characteristics of their bathymetry and hydrological connectivity, information which is not always available. Likewise, the representation of wetlands in models, although improved in many cases, is limited by topography (and the role of microtopography, even at large scales). Nonetheless, increased attention to high latitude hydrological processes has demonstrably improved the fidelity of land surface representations over the last decade or so.

  8. Cold homes, fuel poverty and energy efficiency improvements: A longitudinal focus group approach

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Charlotte N. B.; Schmieder-Gaite, Tina; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Cold homes and fuel poverty have been identified as factors in health and social inequalities that could be alleviated through energy efficiency interventions. Research on fuel poverty and the health impacts of affordable warmth initiatives have to date primarily been conducted using quantitative and statistical methods, limiting the way how fuel poverty is understood. This study took a longitudinal focus group approach that allowed exploration of lived experiences of fuel poverty before and after an energy efficiency intervention. Focus group discussions were held with residents from three low-income communities before (n = 28) and after (n = 22) they received energy efficiency measures funded through a government-led scheme. The results show that improving the energy efficiency of homes at risk of fuel poverty has a profound impact on wellbeing and quality of life, financial stress, thermal comfort, social interactions and indoor space use. However, the process of receiving the intervention was experienced by some as stressful. There is a need for better community engagement and communication to improve the benefits delivered by fuel poverty programmes, as well as further qualitative exploration to better understand the wider impacts of fuel poverty and policy-led intervention schemes. PMID:28890663

  9. Cool-season annual grasses interseeded into bermudagrass with improved cold-tolerance for grazing in the upper south

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (Pers.) L.] cultivars with improved cold tolerance can be utilized for grazing in the transition zone between the temperate northeast and subtropical southeast, but these bermudagrasses generally do not provide adequate growth for stocking until late May to early June....

  10. Controlled hot start and improved specificity in carrying out PCR utilizing touch-up and loop incorporated primers (TULIPS).

    PubMed

    Ailenberg, M; Silverman, M

    2000-11-01

    The PCR technique often yields nonspecific products. To overcome this problem, a simple, specific and efficient method was designed: touch-up and loop incorporated primers (TULIPS)-PCR. This approach utilizes loop primers (i.e., additional nontemplate 5' sequence that self-anneals to the 3' region and inhibits initiation of polymerization). Upon heating of the reaction, the primers melt, initiating hot start. The reaction also uses touch-up pre-cycling with gradual elevation in annealing temperatures to ensure correct pairing. The method has been validated with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) primers, and its general applicability is demonstrated by specific amplification of the human gelatinase A transgene from genomic DNA extracted from transgenic mice tails. The TULIPS-PCR protocol is a novel method. The self-annealing primers utilized in this method offer improved specificity and more robust synthesis compared with touch-down and manual hot start PCR. It is performed without the need to open, pause or add to the reaction mixture any nonrectant components, such as wax, antibody or nonspecific dsDNA.

  11. Anthocyanin-rich Aronia melanocarpa extract improves body temperature maintenance in healthy women with a cold constitution.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Keisuke; Aoi, Wataru; Iwata, Tomoaki; Li, Yanmei

    2013-01-01

    Specific anthocyanin-rich dietary factors have been shown to improve metabolic functions associated with thermogenesis in animal studies. Aronia melanocarpa, commonly known as wild chokeberry, contains a high level of anthocyanin that would be expected to maintain body temperature through thermogenesis. We here investigated the effects of Aronia melanocarpa extracts on body temperature and peripheral blood flow in healthy women with a cold constitution. A pre/post comparison trial was performed in 11 women with a cold constitution, who were taking Aronia melanocarpa extracts (150 mg/day) for 4 weeks. Physiological and biochemical parameters, along with psychological tests were examined. The subjects' body surface temperature was significantly higher in the post-trial than in the pre-trial. In psychological tests, factors related to cold were significantly improved by Aronia intake. On the other hand, peripheral blood flow was not affected by Aronia supplementation. Plasma noradrenalin level was significantly elevated by Aronia intake, and subjects with a higher level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the pre-trial showed decreased levels in the post-trial. These data suggest that dietary Aronia melanocarpa extract improves the maintenance of body temperature in healthy women with a cold constitution, which may be mediated by noradrenalin and oxidative stress levels.

  12. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Modified Electrospun Scaffolds with Embedded Microspheres for Improved Cartilage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage is prone to degeneration and possesses extremely poor self-healing capacity due to inherent low cell density and the absence of a vasculature network. Tissue engineered cartilage scaffolds show promise for cartilage repair. However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a novel biomimetic and bioactive electrospun cartilage substitute by integrating cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment with sustained growth factor delivery microspheres. Specifically, CAP was applied to a poly(ε-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold with homogeneously distributed bioactive factors (transforming growth factor-β1 and bovine serum albumin) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres. We have shown that CAP treatment renders electrospun scaffolds more hydrophilic thus facilitating vitronectin adsorption. More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production). Furthermore, CAP can substantially enhance 3D cell infiltration (over two-fold increase in infiltration depth after 1 day of culture) in the scaffolds. By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration. PMID:26222527

  13. A cold-induced phytosulfokine peptide is related to the improvement of loquat fruit chilling tolerance.

    PubMed

    Song, Huwei; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Weicheng; Yang, Xianghui; Diao, Enjie; Shen, Ting; Qiang, Qian

    2017-10-01

    A novel peptidomics approach was used to discover cold-induced peptides in loquat fruit. Twenty unique peptides derived from 18 proproteins were identified, and they were involved in sugar signalling, protein metabolism and stress response. The quantitative analysis revealed 7 peptides with more than 2-fold upregulation, especially a 4.96-fold increase detected in the phytosulfokine (PSK) peptide. To further evaluate effects of PSK1 on fruit chilling tolerance, weight loss, firmness and internal browning were investigated in PSK1-treated loquat fruit at 0°C. By contrast, these chilling injury symptoms were effectively reduced by PSK1. PSK1 markedly delayed decreases of ATP content and energy charge. The PSK1-treated fruit exhibited significantly lower activities of cell-wall degrading enzymes and transcripts of genes related to lignin synthesis. Our results demonstrated that PSK1 improves chilling tolerance of loquat fruit by maintaining high energy status and cell integrity. Peptidomics analysis provides a promising tool to discover some key peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cold habituation does not improve manual dexterity during rest and exercise in 5 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew D.; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J.; Pollock, Brandon S.; Burns, Keith J.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2014-04-01

    When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.

  15. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operating instructions or owner's manual including choke setting and “kick-down” from cold fast idle. The... throttle about half way and cranking the engine until it starts. (b) (c) If, during the cold start, the..., the vehicle shall be rescheduled for testing from a cold start. If failure to start is caused...

  16. Improvement of cutaneous microcirculation by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP): Results of a controlled, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kisch, Tobias; Helmke, Andreas; Schleusser, Sophie; Song, Jungin; Liodaki, Eirini; Stang, Felix Hagen; Mailaender, Peter; Kraemer, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has proven its benefits in the reduction of various bacteria and fungi in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, CAP generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) promoted wound healing in vivo. Charged particles, chemically reactive species (such as O3, OH, H2O2, O, NxOy), ultraviolet radiation (UV-A and UV-B), strong oscillating electric fields as well as weak electric currents are produced by DBD operated in air. However, wound healing is a complex process, depending on nutrient and oxygen supply via cutaneous blood circulation. Therefore, this study examined the effects of CAP on cutaneous microcirculation in a prospective cohort setting. Cold atmospheric plasma application enhances cutaneous microcirculation. Microcirculatory data of 20 healthy subjects (11 males, 9 females; mean age 35.2 ± 13.8 years; BMI 24.3 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) were recorded continuously at a defined skin area at the radial forearm. Under standardized conditions, microcirculatory measurements were performed using a combined laser Doppler and photospectrometry system. After baseline measurement, CAP was applied by a DBD plasma device for 90 s to the same defined skin area of 22.5 cm(2). Immediately after the application cutaneous microcirculation was assessed for 30 min at the same site. After CAP application, tissue oxygen saturation immediately increased by 24% (63.8 ± 13.8% from 51.4 ± 13.2% at baseline, p<0.001) and stayed significantly elevated for 8 min. Cutaneous blood flow increased by 73% (41.0 ± 31.2 AU from 23.7 ± 20.8 AU at baseline, p<0.001) and remained upregulated for 11 min. Furthermore, cutaneous blood flow showed two peaks at 14 (29.8 ± 25.0 AU, p=0.049) and 19 min (29.8 ± 22.6 AU, p=0.048) after treatment. Postcapillary venous filling pressure continuously increased, but showed no significant change vs. baseline in the non-specific BMI group. Subgroup analysis revealed that tissue oxygen saturation, postcapillary venous filling

  17. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  18. Under EPA Settlement, Chicopee, Mass. Cold Storage Warehouse Company Improves Public Protections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Chicopee, Mass., company that operates a cold storage warehouse is spending more than half a million dollars, primarily on public safety enhancements, to resolve claims it violated the federal Clean Air Act's chemical release prevention requirements...

  19. Improving the Skills and Credentials of Migrant, Seasonal and American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start Teachers: Building from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean; Singh, Arati; Levine, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    For over four decades, the federal Head Start program has provided millions of young children from impoverished backgrounds with access to early childhood education and basic health services. By some important measures, Head Start has helped put children on the path to academic and economic success. Teachers in the Head Start program play a…

  20. Starting motor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Hamano, I

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an end portion of the internal gear, the elastic member being sandwiched between the internal gear and the housing member, the protruding axially extending elastic portions providing resilient means which flex and incline circumferentially under turning force from the internal gear and exert reactive thrust on the internal gear elastically so that the frictional force at the abutting surfaces of the protruding portions holds the internal gear in resilient engagement with the elastic member and the resilient means acts as a buffer to absorb rotary impact force developing in the planetary reduction gears.

  1. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce stationary storage needs.

  2. Augmenting Transport versus Increasing Cold Storage to Improve Vaccine Supply Chains

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Leila A.; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Brown, Shawn T.; Mueller, Leslie E.; Norman, Bryan A.; Schmitz, Michelle M.; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S.; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. Methods This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Results Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. Conclusions When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce

  3. Temperature-stable lithium niobate electro-optic Q-switch for improved cold performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jundt, Dieter H.

    2014-10-01

    Lithium niobate (LN) is commonly used as an electro optic (EO) Q-switch material in infrared targeting lasers because of its relatively low voltage requirements and low cost compared to other crystals. A common challenge is maintaining good performance at the sub-freezing temperatures often experienced during flight. Dropping to low temperature causes a pyro-electric charge buildup on the optical faces that leads to birefringence non-uniformity and depolarization resulting in poor hold-off and premature lasing. The most common solution has been to use radioactive americium to ionize the air around the crystal and bleed off the charge, but the radioactive material requires handling and disposal procedures that can be problematic. We have developed a superior solution that is now being implemented by multiple defense system suppliers. By applying a low level thermo-chemical reduction to the LN crystal optical faces we induce a small conductivity that allows pyro-charges to dissipate. As the material gets more heavily treated, the capacity to dissipate charges improves, but the corresponding optical absorption also increases, causing insertion loss. Even though typical high gain targeting laser systems can tolerate a few percent of added loss, the thermo-chemical processing needs to be carefully optimized. We describe the results of our process optimization to minimize the insertion loss while still giving effective charge dissipation. Treatment is performed at temperatures below 500°C and a conductivity layer less than 0.5mm in depth is created that is uniform across the optical aperture. Because the conductivity is thermally activated, the charge dissipation is less effective at low temperature, and characterization needs to be performed at cold temperatures. The trade-off between optical insertion loss and potential depolarization due to low temperature operation is discussed and experimental results on the temperature dependence of the dissipation time and the

  4. Improvement of hydrogen storage properties of magnesium alloys by cold rolling and forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Jacques; Amira, Sofiene; Lang, Julien; Skryabina, Nataliya; Fruchart, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    In this talk we show that cold rolling (CR) could be used to enhance hydrogen sorption properties of magnesium and magnesium alloys. In particular, cold rolling could reduce the first hydrogenation time, the so-called activation. Pure magnesium, commercial AZ91D alloy, and an experimental creep resistant magnesium alloy MRI153 in the as-cast and die-cast states were investigated. We found that both MRI and AZ91 alloys present faster activation kinetic than pure magnesium. This could be explained by the texture, higher number of defects, and nanostructure in CR materials but also precipitates at the grain boundaries. The effect of filing was also investigated.

  5. Cold stress improves the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 to survive freezing.

    PubMed

    Song, Sooyeon; Bae, Dong-Won; Lim, Kwangsei; Griffiths, Mansel W; Oh, Sejong

    2014-11-17

    The stress resistance of bacteria is affected by the physiological status of the bacterial cell and environmental factors such as pH, salts and temperature. In this study, we report on the stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. The cold stress response of the cold-shock protein genes (cspC, cspL and cspP) and ATPase activities were then evaluated. The cold stress was adjusted to 5 °C when the bacteria were growing at the mid-exponential phase. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) and a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer. Only 56% of the L. plantarum L67 cells without prior exposure to cold stress survived after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. However, 78% of the L. plantarum L67 cells that were treated with cold stress at 5 °C for 6 h survived after freeze-thaw conditions. After applying cold stress to the culture for 6h, the cells were then stored for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C separately. The cold-stressed culture of L. plantarum L67 showed an 8% higher viability than the control culture. After applying cold stress for 6h, the transcript levels of two genes (cspP and cspL) were up-regulated 1.4 (cspP) and 1.2 (cspL) times compared to the control. However, cspC was not up-regulated. A proteomic analysis showed that the proteins increased after a reduction of the incubation temperature to 5 °C. The importance of the expression of 13 other relevant proteins was also determined through the study. The exposure of L. plantarum cells to low temperatures aids their ability to survive through subsequent freeze-thaw processes and lyophilization.

  6. Head Start Automation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    The task for the National Data Management Project is to share technological capabilities with the Head Start Community in order to implement improved services for children and families involved in Head Start. Many Head Start programs have incorporated technology into their programs, including word processing, database management systems,…

  7. Middle Start Schools Striving for Excellence: Steadily Improving High-Poverty Schools in the Mid South Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lea Williams

    2006-01-01

    As part of a national Middle Start initiative led by the Academy for Educational Development (AED), Mid South Middle Start is committed to working with high-poverty schools in the Mid South Delta region to build their capacity to foster students' academic excellence, support the development of young adolescents, and achieve social equity in…

  8. Does Head Start Improve Children's Life Chances? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design. Discussion Paper No. 1311-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Jens; Miller, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper exploits a new source of variation in Head Start funding to identify the program's effects on health and schooling. In 1965 the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) provided technical assistance to the 300 poorest counties in the U.S. to develop Head Start funding proposals. The result was a large and lasting discontinuity in Head Start…

  9. Cold Calling and Web Postings: Do They Improve Students' Preparation and Learning in Statistics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Getting students to prepare well for class is a common challenge faced by instructors all over the world. This study investigates the effects that two frequently used techniques to increase student preparation--web postings and cold calling--have on student outcomes. The study is based on two experiments and a qualitative study conducted in a…

  10. Improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel by skeletal isomerization of fatty acid chains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl fatty acid esters made from vegetable oil or animal fat lipids. Despite its many advantages, biodiesel from most lipid feedstocks has generally poor cold flow properties. The present study evaluates the fuel related properties of branched-chain fatty acid methy...

  11. Application of COLD-PCR for improved detection of NF2 mosaic mutations.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Baroncelli, Marta; Arena, Guido; Gensini, Francesca; Papi, Laura; Sestini, Roberta

    2014-07-01

    Somatic mosaicism represents the coexistence of two or more cell populations with different genotypes in one person, and it is involved in >30 monogenic disorders. Somatic mosaicism characterizes approximately 25% to 33% of patients with de novo neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). The identification of mosaicism is crucial to patients and their families because the clinical course of the disease and its transmission risk is influenced by the degree and distribution of mutated cells. Moreover, in NF2, the capability of discriminating patients with mosaicism is especially important to make differential diagnosis with schwannomatosis. However, the identification of mosaic variants is considerably difficult, and the development of specific molecular techniques to detect low levels of unknown molecular alterations is required. Co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR has been described as a powerful method to selectively amplify minority alleles from mixtures of wild-type and mutation-containing sequences. Here, we applied COLD-PCR to molecular analysis of patients with NF2 mosaicism. With the use of COLD-PCR, followed by direct sequencing, we were able to detect NF2 mutations in blood DNA of three patients with NF2 mosaicism. Our study has shown the capability of COLD-PCR in enriching low-represented mutated allele in blood DNA sample, making it usable for molecular diagnosis of patients with mosaicism.

  12. Cellulose Nanocrystal Reinforced Chitosan Coatings for Improving the Storability of Postharvest Pears Under Both Ambient and Cold Storages.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zilong; Jung, Jooyeoun; Simonsen, John; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2017-02-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC, 0%, 5%, and 10% w/w, in chitosan, dry basis) reinforced 2% chitosan aqueous coatings were evaluated for delaying the ripening and quality deterioration of postharvest green D'Anjou (Pyrus communis L.) and Bartlett (Pyrus communis L.) pears during 3 wk of ambient storage (20 ± 2 °C and 30 ± 2% RH) or 5 mo of cold storage (-1.1 °C and 90% RH), respectively. Ethylene and CO2 production, color, firmness, and internal fruit quality were monitored during both storage conditions. Moisture and gas barrier, antibacterial activity, and surface morphology of the derived films were also evaluated to investigate the mechanisms of delayed fruit ripening and quality deterioration. In the ambient storage study, the 5% CNC reinforced chitosan coating significantly (P < 0.05) delayed green chlorophyll degradation of pear peels, prevented internal browning, reduced senescence scalding, and improved retained fruit firmness. During cold storage, the 5% CNC reinforced chitosan coating showed a competitive effect on delaying fruit postharvest quality deterioration compared to a commercial product (Semperfresh™, Pace International, Wapato, Wash., U.S.A.). The 5% CNC coating strongly adhered to the pear surface, provided a superior gas barrier and a more homogenous matrix in comparison with the other coatings tested. Hence, it was effective in delaying ripening and improving the storability of postharvest pears during both ambient and cold storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. A Global Approach to the Optimal Trajectory Based on an Improved Ant Colony Algorithm for Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhenhua; Chen, Tingyang; Zeng, Chunnian; Guo, Xueping; Lian, Huijuan; Zheng, You; Wei, Xiaoxu

    2016-12-01

    This paper is concerned with finding a global approach to obtain the shortest complete coverage trajectory on complex surfaces for cold spray applications. A slicing algorithm is employed to decompose the free-form complex surface into several small pieces of simple topological type. The problem of finding the optimal arrangement of the pieces is translated into a generalized traveling salesman problem (GTSP). Owing to its high searching capability and convergence performance, an improved ant colony algorithm is then used to solve the GTSP. Through off-line simulation, a robot trajectory is generated based on the optimized result. The approach is applied to coat real components with a complex surface by using the cold spray system with copper as the spraying material.

  14. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-01-01

    To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

  15. Improving mechanical properties of polyethylene orthopaedic implants by high frequency cold plasma surface activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudoran, Cristian D.; Vlad, Iulia E.; Dadarlat, Dorin N.; Anghel, Sorin D.

    2013-11-01

    Although a tremendous progress has been made in developing new methods and materials for manufacturing orthopaedic implants, the new technology still faces various problems. Polyethylene implants are relatively easy to manufacture and at lower cost compared to metallic or ceramic implants, but they present a fundamental problem: during usage and in time, due to their manufacturing technology, the material suffers from pitting and delamination which leads to crack propagation and finally to sudden fracture. Our studies and tests performed on polyethylene showed that, using cold plasma surface activation during the manufacturing process of the orthopaedic implants made from polyethylene can significantly increase their mechanical properties. The breaking tests revealed an increase of the tensile strength in the laminated polyethylene samples by a factor of 4 after plasma activation. "Aging" tests have been also performed to investigate how the cold plasma treated samples maintain their properties in time, after the surface activation process.

  16. Up-dosing with bilastine results in improved effectiveness in cold contact urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Krause, K; Spohr, A; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold contact urticaria (CCU) is characterized by itchy wheal and flare responses due to the release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators after exposure to cold. The treatment of choice is nonsedating antihistamines, dosages of which may be increased up to fourfold if standard doses are ineffective. Here, we assess the effects of a standard 20 mg dose and up-dosing to 40 and 80 mg of bilastine in reducing the symptoms of CCU and inflammatory mediator release following cold challenge. Methods Twenty patients with CCU were included in this randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week study. They received placebo, 20, 40 or 80 mg of bilastine daily each for 7 days with 14-day washout periods. The primary readout was change in critical temperature thresholds (CTT). Secondary readouts were changes in pruritus, levels of histamine IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α collected by skin microdialysis and safety and tolerability of bilastine. Results Bilastine 20 mg was highly effective (P < 0.0001) in reducing CTT. Up-dosing to 80 mg significantly (P < 0.04) increased its effectiveness. At this dose, 19 of 20 (95%) patients responded to treatment, with 12 of 20 (60%) becoming symptom free. Only one patient was refractory to treatment. Microdialysis levels of histamine, IL-6 and IL-8 assessed 1–3 h after cold challenge were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased following up-dosing with 80 mg bilastine. Bilastine treat-ment was well tolerated without evidence of increased sedation with dose escala-tion. Conclusions Bilastine was effective in reducing the symptoms of patients with CCU. Increased efficacy of bilastine with fourfold up-dosing was without sedation and supports urticaria treatment guidelines. PMID:23742030

  17. Up-dosing with bilastine results in improved effectiveness in cold contact urticaria.

    PubMed

    Krause, K; Spohr, A; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M

    2013-07-01

    Cold contact urticaria (CCU) is characterized by itchy wheal and flare responses due to the release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators after exposure to cold. The treatment of choice is nonsedating antihistamines, dosages of which may be increased up to fourfold if standard doses are ineffective. Here, we assess the effects of a standard 20 mg dose and up-dosing to 40 and 80 mg of bilastine in reducing the symptoms of CCU and inflammatory mediator release following cold challenge. Twenty patients with CCU were included in this randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week study. They received placebo, 20, 40 or 80 mg of bilastine daily each for 7 days with 14-day washout periods. The primary readout was change in critical temperature thresholds (CTT). Secondary readouts were changes in pruritus, levels of histamine IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α collected by skin microdialysis and safety and tolerability of bilastine. Bilastine 20 mg was highly effective (P < 0.0001) in reducing CTT. Up-dosing to 80 mg significantly (P < 0.04) increased its effectiveness. At this dose, 19 of 20 (95%) patients responded to treatment, with 12 of 20 (60%) becoming symptom free. Only one patient was refractory to treatment. Microdialysis levels of histamine, IL-6 and IL-8 assessed 1-3 h after cold challenge were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased following up-dosing with 80 mg bilastine. Bilastine treatment was well tolerated without evidence of increased sedation with dose escalation. Bilastine was effective in reducing the symptoms of patients with CCU. Increased efficacy of bilastine with fourfold up-dosing was without sedation and supports urticaria treatment guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Application of an innovative methodology to improve the starting-up of UASB reactors treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J A; Peña, M R; Manzi, V

    2001-01-01

    This study shows the results obtained during the starting-up evaluation of an UASB reactor treating domestic sewage. It is located in the municipality of Ginebra, Valle del Cauca region in Colombia. Its design flow is 7.5 l/s with a maximum capacity of 10 l/s. The reactor was seeded with a deficient quality inoculum which accounted for 20% of the total reactor volume. The starting-up methodology comprised the sequential washing of the sludge (inoculum) by applying three different upflow velocities. This procedure resembles what other authors term the "selective pressure method". Once the sludge was washed, the reactor was started-up with an initial hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24.9 hours, which was steadily reduced down to 6.7 hours in the final stage. Along the starting-up phase, there was a positive evolution in terms of quantity, quality and spatial distribution of the sludge. Consequently, there was a positive evolution in organic matter removal mechanisms. For HRT above 14 hours, the removal mechanisms were mainly physical whilst for HRT below 9 hours the removal mechanisms were mostly biological. Based on the above considerations and on the water quality parameters measured, it may be concluded that the start-up of an UASB reactor for domestic sewage treatment seeded with a low quality inoculum can be done with HRT as low as 15 or 12 hours. In this way, it is possible to reduce the starting-up period of these reactors down to 4 to 6 weeks, provided that the starting-up methodology is properly applied.

  19. The Start of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the Head Start program occurred at break-neck speed with many dramatic turns and many colorful players. No one tells the story better than Edward Zigler in "Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment"--a detailed and personal, behind the scenes look at the program's inception. From this…

  20. The Start of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the Head Start program occurred at break-neck speed with many dramatic turns and many colorful players. No one tells the story better than Edward Zigler in "Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment"--a detailed and personal, behind the scenes look at the program's inception. From this…

  1. RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage of cold responsive S-nitrosylated targets in Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Sehrawat, Ankita; Abat, Jasmeet K.; Deswal, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Although in the last few years good number of S-nitrosylated proteins are identified but information on endogenous targets is still limiting. Therefore, an attempt is made to decipher NO signaling in cold treated Brassica juncea seedlings. Treatment of seedlings with substrate, cofactor and inhibitor of Nitric-oxide synthase and nitrate reductase (NR), indicated NR mediated NO biosynthesis in cold. Analysis of the in vivo thiols showed depletion of low molecular weight thiols and enhancement of available protein thiols, suggesting redox changes. To have a detailed view, S-nitrosylation analysis was done using biotin switch technique (BST) and avidin-affinity chromatography. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is S-nitrosylated and therefore, is identified as target repeatedly due to its abundance. It also competes out low abundant proteins which are important NO signaling components. Therefore, RuBisCO was removed (over 80%) using immunoaffinity purification. Purified S-nitrosylated RuBisCO depleted proteins were resolved on 2-D gel as 110 spots, including 13 new, which were absent in the crude S-nitrosoproteome. These were identified by nLC-MS/MS as thioredoxin, fructose biphosphate aldolase class I, myrosinase, salt responsive proteins, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and malate dehydrogenase. Cold showed differential S-nitrosylation of 15 spots, enhanced superoxide dismutase activity (via S-nitrosylation) and promoted the detoxification of superoxide radicals. Increased S-nitrosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase sedoheptulose-biphosphatase, and fructose biphosphate aldolase, indicated regulation of Calvin cycle by S-nitrosylation. The results showed that RuBisCO depletion improved proteome coverage and provided clues for NO signaling in cold. PMID:24032038

  2. Automated cold temperature cycling improves in vitro platelet properties and in vivo recovery in a mouse model compared to continuous cold storage.

    PubMed

    Skripchenko, Andrey; Gelderman, Monique P; Awatefe, Helen; Turgeon, Annette; Thompson-Montgomery, Dedeene; Cheng, Chunrong; Vostal, Jaroslav G; Wagner, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Platelets (PLTs) stored at cold temperatures (CTs) for prolonged time have dramatically reduced bacterial growth but poor survival when infused. A previous study demonstrated that human PLTs stored with manual cycling between 4 °C (12 hr) and 37 °C (30 min) and infused into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice had survivals similar to or greater than those stored at room temperature (RT). In this study, the in vitro and in vivo properties of PLTs stored in an automated incubator programmed to cycle between 5 °C (11 hr) and 37 °C (1 hr) were evaluated. A Trima apheresis unit (n = 12) was aliquoted (60 mL) in CLX bags. One sample was stored with continuous agitation (RT), a second sample was stored at 4-6 °C without agitation (CT), and a third sample was placed in an automated temperature cycler with 5 minutes of agitation during the warm-up period (thermocycling [TC]). PLTs were assayed for several relevant quality variables. On Day 7, PLTs were infused into SCID mice and in vivo recovery was assessed at predetermined time points after transfusion. The glucose consumption rate, morphology score, hypotonic shock recovery level, and aggregation levels were increased and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulations were decreased in TC-PLTs compared to those of CT-PLTs. The pH and Annexin V binding were comparable to those of RT-PLTs. All TC-PLTs had greater recovery than CT-PLTs and were comparable to RT-PLTs. PLTs stored under automated TC conditions have improved in vivo recovery and improved results for a number of in vitro measures compared to CT-PLTs. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Improvement in arousal, visual neglect, and perception of stimulus intensity following cold pressor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Mennemeier, Mark; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Huitt, Tiffany; Chelette, Kenneth C; McCullough, Gary; Munn, Tiffany; Brown, Ginger; Kiser, Thomas S

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between arousal, perception, and visual neglect was examined in this case study. Cold pressor stimulation (CPS: immersing the foot in iced water) was used to manipulate arousal and to determine its effects on contralesional neglect, perception of stimulus intensity (magnitude estimation), reaction time, and an electrophysiological correlate of ascending reticular activating system activity (i.e., the P50 potential). Measures that normalized from baseline following CPS included contralesional neglect on a clock drawing test, perception of stimulus magnitude, and P50 amplitude. The P50 amplitude returned to its abnormally low baseline level 20 min after CPS ended, indicating that CPS increased arousal.

  4. Extreme preconditioning: cold adaptation through sea swimming as a means to improving surgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harper, C Mark

    2012-04-01

    The practice of sea bathing for its health benefits was popularised by Richard Russell in Regency Brighton during the 18th Century. Although the cures he claimed it could effect seem a little far-fetched today, as with many historical remedies, there is much to be gained from revisiting such theories in the light of modern medical research. In this paper I will draw parallels between the surgical stress response and the response to cold exposure and hypothesise how a programme of sea bathing may be used to enhance postoperative recovery and reduce preoperative complications.

  5. Efficacy of keishibukuryogan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, in treating cold sensation and numbness after stroke: clinical improvement and skin temperature normalization in 22 stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keishi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kamezaki, Takao; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Cold sensation and numbness have been reported as post-stroke sensory sequelae attributable to distal axonopathy, which is caused by chronic ischemia of diseased limbs resulting from dysfunction of vasomotor regulatory systems. Keishibukuryogan is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat symptoms of peripheral ischemia such as cold extremities. This study investigated clinical improvement and skin temperature in peripheral ischemia patients to determine the efficacy of keishibukuryogan in alleviating post-stroke cold sensation and numbness. Twenty-two stroke patients with cold sensation and/or numbness were enrolled in this study. Subjective cold sensation and numbness, evaluated using the visual analogue scale, were found in 21 and 31 limbs, respectively. The skin temperature of diseased and healthy limbs was recorded. We observed all patients for 4 weeks and 17 patients for 8 weeks after administration of keishibukuryogan. The skin temperature of diseased limbs was significantly higher than baseline at 4 weeks and 8 weeks, whereas that of healthy limbs did not change significantly. Cold sensation and numbness were significantly improved at 4 weeks and 8 weeks compared to baseline. Keishibukuryogan administration resulted in warming of diseased limbs and improved cold sensation and numbness, probably by increasing peripheral blood flow.

  6. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  7. Healthy Start Programa Madrina: A Promotora Home Visiting Outreach and Education Program to Improve Perinatal Health among Latina Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill, Debra E.; Hock-Long, Linda; Mesure, Maryann; Bryer, Pamela; Zambrano, Neydary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of Healthy Start Programa Madrina (HSPM), a home visiting promotora outreach and education program for Latina pregnant women and to present the 10-year findings of the program (1996-2005). Perinatal health disparities continue to persist among low-income…

  8. Improvement through low cost biofilm carrier in anaerobic tubular digestion in cold climate regions.

    PubMed

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Rojas, M R; Aliaga, L; Céspedes, R; Carbonell, J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the increase of biogas production with low cost tubular digesters in cold climates using PET rings inside the reactor. Two similar digesters have been operated and monitored in cold weather conditions and have been fed with cow manure. Digester 1 was filled with PET - rings as a biofilm carrier, Digester 2 was kept as a reference. Through the PET - rings the functional surface could be increased by a factor 4.2. The results show that 44% more biogas per Kg SV has been produced with the biofilm carrier in use (0.33 m(3)/kg SV) (reference digester -0.23 m(3)/kg SV), at an organic load rate of 0.26 kg SV/m(3)/d. The thermal performance shows that with an adaptation of the low cost tubular digester the slurry temperature can be raised up to 16.6°C (average) by surrounding temperature of 6.1°C (average) without using any active heating system.

  9. Utilization of chemically modified pearl millet starches in preparation of custards with improved cold storage stability.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Marium; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-11-01

    Custards were prepared using five ingredients: milk powder, modified pearl millet starch, sugar, vanilla essence and water. The effect of adding hydroxypropylated starch (HPS), succinylated starch (SUS), oxidised starch (OXS) and acetylated starch (ACS) on cold storage stability, pasting, textural and sensory properties was studied and compared to custards containing native pearl millet starch (NS). Interestingly, all chemically modified starches reduced syneresis and no water weeping was observed in custard sample incorporating hydroxypropylated starch (HPC) even after 7days of cold storage. Viscoamylographic analysis revealed that custard containing succinylated starch (SUC) had the highest peak viscosity (108.8 BU), whereas HPC showed the least set back viscosity (19.0 BU). Sensory results suggested that assessors preferred HPC over other custards. Custards are preferred for their chewy semi-solid texture. Incorporation of hydroxypropylated starch (HPS) increased hardness, gumminess and chewiness which subsequently led to higher sensory scores during subjective analysis. Also, no retrogradation peak was observed for HPS and acetylated starch (ACS) when rescanned after 14 days. Thus, it could be concluded that HPS could be used in custards to confer low temperature stability by reducing syneresis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel strategy to decrease reperfusion injuries and improve function of cold-preserved livers using normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion machine.

    PubMed

    Banan, Babak; Xiao, Zhenyu; Watson, Rao; Xu, Min; Jia, Jianluo; Upadhya, Gundumi A; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Lin, Yiing; Chapman, William

    2016-03-01

    Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) can decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury to the greatest degree when cold ischemia time is minimized. Warm perfusion of cold-stored livers results in hepatocellular damage, sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) dysfunction, and Kupffer cell activation. However, the logistics of organ procurement mandates a period of cold preservation before NELP. The aim of this study was to determine the beneficial effects of gradual rewarming of cold-stored livers by placement on NELP. Three female porcine livers were used for each group. In the immediate NELP group, procured livers were immediately placed on NELP for 8 hours. In the cold NELP group, livers were cold-stored for 4 hours followed by NELP for 4 hours. In rewarming groups, livers were cold-stored for 4 hours, then gradually rewarmed in different durations to 38°C and kept on NELP for an additional 4 hours. For comparison purposes, the last 4 hours of NELP runs were considered to be the evaluation phase. Immediate NELP livers had significantly lower concentrations of liver transaminases, hyaluronic acid, and β-galactosidase and had higher bile production compared to the other groups. Rewarming livers had significantly lower concentrations of hyaluronic acid and β-galactosidase compared to the cold NELP livers. In addition, there was a significant decline in international normalized ratio values, improved bile production, reduced biliary epithelial cell damage, and improved cholangiocyte function. Thus, if a NELP machine is not available at the procurement site and livers will need to undergo a period of cold preservation, a gradual rewarming protocol before NELP may greatly reduce damages that are associated with reperfusion. In conclusion, gradual rewarming of cold-preserved livers upon NELP can minimize the hepatocellular damage, Kupffer cell activation, and SEC dysfunction.

  11. A Resource Guide for Head Start Programs: Moving beyond a Culture of Compliance to a Culture of Continuous Improvement. OPRE Report 2015-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick-Mills, Teresa; Winkler, Mary K.; Healy, Olivia; Greenberg, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Head Start has long focused on assessing and improving program quality to ensure that the children served receive the best possible preparation for school and life. Most research has been focused inside the classroom--the classroom environment, teacher qualifications, and teacher interactions. Of course, the classroom is important because that is…

  12. Coaching as a Key Component in Teachers' Professional Development: Improving Classroom Practices in Head Start Settings. OPRE Report 2012-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Chrrishana M.; Modlin, Emmily L.

    2012-01-01

    Head Start CARES (Classroom-based Approaches and Resources for Emotion and Social Skill Promotion) is a large-scale, national research demonstration that was designed to test the effects of a one-year program aimed at improving pre-kindergarteners' social and emotional readiness for school. To facilitate the delivery of the program, teachers…

  13. Towards an improved understanding of strength and anisotropy of cold compacted powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenhai

    The strength of powder compacts after cold compaction is known to be anisotropic, which comes from the directionality of microstructure resulting from initial particle morphology and/or from particle deformation during compaction. Current work focuses on multi-scale numerical analysis of powder compaction with emphasis on the role of interparticle cohesion on post-compaction mechanical properties. At macroscopic level, we applied phenomenological model to describe the mechanical behavior of powder, in which the material is considered to be continuum medium. A user subroutine (VUMAT) was successfully developed for ABAQUS/Explicit analysis, in which one of the popular phenomenological models for powder compaction---Drucker Prager/Cap model---is implemented. By studying of pharmaceutical powder die compaction and subsequent diametrical compression test via finite element analysis, the capabilities and limitations of current constitutive models are evaluated on predicting such as density, stress and tool force evolution, as well as the strength and fracture tendency. Our results illustrate that current model has good predictive capability of powder densification (e.g. density evolution) but can not predict post-compaction strength well. The following studies focus on evaluating the physics and mechanics occurring at particle level. The compaction of granular media was explored by using MPFEM approach. In the new model, individual particles discretized with a finite element mesh allow for a full description of contact mechanics and local and global particle kinematics. The introduction of a layer of degrading material on the surface of each particle provides the means of introducing variable cohesion and its effect on the final strength of compacts. The simulations show that the unloading creates tensile stresses at the root of the contact necks, which may cause partial or full separation of contact interface when the cohesion developed during loading is not strong

  14. Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells Improves Mechanical Hyperalgesia, Cold Allodynia and Nerve Function in Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Funakubo, Megumi; Hata, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Kamiya, Hideki; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    Relief from painful diabetic neuropathy is an important clinical issue. We have previously shown that the transplantation of cultured endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in rats. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) alleviates neuropathic pain in the early stage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, BM-MNCs or vehicle saline were injected into the unilateral hind limb muscles. Mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in SD rats were measured as the number of foot withdrawals to von Frey hair stimulation and acetone application, respectively. Two weeks after the BM-MNC transplantation, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), mRNA expressions and histology were assessed. The BM-MNC transplantation significantly ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in the BM-MNC-injected side. Furthermore, the slowed MNCV/SNCV and decreased SNBF in diabetic rats were improved in the BM-MNC-injected side. BM-MNC transplantation improved the decreased mRNA expression of NT-3 and number of microvessels in the hind limb muscles. There was no distinct effect of BM-MNC transplantation on the intraepidermal nerve fiber density. These results suggest that autologous transplantation of BM-MNCs could be a novel strategy for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125614

  15. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells improves mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and nerve function in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Keiko; Sato, Jun; Funakubo, Megumi; Hata, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Kamiya, Hideki; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    Relief from painful diabetic neuropathy is an important clinical issue. We have previously shown that the transplantation of cultured endothelial progenitor cells or mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in rats. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) alleviates neuropathic pain in the early stage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, BM-MNCs or vehicle saline were injected into the unilateral hind limb muscles. Mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in SD rats were measured as the number of foot withdrawals to von Frey hair stimulation and acetone application, respectively. Two weeks after the BM-MNC transplantation, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), mRNA expressions and histology were assessed. The BM-MNC transplantation significantly ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in the BM-MNC-injected side. Furthermore, the slowed MNCV/SNCV and decreased SNBF in diabetic rats were improved in the BM-MNC-injected side. BM-MNC transplantation improved the decreased mRNA expression of NT-3 and number of microvessels in the hind limb muscles. There was no distinct effect of BM-MNC transplantation on the intraepidermal nerve fiber density. These results suggest that autologous transplantation of BM-MNCs could be a novel strategy for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  17. Improving test properties for neonatal cystic fibrosis screening in the Netherlands before the nationwide start by May 1st 2011.

    PubMed

    Cornel, Martina C; Gille, Johan J P; Loeber, J Gerard; Vernooij-van Langen, Annette M M; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette; Bolhuis, Piet A

    2012-07-01

    When new technical possibilities arise in health care, often attunement is needed between different actors from the perspectives of research, health care providers, patients, ethics and policy. For cystic fibrosis (CF) such a process of attunement in the Netherlands started in a committee of the Health Council on neonatal screening in 2005. In the balancing of pros and cons according to Wilson and Jungner criteria, the advantages for the CF patient were considered clear, even though CF remains a severe health problem with treatment. Nevertheless, screening was not started then, mainly since the specificity of the tests available at that time was considered too low. Many healthy infants would have been referred for sweat testing and much uncertainty would arise in their parents. Also the limited sensitivity for immigrants and the detection of less severe phenotypes and carriers were considered problematic. The Health Council recommended a pilot screening project which was subsequently performed in some provinces, leading to a 4-step protocol: IRT, PAP, screening for a CFTR mutation panel, and sequencing of the CFTR gene. This would lead to the identification of 23 cases of classical CF, two infants with less severe forms and 12 carriers per year in the Netherlands. Thus many CF patients can be diagnosed early, while limiting the number of referrals, the number of infants with less severe forms diagnosed and the number of carriers identified. Technical solutions were found to limit the ethical problems. A nationwide program using this four step protocol started by 1 May 2011.

  18. Start Young!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Penni

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of early interest in science and how effective it is on career choice in adult stages of life. Recommends starting mathematics and science activities in preschool and kindergarten. Describes how to create a career-oriented learning center in the classroom with examples of kitchen chemistry, nutrition/botany, zoology,…

  19. Start Young!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Penni

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of early interest in science and how effective it is on career choice in adult stages of life. Recommends starting mathematics and science activities in preschool and kindergarten. Describes how to create a career-oriented learning center in the classroom with examples of kitchen chemistry, nutrition/botany, zoology,…

  20. Start at the End ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Start at the end; that's the way to improve children's plans for investigations. Strange as it may seem, there are times when beginning at the beginning of an investigation is not the best way to start things off. To give children the opportunity to ask questions and plan what to do, sometimes it is best to get them first to consider others' data…

  1. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  2. More space, more speed. Scanning technology and COLD help improve document imaging.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, M

    1999-06-01

    Children's Hospital Medical Center, Akron, Ohio The 100-year-old-plus medical center needed a reliable, economical and easy-to-use document storage method that provided a long and secure archival life. Children's adopted Hewlett-Packard magneto-optical jukeboxes and Optika software. Since the jukeboxes became operational in January 1998, Children's has maintained "24 x 7 availability" of its stored documents for up to 150 concurrent users without any downtime. "We started implementation in the accounting department with patient billing, hospital general ledger, accounts payable and employee payroll, and the document imaging system has quickly gained acceptance in other departments as well."

  3. Press Start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  4. Improved preparation of small biological samples for mercury analysis using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Adair, B M; Cobb, G P

    1999-05-01

    Concentrations of mercury in biological samples collected for environmental studies are often less than 0.1 microgram/g. Low mercury concentrations and small organ sizes in many wildlife species (approximately 0.1 g) increase the difficulty of mercury determination at environmentally relevant concentrations. We have developed a digestion technique to extract mercury from small (0.1 g), biological samples at these relevant concentrations. Mean recoveries (+/- standard error) from validation trials of mercury fortified tissue samples using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy for analysis ranged from 102 +/- 4.3% (2.5 micrograms/L, n = 15) to 108 +/- 1.4% (25 micrograms/L, n = 15). Recoveries of inorganic mercury were 99 +/- 5 (n = 19) for quality assurance samples analyzed during environmental evaluations conducted during a 24 month period. This technique can be used to determine total mercury concentrations of 60 ng Hg/g sample. Samples can be analyzed in standard laboratories in a short time, at minimal cost. The technique is versatile and can be used to determine mercury concentrations in several different matrices, limiting the time and expense of method development and validation.

  5. Cold spray deposition of Ti2AlC coatings for improved nuclear fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Benjamin R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hauch, Benjamin; Olson, Luke C.; Sindelar, Robert L.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Coatings of Ti2AlC MAX phase compound have been successfully deposited on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) test flats, with the goal of enhancing the accident tolerance of LWR fuel cladding. Low temperature powder spray process, also known as cold spray, has been used to deposit coatings ∼90 μm in thickness using powder particles of <20 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the phase-content of the deposited coatings to be identical to the powders indicating that no phase transformation or oxidation had occurred during the coating deposition process. The coating exhibited a high hardness of about 800 HK and pin-on-disk wear tests using abrasive ruby ball counter-surface showed the wear resistance of the coating to be significantly superior to the Zry-4 substrate. Scratch tests revealed the coatings to be well-adhered to the Zry-4 substrate. Such mechanical integrity is required for claddings from the standpoint of fretting wear resistance and resisting wear handling and insertion. Air oxidation tests at 700 °C and simulated LOCA tests at 1005 °C in steam environment showed the coatings to be significantly more oxidation resistant compared to Zry-4 suggesting that such coatings can potentially provide accident tolerance to nuclear fuel cladding.

  6. High-dose desloratadine decreases wheal volume and improves cold provocation thresholds compared with standard-dose treatment in patients with acquired cold urticaria: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Degener, Franziska; Zuberbier, Torsten; Martus, Peter; Maurer, Marcus

    2009-03-01

    Increased dosing of nonsedating antihistamines is recommended by the current European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network/European Dermatology Forum guidelines on patients with acquired cold urticaria (ACU) who do not respond satisfactorily to the standard dose. Prospective data supporting this recommendation are scant. We sought to assess the effects of 5 and 20 mg of desloratadine and placebo on cold-induced urticarial reactions in patients with ACU. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover trial, patients with ACU (n = 30) received placebo, 5 mg of desloratadine, and 20 mg of desloratadine every day each for 7 days separated by 14-day washout periods. At the end of each treatment, patients underwent cold provocation with the TempTest 2.0/2.1 system, and urticarial reactions were assessed by using digital 3-dimensional time-lapse photography and thermography; the critical temperature threshold (CTT) and critical stimulation time threshold (CSTT) were measured. Adverse events (AEs) reported during the study were assessed. Compared with placebo, 7 days of desloratadine at 5 and 20 mg/d significantly reduced the volume of cold-induced wheals and areas of hyperthermic skin and improved CTT and CSTT results. Desloratadine at 20 mg/d significantly reduced cold-induced wheal volume and CTT and CSTT values versus desloratadine at 5 mg/d. Desloratadine was well tolerated, with no increased rate of somnolence or other AEs with 20 mg of desloratadine. Desloratadine at standard and high doses significantly improved objective signs of ACU provoked by cold exposure. Desloratadine at 4 times the standard dose significantly reduced ACU lesion severity versus 5 mg of desloratadine without an increase in AEs. This study supports current guidelines that increased desloratadine dosing might benefit patients with urticaria who do not respond to standard doses.

  7. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  8. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen does not improve cerebral function when started 2 or 4 hours after cerebral arterial gas embolism in swine.

    PubMed

    Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; Vrijdag, Xavier C E; Van Lienden, Krijn P; De Boo, Diederick W; Stevens, Markus F; Van Gulik, Thomas M; Van Hulst, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Hyperbaric oxygenation is the accepted treatment for cerebral arterial gas embolism. Although earlier start of hyperbaric oxygenation is associated with better outcome, it is unknown how much delay can be tolerated before start of hyperbaric oxygenation. This study investigates the effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on cerebral function in swine when initiated 2 or 4 hours after cerebral arterial gas embolism. Prospective interventional animal study. Surgical laboratory and hyperbaric chamber. Twenty-two Landrace pigs. Under general anesthesia, probes to measure intracranial pressure, brain oxygen tension (PbtO2), and brain microdialysis, and electrodes for electroencephalography were placed. The electroencephalogram (quantified using temporal brain symmetry index) was suppressed during 1 hour by repeated injection of air boluses through a catheter placed in the right ascending pharyngeal artery. Hyperbaric oxygenation was administered using U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6 after 2- or 4-hour delay. Control animals were maintained on an inspiratory oxygen fraction of 0.4. Intracranial pressure increased to a mean maximum of 19 mm Hg (SD, 4.5 mm Hg) due to the embolization procedure. Hyperbaric oxygenation significantly increased PbtO2 in both groups treated with hyperbaric oxygenation (mean maximum PbtO2, 390 torr; SD, 177 torr). There were no significant differences between groups with regard to temporal brain symmetry index (control vs 2-hr delay, p = 0.078; control vs 4-hr delay, p = 0.150), intracranial pressure, and microdialysis values. We did not observe an effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on cerebral function after a delay of 2 or 4 hours. The injury caused in our model could be too severe for a single session of hyperbaric oxygenation to be effective. Our study should not change current hyperbaric oxygenation strategies for cerebral arterial gas embolism, but further research is necessary to elucidate our results. Whether less severe injury benefits from

  10. Mapping starting zone snow depth with a ground-based LiDAR to improve avalanche control and forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deems, J. S.; Gadomski, P. J.; Vellone, D.; Evanczyk, R.; LeWinter, A. L.; Birkeland, K.; Finnegan, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The varying distribution of snow depth in avalanche starting zones exerts a strong influence on avalanche potential and character. Extreme depth changes over short distances are common, especially in wind-affected, above-treeline environments. Snow depth also affects the ease of avalanche triggering. Experience shows that avalanche reduction efforts are often more successful when targeting shallow trigger point areas near deeper slabs with explosives or ski cutting. Our pilot study explores the use of high resolution snow depth and depth change maps from differential LiDAR scans to quantify loading patterns for use in both pre-control planning and in post-control assessment. We present results from our initial work at the Arapahoe Basin Ski Area in Colorado, USA. A-Basin has a large number avalanche starting zones above treeline at elevations up to 4,000 m. The three study areas represent a range of institutional avalanche management history - the East Wall has been operated since 1970, Montezuma Bowl since 2008, and the Steep Gullies are under study for area expansion. Summer mapping produced a zero depth surface. Mapping multiple times during the snow season allowed us to produce time series maps of snow depth and snow depth change at high resolution to explore depth and slab thickness variations due to wind redistribution. We conducted surveys before and after loading events and control work, allowing the exploration of loading patterns, slab thickness, shot and ski cut locations, bed surfaces, entrainment, and avalanche characteristics. We also evaluate the state of terrestrial laser scanning for use in operational settings.

  11. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate improve chilling tolerance in cold-stored lemon fruit (Citrus limon).

    PubMed

    Siboza, Xolani Irvin; Bertling, Isa; Odindo, Alfred Oduor

    2014-11-15

    Chilling injury (CI) is associated with the degradation of membrane integrity which can be aligned to phenolic oxidation activated by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), enzymes responsible for tissue browning. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is a further enzyme prominent in the phenolic metabolism that is involved in acclimation against chilling stress. It was hypothesized that treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) and salicylic acid (SA) may enhance chilling tolerance in lemon fruit by increasing the synthesis of total phenolics and PAL by activating the key enzyme regulating the shikimic acid pathway whilst inhibiting the activity of POD and PPO. Lemon fruit were treated with 10μM MJ, 2mM SA or 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA, waxed, stored at -0.5, 2 or 4.5°C for up to 28 days plus 7 days at 23°C. Membrane integrity was studied by investigating membrane permeability and the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation in lemon flavedo following cold storage. The 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA treatment was most effective in enhancing chilling tolerance of lemon fruit, significantly reducing chilling-induced membrane permeability and membrane lipid peroxidation of lemon flavedo tissue. This treatment also increased total phenolics and PAL activity in such tissue while inhibiting POD activity, the latter possibly contributing to the delay of CI manifestation. PPO activity was found to be a poor biochemical marker of CI. Treatment with 10μM MJ plus 2mM SA resulted in an alteration of the phenolic metabolism, enhancing chilling tolerance, possibly through increased production of total phenolics and the activation of PAL and inhibition of POD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of the health services utilization and improvement model (HUIM) on self efficacy and satisfaction among a head start population.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David B; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and report the impact of the Health Services Utilization Improvement Model (HUIM) on utilization and satisfaction with care, as well as knowledge regarding prevention, detection, and treatment of asthma, diabetes, tuberculosis, and child injury among low income health services consumers. HUIM outcomes data shows that the coupling of parental education and ecological factors (service linkage and provider orientation) impacts the health services utilization experience of low income consumers evidenced by improved self-efficacy (knowledge and voice), and satisfaction with care from a child's regular provider. Participation in HUIM activities also improved the low income consumer's knowledge of disease identification, self-care and prevention.

  13. Silica nanoparticles treated by cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas improve the dielectric performance of organic-inorganic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Han, Zhao Jun; Phung, B Toan; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2012-05-01

    We report on the application of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas to modify silica nanoparticles to enhance their compatibility with polymer matrices. Thermally nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma is generated by a high-voltage radio frequency power source operated in the capacitively coupled mode with helium as the working gas. Compared to the pure polymer and the polymer nanocomposites with untreated SiO(2), the plasma-treated SiO(2)-polymer nanocomposites show higher dielectric breakdown strength and extended endurance under a constant electrical stress. These improvements are attributed to the stronger interactions between the SiO(2) nanoparticles and the surrounding polymer matrix after the plasma treatment. Our method is generic and can be used in the production of high-performance organic-inorganic functional nanocomposites.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1336-84 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stalling. (1) If the engine stalls during the initial idle period of either the cold or hot start test, the engine shall be restarted immediately using the appropriate cold or hot starting procedure and the test... the start of the cold cycle and the start of the hot cycle be separated by more than 4 hours....

  15. 40 CFR 86.1336-84 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stalling. (1) If the engine stalls during the initial idle period of either the cold or hot start test, the engine shall be restarted immediately using the appropriate cold or hot starting procedure and the test... the start of the cold cycle and the start of the hot cycle be separated by more than 4 hours....

  16. 40 CFR 86.1336-84 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stalling. (1) If the engine stalls during the initial idle period of either the cold or hot start test, the engine shall be restarted immediately using the appropriate cold or hot starting procedure and the test... the start of the cold cycle and the start of the hot cycle be separated by more than 4 hours....

  17. Improving simulations of precipitation phase and snowpack at a site subject to cold air intrusions: Snoqualmie Pass, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayand, Nicholas E.; Stimberis, John; Zagrodnik, Joseph P.; Mass, Clifford F.; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2016-09-01

    Low-level cold air from eastern Washington often flows westward through mountain passes in the Washington Cascades, creating localized inversions and locally reducing climatological temperatures. The persistence of this inversion during a frontal passage can result in complex patterns of snow and rain that are difficult to predict. Yet these predictions are critical to support highway avalanche control, ski resort operations, and modeling of headwater snowpack storage. In this study we used observations of precipitation phase from a disdrometer and snow depth sensors across Snoqualmie Pass, WA, to evaluate surface-air-temperature-based and mesoscale-model-based predictions of precipitation phase during the anomalously warm 2014-2015 winter. Correlations of phase between surface-based methods and observations were greatly improved (r2 from 0.45 to 0.66) and frozen precipitation biases reduced (+36% to -6% of accumulated snow water equivalent) by using air temperature from a nearby higher-elevation station, which was less impacted by low-level inversions. Alternatively, we found a hybrid method that combines surface-based predictions with output from the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model to have improved skill (r2 = 0.61) over both parent models (r2 = 0.42 and 0.55). These results suggest that prediction of precipitation phase in mountain passes can be improved by incorporating observations or models from above the surface layer.

  18. 'Start to finish trans-institutional transdisciplinary care': a novel approach improves colorectal surgical results in frail elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Chia, C L K; Mantoo, S K; Tan, K Y

    2016-01-01

    The frail elderly surgical patient is at increased risk of morbidity after major surgery. A transdisciplinary Geriatric Surgery Service (GSS) has been shown to produce consistently positive results in our institution. A trans-institutional transdisciplinary Start to Finish (STF) programme was initiated incorporating seamless prehabilitation and rehabilitation to enhance the outcome further. Patients who underwent major colorectal resection in Khoo Teck Puat Hospital and were managed under the GSS from January 2007 to December 2014 were included in this prospective study. The STF programme was initiated from January 2012. The surgical outcome of patients managed under the GSS before the initiation of STF was compared with that after its implementation. There were 57 patients after the initiation of the STF programme compared with 60 patients managed before STF. There were 26.4% and 25% of frail patients in the STF group compared with the non-STF group (P = 0.874). The mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the STF group (8.4 days vs 11.0 days, P = 0.029). Functional recovery in patients available for follow-up at 6 weeks showed 100% (46/46) recovery in the elective STF group who received prehabilitation and 95.7% (45/47) in the elective non-STF group who did not (P = 0.157). There were no significant differences in a Clavien-Dindo complication score of Grade 3 or more and 30-day mortality between the two groups. Through a trans-institutional transdisciplinary approach, we managed to achieve a significantly shorter hospital stay in frail patients having colorectal surgery. All elective patients who received prehabilitation achieved full functional recovery. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  20. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  1. Cold temperature improves mobility and survival in Drosophila models of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP).

    PubMed

    Baxter, Sally L; Allard, Denise E; Crowl, Christopher; Sherwood, Nina Tang

    2014-08-01

    Autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is a crippling neurodegenerative disease for which effective treatment or cure remains unknown. Victims experience progressive mobility loss due to degeneration of the longest axons in the spinal cord. Over half of AD-HSP cases arise from loss-of-function mutations in spastin, which encodes a microtubule-severing AAA ATPase. In Drosophila models of AD-HSP, larvae lacking Spastin exhibit abnormal motor neuron morphology and function, and most die as pupae. Adult survivors display impaired mobility, reminiscent of the human disease. Here, we show that rearing pupae or adults at reduced temperature (18°C), compared with the standard temperature of 24°C, improves the survival and mobility of adult spastin mutants but leaves wild-type flies unaffected. Flies expressing human spastin with pathogenic mutations are similarly rescued. Additionally, larval cooling partially rescues the larval synaptic phenotype. Cooling thus alleviates known spastin phenotypes for each developmental stage at which it is administered and, notably, is effective even in mature adults. We find further that cold treatment rescues larval synaptic defects in flies with mutations in Flower (a protein with no known relation to Spastin) and mobility defects in flies lacking Kat60-L1, another microtubule-severing protein enriched in the CNS. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of cold extend beyond specific alleviation of Spastin dysfunction, to at least a subset of cellular and behavioral neuronal defects. Mild hypothermia, a common neuroprotective technique in clinical treatment of acute anoxia, might thus hold additional promise as a therapeutic approach for AD-HSP and, potentially, for other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Cold Oxygen Plasma Treatments for the Improvement of the Physicochemical and Biodegradable Properties of Polylactic Acid Films for Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Ah Young; Oh, Yoon Ah; Roh, Si Hyeon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Min, Sea C

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cold plasma (CP) treatment on the physicochemical and biodegradable properties of polylactic acid (PLA) films were studied. The PLA films were exposed to CP for 40 min at 900 W and 667 Pa using oxygen as the plasma-forming gas. The tensile, optical, and dynamic mechanical thermal properties, surface morphology, printability, water contact angle, chemical structure, weight change, and biodegradability properties of the films were evaluated during storage for up to 56 d. The tensile and optical properties of the PLA films were not significantly affected by CP treatment (CPT; P > 0.05). The surface roughness and water contact angle of PLA films increased by CPT and further increased during storage for 56 d. The printability of the PLA films increased following CPT and remained stable throughout the storage period. CP-induced hydrophilicity was also sustained during the storage period. The PLA films lost 1.9% of their weight after CPT, but recovered 99.5% of this loss after 14 d in storage. Photodegradation, thermal, and microbial biodegradable properties of the films were significantly improved by CPT (P < 0.05). Accelerated biodegradation of CP-treated PLA sachets with and without cheese was observed in compost. These results demonstrate the potential of CPT for modifying the stiffness, water contact angle, and chemical structure of PLA films and improving the printability and biodegradability of the films for food packaging.

  3. Some like it hot, some like it cold: Temperature dependent biotechnological applications and improvements in extremophilic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2015-12-01

    The full biotechnological exploitation of enzymes is still hampered by their low activity, low stability and high cost. Temperature-dependent catalytic properties of enzymes are a key to efficient and cost-effective translation to commercial applications. Organisms adapted to temperature extremes are a rich source of enzymes with broad ranging thermal properties which, if isolated, characterized and their structure-function-stability relationship elucidated, could underpin a variety of technologies. Enzymes from thermally-adapted organisms such as psychrophiles (low-temperature) and thermophiles (high-temperature) are a vast natural resource that is already under scrutiny for their biotechnological potential. However, psychrophilic and thermophilic enzymes show an activity-stability trade-off that necessitates the use of various genetic and chemical modifications to further improve their properties to suit various industrial applications. This review describes in detail the properties and biotechnological applications of both cold-adapted and thermophilic enzymes. Furthermore, the review critically examines ways to improve their value for biotechnology, concluding by proposing an integrated approach involving thermally-adapted, genetically and magnetically modified enzymes to make biocatalysis more efficient and cost-effective.

  4. Coupled expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase in cassava improves tolerance against cold and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Duan, Xiaoguang; Yang, Jun; Beeching, John R; Zhang, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Recently we reported that the joint expression of cassava Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (MeCu/ZnSOD) and catalase (MeCAT1) prolonged the shelf life of cassava storage-roots by the stabilization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis after harvest. Since oxidative damage is a major feature of plants exposed to environmental stresses, transgenic cassava showing increased expression of the cytosolic MeCu/ZnSOD and the peroxisomal MeCAT1 should have improved resistance against other abiotic stresses. After cold treatment, the transgenic cassava maintained higher SOD and CAT activities and lower malendialdehyde content than those of wild type plants (WT). Detached leaves of transgenic cassava also showed slower transpirational water loss than those of WT. When plants were not watered for 30 d, transgenic lines exhibited a significant increase in water retention ability, accumulated 13% more proline and 12% less malendialdehyde than WT's, and showed enhanced activity of SOD and CAT. These results imply that manipulation of the antioxidative mechanism allows the development of staple crops with improved tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  5. A deficiency in cold-inducible RNA-binding protein accelerates the inflammation phase and improves wound healing.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Juan Pablo; Jacob, Asha; Yang, Weng Lang; Wang, Zhimin; Yen, Hao Ting; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2016-02-01

    Chronic or non-healing wounds are a major concern in clinical practice and these wounds are mostly associated with diabetes, and venous and pressure ulcers. Wound healing is a complex process involving overlapping phases and the primary phase in this complex cascade is the inflammatory state. While inflammation is necessary for wound healing, a prolonged inflammatory phase leads to impaired healing. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) belongs to a family of cold-shock proteins that are expressed in high levels under stress conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that a deficiency in CIRP led to decreased inflammation and mortality in an experimental model of hemorrhagic shock. Thus, we hypothesized that a deficiency in CIRP would accelerate the inflammatory phase and lead to an improvement in cutaneous wound healing. In this study, to examine this hypothesis, a full-thickness wound was created on the dorsum of wild-type (WT) and CIRP-/- mice. The wound size was measured every other day for 14 days. The wound area was significantly decreased in the CIRP-/- mice by day 9 and continued to decrease until day 14 compared to the WT mice. In a separate cohort, mice were sacrificed on days 3 and 7 after wounding and the skin tissues were harvested for histological analysis and RNA measurements. On day 3, the mRNA expression of tumor necrossis factor (TNF)-α in the skin tissues was increased by 16-fold in the WT mice, whereas these levels were increased by 65-fold in the CIRP-/- mice. Of note on day 7, while the levels of TNF-α remained high in the WT mice, these levels were significantly decreased in the CIRP-/- mice. The histological analysis of the wounded skin tissue indicated an improvement as early as day 3 in the CIRP-/- mice, whereas in the WT mice, infiltrated immune cells were still present on day 7. On day 7 in the CIRP-/- mice, Gr-1 expression was low and CD31 expression was high, whereas in the WT mice, Gr-1 expression was high and CD31 expression was low

  6. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  7. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  8. An improved numerical method to compute neutron/gamma deexcitation cascades starting from a high spin state

    DOE PAGES

    Regnier, D.; Litaize, O.; Serot, O.

    2015-12-23

    Numerous nuclear processes involve the deexcitation of a compound nucleus through the emission of several neutrons, gamma-rays and/or conversion electrons. The characteristics of such a deexcitation are commonly derived from a total statistical framework often called “Hauser–Feshbach” method. In this work, we highlight a numerical limitation of this kind of method in the case of the deexcitation of a high spin initial state. To circumvent this issue, an improved technique called the Fluctuating Structure Properties (FSP) method is presented. Two FSP algorithms are derived and benchmarked on the calculation of the total radiative width for a thermal neutron capture onmore » 238U. We compare the standard method with these FSP algorithms for the prediction of particle multiplicities in the deexcitation of a high spin level of 143Ba. The gamma multiplicity turns out to be very sensitive to the numerical method. The bias between the two techniques can reach 1.5 γγ/cascade. Lastly, the uncertainty of these calculations coming from the lack of knowledge on nuclear structure is estimated via the FSP method.« less

  9. An improved numerical method to compute neutron/gamma deexcitation cascades starting from a high spin state

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, D.; Litaize, O.; Serot, O.

    2015-12-23

    Numerous nuclear processes involve the deexcitation of a compound nucleus through the emission of several neutrons, gamma-rays and/or conversion electrons. The characteristics of such a deexcitation are commonly derived from a total statistical framework often called “Hauser–Feshbach” method. In this work, we highlight a numerical limitation of this kind of method in the case of the deexcitation of a high spin initial state. To circumvent this issue, an improved technique called the Fluctuating Structure Properties (FSP) method is presented. Two FSP algorithms are derived and benchmarked on the calculation of the total radiative width for a thermal neutron capture on 238U. We compare the standard method with these FSP algorithms for the prediction of particle multiplicities in the deexcitation of a high spin level of 143Ba. The gamma multiplicity turns out to be very sensitive to the numerical method. The bias between the two techniques can reach 1.5 γγ/cascade. Lastly, the uncertainty of these calculations coming from the lack of knowledge on nuclear structure is estimated via the FSP method.

  10. Improved drought tolerance in wheat plants overexpressing a synthetic bacterial cold shock protein gene SeCspA

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tai-Fei; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Guo, Jin-Kao; Wang, Yan-Xia; Abernathy, Brian; Fu, Jin-Dong; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Yong-Bin; Chen, Ming; Ye, Xing-Guo; Ma, You-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Cold shock proteins (CSPs) enhance acclimatization of bacteria to adverse environmental circumstances. The Escherichia coli CSP genes CspA and CspB were modified to plant-preferred codon sequences and named as SeCspA and SeCspB. Overexpression of exogenous SeCspA and SeCspB in transgenic Arabidopsis lines increased germination rates, survival rates, and increased primary root length compared to control plants under drought and salt stress. Investigation of several stress-related parameters in SeCspA and SeCspB transgenic wheat lines indicated that these lines possessed stress tolerance characteristics, including lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lower water loss rates, lower relative Na+ content, and higher chlorophyll content and proline content than the control wheat plants under drought and salt stresses. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that overexpression of SeCsp could enhance the expression of stress-responsive genes. The field experiments showed that the SeCspA transgenic wheat lines had great increases in the 1000-grain weight and grain yield compared to the control genotype under drought stress conditions. Significant differences in the stress indices revealed that the SeCspA transgenic wheat lines possessed significant and stable improvements in drought tolerance over the control plants. No such improvement was observed for the SeCspB transgenic lines under field conditions. Our results indicated that SeCspA conferred drought tolerance and improved physiological traits in wheat plants. PMID:28281578

  11. Improving the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of screen-printed Low temperature PZT/polymer composite using cold isostatic pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almusallam, A.; Yang, K.; Cao, Z.; Zhu, D.; Tudor, J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports an improvement in dielectric and piezoelectric properties of screen-printed PZT/polymer films for flexible electronics applications using Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP). The investigation involved half and fully cured PZT/polymer composite pastes with weight ratio of 12:1 to investigate the effect of the CIP process on the piezoelectric and dielectric properties. It was observed that the highest dielectric and piezoelectric properties are achieved at pressures of 5 and 10 MPa for half and fully cured films respectively. The relative dielectric constants were 300 and 245 measured at 1 kHz for the half and fully cured samples. Using unoptimised poling conditions, the initial d33 values were 30 and 35 pC/N for the half and fully cured films, respectively. The fully cured sample was then poled using optimized conditions and demonstrated a d33 of approximately 44 pC/N which is an increase of 7% compared with non-CIP processed materials.

  12. Cold habituation does not improve manual dexterity during rest and exercise in 5 °C.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Pollock, Brandon S; Burns, Keith J; Glickman, Ellen L

    2014-04-01

    When exposed to a cold environment, a barehanded person experiences pain, cold sensation, and reduced manual dexterity. Both acute (e.g. exercise) and chronic (e.g. cold acclimatization or habituation) processes might lessen these negative effects. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of cold habituation on physiology, perception, and manual dexterity during rest, exercise, and recovery in 5 °C. Six cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight non habituated men (NON) volunteered to participate in a repeated measures cross-over design. The protocol was conducted in 5 °C and was 90 min of resting cold exposure, 30 min of cycle ergometry exercise (50 % VO2 peak), and 60 min of seated recovery. Core and finger skin temperature, metabolic rate, Purdue Pegboard dexterity performance, hand pain, thermal sensation, and mood were quantified. Exercise-induced finger rewarming (EIFRW) was calculated for each hand. During 90 min of resting exposure to 5 °C, the CWA had a smaller reduction in finger temperature, a lower metabolic rate, less hand pain, and less negative mood. Despite this cold habituation, dexterity performance was not different between groups. In response to cycle ergometry, EIFRW was greater in CWA (~12 versus 7 °C) and occurred at lower core temperatures (37.02 versus 37.31 °C) relative to NON but dexterity was not greater during post-exercise recovery. The current data indicate that cold habituated men (i.e., CWA) do not perform better on the Purdue Pegboard during acute cold exposure. Furthermore, despite augmented EIFRW in CWA, dexterity during post-exercise recovery was similar between groups.

  13. A consortium of rhizobacterial strains and biochemical growth elicitors improve cold and drought stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kakar, K U; Ren, X-L; Nawaz, Z; Cui, Z-Q; Li, B; Xie, G-L; Hassan, M A; Ali, E; Sun, G-C

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, a consortium of two rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Bk7 and Brevibacillus laterosporus B4, termed 'BB', biochemical elicitors salicylic acid and β-aminobutyric acid (SB) and their mixture (BBSB) were investigated for cold and drought stress tolerance in rice plants. After withholding water for 16 days, rice plants treated with BBSB showed 100% survival, improved seedling height (35.4 cm), shoot number (6.12), and showed minimum symptoms of chlorosis (19%), wilting (4%), necrosis (6%) and rolling of leaves. Similarly, BB inoculation enhanced plant growth and reduced overall symptoms in rice seedlings subjected to 0 ± 5 °C for 24 h. Our results imply several mechanisms underlying BB- and BBSB-elicited stress tolerance. In contrast to the control, both treatments significantly decreased leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage, and increased leaf proline and cholorophyll content. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased 3.0- and 3.6-fold, respectively. Moreover, expression of OsMYB3R-2, OsDIL, OsDREB1A and OsCDPK13 genes was significantly up-regulated, suggesting that these genes play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance of rice. In addition, bacterial strains Bk7 and B4 were able to produce high amounts of IAA and siderophores, and colonise the plant roots, while only strain Bk7 exhibited the capability to form biofilms and solubilise inorganic phosphate. This study indicates that the BB and BBSB bio-formulations can be used to confer induced systematic tolerance and improve the health of rice plants subject to chilling and drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Mapping Sure Start Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Jamieson, Lynn; Morton, Sarah; Adam, Rachel; McFarlane, Vivienne

    Sure Start Scotland is part of a broader action program for children from birth to age three and their families with the objectives of improving children's social and emotional development, health, and ability to learn, as well as strengthening families and communities. This summary report details a "mapping" project to identify services…

  15. One or 4 h of "in-house" reconditioning by machine perfusion after cold storage improve reperfusion parameters in porcine kidneys.

    PubMed

    Gallinat, Anja; Efferz, Patrik; Paul, Andreas; Minor, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    In-house machine perfusion after cold storage (hypothermic reconditioning) has been proposed as convenient tool to improve kidney graft function. This study investigated the role of machine perfusion duration for early reperfusion parameters in porcine kidneys. Kidney function after cold preservation (4 °C, 18 h) and subsequent reconditioning by one or 4 h of pulsatile, nonoxygenated hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) was studied in an isolated kidney perfusion model in pigs (n = 6, respectively) and compared with simply cold-stored grafts (CS). Compared with CS alone, one or 4 h of subsequent HMP similarly and significantly improved renal flow and kidney function (clearance and sodium reabsorption) upon warm reperfusion, along with reduced perfusate concentrations of endothelin-1 and increased vascular release of nitric oxide. Molecular effects of HMP comprised a significant (vs CS) mRNA increase in the endothelial transcription factor KLF2 and lower expression of endothelin that were observed already at the end of one-hour HMP after CS. Reconditioning of cold-stored kidneys is possible, even if clinical logistics only permit one hour of therapy, while limited extension of the overall storage time by in-house machine perfusion might also allow for postponing of transplantation from night to early day work. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Local cold acclimation of the hand impairs thermal responses of the finger without improving hand neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Geurts, C L M; Sleivert, G G; Cheung, S S

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of cold acclimation on the thermal response and neuromuscular function of the hand. Ten healthy subjects [three female, seven male, age (mean +/- SD): 27.9 +/- 7.9 years] immersed their right hand in 8 degrees C water for 30 min, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. On the first and the last day, neuromuscular function of the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle was tested. There was no significant change in maximal voluntary contraction strength or evoked contractile characteristics of the FDI after cold acclimation. Minimum finger temperature decreased significantly from 10.6 +/- 1.2 to 9.3 +/- 0.8 degrees C after 3 weeks (P < 0.01), with most of the decrease occurring after a single exposure. Mean finger temperature dropped significantly from 14.2 +/- 1.9 to 11.7 +/- 1.4 degrees C following cold acclimation (P < 0.05), with 90% of this adaptation occurring after 5 days. Onset time of cold-induced vasodilatation increased from 446 +/- 171 to 736 +/- 384 s (P < 0.05) and the amplitude decreased from 5.3 +/- 3.2 to 2.5 +/- 2.1 degrees C (P < 0.05). This was significantly different from the control group, who immersed their right hand on the first and last days only. These data suggest that cold acclimation does not enhance hand temperature or function but may put the hands at a greater risk of cold injury when exposed to the cold.

  17. Zinc Acetate Lozenges May Improve the Recovery Rate of Common Cold Patients: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri; Fitzgerald, James T; Petrus, Edward J; Prasad, Ananda

    2017-01-01

    A previous meta-analysis of 3 zinc acetate lozenge trials estimated that colds were on average 40% shorter for the zinc groups. However, the duration of colds is a time outcome, and survival analysis may be a more informative approach. The objective of this individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was to estimate the effect of zinc acetate lozenges on the rate of recovery from colds. We analyzed IPD for 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials in which 80-92 mg/day of elemental zinc were administered as zinc acetate lozenges to 199 common cold patients. We used mixed-effects Cox regression to estimate the effect of zinc. Patients administered zinc lozenges recovered faster by rate ratio 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.1-4.7). The effect was not modified by age, sex, race, allergy, smoking, or baseline common cold severity. On the 5th day, 70% of the zinc patients had recovered compared with 27% of the placebo patients. Accordingly, 2.6 times more patients were cured in the zinc group. The difference also corresponds to the number needed to treat of 2.3 on the 5th day. None of the studies observed serious adverse effects of zinc. The 3-fold increase in the rate of recovery from the common cold is a clinically important effect. The optimal formulation of zinc lozenges and an ideal frequency of their administration should be examined. Given the evidence of efficacy, common cold patients may be instructed to try zinc acetate lozenges within 24 hours of onset of symptoms.

  18. Start-up performance and granular sludge features of an improved external circulating anaerobic reactor for algae-laden water treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yaqin; Lu, Xiwu

    2017-09-01

    The microbial characteristics of granular sludge during the rapid start of an enhanced external circulating anaerobic reactor were studied to improve algae-laden water treatment efficiency. Results showed that algae laden water was effectively removed after about 35 d, and the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and algal toxin were around 85% and 92%, respectively. Simultaneously, the gas generation rate was around 380 mL/gCOD. The microbial community structure in the granular sludge of the reactor was complicated, and dominated by coccus and filamentous bacteria. Methanosphaera, Methanolinea, Thermogymnomonas, Methanoregula, Methanomethylovorans, and Methanosaeta were the major microorganisms in the granular sludge. The activities of protease and coenzyme F420 were high in the granular sludge. The intermittent stirring device and the reverse-flow system were further found to overcome the disadvantage of the floating and crusting of cyanobacteria inside the reactor. Meanwhile, the effect of mass transfer inside the reactor can be accelerated to help give the reactor a rapid start.

  19. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  20. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Cold sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes cold sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...

  1. Indian Issues Regarding Head Start Reauthorization. Joint Hearing To Expand the Provisions of Head Start Services and To Improve the Overall Quality of Head Start Programs, before the Committee on Indian Affairs and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    A joint Senate committee hearing received testimony on the unique circumstances and needs of American Indian Head Start programs. There are currently about 120 Indian Head Start programs providing services to 181 American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. The Associate Commissioner of the Head Start Bureau described the ongoing federal initiative…

  2. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Zhong, Bao; Liu, Xun; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-11-01

    As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (<20 °C) and freezing (<0 °C). In this study, exogenous application of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) improved both chilling and freezing stress tolerances, while ethylene glycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl) ether-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) reversed CaCl2 effects in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Head Start: An Effective Program But the Fund Distribution Formula Needs Revision and Management Controls Need Improvement. Report to the Congress of the United States by the Comptroller General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This report from the Comptroller General to the United States Congress finds Head Start to be an effective program whose fund distribution formula needs revision and whose management controls need improvement. Head Start's funding for enrollment and operating costs increased significantly between 1977-81. However, these funding increases were not…

  4. Improving the health forecasting alert system for cold weather and heat-waves in England: a case-study approach using temperature-mortality relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masato, Giacomo; Cavany, Sean; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Dacre, Helen; Bone, Angie; Carmicheal, Katie; Murray, Virginia; Danker, Rutger; Neal, Rob; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    The health forecasting alert system for cold weather and heatwaves currently in use in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans for England is based on 5 alert levels, with levels 2 and 3 dependent on a forecast or actual single temperature action trigger. Epidemiological evidence indicates that for both heat and cold, the impact on human health is gradual, with worsening impact for more extreme temperatures. The 60% risk of heat and cold forecasts used by the alerts is a rather crude probabilistic measure, which could be substantially improved thanks to the state-of-the-art forecast techniques. In this study a prototype of a new health forecasting alert system is developed, which is aligned to the approach used in the Met Office's (MO) National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS). This is in order to improve information available to responders in the health and social care system by linking temperatures more directly to risks of mortality, and developing a system more coherent with other weather alerts. The prototype is compared to the current system in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans via a case-study approach to verify its potential advantages and shortcomings. The prototype health forecasting alert system introduces an "impact vs likelihood matrix" for the health impacts of hot and cold temperatures which is similar to those used operationally for other weather hazards as part of the NSWWS. The impact axis of this matrix is based on existing epidemiological evidence, which shows an increasing relative risk of death at extremes of outdoor temperature beyond a threshold which can be identified epidemiologically. The likelihood axis is based on a probability measure associated with the temperature forecast. The new method is tested for two case studies (one during summer 2013, one during winter 2013), and compared to the performance of the current alert system. The prototype shows some clear improvements over the current alert system. It allows for a much greater

  5. Integration of selective breeding and vaccination to improve disease resistance in aquaculture: Application to control bacterial cold water disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. A goal of the NCCCWA breeding program is to produce germplasm with superior growth and survival following exposure to infe...

  6. Weighted ssGBLUP improves genomic selection accuracy for bacterial cold water disease resistance in a rainbow trout population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare methods for genomic evaluation in a Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population for survival when challenged by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD). The used methods were: 1)regular ssGBLUP that assume...

  7. Ultraviolet-B radiation induced crosslinking improves physical properties of cold- and warm-water fish gelatin gels and films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold- and warm-water fish gelatin granules were exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation for doses up to 29.7 J/cm2. Solutions and films were prepared from the granules. Gel electrophoresis and refractive index were used to examine changes in molecular weight of the samples. Also, the gel strength and rhe...

  8. Cold-water immersion decreases cerebral oxygenation but improves recovery after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Minett, G M; Duffield, R; Billaut, F; Cannon, J; Portus, M R; Marino, F E

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of post-exercise cooling on recovery of neuromuscular, physiological, and cerebral hemodynamic responses after intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat. Nine participants underwent three post-exercise recovery trials, including a control (CONT), mixed-method cooling (MIX), and cold-water immersion (10 °C; CWI). Voluntary force and activation were assessed simultaneously with cerebral oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) pre- and post-exercise, post-intervention, and 1-h and 24-h post-exercise. Measures of heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature, muscle damage, and inflammation were also collected. Both cooling interventions reduced heart rate, core, and skin temperature post-intervention (P < 0.05). CWI hastened the recovery of voluntary force by 12.7 ± 11.7% (mean ± SD) and 16.3 ± 10.5% 1-h post-exercise compared to MIX and CONT, respectively (P < 0.01). Voluntary force remained elevated by 16.1 ± 20.5% 24-h post-exercise after CWI compared to CONT (P < 0.05). Central activation was increased post-intervention and 1-h post-exercise with CWI compared to CONT (P < 0.05), without differences between conditions 24-h post-exercise (P > 0.05). CWI reduced cerebral oxygenation compared to MIX and CONT post-intervention (P < 0.01). Furthermore, cooling interventions reduced cortisol 1-h post-exercise (P < 0.01), although only CWI blunted creatine kinase 24-h post-exercise compared to CONT (P < 0.05). Accordingly, improvements in neuromuscular recovery after post-exercise cooling appear to be disassociated with cerebral oxygenation, rather reflecting reductions in thermoregulatory demands to sustain force production. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Combination of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and interrupted dosing sorafenib improves patient survival in early-intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma: A post hoc analysis of the START trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teng-Yu; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chiung-Yu; Wang, Tsang-En; Lo, Gin-Ho; Chang, Chi-Sen; Chao, Yee

    2017-09-01

    The survival benefit of treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib remains uncertain. We compared the survival of patients treated with TACE and sorafenib with that of patients treated with TACE alone. This was a post hoc analysis of the Study in Asia of the Combination of TACE with Sorafenib in Patients with HCC (START) trial. All patients who received TACE and interrupted dosing of sorafenib for early or intermediate-stage HCC in Taiwan from 2009 to 2010 were recruited into the TACE and sorafenib group. They were randomly matched 1:1 by age, sex, Child-Pugh score, tumor size, tumor number, and tumor stage with patients from Taichung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan who received TACE alone and who fulfilled the selection criteria of the START trial during the same time period (control group). Patient survival [cumulative incidence and hazard ratio (HR)] of the 2 groups were analyzed and compared. The baseline characteristics of the 36 patients in each group were similar. Tumor response rates were significantly better in the TACE and sorafenib group (P < .04). Overall survival of the TACE and sorafenib group was also significantly better than that of the control (TACE alone) group over the 2 years [78%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 64-91 vs 49, 95% CI 32-66; P = .012]. In the multivariate regression analysis, TACE and sorafenib was found to be independently associated with a decreased risk of mortality (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.89; P = .015). Multivariate stratified analyses verified this association in each patient subgroup (all HR < 1.0). With a high patient tolerance to an interrupted sorafenib dosing schedule, the combination of TACE with sorafenib was associated with improved overall survival in early-intermediate stage HCC when compared with treatment with TACE alone.

  10. Start-up and maturation phases of a full-scale, high-rate anaerobic pond bioreactor(®) plus improved facultative ponds to treat municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Peña, M R; Aponte, A; Toro, A F

    2015-01-01

    Results of the start-up and maturation phases of a full-scale, high-rate anaerobic pond bioreactor (HRAPB)(®) plus improved facultative ponds (IFPs) to treat municipal wastewater are presented (CODt: 759 mg L⁻¹, CODf: 219 mg L⁻¹, S-SO(4)(2-): 102 mg L⁻¹, and Cr⁺: 1,500 μgL⁻¹). The start-up of the HRAPB(®) comprised, first, the application of a selective pressure increasing up-flow velocity rates. Second, batch stages between successive rates were allowed until 70% of the initial CODf was removed. The IFPs were left in batch and ended when in-pond Chlorophyll-a concentration reached 800 μgL⁻¹. Subsequently, the system underwent gradual maturation and reached effluent concentrations of CODt: 223 mg L⁻¹, CODf: 50 mg L⁻¹, and Cr⁺: 60 μgL⁻¹. The actual efficiency of the system compared with the expected design efficiency was lower given the characteristics of the influent wastewater biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratios < 0.4, presence of Cr⁺ >1,000 μgL⁻¹, and variations in both conductivity (500-4,500 μScm⁻¹) and pH (6.5-10.5 units). Nonetheless, the system exhibited an adaptation state in less than 1.5 months and yielded an ST/SV ratio of 0.46, and specific methanogenic activity of 0.43 g-CH4-CODg⁻¹SV⁻¹d⁻¹ for HRAPB(®); the in-pond Chlorophyll-a was on average 1,200 μgL⁻¹ in the IFPs, which demonstrated the robustness of these eco-technologies in tropical conditions.

  11. Improvement of flavor and viscosity in hot and cold break tomato juice and sauce by peel removal.

    PubMed

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are typically not peeled before being made into juice but the peels contain enzymes that affect the odor, flavor, and viscosity of the juice. The peels are removed in the finisher, but their presence during the break process may affect quality. Juice was processed from peeled and unpeeled tomatoes using hot or cold break. The juices were pasteurized by high temperature short time (HTST), low temperature long time (LTLT), or with a retort. The control samples were treated with 10% calcium chloride to stop enzymatic activity in the juice. Sauce was made from juice and the tomato products were analyzed for volatiles, color, viscosity, and by sensory. Cold break juice made with peel contained higher levels of some lipoxygenase-, carotenoid-, and amino acid-derived volatiles, than the juice made without peel. Because of the lack of enzyme activity, hot break juices had lower levels of these volatiles and there was no significant difference between hot break juices made with and without peel. CaCl2 -treated and HTST juice had higher levels of most of the volatiles than LTLT, including the lipoxygenase-derived volatiles. The presence of peel produced a significant decrease in the viscosity of the cold break juice and sauce. There was no significant difference in the hue angle, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and vitamin C for most of the treatments. The texture, flavor, and overall liking of cold break juice made without peel were preferred over cold break juice made with peel whereas the color was less preferred. Between the sauces no significant differences in preference were obtained.

  12. The Starting Early Starting Smart Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey Family Programs, Seattle, WA.

    Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) is an early childhood public/private initiative designed to identify new, empirical knowledge about the effectiveness of integrating substance abuse prevention, addictions treatment, and mental health services with primary health care and childcare service settings (e.g., Head Start, day care, preschool) to…

  13. Acute cold stress improved the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines of Chinese soft-shelled turtle against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuobing; Chen, Bojian; Yuan, Lin; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, is widely cultured in East and Southeast Asian countries. It frequently encounters the stress of abrupt temperature changes, which leads to mass death in most cases. However, the mechanism underlying the stress-elicited death remains unknown. We have suspected that the stress impaired the immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, which could result in the mass death, as we noticed that there was a clinical syndrome of infection in dead turtles. To test our hypothesis, we first performed bioinformatic annotation of several pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-12β) of Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Then, we treated the turtles in six groups, injected with Aeromonas hydrophila before acute cold stress (25 °C) and controls, after acute cold stress (15 °C) and controls as well as after the temperature was restored to 25 °C and controls, respectively. Subsequently, real-time PCR for several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-8 and IFNγ) was performed to assess the turtle immune function in spleen and intestine, 24 hours after the injection. We found that the mRNA expression levels of the immune molecules were all enhanced after acute cold stress. This change disappeared when the temperature was restored back to 25 °C. Our results suggest that abrupt temperature drop did not suppress the immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtle in response to germ challenge after abrupt temperature drop. In contrast, it may even increase the expression of various cytokines at least, within a short time after acute cold stress.

  14. An improved Peltier effect-based instrument for critical temperature threshold measurement in cold- and heat-induced urticaria.

    PubMed

    Magerl, M; Abajian, M; Krause, K; Altrichter, S; Siebenhaar, F; Church, M K

    2015-10-01

    Cold- and heat-induced urticaria are chronic physical urticaria conditions in which wheals, angioedema or both are evoked by skin exposure to cold and heat respectively. The diagnostic work up of both conditions should include skin provocation tests and accurate determination of critical temperature thresholds (CTT) for producing symptoms in order to be able to predict the potential risk that each individual patient faces and how this may be ameliorated by therapy. To develop and validate TempTest(®) 4, a simple and relatively inexpensive instrument for the accurate determination of CTT which may be used in clinical practice. TempTest(®) 4 has a single 2 mm wide 350 mm U-shaped Peltier element generating a temperature gradient from 4 °C to 44 °C along its length. Using a clear plastic guide placed over the skin after provocation, CTT values may be determined with an accuracy of ±1 °C. Here, TempTest(®) 4 was compared with its much more expensive predecessor, TempTest(®) 3, in inducing wheals in 30 cold urticaria patients. Both TempTest(®) 4 and TempTest(®) 3 induced wheals in all 30 patients between 8 ° and 28 °C. There was a highly significant (P < 0.0001) correlation between the instruments in the CTT values in individual patients. The TempTest(®) 4 is a simple, easy to use, licensed, commercially available and affordable instrument for the determination of CTTs in both cold- and heat-induced urticaria. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Rational Engineering of a Cold-Adapted α-Amylase from the Antarctic Ciliate Euplotes focardii for Simultaneous Improvement of Thermostability and Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Yao, Hua; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Ballarini, Patrizia; Pucciarelli, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The α-amylases are endo-acting enzymes that hydrolyze starch by randomly cleaving the 1,4-α-d-glucosidic linkages between the adjacent glucose units in a linear amylose chain. They have significant advantages in a wide range of applications, particularly in the food industry. The eukaryotic α-amylase isolated from the Antarctic ciliated protozoon Euplotes focardii (EfAmy) is an alkaline enzyme, different from most of the α-amylases characterized so far. Furthermore, EfAmy has the characteristics of a psychrophilic α-amylase, such as the highest hydrolytic activity at a low temperature and high thermolability, which is the major drawback of cold-active enzymes in industrial applications. In this work, we applied site-directed mutagenesis combined with rational design to generate a cold-active EfAmy with improved thermostability and catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. We engineered two EfAmy mutants. In one mutant, we introduced Pro residues on the A and B domains in surface loops. In the second mutant, we changed Val residues to Thr close to the catalytic site. The aim of these substitutions was to rigidify the molecular structure of the enzyme. Furthermore, we also analyzed mutants containing these combined substitutions. Biochemical enzymatic assays of engineered versions of EfAmy revealed that the combination of mutations at the surface loops increased the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The possible mechanisms responsible for the changes in the biochemical properties are discussed by analyzing the three-dimensional structural model. IMPORTANCE Cold-adapted enzymes have high specific activity at low and moderate temperatures, a property that can be extremely useful in various applications as it implies a reduction in energy consumption during the catalyzed reaction. However, the concurrent high thermolability of cold-adapted enzymes often limits their applications in industrial processes. The α-amylase from the

  16. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  17. Twelve-Hour Hypothermic Machine Perfusion for Donor Heart Preservation Leads to Improved Ultrastructural Characteristics Compared to Conventional Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Michel, Sebastian G; La Muraglia, Glenn M; Madariaga, Maria Lucia L; Titus, James S; Selig, Martin K; Farkash, Evan A; Allan, James S; Anderson, Lisa M; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-11

    BACKGROUND Hypothermic machine perfusion of donor hearts has the theoretical advantage of continuous aerobic metabolism and washes out toxic metabolic byproducts. Here, we studied the effect of hypothermic machine perfusion on cardiac myocyte integrity when hearts are preserved for longer ischemic times (12 hours). MATERIAL AND METHODS Pig hearts were harvested and stored in Celsior® solution for 12 hours using either conventional cold storage on ice (12 h CS, n=3) or pulsatile perfusion with the Paragonix Sherpa Perfusion™ Cardiac Transport System at different flow rates (12 h PP, n=3 or 12 h PP low flow, n=2). After cold preservation, hearts were reperfused using an LV isovolumic Langendorff system. Controls (n=3) were reperfused immediately after organ harvest. Biopsies were taken from the apex of the left ventricle before storage, after storage and after reperfusion to measure ATP and endothelin-1 content in the tissue. TUNEL staining for signs of apoptosis and electron microscopy of the donor hearts were performed. RESULTS 12 h PP hearts showed significantly more weight gain than 12 h CS and controls after preservation. Pulsatile perfused hearts showed less ATP depletion, lower endothelin-1 levels and less apoptosis after preservation compared to CS. Electron microscopy showed damaged muscle fibers, endothelial cell rupture, and injury of mitochondria in the 12 h CS group, while machine perfusion could preserve the cell structures. CONCLUSIONS Hypothermic machine perfusion of donor hearts can preserve the cell structures better than conventional cold storage in prolonged ischemic times. Hypothermic pulsatile perfusion may therefore enable longer preservation times of donor hearts. Whether this method is able to avoid primary graft failure after orthotopic heart transplantation remains to be evaluated in further studies.

  18. Rapid cold hardening improves recovery of ion homeostasis and chill coma recovery time in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Findsen, Anders; Andersen, Jonas Lembcke; Calderon, Sofia; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Chill tolerance of insects is defined as the ability to tolerate low temperature under circumstances not involving freezing of intracellular or extracellular fluids. For many insects chill tolerance is crucial for their ability to persist in cold environments and mounting evidence indicates that chill tolerance is associated with the ability to maintain ion and water homeostasis, thereby ensuring muscular function and preventing chill injury at low temperature. The present study describes the relationship between muscle and haemolymph ion homeostasis and time to regain posture following cold shock (CS, 2 h at -4°C) in the chill-susceptible locust Locusta migratoria. This relationship was examined in animals with and without a prior rapid cold-hardening treatment (RCH, 2 h at 0°C) to investigate the physiological underpinnings of RCH. CS elicited a doubling of haemolymph [K(+)] and this disturbance was greater in locusts pre-exposed to RCH. Recovery of ion homeostasis was, however, markedly faster in RCH-treated animals, which correlated well with whole-organism performance as hardened individuals regained posture faster than non-hardened individuals following CS. The present study indicates that loss and recovery of muscular function are associated with the resting membrane potential of excitable membranes as attested by the changes in the equilibrium potential for K(+) (EK) following CS. Both hardened and non-hardened animals regained movement once K(+) homeostasis had recovered to a fixed level (EK≈-41 mV). RCH is therefore not associated with altered sensitivity to ion disturbance but instead is correlated to a faster recovery of haemolymph [K(+)].

  19. Assessing and improving health in the workplace: an integration of subjective and objective measures with the STress Assessment and Research Toolkit (St.A.R.T.) method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers’ health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. Method An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit) was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. Results The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom) measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective) showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers’ psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. Conclusions It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers’ conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers’ health. PMID:22995286

  20. The Administration Proposal for Head Start Reauthorization. Joint Hearing on Examining Head Start and the Administration's Plans for Expanding and Improving It, before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate and the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearing transcripts present testimony concerning the Clinton Administration's plans to expand and improve Project Head Start. Testimony was heard from Senators Christopher J. Dodd, Dan Coats, Nancy Landon Kassebaum, Strom Thurmond, James M. Jeffords, and Harris Wofford, as well as Representatives Matthew G. Martinez and Susan Molinari, and…

  1. Dopamine treatment of brain-dead Fisher rats improves renal histology but not early renal function in Lewis recipients after prolonged static cold storage.

    PubMed

    Fontana, J; Yard, B; Stamellou, E; Wenz, H; Benck, U; Schnuelle, P; Hoeger, S

    2014-12-01

    Brain death (BD) and cold preservation are major risk factors for an unfavorable transplantation outcome. Although donor dopamine treatment in brain-dead rats improves renal function and histology in allogeneic recipients, it remains to be assessed if this also holds true for the combinations of BD and prolonged static cold preservation. BD was induced in F344 donor rats, which were subsequently treated with NaCl 1 mL/h (BD, n = 11), NaCl/hydroxy ethyl starch (BD-norm, n = 10), or 10 μg/min/kg dopamine (BD-dopa, n = 10). Renal grafts were harvested 4 h after BD and transplanted into bilateral nephrectomized Lewis recipients 6 h after cold preservation in University of Wisconsin solution. Renal function was evaluated by use of serum creatinine and urea concentrations at days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10. Ten days after transplantation, recipients were killed and the renal allografts were processed for light microscopy and immune histology. Serum urea concentrations at days 5 and 10 were significantly lower in recipients that received a renal graft from dopamine-treated rats; for serum creatinine, only a trend was observed at day 10. Immune histology revealed a lower degree of ED1-positive cells in the donor dopamine-treated group. Under light microscopy, Banff classification revealed significantly less intimal arteritis in these grafts (P < .05). Although donor dopamine treatment clearly improves renal histology in this model, the beneficial effect on early renal function was marginal. It remains to be assessed if donor dopamine treatment has a beneficial effect on renal function in long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  3. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong; Greene, Elizabeth; Ishola, Peter; Huff, Geraldine; Donoghue, Annie; Bottje, Walter; Dridi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC) on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control), liver (main site for lipogenesis) and muscle (main site for thermogenesis). 80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room). The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day) to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds) and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10). The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured. Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR). Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05), the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the expression of fatty acid

  4. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-Related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong; Greene, Elizabeth; Ishola, Peter; Huff, Geraldine; Donoghue, Annie; Bottje, Walter; Dridi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Background Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC) on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control), liver (main site for lipogenesis) and muscle (main site for thermogenesis). Methods 80 one-day old male broiler chicks were divided into two weight-matched groups and maintained in two different temperature floor pen rooms (40 birds/room). The temperature of control room was 32°C, while the cold room temperature started at 26.7°C and gradually reduced every day (1°C/day) to reach 19.7°C at the seventh day of the experiment. At day 7, growth performances were recorded (from all birds) and blood samples and tissues were collected (n = 10). The rest of birds were maintained at the same standard environmental condition for two more weeks and growth performances were measured. Results Although feed intake remained unchanged, body weight gain was significantly increased in CMCC compared to the control chicks resulting in a significant low feed conversion ratio (FCR). Circulating cholesterol and creatine kinase levels were higher in CMCC chicks compared to the control group (P<0.05). CMCC significantly decreased the expression of both the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in chick brain which may explain the similar feed intake between the two groups. Compared to the control condition, CMCC increased the mRNA abundance of AMPKα1/α2 and decreased mTOR gene expression (P<0.05), the master energy and nutrient sensors, respectively. It also significantly decreased the

  5. Improvement of COBRA-TF for modeling of PWR cold- and hot-legs during reactor transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salko, Robert K.

    COBRA-TF is a two-phase, three-field (liquid, vapor, droplets) thermal-hydraulic modeling tool that has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under sponsorship of the NRC. The code was developed for Light Water Reactor analysis starting in the 1980s; however, its development has continued to this current time. COBRA-TF still finds wide-spread use throughout the nuclear engineering field, including nuclear-power vendors, academia, and research institutions. It has been proposed that extension of the COBRA-TF code-modeling region from vessel-only components to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant-line regions can lead to improved Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. Improved modeling is anticipated due to COBRA-TF's capability to independently model the entrained-droplet flow-field behavior, which has been observed to impact delivery to the core region[1]. Because COBRA-TF was originally developed for vertically-dominated, in-vessel, sub-channel flow, extension of the COBRA-TF modeling region to the horizontal-pipe geometries of the coolant-lines required several code modifications, including: • Inclusion of the stratified flow regime into the COBRA-TF flow regime map, along with associated interfacial drag, wall drag and interfacial heat transfer correlations, • Inclusion of a horizontal-stratification force between adjacent mesh cells having unequal levels of stratified flow, and • Generation of a new code-input interface for the modeling of coolant-lines. The sheer number of COBRA-TF modifications that were required to complete this work turned this project into a code-development project as much as it was a study of thermal-hydraulics in reactor coolant-lines. The means for achieving these tasks shifted along the way, ultimately leading the development of a separate, nearly completely independent one-dimensional, two-phase-flow modeling code geared toward reactor coolant-line analysis. This developed code has been named CLAP, for

  6. New Challenges for Head Start. Hearing on Examining Proposed Authorizations for the Head Start Program, and To Examine the Impact of the Head Start Expansion and Improvement Act of 1990, before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document provides a transcript of the proceedings of a hearing to discuss issues related to the future of Project Head Start. The document includes the prepared statements and testimony of several United States Senators and child care experts, including Senators Nancy Kassebaum, Edward Kennedy, and Dave Durenberger; Marilyn Thomas, president…

  7. From surface wave to cloud: An atmosphere physical process in improving the too cold tongue bias and precipitation in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yajuan; Qiao, Fangli; Song, Zhenya

    2015-04-01

    The coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) without flux correction still show defects in simulating sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation, with too cold tongue and obvious double-ITCZ biases in the tropical Pacific. We make an effort to improve SST too cold tongue bias and the north-south asymmetry of zonal-averaged precipitation distribution in the Community Climate System Model version3 (CCSM3) by incorporating the non-breaking wave-induced vertical mixing. The oceanic thermocline depth deepens in the central and eastern tropical Pacific under the wave mixing effect. SST warming characterized as a conspicuous maximum in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific contributes to moisture increasing in atmosphere through evaporation process. The non-uniform SST brings out distinct horizontal gradient in air pressure across the tropics, which result in an abnormal wind convergence in the central Pacific. As a result, an enhanced Walker circulation and Hadley cell are driven by wind gradient and more latent heat. The subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the eastern Pacific suppress the formation of clouds, so that more shortwave radiation is absorbed by the ocean. However, in the central to western Pacific, the updraft of the Walker circulation with abundant water vapor provides favorable conditions for cloud formation in middle and high troposphere. A positive feedback between water vapor and cloud fraction warms the SST by less longwave radiation releasing. The warm anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific restrict the westward expansion of cold tongue. Furthermore, the intensive updraft of Hadley circulation with high humidity increases rainfall in the low-latitudes of the northern hemisphere.

  8. Head Start: A More Comprehensive Risk Management Strategy and Data Improvements Could Further Strengthen Program Oversight. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-221

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In February 2005, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report that raised concerns about the effectiveness of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Administration for Children and Families' (ACF) oversight of about 1,600 local organizations that receive nearly $7 billion in Head Start grants. GAO was asked to report…

  9. Understanding and Improving Classroom Emotional Climate and Behavior Management in the "Real World": The Role of Head Start Teachers' Psychosocial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grining, Christine Li; Raver, C. Cybele; Champion, Kina; Sardin, Latriese; Metzger, Molly; Jones, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This article reports on two studies. Study 1 considered ways in which Head Start teachers' (n = 90) psychosocial stressors are related to teachers' ability to maintain a positive classroom emotional climate and effective behavior management in preschool classrooms. Study 2 tested the hypothesis that among teachers randomly…

  10. Impact Findings from the Head Start CARES Demonstration: National Evaluation of Three Approaches to Improving Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence. Executive Summary. OPRE Report 2014-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela; Mattera, Shira K.; Castells, Nina; Bangser, Michael; Bierman, Karen; Raver, Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Low-income preschool children face risks to their social-emotional development that can affect them later on. Although there are promising approaches to promoting preschoolers' social-emotional skills, the evidence base is limited, particularly on their effectiveness when implemented at scale. The Head Start CARES demonstration evaluated the…

  11. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  12. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  13. From the similarities between neutrons and radon to advanced radon-detection and improved cold fusion neutron-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasino, L.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons and radon are both ubiquitous in the earth's crust. The neutrons of terrestrial origin are strongly related to radon since they originate mainly from the interactions between the alpha particles from the decays of radioactive-gas (namely Radon and Thoron) and the light nuclei. Since the early studies in the field of neutrons, the radon gas was used to produce neutrons by (α, n) reactions in beryllium. Another important similarity between radon and neutrons is that they can be detected only through the radiations produced respectively by decays or by nuclear reactions. These charged particles from the two distinct nuclear processes are often the same (namely alpha-particles). A typical neutron detector is based on a radiator facing a alpha-particle detector, such as in the case of a neutron film badge. Based on the similarity between neutrons and radon, a film badge for radon has been recently proposed. The radon film badge, in addition to be similar, may be even identical to the neutron film badge. For these reasons, neutron measurements can be easily affected by the presence of unpredictable large radon concentration. In several cold fusion experiments, the CR-39 plastic films (typically used in radon and neutron film-badges), have been the detectors of choice for measuring neutrons. In this paper, attempts will be made to prove that most of these neutron-measurements might have been affected by the presence of large radon concentrations.

  14. Rapid isolation, reliable characterization, and water solubility improvement of polymethoxyflavones from cold-pressed mandarin essential oil.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marina; Rigano, Francesca; Arigò, Adriana; Sciarrone, Danilo; Calabrò, Maria Luisa; Farnetti, Sara; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    Polymethoxyflavones possess many biological properties, as lipid-lowering, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, therefore, they may be employed as nutraceuticals or therapeutic agents. The scarcity of pure polymethoxyflavones on the market as well as their low water solubility limited in vivo studies and the use of polymethoxyflavones as food or pharmaceutical supplements. Since mandarin peels are a rich source of polymethoxyflavones, tangeretin, nobiletin, sinensetin, tetra-O-methyl scutellarein, and heptamethoxyflavone were purified from a nonvolatile residue of a cold-pressed mandarin essential oil using a multidimensional preparative liquid chromatographic system coupled with a photodiode array detector and a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. A new prototype, consisting of a nano-liquid chromatography system coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer, was used for the characterization of the pure isolated molecules. Finally, due to the collection of highly pure nobiletin and tangeretin, the ability of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to enhance the water solubility of both polymethoxyflavones was evaluated by phase solubility studies and Job's plot method.

  15. Improved transport properties and connectivity of in situ MgB 2 wires obtained by Cold High Pressure Densification (CHPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flükiger, R.; Hossain, M. S. A.; Senatore, C.; Rindfleisch, M.

    2011-11-01

    The critical current density, Jc, of in situ MgB2 wires with C4H6O5 (malic acid) has been strongly enhanced by means of Cold High Pressure Densification (CHPD) at pressures up to 2.5 GPa prior to reaction. An increase in Jc by factors 2 and 8 was observed at 4.2 and 20 K, regardless of the applied field. Densified wires were found to exhibit a higher homogeneity due to enhanced connectivity. In addition, a higher C content was found, as shown by the lattice parameter change, the decrease of Tc, the shift of the calorimetric Tc distribution and a reduced anisotropy in tapes obtained from the same wires. The higher C content in densified wires is responsible for the observed enhancement of Birr by more than 1 T, up to 11 T at 20 K. Almost isotropic Jc values were obtained for C4H6O5 added square wires of 1 × 0.6 mm2 cross section, the values of Jc(4.2 K) = 1 × 104 A/cm2 for fields // and ⊥ to the wider surface being obtained at 13.8 and 13.1 T (1 μV/cm criterion), the values for 20 K being 6.4 and 6.2 T, respectively. The method was successfully applied to mono- and multifilamentary wires with lengths up to several meters, suggesting applicability for industrial lengths.

  16. Cholesterol-Loaded Cyclodextrin Increases the Cholesterol Content of Goat Sperm to Improve Cold and Osmotic Resistance and Maintain Sperm Function after Cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Vianney M; Leclerc, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2016-04-01

    The success of semen cryopreservation depends on sperm membrane integrity and function after thawing. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) is used for in vitro incorporation of cholesterol to protect cells against cold temperatures. We hypothesized that CLC treatment also enhances sperm cholesterol content to increase tolerance to osmotic shock and cryoresistance, thereby improving fertility. We confirmed the fact that treatment of goat semen with 3 mg/ml CLC increases sperm cholesterol content using both the Liebermann-Burchard approach and filipin III labeling of membrane cholesterol. Sperm were then treated with or without CLC and cryopreserved. After thawing, sperm cholesterol dramatically fell, even in the presence of CLC, which explains the mechanism of cryocapacitation. CLC treatment, however, maintained a normal prefreeze cholesterol level in sperm after cryopreservation. Furthermore, fresh sperm treated with CLC and subjected to either cold shock or incubated in hypo-, iso-, and hyperosmotic media, designed to mimic stresses associated with freezing/thawing, displayed increased temperature and osmotic tolerance. CLC treatment also improved sperm viability, motility, and acrosome integrity after thawing. Furthermore, CLC treatment did not affect the sperm's ability to undergo in vitro capacitation according to chlortetracycline fluorescence and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. A pilot field trial demonstrated that artificial insemination with sperm that underwent increased cholesterol levels following CLC treatment yielded higher fertility ( ITALIC! P< 0.1) and proliferation ( ITALIC! P< 0.05) rates in vivo than untreated semen from the same ejaculate samples. These observations suggest that CLC treatment could be used to improve cryoprotection during the freezing and thawing of goat sperm.

  17. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  18. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  19. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  20. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  1. Improving the Health Forecasting Alert System for Cold Weather and Heat-Waves In England: A Proof-of-Concept Using Temperature-Mortality Relationships.

    PubMed

    Masato, Giacomo; Bone, Angie; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Cavany, Sean; Neal, Robert; Dankers, Rutger; Dacre, Helen; Carmichael, Katie; Murray, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    In this study a prototype of a new health forecasting alert system is developed, which is aligned to the approach used in the Met Office's (MO) National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS). This is in order to improve information available to responders in the health and social care system by linking temperatures more directly to risks of mortality, and developing a system more coherent with other weather alerts. The prototype is compared to the current system in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans via a case-study approach to verify its potential advantages and shortcomings. The prototype health forecasting alert system introduces an "impact vs likelihood matrix" for the health impacts of hot and cold temperatures which is similar to those used operationally for other weather hazards as part of the NSWWS. The impact axis of this matrix is based on existing epidemiological evidence, which shows an increasing relative risk of death at extremes of outdoor temperature beyond a threshold which can be identified epidemiologically. The likelihood axis is based on a probability measure associated with the temperature forecast. The new method is tested for two case studies (one during summer 2013, one during winter 2013), and compared to the performance of the current alert system. The prototype shows some clear improvements over the current alert system. It allows for a much greater degree of flexibility, provides more detailed regional information about the health risks associated with periods of extreme temperatures, and is more coherent with other weather alerts which may make it easier for front line responders to use. It will require validation and engagement with stakeholders before it can be considered for use.

  2. Improving the Health Forecasting Alert System for Cold Weather and Heat-Waves In England: A Proof-of-Concept Using Temperature-Mortality Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Masato, Giacomo; Bone, Angie; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Cavany, Sean; Neal, Robert; Dankers, Rutger; Dacre, Helen; Carmichael, Katie; Murray, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study a prototype of a new health forecasting alert system is developed, which is aligned to the approach used in the Met Office’s (MO) National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS). This is in order to improve information available to responders in the health and social care system by linking temperatures more directly to risks of mortality, and developing a system more coherent with other weather alerts. The prototype is compared to the current system in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans via a case-study approach to verify its potential advantages and shortcomings. Method The prototype health forecasting alert system introduces an “impact vs likelihood matrix” for the health impacts of hot and cold temperatures which is similar to those used operationally for other weather hazards as part of the NSWWS. The impact axis of this matrix is based on existing epidemiological evidence, which shows an increasing relative risk of death at extremes of outdoor temperature beyond a threshold which can be identified epidemiologically. The likelihood axis is based on a probability measure associated with the temperature forecast. The new method is tested for two case studies (one during summer 2013, one during winter 2013), and compared to the performance of the current alert system. Conclusions The prototype shows some clear improvements over the current alert system. It allows for a much greater degree of flexibility, provides more detailed regional information about the health risks associated with periods of extreme temperatures, and is more coherent with other weather alerts which may make it easier for front line responders to use. It will require validation and engagement with stakeholders before it can be considered for use. PMID:26431427

  3. A new strategy for strain improvement of Aurantiochytrium sp. based on heavy-ions mutagenesis and synergistic effects of cold stress and inhibitors of enoyl-ACP reductase.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Rong; Sun, Zhi-Jie; Cui, Gu-Zhen; Song, Xiaojin; Cui, Qiu

    2016-11-01

    Developing a strain with high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) yield and stable fermenting-performance is an imperative way to improve DHA production using Aurantiochytrium sp., a microorganism with two fatty acid synthesis pathways: polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway and Type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) pathway. This study investigated the growth and metabolism response of Aurantiochytrium sp. CGMCC 6208 to two inhibitors of enoyl-ACP reductase of Type II FAS pathway (isoniazid and triclosan), and proposed a method of screening high DHA yield Aurantiochytrium sp. strains with heavy ion mutagenesis and pre-selection by synergistic usage of cold stress (4°C) and FAS inhibitors (triclosan and isoniazid). Results showed that (1) isoniazid and triclosan have positive effects on improving DHA level of cells; (2) mutants from irradiation dosage of 120Gy yielded more DHA compared with cells from 40Gy, 80Gy treatment and wild type; (3) DHA contents of mutants pre-selected by inhibitors of enoyl-ACP reductase of Type II FAS pathway (isoniazid and triclosan)at 4°C, were significantly higher than that of wild type; (4) compared to the wild type, the DHA productivity and yield of a mutant (T-99) obtained from Aurantiochytrium sp. CGMCC 6208 by the proposed method increased by 50% from 0.18 to 0.27g/Lh and 30% from 21 to 27g/L, respectively. In conclusion, this study developed a feasible method to screen Aurantiochytrium sp. with high DHA yield by a combination of heavy-ion mutagenesis and mutant-preselection by FAS inhibitors and cold stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  5. Cold Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a problem with the nerves or blood circulation or a problem with tissue damage in your hands or fingers. ... of causes. Having cold hands could signal a problem with your blood circulation or the blood vessels in your hands. Make ...

  6. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  7. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  8. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  9. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  10. Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) Changes Gene Expression of Key Molecules of the Wound Healing Machinery and Improves Wound Healing In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Stephanie; Unger, Petra; Wacker, Eva; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Heinlin, Julia; Li, Yang-Fang; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.; Zimmermann, Julia L.

    2013-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has the potential to interact with tissue or cells leading to fast, painless and efficient disinfection and furthermore has positive effects on wound healing and tissue regeneration. For clinical implementation it is necessary to examine how CAP improves wound healing and which molecular changes occur after the CAP treatment. In the present study we used the second generation MicroPlaSter ß® in analogy to the current clinical standard (2 min treatment time) in order to determine molecular changes induced by CAP using in vitro cell culture studies with human fibroblasts and an in vivo mouse skin wound healing model. Our in vitro analysis revealed that the CAP treatment induces the expression of important key genes crucial for the wound healing response like IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TGF-ß1, TGF-ß2, and promotes the production of collagen type I and alpha-SMA. Scratch wound healing assays showed improved cell migration, whereas cell proliferation analyzed by XTT method, and the apoptotic machinery analyzed by protein array technology, was not altered by CAP in dermal fibroblasts. An in vivo wound healing model confirmed that the CAP treatment affects above mentioned genes involved in wound healing, tissue injury and repair. Additionally, we observed that the CAP treatment improves wound healing in mice, no relevant side effects were detected. We suggest that improved wound healing might be due to the activation of a specified panel of cytokines and growth factors by CAP. In summary, our in vitro human and in vivo animal data suggest that the 2 min treatment with the MicroPlaSter ß® is an effective technique for activating wound healing relevant molecules in dermal fibroblasts leading to improved wound healing, whereas the mechanisms which contribute to these observed effects have to be further investigated. PMID:24265766

  11. Parent-delivered compensatory education for children at risk of educational failure: Improving the academic and self-regulatory skills of a Sure Start preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Ford, Ruth M; McDougall, Sine J P; Evans, Daphne

    2009-11-01

    Thirty preschoolers from low-income families participated in a 12-month intervention programme, funded by Sure Start, which engaged them in scaffolded educational activities delivered at home by their mothers. Immediately following the programme, the intervention group outperformed matched controls in tests of academic knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control, but not short-term memory or theory of mind. Teachers' ratings of children's capabilities upon school entry favoured the intervention group, especially in terms of listening, responding, writing, mathematics, and personal/social skills. Superior inhibitory control, short-term memory, and numerical skills were associated with higher ratings whereas theory of mind made a unique, negative contribution to responding. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to nurture the development of cognitive self-regulation and school readiness during early childhood.

  12. Multiple Perspectives on Starting Right.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This paper addresses multiple perspectives on the quality of early childhood care and education, including lessons learned from programs in various countries, the implications of these perspectives, and recommendations for the improvement of early childhood provision. It also examines the ideas expressed in the 1994 "Start Right" report on early…

  13. Kids Get a Smart Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Under the Smart Start program, 19 of North Carolina's Appalachian counties have qualified for competitive state funding to improve community services to young children and their families. Programs tailored to local needs provide subsidized child care to children of working parents, preventive health screenings, literacy and high school equivalency…

  14. Local hyperthermia benefits natural and experimental common colds.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, D.; Barrow, I.; Arthur, J.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether inhaling fully humidified air at 43 degrees C gave more benefit to cold sufferers than inhaling air at 30 degrees C. DESIGN--Randomised double blind trial. Setting--General practice and the common cold research unit. SUBJECTS--87 Unselected patients with typical acute nasal and upper respiratory symptoms (general practice study), and 84 volunteers aged 18-50 without a history of chronic or allergic diseases. INTERVENTIONS--Subjects breathed from apparatus delivering 40 litres of room air heated to 43 degrees C or 30 degrees C and fully humidified (relative humidity 100%) per minute. End point--Reduction in severity of disease. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Patients recorded their symptoms (general practice study) and observers recorded symptoms and signs, weight of nasal secretions, isolation of virus, and antibody responses in volunteers. Patients treated for 20 minutes at 43 degrees C had in the succeeding days roughly half the score for symptoms of those treated at 30 degrees C. Volunteers treated for 30 minutes on three occasions when they were starting a cold showed an 18% [corrected] reduction in symptoms. Treatment of volunteers for 20 minutes at the onset of the cold and for 10 minutes on succeeding days showed no difference between 43 degrees C and 30 degrees C. CONCLUSIONS--Nasal hyperthermia can improve the course of a common cold and also give immediate relief of symptoms. PMID:2500196

  15. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting and...

  16. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting and...

  17. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting and...

  18. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting and...

  19. Small gas turbine generator set starting

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, C.

    1994-12-31

    Fast start times of ten seconds or less may be required for small gas turbine powered emergency generator sets over a range of climatic operating conditions. The ability to rapidly deliver emergency power on-line is a function of many variables, predominant amongst which are total system rotational inertia and acceleration torque. Acceleration torque is basically dependent upon the ability of the engine, and its control system, to follow a predetermined schedule of firing temperature versus speed, and viscous drag effects of the engine gearbox and bearings, particularly of cold weather conditions. The various techniques for rapid starting of small gas turbine generator sets are discussed together with the major factors which influence unfired cranking torque, viscous torque, and fired torque. Case histories of two small gas turbines with start times less than ten seconds are discussed, plus a third case history regarding the effect of recuperator thermal mass upon engine starting characteristics.

  20. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  1. Chronic Mild Cold Conditioning Modulates the Expression of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide and Intermediary Metabolic-related Genes and Improves Growth Performances in Young Chicks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the pre...

  2. Head Start. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Head Start is a national program that provides comprehensive developmental services for preschool children (ages 3 to 5) from low-income families and social services for their families. Approximately 1,400 community-based nonprofit organizations and school systems develop programs to meet specific needs. Head Start began in 1965 in the Office of…

  3. Science Starts Early.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, J. Christine; Weeks, Valerie; Evans, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Science Starts Early program, which is designed to expose young, potentially gifted children, particularly girls, to basic scientific principles that will allow them to explore the world around them. A Science Starts Early program curriculum is described and examples are provided of experiments. (Contains references.)…

  4. Starting School in August

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmelynski, Carol

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the controversial decision of the school board from the Broward County, Florida to start the school year on August 9. School boards across the country that are grappling with the idea of starting school earlier in the year are increasingly running up against strong opposition from parents. In many districts,…

  5. START II and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1996-10-01

    The second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), signed by President George Bush and Russian President Boris yeltsin in January 1993, was ratified by the US Senate in January 1996 by and overwhelming vote of 87-4. The treaty, which will slash the strategic arsenals of the United States and Russia to 3,000-3,500 warheads each, is now before the two houses of the Russian Parliament (the Duma and the Federation Council) awaiting ratification amidst confusion and criticism. The Yeltsin administration supports START II and spoke in favor of Russian ratification after the Senate acted on the treaty. The Russian foreign minister and the Russian military believed that START II should be ratified as soon as possible. During the recent presidential campaign and his subsequent illness, President Yeltsin has been virtually silent on the subject of START II and nuclear force reductions. Without a push from the Yeltsin administration, the tone among Duma members, has been sharply critical of START II. Voices across the Russian political spectrum have questioned the treaty and linked it to constraints on highly capable theater missile defense (TMD) systems and the continued viability of the ABM Treaty. And urged that START II ratification be held hostage until NATO abandons its plans to expand eastward. Although the START I and START II accords have generated the momentum, opportunity and expectation-both domestic and international-for additional nuclear arms reductions, the current impasse over ratification in the Duma has cast a shadow over the future of START II and raised questions about the chances for any follow-on (START III) agreement.

  6. Start improving the quality of care for people with type 2 diabetes through a general practice support program: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Goderis, Geert; Borgermans, Liesbeth; Grol, Richard; Van Den Broeke, Carine; Boland, Benoit; Verbeke, Geert; Carbonez, An; Mathieu, Chantal; Heyrman, Jan

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a two-arm quality improvement program (QIP) to support general practice with limited tradition in chronic care on type 2 diabetes patient outcomes. During 18 months, we performed a cluster randomized trial with randomization of General Practices. The usual QIP (UQIP: 53 GPs, 918 patients) merged standard interventions including evidence-based treatment protocol, annual benchmarking, postgraduate education, case-coaching for GPs and patient education. The advanced QIP (AQIP: 67 GPs, 1577 patients) introduced additional interventions focussing on intensified follow-up, shared care and patient behavioural changes. Main outcomes were HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), analyzed by generalized estimating equations and linear mixed models. In UQIP, endpoints improved significantly after intervention: HbA1c -0.4%, 95% CI [-0.4; -0. 3]; SBP -3mmHg, 95% CI [-4; -1]; LDL-C -13mg/dl, 95% CI [-15; -11]. In AQIP, there were no significant additional improvements in outcomes: HbA1c -0.4%, 95% CI [-0.4; -0.3]; SBP -4mmHg, 95% CI [-5; -2]; LDL-C -14mg/dl, 95% CI [-15; -11]. A multifaceted program merging standard interventions in support of general practice induced significant improvements in the quality of diabetes care. Intensified follow-up in AQIP with focus on shared care and patient behaviour changes did not yield additional benefit.

  7. Early Antiretroviral Therapy at High CD4 Counts Does Not Improve Arterial Elasticity: A Substudy of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) Trial.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason V; Hullsiek, Katherine Huppler; Engen, Nicole Wyman; Nelson, Ray; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Gerstoft, Jan; Jessen, Heiko; Losso, Marcelo; Markowitz, Norman; Munderi, Paula; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Shuter, Jonathan; Rappoport, Claire; Pearson, Mary T; Finley, Elizabeth; Babiker, Abdel; Emery, Sean; Duprez, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Vascular function assessments can be used to study CVD pathogenesis. We compared the effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation at CD4 counts >500 cells/mm(3) on small arterial elasticity (SAE) and large artery elasticity (LAE). Radial artery blood pressure waveforms were recorded noninvasively. Small arterial elasticity and LAE were derived from analysis of the diastolic pulse waveform. Randomized treatment groups were compared with linear models at each visit and longitudinal mixed models. Study visits involved 332 participants in 8 countries: mean (standard deviation [SD]) age 35 (10), 70% male, 66% nonwhite, 30% smokers, and median CD4 count 625 cells/mm(3) and 10-year Framingham risk score for CVD 1.7%. Mean (SD) SAE and LAE values at baseline were 7.3 (2.9) mL/mmHg × 100 and 16.6 (4.1) mL/mmHg × 10, respectively. Median time on ART was 47 and 12 months in the immediate and deferred ART groups, respectively. The treatment groups did not demonstrate significant within-person changes in SAE or LAE during the follow-up period, and there was no difference in mean change from baseline between treatment groups. The lack of significant differences persisted after adjustment, when restricted to early or late changes, after censoring participants in deferred group who started ART, and among subgroups defined by CVD and HIV risk factors. Among a diverse global population of HIV-positive persons with high CD4 counts, these randomized data suggest that ART treatment does not have a substantial influence on vascular function among younger HIV-positive individuals with preserved immunity.

  8. Early Antiretroviral Therapy at High CD4 Counts Does Not Improve Arterial Elasticity: A Substudy of the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hullsiek, Katherine Huppler; Engen, Nicole Wyman; Nelson, Ray; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Gerstoft, Jan; Jessen, Heiko; Losso, Marcelo; Markowitz, Norman; Munderi, Paula; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Shuter, Jonathan; Rappoport, Claire; Pearson, Mary T.; Finley, Elizabeth; Babiker, Abdel; Emery, Sean; Duprez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Vascular function assessments can be used to study CVD pathogenesis. We compared the effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation at CD4 counts >500 cells/mm3 on small arterial elasticity (SAE) and large artery elasticity (LAE). Methods. Radial artery blood pressure waveforms were recorded noninvasively. Small arterial elasticity and LAE were derived from analysis of the diastolic pulse waveform. Randomized treatment groups were compared with linear models at each visit and longitudinal mixed models. Results. Study visits involved 332 participants in 8 countries: mean (standard deviation [SD]) age 35 (10), 70% male, 66% nonwhite, 30% smokers, and median CD4 count 625 cells/mm3 and 10-year Framingham risk score for CVD 1.7%. Mean (SD) SAE and LAE values at baseline were 7.3 (2.9) mL/mmHg × 100 and 16.6 (4.1) mL/mmHg × 10, respectively. Median time on ART was 47 and 12 months in the immediate and deferred ART groups, respectively. The treatment groups did not demonstrate significant within-person changes in SAE or LAE during the follow-up period, and there was no difference in mean change from baseline between treatment groups. The lack of significant differences persisted after adjustment, when restricted to early or late changes, after censoring participants in deferred group who started ART, and among subgroups defined by CVD and HIV risk factors. Conclusions. Among a diverse global population of HIV-positive persons with high CD4 counts, these randomized data suggest that ART treatment does not have a substantial influence on vascular function among younger HIV-positive individuals with preserved immunity. PMID:27942541

  9. Improvement in islet yield from a cold-preserved pancreas by pancreatic ductal collagenase distention at the time of harvesting.

    PubMed

    Ohzato, H; Gotoh, M; Monden, M; Dono, K; Kanai, T; Mori, T

    1991-03-01

    This study tried to improve the number of viable islets isolated from a pancreas because a sufficient number cannot be obtained when the organ is preserved in the manner used for pancreas transplantation. The mechanism involved in the decrease in islet yield during preservation was studied to try to develop a better method for islet preparation. First, the integrity of the ductal system was compared between fresh and 6-hr simply preserved (in Hanks' balanced salt solution) rat pancreases. The ductal pressure after ductal injection of HBSS reached a plateau earlier and was significantly lower for the preserved pancreases (0.073 +/- 0.026 min, 410 +/- 17 mmHg, n = 5) than for the fresh ones (0.176 +/- 0.086 min, 561 +/- 103 mmHg, n = 7, P less than 0.05). Second, the extent of pancreatic distention was examined following ductal injection of barium gelatin solution. Solution leakage occurred earlier and distention was less in the preserved pancreas. In addition, the gelatin was found in the capillaries within some islets of the preserved pancreas. These results indicated that the preservation led to a rapid loss of integrity of the ductal system before collagenase injection. We therefore tested the efficacy of ductal collagenase injection at the time of harvesting: 15 ml of 1.0 mg/ml collagenase HBSS was intraductally injected and the pancreas was preserved at 4 degrees C for 2, 4, 6, and 24 hr. The isolation procedure was similar to that used for the fresh pancreas. The yield was significantly better than that of the simply preserved pancreas at 4 hr (241 +/- 22, n = 3, vs. 140 +/- 58, n = 3, P less than 0.05) and at 6 hr (171 +/- 58, n = 14, vs. 32 +/- 33, n = 6, P less than 0.01). These isolated islets were spherical-oval and their viability was confirmed by the ability to reverse STZ-induced diabetes in mice. These results indicated that the integrity of the ductal system, which is necessary for distention of the whole pancreas, was lost during preservation. To

  10. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  11. Improvement in microstructure and superconducting properties of single-filament powder-in-tube MgB2 wires by cold working with a swaging machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yusuke; Murakami, Masato; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the influence of the mechanical deformation method of wire fabrication on the microstructure and superconducting properties of single-filament in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) MgB2 wires. We employed three deformation methods to fabricate the wires: only swaging, groove rolling + roller drawing, and groove rolling + conventional drawing. We found that cold working by swaging has three advantages over the groove rolling + drawing method: (1) improved uniformity of the MgB2 core along the longitudinal direction; (2) higher mass density of the Mg + B (MgB2) core before (after) heat treatment (HT); and (3) well-developed fiber structures of Mg (MgB2) before (after) HT. These three factors greatly enhanced the critical current density (J c) values of PIT MgB2 wires. The highest J c values were obtained through mechanical deformation by swaging for both pure and carbon-doped wires. A J c value of 3.5 × 104 A cm-2 and an engineering critical current density (J e) of 1.1 × 104 A cm-2 were recorded at 4.2 K and 10 T for a swaged wire of 4.5%-carbon-coated boron powder heat-treated at 600 °C for 1 h.

  12. Improved cold tolerance in Elymus nutans by exogenous application of melatonin may involve ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Wu, Ye; Miao, Yanjun; Xu, Yamei; Zhao, Enhua; Wang, Jin; Sun, Huaien; Liu, Qian; Xue, Yongwei; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is an important secondary messenger that plays a central role in plant growth, as well as abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms of melatonin-mediated cold tolerance, especially interactions between melatonin and other key molecules in the plant stress response, remain unknown. Here, the interrelation between melatonin and abscisic acid (ABA) was investigated in two genotypes of Elymus nutans Griseb., the cold-tolerant Damxung (DX) and the cold-sensitive Gannan (GN) under cold stress. Pre-treatment with exogenous melatonin or ABA alleviated oxidative injury via scavenging ROS, while enhancing both antioxidant enzyme activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant contents. Treatment of fluridone, an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor caused membrane lipid peroxidation and lowered melatonin-induced antioxidant defense responses. It is worth noting that cold stress significantly induced both endogenous melatonin and ABA levels in both genotypes. Application of melatonin increased ABA production, while fluridone significantly suppressed melatonin-induced ABA accumulation. ABA and fluridone pre-treatments failed to affect the endogenous melatonin concentration. Moreover, exogenous melatonin up-regulated the expression of cold-responsive genes in an ABA-independent manner. These results indicate that both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways may contribute to melatonin-induced cold tolerance in E. nutans. PMID:28045095

  13. Cold Climate Heat Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    central heating , cooling, and air conditioning (HVAC) system . Both buildings had two zones for heating and cooling, which allowed for a direct...section calls for improved efficiency of mechanical systems as well as an increase of renewable resource usage. Current heating technologies in cold... heated refrigerant is injected into a mixing chamber between the two compressors. The injection leads to a gain in performance of the system through

  14. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  15. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    MedlinePlus

    ... More... Home Getting Started National Resource Center on Psychiatric Advance Directives - Getting Started Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  16. Running performance in the heat is improved by similar magnitude with pre-exercise cold-water immersion and mid-exercise facial water spray.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Christopher J; Kittel, Aden; Sculley, Dean V; Callister, Robin; Taylor, Lee; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-04-01

    This investigation compared the effects of external pre-cooling and mid-exercise cooling methods on running time trial performance and associated physiological responses. Nine trained male runners completed familiarisation and three randomised 5 km running time trials on a non-motorised treadmill in the heat (33°C). The trials included pre-cooling by cold-water immersion (CWI), mid-exercise cooling by intermittent facial water spray (SPRAY), and a control of no cooling (CON). Temperature, cardiorespiratory, muscular activation, and perceptual responses were measured as well as blood concentrations of lactate and prolactin. Performance time was significantly faster with CWI (24.5 ± 2.8 min; P = 0.01) and SPRAY (24.6 ± 3.3 min; P = 0.01) compared to CON (25.2 ± 3.2 min). Both cooling strategies significantly (P < 0.05) reduced forehead temperatures and thermal sensation, and increased muscle activation. Only pre-cooling significantly lowered rectal temperature both pre-exercise (by 0.5 ± 0.3°C; P < 0.01) and throughout exercise, and reduced sweat rate (P < 0.05). Both cooling strategies improved performance by a similar magnitude, and are ergogenic for athletes. The observed physiological changes suggest some involvement of central and psychophysiological mechanisms of performance improvement.

  17. Cold Regions Environmental Test of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Decontamination Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    6502, Engine, Cold-starting and Warmup Tests. (2) Decontaminant mixing/filling. Evaluate ease of filling and mixing decontaminants at low temperatures...2. TOP 2-2-650, Engine Cold-Starting and Warmup Tests, 18 July 1980. 3. TOP 8-4-015, Cold Regions Logistics, Supportability Testing of Chemical

  18. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  19. Improvement of cold injury-induced mouse brain edema by endothelin ETB antagonists is accompanied by decreases in matrixmetalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A.

    PubMed

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Minami, Shizuho; Kimura, Akimasa; Hatanaka, Shunichi; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Koyama, Yutaka

    2015-09-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that often occurs after brain injuries such as ischemia and trauma. However, therapeutic agents that fundamentally treat brain edema have not yet been established. We previously found that endothelin ETB receptor antagonists attenuate the formation and maintenance of vasogenic brain edema after cold injury in mice. In this study, the effects of ETB antagonists on matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression were examined in the cold injury model. Cold injury was performed in the left brain of male ddY mice (5-6 weeks old) for the induction of vasogenic edema. Expression of MMP9 and VEGF-A mRNA in the mouse cerebrum was increased by cold injury. Immunohistochemical observations showed that the MMP9 and VEGF-A were mainly produced in reactive astrocytes in the damaged cerebrum. Intracerebroventricular administration of BQ788 (10 μg) or IRL-2500 (10 μg) (selective ETB antagonists) attenuated brain edema and disruption of the blood-brain barrier after cold injury. BQ788 and IRL-2500 reversed the cold injury-induced increases in MMP9 and VEGF-A expression. The induction of reactive astrocytes producing MMP9 and VEGF-A in the damaged cerebrum was attenuated by BQ788 and IRL-2500. These results suggest that attenuations of astrocytic MMP9 and VEGF-A expression by ETB antagonists may be involved in the amelioration of vasogenic brain edema.

  20. Improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing in the NHS by developing a new Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme: Start Smart--Then Focus.

    PubMed

    Ashiru-Oredope, Diane; Sharland, Mike; Charani, Esmita; McNulty, Cliodna; Cooke, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    There has been dramatic change in antibiotic use in English hospitals. Data from 2004 and 2009 show that the focus on reducing fluoroquinolone and second- and third-generation cephalosporin use seems to have been heeded in NHS secondary care, and has been associated with a substantial decline in hospital Clostridium difficile rates. However, there has been a substantial increase in use of co-amoxiclav, carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam. In primary care, antibiotic prescribing fell markedly from 1995 to 2000, but has since risen steadily to levels seen in the early 1990s. There remains a 2-fold variation in antimicrobial prescribing among English General Practices. In 2010, the NHS Atlas of Variation documented a 3-fold variation in the prescription of quinolones and an 18-fold variation in cephalosporins by Primary Care Trusts across England. There is a clear need to improve antimicrobial prescribing. This paper describes the development of new antimicrobial stewardship programmes for primary care and hospitals by the Department of Health's Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection: Antimicrobial Stewardship in Primary Care Initiative. The secondary care programme promotes the rapid prescription of the right antibiotic at the right dose at the right time, followed by active review for all patients still on antibiotics 48 h after admission. The five options available are to stop, switch to oral, continue and review again, change (if possible to a narrower spectrum) or move to outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy. A range of audit and outcome tools has been developed, but to maintain optimal antimicrobial usage, monitoring of local and national quantitative and qualitative data on prescribing and consumption is required, linked to the development of key performance indicators in primary, secondary and tertiary care.

  1. Effect of cold acclimatization on exercise economy in the cold.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bellar, David M; Ryan, Edward J; Seo, Yongsuk; Muller, Sarah M; Glickman, Ellen L

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if cold acclimatized men display higher economy (i.e. lower oxygen consumption at a given workload) during graded cycle ergometry in the cold (5°C). After completing a familiarization trial 1 week prior, five cold weather athletes (CWA) and eight physically active men (NON) underwent graded exercise tests to volitional fatigue in 5°C. The protocol always started at 60 W and increased by 20 W each minute. Oxygen consumption (VO(2)), respiration rate (RR), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determined via open circuit spirometry. Individuals were matched for body size and minutes of weekly physical activity. Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted across time (workload) and cold acclimatization was entered as a between subjects factor. VO(2) peak was not different between groups but CWA had lower VO(2) at 60 and 240 W. CWA also had lower RR at 180 and 260 W as well as lower RER at 240 and 260 W. At submaximal workloads, cold acclimatized men have higher exercise economy than non-acclimatized men. This could have implications for those who work in this context.

  2. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... tos y el resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  3. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Other symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts ...

  4. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  5. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  6. Blogs: Getting Started

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.; Worley, Rebecca B.; Schultz, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Blogs are communication tools, they serve as vehicles to transmit messages. Before deciding to blog, one needs to devise a strategy on how this medium will fit in with his or her communication needs. This will also help later in deciding which features one will need to include in his or her blog. This article discusses ways on how to start and…

  7. Is Head Start Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ann; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of problems faced by Head Start and its present status includes a review of its transfer from O.E.O. to H.E.W., its extensions, the Westinghouse Report, and other studies and articles. Decline in public interest and support is noted. (KW)

  8. Starting in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Through its signature initiative, Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP), the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) is promoting a vision for learning that begins in school: Starting in School . . . Rigorous and rich curriculum focused on the essential learning outcomes; comprehensive, individualized, and…

  9. TARCOG Home Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of Alabama Regional Council of Governments, Huntsville. Human Resources Program.

    This report describes the Top of Alabama Regional Council of Governments (TARCOG) Home Start Program. Five aspects of the program are presented. (1) The nutrition component is aimed at helping parents make the best use of food resources through good planning, buying, and cooking. (2) The health program involves provision of medical and dental…

  10. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  11. Starting in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertine, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Through its signature initiative, Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP), the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) is promoting a vision for learning that begins in school: Starting in School . . . Rigorous and rich curriculum focused on the essential learning outcomes; comprehensive, individualized, and…

  12. Project Right Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Barbara B.

    The University-Urban Interface Program (UUIP) is a federally-funded project to study an urban university's community relations efforts and innovations, their successes and failures. This is a study of one of the UUIP areas of priority, Project Right Start, a plan for creating a facility for the detection and treatment of psychological problems in…

  13. Smart Start Evaluation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Buysse, Virginia; Kotch, Jonathan; Maxwell, Kelly; Neenan, Peter; Noblit, George; Orthner, Dennis; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Telfair, Joseph

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. This report describes the comprehensive plan to evaluate the state and local goals and objectives of the program, focusing on the components addressing the…

  14. Home Start Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roggman, Lori; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains monthly work plans and weekly activity units for a Home Start Program. Emphasis is placed on the importance of the home, the family unit, and the education and development of young children by their own parents. Yearly goals include concern for the following: physical and dental health, nutrition, mental health and…

  15. Home Start Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI.

    Case studies of eight Home Start programs are given as the third section of an evaluation study. Communities involved are Binghamton, New York; Franklin, North Carolina; Cleveland, Ohio; Harrogate, Tennessee; Houston, Texas; Weslaco, Texas; Millville, Utah; Parkersburg, West Virginia. Although each study varies in format, each describes in detail…

  16. The Texas Head Start Metro Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mary Tom, Ed.; Flores, Alfredo R., Ed.

    The Texas Metro Network (TMN) is an informal group of Head Start Directors and Executive Directors organized for the purposes of improving the delivery of training and technical assistance and for assisting communication between large scale Head Start programs in the metropolitan areas of Texas. In pursuit of these aims, each member unit of the…

  17. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  18. Cold confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  19. Constitutive expression of DaCBF7, an Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica CBF homolog, resulted in improved cold tolerance in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Young; Lee, Jungeun; Cui, Li Hua; Kang, Yoonjee; Oh, Tae Kyung; Park, Hyun; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-07-01

    Deschampsia antarctica is an Antarctic hairgrass that grows on the west coast of the Antarctic peninsula. In this report, we have identified and characterized a transcription factor, D. antarctica C-repeat binding factor 7 (DaCBF7), that is a member of the monocot group V CBF homologs. The protein contains a single AP2 domain, a putative nuclear localization signal, and the typical CBF signature. DaCBF7, like other monocot group V homologs, contains a distinct polypeptide stretch composed of 43 amino acids in front of the AP2 motif. DaCBF7 was predominantly localized to nuclei and interacted with the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (CRT/DRE) core sequence (ACCGAC) in vitro. DaCBF7 was induced by abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salinity. To investigate its possible cellular role in cold tolerance, a transgenic rice system was employed. DaCBF7-overexpressing transgenic rice plants (Ubi:DaCBF7) exhibited markedly increased tolerance to cold stress compared to wild-type plants without growth defects; however, overexpression of DaCBF7 exerted little effect on tolerance to drought or salt stress. Transcriptome analysis of a Ubi:DaCBF7 transgenic line revealed 13 genes that were up-regulated in DaCBF7-overexpressing plants compared to wild-type plants in the absence of cold stress and in short- or long-term cold stress. Five of these genes, dehydrin, remorin, Os03g63870, Os11g34790, and Os10g22630, contained putative CRT/DRE or low-temperature responsive elements in their promoter regions. These results suggest that overexpression of DaCBF7 directly and indirectly induces diverse genes in transgenic rice plants and confers enhanced tolerance to cold stress.

  20. Head Start Improvement Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Salmon, Matt [R-AZ-5

    2014-04-10

    House - 06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Head Start Improvement Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Lee, Mike [R-UT

    2014-03-12

    Senate - 03/12/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Head Start Improvement Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Salmon, Matt [R-AZ-5

    2014-04-10

    06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. Methods The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Results Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Conclusions Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve

  4. A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-Départ Santé cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, Stéphanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne

    2016-04-12

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern for public health. Given a majority of children in many countries spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centers, this environment represents a promising setting for implementing strategies to foster healthy behaviours for preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Healthy Start-Départ Santé was designed to promote physical activity, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers. The objectives of this study are to assess the effectiveness of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in improving physical activity levels, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers attending early childcare centers. This study follows a cluster randomized controlled trial design in which the childcare centers are randomly assigned to receive the intervention or serve as usual care controls. The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention is comprised of interlinked components aiming to enable families and educators to integrate physical activity and healthy eating in the daily lives of young children by influencing factors at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, physical environment and policy levels. The intervention period, spanning 6-8 months, is preceded and followed by data collections. Participants are recruited from 61 childcare centers in two Canadian provinces, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan. Centers eligible for this study have to prepare and provide meals for lunch and have at least 20 children between the ages of 3 and 5. Centers are excluded if they have previously received a physical activity or nutrition promoting intervention. Eligible centers are stratified by province, geographical location (urban or rural) and language (English or French), then recruited and randomized using a one to one protocol for each stratum. Data collection is ongoing. The primary study outcomes are assessed using accelerometers (physical activity levels), the Test of Gross Motor

  5. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Alison; Green, Josephine M; Williams, Victoria; McLeish, Jenny; McCormick, Felicia; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Renfrew, Mary J

    2014-02-11

    Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve nutrition for pregnant women and young

  6. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-03-11

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone.

  7. Cold atoms coupled with mechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Jose; Montoya, Cris; Ranjit, Gambhir; Geraci, Andrew; Eardley, Matt; Kitching, John

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical resonators can be used to probe and manipulate atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, ultimately enabling new approaches in neutral-atom quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing. We describe our experiment that manipulates the spin of trapped, cold Rb atoms using magnetic material on a cantilever. Cold atoms can also be used as a coolant for mechanical resonators: we estimate that ground state cooling of an optically trapped nano-sphere is achievable when starting at room temperature, by sympathetic cooling of a cold atomic gas optically coupled to the nanoparticle.

  8. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  9. Microcomputer controlled soft start of motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Miao; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Shian

    2005-12-01

    Improving the starting characteristics of a motor is an important part of the motor control. An intelligent soft starting technique was adopted in the starter and used in the present study because of its many advantages compared with conventional starting processes. The core of the soft starter was a single chip (Atmel 8098), its soul was the software and its control object was a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). The starter achieved not only current-limit starting, but also closed-loop control with a stator current detection circuit. In conclusion, as a result of digital control, starting characteristic can be conveniently chosen according to the load. In addition the starter is of small size, and starting is smooth and reliable due to current feedback.

  10. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  11. Vitamin C supplementation slightly improves physical activity levels and reduces cold incidence in men with marginal vitamin C status: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Carol S; Barkyoumb, Gillean M; Schumacher, Sara S

    2014-07-09

    The early indications of vitamin C deficiency are unremarkable (fatigue, malaise, depression) and may manifest as a reduced desire to be physically active; moreover, hypovitaminosis C may be associated with increased cold duration and severity. This study examined the impact of vitamin C on physical activity and respiratory tract infections during the peak of the cold season. Healthy non-smoking adult men (18-35 years; BMI < 34 kg/m2; plasma vitamin C < 45 µmol/L) received either 1000 mg of vitamin C daily (n = 15) or placebo (n = 13) in a randomized, double-blind, eight-week trial. All participants completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire weekly. In the final two weeks of the trial, the physical activity score rose modestly for the vitamin C group vs. placebo after adjusting for baseline values: +39.6% (95% CI [-4.5,83.7]; p = 0.10). The number of participants reporting cold episodes was 7 and 11 for the vitamin C and placebo groups respectively during the eight-week trial (RR = 0.55; 95% CI [0.33,0.94]; p = 0.04) and cold duration was reduced 59% in the vitamin C versus placebo groups (-3.2 days; 95% CI [-7.0,0.6]; p = 0.06). These data suggest measurable health advantages associated with vitamin C supplementation in a population with adequate-to-low vitamin C status.

  12. Starting New Schools: Lessons for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Wayne B.

    Arguments for beginning new schools as a robust alternative to the incremental improvement of existing schools are presented in this paper. The educational improvement approach of starting new schools or programs, rather than making incremental improvements or generating comprehensive change in existing schools, is advocated. Two major types of…

  13. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014October 2014familydoctor.org editorial staff OverviewWhat is the common cold and the flu?The common cold and the flu are viral infections of the ... have a cold or the flu?Although the common cold and the flu share many similar symptoms, they ...

  14. Cold remedies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose, fever, chills, and muscle aches are all symptoms associated with the common cold. Over-the-counter medicines for a cold only alleviate cold symptoms but do not shorten the duration of a cold. As always, ...

  15. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    PubMed

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P < 0.05) than those of the CB controls. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those (6.1-6.3) of HB-NC, HB-CO2, and HB-1/4;CFAC, with the intermediate pH (6.0) seen for the HB-CFAC. When meat batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values.

  16. Facts about the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Influenza Facts About The Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) . ...

  17. School start times for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life.

  18. Evaluation of different cooking conditions on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to improve the nutritional value and consumer acceptance.

    PubMed

    Bongoni, Radhika; Verkerk, Ruud; Steenbekkers, Bea; Dekker, Matthijs; Stieger, Markus

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to gain insights into the effect of the cooking method on the liking as well as the retention of glucosinolates in broccoli. With this knowledge it can be concluded whether the health aspects of broccoli be improved by the cooking method without deteriorating sensory perception. For this, broccoli was cooked by methods commonly applied by consumers: boiling with a cold (water) start; boiling with a hot (water) start; and steaming. Firmness, greenness and amount of total glucosinolates in cooked broccoli were instrumentally determined. Sensory evaluation by untrained consumers (n = 99) for liking and sensory attributes intensity rating were performed on broccoli cooked by steaming and boiling-cold start at three time points, which resulted in 'high', 'medium', 'low' firm broccoli samples. At the end of cooking, steaming showed an increase in the amount of total glucosinolates (+17%). Boiling-hot start (-41%) and boiling-cold start (-50%) showed a decrease in amount of total glucosinolates. Sensory evaluation did not show statistically significant differences between steaming and boiling-cold start in liking at 'high' and 'medium' firmness; and in the attribute intensity ratings (except for juiciness at 'medium' firmness, and flavour at 'medium' and 'low' firmness). This study demonstrates that medium firm broccoli showed optimum liking and that steaming compared to boiled-cold start showed higher amount of glucosinolates. It is concluded that the health aspects of broccoli can be improved without reducing the sensory aspects by optimising the cooking method.

  19. When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... away. What conditions increase the urgency to start ART? The following conditions increase the urgency to start ... risk of HIV transmission. Once a person starts ART, why is medication adherence important? ART is a ...

  20. Synthesis of the heaviest nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenberg, G.; Morita, K.

    2015-12-01

    Cold fusion of heavy ions paved the way to superheavy elements. It was proposed by Yu.Ts. Oganessian more than forty years ago in 1974 [1,2]. First experiments were carried out at JINR Dubna, starting with the reaction 40Ar + 208Pb → 248Fm* where several hundreds to thousand atoms were produced on one day. The large production rate indicating an enhancement of the fusion cross section, especially for the evaporation of two or three neutrons, proved the concept of cold-fusion with the use of the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb as a target. The Dubna experiments were extended to the transactinide region beyond rutherfordium. The breakthrough came with the separation in-flight. Two different approaches were used: kinematic separation with the velocity filter SHIP [3] at GSI Darmstadt, and with the gasfilled separator GARIS [4,5] at RIKEN. With SHIP the concept of cold fusion of massive nuclear systems was convincingly confirmed by the observation of the one-neutron evaporation channel in the production of 247Rf in an irradiation of 208Pb with 50Ti [6] in 1981 which opened the way to the transactinide region. At SHIP the elements bohrium (107) to copernicium (112) were discovered [7]. A new closed shell region around hassium was found. The RIKEN experiments started in 2002. They confirmed the GSI results and in addition improved the data on structure and production of elements hassium to copernicium significantly. The heaviest element ever created in a cold fusion reaction, Z = 113, was observed at GARIS [8,9].

  1. The cold driver: Cold stress while driving results in dangerous behavior.

    PubMed

    Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J

    2016-10-01

    Cool vehicle cabin temperatures can induce short-term non-hypothermic cold stress. The current study created a cold condition to examine the impact of cold stress on driving behavior. Forty-four participants drove a high-fidelity driving simulator during a thermal neutral or local torso cooled condition. Participants performed additional tasks to assess attention, psychomotor vigilance, and manual dexterity. Skin temperature was significantly lower in the cold condition while internal temperature was unaffected. Participants who had higher subjective ratings of cold followed lead vehicles closer and started to brake later. Participants in the cold condition followed the lead car 22% (0.82s) closer and started braking 20% (2.35s) later when approaching a stop sign during the car-following task. No change in attention, psychomotor vigilance, or dexterity was observed. The current results suggest that cold environmental conditions can contribute to dangerous driving behaviors. Measures of cold perception were also shown to predict changes in driving behavior.

  2. Properties of "started" earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babeshko, V. A.; Evdokimova, O. V.; Babeshko, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    The properties of earthquakes called "started" in [1] are studied. The problems associated with the method of revealing them, the expected behavior of the event, and the determination of its place, time, and intensity are discussed. Certain characteristic properties of real earthquakes are compared with the modeled ones. It is emphasized that there are no data on earthquakes of a similar type in scientific publications. The method of using high-efficiency calculations is proposed by imbedding the investigations in topological spaces having a wider spectrum of properties than the functional ones.

  3. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  4. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  5. Relationship between cold tolerance and generation of suppressor macrophages during acute cold stress.

    PubMed

    Kizaki, T; Ookawara, T; Izawa, T; Nagasawa, J; Haga, S; Radák, Z; Ohno, H

    1997-10-01

    Acute cold stress induces suppressor macrophages expressing large numbers of receptors to the crystallizable fragment (Fc) portion of immunoglobulin G (MAC-1+ FcgammaRII/IIIbright cells), resulting in the immunosuppression of splenocyte mitogenesis. The generation of MAC-1+ FcgammaRII/IIIbright cells is mediated by the action of glucocorticoids (GCs) through the GC-receptor. In the present study, the generation of MAC-1+ FcgammaRII/IIIbright cells in peritoneal exudate cells was closely related to the decrease of rectal temperature during 3-day exposure to 5 degrees C. We next investigated the effects of improved cold tolerance on the generation of MAC-1+ FcgammaRII/IIIbright cells during acute cold stress. Mice were adapted to cold by exposure to 5 degrees C for 3 wk (cold-acclimated mice) and then reexposed to 5 degrees C for 3 h (acute cold stress) after living at 25 degrees C for 24 h. The rectal temperature of cold-acclimated mice was not decreased by the acute cold stress. In addition, the proportion of MAC-1+ FcgammaRII/IIIbright cells in peritoneal exudate cell population from cold-acclimated mice was unaffected by the acute cold stress. The cold acclimation significantly attenuated the increases in serum corticosterone levels and the expression of the GC-receptor mRNA on peritoneal exudate cells in response to acute cold stress. These results suggest that the altered GC response to acute cold stress by the improvement of cold tolerance inhibits the generation of suppressor macrophages during acute cold stress.

  6. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  7. Improved strength and ductility of high alloy containing Al-12Zn-3Mg-2.5Cu alloy by combining non-isothermal step rolling and cold rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, V. V.; Kumaran, S.

    2017-02-01

    Al-12Zn-3Mg-2.5Cu alloy was prepared using a liquid metallurgy route under the optimized conditions. A sample cut from the ingot was rolled non-isothermally from 400°C to 100°C in 100°C steps, with 15% reduction in thickness; it was then cold rolled isothermally at room temperature for 85% reduction. The cold-rolled alloys were characterized by electron microscopy, hardness test, and tensile test to elucidate their structural evolution and evaluate their mechanical behavior. In the results, the cast alloy consists of α-aluminum and various intermetallic compounds. These compounds are segregated along the grain boundaries, which makes the alloy difficult to roll at room temperature. The combined effect of non-isothermal step rolling and cold rolling results in the nano/microsized compounds distributed uniformly in the matrix. The hardness is substantially increased after rolling. This increase in hardness is attributed to the ultra-fine grain size, fine-scale intermetallic compounds, and structural defects (e.g., dislocations, stacking faults, and sub-grains). The ultimate tensile strength of the rolled alloy is approximately 628 MPa with 7% ductility.

  8. The Use of COLD-PCR and High-Resolution Melting Analysis Improves the Limit of Detection of KRAS and BRAF Mutations in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Irene; Santucci, Claudio; Sestini, Roberta; Simi, Lisa; Pratesi, Nicola; Cianchi, Fabio; Valanzano, Rosa; Pinzani, Pamela; Orlando, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Fast and reliable tests to detect mutations in human cancers are required to better define clinical samples and orient targeted therapies. KRAS mutations occur in 30–50% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) and represent a marker of clinical resistance to cetuximab therapy. In addition, the BRAF V600E is mutated in about 10% of CRCs, and the development of a specific inhibitor of mutant BRAF kinase has prompted a growing interest in BRAFV600E detection. Traditional methods, such as PCR and direct sequencing, do not detect low-level mutations in cancer, resulting in false negative diagnoses. In this study, we designed a protocol to detect mutations of KRAS and BRAFV600E in 117 sporadic CRCs based on coamplification at lower denaturation temperature PCR (COLD-PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM). Using traditional PCR and direct sequencing, we found KRAS mutations in 47 (40%) patients and BRAFV600E in 10 (8.5%). The use of COLD-PCR in apparently wild-type samples allowed us to identify 15 newly mutated CRCs (10 for KRAS and 5 for BRAFV600E), raising the percentage of mutated CRCs to 48.7% for KRAS and to 12.8% for BRAFV600E. Therefore, COLD-PCR combined with HRM permits the correct identification of less represented mutations in CRC and better selection of patients eligible for targeted therapies, without requiring expensive and time-consuming procedures. PMID:20616366

  9. Diagnosis and management of cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Reid; Halverstam, Caroline P

    2016-01-01

    Cold urticaria is a physical urticaria characterized by a localized or systemic eruption of papules upon exposure of the skin to cold air, liquids, and/or objects. In some cases, angioedema and anaphylaxis also may occur. The symptoms of cold urticaria can have a negative impact on patients' quality of life. Second-generation H1 antihistamines are the first line of treatment in cold urticaria; however, patients who are unresponsive to initial treatment with H1 antihistamines may require further management options. Avoidance of cold exposure is the most effective prophylactic measure. In mild to moderate cases, the primary goal of therapy is to improve the patient's quality of life. In more severe cases, treatment measures to protect the patient's airway, breathing, and circulation may be necessary. We report the case of a 23-year-old man with cold urticaria who was refractory to initial therapy with H1 antihistamines. A review of the literature also is provided.

  10. Cold thermoregulatory responses following exertional fatigue.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Sawka, Michael N; DeGroot, David W; Young, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Participants in prolonged, physically demanding cold-weather activities are at risk for a condition called "thermoregulatory fatigue". During cold exposure, the increased gradient favoring body heat loss to the environment is opposed by physiological responses and clothing and behavioral strategies that conserve body heat stores to defend body temperature. The primary human physiological responses elicited by cold exposure are shivering and peripheral vasoconstriction. Shivering increases thermogenesis and replaces body heat losses, while peripheral vasoconstriction improves thermal insulation of the body and retards the rate of heat loss. A body of scientific literature supports the concept that prolonged and/or repeated cold exposure, fatigue induced by sustained physical exertion, or both together, can impair the shivering and vasoconstrictor responses to cold ("thermoregulatory fatigue"). The mechanisms accounting for this thermoregulatory impairment are not clear, but there is evidence to suggest that changes in central thermoregulatory control or peripheral sympathetic responsiveness to cold lead to thermoregulatory fatigue and increased susceptibility to hypothermia.

  11. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias; Konrad, Gertrud

    2015-05-01

    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10-4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  12. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  13. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  14. Isothermal austenitization of cold-rolled steel type 08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, A. I.; Repina, N. I.; Ginevskaya, L. A.

    1981-12-01

    Features of isothermal austenitization for cold-rolled and annealed 08 type structural steels are not the same. Deformation during cold rolling causes a reduction in the temperature for the start of austenite formation and the transformation range is extended, but it does not have a marked effect on the temperature for the end of the process.

  15. The impact of dry-land sprint start training on the short track speed skating start.

    PubMed

    Haug, William B; Drinkwater, Eric J; Cicero, Nicholas J; Barthell, J Anthony; Chapman, Dale W

    2017-05-05

    This investigation sought to determine the effects of dry-land sprint start training on short track speed skating (STSS) start performance. Nine highly trained short track athletes completed a control period of normal STSS training followed by a four-week training intervention. Before and after the control and intervention periods, athletes performed three electronically timed dry-land and on-ice 14.43 m maximal sprint start efforts. The intervention consisted of two sprint sessions per week consisting of nine electronically timed 14.43 m dry-land sprint starts in addition to normal STSS training. The control period resulted in no substantial change in on-ice start performance (Mean Δ: -0.01 s, 95% Confidence Limits (CL): -0.08 to 0.05 s; Effect Size (ES): -0.05; Trivial) however, a small change was observed in dry-land start performance (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.02 s; ES: -0.49). Following brief specific dry-land sprint start training a small improvement was observed in both on-ice (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.01 s; ES: -0.33) and dry-land (Mean Δ: -0.04 s, 95% CL: -0.09 to 0.00 s; ES: -0.29) start performance. This investigation suggests STSS start performance can be improved through a brief dry-land sprint start training program.

  16. Cold weather properties and performance of biodiesel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oil or animal fat that can be employed in compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel is more prone to start-up and operability problems during cold weather than conventional diesel fuels (petrodiesel). This work reviews impacts that exposu...

  17. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  18. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  19. Healthy start program participation: the consumers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Ley, Christine E; Copeland, Valire Carr; Flint, Cheryl Squire

    2011-01-01

    In 1991, the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau developed the Healthy Start Initiative as a comprehensive community-based program to eliminate the high rates of poor pregnancy outcomes among women of color. To date, few studies of the programmatic outcomes of this Initiative have examined the views of Healthy Start consumers. To understand the benefits of Healthy Start from their consumers' perspective, the Pittsburgh Allegheny County Healthy Start project conducted a survey of 202 of their Healthy Start participants in 2003. The participants completing the survey reported benefits of participating in the program including stress reduction, receiving resources and referrals, and consistent social support of program staff. According to the project's annual statistics, Healthy Start has improved pregnancy outcomes among African American women participants in the Pittsburgh community. However, and according to these participants, the quality of staff and consumer connectedness, availability and consistency of material resources, and social support are as critical as more traditional health interventions to their satisfaction, motivation to participate, and willingness to refer others to the program. Women of color will often forego health services perceived as intimidating and/or culturally insensitive, but programs such as the Healthy Start Initiative offer a critical link that encourages participation and, as a result, improves maternal and child health status.

  20. Healthy start lessons learned on interconception care.

    PubMed

    Badura, Maribeth; Johnson, Kay; Hench, Karen; Reyes, Madelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Healthy Start program was started in 1991 to address the factors that contribute to the Nation's high infant mortality rate, particularly among populations with disproportionately high rates of adverse perinatal health outcomes. The goals of Healthy Start are to reduce disparities in access to and utilization of health services by using a lifespan approach, improving the local health care system, and increasing consumer and community input into health care decisions. In 2007, Healthy Start served 99 communities in 38 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Most Healthy Start grantees are nonprofit organizations. Since 2005, all 97 Healthy Start grantees (and the 2 additional grantees funded in 2007) have been required to include an interconception care component. Three quarters of grantees enrolled the majority of their interconception clients during the prenatal period. Most grantees used care coordination and case management as the primary approach to improving interconception health care. In 2007, 93 interconception projects reported that 9 out of 10 women had an ongoing source of primary care. Grantees screened to detect health conditions and risks, as well as provided an opportunity to provide vital information to women about their risks for chronic conditions such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The Healthy Start interconception components demonstrate a critical need for and the potential impact of a strong interconception care program for high-risk populations such as women living in poverty, in medically underserved communities, and without health coverage.

  1. 34 CFR 200.16 - Starting points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting points. 200.16 Section 200.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational...

  2. 34 CFR 200.16 - Starting points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Starting points. 200.16 Section 200.16 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic...

  3. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... accordingly. You will probably need to shorten your dog’s walks in very cold weather to protect you ... slipping and falling. Long-haired or thick-coated dogs tend to be more cold-tolerant, but are ...

  4. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  5. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... belief is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ...

  6. Cold medicines and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx . Accessed July 26, 2016. Cherry JD. The common cold. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach ... 2014:chap 7. Miller EK, Williams JV. The common cold. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  7. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  8. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  9. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L M; Newmann, S J; Grimes, D A; Nanda, K; Schulz, K F

    2008-04-16

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The main intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was first introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. How immediate start compares to conventional menses-dependent start is unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. We included randomized controlled trials that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge' method (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.05 to 3.77).A trial of two immediate-start methods showed the vaginal ring group had less prolonged bleeding (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20 to 0

  10. Improvement of the technique of calculating the energy-force parameters of pinch-pass mills for increasing the efficiency of producing cold-rolled strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Timofeeva, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    New propositions are introduced into the technique of energy-force calculation of pinch-pass mills in order to determine the energy-force and technological parameters of skin rolling of cold-rolled steel strips at the minimum errors. The application of these propositions decreases the errors of calculating the forces and torques in a working stand by a factor of 3-5 as compared to the calculation according to the well-known technique, saves the electric power in the existing mills, and demonstrates the possibility of decreasing the dimensions of working stands and the power of the rolling mill engine.

  11. From Head Start to Sure Start: Reflections on Policy Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welshman, John

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the history of debates over the US Head Start programme (1965), Early Head Start (1994) and the UK Sure Start initiative (1998), as a window on to policy transfer. In all the three, the aim was that early intervention could offer a means of boosting children's educational attainment and of countering the wider effects of poverty…

  12. Head Start Works! Two Head Start Veterans Share Their Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Nancy J.; Goldsmith, Nancy A.

    1990-01-01

    Elements of a successful Head Start program are described. These elements are provision of comprehensive services, parent involvement and family support, a commitment to meeting local needs, training and technical assistance support, and use of a collaborative approach. Anecdotes about two Head Start parents and a former Head Start participant are…

  13. Getting Started with TQM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeston, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    Tired of disjointed programs and projects, the staff of Newtown (Connecticut) Public Schools developed their own Success-Oriented School Model, blending elements of Deming's 14 points with William Glasser's approach to quality. To obtain quality outcomes means stressing continuous improvement and staying close to the customer. (six references)…

  14. Starting Smart Consumers Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, Myrtle

    1980-01-01

    The Saint Louis Urban Consumers' Education Project involves community resource persons in the preparation and teaching of consumerism in fifth-grade classrooms. A demonstration program supported by the Office of Consumer Education, the project has improved attendance, math and reading scores, and school-community relations. (SK)

  15. Getting Started with TQM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeston, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    Tired of disjointed programs and projects, the staff of Newtown (Connecticut) Public Schools developed their own Success-Oriented School Model, blending elements of Deming's 14 points with William Glasser's approach to quality. To obtain quality outcomes means stressing continuous improvement and staying close to the customer. (six references)…

  16. The Future Starts Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    The fishbone diagram developed by Mariano Bernardez (2009a, 2009b) in the introductory article to this issue of "Performance Improvement Quarterly" depicts the origins and interrelationships of the models and approaches of many fields and researchers that have contributed to human performance technology (HPT) as it is used today. We can…

  17. The Future Starts Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    The fishbone diagram developed by Mariano Bernardez (2009a, 2009b) in the introductory article to this issue of "Performance Improvement Quarterly" depicts the origins and interrelationships of the models and approaches of many fields and researchers that have contributed to human performance technology (HPT) as it is used today. We can…

  18. Characterizing convective cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drager, Aryeh J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2017-06-01

    Cold pools produced by convective storms play an important role in Earth's climate system. However, a common framework does not exist for objectively identifying convective cold pools in observations and models. The present study investigates convective cold pools within a simulation of tropical continental convection that uses a cloud-resolving model with a coupled land-surface model. Multiple variables are assessed for their potential in identifying convective cold pool boundaries, and a novel technique is developed and tested for identifying and tracking cold pools in numerical model simulations. This algorithm is based on surface rainfall rates and radial gradients in the density potential temperature field. The algorithm successfully identifies near-surface cold pool boundaries and is able to distinguish between connected cold pools. Once cold pools have been identified and tracked, composites of cold pool evolution are then constructed, and average cold pool properties are investigated. Wet patches are found to develop within the centers of cold pools where the ground has been soaked with rainwater. These wet patches help to maintain cool surface temperatures and reduce cold pool dissipation, which has implications for the development of subsequent convection.

  19. The common cold.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    1) Most colds are due to viruses and resolve spontaneously after a few days. Available drugs do not modify the course of a viral cold; 2) Some drugs used to treat colds carry a risk of serious adverse effects. This includes nasal sprays, especially vasoconstrictors such as pseudo-ephedrine and, in young children, menthol, camphor, and terpene derivatives.

  20. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... found inside the mouth.) What Causes Cold Sores? Cold sores are caused by a virus called herpes (say: HUR-peez). Herpes is one ... the world. The medical name for the specific virus that causes cold sores is herpes simplex. There are two types ...

  1. Functional analysis of PsG6PDH, a cytosolic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from Populus suaveolens, and its contribution to cold tolerance improvement in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanzhen; Lin, Shanzhi; Guo, Hai; Zhang, Zhiyi; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2013-09-01

    A 1,697-bp cDNA sequence, designated as PsG6PDH, was amplified from Populus suaveolens. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that PsG6PDH encodes a cytosolic G6PDH isoform, with Southern blot analysis demonstrating that the gene is single or low copy in Populus. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PsG6PDH exhibited enhanced cold tolerance. In both transgenic and wild-type (WT) tobacco plants, cold stress increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, electrolyte leakage (EL), and peroxide (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities; relative to WT, however, transgenic lines had lower MDA content and EL and higher SOD and POD activities. In addition, PsG6PDH activated the expression of stress-related genes, including NtERD10b, NtERD10c, and NtSOD, in tobacco plants. Our results provide evidence regarding PsG6PDH regulatory function in plants during low temperature stress.

  2. Cold fusion verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, M. H.; Mastny, G. F.; Wesley, E. J.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this work to verify and reproduce experimental observations of Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF), as originally reported in 1989. The method was to start with the original report and add such additional information as became available to build a set of operational electrolytic CNF cells. Verification was to be achieved by first observing cells for neutron production, and for those cells that demonstrated a nuclear effect, careful calorimetric measurements were planned. The authors concluded, after laboratory experience, reading published work, talking with others in the field, and attending conferences, that CNF probably is chimera and will go the way of N-rays and polywater. The neutron detector used for these tests was a completely packaged unit built into a metal suitcase that afforded electrostatic shielding for the detectors and self-contained electronics. It was battery-powered, although it was on charge for most of the long tests. The sensor element consists of He detectors arranged in three independent layers in a solid moderating block. The count from each of the three layers as well as the sum of all the detectors were brought out and recorded separately. The neutron measurements were made with both the neutron detector and the sample tested in a cave made of thick moderating material that surrounded the two units on the sides and bottom.

  3. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  4. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised ... syrup is sometimes diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines ...

  5. Flu Season Starting to Peak

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162917.html Flu Season Starting to Peak More severe strain of ... 6, 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Flu season is in full swing and it's starting ...

  6. Involving Parents in Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leik, Robert K.; Chalkley, Mary Anne

    1989-01-01

    The Head Start Family Impact Project involved a one-year study of 81 single mothers and their children from the Hennepin County Head Start Program. This program was planned to test the notion that parent-child interaction in the context of Head Start would be the most beneficial form of parental involvement. An assessment session, which measured…

  7. Improvement of Arabidopsis Biomass and Cold, Drought and Salinity Stress Tolerance by Modified Circadian Clock-Associated PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORs.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Norihito; Takao, Saori; Kudo, Toru; Kiba, Takatoshi; Wang, Yin; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    Plant circadian clocks control the timing of a variety of genetic, metabolic and physiological processes. Recent studies revealed a possible molecular mechanism for circadian clock regulation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) genes, including TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), encode clock-associated transcriptional repressors that act redundantly. Disruption of multiple PRR genes results in drastic phenotypes, including increased biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, whereas PRR single mutants show subtle phenotypic differences due to genetic redundancy. In this study, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of engineered PRR5 (PRR5-VP), which functions as a transcriptional activator, can increase biomass and abiotic stress tolerance, similar to prr multiple mutants. Concomitant analyses of relative growth rate, flowering time and photosynthetic activity suggested that increased biomass of PRR5-VP plants is mostly due to late flowering, rather than to alterations in photosynthetic activity or growth rate. In addition, genome-wide gene expression profiling revealed that genes related to cold stress and water deprivation responses were up-regulated in PRR5-VP plants. PRR5-VP plants were more resistant to cold, drought and salinity stress than the wild type, whereas ft tsf and gi, well-known late flowering and increased biomass mutants, were not. These findings suggest that attenuation of PRR function by a single transformation of PRR-VP is a valuable method for increasing biomass as well as abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Because the PRR gene family is conserved in vascular plants, PRR-VP may regulate biomass and stress responses in many plants, but especially in long-day annual plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  9. Shaping Arizona's Future: Head Start in Arizona. Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ami; Walker, Laura

    The Arizona Head Start Association is a federation of public and private organizations that provide Head Start programs and work to improve the conditions of children in the state. This annual report describes the operation of the Head Start program in Arizona for 2000-2001. Beginning with an introductory letter from the president of the Arizona…

  10. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  11. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  12. Nutrition in Head Start: A Comprehensive Plan for Quality Improvement. Module One--Staff Development: Training To Meet the Nutritional Needs of Children and Families. Module Two--Community Awareness: Educating Local Businesses on the Mission of Head Start Nutrition. Module Three--Children and Families: Nutrition Education for Health and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedel-Lester, Priscilla

    Three modules address the objectives and services of the nutrition part of the health services component of the Head Start program. The planning of the nutrition services involves the following issues: (1) identifying the nutritional needs and problems of the children and the families; (2) meeting the daily nutritional needs of the children; (3)…

  13. Starting from grape cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  14. Signal transduction during cold stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Solanke, Amolkumar U; Sharma, Arun K

    2008-04-01

    Cold stress signal transduction is a complex process. Many physiological changes like tissue break down and senescence occur due to cold stress. Low temperature is initially perceived by plasma membrane either due to change in membrane fluidity or with the help of sensors like Ca(2+) permeable channels, histidine kinases, receptor kinases and phospholipases. Subsequently, cytoskeleton reorganization and cytosolic Ca(2+) influx takes place. Increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) is sensed by CDPKs, phosphatase and MAPKs, which transduce the signals to switch on transcriptional cascades. Photosynthetic apparatus have also been thought to be responsible for low temperature perception and signal transduction. Many cold induced pathways are activated to protect plants from deleterious effects of cold stress, but till date, most studied pathway is ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway. However, the importance of CBF independent pathways in cold acclimation is supported by few Arabidopsis mutants' studies. Cold stress signaling has certain pathways common with other abiotic and biotic stress signaling which suggest cross-talks among these. Most of the economically important crops are sensitive to low temperature, but very few studies are available on cold susceptible crop plants. Therefore, it is necessary to understand signal transducing components from model plants and utilize that knowledge to improve survival of cold sensitive crop plants at low temperature.

  15. Project Great Start Biennial Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Dennis W.

    Project Great Start is designed to provide non-, limited-, and near-native English proficient students with improved, intensified, and increased learning opportunities for accelerated English acquisition and significant academic achievement. It focuses on three groups: students, parents, and school staff. Students and parents benefit from separate…

  16. 40 CFR 86.1336-84 - Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performed in accordance with manufacturer's specifications. (e) Test equipment malfunction—(1) Gasoline- and... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1336-84 Engine starting, restarting, and shutdown. (a) The engine shall be... to start occurs during the cold portion of the test and is caused by an engine malfunction...

  17. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  18. Remote cooling circulator with cold valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Jeff; Maddocks, James R.; Nguyen, Tanh; Toma, Glen; Tward, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    A fluid loop can be effective for cooling some distance from a pulse tube cooler or in applications that require vibration isolation from the cooled object. Space pulse tube coolers are very efficient, but like all regenerative high frequency Stirling and pulse tube coolers, the cold head needs to be located near the compressor in order to minimize the input power to the cooler. To provide the directional gas flow from the oscillating flow pulse tube cooler we added cold reed valves to the pulse tube cold block of our flight proven high efficiency cooler (HEC) so that cold gas could be circulated without the need for an additional circulation pump and additional heat exchangers to cool the gas. In this test an improved smaller cold valve than that previously reported was installed and the remote cooling and the parasitic heat loads were measured. The measurements are compared to those of our previously reported cold valve tests as well as warm reed valve tests that used a second circulator compressor and recuperative heat exchanger. The large improvement in remote cooling power relative to the previous cold valve tests will be described.

  19. [Cold-induced urticaria].

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Drouet, M; Thibaudeau, A; Verret, J L

    2002-09-01

    Cold urticaria is characterized by the development of urticaria, usually superficial and/or angioedematous reaction after cold contact. It was found predominantly in young women. The diagnosis is based on the history and ice cube test. Patients with a negative ice cube test may have represented systemic cold urticaria (atypical acquired cold urticaria) induced by general body cooling. The pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cold urticaria can be classified into acquired and familial disorders, with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Idiopathic cold urticaria is most common type but the research of a cryopathy is necessary. Therapy is often difficult. It is essential that the patient be warned of the dangers of swimming in cold water because systemic hypotension can occur. H1 antihistamines can be used for treatment of cold urticaria but the clinical responses are highly variable. The combination with an H2 antagonists is more effective. Doxepin may be useful in the treatment. Leukotriene receptor antagonists may be a novel, promising drug entity. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be tried.

  20. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  1. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  2. Effects of cold temperature and ethanol content on VOC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three-phase LA92 driving cycle in a temperature-controlled chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-7 °C and 24 °C). The cold start phase and cold ambient temperature increased VOC and MSAT emissions dramatically by up to several orders of magnitude compared to emissions during other phases and warm ambient temperature testing, respectively. As a result, calculated ozone formation potentials during the cold starts were significantly higher during cold temperature tests by 7 to 21 times the warm temperature values. The use of E85 fuel generally led to substantial reductions in hydrocarbons and increases in oxygenates such as ethanol and acetaldehyde compared to E0 and E10 fuels. However, the VOC emissions from E0 and E10 fuels were not significantly different. Cold temperature effects on cold start MSAT emissions varied by individual MSAT compound, but were consistent over a range of modern spark ignition vehicles. This manuscript communicates APPCD research activities on air toxics VOC emissions from mobile sources from the EPAct dynamometer study. Speciated VOC emissions from light-duty vehicles running on gasoline and ethanol blends at cold tem

  3. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis.

  4. Effects of sled towing on sprint starts.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Casey A; Carlson, Lara A; Lawrence, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Sled towing is a popular method of sprint training. Researchers have struggled to identify a loading scheme that is most appropriate to improve sprint performance in the acceleration phase. The purpose of this study was to determine if loads of 10% body weight (BWT) or 20% BWT produced significantly greater propulsive ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, peak propulsive GRF, or a greater propulsive rate of force development (RFD) than an unweighted sprint start. Seventeen healthy court and field athletes (10 men, 7 women; 20.9 ± 1.1 years) completed 5 starts of each condition (unweighted, 10% BWT, 20% BWT). Participants began each start in an upright staggered stance. Propulsive GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT condition than the unweighted condition in both limbs and greater in the 20% BWT condition than the 10% BWT condition in the front leg only, and vertical GRF impulse was greater in the 20% BWT than the unweighted condition. In summary, our results suggest that a 10% BWT load is not sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. A loading scheme of 20% BWT is sufficient to increase propulsive GRF impulse. Coaches seeking to improve sprint starts may observe improvements using a load of 20% BWT during training while towing a sled.

  5. Kansas: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…

  6. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  7. Head Start Nutrition Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ.

    This multidisciplinary preschool nutrition education curriculum was written for use in the instruction of 3- to 5-year-olds in the National Head Start program. Introductory notes on cooking experiences for Head Start children and suggested menus for young children are followed by nine units. The curriculum incorporates a variety of teaching…

  8. State Funding of Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Legislature, Boise. Office of Performance Evaluation.

    This background paper details Head Start, a federally funded program serving preschool age children from low-income families, and focuses on the program's effectiveness and the adequacy of historic federal funding levels. The paper provides an overview of the Head Start Program, describes federal requirements for local programs, and describes Head…

  9. Chilling Out With Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your head hurts. You don't have the energy to even get out of bed. And you can't breathe out of your nose. What's wrong? You may have a cold! Having a cold is the #1 reason kids visit the doctor and stay home from school. Kids can get six to ten ...

  10. Exercise in the Cold

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothermia and frostbite injuries occur in cold weather activities and sporting events. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was used to identify original research and review articles related to cold, frostbite, and hypothermia. Inclusion was based on their relevance to prevention and treatment of cold-related injuries in sports and outdoor activities. Dates of review articles were limited to those published after 2010. No date limit was set for the most recent consensus statements or original research. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Frostbite and hypothermia are well-documented entities with good prevention strategies and prehospital treatment recommendations that have changed very little with time. A layered approach to clothing is the best way to prevent injury and respond to weather changes. Each athlete, defined as a participant in a cold weather sport or activity, will respond to cold differently depending on anthropometric measurements and underlying medical risk factors. An understanding of wind-chill temperatures, wetness, and the weather forecast allows athletes and event coordinators to properly respond to changing weather conditions. At the first sign of a freezing cold injury, ensure warm, dry clothes and move to a protected environment. Conclusion: Cold injuries can be prevented, and cold weather activities are safe with proper education, preparation, and response to changing weather conditions or injury. PMID:26857732

  11. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  12. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) A A A What's in this article? ... or around a person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't ...

  13. Liquid metal cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal being provided with a hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal which acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly.

  14. Cold-Weather Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports Print A A A What's in this ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  15. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  16. The common cold.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho; Järvinen, Asko

    2003-01-04

    Despite great advances in medicine, the common cold continues to be a great burden on society in terms of human suffering and economic losses. Of the several viruses that cause the disease, the role of rhinoviruses is most prominent. About a quarter of all colds are still without proven cause, and the recent discovery of human metapneumovirus suggests that other viruses could remain undiscovered. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of the common cold has elucidated the complexity of the virus-host relation. Increasing evidence is also available for the central role of viruses in predisposing to complications. New antivirals for the treatment of colds are being developed, but optimum use of these agents would require rapid detection of the specific virus causing the infection. Although vaccines against many respiratory viruses could also become available, the ultimate prevention of the common cold seems to remain a distant aim.

  17. Fluctuating Pressure Data from 2-D Nozzle Cold Flow Tests (Dual Bell)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.

    2001-01-01

    Rocket engines nozzle performance changes as a vehicle climbs through the atmosphere. An altitude compensating nozzle, ACN, is intended to improve on a fixed geometry bell nozzle that performs at optimum at only one trajectory point. In addition to nozzle performance, nozzle transient loads are an important consideration. Any nozzle experiences large transient toads when shocks pass through the nozzle at start and shutdown. Additional transient toads will occur at transitional flow conditions. The objectives of cold flow nozzle testing at MSFC are CFD benchmark / calibration and Unsteady flow / sideloads. Initial testing performed with 2-D inserts to 14" transonic wind tunnel. Recent review of 2-D data in preparation for nozzle test facility 3-D testing. This presentation shows fluctuating pressure data and some observations from 2-D dual-bell nozzle cold flow tests.

  18. Hydrazine engine start system air start performance and controls sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrazine has been used as an energy source in many applications to fuel in-flight main engine starting. In a current application, an existing hydrazine engine start system (ESS) design was adapted to meet new fuel control requirements. This paper presents a brief system description, historical context, and the motivating factors for the hydrazine controls changes and three case studies of controls design and analysis from the ESS program. 4 refs.

  19. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Laureen M; Newmann, Sara J; Grimes, David A; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-12-12

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. At the time of the initial review, how immediate start compared to conventional menses-dependent start was unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. In August 2012, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. Earlier searches also included EMBASE. We included RCTs that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. No new eligible studies have been found since the review was initially conducted. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge

  20. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  1. Consumer attitudes on cough and cold: US (ACHOO) survey results.

    PubMed

    Blaiss, M S; Dicpinigaitis, P V; Eccles, R; Wingertzahn, M A

    2015-08-01

    The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N = 3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least one cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were 'bad enough' (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate

  2. Heat strain in cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu; Rissanen, Sirkka

    2006-07-01

    In spite of increased environmental cold stress, heat strain is possible also in a cold environment. The body heat balance depends on three factors: environmental thermal conditions, metabolic heat production and thermal insulation of clothing and other protective garments. As physical exercise may increase metabolic heat production from rest values by ten times or even more, the required thermal insulation of clothing may vary accordingly. However, in most outdoor work, and often in indoor cold work, too, the thermal insulation of clothing is impractical, difficult or impossible to adjust according to the changes in physical activity. This is especially true with whole body covering garments like chemical protective clothing. As a result of this imbalance, heat strain may develop. In cold all the signs of heat strain (core temperature above 38 degrees C, warm or hot thermal sensations, increased cutaneous circulation and sweating) may not be present at the same time. Heat strain in cold may be whole body heat strain or related only to torso or core temperature. Together with heat strain in torso or body core, there can be at the same time even cold strain in peripheral parts and/or superficial layers of the body. In cold environment both the preservation of insulation and facilitation of heat loss are important. Development of clothing design is still needed to allow easy adjustments of thermal insulation.

  3. Analysis of cold worked holes for structural life extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, David H.; Cutshall, Jon T.; Burnside, O. Hal; Cardinal, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    Cold working holes for improved fatigue life of fastener holes are widely used on aircraft. This paper presents methods used by the authors to determine the percent of cold working to be applied and to analyze fatigue crack growth of cold worked fastener holes. An elastic, perfectly-plastic analysis of a thick-walled tube is used to determine the stress field during the cold working process and the residual stress field after the process is completed. The results of the elastic/plastic analysis are used to determine the amount of cold working to apply to a hole. The residual stress field is then used to perform damage tolerance analysis of a crack growing out of a cold worked fastener hole. This analysis method is easily implemented in existing crack growth computer codes so that the cold worked holes can be used to extend the structural life of aircraft. Analytical results are compared to test data where appropriate.

  4. Properties and uses of cold neutron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David D.

    1992-07-01

    Cold neutrons are conventionally defined as those with energy below 0.005 eV; the corresponding velocity and wavelength arc 980 m/s and 4 angstroms. The first extensive use of cold neutrons was in the 1960's by condensed matter physicists for investigations of spatial structure and internal dynamics of solids and liquids. Different experiments place different requirements on neutron beams, but it is usually advantageous to eliminate the faster neutrons and the gamma rays that are present in normal reactor beams. Several types of filters that pass only the low-energy portion of an incident Maxwellian spectrum have been developed and will be discussed. Examples include single crystal quartz or bismuth (room temperature or cooled), polycrystalline beryllium, and neutron guides. For any of these shifting the incident neutrons to a lower energy spectrum by use of a cold moderator leads to large increases in the intensity of cold neutrons. The properties of the beams resulting from the particular combination of a cold moderator and a neutron guide will be discussed. These include the changes in beam intensity and spectral shape as warm neutrons in a typical reactor spectrum first interact with a cold moderator and then pass through a straight or curved neutron guide. The spatial and angular distribution of the neutrons at the exit of the guide will be described. One further important effect for cold neutron beam experiments involving nuclear reactions is the increase in reaction rates because of the usual 1/v dependence of reaction cross sections and another is the considerable simplification with cold neutrons in the problems of collimating, shielding, and stopping the beam. The resulting benefits for studies of nuclear energy levels by neutron capture gamma-ray and conversion electron experiments and for the analysis of materials by PGNAA will be discussed. Neutron depth profiling is also improved with cold neutrons. (author)

  5. Cold subcutaneous abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R.; Stephens, L.; Kelly, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    Cold abscesses are defined as having no associated erythema, heat, or tenderness. They may be present in immunodeficiency disorders, deep mycoses, and other infectious diseases. As there is a dearth information on this subject in the dermatology, surgery, and infectious disease literature, we present a case of cold abscesses secondary to coccidioidomycosis and discuss the possible role of humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, prostaglandins, T cells, and other mediators in cold abscess pathogenesis. In addition, therapeutic guidelines for abscesses are reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2280425

  6. Miniature cold gas thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzibziak, R. J., Sr.

    1992-07-01

    Cold gas thrusters provide a safe, inexpensive, lightweight and reliable means of propulsive control for small satellites, projectiles and maneuvering control systems. Moog Inc. has designed and developed a family of miniature cold gas thrusters for use on Strategic Defense Iniative flight simulation experiments, sounding rockets, small satellite applications, astronaut control systems, and close proximity maneuvering systems for Space System. Construction features such as coil assembly, core assembly, armature assembly, external housing and valve body are discussed. The design approach, performance characteristics and functional description of cold gas thrusters designed for various applications are presented.

  7. Homeostatic Responses to Prolonged Cold Exposure: Human Cold Acclimatization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    cold acclimatization resulting from living and working in cold environments, and cold acclimation induced by unusual or experimental alterations in...reflects a greater thermal conductance resulting from increased metabolism, altered vasomotor responses, decreased physical insulation associated with low...vasoconstrictor response to cold is altered in circumpolar residents. For example, Brown and Page (9) measured hand blood flow in Inuits and

  8. Cold hardiness in molluscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansart, Armelle; Vernon, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    Molluscs inhabit all types of environments: seawater, intertidal zone, freshwater and land, and of course may have to deal with subzero temperatures. Ectotherm animals survive cold conditions by avoiding it by extensive supercooling (freezing avoidant species) or by bearing the freezing of their extracellular body fluids (freezing tolerant species). Although some studies on cold hardiness are available for intertidal molluscs, they are scarce for freshwater and terrestrial ones. Molluscs often exhibit intermediary levels of cold hardiness, with a moderate or low ability to supercool and a limited survival to the freezing of their tissues. Several factors could be involved: their dependence on water, their ability to enter dormancy, the probability of inoculative freezing in their environment, etc. Size is an important parameter in the development of cold hardiness abilities: it influences supercooling ability in land snails, which are rather freezing avoidant and survival to ice formation in intertidal organisms, which generally tolerate freezing.

  9. The cold reading technique.

    PubMed

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  10. Coping with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... re hungry. And you might have heard that chicken soup can cure a cold. There's no real ... you have strep throat and need treatment with antibiotics. If your doctor does prescribe antibiotics, be sure ...

  11. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  12. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Instructors who teach outdoors in an environment so cold as to cause injury must satisfy program objectives while avoiding cold injury to themselves and students, help students focus on learning instead of discomfort, and alleviate some students' intense fear of the cold. Dealing with the cold successfully requires a thorough knowledge of:…

  13. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  14. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  15. Supersonic Particle Deposition (Cold Spray)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-26

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 26th Replacement of Hard Chrome and Cadmium Plating Program Review Meeting, January 24-26, 2006, San Diego, CA. Sponsored by SERDP...Spray Cu-W ( clad powder) 197 89-90 HRB Cold Spray Ta 256 21 HRC Cold Spray Ni 403 40-41 HRC Hardness of Various Cold Spray Coatings -Cold Spray

  16. Enhancing Health in the Head Start Workplace. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This training guide is intended to increase the understanding and skills of Head Start managers and directors to: (1) identify the ways in which employee health affects the organization's effectiveness; (2) design training programs that encourage employees to improve their own health; (3) understand how the organization contributes to the overall…

  17. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  18. Impulsively started incompressible turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect

    Witze, P O

    1980-10-01

    Hot-film anemometer measurements are presented for the centerline velocity of a suddenly started jet of air. The tip penetration of the jet is shown to be proportional to the square-root of time. A theoretical model is developed that assumes the transient jet can be characterized as a spherical vortex interacting with a steady-state jet. The model demonstrates that the ratio of nozzle radius to jet velocity defines a time constant that uniquely characterizes the behavior and similarity of impulsively started incompressible turbulent jets.

  19. Window performance in extreme cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, S. N.; Buska, J. S.; Barrett, S. A.

    1982-12-01

    Extreme cold causes heavy buildup of frost, ice and condensation on many windows. It also increases the incentive for improving the airtightness of windows against heat loss. Our study shows that tightening specifications for Alaskan windows to permit only 30% of the air leakage allowed by current American airtightness standards is economically attractive. We also recommend triple glazing in much of Alaska to avoid window icing in homes and barracks. We base our conclusions on a two year field study of Alaskan military bases that included recording humidity and temperature data, observing moisture accumulation on windows and measuring airtightness with a fan pressurized device.

  20. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  1. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  2. Cold moderators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, up–grading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  3. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi

    2013-06-04

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (1966 to February week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1990 to March 2013) and Current Contents (1994 to March 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally induced common cold. The two review authors independently reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. We included six trials (394 trial participants). Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings; there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold, hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomised trials with a standardised treatment modality are conducted.

  4. Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi

    2011-05-11

    Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the common cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding and nasal resistance. In this updated review we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to July Week 1, 2010), EMBASE (1990 to July 2010) and Current Contents (1994 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using heated water vapour in participants with the common cold or participants with experimentally-induced common cold. We reviewed all retrieved articles and excluded any articles, editorials and abstracts with inadequate outcome descriptions. The studies we included were subjected to a methodological assessment. Six trials (394 trial participants) were included. Three trials in which patient data could be pooled found benefits of steam for symptom relief for the common cold (odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.60). However, results on symptom indices were equivocal. No studies demonstrated an exacerbation of clinical symptom scores. One study conducted in the USA demonstrated worsened nasal resistance, while an earlier Israeli study showed improvement. One study examined viral shedding and antibody titres in nasal washings; there was no change in either between treatment and placebo groups. Minor side effects (including discomfort or irritation of the nose) were reported in some studies. Steam inhalation has not shown any consistent benefits in the treatment of the common cold, hence is not recommended in the routine treatment of common cold symptoms until more double-blind, randomized trials with a standardised treatment

  5. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P < 0.05), whereas COMM R-value sharply increased from 1.17 to 1.43, causing no difference from RB (P > 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P < 0.05) were seen in the samples of TA and WIC than those of no TA and HB-(1)/4CFAC, respectively, with no difference observed between COMM and RB fillets (P > 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Head Start Planned Variation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jenny

    There is little agreement concerning which methods of preschool intervention are most effective. In order to evaluate several approaches to early childhood education, Project Head Start, in conjunction with Project Follow Through, has initiated the Planned Variation program. This year only a pilot project is underway with eight schools…

  7. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  8. Near Field of Starting Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, H.; Gharib, M.; Dabiri, D.

    1997-11-01

    Although steady jets and plumes have been studied extensively in the past, there is relatively little known about the initial stages of starting buoyant jets. The present investigation examined buoyancy-driven flows resulting from cylindrical containers w ith length to diameter ratios (L/D) between 2 and 13. Density ratios up to ten percent were utilized. A technique was developed to release the column of buoyant fluid with minimal disturbance during the discharge. Our observations indicate that the majori ty of the released fluid gets entrained into the starting vortex ring for L/D < 4. Longer columns result in a jet trailing behind the starting vortex. In all cases, the starting vortex ring becomes unstable as a result of the baroclinic torque generation around its perimeter, and disintegrates into a turbulent mass within the first 5 diameters. This fluid mass then gets reorganized into a larger, more diffuse thermal. The thermal formation occurs closer to the source as the length to diameter ratio of th e buoyant column gets smaller. The temporal evolution of the circulation associated with the buoyant fluid, which was derived from the digital particle image velocimetry technique, will be presented.

  9. Rigor Made Easy: Getting Started

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Bestselling author and noted rigor expert Barbara Blackburn shares the secrets to getting started, maintaining momentum, and reaching your goals. Learn what rigor looks like in the classroom, understand what it means for your students, and get the keys to successful implementation. Learn how to use rigor to raise expectations, provide appropriate…

  10. Rigor Made Easy: Getting Started

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Bestselling author and noted rigor expert Barbara Blackburn shares the secrets to getting started, maintaining momentum, and reaching your goals. Learn what rigor looks like in the classroom, understand what it means for your students, and get the keys to successful implementation. Learn how to use rigor to raise expectations, provide appropriate…

  11. Head Start Families Sharing Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Connie R.; Halsall, Sharen W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to ascertain the types of books read by Head Start families to their children, conditions for reading aloud at home, perceived benefits of reading aloud, and children's responses to books. Data were collected from parent interviews and reading logs. Participants included 14 children and families from four Head…

  12. Head Start Dental Health Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This curriculum for Head Start programs provides preschool learning experiences that teach about dental health. The majority of the curriculum guide is devoted to the following lesson plans: (1) "Introduction of 'Smiley the Super Pup'," an optional puppet character which may be used to review the concepts covered in each lesson; (2)…

  13. Entrepreneur Training Program. Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Maria, Richard

    This student workbook on starting a small business is part of the entrepreneur training program at Ocean County (New Jersey) Vocational-Technical Schools. The workbook consists of 16 units containing goals and objectives, study questions, exercises, sample materials, and information sheets. Unit topics are as follows: being a small business owner;…

  14. Off to a Good Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Carl

    1994-01-01

    Caring Start is a mobile-clinic program that provides prenatal care, well-baby clinics, childhood immunizations, counseling services, and contraceptives to rural poor families in northwest Pennsylvania. Before the mobile clinic, many rural women (mostly teenagers) went without prenatal health care due to lack of transportation. (LP)

  15. Start Where Your Students Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robyn R.

    2010-01-01

    Starting where your students are means understanding how currencies are negotiated and traded in the classroom. Any behavior that students use to acquire the knowledge and skills needed in the classroom functions as currency. Teachers communicate the kinds of currencies they accept in their classrooms, such as getting good grades; students do…

  16. Summary of Head Start Provisions on Homelessness and Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    On Wednesday, December 12, President Bush signed the "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007" into law. The legislation reauthorizes the Head Start Act and contains numerous provisions on homelessness and foster care. A summary of those provisions is provided in this paper.

  17. Project Head Start: Evaluation and Research Summary 1965-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.

    Project Head Start has as its goal the improvement of the child's physical health, intellectual performance, social attitudes, and sense of self. The project involves over half a million children each year, including children in both summer and yearlong programs. About 40 percent of Head Start pupils are Negro, about 30 percent are white, and the…

  18. Colorado Even Start 2005-2006 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of Even Start, as outlined in federal legislation, is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy by providing a unified family literacy program for low-income families. Even Start has three related goals: (1) to help parents improve their literacy or basic education skills; (2) to help parents become full…

  19. Fresh Start: A Model for Success and Sustainable Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Kinchington, Francia

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the rationale and debate of the "Fresh Start" schools policy introduced by the New Labour Government in 1997 as a vehicle for improvement in schools that historically had been classified as "failing". Underpinning the policy is the assumption that Fresh Start can act as a catalytic agent of positive change…

  20. Colorado Even Start. 2004-2005 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of Even Start, as outlined in federal legislation, is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy by providing a unified family literacy program for low-income families. Even Start has three related goals: (1) to help parents improve their literacy or basic education skills; (2) to help parents become full…