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Sample records for improved damage control

  1. DAMAGE CONTROL RESUSCITATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH A REDUCTION IN RESUSCITATION VOLUMES AND IMPROVEMENT IN SURVIVAL IN 390 DAMAGE CONTROL LAPAROTOMY PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Bryan A; Reddy, Neeti; Hatch, Quinton M; LeFebvre, Eric; Wade, Charles E; Kozar, Rosemary A; Gill, Brijesh S; Albarado, Rondel; McNutt, Michelle K; Holcomb, John B

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if implementation of damage control resuscitation (DCR) in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy (DCL) translates into improved survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA DCR aims at preventing coagulopathy through permissive hypotension, limiting crystalloids and delivering higher ratios of plasma and platelets. Previous work has focused only on the impact of delivering higher ratios (1:1:1). METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed on all DCL patients admitted between 01/2004–08/2010. Patients were divided into pre-DCR implementation and DCR groups, and were excluded if they died prior to completion of the initial laparotomy. The lethal triad was defined as immediate post-operative temperature <95° F, INR>1.5, or a pH<7.30. RESULTS 390 patients underwent DCL. Of these, 282 were pre-DCR and 108 were DCR. Groups were similar in demographics, injury severity, admission vitals and laboratory values. DCR patients received less crystalloids (median 14 L vs. 5 L), RBC (13 U vs. 7 U), plasma (11 U vs. 8 U) and platelets (6 U vs. 0 U) in 24-hr; all p<0.05. DCR patients had less evidence of the lethal triad upon ICU arrival (80% vs. 46%, p<0.001). 24-hour and 30-day survival were higher with DCR (88% vs. 97%, p=0.006 and 76% vs. 86%, p=0.03). Multivariate analysis controlling for age, injury severity, and ED variables, demonstrated DCR was associated with a significant increase in 30-day survival (O.R. 2.5, 95% C.I. 1.10–5.58, p=0.028). CONCLUSION In patients undergoing DCL, implementation of DCR reduces crystalloid and blood product administration. More importantly, DCR is associated with an improvement in 30-day survival. PMID:21918426

  2. When brain damage "improves" perception: neglect patients can localize motion-shifted probes better than controls.

    PubMed

    de Vito, Stefania; Lunven, Marine; Bourlon, Clémence; Duret, Christophe; Cavanagh, Patrick; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    When we look at bars flashed against a moving background, we see them displaced in the direction of the upcoming motion (flash-grab illusion). It is still debated whether these motion-induced position shifts are low-level, reflexive consequences of stimulus motion or high-level compensation engaged only when the stimulus is tracked with attention. To investigate whether attention is a causal factor for this striking illusory position shift, we evaluated the flash-grab illusion in six patients with damaged attentional networks in the right hemisphere and signs of left visual neglect and six age-matched controls. With stimuli in the top, right, and bottom visual fields, neglect patients experienced the same amount of illusion as controls. However, patients showed no significant shift when the test was presented in their left hemifield, despite having equally precise judgments. Thus, paradoxically, neglect patients perceived the position of the flash more veridically in their neglected hemifield. These results suggest that impaired attentional processes can reduce the interaction between a moving background and a superimposed stationary flash, and indicate that attention is a critical factor in generating the illusory motion-induced shifts of location.

  3. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  4. Demystifying damage control in musculoskeletal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bates, P; Parker, P; McFadyen, I; Pallister, I

    2016-01-01

    Trauma care has evolved rapidly over the past decade. The benefits of operative fracture management in major trauma patients are well recognised. Concerns over early total care arose when applied broadly. The burden of additional surgical trauma could constitute a second hit, fuelling the inflammatory response and precipitating a decline into acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Temporary external fixation aimed to deliver the benefits of fracture stabilisation without the risk of major surgery. This damage control orthopaedics approach was advocated for those in extremis and a poorly defined borderline group. An increasing understanding of the physiological response to major trauma means there is now a need to refine our treatment options. A number of large scale retrospective reviews indicate that early definitive fracture fixation is beneficial in the majority of major trauma patients. It is recommended that patients are selected appropriately on the basis of their response to resuscitation. The hope is that this approach (dubbed ‘safe definitive fracture surgery’ or ‘early appropriate care’) will herald an era when care is individualised for each patient and their circumstances. The novel Damage Control in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery course at The Royal College of Surgeons of England aims to equip senior surgeons with the insights and mindset necessary to contribute to this key decision making process as well as also the technical skills to provide damage control interventions when needed, relying on the improved techniques of damage control resuscitation and advances in the understanding of early appropriate care. PMID:27023640

  5. Structural Damage Detection Using Virtual Passive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents novel approaches for structural damage detection which uses the virtual passive controllers attached to structures, where passive controllers are energy dissipative devices and thus guarantee the closed-loop stability. The use of the identified parameters of various closed-loop systems can solve the problem that reliable identified parameters, such as natural frequencies of the open-loop system may not provide enough information for damage detection. Only a small number of sensors are required for the proposed approaches. The identified natural frequencies, which are generally much less sensitive to noise and more reliable than the identified natural frequencies, are used for damage detection. Two damage detection techniques are presented. One technique is based on the structures with direct output feedback controllers while the other technique uses the second-order dynamic feedback controllers. A least-squares technique, which is based on the sensitivity of natural frequencies to damage variables, is used for accurately identifying the damage variables.

  6. Assessment and control of structural damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, G. D.; Stubbs, N.; Yao, J. T. P.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize and review several investigations on the assessment and control of structural damage in civil engineering. Specifically, the definition of structural damage is discussed. A candidate method for the evaluation of damage is then reviewed and demonstrated. Various ways of implementing passive and active control of civil engineering structures are next summarized. Finally, the possibility of applying expert systems is discussed.

  7. Control of radiation damage in the TEM.

    PubMed

    Egerton, R F

    2013-04-01

    The problem of electron-beam damage in the transmission electron microscope is reviewed, with an emphasis on radiolysis processes in soft materials and organic specimens. Factors that determine the dose-limited resolution are identified for three different operational modes: bright-field scattering-contrast, phase-contrast and dark-field microscopy. Methods of reducing radiation damage are discussed, including low-dose techniques, cooling or encapsulating the specimen, and the choice of imaging mode, incident-beam diameter and incident-electron energy. Further experiments are suggested as a means of obtaining a better understanding and control of electron-beam damage.

  8. GPS Control Segment Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Systems Center GPS Control Segment Improvements Mr. Tim McIntyre GPS Product Support Manager GPS Ops Support and Sustainment Division Peterson...hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...DATE 29 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Control Segment Improvements 5a. CONTRACT

  9. Control of electrostatic damage to electronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, W.J. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Static is caused by the flow of materials and people within an environment. The static voltages generated by these movements can degrade or destroy many solid state devices currently being used in sophisticated electronic equipment. Discharge of static voltages through these sensitive devices during assembly operations can lead to a nonfunctional assembly fabricated from parts which previously were acceptable or to later failure of an assembly which was functional after fabrication. Sources of electrostatic charges, equipment and methods for minimizing the generation of electrostatic voltages during the production, assembly and packaging of solid state electronic equipment, and the sensitivity of solid state devices to electrostatic damage are discussed. It is concluded that static awareness is the key to an effective electrostatic damage (ESD) control program, and that production facilities must incorporate electrostatic protection facilities, materials, and processes so that workers can concentrate on producing a high-quality product without having to be overly concerned about ESD procedures. (LCL)

  10. Blast damage control during underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Tracer blasting is commonly used in Canadian underground mines for overbreak control. It involves tracing a column of ANFO with a low strength detonating cord. In order to investigate the effectiveness of tracer blasting in perimeter control and to understand its mechanism, a field experimentation was conducted which involved drifting, benching and pipe tests. Initially, a comparison between tracer blasting and other explosive products was made on the basis of half cast factor and percentage overbreak. It was found that tracer blasting produced relatively much lower damage. The following observations were made during tracer blasting experiments: (a) reduction in ground vibrations; (b) partial deflagration and desensitization of ANFO; (c) reduction in the total available explosive energy; (d) continuous side initiation of ANFO column; (e) lateral VOD of ANFO was much less than the steady state VOD; (f) energy partitioning was more in favor of gas energy. It was observed that tracer blasting has the potential of being very cost effective and safer technique for overbreak control. A mechanism of tracer blasting has also been proposed in this paper.

  11. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  12. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., George W.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  13. MPC improves reformer control

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.S.; Noh, K.K.; Yi, S.; Kim, J.S.; Song, H.K.; Hyun, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    A model predictive control strategy was applied to a synthesis gas reformer of Samsung-BP Chemicals in Korea that produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen from naphtha. A strongly endothermic reaction occurs in a catalytic reformer, and reformer outlet temperature is considered to have the most significant effect on product composition. The newly developed reformer is known to be a cost-effective process operating at high reaction temperatures and low steam-to-carbon ratio, but its drawback is temperature control difficulty due to the use of offgas as a part of the fuel. Without smooth control of the reformer outlet temperature, stable operation of the downstream separation units cannot be expected. Therefore, it is a great challenge to apply a model predictive control technique for tight control of reformer outlet temperature. The paper describes model predictive control, the process advanced control project, computer system architecture, analysis of operating condition, control structure, sampling rate, and disturbance estimation.

  14. Optimization of control laws for damage detection in smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Laura R.; Marini, Solomon

    2000-06-01

    A prevalent method of damage detection is based on identifying changes in modal characteristics due to damage induced variations in stiffness or mass along a structure. It is known that modal frequencies can be insensitive to damage, and the open-loop sensitivity itself depends on modal properties and damage location. Here, we develop methods of designing control laws that enhance the sensitivity of modal characteristics to damage. Sensitivity enhancing control exploits the relationship between control gains and closed-loop dynamics in order to increase the observability of damage. The design methods are based on optimization of cost functions that involve the dependence of classic measures of sensitivity on design variables, which include placement of sensors and actuators and state feedback control gains. Due to the size of the design space and the unknown nature of the cost surface, genetic algorithms are used to find control laws that maximize sensitivity to specific damage types subject to control effort and stability constraints. Optimized control laws designed for sensitivity enhancement of stiffness damage in a cantilevered beam are demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  15. Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance.

  16. Dynamics and Adaptive Control for Stability Recovery of Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Nespeca, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study of a damaged generic transport model as part of a NASA research project to investigate adaptive control methods for stability recovery of damaged aircraft operating in off-nominal flight conditions under damage and or failures. Aerodynamic modeling of damage effects is performed using an aerodynamic code to assess changes in the stability and control derivatives of a generic transport aircraft. Certain types of damage such as damage to one of the wings or horizontal stabilizers can cause the aircraft to become asymmetric, thus resulting in a coupling between the longitudinal and lateral motions. Flight dynamics for a general asymmetric aircraft is derived to account for changes in the center of gravity that can compromise the stability of the damaged aircraft. An iterative trim analysis for the translational motion is developed to refine the trim procedure by accounting for the effects of the control surface deflection. A hybrid direct-indirect neural network, adaptive flight control is proposed as an adaptive law for stabilizing the rotational motion of the damaged aircraft. The indirect adaptation is designed to estimate the plant dynamics of the damaged aircraft in conjunction with the direct adaptation that computes the control augmentation. Two approaches are presented 1) an adaptive law derived from the Lyapunov stability theory to ensure that the signals are bounded, and 2) a recursive least-square method for parameter identification. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is conducted and demonstrates the effectiveness of the direct neural network adaptive flight control in the stability recovery of the damaged aircraft. A preliminary simulation of the hybrid adaptive flight control has been performed and initial data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid approach. Future work will include further investigations and high-fidelity simulations of the proposed hybrid adaptive Bight control approach.

  17. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer.

  18. Flight dynamics and control modelling of damaged asymmetric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwa, T. T.; Abdullah, E. J.

    2016-10-01

    This research investigates the use of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller to assist commercial Boeing 747-200 aircraft regains its stability in the event of damage. Damages cause an aircraft to become asymmetric and in the case of damage to a fraction (33%) of its left wing or complete loss of its vertical stabilizer, the loss of stability may lead to a fatal crash. In this study, aircraft models for the two damage scenarios previously mentioned are constructed using stability derivatives. LQR controller is used as a direct adaptive control design technique for the observable and controllable system. Dynamic stability analysis is conducted in the time domain for all systems in this study.

  19. A SOF Damage Control Resuscitation Cocktail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    V o lu m e ( m l/ kg ) Blood Loss Averages (ml/kg) Control/No Resus Hextend Control Hextend + Vasopressin Hex+Vaso+ Albumin 5 5 REPORTABLE...blunted. Blood pressure did not increase in response to the Hextend bolus similarly to that observed in previous simple hemorrhage models. The lack...of blood pressure increase during fluid bolus Figure 1. Mean arterial pressure response to bleeding and fluid bolus. The addition of vasopressin

  20. An Integrated Approach to Damage Accommodation in Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskovic, Jovan D.; Knoebel, Nathan; Mehra, Raman K.; Gregory, Irene

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an integrated approach to in-flight damage accommodation in flight control. The approach is based on Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST), and consists of three steps: In the first step the main objective is to acquire a realistic aircraft damage model. Modeling of in-flight damage is a highly complex problem since there is a large number of issues that need to be addressed. One of the most important one is that there is strong coupling between structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and flight control. These effects cannot be studied separately due to this coupling. Once a realistic damage model is available, in the second step a large number of models corresponding to different damage cases are generated. One possibility is to generate many linear models and interpolate between them to cover a large portion of the flight envelope. Once these models have been generated, we will implement a recently developed-Model Set Reduction (MSR) technique. The technique is based on parameterizing damage in terms of uncertain parameters, and uses concepts from robust control theory to arrive at a small number of "centered" models such that the controllers corresponding to these models assure desired stability and robustness properties over a subset in the parametric space. By devising a suitable model placement strategy, the entire parametric set is covered with a relatively small number of models and controllers. The third step consists of designing a Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) strategy for estimating the current operating regime (damage case) of the aircraft, and switching to the corresponding controller to achieve effective damage accommodation and the desired performance. In the paper present a comprehensive approach to damage accommodation using Model Set Design,MMST, and Variable Structure compensation for coupling nonlinearities. The approach was evaluated on a model of F/A-18 aircraft dynamics under control effector damage

  1. Combat Damage Control Resuscitation: Today and Tomorrow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    crystalloid fluids [33-74] The patient is rewarmed, and full laboratory analysis is undertaken with the basic goal of bringing the patient’s physiology and...coagulopathy refractory to component therapy . For severe acidosis, tromethamine; tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM) is infused for a pH < 7.2 in accordance...values and have documented improvement of coagulation with component therapy . Randomized trials to document any benefit, however, are lacking in the

  2. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839

  3. Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Use in Life Extending Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous wrp to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in Life Extending Controls (LEC) studies. The work is based on zero mean stress local strain cyclic damage modeling. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modeling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models are also presented. Application of these models to LEC applications is considered. Progress toward a nonzero mean stress based continuum model is presented. Also, new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are also derived for this case.

  4. [Influence of Detector Radiation Damage on CR Mammography Quality Control].

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Atsumi; Ishii, Mie; Terazono, Shiho; Arao, Keiko; Ishii, Rie; Sanada, Taizo; Yoshida, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Recently, radiation damage to the detector apparatus employed in computed radiography (CR) mammography has become problematic. The CR system and the imaging plate (IP) applied to quality control (QC) program were also used in clinical mammography in our hospital, and the IP to which radiation damage has occurred was used for approximately 5 years (approximately 13,000 exposures). We considered using previously acquired QC image data, which is stored in a server, to investigate the influence of radiation damage to an IP. The mammography unit employed in this study was a phase contrast mammography (PCM) Mermaid (KONICA MINOLTA) system. The QC image was made newly, and it was output in the film, and thereafter the optical density of the step-phantom image was measured. An input (digital value)-output (optical density) conversion curve was plotted using the obtained data. The digital values were then converted to optical density values using a reference optical density vs. digital value curve. When a high radiation dose was applied directly, radiation damage occurred at a position on the IP where no object was present. Daily QC for mammography is conducted using an American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom and acrylic disc, and an environmental background density measurement is performed as one of the management indexes. In this study, the radiation damage sustained by the acrylic disc was shown to differ from that of the background. Thus, it was revealed that QC results are influenced by radiation damage.

  5. Geologic controls of subdivision damage near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    This case study investigates the geologic controls on damaging ground deformations in a residential subdivision near Denver, Colo. Moderate to severe damage has occurred in certain areas where linear, parallel heave features with up to 0.3 in (1 ft) of differential displacement have formed across roads and under houses. Other areas have small, localized depressions that have formed in the roadsides with no discernable damage to nearby houses. Still other areas show no evidence of ground movements. The bedrock beneath the subdivision consists of steeply dipping Cretaceous strata of the Benton Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Pierre Shale. Quaternary soil deposits and fill, 0-16 m (0-53 ft) thick, overlie the bedrock. The most pronounced and damaging linear-heave features are coincident with steeply dipping, silty claystone with thin layers of very highly plastic bentonite. These heave features diminish as the depth to bedrock increases, and become small to negligible where the bedrock is overlain by 3 m (10 ft) or more of overburden soil deposits or fill. In contrast, areas having no visible damage and those having localized surface depressions are typically underlain by 1-12 m (3-39 ft) of alluvial-terrace deposits or fill. The depressions appear to have been caused by settlement over improperly filled water-and-sewer line trenches. The overall relationship between geology and ground deformations as seen in this subdivision may be useful for predicting, and thereby reducing, damage for future subdivision projects. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ?? ASCE.

  6. NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2007-03-21

    Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown.

  7. NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2007-03-01

    Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown.

  8. Improving dust and methane control

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.; Organiscak, J.; Jankowski, R.

    1987-10-01

    The Bureau of Mines has evaluated a number of techniques for controlling dust and methane during the headgate cutout of retreating longwall sections that use antitropal ventilation (headgate to tailgate). Some of these techniques are effective for both methane and dust control, while others are effective for only one or the other. The techniques include the gob curtain, the walkway curtain, stageloader-crusher control and the wing curtain. Each improves the health and safety of workers and is economically feasible in hardware cost, setup cost and maintenance.

  9. Improving dust and methane control

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.; Organiseak, J.; Jankowski, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques for controlling dust and methane during the headgate cutout of retreating longwall sections that use antitropal ventilation (headgate to tailgate). Some of these techniques are effective for both methane and dust control, while others are effective for only one or the other. The techniques include the gob curtain, the walkway curtain, stage-loader-crusher control, and the wing curtain. Each improves the health and safety of workers and is economically feasible in hardware cost, setup cost, and maintenance.

  10. Improving dust and methane control

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.B.; Organiscak, A.; Jankowski, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper evaluates a number of techniques for controlling dust and methane during the headgate cutout of retreating longwall sections that use antitropal ventilation (headgate to tailgate). Some of these techniques are effective for both methane and dust control, while others are effective for only one or the other. The techniques include the gob curtain, the walkway curtain, stageloader-crusher control, and the wing curtain. Each improves the health and safety of workers and is economically feasible in hardware cost, setup cost, and maintenance. By combining various of these techniques, mine operators can substantially reduce the dust and methane concentrations at the shearer and ensure the health and safety of longwall workers.

  11. Damage-Mitigating Control of Space Propulsion Systems for High Performance and Extended Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Wu, Min-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    A major goal in the control of complex mechanical system such as spacecraft rocket engine's advanced aircraft, and power plants is to achieve high performance with increased reliability, component durability, and maintainability. The current practice of decision and control systems synthesis focuses on improving performance and diagnostic capabilities under constraints that often do not adequately represent the materials degradation. In view of the high performance requirements of the system and availability of improved materials, the lack of appropriate knowledge about the properties of these materials will lead to either less than achievable performance due to overly conservative design, or over-straining of the structure leading to unexpected failures and drastic reduction of the service life. The key idea in this report is that a significant improvement in service life could be achieved by a small reduction in the system dynamic performance. The major task is to characterize the damage generation process, and then utilize this information in a mathematical form to synthesize a control law that would meet the system requirements and simultaneously satisfy the constraints that are imposed by the material and structural properties of the critical components. The concept of damage mitigation is introduced for control of mechanical systems to achieve high performance with a prolonged life span. A model of fatigue damage dynamics is formulated in the continuous-time setting, instead of a cycle-based representation, for direct application to control systems synthesis. An optimal control policy is then formulated via nonlinear programming under specified constraints of the damage rate and accumulated damage. The results of simulation experiments for the transient upthrust of a bipropellant rocket engine are presented to demonstrate efficacy of the damage-mitigating control concept.

  12. Self-repairing control for damaged robotic manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, G.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-03-01

    Algorithms have been developed allowing operation of robotic systems under damaged conditions. Specific areas addressed were optimal sensor location, adaptive nonlinear control, fault-tolerant robot design, and dynamic path-planning. A seven-degree-of-freedom, hydraulic manipulator, with fault-tolerant joint design was also constructed and tested. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  13. Improving the distribution and reducing the magnitude of pavement damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, W. R.; Chou, U. T.

    1980-08-01

    In the analysis of flexible pavement, the layered elastic theory was used to compute the pavement response. For the rigid pavement, finite difference, layered elastic theory, and Westergard procedures were used to compute tensile stresses in concrete that formed the basis for predicting allowable stress repetitions. For flexible pavement, the only effective means to reduce pavement damage was to modify the wheel assembly to reduce stress or strain at the critical locations in the pavement systems. The most effective modification would be to increase the spacing between duals. For rigid pavements, the edge effect was critical, thus suggesting that modifications to shift the loading away from the pavement edge would be effective.

  14. Low cost corrosion damage mitigation and improved fatigue performance of low plasticity burnished 7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevéy, Paul S.; Cammett, John

    2001-10-01

    Low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been investigated as a surface enhancement process and corrosion mitigation method for aging aircraft structural applications. Compressive residual stresses reaching the alloy yield strength and extending to a depth of 1.25 mm (0.050 in.) deeper than typical corrosion damage is achievable. Excellent surface finish can be achieved with no detectable metallurgical damage to surface and subsurface material. Salt fog exposures of 100 and 500 h reduced the fatigue strength at 2×106 cycles by 50%. The LPB of the corroded surface, without removal of the corrosion product or pitted material, restored the 2×106 fatigue strength to greater than that of the original machined surface. The fatigue strength of the corroded material in the finite life regime (104 to 106 cycles) after LPB was 140 MPa (20 ksi) higher than the original uncorroded alloy and increased the life by an order of magnitude. Ease of adaptation to computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools allows LPB processing at costs and speeds comparable to machining operations. Low plasticity burnishing offers a promising new technology for mitigation of corrosion damage and improved fatigue life of aircraft structural components with significant cost and time savings over current practices.

  15. Autoimmune control of lesion growth in CNS with minimal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathankumar, R.; Mohan, T. R. Krishna

    2013-07-01

    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier [1, 2] which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. We compared some of the dynamical patterns in the model with different facets of MS. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist in the model which minimizes system damage while, at once, achieving control of lesion growth.

  16. Protein damage and repair controlling seed vigor and longevity.

    PubMed

    Ogé, Laurent; Broyart, Caroline; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Jallet, Denis; Bourdais, Gildas; Job, Dominique; Grappin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The formation of abnormal isoaspartyl residues derived from aspartyl or asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous protein misfolding in cells. The repair enzyme protein L: -isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) counteracts such damage by catalyzing the conversion of abnormal isoaspartyl residues to their normal aspartyl forms. Thus, this enzyme contributes to the survival of many organisms, including plants. Analysis of the accumulation of isoaspartyl-containing proteins and its modulation by the PIMT repair pathway, using germination tests, immunodetection, enzymatic assays, and HPLC analysis, gives new insights in understanding controlling mechanisms of seed longevity and vigor.

  17. Nutriomes and personalised nutrition for DNA damage prevention, telomere integrity maintenance and cancer growth control.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage at the base sequence and chromosome level is a fundamental cause of developmental and degenerative diseases. Multiple micronutrients and their interactions with the inherited and/or acquired genome determine DNA damage and genomic instability rates. The challenge is to identify for each individual the combination of micronutrients and their doses (i.e. the nutriome) that optimises genome stability, including telomere integrity and functionality and DNA repair. Using nutrient array systems with high-content analysis diagnostics of DNA damage, cell death and cell growth, it is possible to define, on an individual basis, the optimal nutriome for DNA damage prevention and cancer growth control. This knowledge can also be used to improve culture systems for cells used in therapeutics such as stem cells to ensure that they are not genetically aberrant when returned to the body. Furthermore, this information could be used to design dietary patterns that deliver the micronutrient combinations and concentrations required for preventing DNA damage by micronutrient deficiency or excess. Using this approach, new knowledge could be obtained to identify the dietary restrictions and/or supplementations required to control specific cancers, which is particularly important given that reliable validated advice is not yet available for those diagnosed with cancer.

  18. Crocin Improves Damage Induced by Nicotine on A Number of Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Khazaei, Mozafar; Jalili, Cyrus; Keivan, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Background Crocin, a carotenoid isolated from Crocus sativus L. (saffron), is a pharmacologically active component of saffron. Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility in males through induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of crocin on reproductive parameter damages in male mice exposed to nicotine. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided 48 mice into 8 groups (n=6 per group): control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg)+nicotine (2.5 mg/kg). Mice received once daily intraperitoneal injections of crocin, nicotine and crocin+nicotine for 4 weeks. Sperm parameters (count, motility, and viability), testis weight, seminiferous tube diameters, testosterone, and serum nitric oxide levels were analyzed and compared. Results Nicotine administration significantly decreased testosterone level; sperm count, viability, and motility; testis weight and seminiferous tubule diameters compared to the control group (P<0.05). However, increasing the dose of crocin in the crocin and crocin+nicotine groups significantly boosted sperm motility and viability; seminiferous tubule diameters; testis weight; and testosterone levels in all groups compared to the nicotine group (P<0.05). Conclusion Crocin improves nicotine-induced adverse effects on reproductive parameters in male mice. PMID:27123203

  19. Rotary ultrasonic bone drilling: Improved pullout strength and reduced damage.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Pandey, Pulak M; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-03-01

    Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool. Both techniques were used to drill holes in porcine bones in an in-vitro study. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe microcracks and surface morphology. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the number and dimensions of microcracks generated on the inner surface of drilled holes with the RUBD process in comparison to CSBD. It was also observed that a higher rotational speed and a lower feed rate resulted in lower damage, i.e. fewer microcracks. Biomechanical axial pullout strength of a cortical bone screw inserted into a hole drilled with RUBD was found to be much higher (55-385%) than that for CSBD.

  20. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Kennedy, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy panels with buffer strips were tested in tension to measure their residual strength with crack-like damage. Panels were made with 45/0/-45/90(2S) and 45/0/450(2S) layups. The buffer strips were parallel to the loading directions. They were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of either 0 deg S-Glass/epoxy or Kevlar-49/epoxy on either a one for one or a two for one basis. In a third case, O deg graphite/epoxy was used as the buffer material and thin, perforated Mylar strips were placed between the 0 deg piles and the cross-plies to weaken the interfaces and thus to isolate the 0 deg plies. Some panels were made with buffer strips of different widths and spacings. The buffer strips arrested the cracks and increased the residual strengths significantly over those plain laminates without buffer strips. A shear-lag type stress analysis correctly predicted the effects of layups, buffer material, buffer strip width and spacing, and the number of plies of buffer material.

  1. Improvements in Modeling Thruster Plume Erosion Damage to Spacecraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos; Olsen, Randy; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Mikatarian, Ron; Myers, Brandon; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft bipropellant thrusters impact spacecraft surfaces with high speed droplets of unburned and partially burned propellant. These impacts can produce erosion damage to optically sensitive hardware and systems (e.g., windows, camera lenses, solar cells and protective coatings). On the International Space Station (ISS), operational constraints are levied on the position and orientation of the solar arrays to mitigate erosion effects during thruster operations. In 2007, the ISS Program requested evaluation of erosion constraint relief to alleviate operational impacts due to an impaired Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). Boeing Space Environments initiated an activity to identify and remove sources of conservatism in the plume induced erosion model to support an expanded range of acceptable solar array positions ? The original plume erosion model over-predicted plume erosion and was adjusted to better correlate with flight experiment results. This paper discusses findings from flight experiments and the methodology employed in modifying the original plume erosion model for better correlation of predictions with flight experiment data. The updated model has been successful employed in reducing conservatism and allowing for enhanced flexibility in ISS solar array operations.

  2. Direct Emissivity Measurements of Painted Metals for Improved Temperature Estimation During Laser Damage Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR IMPROVED TEMPERATURE ESTIMATION DURING LASER DAMAGE TESTING THESIS Sean M. Baumann, Civilian...radiance measurement, and fitted spectral radiance results, of one pixel on the back surface of a painted metal sample, far from laser burn-through hole...parabolic mirror NET noise-equivalent temperature xv DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR IMPROVED TEMPERATURE ESTIMATION DURING LASER DAMAGE

  3. Modular multivariable control improves hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, T.L.; Lefkowitz, I.; Tamas, P.D.

    1996-10-01

    Modular multivariable control (MMC), a system of interconnected, single process variable controllers, can be a user-friendly, reliable and cost-effective alternative to centralized, large-scale multivariable control packages. MMC properties and features derive directly from the properties of the coordinated controller which, in turn, is based on internal model control technology. MMC was applied to a hydrocracking unit involving two process variables and three controller outputs. The paper describes modular multivariable control, MMC properties, tuning considerations, application at the DCS level, constraints handling, and process application and results.

  4. Space Digital Controller for Improved Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves-Nunes, Samuel; Daras, Gaetan; Dehez, Bruno; Maillard, Christophe; Bekemans, Marc; Michel, Raymond

    2014-08-01

    Performing digital motor control into space equipment is a new challenge. The new DPC (Digital Programmable Controller) is the first chip that we can use as a micro-controller, allowing us to drive motors with digital control schemes. In this paper, the digital control of hybrid stepper motors is considered. This kind of motor is used for solar array rotation and antenna actuation. New digital control technology brings a lot of advantages, allowing an important reduction of thermal losses inside the motor, and a reduction of thermal constraints on power drive electronic components. The opportunity to drive motors with a digital controller also brings many new functionalities like post-failure torque analysis, micro- vibrations and cogging torque reduction, or electro- mechanical damping of solar array oscillations. To evaluate the performance of the system, Field-Oriented Control (FOC) is implemented on a hybrid stepper motor. A test-bench, made of an active load, has been made to emulate the mechanical behaviour of the solar array, by the use of a torsionally-compliant model. The experimental results show that we can drastically reduce electrical power consumption, compared with the currently used open-loop control scheme.

  5. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  6. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which

  7. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  8. Circadian Clock Control of the Cellular Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Sancar, Aziz; Lindsey-Boltz, Laura A.; Kang, Tae-Hong; Reardon, Joyce T.; Lee, Jin Hyup; Ozturk, Nuri

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cells possess a cell-autonomous molecular clock which controls the timing of many biochemical reactions and hence the cellular response to environmental stimuli including genotoxic stress. The clock consists of an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop made up of four genes/proteins, BMal1, Clock, Cryptochrome, and Period. The circadian clock has an intrinsic period of about 24 hours, and it dictates the rates of many biochemical reactions as a function of the time of the day. Recently, it has become apparent that the circadian clock plays an important role in determining the strengths of cellular responses to DNA damage including repair, checkpoints, and apoptosis. These new insights are expected to guide development of novel mechanism-based chemotherapeutic regimens. PMID:20227409

  9. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  10. Lateralised motor control: hemispheric damage and the loss of deftness

    PubMed Central

    Hanna-Pladdy, B; Mendoza, J; Apostolos, G; Heilman, K

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To learn if the left compared with the right hemisphere of right handed subjects exerts bilateral compared with contralateral motor control when performing precise and coordinated finger movements. Methods: The study investigated intertask differences of manual motor asymmetries such as speed, precision, and independent finger movements, in patients with unilateral lesions of the left (LHD) or right hemisphere (RHD) and normal controls (C). Results: Normal subjects showed the greatest right hand preference on a task that required rapid coordinated and precise independent finger movements (coin rotation). Both hemisphere damaged groups revealed contralateral motor deficits, but the magnitudes of asymmetries were found to be significantly different (RHD>C>LHD) with contralateral and ipsilateral deficits for LHD subjects. The greatest ipsilateral deficits for the LHD subjects were on those tasks that require precision (grooved pegboard and coin rotation). Conclusions: The degree of hemispheric specialisation is, in part, dependent upon the nature of the motor task, with left hemisphere motor control necessary for tasks that require precision and coordinated independent finger movements. PMID:12397154

  11. A modal H∞-norm-based performance requirement for damage-tolerant active controller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genari, Helói F. G.; Mechbal, Nazih; Coffignal, Gérard; Nóbrega, Eurípedes G. O.

    2017-04-01

    Damage-tolerant active control (DTAC) is a recent research area that encompasses control design methodologies resulting from the application of fault-tolerant control methods to vibration control of structures subject to damage. The possibility of damage occurrence is not usually considered in the active vibration control design requirements. Damage changes the structure dynamics, which may produce unexpected modal behavior of the closed-loop system, usually not anticipated by the controller design approaches. A modal H∞ norm and a respective robust controller design framework were recently introduced, and this method is here extended to face a new DTAC strategy implementation. Considering that damage affects each vibration mode differently, this paper adopts the modal H∞ norm to include damage as a design requirement. The basic idea is to create an appropriate energy distribution over the frequency range of interest and respective vibration modes, guaranteeing robustness, damage tolerance, and adequate overall performance, taking into account that it is common to have previous knowledge of the structure regions where damage may occur during its operational life. For this purpose, a structural health monitoring technique is applied to evaluate modal modifications caused by damage. This information is used to create modal weighing matrices, conducting to the modal H∞ controller design. Finite element models are adopted for a case study structure, including different damage severities, in order to validate the proposed control strategy. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology with respect to damage tolerance.

  12. Improving memory following prefrontal cortex damage with the PQRST method

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Neri, Francesco; Marini, Luca; Braghittoni, Davide

    2015-01-01

    We tested (1) whether the PQRST method, involving Preview (P), Question (Q), Read (R), State (S), and Test (T) phases, is effective in enhancing long-term memory in patients with mild memory problems due to prefrontal cortex lesions, and (2) whether patients also benefit from a more self-initiated version of the PQRST. Seven patients with prefrontal lesions encoded new texts under three different conditions: the Standard condition, requiring to read texts repeatedly, the PQRST-Other condition, in which the experimenter formulated questions about the text (Q phase), and the PQRST-Self condition, in which patients formulated the relevant questions on their own. Compared to the Standard condition, both the PQRST-Other and the PQRST-Self condition resulted in higher immediate and delayed recall rates, as well as a higher ability to answer questions about the texts. Importantly, the two PQRST conditions did not differ in efficacy. These results confirm that the PQRST method is effective in improving learning of new material in brain-injured populations with mild memory problems. Moreover, they indicate that the PQRST proves effective even under conditions with higher demands on patients’ autonomy and self-initiation, which encourages its application to real-life situations. PMID:26321932

  13. Decreasing the damage in smart structures using integrated online DDA/ISMP and semi-active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, K.; Amini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Integrated structural health monitoring (SHM) and vibration control has been considered recently by researchers. Up to now, all of the research in the field of integrated SHM and vibration control has been conducted using control devices and control algorithms to enhance system identification and damage detection. In this study, online SHM is used to improve the performance of structural vibration control, unlike previous research. Also, a proposed algorithm including integrated online SHM and a semi-active control strategy is used to reduce both damage and seismic response of the main structure due to strong seismic disturbance. In the proposed algorithm the nonlinear behavior of the building structure is simulated during the excitation. Then, using the measured data and the damage detection algorithm based on identified system Markov parameters (DDA/ISMP), a method proposed by the authors, damage corresponding to axial and bending stiffness of all structural elements is identified. In this study, a 20 t MR damper is employed as a control device to mitigate both damage and dynamic response of the building structure. Also, the interaction between SHM and a semi-active control strategy is assessed. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, a two bay two story steel braced frame structure is used. By defining the damage index and damage rate index, the input current of the MR damper is generated using a fuzzy logic controller. The obtained results show that the possibility of smart building creation is provided using the proposed algorithm. In comparison to the widely used strategy of only vibration control, it is shown that the proposed algorithm is more effective. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithm, the total consumed current intensity and generated control forces are considerably less than for the strategy of only vibration control.

  14. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    The color of turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  15. Spatial resolution improvement for Lamb wave-based damage detection using frequency dependency compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Liang; Lin, Jing; Bao, Jingjing; Joseph, Roshan Prakash; Huang, Liping

    2017-04-01

    In Lamb wave inspection systems, the transfer functions of the transmitter and receiver, and the attenuation as Lamb wave propagates through the structure, result in frequency dependency in the amplitude of Lamb modes. This frequency dependency in amplitude also influences the testing resolution and complicates the damage evaluation. With the goal of spatial resolution improving, a frequency dependency compensation method is proposed. In this method, an accurate estimation of the frequency-dependent amplitude is firstly obtained, then a refined inverse filter is designed and applied to the raw Lamb mode signals to compensate the frequency dependency. An experimental example is introduced to illustrate the process of the proposed method. Besides, its sensitivity to the propagation distance and Taylor expansion order is thoroughly investigated. Finally, the proposed method is employed for damage detection. Its effectiveness in testing resolution improvement and damage identification could be obviously demonstrated by the imaging result of the damage.

  16. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  17. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  18. Recommendations for assessing sea lamprey damages: toward optimizing the control program in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Lupi, Frank; Rutter, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program currently allocates stream treatments to optimize the number of juvenile sea lampreys killed for a given level of control. Although the economic benefits derived from control appear to outweigh the dollars spent on control efforts, optimizing the number of sea lampreys killed will not necessarily optimize the economic benefits provided by the fish communities. These benefits include both non-consumptive and fishery values. We emphasize that the biological damages caused by each juvenile sea lamprey will vary, as will the economic value associated with each host that is killed. We consider issues related to assessing damages due to sea lampreys, taking into account effects on the fish community and fisheries, so as to improve the sea lamprey control program. We recommend a consolidation of information regarding the valuation of benefits, better understanding of variation in host-parasite interactions among the Great Lakes, and integration of the control program with other fisheries management objectives and activities. Adoption of these recommendations should promote lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes, healthy fish communities and prudent use of limited fishery management resources.

  19. [Application of damage control theory on the trauma orthopaedic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-bo; Jin, Hong-bin

    2009-07-01

    The treatment of severely traumatic patients was changing from total care treament to the damage control surgery, as a result in the inflammatory reaction caused by trauma, in which the inflammatory marks, such as interleukin-6 and serum procalcitonin in the blood increased, and caused hypothermia, acidosis, and disturbance of blood coagulation, and resulted in the acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organs failure. A long-term operation as the second hit made the disease worse. In the patients, the femoral fracture was treated with external fixator; the pelvic fracture was treated with external fixator, and the uncontrolled haemorrhage in the pelvis was treated through direct hemostasis, angiography and embolism of arteries, and the tamponade of pelvis; the purpose of treatment of spinal fracture was keeping the stability of spine, avoiding the secondary injury on the spinal cord. It must pay attention to the injury of the adjacent organs and infection in the opening spinal injury. The result of operation was better in the incomplete spinal cord injury.

  20. The improvement of laser induced damage resistance of optical workpiece surface by hydrodynamic effect polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wenqiang; Guan, Chaoliang; Li, Shengyi; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-10-01

    Surface and subsurface damage in optical element will greatly decrease the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the intense laser optical system. Processing damage on the workpiece surface can be inevitably caused when the material is removed in brittle or plastic mode. As a non-contact polishing technology, hydrodynamic effect polishing (HEP) shows very good performance on generating an ultra-smooth surface without damage. The material is removed by chemisorption between nanoparticle and workpiece surface in the elastic mode in HEP. The subsurface damage and surface scratches can be effectively removed after the polishing process. Meanwhile ultra-smooth surface with atomic level surface roughness can be achieved. To investigate the improvement of LIDT of optical workpiece, polishing experiment was conducted on a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) silica glass sample. AFM measurement results show that all the MRF directional plastic marks have been removed clearly and the root-mean-square (rms) surface roughness has decreased from 0.673nm to 0.177nm after HEP process. Laser induced damage experiment was conducted with laser pulse of 1064nm wavelength and 10ns time width. Compared with the original state, the LEDT of the silica glass sample polished by HEP has increased from 29.78J/cm2 to 45.47J/cm2. It demonstrates that LIDT of optical element treated by HEP can be greatly improved for ultra low surface roughness and nearly defect-free surface/subsurface.

  1. Blood pressure control has distinct effects on executive function, attention, memory and markers of cerebrovascular damage.

    PubMed

    Semplicini, A; Inverso, G; Realdi, A; Macchini, L; Maraffon, M; Puato, M; Zanardo, M; Tirrito, C; Amodio, P; Schiff, S; Mapelli, D; Manara, R

    2011-02-01

    Hypertension causes cognitive impairment, involving mainly executive functions, but the effect of blood pressure (BP) control on the different cognitive domains is still debated. We correlated executive function, attention and memory with BP control and cerebrovascular damage in 60 undemented middle-aged hypertensives at baseline and after 6-year follow-up. At first evaluation, the patients with poor BP control had higher score of white matter lesions, reduced cerebrovascular reserve capacity and greater carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) than those with good BP control. Performance on executive tests correlated with IMT and with performance on attention tests, which was impaired by low diastolic BP. At long-term follow-up, performance in attention and executive tests improved in spite of the minor improvement of BP control, increased IMT and worse memory. Low diastolic BP has a negative effect on attention, which affects executive performance at first cross-sectional examination. This confounding effect has to be taken into consideration when planning studies on cognitive function. Longitudinal studies are required to unravel the effect of BP control on cognitive function, as only long-term antihypertensive treatment improves both attention and executive performance.

  2. A Piloted Evaluation of Damage Accommodating Flight Control Using a Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Cox, David E.; Murri, Daniel G.; Riddick, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Toward the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport airplanes due to loss of control, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted research into flight control technologies that can provide resilient control of airplanes under adverse flight conditions, including damage and failure. As part of the safety program s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, the NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system was designed to address the challenges associated with the safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws under adverse flight conditions. This paper presents the results of a series of pilot evaluations of several flight control algorithms used during an offset-to-landing task conducted at altitude. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the ability of various flight control technologies to prevent loss of control as stability and control characteristics were degraded. During the course of 8 research flights, data were recorded while one task was repeatedly executed by a single evaluation pilot. Two generic failures, which degraded stability and control characteristics, were simulated inflight for each of the 9 different flight control laws that were tested. The flight control laws included three different adaptive control methodologies, several linear multivariable designs, a linear robust design, a linear stability augmentation system, and a direct open-loop control mode. Based on pilot Cooper-Harper Ratings obtained for this test, the adaptive flight control laws provided the greatest overall benefit for the stability and control degradation scenarios that were considered. Also, all controllers tested provided a significant improvement in handling qualities over the direct open-loop control mode.

  3. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Doctor, Allan

    2014-05-01

    C there was less clinical bleeding than when blood was reconstituted with components or when platelets were stored at 22°C. Early reversal of shock is essential to prevent exacerbation of coagulopathy and progression of cell death cascades in patients with severe traumatic injuries. Red blood cell storage solutions have evolved to accommodate the needs of non-critically ill patients yet may not be optimal for patients in hemorrhagic shock. Continued focus on the recognition and treatment of shock is essential for continued improvement in outcomes for patients who require damage control resuscitation and RDCR.

  4. Improved process control alarm operation.

    PubMed

    Bristol, E H

    2001-01-01

    Alarms are the main connection from the automation to the operator, when addressing process operation outside of its normal function. They are often as much a source of operator overload and consternation as help. Better engineering of the relative role of the operator and automation would materially help overcome the difficulties. Expert systems have been proposed as a solution. But Expert systems are really another form of automation. There remains that aspect of the alarms, which must address our inability to cover and understand a possibly larger domain of the operation not appropriate to traditional controls or present-day automation. Appropriate tools for this domain must support operator discretion and initiative. The paper suggests a set of such general, computer science based, tools requiring only the most basic configuration. They are viewed as implemented on top of those properly detailed alarm displays and interlocks, which reflect the more formal plant operating policies. They include: (a) Various forms of alarm logging and trending; (b) Short, automatically generated, word summaries of alarm activity, which allow low level data to propagate to the highest levels, including: one word and priority summaries; (c) Causal alarm pattern analyses that help the operator to predict or diagnose alarm behavior; (d) Automatic adaptation of alarms and alarm limits to varying process situations; (e) Uniform use of alarm policies to simplify alarm configuration.

  5. Tracking and Control of Gas Turbine Engine Component Damage/Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaw, Link C.; Wu, Dong N.; Bryg, David J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes damage mechanisms and the methods of controlling damages to extend the on-wing life of critical gas turbine engine components. Particularly, two types of damage mechanisms are discussed: creep/rupture and thermo-mechanical fatigue. To control these damages and extend the life of engine hot-section components, we have investigated two methodologies to be implemented as additional control logic for the on-board electronic control unit. This new logic, the life-extending control (LEC), interacts with the engine control and monitoring unit and modifies the fuel flow to reduce component damages in a flight mission. The LEC methodologies were demonstrated in a real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The results show that LEC is not only a new paradigm for engine control design, but also a promising technology for extending the service life of engine components, hence reducing the life cycle cost of the engine.

  6. NUCDAM (Nuclear Damage Assessment Module) Control Document. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-19

    NOSC. Nuclear Damage Assessment BGTCSF NUCDAM Tactical Engagement Training Tactical Nuclear Weapon NWISS - 20 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide it...the configuration management plan by which changes to NUCDAM are initiated. U) DD IFORM 1473 EDITION or INOV SS IS OBSOLETEU UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF...5I 3.2 NUCDAM Module ...... .. ... ....... 7 3.3 Nuclear Environments.. ........... 9 3.4 Unit OATs.......................... 9 3.5 Damage Environments

  7. Flight Test of an Adaptive Controller and Simulated Failure/Damage on the NASA NF-15B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschbacher, Mark; Maliska, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The method of flight-testing the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Second Generation (Gen-2) project on the NASA NF-15B is herein described. The Gen-2 project objective includes flight-testing a dynamic inversion controller augmented by a direct adaptive neural network to demonstrate performance improvements in the presence of simulated failure/damage. The Gen-2 objectives as implemented on the NASA NF-15B created challenges for software design, structural loading limitations, and flight test operations. Simulated failure/damage is introduced by modifying control surface commands, therefore requiring structural loads measurements. Flight-testing began with the validation of a structural loads model. Flight-testing of the Gen-2 controller continued, using test maneuvers designed in a sequenced approach. Success would clear the new controller with respect to dynamic response, simulated failure/damage, and with adaptation on and off. A handling qualities evaluation was conducted on the capability of the Gen-2 controller to restore aircraft response in the presence of a simulated failure/damage. Control room monitoring of loads sensors, flight dynamics, and controller adaptation, in addition to postflight data comparison to the simulation, ensured a safe methodology of buildup testing. Flight-testing continued without major incident to accomplish the project objectives, successfully uncovering strengths and weaknesses of the Gen-2 control approach in flight.

  8. Improved Flow-Controlling Vortex Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Marner, Wilbur J.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1989-01-01

    Symmetrical tangential streams control flow of radial primary streams. Vortex generator uses small secondary stream of fluid to control normally-larger primary stream. Improved version of vortex generator described in "Variable Control Port for Fluidic Control Device," (NPO-16603). Secondary, or control, flows entering tangentially through diametrically opposite ports set up swirling motion restraining primary flow. Pressure of secondary fluid in relation to primary fluid controlling factor. Like valve, vortex generator varies rate of flow of primary fluid from maximum value down to zero. When properly designed, requires low pressure differential between primary and secondary streams and expends relatively small amount of secondary fluid.

  9. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance of composite laminates at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Buffer strips greatly improve the damage tolerance of graphite/epoxy laminates loaded in tension. Graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels were made and tested to determine their residual strength at ambient and elevated (177 C) temperature. Each panel was cut in the center to represent damage. Panels were radiographed and crack-opening displacements were recorded to indicate fracture, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after arrest. All panels had the same buffer strip spacing and width. The buffer strip material was 0 deg S-glass/PMR-15. The buffer strips were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of the 0 deg S-glass on either a one-for-one or a two-for-one basis. Half of the panels were heated to 177 + or - 3 C before and during the testing. Elevated temperature did not alter the fracture behavior of the buffer configuration.

  10. Adaptive active vibration control to improve the fatigue life of a carbon-epoxy smart structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Resta, Ferruccio; Torti, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Active vibration controls are helpful in improving fatigue life of structures through limitation of absolute displacements. However, control algorithms are usually designed without explicitly taking into account the fatigue phenomenon. In this paper, an adaptive vibration controller is proposed to increase the fatigue life of a smart structure made of composite material and actuated with piezoelectric patches. The main innovation with respect to the most common solutions is that the control laws are directly linked to a damage driving force, which is correlated to a fatigue damage model for the specific material. The control logic is different depending on the damage state of the structure. If no significant damage affects the structure, the controller decreases the crack nucleation probability by limiting the driving forces in the overall structure. On the contrary, if initiated cracks are present, their further propagation is prevented by controlling the damage driving forces in the already damaged areas. The structural diagnostics is performed through a vibration-based health monitoring technique, while periodical adaptation of the controller is adopted to consider damage-induced changes on the structure state-space model and to give emphasis to the most excited modes. The control algorithm has been numerically validated on the finite element model of a cantilever plate.

  11. A protocol for a scoping and qualitative study to identify and evaluate indications for damage control surgery and damage control interventions in civilian trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Derek J; Zygun, David A; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G; Faris, Peter D; Bobrovitz, Niklas; Robertson, Helen Lee; Stelfox, H Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Initial abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is frequently used for major trauma patients to rapidly control haemorrhage while limiting surgical stress. Although damage control surgery may decrease mortality risk among the severely injured, it may also be associated with several complications when inappropriately applied. We seek to scope the literature on trauma damage control surgery, identify its proposed indications, map and clarify their definitions, and examine the content and evidence on which they are based. We also seek to generate a comprehensive list of unique indications to inform an appropriateness rating process. Methods and analysis We will search 11 electronic bibliographic databases, included article bibliographies and grey literature sources for citations involving civilian trauma patients that proposed one or more indications for damage control surgery or a damage control intervention. Indications will be classified into a predefined conceptual framework and categorised and described using qualitative content analysis. Constant comparative methodology will be used to create, modify and test codes describing principal findings or injuries (eg, bilobar liver injury) and associated decision variables (eg, coagulopathy) that comprise the reported indications. After a unique list of codes have been developed, we will use the organisational system recommended by the RAND/University of California, Los Angeles (RAND-UCLA) Appropriateness Rating Method to group principal findings or injuries into chapters (subdivided by associated decision variables) according to broader clinical findings encountered during surgical practice (eg, major liver injury). Ethics and dissemination This study will constitute the first step in a multistep research programme aimed at developing appropriate, evidence-informed indications for damage control in civilian trauma patients. With use of an integrated knowledge translation

  12. Technologies for Fire and Damage Control and Condition Based Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    plume Fire not suppressed, values for 300 s FDS CFD 278 67-200 Wall obstructions added between fire and door [O2]ext = suppression concentration...one and two zone models and a computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ) model. The results of the modeling studies were compared to those from large scale...computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ) model to predict fire suppression results for large fires was evaluated. In the fifth WBE, Novel Fire and Damage Tolerant

  13. HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L

    2010-02-23

    The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical

  14. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  15. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  16. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  17. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  18. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  19. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving.

  20. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  1. FRF-based structural damage detection of controlled buildings with podium structures: Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Huang, Q.; Zhan, S.; Su, Z. Q.; Liu, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    How to use control devices to enhance system identification and damage detection in relation to a structure that requires both vibration control and structural health monitoring is an interesting yet practical topic. In this study, the possibility of using the added stiffness provided by control devices and frequency response functions (FRFs) to detect damage in a building complex was explored experimentally. Scale models of a 12-storey main building and a 3-storey podium structure were built to represent a building complex. Given that the connection between the main building and the podium structure is most susceptible to damage, damage to the building complex was experimentally simulated by changing the connection stiffness. To simulate the added stiffness provided by a semi-active friction damper, a steel circular ring was designed and used to add the related stiffness to the building complex. By varying the connection stiffness using an eccentric wheel excitation system and by adding or not adding the circular ring, eight cases were investigated and eight sets of FRFs were measured. The experimental results were used to detect damage (changes in connection stiffness) using a recently proposed FRF-based damage detection method. The experimental results showed that the FRF-based damage detection method could satisfactorily locate and quantify damage.

  2. Influence of biological control damage on efficacy of penoxsulam and two other herbicides on waterhyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) in the southeastern U.S. have been reduced by widespread herbicidal control and by introduced waterhyacinth weevils (Neochetina spp) and native pathogens. However, damaging populations of this weed persist and integrated approaches ...

  3. Controlling large malpractice claims: the unexpected impact of damage caps.

    PubMed

    Gronfein, W P; Kinney, E D

    1991-01-01

    Indiana's comprehensive malpractice reforms, inaugurated in 1975, include a cap on damages, a mandated medical review before trial, and a state insurance fund to pay claims equal to or greater than $100,000. We have found that the amount of compensation going to claimants with such large malpractice claims in Indiana is, on average, substantially higher than in Michigan and Ohio. Indiana's mean claim severity between 1977 and 1988 was $404,832, while the means for Michigan and Ohio were $290,022 and $303,220, respectively, with the difference between these three means being highly significant. Although data on claim and claimant characteristics reveal considerable interstate variation, the results of regression analyses show that Indiana claim payment amounts are higher than Michigan or Ohio payments, independent of the effect of factors such as sex, age, severity of injury, allegations of negligence, and year of settlement.

  4. Simulation of Spacecraft Damage Tolerance and Adaptive Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    operator. Limitations of current technology abounded, leaving the X-15 with a successful, but severely limited adaptive control system. Since then...many limitations have fallen away, allowing for the first time employment of adaptive controls on a large scale. The nature of adaptive controls, or...THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540–01–280–5500 Standard Form

  5. Improvement of Adaptive Cruise Control Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Shigeharu; Nakagami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sei; Izumi, Tomoji; Naito, Hisayoshi; Yanou, Akira; Nakamura, Hitomi; Takehara, Shin

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the Adaptive Cruise Control system (ACC), a system which reduces the driving burden on the driver. The ACC system primarily supports four driving modes on the road and controls the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle in order to maintain a set speed or to avoid a crash. This paper proposes more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by radar while cornering, with consideration for the vehicle sideslip angle, and also of controlling the distance between vehicles. By making full use of the proposed identification logic for preceding vehicles and path estimation logic, an improvement in driving stability was achieved.

  6. An improved drone tracking control system transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James J.; Tannenholz, Philip H.

    A small, compact, and inexpensive method of achieving frequency stability of a solid state LO to +/- 1 MHz in the MD700C-1 drone tracking and control system C-band command and control transponder is described. The methodology for realizing improved RF rejection, local oscillator stability, automatic gain control, and power supply efficiency is discussed. A switching mode regulator and a nonsaturating power supply were designed to operate at 80 percent efficiency to reduce power consumption and heat while operating over a wide voltage range.

  7. Far Forward Anesthesia and Massive Blood Transfusion: Two Cases Revealing the Challenge of Damage Control Resuscitation in an Austere Environment.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, David; Kroll, Nicholas A; Ochs, Alyson A; Schreiber, Martin A; Pandalai, Prakash K

    2015-10-01

    Since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, the US military has treated more than 51,000 casualties and sustained more than 6,600 deaths. The past decade of conflict has solidified major advances in the use of blood component therapy and the liberal use of fresh whole blood during damage control resuscitation. This resuscitation strategy, combined with far forward damage control surgery, rapid aeromedical evacuation, and major improvements in critical care air transportation and personal protective equipment has led to a 90% to 92% survival rate in US casualties. We describe 2 cases treated by a Forward Surgical Team serving in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom in 2014. Both patients suffered severe trauma and required massive blood transfusion and damage control surgery. In describing these 2 cases, we wish to share our experience with damage control, resuscitation in an austere environment, as well as advocate for the critical role of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist in advancing the knowledge and execution of this lifesaving strategy in both military and civilian trauma centers. In addition, we suggest alternatives to the current transfusion strategy, which will mitigate limitations currently encountered.

  8. Compensator improvement for multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.; Mcdaniel, W. L., Jr.; Gresham, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    A theory and the associated numerical technique are developed for an iterative design improvement of the compensation for linear, time-invariant control systems with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. A strict constraint algorithm is used in obtaining a solution of the specified constraints of the control design. The result of the research effort is the multiple input, multiple output Compensator Improvement Program (CIP). The objective of the Compensator Improvement Program is to modify in an iterative manner the free parameters of the dynamic compensation matrix so that the system satisfies frequency domain specifications. In this exposition, the underlying principles of the multivariable CIP algorithm are presented and the practical utility of the program is illustrated with space vehicle related examples.

  9. Improved computed torque control for industrial robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uebel, Mark; Minis, Ioannis; Cleary, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine the computed torque control problem for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators due to the dynamics introduced by the joint drive systems. The proposed approach overcomes this problem by combining a novel computed torque algorithm with simple torque controllers at each joint of the robot. The control scheme is applied to a seven degree-of-freedom industrial manipulator, and the system performance in standard tasks is evaluated using both dynamic simulation and actual experiments. The results show that the proposed controller leads to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD (proportional plus derivative) controller.

  10. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  11. One session of partial-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) improves muscle damage recovery.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, A; Siqueira, A F; Vieira, C A; Durigan, J L Q; Cadore, E L; Coelho, L G M; Simões, H G; Bemben, M G

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a single session of partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) on muscle recovery, 26 young men performed a muscle-damaging protocol that consisted of five sets of 20 drop jumps with 2-min rest intervals between sets. After the exercise, the PBC group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min of PBC at -110 °C, and the control group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min at 21 °C. Anterior thigh muscle thickness, isometric peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee extensors were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following exercise. Peak torque did not return to baseline in control group (P < 0.05), whereas the PBC group recovered peak torques 96 h post exercise (P > 0.05). Peak torque was also higher after PBC at 72 and 96 h compared with control group (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness increased after 24 h in the control group (P < 0.05) and was significantly higher compared with the PBC group at 24 and 96 h (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline for the PBC group at 72 h compared with 96 h for controls. These results indicate that PBC after strenuous exercise may enhance recovery from muscle damage.

  12. Improvement of quercetin protective effect against oxidative stress skin damages by incorporation in nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Manca, Maria Letizia; Castangia, Ines; Caddeo, Carla; Pando, Daniel; Escribano, Elvira; Valenti, Donatella; Lampis, Sandrina; Zaru, Marco; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Quercetin was incorporated in glycerosomes, new phospholipid-glycerol vesicles, and their protective effect against oxidative stress skin damages was extensively evaluated. In particular, the concentration-dependent effect of glycerol (from 10 to 50%) on vesicle suitability as cutaneous carriers of quercetin was carefully assessed. All vesicles were unilamellar and small in size (∼80-110 nm), as confirmed by cryo-TEM observation, with a drug incorporation efficiency ranging between 81 and 91%. SAXS studies, performed to investigate the bilayer arrangement, indicated a strong, dose-dependent interaction of glycerol with the polar portions of the phospholipid molecules, while quercetin did not significantly change the bilayer packing. In vitro studies on newborn pig skin underlined the concentration-dependent ability of glycerosomes to promote quercetin accumulation in the different layers, also confirmed by confocal microscopic observation of skin treated with fluorescent vesicles. Quercetin incorporated into liposomal and glycerosomal nanoformulations showed a strong ability to scavenge free radicals (DPPH test) and protect human keratinocytes in vitro against hydrogen peroxide damage. Moreover, quercetin-loaded vesicles were avidly taken up by keratinocytes in vitro. Overall, results indicate 40 and 50% glycerosomes as promising nanosystems for the improvement of cutaneous quercetin delivery and keratinocyte protection against oxidative stress damage.

  13. Effects of C1 inhibitor on tissue damage in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J; Li, Yansong; Simovic, Milomir; Pusateri, Anthony E; Falabella, Michael; Dubick, Michael A; Tsokos, George C

    2012-07-01

    Activation of the complement system has been associated with tissue injury after hemorrhage and resuscitation in animals. We investigated whether administration of recombinant human C1-esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH), a regulator of complement and contact activation systems, reduces tissue damage and cytokine release and improves metabolic acidosis in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. Male Yorkshire swine were assigned to experimental groups and subjected to controlled, isobaric hemorrhage to a target mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg. Hypotension was maintained for 20 min followed by a bolus intravenous injection of rhC1-INH or vehicle; animals were then observed for 3 h. Blood chemistry and physiologic parameters were recorded. Lung and small intestine tissue samples were subjected to histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry to determine the extent of injury and deposition of complement proteins. Cytokine levels and quantitative assessment of renal and hepatic function were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemistry analyzer, respectively. Pharmacokinetics of rhC1-INH revealed dose proportionality for maximum concentration, half-life, and the time span in which the functional C1-INH level was greater than 1 IU/mL. Recombinant human C1-INH significantly reduced renal, intestinal, and lung tissue damage in a dose-dependent manner (100 and 250 IU/kg). In addition, rhC1-INH (250 IU/kg) markedly improved hemorrhage-induced metabolic acidosis and circulating tumor necrosis factor α. The tissue-protective effects of rhC1-INH appear to be related to its ability to reduce tissue complement activation and deposition. Recombinant human C1-INH decreased tissue complement activation and deposition in hemorrhaged animals, improved metabolic acidosis, reduced circulating tumor necrosis factor α, and attenuated tissue damage in this model. The observed beneficial effects of rhC1-INH treatment on tissue injury 20 min into severe hypotension

  14. Inhibitory attentional control in patients with frontal lobe damage

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Mariana; Nakic, Marina; Elpern-Waxman, Jordan; Granetz, Joy; O'Grady, Joy; Phipps, Michael; Milne, Elizabeth; Logan, Gordon D.; Hasher, Lynn; Grafman, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a group of frontal lobe lesion and a group of frontal lobe dementia patients was compared with the performance of their respective matched normal control groups on two tests of inhibitory attentional control—the stop-signal reaction time task and a negative priming task. Both patient groups responded significantly slower than their respective normal control groups, but they showed only marginally significant selective impairments on the measures of inhibition. The data suggest that the specific inhibitory processes evaluated by these two tests are, in general, spared in patients with focal frontal lobe lesions or frontal lobe degeneration. PMID:12821109

  15. Damage-mitigating control of a reusable rocket engine for high performance and extended life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Dai, Xiaowen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of damage mitigating control in reusable rocket engines is to achieve high performance with increased durability of mechanical structures such that functional lives of the critical components are increased. The major benefit is an increase in structural durability with no significant loss of performance. This report investigates the feasibility of damage mitigating control of reusable rocket engines. Phenomenological models of creep and thermo-mechanical fatigue damage have been formulated in the state-variable setting such that these models can be combined with the plant model of a reusable rocket engine, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), for synthesizing an optimal control policy. Specifically, a creep damage model of the main thrust chamber wall is analytically derived based on the theories of sandwich beam and viscoplasticity. This model characterizes progressive bulging-out and incremental thinning of the coolant channel ligament leading to its eventual failure by tensile rupture. The objective is to generate a closed form solution of the wall thin-out phenomenon in real time where the ligament geometry is continuously updated to account for the resulting deformation. The results are in agreement with those obtained from the finite element analyses and experimental observation for both Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper and a copper-zerconium-silver alloy called NARloy-Z. Due to its computational efficiency, this damage model is suitable for on-line applications of life prediction and damage mitigating control, and also permits parametric studies for off-line synthesis of damage mitigating control systems. The results are presented to demonstrate the potential of life extension of reusable rocket engines via damage mitigating control. The control system has also been simulated on a testbed to observe how the damage at different critical points can be traded off without any significant loss of engine performance. The research work

  16. Smart Materials, Structures, and Mathematical Issues for Active Damage Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    objective was to learn the state-of-the-art in smart structures and vibration control in the U.S. Dr. Zhongwei Jiang, Associate Professor...Chaudhry Dr. Victor Giurgiutiu Dr. Frederic Lalande Dr. 0. Song Mr. Fanping Sun Ms. Linda Vick Dr. J. H. Lee Dr. Chen Liang 30 Graduate Students...High- Displacement Induced-Strain Actuator (HAHDIS Actuator)," VTIP Disclosure No. 94-049. Fanping Sun, Zaffir Chaudhry, Chen Liang and Craig A

  17. Non-damaging, portable radiography: Applications in arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.; Butterfield, K.B.; Apt, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    The state-of-the-technology necessary to perform portable radiography in support of arms control verification is evaluated. Specific requirements, such as accurate measurements of the location of features in a treaty-limited object and the detection of deeply imbedded features, are defined in three scenarios. Sources, detectors, portability, mensuration, and safety are discussed in relation to the scenarios. Examples are given of typical radiographic systems that would be capable of addressing the inspection problems associated with the three scenarios.

  18. Antecedent glycemic control reduces severe hypoglycemia-induced neuronal damage in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Tanoli, Tariq; Bree, Adam; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Cui, Chen; Maloney, Susan E; Wozniak, David F; Fisher, Simon J

    2013-06-15

    Brain damage due to severe hypoglycemia occurs in insulin-treated people with diabetes. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic insulin therapy that normalizes elevated blood glucose in diabetic rats would be neuroprotective against brain damage induced by an acute episode of severe hypoglycemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were split into three groups: 1) control, non-diabetic; 2) STZ-diabetic; and 3) insulin-treated STZ-diabetic. After 3 wk of chronic treatment, unrestrained awake rats underwent acute hyperinsulinemic severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dl) clamps for 1 h. Rats were subsequently analyzed for brain damage and cognitive function. Severe hypoglycemia induced 15-fold more neuronal damage in STZ-diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic rats. Chronic insulin treatment of diabetic rats, which nearly normalized glucose levels, markedly reduced neuronal damage induced by severe hypoglycemia. Fortunately, no cognitive defects associated with the hypoglycemia-induced brain damage were observed in any group. In conclusion, antecedent blood glucose control represents a major modifiable therapeutic intervention that can afford diabetic subjects neuroprotection against severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage.

  19. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 μg/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of

  20. Improved methodology for generating controlled test atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Miller, R R; Letts, R L; Potts, W J; McKenna, M J

    1980-11-01

    Improved methodology has been developed for generating controlled test atmospheres. Vaporization of volatile liquids is accomplished in a 28 mm (O.D.) glass J-tube in conjunction with a compressed air flameless heat torch, a pressure-sensitive switch, and a positive displacement piston pump. The vaporization system has been very reliable with a variety of test materials in studies ranging from a few days to several months. The J-tube vaporization assembly minimizes the possibility of thermal decomposition of the test material and affords a better margin of safety when vaporizing potentially explosive materials.

  1. Dispersive matched filtering of ultrasonic guided waves for improved sparse array damage localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppescu, Gregory C.; Dawson, Alexander J.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2016-02-01

    Although bulk waves have served as the industry standard in nondestructive evaluation for many years, guided waves (Lamb waves in plates) have become the focus of many current research efforts because they are able to interrogate larger areas of a structure in less time. Despite this advantage, guided waves also have characteristics that obfuscate data interpretation. The first property of guided waves that complicates analysis is their dispersive nature: their wave speed is a function of frequency. The second is that they are multimodal: they propagate as multiple symmetric and antisymmetric modes. Using pulse-compression techniques and a priori calculations of theoretical dispersion curves, the dispersive matched filter attempts to take advantage of these otherwise undesirable characteristics by maximizing the autocorrelation for only one mode, ideally increasing both the signal-to-noise ratio and time-resolution of ultrasonic guided wave measurements. In this research, the responses from broadband chirp excitations are recorded from a sparse transducer array after propagation through an aluminum plate containing no damage and simulated damage. Dispersive matched filtering is applied to the measurements and localization images are generated using the delay-and-sum method. Imaging results are compared to those obtained with narrowband tone burst excitations in terms of their ability to detect and localize the different scatterers. Results show that the dispersive matched filter notably improves the quality of the localization images.

  2. Designing for Damage: Robust Flight Control Design using Sliding Mode Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.; Hess, Ronald A.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor); Davidson, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A brief review of sliding model control is undertaken, with particular emphasis upon the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. Sliding model control design is interpreted in the frequency domain. The inclusion of asymptotic observers and control 'hedging' is shown to reduce the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. An investigation into the application of observer-based sliding mode control to the robust longitudinal control of a highly unstable is described. The sliding mode controller is shown to exhibit stability and performance robustness superior to that of a classical loop-shaped design when significant changes in vehicle and actuator dynamics are employed to model airframe damage.

  3. Structural damage detection using extended Kalman filter combined with statistical process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional modal-based methods, which identify damage based upon changes in vibration characteristics of the structure on a global basis, have received considerable attention in the past decades. However, the effectiveness of the modalbased methods is dependent on the type of damage and the accuracy of the structural model, and these methods may also have difficulties when applied to complex structures. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm which has the capability to estimate parameters and catch abrupt changes, is currently used in continuous and automatic structural damage detection to overcome disadvantages of traditional methods. Structural parameters are typically slow-changing variables under effects of operational and environmental conditions, thus it would be difficult to observe the structural damage and quantify the damage in real-time with EKF only. In this paper, a Statistical Process Control (SPC) is combined with EFK method in order to overcome this difficulty. Based on historical measurements of damage-sensitive feathers involved in the state-space dynamic models, extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is used to produce real-time estimations of these features as well as standard derivations, which can then be used to form control ranges for SPC to detect any abnormality of the selected features. Moreover, confidence levels of the detection can be adjusted by choosing different times of sigma and number of adjacent out-of-range points. The proposed method is tested using simulated data of a three floors linear building in different damage scenarios, and numerical results demonstrate high damage detection accuracy and light computation of this presented method.

  4. Improving the laser-induced damage threshold of 532-nm antireflection coating using plasma ion cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Meiping; Xing, Huanbin; Chai, Yingjie; Yi, Kui; Sun, Jian; Wang, Jianguo; Shao, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    BK7 glass substrates were precleaned by different cleaning procedures before being loaded into a vacuum chamber, and then a series of plasma ion cleaning procedures were conducted at different bias voltages in the vacuum chamber, prior to the deposition of 532-nm antireflection (AR) coatings. The plasma ion cleaning process was implemented by the plasma ion bombardment from an advanced plasma source. The surface morphology of the plasma ion-cleaned substrate, as well as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the 532-nm AR coating was investigated. The results indicated that the LIDT of 532-nm AR coating can be greatly influenced by the plasma ion cleaning energy. The plasma ion cleaning with lower energy is an attractive method to improve the LIDT of the 532-nm AR coating, due to the removal of the adsorbed contaminations on the substrate surface, as well as the removal of part of the chemical impurities hidden in the surface layer.

  5. Ipsilesional trajectory control is related to contralesional arm paralysis after left hemisphere damage.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Kathleen Y; Schaefer, Sydney Y; Knight, Robert T; Adair, John; Magalhaes, Alvaro; Sadek, Joseph; Sainburg, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    We have recently shown ipsilateral dynamic deficits in trajectory control are present in left hemisphere damaged (LHD) patients with paresis, as evidenced by impaired modulation of torque amplitude as response amplitude increases. The purpose of the current study is to determine if these ipsilateral deficits are more common with contralateral hemiparesis and greater damage to the motor system, as evidenced by structural imaging. Three groups of right-handed subjects (healthy controls, LHD stroke patients with and without upper extremity paresis) performed single-joint elbow movements of varying amplitudes with their left arm in the left hemispace. Only the paretic group demonstrated dynamic deficits characterized by decreased modulation of peak torque (reflected by peak acceleration changes) as response amplitude increased. These results could not be attributed to lesion volume or peak velocity as neither variable differed across the groups. However, the paretic group had damage to a larger number of areas within the motor system than the non-paretic group suggesting that such damage increases the probability of ipsilesional deficits in dynamic control for modulating torque amplitude after left hemisphere damage.

  6. Earthquake Damage to Industrial Facilities and Development of Seismic and Vibration Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kohei

    This paper reviews the situations and features of earthquake damage to industrial facilities, manufacturing companies, energy supply facilities, and mechanical structures and installations in Japan, and traces trends of countermeasure technology developed focusing on earthquake resistance and vibration control. In Japan, with the 1964 Niigata earthquake as the turning point, earthquake damage to industrial facilities became a social problem. With power stations being constructed in the 1960s, it also became an important technological policy to establish seismic design method for nonbuilding structures such as equipment and piping systems related to nuclear power. The Kobe earthquake in 1995 damaged production companies including leading manufacturers so extensively that it brought a new focus to seismic considerations. We studied the damage to typical equipment and installations and, based on this experience, investigated the features of damage modes to industrial facilities and machinery and considered corresponding technical measures. We present some examples and discuss progressive trends in seismic and vibration control technology following the Kobe earthquake. In particular, we focus on the new seismic design code for high-pressure gas facilities and the development of seismic and vibration control dampers and their applications.

  7. FeTPPS Reduces Secondary Damage and Improves Neurobehavioral Functions after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Campolo, Michela; Casili, Giovanna; Di Paola, Rosanna; Paterniti, Irene; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) determinate a cascade of events that rapidly lead to neuron's damage and death. We already reported that administration of FeTPPS, a 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin iron III chloride peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, possessed evident neuroprotective effects in a experimental model of spinal cord damage. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective property of FeTPPS in TBI, using a clinically validated model of TBI, the controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). We observe that treatment with FeTPPS (30 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced: the state of brain inflammation and the tissue hurt (histological score), myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide production, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and apoptosis process. Moreover, treatment with FeTPPS re-established motor-cognitive function after CCI and it resulted in a reduction of lesion volumes. Our results established that FeTPPS treatment decreases the growth of inflammatory process and the tissue injury associated with TBI. Thus our study confirmed the neuroprotective role of FeTPPS treatment on TBI. PMID:28223911

  8. Damage control surgery--new concept or reenacting of a classical idea?

    PubMed

    Beuran, Mircea; Iordache, Florin-Mihail

    2008-01-01

    Damage-control surgery is an example of a paradigm shift. The term is borrowed from naval teminology and means gaining the initial control of a damaged ship. Because of the lethal triad the polytrauma patient is at a grave risk. The classical concept of surgically solving all the patient's injuries in the first moment was even theoretically incorrect as a multiple injured patient is a critical patient with depleted reserves. As such, complex procedures were doomed from this point of view. The concept of damage-control surgery emerged in 1992. The core idea was that as minimal as possible had to be done in these critical patients in the first phase, meaning temporary control of a hemorrhage and simple measures for stopping contamination. After 24-48 hours in the ICU, in which time the physiological disturbances were corrected, a further intervention is perfomed for definitively treating the injuries. Further refinements consider five stages and not three in damage-control surgery. The bright side of the concept is an up to 70% survivability rate but with a higher risk of complications, mostly due to the policy of temporary closing the abdomen and sepsis.

  9. Robust Damage-Mitigating Control of Aircraft for High Performance and Structural Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, Jeffrey; Ray, Asok; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and a design methodology for robust damage-mitigating control (DMC) of aircraft. The goal of DMC is to simultaneously achieve high performance and structural durability. The controller design procedure involves consideration of damage at critical points of the structure, as well as the performance requirements of the aircraft. An aeroelastic model of the wings has been formulated and is incorporated into a nonlinear rigid-body model of aircraft flight-dynamics. Robust damage-mitigating controllers are then designed using the H(infinity)-based structured singular value (mu) synthesis method based on a linearized model of the aircraft. In addition to penalizing the error between the ideal performance and the actual performance of the aircraft, frequency-dependent weights are placed on the strain amplitude at the root of each wing. Using each controller in turn, the control system is put through an identical sequence of maneuvers, and the resulting (varying amplitude cyclic) stress profiles are analyzed using a fatigue crack growth model that incorporates the effects of stress overload. Comparisons are made to determine the impact of different weights on the resulting fatigue crack damage in the wings. The results of simulation experiments show significant savings in fatigue life of the wings while retaining the dynamic performance of the aircraft.

  10. Improved Sizing of Impact Damage in Composites Based on Thermographic Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Howell Patricia A.; Leckey, Cara A.; Rogge, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Impact damage in thin carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites often results in a relatively small region of damage at the front surface, with increasing damage near the back surface. Conventional methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of the composite tend to underestimate the size of the back surface damage, since the smaller near surface damage gives the largest thermographic indication. A method is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for the impact damage that is much closer to the size of the damage estimated from other NDE techniques such as microfocus x-ray computed tomography and pulse echo ultrasonics. Examples of the application of the technique to experimental data acquired on specimens with impact damage are presented. The method is also applied to the results of thermographic simulations to investigate the limitations of the technique.

  11. Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Critical Design, Control, and Fault Prognosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous with respect to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in critical design, Life Extending Control and fault prognosis. The work is based on the local strain cyclic damage modeling method. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modelling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models is also presented. Progress toward a non-zero mean stress based is presented. Also new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are derived for this case. Application of the various models to design, control, and fault prognosis is considered.

  12. Improvement of the SOFIA secondary mirror controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinacher, Andreas; Onillon, Emmanuel; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2010-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5m infrared telescope build into a Boeing 747SP. During observations the telescope will not only be subject to aircraft vibrations and maneuver loads - by opening a large door to give the observatory an unhindered view of the sky, there will also be aerodynamic and aeroacoustic disturbances. A critical factor in the overall telescope performance is the SOFIA Secondary Mirror Assembly. The 35cm silicon carbide mirror is mounted on the Secondary Mirror Mechanism, which has five degrees-of-freedom (rotation about line of sight is blocked) and consists of two parts: The slow moving base for focusing and centering, and on top of that the Tilt Chop Mechanism (TCM) for chopping with a frequency of up to 20Hz and a chop throw of up to 10arcmin. A new controller for the TCM is introduced in this paper in order to meet the stringent performance requirements for the chopper. A state space controller is chosen that combines a feedback path for steady state behavior with a model-based feed forward controller for improved settling time performance. The paper explains the modeling of the TCM via a grey box model approach optimized with system identification data and compares simulated with measured data. Then the structure of the controller is explained and Matlab/Simulink simulations are presented. The simulation results are compared to measurements taken with the real system on ground and finally flight test results with open and closed door are discussed.

  13. Extended Kalman filter based structural damage detection for MR damper controlled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Jiang, Zhaoshuo; Christenson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers have been widely used in many building and bridge structures against earthquake and wind loadings due to its advantages including mechanical simplicity, high dynamic range, low power requirements, large force capacity, and robustness. However, research about structural damage detection methods for MR damper controlled structures is limited. This paper aims to develop a real-time structural damage detection method for MR damper controlled structures. A novel state space model of MR damper controlled structure is first built by combining the structure's equation of motion and MR damper's hyperbolic tangent model. In this way, the state parameters of both the structure and MR damper are added in the state vector of the state space model. Extended Kalman filter is then used to provide prediction for state variables from measurement data. The two techniques are synergistically combined to identify parameters and track the changes of both structure and MR damper in real time. The proposed method is tested using response data of a three-floor MR damper controlled linear building structure under earthquake excitation. The testing results show that the adaptive extended Kalman filter based approach is capable to estimate not only structural parameters such as stiffness and damping of each floor, but also the parameters of MR damper, so that more insights and understanding of the damage can be obtained. The developed method also demonstrates high damage detection accuracy and light computation, as well as the potential to implement in a structural health monitoring system.

  14. Evaluation of Modern Navies’ Damage Control and Firefighting Training using Simulator Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    17 June 2011. Particularly, I would like to thank LT Ponce for his assistance and help. Moreover, I would like to thank LT Nigel McDonald, DCC Shawn...watershed moment in modern navy history. It was also a wake -up call on the need for better force protection, damage control training, intelligence

  15. U.S. Navy Shipboard Damage Control: Innovation and Implementation During the Interwar Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    Schaub, 65 pages. The United States Navy adopted the fundamentals of modern shipboard damage control from the Germans at the end of World War I...to a long distance marriage for the sake of war , but it is something else entirely to accept the separation for joint education and another year of

  16. DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A NATURAL BIO-DEFENSE MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A natural bio-defense mechanism
    Anuradha Mudipalli.

    Maintenance of genetic information, including the correct sequence of nucleotides in DNA, is essential for replication, gene expression, and protein synthesis. DNA lesions onto...

  17. Calcium-energized motor protein forisome controls damage in phloem: potential applications as biomimetic "smart" material.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-06-01

    Forisomes are ATP independent, mechanically active proteins from the Fabaceae family (also called Leguminosae). These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisomes are SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family proteins that have recently been shown to be involved in wound sealing mechanism. Recent findings suggest that forisomes could act as an ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for the development of nanotechnological devices like microinstruments, the microfluidic system frequently used in space exploration missions. Technology enabling improvement in micro instruments has been identified as a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Forisomes are designated as biomimetic smart materials which are calcium-energized motor proteins. Since forisomes are biomolecules from plant systems it can be doctored through genetic engineering. In contrast, "smart" materials which are not derived from plants are difficult to modify in their properties. Current levels of understanding about forisomes conformational shifts with respect to calcium ions and pH changes requires supplement of future advances with relation to its 3D structure to understand self assembly processes. In plant systems it forms blood clots in the form of occlusions to prevent nutrient fluid leakage and thus proves to be a unique damage control system of phloem tissue.

  18. Improving Symptom Control in Early Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by a severe loss of pigmented dopamine-producing nigro-striatal neurons. Symptomatic therapies provide benefit for motor features by restoring dopamine receptor stimulation. Studies have demonstrated that delaying the introduction of dopaminergic medical therapy is associated with a rapid decline in quality of life. Nonmotor symptoms, such as depression, are common in early PD and also affect quality of life. Therefore, dopaminergic therapy should typically be initiated at, or shortly following, diagnosis. Monamine oxidase-B inhibitors provide mild symptomatic benefit, have excellent side effect profiles, and may improve long-term outcomes, making them an important first-line treatment option. Dopamine agonists (DAs) provide moderate symptomatic benefit but are associated with more side effects than levodopa. However, they delay the development of motor complications by delaying the need for levodopa. Levodopa (LD) is the most efficacious medication, but its chronic use is associated with the development of motor complications that can be difficult to resolve. Younger patients are more likely to develop levodopa-induced motor complications and they are therefore often treated with a DA before levodopa is added. For older patients, levodopa provides good motor benefit with a relatively low-risk of motor complications. Using levodopa with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor lessens adverse effects, and further adding a catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor can improve symptom control. PMID:21180628

  19. Bladed wheels damage detection through Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis improved algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, P.

    2017-05-01

    Recent papers introduced the Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection. This technique showed its potential in estimating the frequency of sinusoidal signals even when the acquisition time is short with respect to the vibration period, provided that some hypothesis are fulfilled. Anyway, previously proposed algorithms showed severe limitations in cracks detection at their early stage. The present paper proposes an improved algorithm which allows to detect a blade vibration frequency shift due to a crack whose size is really small compared to the blade width. Such a technique could be implemented for condition-based maintenance, allowing to use non-contact methods for vibration measurements. A stator-fixed laser sensor could monitor all the blades as they pass in front of the spot, giving precious information about the wheel health. This configuration determines an acquisition time for each blade which become shorter as the machine rotational speed increases. In this situation, traditional Discrete Fourier Transform analysis results in poor frequency resolution, being not suitable for small frequency shift detection. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis instead showed high reliability in vibration frequency estimation even with data samples collected in a short time range. A description of the improved algorithm is provided in the paper, along with a comparison with the previous one. Finally, a validation of the method is presented, based on finite element simulations results.

  20. On improving the use of OCT imaging for detecting glaucomatous damage

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Donald C; Raza, Ali S

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe two approaches for improving the detection of glaucomatous damage seen with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The two approaches described were: one, a visual analysis of the high-quality OCT circle scans and two, a comparison of local visual field sensitivity loss to local OCT retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thinning. OCT images were obtained from glaucoma patients and suspects using a spectral domain OCT machine and commercially available scanning protocols. A high-quality peripapillary circle scan (average of 50), a three-dimensional (3D) scan of the optic disc, and a 3D scan of the macula were obtained. RGC+ and RNFL thickness and probability plots were generated from the 3D scans. Results A close visual analysis of a high-quality circle scan can help avoid both false positive and false negative errors. Similarly, to avoid these errors, the location of abnormal visual field points should be compared to regions of abnormal RGC+ and RNFL thickness. Conclusions To improve the sensitivity and specificity of OCT imaging, high-quality images should be visually scrutinised and topographical information from visual fields and OCT scans combined. PMID:24934219

  1. Cornel Iridoid Glycoside Improves Locomotor Impairment and Decreases Spinal Cord Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wen-jing; Ma, Deng-lei; Yang, Cui-cui; Zhang, Li; Li, Ya-li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study was to investigate the effects of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Methods. The thoracic cord (at T9) of rats was injured by clip compression for 30 sec. Locomotor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale. Neuroanatomic stereological parameters as well as Nogo-A, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and ROCKII expression were measured by histological processing, immunohistochemistry, and stereological analyses. The axons passing through the lesion site were detected by BDA tracing. Results. Intragastric administration of CIG (60 and 180 mg/kg) improved the locomotor impairment at 10, 17, 24, and 31 days post-injury (dpi) compared with untreated SCI model rats. CIG treatment decreased the volume of the lesion epicenter (LEp) and increased the volume of spared tissue and the number of surviving neurons in the injured spinal cord at 31 dpi. CIG promoted the growth of BDA-positive axons and their passage through the lesion site and decreased the expression of Nogo-A, p75NTR, and ROCKII both in and around the LEp. Conclusion. CIG improved the locomotor impairment, decreased tissue damage, and downregulated the myelin-associated inhibition signaling pathway in SCI rats. The results suggest that CIG may be beneficial for SCI therapy. PMID:27990434

  2. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  3. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Del Bó, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Brambilla, Ada; Rizzolo, Anna; Porrini, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly reduced (P < .01) H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function.

  4. Ubiquitin facilitates a quality-control pathway that removes damaged chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Joens, Matthew S.; Sinson, Andrew B.; Gilkerson, Jonathan; Salome, Patrice A.; Weigel, Detlef; Fitzpatrick, James A.; Chory, Joanne

    2015-10-23

    Energy production by chloroplasts and mitochondria causes constant oxidative damage. A functioning photosynthetic cell requires quality-control mechanisms to turn over and degrade chloroplasts damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here in this study, we generated a conditionally lethal Arabidopsis mutant that accumulated excess protoporphyrin IX in the chloroplast and produced singlet oxygen. Damaged chloroplasts were subsequently ubiquitinated and selectively degraded. A genetic screen identified the plant U-box 4 (PUB4) E3 ubiquitin ligase as being necessary for this process. pub4-6 mutants had defects in stress adaptation and longevity. As a result, we have identified a signal that leads to the targeted removal of ROS-overproducing chloroplasts.

  5. Ubiquitin facilitates a quality-control pathway that removes damaged chloroplasts

    DOE PAGES

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Joens, Matthew S.; Sinson, Andrew B.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Energy production by chloroplasts and mitochondria causes constant oxidative damage. A functioning photosynthetic cell requires quality-control mechanisms to turn over and degrade chloroplasts damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here in this study, we generated a conditionally lethal Arabidopsis mutant that accumulated excess protoporphyrin IX in the chloroplast and produced singlet oxygen. Damaged chloroplasts were subsequently ubiquitinated and selectively degraded. A genetic screen identified the plant U-box 4 (PUB4) E3 ubiquitin ligase as being necessary for this process. pub4-6 mutants had defects in stress adaptation and longevity. As a result, we have identified a signal that leads to the targetedmore » removal of ROS-overproducing chloroplasts.« less

  6. Lamotrigine Decreased Hippocampal Damage and Improved Vascular Risk Markers in a Rat Model of Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Basma S; Raafat, Mona H; Abdel Kawy, Hala S

    2014-01-01

    Various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) especially enzyme-inducing AEDs might be associated with increased vascular risk, through impairment of the endogenous antioxidative ability which may trigger oxygen-dependent tissue injury. Lamotrigine (LTG) a non-enzyme-inducing AED has scarce information regarding its effects on oxidative stress. The present study aimed to study the possible modulation of vascular risk factors of epileptogenesis by LTG, in a rat model of kindling seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Four groups of male Wister rats were used; vehicle control group, PTZ group (alternate day PTZ, 30 mg/kg, i.p), LTG/PTZ group (LTG 20 mg/kg/day p.o and alternate day PTZ) and LTG group. The study period was 5 weeks. Lipoproteins and total homocysteine (tHcy), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured. Aortic endothelial function study and histopathological examination of the rats' brains, aortas and coronaries were conducted. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), tHcy, MDA, GSH levels were significantly higher in epileptic rats than normal controls rats. A decrease in HDL-cholesterol with high atherosclerotic index was also demonstrated. The administration of LTG improved the PTZ-kindled seizures. It produced a significant decrease in TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol, MDA, aortic GSH and increase in HDL-cholesterol with no significant effect on serum GSH and tHcy levels. LTG improved endothelium-dependent relaxation, decreased hippocampal neurodegenerative changes and atherosclerotic changes of aortas and coronaries. LTG decreased seizures severity, hippocampal damage and improved vascular risk markers in this rat model of kindling seizures. PMID:24976768

  7. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-08-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process.

  8. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-01-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process. PMID:27484188

  9. Timing control improves seabed survey data quality

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.

    1996-04-01

    Seateam has completed development of and field-proven the Dolphin data acquisition and timing system for high-density surveys offshore. The Dolphin project was initiated to improve quality control of survey sensor data and ensure time synchronization, thus leading to faster turnaround of seabed terrain information. Data received from survey sensors is asynchronous, so the system must provide for data correlation. This includes establishment of data latency, i.e., the time difference between data creation and timing of the message at first-byte arrival at the recording system. Until recently, asynchronous data from multiple sensors was collected by a single computer, regardless of whether it had additional intelligent or non-intelligent serial cards. This computer was fully responsible for time stamping all incoming data, plus associated storage and distribution. Though this initially sufficed and is still applicable to low-density data, increasingly larger data volumes required an associated boost in the capability to time stamp data prior to eventual correction.

  10. Improving conveyor efficiency by controlling fugitive material

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbeck, L.J.

    1996-11-01

    The conveyor belt has been identified as one of the major sources of what call DURT-fugitive material that escapes from bulk handling systems. This presentation is focused on ways to dramatically improve belt conveyor designs to control DURT. This information can`t be found in any of the computer design software currently used to guide engineers. It is the result of the author`s examination of DURT-generating conveyors all over the world, in all types of industries. The solution to conveyor DURT starts with the client--the people who will live with the conveyor and its fugitive material on a daily basis. Too often the client specifies the tonnage he expects the conveyor to deliver but does not include in the same specification a target for cleanliness. Until these specifications list a quantitative amount of belt carryback permissible and the amount of spillage allowed to leak out at the transfer points--and until design and engineering firms are held accountable for these performance levels--belt conveyors will continue to be a major source of DURT. This paper examines a typical conveyor transfer point and reviews a number of items that are seldom given more than a cursory look at the design stage, but which can contribute heavily to fugitive material problems.

  11. Na+-K+ pump stimulation improves contractility in damaged muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2005-12-01

    Skeletal muscles have a high content of Na+-K+-ATPase, an enzyme that is identical to the Na+-K+ pump, a transport system mediating active extrusion of Na+ from the cells and accumulation of K+ in the cells. The major function of the Na+-K+ pumps is to maintain the concentration gradients for Na+ and K+ across the plasma membrane. This generates the resting membrane potential, allowing the propagation of action potentials, excitation-contraction coupling and force development. Muscles exposed to (1) high extracellular K+ or (2) low extracellular Na+ show a considerable loss of force. A similar force decline is elicited by (3) increasing Na+ permeability or (4) decreasing K+ permeability. Under all of these four conditions, stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps can restore contractility. Following exposure to electroporation or fatiguing stimulation, muscle cell membranes develop leaks to Na+ and K+ and a partially reversible loss of force. The restoration of force is abolished by blocking the Na+-K+ pumps and markedly improved by stimulating the Na+-K+ pumps with beta 2-agonists, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or dbcAMP. These observations indicate that the Na+-K+ pumps are important for the functional compensation of the commonly occurring loss of muscle cell integrity. Stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps with beta 2-agonists or other agents may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of muscle cell damage induced by electrical shocks, prolonged exercise, burns, or bruises.

  12. Optimal Ozone Control with Inclusion of Spatiotemporal Marginal Damages and Electricity Demand.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, S Morteza; Hakami, Amir; Schott, Stephan

    2015-07-07

    Marginal damage (MD), or damage per ton of emission, is a policy metric used for effective pollution control and reducing the corresponding adverse health impacts. However, for a pollutant such as NOx, the MD varies by the time and location of the emissions, a complication that is not adequately accounted for in the currently implemented economic instruments. Policies accounting for MD information would aim to encourage emitters with large MDs to reduce their emissions. An optimization framework is implemented to account for NOx spatiotemporal MDs calculated through adjoint sensitivity analysis and to simulate power plants' behavior under emission and simplified electricity constraints. The results from a case study of U.S. power plants indicate that time-specific MDs are high around noon and low in the evening. Furthermore, an emissions reduction of about 40% and a net benefit of about $1200 million can be gained for this subset of power plants if a larger fraction of the electricity demand is supplied by power plants at low-damage times and in low-damage locations. The results also indicate that the consideration of temporal effects in NOx control policies results in a comparable net benefit to the consideration of spatial or spatiotemporal effects, thus providing a promising option for policy development.

  13. Driving safety after brain damage: follow-up of twenty-two patients with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Katz, R T; Golden, R S; Butter, J; Tepper, D; Rothke, S; Holmes, J; Sahgal, V

    1990-02-01

    Driving after brain damage is a vital issue, considering the large number of patients who suffer from cerebrovascular and traumatic encephalopathy. The ability to operate a motor vehicle is an integral part of independence for most adults and so should be preserved whenever possible. The physician may estimate a patient's ability to drive safely based on his own examination, the evaluation of a neuropsychologist, and a comprehensive driving evaluation--testing, driving simulation, behind-the-wheel observation--with a driving specialist. This study sought to evaluate the ability of brain-damaged individuals to operate a motor vehicle safely at follow-up. These patients had been evaluated (by a physician, a neuropsychologist, and a driving specialist) and were judged able to operate a motor vehicle safely after their cognitive insult. Twenty-two brain-damaged patients who were evaluated at our institution were successfully followed up to five years (mean interval of 2.67 years). Patients were interviewed by telephone. Their driving safely was compared with a control group consisting of a close friend or spouse of each patient. Statistical analysis revealed no difference between patient and control groups in the type of driving, the incidence of speeding tickets, near accidents, and accidents, and the cost of vehicle damage when accidents occurred. The patient group was further divided into those who had, and those who had not experienced driving difficulties so that initial neuropsychologic testing could be compared. No significant differences were noted in any aspect of the neuropsychologic test battery. We conclude that selected brain-damaged patients who have passed a comprehensive driving assessment as outlined were as fit to drive as were their normal matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field.

  15. Concepts for improving the damage tolerance of composite compression panels. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The residual strength of specimens with damage and the sensitivity to damage while subjected to an applied inplane compression load were determined for flatplate specimens and blade-stiffened panels. The results suggest that matrix materials that fail by delamination have the lowest damage tolerance capability. Alternate matrix materials or laminates which are transversely reinforced suppress the delamination mode of failure and change the failure mode to transverse shear crippling which occurs at a higher strain value. Several damage-tolerant blade-stiffened panel design concepts are evaluated. Structural efficiency studies conducted show only small mass penalties may result from incorporating these damage-tolerant features in panel design. The implication of test results on the design of aircraft structures was examined with respect to FAR requirements.

  16. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  17. DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Nurse, P

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms ensure the order of cell cycle events to preserve genomic integrity. Among these, the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints prevent chromosome segregation when DNA replication is inhibited or DNA is damaged. Recent studies have identified an outline of the regulatory networks for both of these controls, which apparently operate in all eukaryotes. In addition, it appears that these checkpoints have two arrest points, one is just before entry into mitosis and the other is prior to chromosome separation. The former point requires the central cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 kinase, whereas the latter involves several key regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex. Linkages between these cell-cycle regulators and several key checkpoint proteins are beginning to emerge. Recent findings on post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions of the checkpoint proteins provide new insights into the checkpoint responses, although the functional significance of these biochemical properties often remains unclear. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms acting at the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the modifications of these controls during the meiotic cell cycle. We have made comparisons with the controls in fission yeast and other organisms, mainly the distantly related budding yeast. PMID:10861204

  18. Dub3 controls DNA damage signalling by direct deubiquitination of H2AX.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Díaz, M Rocío; Martín, Yusé; Berg, Anna; Freire, Raimundo; Smits, Veronique A J

    2014-07-01

    A crucial event in the DNA damage response is the phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination of H2AX, required for the recruitment of proteins involved in DNA repair. Here we identify a novel regulator of this process, the ubiquitin hydrolase Dub3. Overexpression of wild type, but not catalytic inactive, Dub3 decreases the DNA damage-induced mono-ubiquitination of H2A(X) whereas downregulation of Dub3 has the opposite effect. Dub3 overexpression abrogates focus formation of 53BP1 and BRCA1 in response to genotoxic stress. However, focus formation of MDC1 and γH2AX, earlier events in this response, are unaffected by Dub3 overexpression. We show that Dub3 counteracts H2AX E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Moreover, Dub3 and H2AX interact and Dub3 deubiquitinates H2AX in vitro. Importantly, overexpression of Dub3 delays H2AX dephosphorylation and recovery of MDC1 focus formation at later time points after DNA damage, whereas H2AX dephosphorylation at later time points is faster after Dub3 depletion. Altogether these results show that Dub3 regulates a correct DNA damage response by controlling H2AX ubiquitination.

  19. Controlling the response to DNA damage by the APC/C-Cdh1.

    PubMed

    de Boer, H Rudolf; Guerrero Llobet, S; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-03-01

    Proper cell cycle progression is safeguarded by the oscillating activities of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An important player in the regulation of mitotic cyclins is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Prior to entry into mitosis, the APC/C remains inactive, which allows the accumulation of mitotic regulators. APC/C activation requires binding to either the Cdc20 or Cdh1 adaptor protein, which sequentially bind the APC/C and facilitate targeting of multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal destruction, including Securin and Cyclin B, to ensure proper chromosome segregation and mitotic exit. Emerging data have indicated that the APC/C, particularly in association with Cdh1, also functions prior to mitotic entry. Specifically, the APC/C-Cdh1 is activated in response to DNA damage in G2 phase cells. These observations are in line with in vitro and in vivo genetic studies, in which cells lacking Cdh1 expression display various defects, including impaired DNA repair and aberrant cell cycle checkpoints. In this review, we summarize the current literature on APC/C regulation in response to DNA damage, the functions of APC/C-Cdh1 activation upon DNA damage, and speculate how APC/C-Cdh1 can control cell fate in the context of persistent DNA damage.

  20. Rotorcraft flying qualities improvement using advanced control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Postlethwaite, I.; Howitt, J.; Foster, N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on recent experience gained when a multivariable helicopter flight control law was tested on the Large Motion Simulator (LMS) at DRA Bedford. This was part of a study into the application of multivariable control theory to the design of full-authority flight control systems for high-performance helicopters. In this paper, we present some of the results that were obtained during the piloted simulation trial and from subsequent off-line simulation and analysis. The performance provided by the control law led to level 1 handling quality ratings for almost all of the mission task elements assessed, both during the real-time and off-line analysis.

  1. Damage Control Resuscitation And Emergency Laparotomy: Findings From The PROPPR Study

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga Perl, Vicente J.; Leroux, Brian; Cook, Mackenzie R.; Watson, Justin; Fair, Kelly; Martin, David T.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Williams, Carolyn; Inaba, Kenji; Wade, Charles E.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Del Junco, Deborah J; Fox, Erin E.; Scalea, Thomas M.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Holcomb, John B.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial has demonstrated that damage control resuscitation, a massive transfusion strategy targeting a balanced delivery of plasma-platelet-RBC in a ratio of 1:1:1, results in improved survival at 3 hours and a reduction in deaths due to exsanguination in the first 24 hours compared to a 1:1:2 ratio. In light of these findings, we hypothesized that patients receiving 1:1:1 ratio would have improved survival after emergency laparotomy. Methods Severely injured patients predicted to receive a massive transfusion admitted to 12 level I North American trauma centers were randomized to 1:1:1 versus 1:1:2 as described in the PROPPR trial. From these patients, the subset that underwent an emergency laparotomy, defined previously in the literature as laparotomy within 90 minutes of arrival, were identified. We compared rates and timing of emergency laparotomy as well as post-surgical survival at 24-hours and 30-days. Results Of the 680 enrolled patients, 613 underwent a surgical procedure, 397 underwent a laparotomy, and 346 underwent an emergency laparotomy. The percentages of patients undergoing emergency laparotomy were 51.5% (174/338) and 50.3% (172/342) for 1:1:1 and 1:1:2, respectively (p=0.20). Median time to laparotomy was 28 minutes in both treatment groups. Among patients undergoing an emergency laparotomy, the proportions of patients surviving to 24 hours and 30 days were similar between treatment arms, 24-hour survival was 86.8% (151/174) for 1:1:1 and 83.1% (143/172) for 1:1:2 (p=0.29), and 30-day 79.3% (138/174) for 1:1:1 and 75.0% (129/172) for 1:1:2 (p=0.30). Conclusions We found no evidence that resuscitation strategy affects whether a patient requires an emergency laparotomy, time to laparotomy, or subsequent survival. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study. PMID:26808034

  2. Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric mucosal damage induced by intensive stress

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Aysin; Cetin, Asli; Ates, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress has been considered to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene on stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. Material and methods Fifty-six male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + saline, stress + melatonin, stress + ascorbic acid and stress + β-carotene groups. The rats from stress groups were exposed to starvation, immobilization and cold by immobilizing for 8 h at +4°C following 72-hour food restriction. Following stress application, melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene were administered for 7 days. Specimens of gastric tissue were prepared for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Results Mean histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased but mean tissue glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were increased in treatment groups vs. stress groups in general. Mean histopathological damage scores of the stress + Mel group was lower than those of stress + D, stress + S, stress + β-car (p < 0.05) and stress + Asc groups (p < 0.005). Additionally, mean tissue catalase activity of the stress + Mel group was higher than that of stress + S (p < 0.005), stress + D (p < 0.05) and stress + β-car groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric damage induced by intensive stress. We suggest that as well as the direct antioxidant and free radical scavenging potency of melatonin, its indirect effect via the brain-gut axis might account for its greater beneficial action against stress-induced gastric damage. PMID:26528359

  3. Evolution of a Subducted Slab with Viscosity Controlled by Damage and Healing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellas, A. S.; Zhong, S.; Bercovici, D.

    2015-12-01

    The rheology and viscosity in the lithosphere and mantle are fundamental to understanding mantle and lithospheric dynamics including the emergence and evolution of plate tectonics on Earth and other planets. The viscosity is controlled by temperature, stress, and grain size, and particularly, the grain size leads to history-dependence in viscosity through damaging and healing processes at grain scales. Motivated by studies by Bercovici, Schubert and Ricard, [2015] and Schmalholz [2011], in this study, we investigate the rheology and viscosity in the vicinity of a subducted slab which hangs from the overlying lithosphere. We calculate both numerically and analytically the timescale on which viscosity diminishes to a minimum as a result of grain size reduction caused by buoyancy induced deformation and damage. The evolution equation for grain size (or fineness as the inverse grain size) is solved with a second order Runge-Kutta scheme, together with a tracer method, and the mantle dynamics is solved with Citcom which has been modified to include grain size dependent viscosity. We initially do not allow the slab's buoyancy to evolve. The analytical solution for viscosity evolution and its timescale is derived under the assumption that stress is constant. We find that the analytical and numerical solutions of viscosity reduction with time are in good agreement with each other. In all cases, when Dσ2 > H, where D is damage parameter, σ stress, and H healing parameter, which ensures damage dominates over healing, the timescale of the viscosity reduction is inversely proportional to D, and is on the order of 1 Myr for an Earth-like planet. Our work implies that the evolution of rheology in a damage-dominated regime around a subducted slab is a rapid process. We will extend the models to allow slab buoyancy to co-evolve with grain size and viscosity to examine the effect on this characteristic timescale and slab dynamics.

  4. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  5. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  6. Improving Glaucoma Detection Using Spatially Correspondent Clusters of Damage and by Combining Standard Automated Perimetry and Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Ali S.; Zhang, Xian; De Moraes, Carlos G. V.; Reisman, Charles A.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To improve the detection of glaucoma, techniques for assessing local patterns of damage and for combining structure and function were developed. Methods. Standard automated perimetry (SAP) and frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) data, consisting of macular retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (mRGCPL) as well as macular and optic disc retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL and dRNFL) thicknesses, were collected from 52 eyes of 52 healthy controls and 156 eyes of 96 glaucoma suspects and patients. In addition to generating simple global metrics, SAP and fdOCT data were searched for contiguous clusters of abnormal points and converted to a continuous metric (pcc). The pcc metric, along with simpler methods, was used to combine the information from the SAP and fdOCT. The performance of different methods was assessed using the area under receiver operator characteristic curves (AROC scores). Results. The pcc metric performed better than simple global measures for both the fdOCT and SAP. The best combined structure-function metric (mRGCPL&SAP pcc, AROC = 0.868 ± 0.032) was better (statistically significant) than the best metrics for independent measures of structure and function. When SAP was used as part of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, AROC scores increased for all metrics, including the best combined structure-function metric (AROC = 0.975 ± 0.014). Conclusions. A combined structure-function metric improved the detection of glaucomatous eyes. Overall, the primary sources of value-added for glaucoma detection stem from the continuous cluster search (the pcc), the mRGCPL data, and the combination of structure and function. PMID:24408977

  7. Planetary camera control improves microfiche production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesterton, W. L.; Lewis, E. B.

    1965-01-01

    Microfiche is prepared using an automatic control system for a planetary camera. The system provides blank end-of-row exposures and signals card completion so the legend of the next card may by photographed.

  8. Improved internal control for molecular diagnosis assays.

    PubMed

    Vinayagamoorthy, T; Maryanski, Danielle; Vinayagamoorthy, Dilanthi; Hay, Katie S L; Yo, Jacob; Carter, Mark; Wiegel, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The two principal determining steps in molecular diagnosis are the amplification and the identification steps. Accuracy of DNA amplification is primarily determined by the annealing sequence of the PCR primer to the analyte DNA. Accuracy for identification is determined either by the annealing region of a labelled probe for the real time PCR analysis, or the annealing of a sequencing primer for DNA sequencing analysis, that binds to the respective analyte (amplicon). Presently, housekeeping genes (Beta globin, GAPDH) are used in molecular diagnosis to verify that the PCR conditions are optimum, and are thus known as amplification controls [1-4]. Although these genes have been useful as amplification controls, they lack the true definition of an internal control because the primers and annealing conditions are not identical to the analyte being assayed. This may result in a false negative report [5]. The IC-Code platform technology described here provides a true internal control where the internal control and analyte share identical PCR primers annealing sequences for the amplification step and identical sequencing primer annealing sequence for the identification step. •The analyte and internal control have the same PCR and sequencing annealing sequences.•This method assures for little or no false negatives and false positives due to the method's design of using identical annealing conditions for the internal control and analyte, and by using DNA sequencing analysis for the identification step of the analyte, respectively.•This method also allows for a set lower limit of detection to be used by varying the amount of internal control used in the assay.

  9. As we age: Does slippage of quality control in the immune system lead to collateral damage?

    PubMed

    Müller, Ludmila; Pawelec, Graham

    2015-09-01

    The vertebrate adaptive immune system is remarkable for its possession of a very broad range of antigen receptors imbuing the system with exquisite specificity, in addition to the phagocytic and inflammatory cells of the innate system shared with invertebrates. This system requires strict control both at the level of the generation the cells carrying these receptors and at the level of their activation and effector function mediation in order to avoid autoimmunity and mitigate immune pathology. Thus, quality control checkpoints are built into the system at multiple nodes in the response, relying on clonal selection and regulatory networks to maximize pathogen-directed effects and minimize collateral tissue damage. However, these checkpoints are compromised with age, resulting in poorer immune control manifesting as tissue-damaging autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena which can cause widespread systemic disease, paradoxically compounding the problems associated with increased susceptibility to infectious disease and possibly cancer in the elderly. Better understanding the reasons for slippage of immune control will pave the way for developing rational strategies for interventions to maintain appropriate immunity while reducing immunopathology.

  10. Fermented milk improves glucose metabolism in exercise-induced muscle damage in young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effect of fermented milk supplementation on glucose metabolism associated with muscle damage after acute exercise in humans. Methods Eighteen healthy young men participated in each of the three trials of the study: rest, exercise with placebo, and exercise with fermented milk. In the exercise trials, subjects carried out resistance exercise consisting of five sets of leg and bench presses at 70–100% 12 repetition maximum. Examination beverage (fermented milk or placebo) was taken before and after exercise in double-blind method. On the following day, we conducted an analysis of respiratory metabolic performance, blood collection, and evaluation of muscle soreness. Results Muscle soreness was significantly suppressed by the consumption of fermented milk compared with placebo (placebo, 14.2 ± 1.2 score vs. fermented milk, 12.6 ± 1.1 score, p < 0.05). Serum creatine phosphokinase was significantly increased by exercise, but this increase showed a tendency of suppression after the consumption of fermented milk. Exercise significantly decreased the respiratory quotient (rest, 0.88 ± 0.01 vs. placebo, 0.84 ± 0.02, p < 0.05), although this decrease was negated by the consumption of fermented milk (0.88 ± 0.01, p < 0.05). Furthermore, exercise significantly reduced the absorption capacity of serum oxygen radical (rest, 6.9 ± 0.4 μmol TE/g vs. placebo, 6.0 ± 0.3 μmol TE/g, p < 0.05), although this reduction was not observed with the consumption of fermented milk (6.2 ± 0.3 μmol TE/g). Conclusion These results suggest that fermented milk supplementation improves glucose metabolism and alleviates the effects of muscle soreness after high-intensity exercise, possibly associated with the regulation of antioxidant capacity. PMID:23767790

  11. G6PD protects from oxidative damage and improves healthspan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega-Pereira, Sandrina; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Brioche, Thomas; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Flores, Juana M.; Viña, Jose; Serrano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly generated by cells and ROS-derived damage contributes to ageing. Protection against oxidative damage largely relies on the reductive power of NAPDH, whose levels are mostly determined by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Here, we report a transgenic mouse model with moderate overexpression of human G6PD under its endogenous promoter. Importantly, G6PD-Tg mice have higher levels of NADPH, lower levels of ROS-derived damage, and better protection from ageing-associated functional decline, including extended median lifespan in females. The G6PD transgene has no effect on tumour development, even after combining with various tumour-prone genetic alterations. We conclude that a modest increase in G6PD activity is beneficial for healthspan through increased NADPH levels and protection from the deleterious effects of ROS. PMID:26976705

  12. Rebuilding Habitat and Shoreline Resilience through Improved Flood Control Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Rebuilding Habitat and Shoreline Resilience through Improved Flood Control Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  13. Experimental Analysis of Proton-Induced Displacement and Ionization Damage Using Gate-Controlled Lateral PNP Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, D. R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Barnaby, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of proton-irradiated bipolar transistors are affected by ionization damage to the insulating oxide and displacement damage to the semiconductor bulk. While both types of damage degrade the transistor, it is important to understand the mechanisms individually and to be able to analyze them separately. In this paper, a method for analyzing the effects of ionization and displacement damage using gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors is described. This technique allows the effects of oxide charge, surface recombination velocity, and bulk traps to be measured independently.

  14. Error-prone translesion replication of damaged DNA suppresses skin carcinogenesis by controlling inflammatory hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Verspuy, Johan W. A.; Jansen, Jacob G.; Rebel, Heggert; Carlée, Leone M.; van der Valk, Martin A.; Jonkers, Jos; de Gruijl, Frank R.; de Wind, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The induction of skin cancer involves both mutagenic and proliferative responses of the epidermis to ultraviolet (UV) light. It is believed that tumor initiation requires the mutagenic replication of damaged DNA by translesion synthesis (TLS) pathways. The mechanistic basis for the induction of proliferation, providing tumor promotion, is poorly understood. Here, we have investigated the role of TLS in the initiation and promotion of skin carcinogenesis, using a sensitive nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model that carries a hypomorphic allele of the error-prone TLS gene Rev1. Despite a defect in UV-induced mutagenesis, skin carcinogenesis was accelerated in these mice. This paradoxical phenotype was caused by the induction of inflammatory hyperplasia of the mutant skin that provides strong tumor promotion. The induction of hyperplasia was associated with mild and transient replicational stress of the UV-damaged genome, triggering DNA damage signaling and senescence. The concomitant expression of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is in agreement with an executive role for IL-6 and possibly other cytokines in the autocrine induction of senescence and the paracrine induction of inflammatory hyperplasia. In conclusion, error-prone TLS suppresses tumor-promoting activities of UV light, thereby controlling skin carcinogenesis. PMID:20007784

  15. Magnetic Bearing Controller Improvements for High Speed Flywheel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bearing control system for a high-speed flywheel system is described. The flywheel utilizes a five axis active magnetic bearing system, using eddy current sensors for position feedback to the bearing controller. Magnetic bearing controller features designed to improve flywheel operation and testing are described. Operational improvements include feed forward control to compensate for rotor imbalance, moving notch filtering to compensate for synchronous and harmonic rotational noise, and fixed notching to prevent rotor bending mode excitation. Testing improvements include adding safe gain, bearing current hold, bearing current zero, and excitation input features. Performance and testing improvements provided by these features are measured and discussed.

  16. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management Controls...

  17. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management Controls...

  18. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management Controls...

  19. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Controls...

  20. Inhaler Reminders Significantly Improve Asthma Patients' Use of Controller Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... of controller medications Share | Inhaler reminders significantly improve asthma patients’ use of controller medications Published Online: July ... effective in reducing the burden and risk of asthma, but many patients do not use them regularly. ...

  1. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management Controls...

  2. Validation of an Active Multimedia Courseware Package for the Integrated Damage Control Training Technology (IDCTT) Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    versa. Yet others feel that effort or feelings of frustration are the most important factors in workload; and so on. The results of previous studies ...the te-.i and e~ aluatuoi results of the Integrated Damage Control Training Te.- it ilog ý I DX1’T Traine r This, dce ice - - the pn’dut. of a four ye...The tiev% trainer \\X&s iom~prehCiiSi1.eI\\ esaluated using performance data and surve’N results collected from~ -students and iiistnkor’s dunnte a

  3. Damage Control Plan for International Space Station Recharge Tank Assembly Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA has retired the Space Shuttle Program, a new method of transporting compressed gaseous nitrogen and oxygen needed to be created for delivery of these crucial life support resources to the International Space Station (ISS). One of the methods selected by NASA includes the use of highly pressurized, unprotected Recharge Tank Assemblies (RTAs) utilizing Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs). A COPV consists of a thin liner wrapped with a fiber composite and resin or epoxy. It is typically lighter weight than an all metal pressure vessel of similar volume and therefore provides a higher-efficiency means for gas storage. However COPVs are known to be susceptible to damage resulting from handling, tool drop impacts, or impacts from other objects. As a result, a comprehensive Damage Control Plan has been established to mitigate damage to the RTA COPV throughout its life cycle. The DCP is intended to evaluate and mitigate defined threats during manufacturing, shipping and handling, test, assembly level integration, shipment while pressurized, launch vehicle integration and mission operations by defining credible threats and methods for preventing potential damage while still maintaining the primary goal of resupplying ISS gas resources. A comprehensive threat assessment is performed to identify all threats posed to the COPV during the different phases of its lifecycle. The threat assessment is then used as the basis for creating a series of general inspection, surveillance and reporting requirements which apply across all phases of the COPV's life, targeted requirements only applicable to specific work phases and a series of training courses for both ground personnel and crew aboard the ISS. A particularly important area of emphasis deals with creating DCP requirements for a highly pressurized, large and unprotected RTA COPV for use during Inter Vehicular Activities (IVA) operations in the micro gravity environment while supplying pressurized gas to the

  4. Air Traffic Control Improvement Using Prioritized CSMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2001-01-01

    Version 7 simulations of the industry-standard network simulation software "OPNET" are presented of two applications of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast mode (ADS-B), over VHF Data Link mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for air traffic between just three cities. All aircraft are assumed to have the same equipage. The simulation involves Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations and 105 aircraft taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. All communication is modeled as unreliable. Collision-less, prioritized carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is successfully tested. The statistics presented include latency, queue length, and packet loss. This research may show that a communications system simpler than the currently accepted standard envisioned may not only suffice, but also surpass performance of the standard at a lower cost of deployment.

  5. Computer control improves ethylene plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, B.D.; Parnis, M.

    1987-11-01

    ICIA Australia ordered a turnkey 250,000-tpy ethylene plant to be built at the Botany site, Sydney, Australia. Following a feasibility study, an additional order was placed for a process computer system for advanced process control and optimization. This article gives a broad outline of the process computer tasks, how the tasks were implemented, what problems were met, what lessons were learned and what results were achieved.

  6. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  7. Improving vehicle productivity through better contamination control

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of relating OEM filtration cost to oil cleanliness and the resulting effect on the realiability on mature mobile equipment hydraulic systems is investigated. A rational for determining the fluid cleanliness to achieve minimum mean time between failure and guidelines for assessing the cost of improved filtration to meet that objective are presented. The purpose of this paper is to review specific portions of recent studies relating to vehicle reliability as affected by hydraulic component/system failure. In these studies fluid cleanliness was measured using the proposed ISO 4406 solid contaminant code and reliability measured as average time between breakdowns. A relationship between specific levels of fluid contamination and system reliability was established. It then followed that if that relationship could be demonstrated, system cleanliness levels could be selected by the OEM with reasonable confidence that extended mean time between failure (MTBF) would result from the choice.

  8. Site-specific DICER and DROSHA RNA products control the DNA-damage response.

    PubMed

    Francia, Sofia; Michelini, Flavia; Saxena, Alka; Tang, Dave; de Hoon, Michiel; Anelli, Viviana; Mione, Marina; Carninci, Piero; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2012-08-09

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in an increasingly recognized number of cellular events. Some ncRNAs are processed by DICER and DROSHA RNases to give rise to small double-stranded RNAs involved in RNA interference (RNAi). The DNA-damage response (DDR) is a signalling pathway that originates from a DNA lesion and arrests cell proliferation3. So far, DICER and DROSHA RNA products have not been reported to control DDR activation. Here we show, in human, mouse and zebrafish, that DICER and DROSHA, but not downstream elements of the RNAi pathway, are necessary to activate the DDR upon exogenous DNA damage and oncogene-induced genotoxic stress, as studied by DDR foci formation and by checkpoint assays. DDR foci are sensitive to RNase A treatment, and DICER- and DROSHA-dependent RNA products are required to restore DDR foci in RNase-A-treated cells. Through RNA deep sequencing and the study of DDR activation at a single inducible DNA double-strand break, we demonstrate that DDR foci formation requires site-specific DICER- and DROSHA-dependent small RNAs, named DDRNAs, which act in a MRE11–RAD50–NBS1-complex-dependent manner (MRE11 also known as MRE11A; NBS1 also known as NBN). DDRNAs, either chemically synthesized or in vitro generated by DICER cleavage, are sufficient to restore the DDR in RNase-A-treated cells, also in the absence of other cellular RNAs. Our results describe an unanticipated direct role of a novel class of ncRNAs in the control of DDR activation at sites of DNA damage.

  9. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  10. Active shear flow control for improved combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, E.; Parr, T. P.; Hanson-Parr, D. M.; Schadow, K. C.

    1990-01-01

    The acoustical and fluid dynamic facets of an excited premixed flame were studied experimentally to evaluate possibilities for development of a stabilizing closed-loop control system. The flame was analyzed as a nonlinear system which includes different subcomponents: acoustics, fluid dynamics, and chemical reaction. Identification of the acoustical and fluid dynamics subsystems is done by analyzing the transfer function, which was obtained by driving the system with both white-noise and a frequency-sweeping sine-wave. The features obtained by this analysis are compared to results of flow visualization and hot-wire flow-field and spectral measurements. The acoustical subsystem is determined by the resonant acoustic modes of the settling chamber. These modes are subsequently filtered and amplified by the flow shear layer, whose instability characteristics are dominated by the preferred mode frequency.

  11. Controlled DNA double-strand break induction in mice reveals post-damage transcriptome stability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongkyu; Sturgill, David; Tran, Andy D; Sinclair, David A; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

    2016-04-20

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair can cause extensive epigenetic changes. As a result, DSBs have been proposed to promote transcriptional and, ultimately, physiological dysfunction via both cell-intrinsic and cell-non-autonomous pathways. Studying the consequences of DSBs in higher organisms has, however, been hindered by a scarcity of tools for controlled DSB induction. Here, we describe a mouse model that allows for both tissue-specific and temporally controlled DSB formation at ∼140 defined genomic loci. Using this model, we show that DSBs promote a DNA damage signaling-dependent decrease in gene expression in primary cells specifically at break-bearing genes, which is reversed upon DSB repair. Importantly, we demonstrate that restoration of gene expression can occur independently of cell cycle progression, underlining its relevance for normal tissue maintenance. Consistent with this, we observe no evidence for persistent transcriptional repression in response to a multi-day course of continuous DSB formation and repair in mouse lymphocytes in vivo Together, our findings reveal an unexpected capacity of primary cells to maintain transcriptome integrity in response to DSBs, pointing to a limited role for DNA damage as a mediator of cell-autonomous epigenetic dysfunction.

  12. Advances in damage control resuscitation and surgery: implications on the organization of future military field forces.

    PubMed

    Tien, Homer; Beckett, Andrew; Garraway, Naisan; Talbot, Max; Pannell, Dylan; Alabbasi, Thamer

    2015-06-01

    Medical support to deployed field forces is increasingly becoming a shared responsibility among allied nations. National military medical planners face several key challenges, including fiscal restraints, raised expectations of standards of care in the field and a shortage of appropriately trained specialists. Even so, medical services are now in high demand, and the availability of medical support may become the limiting factor that determines how and where combat units can deploy. The influence of medical factors on operational decisions is therefore leading to an increasing requirement for multinational medical solutions. Nations must agree on the common standards that govern the care of the wounded. These standards will always need to take into account increased public expectations regarding the quality of care. The purpose of this article is to both review North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) policies that govern multinational medical missions and to discuss how recent scientific advances in prehospital battlefield care, damage control resuscitation and damage control surgery may inform how countries within NATO choose to organize and deploy their field forces in the future.

  13. Advances in damage control resuscitation and surgery: implications on the organization of future military field forces

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Col Homer; Beckett, Maj Andrew; Garraway, LCol Naisan; Talbot, LCol Max; Pannell, Capt Dylan; Alabbasi, Thamer

    2015-01-01

    Medical support to deployed field forces is increasingly becoming a shared responsibility among allied nations. National military medical planners face several key challenges, including fiscal restraints, raised expectations of standards of care in the field and a shortage of appropriately trained specialists. Even so, medical services are now in high demand, and the availability of medical support may become the limiting factor that determines how and where combat units can deploy. The influence of medical factors on operational decisions is therefore leading to an increasing requirement for multinational medical solutions. Nations must agree on the common standards that govern the care of the wounded. These standards will always need to take into account increased public expectations regarding the quality of care. The purpose of this article is to both review North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) policies that govern multinational medical missions and to discuss how recent scientific advances in prehospital battlefield care, damage control resuscitation and damage control surgery may inform how countries within NATO choose to organize and deploy their field forces in the future. PMID:26100784

  14. Improving the bulk laser-damage resistance of KDP by baking and pulsed-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1981-09-16

    Isolated bulk damage centers are produced when KDP crystals are irradiated by 1-ns 1064-nm pulses. We have tested about 100 samples and find the median threshold to be 7 J/cm/sup 2/ when the samples are irradiated only once at each test volume (1-on-1 tests). The median threshold increased to 11 J/cm/sup 2/ when the test volumes were first subjected to subthreshold laser irradiation (n-on-1 tests). We baked several crystals at temperatures from 110 to 165/sup 0/C and remeasured their thresholds. Baking increased thresholds in some crystals, but did not change thresholds of others. The median threshold of baked crystals ranged from 8 to 10 J/cm/sup 2/ depending on the baking temperature. In crystals that had been baked, subthreshold irradiation produced a large change in the bulk damage threshold, and reduced the volume density of damage centers relative to the density observed in unbaked crystals. The data are summarized in the table.

  15. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaïdia, Abd Elbasset; Leduc, Cédric; Dawson, Brian; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition) or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES) = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%): -2.17 to -0.06), the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80) and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32) in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98). This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline) in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W) in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W) (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86). However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage. Key points When the recovery period between competitions was short, a curcumin and piperine supplementation could be an effective recovery

  16. Improving Corrosion Prevention and Control in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Improving Corrosion Prevention and Control in the Army by Lieutenant Colonel Adalberto Morales United States Army Logistics...From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving Corrosion Prevention and Control in the Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...14. ABSTRACT The Army spends approximately 2.4 billion of dollars annually in corrosion prevention and corrective maintenance of tactical wheeled

  17. Implementing Controlled Composition to Improve Vocabulary Mastery of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juriah

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study was to know how (1) Controlled composition teaching techniques implemented by the English teacher at SDN 027 Samarinda to improve vocabulary mastery, and (2) Controlled composition teaching techniques improves vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of SDN 027 Samarinda. This research used a Classroom Action…

  18. Damage control – trauma care in the first hour and beyond: a clinical review of relevant developments in the field of trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Midwinter, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Trauma provision in the UK is a topic of interest. Regional trauma networks and centres are evolving and research is blossoming, but what bearing does all this have on the care that is delivered to the individual patient? This article aims to provide an overview of key research concepts in the field of trauma care, to guide the clinician in decision making in the management of major trauma. Methods The Ovid MEDLINE®, EMBASE™ and PubMed databases were used to search for relevant articles on haemorrhage control, damage control resuscitation and its exceptions, massive transfusion protocols, prevention and correction of coagulopathy, acidosis and hypothermia, and damage-control surgery. Findings A wealth of research is available and a broad range has been reviewed to summarise significant developments in trauma care. Research has been categorised into disciplines and it is hoped that by considering each, a tailored management plan for the individual trauma patient will evolve, potentially improving patient outcome. PMID:23827287

  19. Citric acid improves lead (pb) phytoextraction in brassica napus L. by mitigating pb-induced morphological and biochemical damages.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Ali, Shafaqat; Hameed, Amjad; Farid, Mujahid; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Najeeb, Ullah; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan

    2014-11-01

    Phytoextraction is an environmentally friendly and a cost-effective strategy for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, lower bioavailability of some of the metals in polluted environments e.g. lead (Pb) is a major constraint of phytoextraction process that could be overcome by applying organic chelators. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to evaluate the role of citric acid (CA) in enhancing Pb phytoextraction. Brassica napus L. seedlings were grown in hydroponic media and exposed to various treatments of Pb (50 and 100 μM) as alone or in combination with CA (2.5mM) for six weeks. Pb-induced damage in B. napus toxicity was evident from elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 that significantly inhibited plant growth, biomass accumulation, leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters. Alternatively, CA application to Pb-stressed B. napus plants arrested lipid membrane damage by limiting MDA and H2O2 production and by improving antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, CA significantly increased the Pb accumulation in B. napus plants. The study concludes that CA has a potential to improve Pb phytoextraction without damaging plant growth.

  20. Hierarchical cognitive control deficits following damage to the human frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Badre, David; Hoffman, Joshua; Cooney, Jeffrey W; D'Esposito, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Cognitive control permits us to make decisions about abstract actions, such as whether to e-mail versus call a friend, and to select the concrete motor programs required to produce those actions, based on our goals and knowledge. The frontal lobes are necessary for cognitive control at all levels of abstraction. Recent neuroimaging data have motivated the hypothesis that the frontal lobes are organized hierarchically, such that control is supported in progressively caudal regions as decisions are made at more concrete levels of action. We found that frontal damage impaired action decisions at a level of abstraction that was dependent on lesion location (rostral lesions affected more abstract tasks, whereas caudal lesions affected more concrete tasks), in addition to impairing tasks requiring more, but not less, abstract action control. Moreover, two adjacent regions were distinguished on the basis of the level of control, consistent with previous functional magnetic resonance imaging results. These results provide direct evidence for a rostro-caudal hierarchical organization of the frontal lobes.

  1. Damage control surgery–new concept or reenacting of a classical ideea?

    PubMed Central

    Iordache, FM

    2008-01-01

    Damage–control surgery is an example of a paradigm shift. The term is borrowed from naval terminology and means gaining the initial control of a damaged ship. Because of the lethal triad the polytrauma patient is at a grave risk. The classical concept of surgically solving all the patient's injuries in the first moment was even theoretically incorrect as a multiple injured patient is a critical patient with depleted reserves. As such, complex procedures were doomed from this point of view. The concept of damage–control surgery emerged in 1992. The core idea was that as minimal as possible had to be done in these critical patients in the first phase, meaning temporary control of a hemorrhage and simple measures for stopping contamination. After 24–48 hours in the ICU, in which time the physiological disturbances were corrected, a further intervention is performed for definitively treating the injuries. Further refinements consider five stages and not three in damage–control surgery. The bright side of the concept is an up to 70% survivability rate but with a higher risk of complications, mostly due to the policy of temporary closing the abdomen and sepsis. PMID:20108501

  2. The HIF-1/glial TIM-3 axis controls inflammation-associated brain damage under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Han Seok; Chang, Chi Young; Jeon, Sae-Bom; Yoon, Hee Jung; Ahn, Ye-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, In-Hoo; Jeon, Sung Ho; Johnson, Randall S.; Park, Eun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is closely related to the extent of damage following cerebral ischaemia, and the targeting of this inflammation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we present that hypoxia-induced glial T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein (TIM)-3 can function as a modulator that links inflammation and subsequent brain damage after ischaemia. We find that TIM-3 is highly expressed in hypoxic brain regions of a mouse cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia (H/I) model. TIM-3 is distinctively upregulated in activated microglia and astrocytes, brain resident immune cells, in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-dependent manner. Notably, blockade of TIM-3 markedly reduces infarct size, neuronal cell death, oedema formation and neutrophil infiltration in H/I mice. Hypoxia-triggered neutrophil migration and infarction are also decreased in HIF-1α-deficient mice. Moreover, functional neurological deficits after H/I are significantly improved in both anti-TIM-3-treated mice and myeloid-specific HIF-1α-deficient mice. Further understanding of these insights could serve as the basis for broadening the therapeutic scope against hypoxia-associated brain diseases. PMID:25790768

  3. The HIF-1/glial TIM-3 axis controls inflammation-associated brain damage under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Koh, Han Seok; Chang, Chi Young; Jeon, Sae-Bom; Yoon, Hee Jung; Ahn, Ye-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, In-Hoo; Jeon, Sung Ho; Johnson, Randall S; Park, Eun Jung

    2015-03-20

    Inflammation is closely related to the extent of damage following cerebral ischaemia, and the targeting of this inflammation has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we present that hypoxia-induced glial T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein (TIM)-3 can function as a modulator that links inflammation and subsequent brain damage after ischaemia. We find that TIM-3 is highly expressed in hypoxic brain regions of a mouse cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia (H/I) model. TIM-3 is distinctively upregulated in activated microglia and astrocytes, brain resident immune cells, in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-dependent manner. Notably, blockade of TIM-3 markedly reduces infarct size, neuronal cell death, oedema formation and neutrophil infiltration in H/I mice. Hypoxia-triggered neutrophil migration and infarction are also decreased in HIF-1α-deficient mice. Moreover, functional neurological deficits after H/I are significantly improved in both anti-TIM-3-treated mice and myeloid-specific HIF-1α-deficient mice. Further understanding of these insights could serve as the basis for broadening the therapeutic scope against hypoxia-associated brain diseases.

  4. AZALEP a randomized controlled trial of azathioprine to treat leprosy nerve damage and Type 1 reactions in India: Main findings

    PubMed Central

    Darlong, Joydeepa; Govindharaj, Pitchaimani; Kurian, Royce; Sundarrao, Pamidipani; John, Annamma S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Leprosy Type 1 reactions are difficult to treat and only 70% of patients respond to steroid treatment. Azathioprine has been used as an immune-suppressant and we tested its efficacy in treating leprosy T1R. Methodology Randomised controlled trial adding azathioprine to steroid treatment for leprosy reactions. This trial was conducted in four leprosy hospitals in India. Patients with a new leprosy Type 1 reaction affecting either skin or nerve were recruited. They were given a 20 week course of oral prednisolone either with placebo or azathioprine 50mg for 24, 36 or 48 weeks. Outcomes were measured using a verified combined clinical reaction severity score (CCS) and the score difference between baseline and end of study calculated. An intention to treat analysis was done on the 279 patients who had an outcome. Principal findings 345 patients were recruited, 145 were lost due to adverse events, loss to follow up or death. 36% needed extra steroids due to a recurrence of their skin and/or nerve reaction. 76% of patients had improvements in their CCS the end of the study, 22% had no change and 1.1% deteriorated. Adding azathioprine to steroid treatment did not improve CCS. So the improvements were attributable to treatment with steroids. We analysed the skin, sensory and motor scores separately and found that skin improvement contributed most with 78.9% of patients having skin improvement, azathioprine treatment for 48 weeks improved sensory scores it also improved motor scores but so did treatment with prednisolone alone. We identified significant adverse effects attributable to steroid treatment. When azathioprine and Dapsone were given together significant numbers of patients developed significant anaemia. Conclusions Azathioprine is not recommended for the treatment of leprosy reactions and does not improve steroid treatment. Recurrent reactions are a major challenge. We have also identified that 65% of patients with sensory and 50% with motor nerve

  5. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PI controllers.

    PubMed

    Mudi, Rajani K; Dey, Chanchal; Lee, Tsu-Tian

    2008-01-01

    Ziegler-Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are usually found to provide poor performances for high-order and nonlinear systems. In this study, an improved auto-tuning scheme is presented for Ziegler-Nichols tuned PI controllers (ZNPICs). With a view to improving the transient response, the proportional and integral gains of the proposed controller are continuously modified based on the current process trend. The proposed controller is tested for a number of high-order linear and nonlinear dead-time processes under both set-point change and load disturbance. It exhibits significantly improved performance compared to ZNPIC, and Refined Ziegler-Nichols tuned PI controller (RZNPIC). Robustness of the proposed scheme is established by varying the controller parameters as well as the dead-time of the process under control.

  6. Improved LTVMPC design for steering control of autonomous vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velhal, Shridhar; Thomas, Susy

    2017-01-01

    An improved linear time varying model predictive control for steering control of autonomous vehicle running on slippery road is presented. Control strategy is designed such that the vehicle will follow the predefined trajectory with highest possible entry speed. In linear time varying model predictive control, nonlinear vehicle model is successively linearized at each sampling instant. This linear time varying model is used to design MPC which will predict the future horizon. By incorporating predicted input horizon in each successive linearization the effectiveness of controller has been improved. The tracking performance using steering with front wheel and braking at four wheels are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. GaAs 904-nm laser irradiation improves myofiber mass recovery during regeneration of skeletal muscle previously damaged by crotoxin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucila H; Silva, Meiricris T; Gutierrez, Rita M; Conte, Talita C; Toledo, Cláudio A; Aoki, Marcelo S; Liebano, Richard E; Miyabara, Elen H

    2012-09-01

    This work investigated the effect of gallium arsenide (GaAs) irradiation (power: 5 mW; intensity: 77.14 mW/cm(2), spot: 0.07 cm(2)) on regenerating skeletal muscles damaged by crotoxin (CTX). Male C57Bl6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 5 each): control, treated only with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J, CTX-injured and, CTX-injured and treated with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J. The injured groups received a CTX injection into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. After 3 days, TA muscles were submitted to GaAs irradiation at doses of 1.5 or 3 J (once a day, during 5 days) and were killed on the eighth day. Muscle histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) in order to determine the myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), the previously injured muscle area (PIMA) and the area density of connective tissue. The gene expression of MyoD and myogenin was detected by real-time PCR. GaAs laser at a dose of 3 J, but not 1.5 J, significantly increased the CSA of regenerating myofibers and reduced the PIMA and the area density of intramuscular connective tissue of CTX-injured muscles. MyoD gene expression increased in the injured group treated with GaAs laser at a dose of 1.5 J. The CTX-injured, 3-J GaAs laser-treated, and the CTX-injured and treated with 3-J laser groups showed an increase in myogenin gene expression when compared to the control group. Our results suggest that GaAs laser treatment at a dose of 3 J improves skeletal muscle regeneration by accelerating the recovery of myofiber mass.

  8. Chrysin improves cognitive deficits and brain damage induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Li; Wang, Yue-Hua; Bi, Ming-Gang; Du, Guan-Hua

    2012-04-05

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, induced by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO), is related to neurological disorders and contributes to cognitive decline. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is an important member of the flavonoid family. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of chrysin on cognitive deficits and brain damage in this rat 2VO model. At 52days after ligation, the escape latency in Morris water maze was significantly increased in rats subjected to 2VO, the neuronal damage was also increased accompanied by a large proliferation in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity with marked white matter lesions, and neuronal cell apoptosis, all of which were significantly alleviated by long treatment of chrysin (30mg/kg). Biochemical examinations revealed that chrysin decreased lipid peroxide, reduced the increased activities of superoxide dismutase, and attenuated the decreased activities of glutathione peroxidase in 2VO rats. The results suggest that chrysin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegeneration and dementia caused by decreased cerebral blood flow, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  9. Summary of property damage control programs of the United States Department of Energy CY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, George P.; Maybee, Walter W.

    1980-10-01

    Calendar year 1979 was the second full year of operation of the Department of Energy. This report summarizes the loss experience in overall terms and itemizes facility and program achievements in property protection. Planned projects for CY 1980 are included and several subjects of interest to loss-control specialists are discussed in detail. Property damage from all causes was $2.5 million, of which $0.65 million was due to fire, the major cause of losses in both the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies. Combined losses for the 2 full years of Department of Energy experience total over $20 million, of which over $13 million is due to fire. The fire loss ratio for 1979 was 0.13 cents for each $100 of property values at risk, more than an order-of-magnitude less than that expeienced by the better class of insured private property. Final decontamination and cleanup costs necessitated by a product spill at a solvent-refined coal pilot plant at the end of 1979 may exceed $2 million. Even including this estimate, the total loss from all causes (fire, explosion, mechanical or electrical damage, acts of nature, radioactive and non-radioactive contamination/cleanup costs, and a variety of miscellaneous causes), would yield a loss ratio of about 1 cent for each $100 of property. This indicated the overall property protection program is exemplary.

  10. Image Processing and control of a programmable spatial light modulator for optic damage protection

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Leach, R; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Matone, J; Heebner, J

    2010-12-06

    The heart of the National Ignition Facility is a megajoule-class laser system consisting of 192 beams used to drive inertial confinement fusion reactions. A recently installed system of programmable, liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators adds the capability of arbitrarily shaping the spatial beam profiles in order to enhance operational flexibility. Its primary intended use is for introducing 'blocker' obscurations shadowing isolated flaws on downstream optical elements that would otherwise be damaged by high fluence laser illumination. Because an improperly shaped blocker pattern can lead to equipment damage, both the position and shape of the obscurations must be carefully verified prior to high-fluence operations. An automatic alignment algorithm is used to perform detection and estimation of the imposed blocker centroid positions compared to their intended locations. Furthermore, in order to minimize the spatially-varying nonlinear response of the device, a calibration of the local magnification is performed at multiple sub-image locations. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing of this device that helps to enhance the safety and longevity of the overall system.

  11. Control methods to improve non-linear HVAC system operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phalak, Kaustubh Pradeep

    The change of weather conditions and occupancy schedules makes heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems heavily dynamic. The mass and thermal inertia, nonlinear characteristics and interactions in HVAC systems make the control more complicated. As a result, some conventional control methods often cannot provide desired control performance under variable operating conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop control methods to improve the control performance of HVAC systems. This study focuses on optimizing the airflow-pressure control method of air side economizers, identifying robust building pressurization controls, developing a control method to control outdoor air and building pressure in absence of flow and pressure sensors, stabilizing the cooling coil valve operation and, return fan speed control. The improvements can be achieved by identifying and selecting a method with relatively linear performance characteristics out of the available options, applying fans rather than dampers to control building pressure, and improving the controller's stability range using cascade control method. A steady state nonlinear network model, for an air handling unit (AHU), air distribution system and conditioned space, is applied to analyze the system control performance of air-side economizers and building pressurization. The study shows that traditional controls with completely interlinked outdoor air, recirculated air, relief air dampers have the best control performance. The decoupled relief damper control may result in negative building static pressure at lower outdoor airflow ratio and excessively positive building static pressure at higher outdoor airflow ratio. On the other hand, return fan speed control has a better controllability on building pressurization. In absence of flow and pressure sensors fixed interlinked damper and linear return fan speed tracking control can maintain constant outside air ratio and positive building pressure. The

  12. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  13. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Amanda Alves; Araújo, Tiago Ferreira da Silva; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; da Mota, Diógenes Luís; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL) improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage. PMID:24324521

  14. Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, A.

    1980-12-01

    Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

  15. Damage control surgery in patient with delayed rupture of pseudoaneurysm after blunt abdominal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Yong; Ju, Jae Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Delayed rupture of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the visceral arteries, especially the pancreaticoduodenal artery, is uncommon. Here, we describe a 55-year-old man hemorrhaging from a pseudoaneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA). Computed tomography of the abdomen showed active bleeding in the IPDA and large amounts of hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum. Selective mesenteric angiography showed that the pseudoaneurysm arose from the IPDA, and treatment by angioembolization failed because the involved artery was too tortuous to fit with a catheter. Damage control surgery with surgical ligation and pad packing was successfully performed. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 19 days after the operation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ruptured pseudoaneurysm of an IPDA after blunt abdominal trauma from Korea. PMID:22880189

  16. Damage control surgery in patient with delayed rupture of pseudoaneurysm after blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Yong; Ju, Jae Kyun; Kim, Jung Chul

    2012-08-01

    Delayed rupture of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the visceral arteries, especially the pancreaticoduodenal artery, is uncommon. Here, we describe a 55-year-old man hemorrhaging from a pseudoaneurysm of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA). Computed tomography of the abdomen showed active bleeding in the IPDA and large amounts of hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum. Selective mesenteric angiography showed that the pseudoaneurysm arose from the IPDA, and treatment by angioembolization failed because the involved artery was too tortuous to fit with a catheter. Damage control surgery with surgical ligation and pad packing was successfully performed. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 19 days after the operation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ruptured pseudoaneurysm of an IPDA after blunt abdominal trauma from Korea.

  17. Emerging trends in peptic ulcer disease and damage control surgery in the H. pylori era.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian R; Stabile, Bruce E

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and the frequency of operation have been decreasing for decades. Immigration of patients harboring Helicobacter pylori may reverse these longstanding declines. The experience with a large public hospital population in an area of high immigration may portend future national trends. A 10-year retrospective study analyzed the changing demographics of PUD and the frequency and nature of surgical intervention. A total of 2,182 patients were diagnosed with PUD, 1,173 in the early period (1995-1999) and 1,009 in the recent period (2000-2004). The proportion of Hispanic patients increased from 39.3 per cent to 47.5 per cent (P = 0.017). The ratio of male to female patients decreased from 1.7:1 to 1.3:1 (P = 0.003). The PUD operation rate decreased from 6.7 per cent to 3.8 per cent (P = 0.004). Among operated patients, the frequency of H. pylori testing increased from 41.8 per cent to 81.6 per cent (P = 0.039). Acute perforation and bleeding necessitated the vast majority (87.2%) of operations. The use of acid-reducing operations declined from 50.6 per cent to 31.6 per cent in favor of nonacid-reducing "damage control" procedures. Contrary to historic trends, in the predominately immigrant public hospital patient population studied, 1) the incidence of PUD is decreasing only modestly, 2) male predominance is disappearing, 3) gastric ulcer (GU) is more prevalent than duodenal ulcer (DU), but DU requires operation more frequently than GU, and 4) there is a marked decrease in use of acid-reducing operations reflecting a new "damage control" surgical approach to acute PUD complications in the H. pylori era.

  18. An Improved Method of Mitigating Laser Induced Surface Damage Growth in Fused Silica Using a Rastered, Pulsed CO2 Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Nostrand, M J; Wegner, P L

    2010-10-21

    A new method of mitigating (arresting) the growth of large (>200 m diameter and depth) laser induced surface damage on fused silica has been developed that successfully addresses several issues encountered with our previously-reported large site mitigation technique. As in the previous work, a tightly-focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot is scanned over the damage site by galvanometer steering mirrors. In contrast to the previous work, the laser is pulsed instead of CW, with the pulse length and repetition frequency chosen to allow substantial cooling between pulses. This cooling has the important effect of reducing the heat-affected zone capable of supporting thermo-capillary flow from scale lengths on the order of the overall scan pattern to scale lengths on the order of the focused laser spot, thus preventing the formation of a raised rim around the final mitigation site and its consequent down-stream intensification. Other advantages of the new method include lower residual stresses, and improved damage threshold associated with reduced amounts of redeposited material. The raster patterns can be designed to produce specific shapes of the mitigation pit including cones and pyramids. Details of the new technique and its comparison with the previous technique will be presented.

  19. Improvement on laser-induced damage threshold of sol-gel ZrO(2) coatings by crystal structure tuning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Guangming; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Jun

    2012-10-22

    With the development and construction of high peak power lasers it has become more and more important to improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of optical coatings. In this paper, ZrO(2) coatings were deposited by sol-gel dip-coating method and further treated by conventional furnace annealing (CFA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at different temperatures. By measuring the Raman spectra, optical constants and LIDT, the influence of annealing on the crystal structures, refractive indices, laser-induced damage characters of ZrO(2) coatings were analyzed. The results show that RTA is effective in tuning the crystal structures of ZrO(2) coatings. Lattice mismatch between monoclinic and tetragonal phases happened on CFA treated film reduces its refractive index, hence the film annealed by RTA at 800 °C realizes a higher refractive index. Compared with CFA annealed films, RTA annealed films were no more susceptible to laser damage due to their crystal structure difference caused lager band gap.

  20. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-02-26

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  1. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  2. Benefits of Improved HP Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Rafael; Albers, Bob; Sak, Wojciech; Seitzer, Ken; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the NASA Propulsion 21 program, GE Aircraft Engines was contracted to develop an improved high pressure turbine(HPT) active clearance control (ACC) system. The system is envisioned to minimize blade tip clearances to improve HPT efficiency throughout the engine operation range simultaneously reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

  3. Improving Deliverability in Gas Storage Fields by Identifying the Timing and Sources of Damage Using Smart Well Technology

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; J.P. Spivey

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DE-FC26-03NT41743. The primary objective of this study was to develop tools that would allow Underground Gas Storage (UGS) operators to use wellhead electronic flow measurement (EFM) data to quickly and efficiently identify trends in well damage over time, thus aiding in the identification of potential causes of the damage. Secondary objectives of this work included: (1) To assist UGS operators in the evaluation of hardware and software requirements for implementing an EFM system similar to the one described in this report, and (2) To provide a cost-benefit analysis framework UGS operators can use to evaluate economic benefits of installing wellhead EFM systems in their particular fields. Assessment of EFM data available for use, and selection of the specific study field are reviewed. The various EFM data processing tasks, including data collection, organization, extraction, processing, and interpretation are discussed. The process of damage assessment via pressure transient analysis of EFM data is outlined and demonstrated, including such tasks as quality control, semi-log analysis, and log-log analysis of pressure transient test data extracted from routinely collected EFM data. Output from pressure transient test analyses for 21 wells is presented, and the interpretation of these analyses to determine the timing of damage development is demonstrated using output from specific study wells. Development of processing and interpretation modules to handle EFM data interpretation in horizontal wells is also a presented and discussed. A spreadsheet application developed to aid underground gas storage operators in the selection of EFM equipment is presented, discussed, and used to determine the cost benefit of installing EFM equipment in a gas storage field. Recommendations for future work related to EFM in gas storage fields are presented and discussed.

  4. Hybrid Automaton Based Controller Design for Damage Mitigation of Islanded Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Sudipta

    Spurred by increasingly unpredictable weather, high penetration of renewable resources and a period of focused US government policy, it is widely expected that microgrids within the electric distribution system will show exponential growth in the coming decade. Microgrids comprise of power generation, delivery and consumption assets within restricted electrical boundaries and under contiguous control oversight that enables holistic management of these assets. Microgrids can be islanded and operated independent of a larger electric power network, and as such, a primary function of microgrids is to enhance the energy reliability of the underlying loads. In this work, we focus on naval shipboard power systems. Apart from being islanded, in the true sense, resiliency and damage mitigation are key considerations in the design and operation of these power systems. Islanded power systems encompass a rich diversity of discrete and continuous dynamic behavior in multiple time-scales. A high penetration of devices with power electronics interface, low inherent system inertia, and high density of switching devices can lead to rapid disturbance propagation and system failure without advanced damage mitigation strategies. Hybrid systems formalism incorporates continuous dynamics as well as discrete switching behavior into a modeling and control framework, thus allowing a complete system description while crystallizing concepts of safety into system design criteria. We build on existing work to enhance a Dynamic Mixed Integer Programming (DMIP) model of a power system that combines continuous time differential algebraic models with switching dynamics synthesized into mixed integer inequalities. We use this model to derive an optimal system reconfiguration strategy to prevent voltage collapse of a benchmark shipboard power system. However, this methodology is restricted by the computational complexity of dynamic programming and scalability of non-automated processes. To overcome

  5. Workshop: Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (part 2)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a workshop titled Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis: Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages (part 2)

  6. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages.

  7. Erdosteine improves oxidative damage in a rat model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gurel, A; Armutcu, F; Cihan, A; Numanoglu, K V; Unalacak, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of erdosteine, a new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, on lipid peroxidation, neutrophil infiltration, and antioxidant enzyme activities in a rat model of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Twenty-eight rats were divided into three groups: sham operation, I/R, and I/R plus erdosteine groups. After the experimental procedure, rats were sacrificed and kidneys were removed and prepared for malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. MDA level, MPO and XO activities were significantly increased in the I/R group. On the other hand, SOD and CAT activities were found to be decreased in the I/R group compared to the sham group. Pretreatment with erdosteine significantly diminished tissue MDA level, MPO and XO activities. Our data support a role for erdosteine in attenuation in renal damage after I/R injury of the kidney, in part at least by inhibition of neutrophil sequestration and XO activity.

  8. Choline ameliorates cardiovascular damage by improving vagal activity and inhibiting the inflammatory response in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Longzhu; Lu, Yi; Bi, Xueyuan; Xu, Man; Yu, Xiaojiang; Xue, Runqing; He, Xi; Zang, Weijin

    2017-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction and abnormal immunity lead to systemic inflammatory responses, which result in cardiovascular damage in hypertension. The aim of this report was to investigate the effects of choline on cardiovascular damage in hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar-Kyoto rats were intraperitoneally injected with choline or vehicle (8 mg/kg/day). After 8 weeks, choline restored the cardiac function of the SHRs, as evidenced by decreased heart rate, systolic blood pressure, left ventricle systolic pressure, and ±dp/dtmax and increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Choline also ameliorated the cardiac hypertrophy of the SHRs, as indicated by reduced left ventricle internal dimensions and decreased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. Moreover, choline improved mesenteric arterial function and preserved endothelial ultrastructure in the SHRs. Notably, the protective effect of choline may be due to its anti-inflammatory effect. Choline downregulated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and upregulated IL-10 in the mesenteric arteries of SHRs, possibly because of the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4. Furthermore, choline restored baroreflex sensitivity and serum acetylcholine level in SHRs, thus indicating that choline improved vagal activity. This study suggests that choline elicits cardiovascular protective effects and may be useful as a potential adjunct therapeutic approach for hypertension. PMID:28225018

  9. Perpendicular cultivation for improved weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, trials were conducted to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrate...

  10. Tectonic control of the damaged areas by land subsidence: Ameca, Jalisco Mexico, a study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Malagon, A.; Maciel, R.; Alatorre, M. A.; Perez, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Miocene to Quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), one of the largest mexican volcanic arcs built on the North America plate, covers about 1000 km along central Mexico from the Pacific ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. The structure of west-central Mexico is dominated by a complex assemblage of crustal blocks bounded by major tectonic structures of the TMVB. These are the NW-SE Tepic-Zacoalco, the N-S Colima, and the E-W Chapala grabens, which separate the Jalisco and Michoacan blocks from the stable North American plate. The three grabens join south of Guadalajara to form what has been long interpreted as an active triple junction. The Tepic-Zacoalco rift is composed of the eastern part of the Plan de Barrancas-Santa Rosa graben and by the Ameca and Zacoalco half-grabens. The Ameca city is located in the Ameca half-graben. From 80´s several houses and buildings (more than 300) have been affected by land subsidence for more than two decades. The damage area follows a specific pattern with NW trend which is similar to the regional faults. The land subsidence is associated with the water extraction. We suggest that the distribution of the damage area is controlled by the fault system in combination with the water extraction. Because of the Ameca half-graben has been affected by historical and present day earthquakes and considering the subsurface geology (sandstones, siltstone intercalated with conglomerates) sudden collapses can be expected.

  11. The process of managerial control in quality improvement initiatives.

    PubMed

    Slovensky, D J; Fottler, M D

    1994-11-01

    The fundamental intent of strategic management is to position an organization with in its market to exploit organizational competencies and strengths to gain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage may be achieved through such strategies as low cost, high quality, or unique services or products. For health care organizations accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, continually improving both processes and outcomes of organizational performance--quality improvement--in all operational areas of the organization is a mandated strategy. Defining and measuring quality and controlling the quality improvement strategy remain problematic. The article discusses the nature and processes of managerial control, some potential measures of quality, and related information needs.

  12. Experimental study of novel passive control methods to improve combustor exit temperature uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Alka; Ibrahim, Mohamed Saeed; Amano, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of non-uniform temperature flow which comes in contact with the turbine blades is of paramount importance since the thermal damage that occur to the blade during its operation, is governed by the non-uniformities present in the oncoming flow. This thermal damage leads to increased maintenance cost and reduced life-span of the turbine blades. This paper investigates the effectiveness of some novel passive control techniques to improve the temperature uniformity of the combustor exit flow to address the need to reduce the thermal damage and hence decrease the overall maintenance cost of the gas turbine system. The novel passive control techniques tested in this study include the use of streamlined body or guide vanes in the dilution zone of the combustor. For the guide vanes four different orientations were tested—0°, 30°, 60°, 90°. Extensive experimentation was conducted under different flow conditions. The deviation of the exit temperature from the equilibrium mixing temperature was used to compare the effectiveness of different passive control techniques. It was found that the 30o guide vanes gave the most uniform temperature flow under majority of cases considered. On an average, the flow with 30o guide vanes was about 15 % more uniform in temperature as compared to the staggered holes geometry with only 1 % higher pressure loss. The possible reason for this improvement is the combination of swirl and depth to which the dilution flow can enter the dilution zone and mix with the primary hot flow. The streamlined body came second with an improvement in pressure losses. Based on these experimental findings, the use of these guide vanes and streamlined body has potential in the gas turbine industry to deal with the high maintenance cost involved in these systems.

  13. EUFODOS: European Forest Downstream Services - Improved Information on Forest Structure and Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmugl, M.; Gallaun, H.; Wack, R.; Granica, K.; Schardt, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forests play a key role in the European economy and environment. This role incorporates ecological functions which can be affected by the occurrence of insect infestations, forest fire, heavy snowfall or windfall events. Local or Regional Authorities (LRAs) thus require detailed information on the degradation status of their forests to be able to take appropriate measures for their forest management plans. In the EUFODOS project, state-of-the-art satellite and laser scanning technologies are used to provide forest authorities with cost-effective and comprehensive information on forest structure and damage. One of the six test sites is located in the Austrian province of Styria where regional forest authorities have expressed a strong need for detailed forest parameters in protective forest. As airborne laser-scanning data is available, it will be utilized to derive detailed forest parameters such as the upper forest border line, tree height, growth classes, forest density, vertical structure or volume. At the current project status, the results of (i) the forest border line, (ii) the segmentation of forest stands and (iii) the tree top detection are available and presented including accuracy assessment and interim results are shown for timber volume estimations. The final results show that the forest border can be mapped operationally with an overall accuracy of almost 99% from LiDAR data. For the segmentation of forest stands, a comparison of the automatically derived result with visual-manual delineation showed in general a more detailed segmentation result, but for all visual-manual segments a congruence of 87% within a 4 m buffer. Tree top detections were compared to stem numbers estimated based on angle-count samplings in a field campaign, which led to a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.79.

  14. Rosiglitazone is effective to improve renal damage in type-1-like diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, K-C; Cherng, Y-G; Chen, L-J; Hsu, C-T; Cheng, J-T

    2014-04-01

    A marked decrease of klotho expression was observed in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats) showing diabetic nephropathy. It has been documented that klotho is the target gene of PPARγ. However, the effect of PPARγ agonist on klotho expression in kidney of STZ rats remains obscure. Thus, we used rosiglitazone (TZD) as PPARγ agonist to investigate the effect on renal dysfunction in STZ rats. Treatment of TZD reversed the lower levels of PPARγ, klotho, and FGFR1 expressions in kidneys of STZ rats without the correction of hyperglycemia. Also, renal functions and structural defeats were improved by TZD treatment. Taken together, oral administration of TZD may improve STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy due to restoration of the expression of klotho axis through an increase in PPARγ expression without changing blood glucose in rats.

  15. A smart sensor using a mechanical memory for structural health monitoring of a damage-controlled building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Akira; Takhira, Shinpei

    2003-04-01

    A smart sensor using a mechanical memory that can monitor peak strain or displacement was developed. The mechanism of the mechanical memory relies on the pure plastic extension of the sensing section that is realized by elastic buckling of a thin wire. The change in length of the sensing section is detected via a change in resistance, inductance or capacitance. In addition, by introducing an LC-circuit into the sensor we can add a capability for wireless retrieval of the measured data. Basically, the sensor does not need any power supply for measurements. A small power supply is required only when the data retrieval becomes necessary. Theoretical and experimental studies show the feasibility of using the sensor developed for structural health monitoring of damage-controlled structures. Though the sensor is designed to memorize the peak strain or displacement only, it can be easily modified to measure other damage indices that are physical values well correlated with the critical damage in a structure. Typical damage indices include peak strain, peak displacement, peak acceleration, absorbed energy and accumulated plastic deformation. Simple and inexpensive passive sensors that can monitor such damage indices are particularly useful for quantifying the performance of a damage-controlled building, as most damaging energy due to a large earthquake is taken care of by structural control devices. The devices are usually covered by a wall or a fire-protection material, so a simple inspection by eye is not possible without removing cover materials. We believe the installation of the sensors developed will ensure the safety of such a building with minimal cost.

  16. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control: A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    SciTech Connect

    Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1990-09-01

    The main objectives of this Program Project is to develop strategy and technology for the study of gene structure, organization and function in a multi-disciplinary, highly coordinated manner. In Project I, Molecular Cytology, the establishment of all instrumentation for the computerized microscopic imaging system (CMIS) has been completed with the software in place, including measurement of the third dimension (along the Z-axis). The technique is now at hand to measure single copy DNA in the nucleus, single copy mRNA in the cell, and finally, we are in the process of developing mathematical approaches for the analysis of the relative spatial 3-D relationship among the chromosomes and the individual genes in the interphasal nucleus. Also, we have a sensitive and reliable method for measuring single-stranded DNA breaks which will be useful for the determination of damage to DNA caused by ionizing radiation. In Project II, the mapping of restriction fragments by 2-D enzymatic and electrophoretic analysis has been perfected for application. In Project III, a major finding is that the binding constant and effectiveness of antisense oligonucleotide analogues, Matagen, can be significantly improved by substituting 2{prime}-O-methylribos methylphosphonate backbones for the current 2{prime}-deoxyribomethylphosphonate backbones. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen can induce neuroplasticity and improve cognitive functions of patients suffering from anoxic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, A.; Golan, H.; Fishlev, G.; Bechor, Y.; Volkov, O.; Suzin, G.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Efrati, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Cognitive impairment may occur in 42–50% of cardiac arrest survivors. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) has recently been shown to have neurotherapeutic effects in patients suffering from chronic cognitive impairments (CCI) consequent to stroke and mild traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBO2 in patients suffering from CCI due to cardiac arrest. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with CCI caused by cardiac arrest, treated with 60 daily sessions of HBO2. Evaluation included objective computerized cognitive tests (NeuroTrax), Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Quality of life questionnaires. The results of these tests were compared with changes in brain activity as assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging. Results: The study included 11 cases of CCI patients. Patients were treated with HBO2, 0.5–7.5 years (mean 2.6 ± 0.6 years) after the cardiac arrest. HBO2 was found to induce modest, but statistically significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function (mean scores) of 12% , 20% and 24% respectively. The clinical improvements were found to be well correlated with increased brain activity in relevant brain areas as assessed by computerized analysis of the SPECT imaging. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, the results demonstrate the beneficial effects of HBO2 on CCI in patients after cardiac arrest, even months to years after the acute event. PMID:26409406

  19. An improved PID switching control strategy for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Gianni; Barolo, Massimiliano; Jovanovic, Lois; Zisser, Howard; Seborg, Dale E

    2006-01-01

    In order for an "artificial pancreas" to become a reality for ambulatory use, a practical closed-loop control strategy must be developed and critically evaluated. In this paper, an improved PID control strategy for blood glucose control is proposed and evaluated in silico using a physiologic model of Hovorka et al. The key features of the proposed control strategy are: (i) a switching strategy for initiating PID control after a meal and insulin bolus; (ii) a novel time-varying setpoint trajectory, (iii) noise and derivative filters to reduce sensitivity to sensor noise, and (iv) a systematic controller tuning strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy compares favorably to alternatives for realistic conditions that include meal challenges, incorrect carbohydrate meal estimates, changes in insulin sensitivity, and measurement noise.

  20. An improved PID switching control strategy for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Gianni; Barolo, Massimiliano; Jovanovic, Lois; Zisser, Howard; Seborg, Dale E

    2008-03-01

    In order for an "artificial pancreas" to become a reality for ambulatory use, a practical closed-loop control strategy must be developed and validated. In this paper, an improved PID control strategy for blood glucose control is proposed and critically evaluated in silico using a physiologic model of Hovorka et al. [1]. The key features of the proposed control strategy are: 1) a switching strategy for initiating PID control after a meal and insulin bolus; 2) a novel time-varying setpoint trajectory; 3) noise and derivative filters to reduce sensitivity to sensor noise; and 4) a practical controller tuning strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed control strategy compares favorably to alternatives for realistic conditions that include meal challenges, incorrect carbohydrate meal estimates, changes in insulin sensitivity, and measurement noise.

  1. Exogenous nitric oxide improves salt tolerance during establishment of Jatropha curcas seedlings by ameliorating oxidative damage and toxic ion accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Cibelle Gomes; Miranda, Rafael de Souza; Alencar, Nara Lídia M; Costa, José Hélio; Prisco, José Tarquinio; Gomes-Filho, Enéas

    2017-02-20

    Jatropha curcas is an oilseed species that is considered an excellent alternative energy source for fossil-based fuels for growing in arid and semiarid regions, where salinity is becoming a stringent problem to crop production. Our working hypothesis was that nitric oxide (NO) priming enhances salt tolerance of J. curcas during early seedling development. Under NaCl stress, seedlings arising from NO-treated seeds showed lower accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) than those salinized seedlings only, which was consistent with a better growth for all analyzed time points. Also, although salinity promoted a significant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and membrane damage, the harmful effects were less aggressive in NO-primed seedlings. The lower oxidative damage in NO-primed stressed seedlings was attributed to operation of a powerful antioxidant system, including greater glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA) contents as well as catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities in both endosperm and embryo axis. Priming with NO also was found to rapidly up-regulate the JcCAT1, JcCAT2, JcGR1 and JcGR2 gene expression in embryo axis, suggesting that NO-induced salt responses include functional and transcriptional regulations. Thus, NO almost completely abolished the deleterious salinity effects on reserve mobilization and seedling growth. In conclusion, NO priming improves salt tolerance of J. curcas during seedling establishment by inducing an effective antioxidant system and limiting toxic ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation.

  2. Interhemispheric and Intrahemispheric Control of Emotion: A Focus on Unilateral Brain Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borod, Joan C.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses neocortical contributions to emotional processing. Examines parameters critical to neuropsychological study of emotion: interhemispheric and intrahemispheric factors, processing mode, and communication channel. Describes neuropsychological theories of emotion. Reviews studies of right-brain-damaged, left-brain-damaged, and normal adults,…

  3. APC/C(Cdh1) controls CtIP stability during the cell cycle and in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Lafranchi, Lorenzo; de Boer, Harmen R; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Ong, Shao-En; Sartori, Alessandro A; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2014-12-01

    Human cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms for responding to DNA damage to maintain genome stability and prevent carcinogenesis. For instance, the cell cycle can be arrested at different stages to allow time for DNA repair. The APC/C(C) (dh1) ubiquitin ligase mainly regulates mitotic exit but is also implicated in the DNA damage-induced G2 arrest. However, it is currently unknown whether APC/C(C) (dh1) also contributes to DNA repair. Here, we show that Cdh1 depletion causes increased levels of genomic instability and enhanced sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Using an integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approach, we identify CtIP, a DNA-end resection factor, as a novel APC/C(C) (dh1) target. CtIP interacts with Cdh1 through a conserved KEN box, mutation of which impedes ubiquitylation and downregulation of CtIP both during G1 and after DNA damage in G2. Finally, we find that abrogating the CtIP-Cdh1 interaction results in delayed CtIP clearance from DNA damage foci, increased DNA-end resection, and reduced homologous recombination efficiency. Combined, our results highlight the impact of APC/C(C) (dh1) on the maintenance of genome integrity and show that this is, at least partially, achieved by controlling CtIP stability in a cell cycle- and DNA damage-dependent manner.

  4. Progesterone Reduces Secondary Damage, Preserves White Matter, and Improves Locomotor Outcome after Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; González, Susana; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Lima, Analía; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; De Nicola, Alejandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Progesterone is an anti-inflammatory and promyelinating agent after spinal cord injury, but its effectiveness on functional recovery is still controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of chronic progesterone administration on tissue preservation and functional recovery in a clinically relevant model of spinal cord lesion (thoracic contusion). Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed that progesterone reduced both volume and rostrocaudal extension of the lesion at 60 days post-injury. In addition, progesterone increased the number of total mature oligodendrocytes, myelin basic protein immunoreactivity, and the number of axonal profiles at the epicenter of the lesion. Further, progesterone treatment significantly improved motor outcome as assessed using the Basso-Bresnahan-Beattie scale for locomotion and CatWalk gait analysis. These data suggest that progesterone could be considered a promising therapeutical candidate for spinal cord injury. PMID:24460450

  5. Puerarin Attenuates Cerebral Damage by Improving Cerebral Microcirculation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [3H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling, edema, and ischemia in cerebral tissue were attenuated in puerarin-treated SHRs. Microvessel density in cerebral tissue was greater with puerarin than with vehicle treatment. Puerarin-treated MECs showed greater proliferation and p42/44 MAPKs activities than vehicle treatment. Conclusions. Puerarin possesses effects of antihypertension and stroke prevention by improved microcirculation in SHRs, which results from the increase in cerebral blood perfusion both by arteriole

  6. Puerarin attenuates cerebral damage by improving cerebral microcirculation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [(3)H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling, edema, and ischemia in cerebral tissue were attenuated in puerarin-treated SHRs. Microvessel density in cerebral tissue was greater with puerarin than with vehicle treatment. Puerarin-treated MECs showed greater proliferation and p42/44 MAPKs activities than vehicle treatment. Conclusions. Puerarin possesses effects of antihypertension and stroke prevention by improved microcirculation in SHRs, which results from the increase in cerebral blood perfusion both by arteriole

  7. The DNA damage- and transcription-associated protein paxip1 controls thymocyte development and emigration.

    PubMed

    Callen, Elsa; Faryabi, Robert B; Luckey, Megan; Hao, Bingtao; Daniel, Jeremy A; Yang, Wenjing; Sun, Hong-Wei; Dressler, Greg; Peng, Weiqun; Chi, Hongbo; Ge, Kai; Krangel, Michael S; Park, Jung-Hyun; Nussenzweig, André

    2012-12-14

    Histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) is associated with promoters of active genes and found at hot spots for DNA recombination. Here we have shown that PAXIP1 (also known as PTIP), a protein associated with MLL3 and MLL4 methyltransferase and the DNA damage response, regulates RAG-mediated cleavage and repair during V(D)J recombination in CD4(+) CD8(+) DP thymocytes. Loss of PAXIP1 in developing thymocytes diminished Jα H3K4me3 and germline transcription, suppressed double strand break formation at 3' Jα segments, but resulted in accumulation of unresolved T cell receptor α-chain gene (Tcra) breaks. Moreover, PAXIP1 was essential for release of mature single positive (SP) αβ T cells from the thymus through transcriptional activation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor S1pr1 as well as for natural killer T cell development. Thus, in addition to maintaining genome integrity during Tcra rearrangements, PAXIP1 controls distinct transcriptional programs during DP differentiation necessary for Tcra locus accessibility, licensing mature thymocytes for trafficking and natural killer T cell development.

  8. A directed-overflow and damage-control N -glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Rocca, James R.; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Edison, Arthur S.; Henry, Christopher  S.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2015-02-15

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis, yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. We find COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites.

  9. A directed-overflow and damage-control N -glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; ...

    2015-02-15

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis,more » yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. We find COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites.« less

  10. Role of Damage Control Surgery in the Treatment of Hinchey III and IV Sigmoid Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; Cavaliere, Davide; Farinella, Eriberto; Renzi, Claudio; Cannata, Gaspare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Farinacci, Federico; Barberini, Francesco; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many of the treatment strategies for sigmoid diverticulitis are actually focusing on nonoperative and minimally invasive approaches. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the actual role of damage control surgery (DCS) in the treatment of generalized peritonitis caused by perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published from 1960 to July 2013. Comparative and noncomparative studies that included patients who underwent DCS for complicated diverticulitis were considered. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, duration of open abdomen, intensive care unit length of stay, reoperation, bowel resection performed at first operation, fecal diversion, method, and timing of closure of abdominal wall were the main outcomes of interest. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses algorithm for the literature search and review, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. DCS was exclusively performed in diverticulitis patients with septic shock or requiring vasopressors intraoperatively. Two surgical different approaches were highlighted: limited resection of the diseased colonic segment with or without stoma or reconstruction in situ, and laparoscopic washing and drainage without colonic resection. Despite the heterogeneity of patient groups, clinical settings, and interventions included in this review, DCS appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of Hinchey III and IV diverticulitis, complicated by septic shock. A tailored approach to each patient seems to be appropriate. PMID:25437034

  11. A directed-overflow and damage-control N-glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Rocca, James R.; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Edison, Arthur S.; Henry, Christopher S.; deCrécy-Lagard, Valérie; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis, yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites. PMID:25431972

  12. Controller Design of Power Quality-Improving Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Ning

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative solution to power quality problems using power quality-improving (PQI) appliances. PQI appliances conduct currents that supplement and correct the sum of the other load currents within a premise. From the utility side, the premise housing a PQI appliance thus becomes an improved, if not ideal, utility customer. The PQI appliance improves both harmonic power quality and power factor while performing its normal function, such as heating water. In this paper, the water heater PQI appliance is used as an example to demonstrate the control circuit design and function. Both computer simulation results and laboratory experiment results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The estimated costs of the PQI controller and of harmonic compensating filters are compared to show that the PQI appliance may be an economic way to provide power quality improvement at the building level.

  13. Autophagy sequesters damaged lysosomes to control lysosomal biogenesis and kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ikuko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Omori, Hiroko; Kimura, Tomonori; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Hamasaki, Maho; Noda, Takeshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse causes, including pathogenic invasion or the uptake of mineral crystals such as silica and monosodium urate (MSU), threaten cells with lysosomal rupture, which can lead to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that lysosomes are selectively sequestered by autophagy, when damaged by MSU, silica, or the lysosomotropic reagent L-Leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe). Autophagic machinery is recruited only on damaged lysosomes, which are then engulfed by autophagosomes. In an autophagy-dependent manner, low pH and degradation capacity of damaged lysosomes are recovered. Under conditions of lysosomal damage, loss of autophagy causes inhibition of lysosomal biogenesis in vitro and deterioration of acute kidney injury in vivo. Thus, we propose that sequestration of damaged lysosomes by autophagy is indispensable for cellular and tissue homeostasis. PMID:23921551

  14. Antecedent conditions control carbon loss and downstream water quality from shallow, damaged peatlands.

    PubMed

    Grand-Clement, E; Luscombe, D J; Anderson, K; Gatis, N; Benaud, P; Brazier, R E

    2014-09-15

    Losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drained peatlands are of concern, due to the effects this has on the delivery of ecosystem services, and especially on the long-term store of carbon and the provision of drinking water. Most studies have looked at the effect of drainage in deep peat; comparatively, little is known about the behaviour of shallow, climatically marginal peatlands. This study examines water quality (DOC, Abs(400), pH, E4/E6 and C/C) during rainfall events from such environments in the south west UK, in order to both quantify DOC losses, and understand their potential for restoration. Water samples were taken over a 19 month period from a range of drains within two different experimental catchments in Exmoor National Park; data were analysed on an event basis. DOC concentrations ranging between 4 and 21 mg L(-1) are substantially lower than measurements in deep peat, but remain problematic for the water treatment process. Dryness plays a critical role in controlling DOC concentrations and water quality, as observed through spatial and seasonal differences. Long-term changes in depth to water table (30 days before the event) are likely to impact on DOC production, whereas discharge becomes the main control over DOC transport at the time scale of the rainfall/runoff event. The role of temperature during events is attributed to an increase in the diffusion of DOC, and therefore its transport. Humification ratios (E4/E6) consistently below 5 indicate a predominance of complex humic acids, but increased decomposition during warmer summer months leads to a comparatively higher losses of fulvic acids. This work represents a significant contribution to the scientific understanding of the behaviour and functioning of shallow damaged peatlands in climatically marginal locations. The findings also provide a sound baseline knowledge to support research into the effects of landscape restoration in the future.

  15. Open abdomen in gastrointestinal surgery: Which technique is the best for temporary closure during damage control?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; de Carvalho, Sabrina Marques; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel Neto, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the 3 main techniques of temporary closure of the abdominal cavity, vacuum assisted closure (vacuum-assisted closure therapy - VAC), Bogota bag and Barker technique, in damage control surgery. METHODS After systematic review of the literature, 33 articles were selected to compare the efficiency of the three procedures. Criteria such as cost, infections, capacity of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, diseases associated with the technique, among others were analyzed. RESULTS The Bogota bag and Barker techniques present as advantage the availability of material and low cost, what is not observed in the VAC procedure. The VAC technique is the most efficient, not only because it reduces the tension on the boarders of the lesion, but also removes stagnant fluids and debris and acts at cellular level increasing cell proliferation and division. Bogota bag presents the higher rates of skin laceration and evisceration, greater need for a stent for draining fluids and wash-ups, higher rates of intestinal adhesion to the abdominal wall. The Barker technique presents lack of efficiency in closing the abdominal wall and difficulty on maintaining pressure on the dressing. The VAC dressing can generate irritation and dermatitis when the drape is applied, in addition to pain, infection and bleeding, as well as toxic shock syndrome, anaerobic sepsis and thrombosis. CONCLUSION The VAC technique, showed to be superior allowing a better control of liquid on the third space, avoiding complications such as fistula with small mortality, low infection rate, and easier capability on primary closure of the abdominal cavity. PMID:27648164

  16. Evaluation of biological and biorational control tactics for suppression of Nantucket pine tip moth damage in Virginia pine Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Philip, Michael M; Orr, David B; Hain, Fred P

    2005-04-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the potential of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), the newly registered insect growth regulator (IGR) tebufenozide (Confirm), and a modified spray technique (top whorl only pesticide application) for suppression of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), damage in Virginia pine, Pinus virginiana Mill., Christmas trees. Augmentative releases of T. exiguum failed to increase parasitism levels in release plots compared with controls, and significant reduction in tip moth damage did not occur. High predation levels on released T. exiguum may have contributed to the failure of parasitoid augmentations. Whole-tree and top whorl tebufenozide treatments provided significantly greater damage control than corresponding applications of acephate (Orthene), a commonly used pesticide in Christmas trees. Damage to trees receiving whole-tree chemical applications did not differ significantly from trees receiving top whorl treatments for most measurements of damage. Top whorl chemical treatments resulted in a 67% reduction in time required for application and a 70% reduction in pesticide used.

  17. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  18. Omega-3 improves glucose tolerance but increases lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in hepatocytes of fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim Ferreira; dos Santos, Raquel Alves; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; Vannucchi, Helio

    2012-04-01

    The high consumption of fructose is linked to the increase in various characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Fish oil is beneficial for the treatment of these comorbidities, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the administration of fish oil concomitant to fructose ingestion during the experiment (45 days) and during the final 15 days in high-fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control; those receiving 10% fish oil (FO); those receiving 60% fructose (Fr); those receiving 60% fructose and 10% fish oil for 45 days (FrFO); and those receiving fructose plus soybean oil for 30 days and fish oil for the final 15 days of the study (FrFO15). There was an increase in triacylglycerol, serum total cholesterol, and hepatic volume in the Fr group. The FO and FrFO groups experienced an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in serum reduced glutathione. The FrFO group suffered greater hepatic injury, with increased alanine aminotransferase levels and DNA damage. Marked n-3 incorporation occurred in the groups receiving fish oil, favoring a better response to the oral glucose tolerance test. Fructose induced comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome, and the use of fish oil promoted a better glucose tolerance, although it was accompanied by more hepatocyte damage.

  19. IpsiHand Bravo: an improved EEG-based brain-computer interface for hand motor control rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Charles Damian; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Somers, Thane; Liu, Jenny; Russell, Elizabeth; Kim, DoHyun; Rhoades, Colleen; Dunkley, Jason; Bundy, David; Galboa, Elad; Leuthardt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Stroke and other nervous system injuries can damage or destroy hand motor control and greatly upset daily activities. Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) represent an emerging technology that can bypass damaged nerves to restore basic motor function and provide more effective rehabilitation. A wireless BCI system was implemented to realize these goals using electroencephalographic brain signals, machine learning techniques, and a custom designed orthosis. The IpsiHand Bravo BCI system is designed to reach a large demographic by using non-traditional brain signals and improving on past BCI system pitfalls.

  20. Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery after acute hypoxia-ischemia in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, Hector; Alvarez, Francisco J; Pazos, M Ruth; Alvarez, Antonia; Rey-Santano, M Carmen; Mielgo, Victoria; Murgia-Esteve, Xabier; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Orgado, José

    2011-09-01

    Newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia-ischemia (HI) received i.v. cannabidiol (HI + CBD) or vehicle (HI + VEH). In HI + VEH, 72 h post-HI brain activity as assessed by amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) had only recovered to 42 ± 9% of baseline, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) parameters remained lower than normal, and neurobehavioral performance was abnormal (27.8 ± 2.3 points, normal 36). In the brain, there were fewer normal and more pyknotic neurons, while astrocytes were less numerous and swollen. Cerebrospinal fluid concentration of neuronal-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β protein and brain tissue percentage of TNFα(+) cells were all higher. In contrast, in HI + CBD, aEEG had recovered to 86 ± 5%, NIRS parameters increased, and the neurobehavioral score normalized (34.3 ± 1.4 points). HI induced histological changes, and NSE and S100β concentration and TNFα(+) cell increases were suppressed by CBD. In conclusion, post-HI administration of CBD protects neurons and astrocytes, leading to histological, functional, biochemical, and neurobehavioral improvements.

  1. Improving the sensitivity of negative controls in ancient DNA extractions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Bosong; Tan, Jingze; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

    2009-04-01

    Much attention has been paid on ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, and negative control was used as one of the stringent quality assurance criteria in order to detect potential contamination. However, the results of some aDNA studies showed the evidence of contamination despite their negative controls failed to do so. Using lambda DNA to mock extraneous contaminating DNA, our study showed that aDNA had a property of improving the efficiency of extraction including contaminating DNA, while negative controls had low sensitivity to detect contamination. To circumvent this problem, carrier DNA such as poly(dA) is suggested to be introduced into aDNA extraction.

  2. Improvements and applications of entrainment control for nonlinear dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Song, Qiang; Cao, Jinde

    2008-12-01

    This paper improves the existing entrainment control approaches and develops unified schemes to chaos control and generalized (lag, anticipated, and complete) synchronization of nonlinear dynamical systems. By introducing impulsive effects to the open-loop control method, we completely remove its restrictions on goal dynamics and initial conditions, and derive a sufficient condition to estimate the upper bound of impulsive intervals to ensure the global asymptotic stability. We then propose two effective ways to implement the entrainment strategy which combine open-loop and closed-loop control, and we prove that the feedback gains can be chosen according to a lower bound or be tuned with an adaptive control law. Numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results and to illustrate their applications.

  3. Colonic injuries and the damage control abdomen: does management strategy matter?

    PubMed Central

    Georgoff, Patrick; Perales, Paul; Laguna, Benjamin; Holena, Daniel; Reilly, Patrick; Sims, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Background The optimal management of colon injury patients requiring damage control laparotomy (DCL) is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of colonic resection and anastomosis versus fecal diversion in trauma patients requiring DCL. Methods Patients with traumatic colon injuries undergoing DCL between 2000 and 2010 were identified by the database and chart review. Those who died within 48 h were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups: those undergoing one or more colonic anastomoses with or without distal colostomy (group 1) and those undergoing colostomy only or one or more colonic anastomoses with a protecting proximal ostomy (group 2). Variables were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum, χ2, or Fisher exact tests as appropriate. Results Sixty-one patients were included (group 1, n = 28 and group 2, n = 33). Fascial closure rates (group 1, 50% versus group 2, 61%; P = 0.45), hospital length of stay (29 versus 23 d; P = 0.89), and in-patient mortality (11% versus 12%; P = 1.0) were similar between groups. There were a total of 11 anastomotic leaks, five of which were related to non-colonic enteric repairs. Colonic anastomosis leak rates were 16% overall (six of the 38 patients), 14% in group 1 (four of the 28 patients), and 20% in group 2 (two of the 10 patients). Compared with patients who did not leak, patients who leaked had a higher median age (37 versus 25 y; P = 0.05), greater likelihood of not achieving facial closure before post-injury day 5 (18% versus 2%; P = 0.003), and a longer hospital length of stay (46 versus 25 d; P = 0.003). Conclusions Outcomes after colonic injury in the setting of DCL were similar regardless of the surgical management strategy. Based on these findings, a strategy of diversion over anastomosis cannot be strongly recommended. PMID:22884449

  4. Improved pointing at trackable targets by integrating control valve signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W.; Laverty, C. R.; Colby, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    A compact, low-cost add-on electronic module has been developed for the STRAP III control system to improve pointing at trackable targets. The module provides peak-to-peak limit cycle excursions of + or - 5 arcseconds while tracking a +3 magnitude or brighter star. This is achieved without using rate-integrating gyroscopes, thus reducing payload length, weight, cost, and preparation time. This module has flown successfully five times. In May 1981, it improved the performance of a two-startracker attitude control system with TV camera and joystick control which pointed at a nontrackable target. This paper describes the operation of the module, how it alters the ordinary STRAP III operation, and how it was developed using an analog-computer-based rocket flight simulator.

  5. Effect of polishing induced subsurface damages on laser induced damage in fused silica optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang; Zhao, Heng; Huang, Ying; Cai, Chao; Hu, JiangChuan; Ma, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Conventional used ceria polishing would induce both of Ce contaminants and subsurface damages, which mainly restricts the laser induced damage resistance of fused silica optics. To control the near surface defects, nanometer sized colloidal silica are used to polish fused silica optics after the normal ceria polishing process. Then the contaminant elements and subsurface damages of the polished samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and Nomarski microscopy. It reveals that ceria polishing would introduce lots of subsurface damages whereas colloidal silica polishing induces much fewer subsurface damages especially no fracture induced severe subsurface damages. The laser damage tests reveal that subsequent colloidal silica polishing of the ceria pre-polished samples could gradually eliminate the ceria polishing induced subsurface damages and lower the laser induced damage density accordingly with the increased polishing time. But unlike the damage density, only the severe subsurface damages are totally eliminated could the damage threshold be substantially improved. These results incline to indicate that the subsurface damages have great influence on the laser induced damage density and the fracture related severe subsurface damages will greatly restrict the damage threshold in polished optics.

  6. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used.

  7. Improving active space telescope wavefront control using predictive thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2015-01-01

    Active control algorithms for space telescopes are less mature than those for large ground telescopes due to differences in the wavefront control problems. Active wavefront control for space telescopes at L2, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), requires weighing control costs against the benefits of correcting wavefront perturbations that are a predictable byproduct of the observing schedule, which is known and determined in advance. To improve the control algorithms for these telescopes, we have developed a model that calculates the temperature and wavefront evolution during a hypothetical mission, assuming the dominant wavefront perturbations are due to changes in the spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. Using this model, we show that the wavefront can be controlled passively by introducing scheduling constraints that limit the allowable attitudes for an observation based on the observation duration and the mean telescope temperature. We also describe the implementation of a predictive controller designed to prevent the wavefront error (WFE) from exceeding a desired threshold. This controller outperforms simpler algorithms even with substantial model error, achieving a lower WFE without requiring significantly more corrections. Consequently, predictive wavefront control based on known spacecraft attitude plans is a promising approach for JWST and other future active space observatories.

  8. Flood control projects in Bangladesh: reasons for failure and recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Siddique, M A

    1995-09-01

    Flood control and drainage projects in Bangladesh are intended to give protection from main river floods, flash floods in the east and northeast of the country, and saline intrusion in the lower delta and to improve drainage in order to avoid crop damage. While in some cases such projects have had positive results, in many others their benefits have fallen well below expectations. One of the major reasons for the poor performance of projects is embankment failure, brought about by poor planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance. Recommended measures to improve the efficiency of projects include the involvement of local people in the planning and operation of projects, better training of management staff and the allocation of adequate funds for maintenance.

  9. Improved Continuous-Time Higher Harmonic Control Using Hinfinity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Frank H.

    The helicopter is a versatile aircraft that can take-off and land vertically, hover efficiently, and maneuver in confined space. This versatility is enabled by the main rotor, which also causes undesired harmonic vibration during operation. This unwanted vibration has a negative impact on the practicality of the helicopter and also increases its operational cost. Passive control techniques have been applied to helicopter vibration suppression, but these methods are generally heavy and are not robust to changes in operating conditions. Feedback control offers the advantages of robustness and potentially higher performance over passive control techniques, and amongst the various feedback schemes, Shaw's higher harmonic control algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for attenuating harmonic disturbance in helicopters. In this thesis, the higher harmonic disturbance algorithm is further developed to achieve improved performance. One goal in this thesis is to determine the importance of periodicity in the helicopter rotor dynamics for control synthesis. Based on the analysis of wind tunnel data and simulation results, we conclude the helicopter rotor can be modeled reasonably well as linear and time-invariant for control design purposes. Modeling the helicopter rotor as linear time-invariant allows us to apply linear control theory concepts to the higher harmonic control problem. Another goal in this thesis is to find the limits of performance in harmonic disturbance rejection. To achieve this goal, we first define the metrics to measure the performance of the controller in terms of response speed and robustness to changes in the plant dynamics. The performance metrics are incorporated into an Hinfinity control problem. For a given plant, the resulting Hinfinity controller achieves the maximum performance, thus allowing us to identify the performance limitation in harmonic disturbance rejection. However, the Hinfinity controllers are of high order, and may

  10. Lithography focus/exposure control and corrections to improve CDU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Ki; Yelverton, Mark; Lee, Joungchel; Cheng, Jerry; Wei, Hong; Kim, Jeong Soo; Gutjahr, Karsten; Gao, Jie; Karur-Shanmugam, Ram; Herrera, Pedro; Huang, Kevin; Volkovich, Roie; Pierson, Bill

    2013-04-01

    As leading edge lithography moves to advanced nodes which requires better critical dimension (CD) control ability within wafer. Current methods generally make exposure corrections by field via factory automation or by sub-recipe to improve CD uniformity. KLA-Tencor has developed a method to provide CD uniformity (CDU) control using a generated Focus/Exposure (F/E) model from a representative process. Exposure corrections by each field can be applied back to the scanner so as to improve CD uniformity through the factory automation. CDU improvement can be observed either at after lithography or after etch metrology steps. In addition to corrections, the graphic K-T Analyzer interface also facilitates the focus/exposure monitoring at the extreme wafer edge. This paper will explain the KT CDFE method and the application in production environment. Run to run focus/exposure monitoring will be carried out both on monitoring and production wafers to control the wafer process and/or scanner fleet. CDU improvement opportunities will be considered as well.

  11. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  12. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I&C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I&C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I&C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  13. Enhanced IGCC regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for improving power ramp rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  14. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  15. Tune-control improvements on the rapid-cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, C.; Faber, M.; Gunderson, G.; Knott, M.; Voss, D.

    1981-01-01

    The as-built lattice of the Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) had two sets of correction sextupoles and two sets of quadrupoles energized by dc power supplies to control the tune and the tune tilt. With this method of powering these magnets, adjustment of tune conditions during the accelerating cycle as needed was not possible. A set of dynamically programmable power supplies has been built and operated to provide the required chromaticity adjustment. The short accelerating time (16.7 ms) of the RCS and the inductance of the magnets dictated large transistor amplifier power supplies. The required time resolution and waveform flexibility indicated the desirability of computer control. Both the amplifiers and controls are described, along with resulting improvements in the beam performance. A set of octupole magnets and programmable power supplies with similar dynamic qualities have been constructed and installed to control the anticipated high-intensity transverse instability. This system will be operational in the spring of 1981.

  16. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  17. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Altman, K.I.

    1998-12-31

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

  18. The Opa1-Dependent Mitochondrial Cristae Remodeling Pathway Controls Atrophic, Apoptotic, and Ischemic Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Varanita, Tatiana; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Romanello, Vanina; Zaglia, Tania; Quintana-Cabrera, Rubén; Semenzato, Martina; Menabò, Roberta; Costa, Veronica; Civiletto, Gabriele; Pesce, Paola; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Di Lisa, Fabio; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial morphological and ultrastructural changes occur during apoptosis and autophagy, but whether they are relevant in vivo for tissue response to damage is unclear. Here we investigate the role of the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)-dependent cristae remodeling pathway in vivo and provide evidence that it regulates the response of multiple tissues to apoptotic, necrotic, and atrophic stimuli. Genetic inhibition of the cristae remodeling pathway in vivo does not affect development, but protects mice from denervation-induced muscular atrophy, ischemic heart and brain damage, as well as hepatocellular apoptosis. Mechanistically, OPA1-dependent mitochondrial cristae stabilization increases mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and blunts mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, and reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the OPA1-dependent cristae remodeling pathway is a fundamental, targetable determinant of tissue damage in vivo. PMID:26039448

  19. Damage control: DNA repair, transcription, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Daulny, Anne; Tansey, William P

    2009-04-05

    The presence of DNA damage within an actively transcribed gene poses an immediate threat to cellular viability. Bulky DNA adducts, such as those induced by ultraviolet light, can profoundly influence patterns of gene expression by causing the irreversible arrest of RNA polymerase II at sites of DNA damage. It is critical that processes exist to either specifically repair transcribed genes or clear stalled RNA polymerase, so that general repair can occur and transcription resume. A growing body of evidence indicates that clearance of stalled polymerase is achieved, in part, by ubiquitin-mediated destruction of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. In this review, we shall discuss how an intimate connection between RNA polymerase II and the ubiquitylation machinery acts to restore normal transcription after DNA damage, and other forms of transcriptional arrest, has occurred.

  20. Deletion of histone deacetylase 3 reveals critical roles in S phase progression and DNA damage control.

    PubMed

    Bhaskara, Srividya; Chyla, Brenda J; Amann, Joseph M; Knutson, Sarah K; Cortez, David; Sun, Zu-Wen; Hiebert, Scott W

    2008-04-11

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that modify key residues in histones to regulate chromatin architecture, and they play a vital role in cell survival, cell-cycle progression, and tumorigenesis. To understand the function of Hdac3, a critical component of the N-CoR/SMRT repression complex, a conditional allele of Hdac3 was engineered. Cre-recombinase-mediated inactivation of Hdac3 led to a delay in cell-cycle progression, cell-cycle-dependent DNA damage, and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). While no overt defects in mitosis were observed in Hdac3-/- MEFs, including normal H3Ser10 phosphorylation, DNA damage was observed in Hdac3-/- interphase cells, which appears to be associated with defective DNA double-strand break repair. Moreover, we noted that Hdac3-/- MEFs were protected from DNA damage when quiescent, which may provide a mechanistic basis for the action of HDAC inhibitors on cycling tumor cells.

  1. Improved Stabilization Method for Lurie Networked Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-Bing; Xiao, Shen-Ping; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The problem of stabilization of Lurie networked control systems (NCSs) is investigated in this paper. The network-induced delays in NCSs are assumed to be time-varying and bounded. By utilizing a reciprocally convex technique to consider the relationship between the network-induced delay and its varying interval, a new absolute stability condition is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the obtained condition, an improved cone complementary linearisation (CCL) iteration algorithm is presented to design a state feedback controller. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a numerical example. PMID:24892090

  2. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida's Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2016-09-28

    Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state's mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida's mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida's east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being.

  3. Research Contributing to Improvements in Controlling Florida’s Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases has contributed to improvements in providing effective, efficient, and environmentally proper mosquito control. Florida has benefitted from several research accomplishments that have increased the state’s mosquito control capabilities. Research with Florida’s mosquitoes has resulted in the development of ecologically sound management of mosquito impoundments on Florida’s east coast. This strategy, called Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM), has improved the ability to target the delivery of pesticides and has helped to reduce non-target effects and environmental damage. Research has led to the development of an arbovirus surveillance system which includes sentinel chicken surveillance, real time use of environmental contributing factors like meteorology and hydrology to target mosquito control, as well as public health efforts to mitigate disease outbreaks to areas with risk of disease. These research driven improvements have provided substantial benefits to all of Florida. More research is needed to meet the future challenges to reduce emerging pathogens like Zika virus and the consequences of environmental changes like global climate change that are likely to influence the effects of mosquito-borne pathogens on human health and well-being. PMID:27690112

  4. Predicted Role of NAD Utilization in the Control of Circadian Rhythms during DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Augustin; McFadden, Geoffrey B.; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Kohn, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a set of regulatory steps that oscillate with a period of approximately 24 hours influencing many biological processes. These oscillations are robust to external stresses, and in the case of genotoxic stress (i.e. DNA damage), the circadian clock responds through phase shifting with primarily phase advancements. The effect of DNA damage on the circadian clock and the mechanism through which this effect operates remains to be thoroughly investigated. Here we build an in silico model to examine damage-induced circadian phase shifts by investigating a possible mechanism linking circadian rhythms to metabolism. The proposed model involves two DNA damage response proteins, SIRT1 and PARP1, that are each consumers of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a metabolite involved in oxidation-reduction reactions and in ATP synthesis. This model builds on two key findings: 1) that SIRT1 (a protein deacetylase) is involved in both the positive (i.e. transcriptional activation) and negative (i.e. transcriptional repression) arms of the circadian regulation and 2) that PARP1 is a major consumer of NAD during the DNA damage response. In our simulations, we observe that increased PARP1 activity may be able to trigger SIRT1-induced circadian phase advancements by decreasing SIRT1 activity through competition for NAD supplies. We show how this competitive inhibition may operate through protein acetylation in conjunction with phosphorylation, consistent with reported observations. These findings suggest a possible mechanism through which multiple perturbations, each dominant during different points of the circadian cycle, may result in the phase advancement of the circadian clock seen during DNA damage. PMID:26020938

  5. An improved method for the isolation of rat alveolar type II lung cells: Use in the Comet assay to determine DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a cause of serious diseases, including lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and heart disease. DNA damage is thought to be one of the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) initiates disease in the lung. Indeed, CS induced DNA damage can be measured in vitro and in vivo. The potential of the Comet assay to measure DNA damage in isolated rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II) was explored as a means to include a genotoxicity end-point in rodent sub-chronic inhalation studies. In this study, published AEC II isolation methods were improved to yield viable cells suitable for use in the Comet assay. The improved method reduced the level of basal DNA damage and DNA repair in isolated AEC II. CS induced DNA damage could also be quantified in isolated cells following a single or 5 days CS exposure. In conclusion, the Comet assay has the potential to determine CS or other aerosol induced DNA damage in AEC II isolated from rodents used in sub-chronic inhalation studies.

  6. Controlled architecture for improved macromolecular memory within polymer networks.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Stephen A; Byrne, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    This brief review analyzes recent developments in the field of living/controlled polymerization and the potential of this technique for creating imprinted polymers with highly structured architecture with macromolecular memory. As a result, it is possible to engineer polymers at the molecular level with increased homogeneity relating to enhanced template binding and transport. Only recently has living/controlled polymerization been exploited to decrease heterogeneity and substantially improve the efficiency of the imprinting process for both highly and weakly crosslinked imprinted polymers. Living polymerization can be utilized to create imprinted networks that are vastly more efficient than similar polymers produced using conventional free radical polymerization, and these improvements increase the role that macromolecular memory can play in the design and engineering of new drug delivery and sensing platforms.

  7. MAP kinase-signaling controls nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Chakraborti, Shankhamala; Glas, Rickard

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of TPPII occurs in response to different DNA damage inducers. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of TPPII is linked to ROS and anti-oxidant enzyme levels. {yields} MAPKs control nuclear accumulation of TPPII. {yields} Inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII decreases DNA damage-induced {gamma}-H2AX expression. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a continuous hazard in eukaroytic cells by their ability to cause damage to biomolecules, in particular to DNA. Previous data indicated that the cytosolic serine peptidase tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) translocates into the nucleus of most tumor cell lines in response to {gamma}-irradiation and ROS production; an event that promoted p53 expression as well as caspase-activation. We here observed that nuclear translocation of TPPII was dependent on signaling by MAP kinases, including p38MAPK. Further, this was caused by several types of DNA-damaging drugs, a DNA cross-linker (cisplatinum), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (etoposide), and to some extent also by nucleoside-analogues (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea). In the minority of tumor cell lines where TPPII was not translocated into the nucleus in response to DNA damage we observed reduced intracellular ROS levels, and the expression levels of redox defense systems were increased. Further, treatment with the ROS-inducer {gamma}-hexa-chloro-cyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane), an inhibitor of GAP junctions, restored nuclear translocation of TPPII in these cell lines upon {gamma}-irradiation. Moreover, blocking nuclear translocation of TPPII in etoposide-treated cells, by using a peptide-derived inhibitor (Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH), attenuated expression of {gamma}-H2AX in {gamma}-irradiated melanoma cells. Our results indicated a role for TPPII in MAPK-dependent DNA damage signaling.

  8. Controls Over Army Deployable Disbursing System Payments Need Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-17

    Controls Over Army Deployable Disbursing System Payments Need Improvement Report No. D-2011-101 August 17, 2011 Report...DRIVE ARLINGTON VIRGINIA 22202-4704 August 17, 20 ll MEMORANDUM FOR UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (COMPTROLLER)/ CHI EF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DOD...We appreciate the comtes ies extended to the staff. Please direct questions to me at (703) 60 1-5868 (DSN 664-5868). p~ Q . ;n~ Patricia A. Marsh

  9. Improved Controller for a Three-Axis Piezoelectric Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    An improved closed-loop controller has been built for a three-axis piezoelectric positioning stage. The stage can be any of a number of commercially available or custom-made units that are used for precise three-axis positioning of optics in astronomical instruments and could be used for precise positioning in diverse fields of endeavor that include adaptive optics, fabrication of semiconductors, and nanotechnology.

  10. The control algorithm improving performance of electric load simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chenxia; Yang, Ruifeng; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Mengyao

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve dynamic performance and signal tracking accuracy of electric load simulator, the influence of the moment of inertia, stiffness, friction, gaps and other factors on the system performance were analyzed on the basis of researching the working principle of load simulator in this paper. The PID controller based on Wavelet Neural Network was used to achieve the friction nonlinear compensation, while the gap inverse model was used to compensate the gap nonlinear. The compensation results were simulated by MATLAB software. It was shown that the follow-up performance of sine response curve of the system became better after compensating, the track error was significantly reduced, the accuracy was improved greatly and the system dynamic performance was improved.

  11. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PID controllers.

    PubMed

    Dey, Chanchal; Mudi, Rajani K

    2009-10-01

    An improved auto-tuning scheme is proposed for Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) tuned PID controllers (ZNPIDs), which usually provide excessively large overshoots, not tolerable in most of the situations, for high-order and nonlinear processes. To overcome this limitation ZNPIDs are upgraded by some easily interpretable heuristic rules through an online gain modifying factor defined on the instantaneous process states. This study is an extension of our earlier work [Mudi RK., Dey C. Lee TT. An improved auto-tuning scheme for PI controllers. ISA Trans 2008; 47: 45-52] to ZNPIDs, thereby making the scheme suitable for a wide range of processes and more generalized too. The proposed augmented ZNPID (AZNPID) is tested on various high-order linear and nonlinear dead-time processes with improved performance over ZNPID, refined ZNPID (RZNPID), and other schemes reported in the literature. Stability issues are addressed for linear processes. Robust performance of AZNPID is observed while changing its tunable parameters as well as the process dead-time. The proposed scheme is also implemented on a real time servo-based position control system.

  12. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  13. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  14. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract protects human dermal fibroblasts against hydrogen peroxide oxidative damage and improves mitochondrial functionality.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, José L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-06-11

    Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  15. Biological control of vaginosis to improve reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Mastromarino, P.; Hemalatha, R.; Barbonetti, A.; Cinque, B.; Cifone, M.G.; Tammaro, F.; Francavilla, F.

    2014-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of a woman's health, as well as of her partner's and newborns’. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with ascending infections and obstetrical complications, such as chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery, as well as with urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. In BV the overgrowth of anaerobes produces noxious substances like polyamines and other compounds that trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-8. BV can profoundly affect, with different mechanisms, all the phases of a woman's life in relation to reproduction, before pregnancy, during fertilization, through and at the end of pregnancy. BV can directly affect fertility, since an ascending dissemination of the involved species may lead to tubal factor infertility. Moreover, the increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases contributes to damage to reproductive health. Exogenous strains of lactobacilli have been suggested as a means of re-establishing a normal healthy vaginal flora. Carefully selected probiotic strains can eliminate BV and also exert an antiviral effect, thus reducing viral load and preventing foetal and neonatal infection. The administration of beneficial microorganisms (probiotics) can aid recovery from infection and restore and maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem, thus improving female health also in relation to reproductive health. PMID:25673551

  16. Interface Control Document for the EMPACT Module that Estimates Electric Power Transmission System Response to EMP-Caused Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, Kenneth Alan; Mccown, Andrew William

    2016-06-26

    The EPREP code is designed to evaluate the effects of an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) on the electric power transmission system. The EPREP code embodies an umbrella framework that allows a user to set up analysis conditions and to examine analysis results. The code links to three major physics/engineering modules. The first module describes the EM wave in space and time. The second module evaluates the damage caused by the wave on specific electric power (EP) transmission system components. The third module evaluates the consequence of the damaged network on its (reduced) ability to provide electric power to meet demand. This third module is the focus of the present paper. The EMPACT code serves as the third module. The EMPACT name denotes EMP effects on Alternating Current Transmission systems. The EMPACT algorithms compute electric power transmission network flow solutions under severely damaged network conditions. Initial solutions are often characterized by unacceptible network conditions including line overloads and bad voltages. The EMPACT code contains algorithms to adjust optimally network parameters to eliminate network problems while minimizing outages. System adjustments include automatically adjusting control equipment (generator V control, variable transformers, and variable shunts), as well as non-automatic control of generator power settings and minimal load shedding. The goal is to evaluate the minimal loss of customer load under equilibrium (steady-state) conditions during peak demand.

  17. New and future strategies to improve asthma control in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William C; Szefler, Stanley J

    2015-10-01

    Symptomatic asthma in childhood has lifelong effects on lung function and disease severity, emphasizing the need for improved pediatric asthma control. Control of pediatric risk and impairment domains can be achieved through increased medication adherence or new therapeutic strategies. Developing electronic monitoring device technology with reminders might be a key noninvasive resource to address poor adherence in children and adolescents in a clinical setting. In patients who have persistently poor control despite optimal medication compliance, newly emerging pharmaceuticals, including inhaled therapies and biologics, might be key to their treatment. However, barriers exist to their development in the pediatric population, and insights must be drawn from adult studies, which has its own unique limitations. Biomarkers to direct the use of such potentially expensive therapies to those patients most likely to benefit are imperative. In this review the current literature regarding strategies to improve pediatric asthma control is addressed with the goal of exploring the potential and pitfalls of strategies that might be available in the near future.

  18. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; Carvalho, Sabrina Marques DE; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos, com ênfase em peritoneostomia, geralmente resulta em retração da aponeurose e perda da capacidade de fechar a parede abdominal, levando à formação de hérnias ventrais incisionais. Atualmente, várias técnicas oferecem maiores chances de fechamento da cavidade abdominal, com menor tensão. Deste modo, este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar três técnicas de fechamento temporário da cavidade abdominal: fechamento a vácuo (Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC), Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura com seleção de 28 artigos publicados nos últimos 20 anos. As técnicas de Bolsa de Bogotá e Vacuum-pack tiveram como vantagem o acesso fácil ao material, na maioria dos centros, e baixo custo, ao contrário do que se observa na terapia a vácuo, VAC, que além de apresentar

  19. Tune control improvements on the rapid cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, C.; Faber, M.; Gunderson, G.; Knott, M.; Voss, D.

    1981-06-01

    The as-built lattice of the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) had two sets of correction sextupoles and two sets of quadrupoles energized by dc power supplies to control the tune and the tune tilt. With this method of powering these magnets, adjustment of tune conditions during the accelerating cycle as needed was not possible. A set of dynamically programmable power supplies has been built and operated to provide the required chromaticity adjustment. The short accelerating time (16.7 ms) of the RCS and the inductance of the magnets dictated large transistor amplifier power supplies. The required time resolution and waveform flexibility indicated the desirability of computer control. Both the amplifiers and controls are described, along with resulting improvements in the beam performance. 5 refs.

  20. Tissue Damage Markers after a Spinal Manipulation in Healthy Subjects: A Preliminary Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Achalandabaso, A.; Plaza-Manzano, G.; Lomas-Vega, R.; Martínez-Amat, A.; Camacho, M. V.; Gassó, M.; Hita-Contreras, F.; Molina, F.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal manipulation (SM) is a manual therapy technique frequently applied to treat musculoskeletal disorders because of its analgesic effects. It is defined by a manual procedure involving a directed impulse to move a joint past its physiologic range of movement (ROM). In this sense, to exceed the physiologic ROM of a joint could trigger tissue damage, which might represent an adverse effect associated with spinal manipulation. The present work tries to explore the presence of tissue damage associated with SM through the damage markers analysis. Thirty healthy subjects recruited at the University of Jaén were submitted to a placebo SM (control group; n = 10), a single lower cervical manipulation (cervical group; n = 10), and a thoracic manipulation (n = 10). Before the intervention, blood samples were extracted and centrifuged to obtain plasma and serum. The procedure was repeated right after the intervention and two hours after the intervention. Tissue damage markers creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin-I, myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and aldolase were determined in samples. Statistical analysis was performed through a 3 × 3 mixed-model ANOVA. Neither cervical manipulation nor thoracic manipulation did produce significant changes in the CPK, LDH, CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, NSE, or aldolase blood levels. Our data suggest that the mechanical strain produced by SM seems to be innocuous to the joints and surrounding tissues in healthy subjects. PMID:25609853

  1. DNA Damage activates A Spatially Distinct Late Cytoplasmic Cell Cycle Checkpoint Network Controlled by MK2-mediated RNA Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, H. Christian; Hasskamp, Pia; Schmedding, Ingolf; Morandell, Sandra; van Vugt, Marcel .A.T.M.; Wang, XiaoZhe; Linding, Rune; Ong, Shao-En; Weaver, David; Carr, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Following genotoxic stress, cells activate a complex kinase-based signaling network to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair. p53-defective tumor cells rewire their checkpoint response and become dependent on the p38/MK2 pathway for survival after DNA damage, despite a functional ATR-Chk1 pathway. We used functional genetics to dissect the contributions of Chk1 and MK2 to checkpoint control. We show that nuclear Chk1 activity is essential to establish a G2/M checkpoint, while cytoplasmic MK2 activity is critical for prolonged checkpoint maintenance through a process of post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization. Following DNA damage, the p38/MK2 complex relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm where MK2, phosphorylates hnRNPA0, to stabilize Gadd45α mRNA, while p38 phosphorylates and releases the translational inhibitor TIAR. In addition, MK2 phosphorylates PARN, blocking Gadd45α mRNA degradation. Gadd45α functions within a positive feedback loop, sustaining the MK2-dependent cytoplasmic sequestration of Cdc25B/C to block mitotic entry in the presence of unrepaired DNA damage. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the MK2 pathway in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression as part of the DNA damage response in cancer cells. PMID:20932473

  2. Tissue damage markers after a spinal manipulation in healthy subjects: a preliminary report of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Achalandabaso, A; Plaza-Manzano, G; Lomas-Vega, R; Martínez-Amat, A; Camacho, M V; Gassó, M; Hita-Contreras, F; Molina, F

    2014-01-01

    Spinal manipulation (SM) is a manual therapy technique frequently applied to treat musculoskeletal disorders because of its analgesic effects. It is defined by a manual procedure involving a directed impulse to move a joint past its physiologic range of movement (ROM). In this sense, to exceed the physiologic ROM of a joint could trigger tissue damage, which might represent an adverse effect associated with spinal manipulation. The present work tries to explore the presence of tissue damage associated with SM through the damage markers analysis. Thirty healthy subjects recruited at the University of Jaén were submitted to a placebo SM (control group; n = 10), a single lower cervical manipulation (cervical group; n = 10), and a thoracic manipulation (n = 10). Before the intervention, blood samples were extracted and centrifuged to obtain plasma and serum. The procedure was repeated right after the intervention and two hours after the intervention. Tissue damage markers creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin-I, myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and aldolase were determined in samples. Statistical analysis was performed through a 3 × 3 mixed-model ANOVA. Neither cervical manipulation nor thoracic manipulation did produce significant changes in the CPK, LDH, CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, NSE, or aldolase blood levels. Our data suggest that the mechanical strain produced by SM seems to be innocuous to the joints and surrounding tissues in healthy subjects.

  3. Recent Developments and Challenges Implementing New and Improved Stress Intensity Factor (K) Solutions in NASGRO for Damage Tolerance Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardinal, Joseph W.; McClung, R. Craig; Lee, Yi-Der; Guo, Yajun; Beek, Joachim M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth analysis software has been available to damage tolerance analysts for many years in either commercial products or via proprietary in-house codes. The NASGRO software has been publicly available since the mid-80s (known as NASA/FLAGRO up to 1999) and since 2000 has been sustained and further developed by a collaborative effort between Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the members of the NASGRO Industrial Consortium. Since the stress intensity factor (K) is the foundation of fracture mechanics and damage tolerance analysis of aircraft structures, a significant focus of development efforts in the past fifteen years has been geared towards enhancing legacy K solutions and developing new and efficient numerical K solutions that can handle the complicated stress gradients computed by today’s analysts using detailed finite element models of fatigue critical locations. This paper provides an overview of K solutions that have been recently implemented or improved for the analysis of geometries such as two unequal through cracks at a hole and two unequal corner cracks at a hole, as well as state-of-the-art weight function models capable of computing K in the presence of univariant and/or bivariant stress gradients and complicated residual stress distributions. Some historical background is provided to review how common K solutions have evolved over the years, including selective examples from the literature and from new research. Challenges and progress in rectifying discrepancies between older legacy solutions and newer models are reviewed as well as approaches and challenges for verification and validation of K solutions. Finally, a summary of current challenges and future research and development needs is presented. A key theme throughout the presentation of this paper will be how members of the aerospace industry have collaborated with software developers to develop a practical analysis tool that is

  4. Position control of nonlinear hydraulic system using an improved PSO based PID controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yi; Yin, Chen-Bo; Gong, Yue; Zhou, Jun-jing

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the position control of valve-controlled cylinder system employed in hydraulic excavator. Nonlinearities such as dead zone, saturation, discharge coefficient and friction existed in the system are highlighted during the mathematical modeling. On this basis, simulation model is established and then validated against experiments. Aim for achieving excellent position control performances, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented to search for the optimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller gains for the nonlinear hydraulic system. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid based on the standard PSO algorithm but with the addition of selection and crossover operators from genetic algorithm in order to enhance the searching efficiency. Furthermore, a nonlinear decreasing scheme for the inertia weight of the improved PSO algorithm is adopted to balance global exploration and local exploration abilities of particles. Then a co-simulation platform combining the simulation model with the improved PSO tuning based PID controller is developed. Comparisons of the improved PSO, standard PSO and Phase Margin (PM) tuning methods are carried out with three position references as step signal, ramp signal and sinusoidal wave using the co-simulation platform. The results demonstrated that the improved PSO algorithm can perform well in PID control for positioning of nonlinear hydraulic system.

  5. Steroids alone or as adjunctive therapy with doxycycline fail to improve oviduct damage in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Corr, Tammy E; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Darville, Toni

    2014-06-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection.

  6. Steroids Alone or as Adjunctive Therapy with Doxycycline Fail To Improve Oviduct Damage in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Tammy E.; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  7. Improved rate control for electron-beam evaporation and evaluation of optical performance improvements.

    PubMed

    Gevelber, Michael; Xu, Bing; Smith, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    A new deposition-rate-control and electron-beam-gun (e-gun) strategy was developed that significantly reduces the growth-rate variations for e-beam-deposited SiO2 coatings. The resulting improvements in optical performance are evaluated for multilayer bandpass filters. The adverse effect of uneven silica-source depletion on coating spectral performances during long deposition runs is discussed.

  8. Improved automatic tuning of PID controller for stable processes.

    PubMed

    Kumar Padhy, Prabin; Majhi, Somanath

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an improved automatic tuning method for stable processes using a modified relay in the presence of static load disturbances and measurement noise. The modified relay consists of a standard relay in series with a PI controller of unity proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay is chosen so as to ensure a minimum loop phase margin of 30( composite function). A limit cycle is then obtained using the modified relay. Hereafter, the PID controller is designed using the limit cycle output data. The derivative time constant is obtained by maintaining the above mentioned loop phase margin. Minimizing the distance of Nyquist curve of the loop transfer function from the imaginary axis of the complex plane gives the proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PID controller is set equal to the integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by simulation results.

  9. Ubiquitin-SUMO circuitry controls activated fanconi anemia ID complex dosage in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Rajendra, Eeson; Weinert, Brian T; Passmore, Lori A; Patel, Ketan J; Olsen, Jesper V; Choudhary, Chunaram; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2015-01-08

    We show that central components of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, the tumor suppressor proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (the ID complex), are SUMOylated in response to replication fork stalling. The ID complex is SUMOylated in a manner that depends on the ATR kinase, the FA ubiquitin ligase core complex, and the SUMO E3 ligases PIAS1/PIAS4 and is antagonized by the SUMO protease SENP6. SUMOylation of the ID complex drives substrate selectivity by triggering its polyubiquitylation by the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 to promote its removal from sites of DNA damage via the DVC1-p97 ubiquitin segregase complex. Deregulation of ID complex SUMOylation compromises cell survival following replication stress. Our results uncover a regulatory role for SUMOylation in the FA pathway, and we propose that ubiquitin-SUMO signaling circuitry is a mechanism that contributes to the balance of activated ID complex dosage at sites of DNA damage.

  10. Acoustic Event Signatures for Damage Control: Water Events and Shipboard Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    documents some of the acoustic work done for the Advanced Volume Sensor (AVS) Project, Dr. Susan Rose-Pehrsson, NRL Code 6112. The AVS project is an...element of the ONR FNC Advanced Damage Countermeasures (ADC) Program, managed at NRL by Dr. Fred Williams, Code 6180. The ADC program seeks to develop...also installed and recorded to provide a visual record of the events and to test the response of fire alarm systems to the events. The results of the

  11. The Role of FRAP in DNA Damage Control and Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    bacterially produced macrolide with potent anti-cancer activity. Ester- derivatives of rapamycin, including CCI-779 and RAD001 are under multiple...clinical trials for breast cancer treatment. These compounds are collectively called rapamycins that have the same mechanism to inhibit cell growth...activation of DNA repair mechanisms . In the extreme event when DNA damage is severe, they mediate signals that trigger program cell death or apoptosis. The

  12. A flexibility-based method via the iterated improved reduction system and the cuckoo optimization algorithm for damage quantification with limited sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare Hosseinzadeh, Ali; Bagheri, Abdollah; Ghodrati Amiri, Gholamreza; Koo, Ki-Young

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a novel and effective damage diagnosis algorithm is proposed to localize and quantify structural damage using incomplete modal data, considering the existence of some limitations in the number of attached sensors on structures. The damage detection problem is formulated as an optimization problem by computing static displacements in the reduced model of a structure subjected to a unique static load. The static responses are computed through the flexibility matrix of the damaged structure obtained based on the incomplete modal data of the structure. In the algorithm, an iterated improved reduction system method is applied to prepare an accurate reduced model of a structure. The optimization problem is solved via a new evolutionary optimization algorithm called the cuckoo optimization algorithm. The efficiency and robustness of the presented method are demonstrated through three numerical examples. Moreover, the efficiency of the method is verified by an experimental study of a five-story shear building structure on a shaking table considering only two sensors. The obtained damage identification results for the numerical and experimental studies show the suitable and stable performance of the proposed damage identification method for structures with limited sensors.

  13. Mediators of Inflammation-Induced Bone Damage in Arthritis and Their Control by Herbal Products

    PubMed Central

    Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M.; Astry, Brian; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints leading to bone and cartilage damage. Untreated inflammatory arthritis can result in severe deformities and disability. The use of anti-inflammatory agents and biologics has been the mainstay of treatment of RA. However, the prolonged use of such agents may lead to severe adverse reactions. In addition, many of these drugs are quite expensive. These limitations have necessitated the search for newer therapeutic agents for RA. Natural plant products offer a promising resource for potential antiarthritic agents. We describe here the cellular and soluble mediators of inflammation-induced bone damage (osteoimmunology) in arthritis. We also elaborate upon various herbal products that possess antiarthritic activity, particularly mentioning the specific target molecules. As the use of natural product supplements by RA patients is increasing, this paper presents timely and useful information about the mechanism of action of promising herbal products that can inhibit the progression of inflammation and bone damage in the course of arthritis. PMID:23476694

  14. Red cell damage after pumping by two infusion control devices (Arcomed VP 7000 and IVAC 572).

    PubMed

    Parfitt, H S; Davies, S V; Tighe, P; Ewings, P

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance in terms of red cell damage of two peristaltic volumetric infusion pumps - the Alaris IVAC 572 (San Diego, CA, USA) and Arcomed Volumed VP7000 (Regensdorf, Switzerland). Various infusion pumps are available to transfuse blood at a predetermined rate. It is recommended that each machine should be individually assessed. This experiment used six units of single-donor-transfusable packed red cells and ran each unit through both pumps. This was carried out at 9, 28 and 35 days post-donation at rates from 2 to 150 mL h(-1). Post-pumping samples from these experiments, and a pre-pumping sample in each case, were analysed for levels of potassium and free haemoglobin (Hb). They were also examined microscopically for evidence of cell damage. Potassium levels showed no significant change with pumping on any occasion, but rose significantly as the samples aged. Free Hb showed some variation, but the only consistent finding was a similar rise in value with increasing pack age. Microscopic examination revealed no cell damage under any condition. Both pumps performed to an acceptable level and appear safe to be used for red cell transfusion.

  15. USP45 deubiquitylase controls ERCC1–XPF endonuclease-mediated DNA damage responses

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Oliva, Ana B; Lachaud, Christophe; Szyniarowski, Piotr; Muñoz, Ivan; Macartney, Thomas; Hickson, Ian; Rouse, John; Alessi, Dario R

    2015-01-01

    Reversible protein ubiquitylation plays important roles in various processes including DNA repair. Here, we identify the deubiquitylase USP45 as a critical DNA repair regulator. USP45 associates with ERCC1, a subunit of the DNA repair endonuclease XPF–ERCC1, via a short acidic motif outside of the USP45 catalytic domain. Wild-type USP45, but not a USP45 mutant defective in ERCC1 binding, efficiently deubiquitylates ERCC1 in vitro, and the levels of ubiquitylated ERCC1 are markedly enhanced in USP45 knockout cells. Cells lacking USP45 are hypersensitive specifically to UV irradiation and DNA interstrand cross-links, similar to cells lacking ERCC1. Furthermore, the repair of UV-induced DNA damage is markedly reduced in USP45-deficient cells. ERCC1 translocation to DNA damage-induced subnuclear foci is markedly impaired in USP45 knockout cells, possibly accounting for defective DNA repair. Finally, USP45 localises to sites of DNA damage in a manner dependent on its deubiquitylase activity, but independent of its ability to bind ERCC1–XPF. Together, these results establish USP45 as a new regulator of XPF–ERCC1 crucial for efficient DNA repair. PMID:25538220

  16. Future Naval Concepts -- Crew Reductions through Improved Damage Control Communications (FNC-CRIDCC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-18

    specification: Up to 14 Mbps (Powerline USB Adaptor limited to 12 Mbps) • Encryption 56-bit WEP Data Encryption with Key Management • LED indications...of the unstable characteristics, low data rate, minimal security features (i.e., 56-bit Wired Equivalent Privacy ( WEP ) encryption capability vice...64 or 128-bit WEP encryption or WiFi Protected Access (WPA) 1 or 2) and unsuitable power and environmental specifications, it was not considered for

  17. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention to improve medication adherence: design of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathleen C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as they relate to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group.

  18. Damage control mechanisms in articular cartilage: the role of the insulin-like growth factor I axis.

    PubMed

    Martin, J A; Scherb, M B; Lembke, L A; Buckwalter, J A

    2000-01-01

    Articular chondrocytes maintain cartilage throughout life by replacing lost or damaged matrix with freshly synthesized material. Synthesis activity is regulated, rapidly increasing to well above basal levels in response to cartilage injury. Such responses suggest that synthesis activity is linked to the rate of matrix loss by endogenous "damage control" mechanisms. As a major stimulator of matrix synthesis in cartilage, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is likely to play a role in such mechanisms. Although IGF-I is nearly ubiquitous, its bioavailability in cartilage is controlled by IGF-I binding proteins (IGFBPs) secreted by chondrocytes. IGFBPs are part of a complex system, termed the IGF-I axis, that tightly regulates IGF-I activities. For the most part, IGFBPs block IGF-I activity by sequestering IGF-I from its cell surface receptor. We recently found that the expression of one binding protein, IGFBP-3, increases with chondrocyte age, paralleling an age-related decline in synthesis activity. In addition, IGFBP-3 is overexpressed in osteoarthritic cartilage, leading to metabolic disturbances that contribute to cartilage degeneration. These observations indicate that IGFBP-3 plays a crucial role in regulating matrix synthesis in cartilage, and suggest that cartilage damage control mechanisms may fail due to age-related changes in IGFBP-3 expression or distribution. Our investigation of this hypothesis began with immunolocalization studies to determine the tissue distribution of IGFBP-3 in human cartilage. We found that IGFBP-3 accumulated around chondrocytes in the pericellular/territorial matrix, where it co-localized with fibronectin, but not with the other matrix proteins tenascin-C and type VI collagen. This result suggested that the IGFBP-3 distribution is determined by binding to fibronectin. Binding studies using purified proteins demonstrated that IGFBP-3 does in fact bind to fibronectin, but not to tenascin-C or type VI collagen. Finally, we

  19. Improvement of Targeting Efficiency in Chaos Control Using Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcu, Y.; Iplikci, S.; Denizhan, Y.

    2002-09-01

    In this paper an improved version of the previously presented ECR (Extended Control Regions) targeting method is proposed, where the system data is first pre-processed and subdivided into clusters, and then one artificial neural network is assigned to each such cluster. Furthermore, an analytical criterion for determining the region of the current system state during targeting is introduced, whereas in the original ECR method the region information was hidden in the neural networks. Simulation results on several chaotic systems show that this modified version of the ECR method reduces the average reaching time and in general also the training time of the neural networks.

  20. Controls Over Ministry of Interior Fuel Contracts Could be Improved

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-20

    Contracts Could Be Improved DODIG-2016-040 (Project No. D2015-D000JB-0174.000) │ i Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our objective was to determine...controls for oversight of MoI fuel contracts . Finding CSTC–A and MoI oversight of the MoI fuel contracts was not effective. Although some CSTC–A...defined roles and responsibilities for contract oversight. • CSTC–A did not enforce the fuel reporting requirements within the commitment letter or

  1. DASHBOARDS & CONTROL CHARTS EXPERIENCES IN IMPROVING SAFETY AT HANFORD WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2006-02-27

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of safety methodology, quality tools, leadership, and teamwork at Hanford and their significant positive impact on safe performance of work. Dashboards, Leading Indicators, Control charts, Pareto Charts, Dr. W. Edward Deming's Red Bead Experiment, and Dr. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge have been the principal tools and theory of an integrated management system. Coupled with involved leadership and teamwork, they have led to significant improvements in worker safety and protection, and environmental restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  2. Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and diabetes complications. Nearly one in three Americans adults has high blood pressure, and the cost associated with treating this condition is staggering. The Measure Up Pressure Down: Provider Toolkit to Improve Hypertension Control is a resource developed by the American Medical Group Foundation in partnership with the American Medical Group Association. The goal of this toolkit is to mobilize health care practitioners to work together through team-based approaches to achieve an 80% control rate of high blood pressure among their patient population. The toolkit can be used by health educators, clinic administrators, physicians, students, and other clinic staff as a step-by-step resource for developing the infrastructure needed to better identify and treat individuals with high blood pressure or other chronic conditions.

  3. An Improved Force Feedback Control Algorithm for Active Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tieneng; Liu, Zhifeng; Cai, Ligang

    2012-01-01

    An active tendon, consisting of a displacement actuator and a co-located force sensor, has been adopted by many studies to suppress the vibration of large space flexible structures. The damping, provided by the force feedback control algorithm in these studies, is small and can increase, especially for tendons with low axial stiffness. This study introduces an improved force feedback algorithm, which is based on the idea of velocity feedback. The algorithm provides a large damping ratio for space flexible structures and does not require a structure model. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on a structure similar to JPL-MPI. The results show that large damping can be achieved for the vibration control of large space structures. PMID:23112660

  4. Improved Position Sensor for Feedback Control of Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert; Savage, Larry; Rogers, Jan

    2004-01-01

    An improved optoelectronic apparatus has been developed to provide the position feedback needed for controlling the levitation subsystem of a containerless-processing system. As explained, the advantage of this apparatus over prior optoelectronic apparatuses that have served this purpose stems from the use of an incandescent lamp, instead of a laser, to illuminate the levitated object. In containerless processing, a small object to be processed is levitated (e.g., by use of a microwave, low-frequency electromagnetic, electrostatic, or acoustic field) so that it is not in contact with the wall of the processing chamber or with any other solid object during processing. In the case of electrostatic or low-frequency electromagnetic levitation, real-time measurement of the displacement of the levitated object from its nominal levitation position along the vertical axis (and, in some cases, along one or two horizontal axes) is needed for feedback control of the levitating field.

  5. Improved Controls for Fusion RF Systems. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Jeffrey A.

    2011-11-08

    We have addressed the specific requirements for the integrated systems controlling an array of klystrons used for Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). The immediate goal for our design was to modernize the transmitter protection system (TPS) for LHCD on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (MIT-PSFC). Working with the Alcator C-Mod team, we have upgraded the design of these controls to retrofit for improvements in performance and safety, as well as to facilitate the upcoming expansion from 12 to 16 klystrons. The longer range goals to generalize the designs in such a way that they will be of benefit to other programs within the international fusion effort was met by designing a system which was flexible enough to address all the MIT system requirements, and modular enough to adapt to a large variety of other requirements with minimal reconfiguration.

  6. Improving Advanced Inverter Control Convergence in Distribution Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Baggu, Murali

    2016-11-21

    Simulation of modern distribution system powerflow increasingly requires capturing the impact of advanced PV inverter voltage regulation on powerflow. With Volt/var control, the inverter adjusts its reactive power flow as a function of the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage. Similarly, Volt/watt control curtails active power production as a function of PCC voltage. However, with larger systems and higher penetrations of PV, this active/reactive power flow itself can cause significant changes to the PCC voltage potentially introducing oscillations that slow the convergence of system simulations. Improper treatment of these advanced inverter functions could potentially lead to incorrect results. This paper explores a simple approach to speed such convergence by blending in the previous iteration's reactive power estimate to dampen these oscillations. Results with a single large (5MW) PV system and with multiple 500kW advanced inverters show dramatic improvements using this approach.

  7. Reg3α Overexpression Protects Pancreatic β Cells from Cytokine-Induced Damage and Improves Islet Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Xu, Yuemei; Shuai, Xuanyu; Shi, Xuhui; Chen, Xiang; Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    The process of islet transplantation for treating type 1 diabetes has been limited by the high level of graft failure. This may be overcome by locally delivering trophic factors to enhance engraftment. Regenerating islet-derived protein 3α (Reg3α) is a pancreatic secretory protein which functions as an antimicrobial peptide in control of inflammation and cell proliferation. In this study, to investigate whether Reg3α could improve islet engraftment, a marginal mass of syngeneic islets pretransduced with adenoviruses expressing Reg3α or control EGFP were transplanted under the renal capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Mice receiving islets with elevated Reg3α production exhibited significantly lower blood glucose levels (9.057 ± 0.59 mmol/L versus 13.48 ± 0.35 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (1.80 ± 0.17 ng/mL versus 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/mL, P < 0.05) compared with the control group. The decline of apoptotic events (0.57% ± 0.15% versus 1.06% ± 0.07%, P < 0.05) and increased β-cell proliferation (0.70% ± 0.10% versus 0.36% ± 0.14%, P < 0.05) were confirmed in islet grafts overexpressing Reg3α by morphometric analysis. Further experiments showed that Reg3α production dramatically protected cultured islets and pancreatic β cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis and the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, exposure to cytokines led to the activation of MAPKs in pancreatic β cells, which was reversed by Reg3α overexpression in contrast to control group. These results strongly suggest that Reg3α could enhance islet engraftments through its cytoprotective effect and advance the therapeutic efficacy of islet transplantation. PMID:25826674

  8. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    SciTech Connect

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo

    2007-09-30

    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  9. Improving Hypertension Control and Patient Engagement Using Digital Tools.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J; Bober, Robert M; Milani, Alexander R; Ventura, Hector O

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is present in 30% of the adult US population and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. The established office-based approach yields only 50% blood pressure control rates and low levels of patient engagement. Available home technology now provides accurate, reliable data that can be transmitted directly to the electronic medical record. We evaluated blood pressure control in 156 patients with uncontrolled hypertension enrolled into a home-based digital-medicine blood pressure program and compared them with 400 patients (matched to age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure) in a usual-care group after 90 days. Digital-medicine patients completed questionnaires online, were asked to submit at least one blood pressure reading/week, and received medication management and lifestyle recommendations via a clinical pharmacist and a health coach. Blood pressure units were commercially available that transmitted data directly to the electronic medical record. Digital-medicine patients averaged 4.2 blood pressure readings per week. At 90 days, 71% of digital-medicine vs 31% of usual-care patients had achieved target blood pressure control. Mean decrease in systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 14/5 mm Hg in digital medicine, vs 4/2 mm Hg in usual care (P < .001). Excess sodium consumption decreased from 32% to 8% in the digital-medicine group (P = .004). Mean patient activation increased from 41.9 to 44.1 (P = .008), and the percentage of patients with low patient activation decreased from 15% to 6% (P = .03) in the digital-medicine group. A digital hypertension program is feasible and associated with significant improvement in blood pressure control rates and lifestyle change. Utilization of a virtual health intervention using connected devices improves patient activation and is well accepted by patients.

  10. [Plan to improve malaria control towards its elimination in Mesoamerica].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Betanzos-Reyes, Angel Francisco

    2011-01-01

    To develop a plan to strengthen the control of malaria towards its elimination. In 2009, under the coordination of the National Public HealthInstitute ofMexico, atransdisciplinary equipment of technical and operative experts was conformed to carry out a situational analysis of malaria and control programs and for the selection of effective practices of intervention that would be incorporated to the plan, within the framework of an exercise in Theory of Change. Criteria for thestratificationof thelocalities, based ontheirtransmission characteristics were established. The structural and operative limitations of the control programs were identified. A plan of interventions was elaborated to improve the coverage of epidemiological surveillance, anti-malaria interventions and opportune diagnosis and treatment of cases. The plan delineates progressive phases of implementation: reorganization, intensification of interventions and evaluation of elimination feasibility. The adoption of a regional strategic plan will provide guidance and administrative elements to conform a system that coordinates the activities of the national control programs and facilitate the elimination of malaria in the region.

  11. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène; Vinter, Richard B.

    2015-04-15

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  12. Inspiratory resistive loading improves cycling capacity: a placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gething, A; Williams, M; Davies, B

    2004-01-01

    Background: Respiratory muscle training has been shown to improve both its strength and endurance. The effect of these improvements on whole-body exercise performance remains controversial. Objective: To assess the effect of a 10 week inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) intervention on respiratory muscle performance and whole-body exercise endurance. Methods: Fifteen apparently healthy subjects (10 men, 5 women) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. One group underwent IRL set at 80% of maximum inspiratory pressure with ever decreasing work/rest ratios until task failure, for three days a week for 10 weeks (IRL group). A second placebo group performed the same training procedure but with a minimal resistance (PLA group). IRL and placebo training were performed at rest. The remaining five control subjects performed no IRL during the 10 week study period (CON group). Cycling endurance capacity at 75% V·O2peak was measured before and after the intervention. Results: After the 10 week IRL intervention, respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory pressure) and endurance (sum of sustained maximum inspiratory pressure) had significantly improved (by 34% and 38% respectively). An increase in diaphragm thickness was also observed. These improvements translated into a 36% increase in cycling time to exhaustion at 75% V·O2peak. During cycling trials, heart rate, ventilation, and rating of perceived exertion were attenuated in the IRL group. No changes were observed for the PLA or CON group either in the time to exhaustion or cardiorespiratory response to the same intensity of exercise. Conclusion: Ten weeks of IRL attenuated the heart rate, ventilatory, and perceptual response to constant workload exercise, and improved the cycling time to exhaustion. Familiarisation was not a factor and the placebo effect was minimal. PMID:15562168

  13. Improved optical and electrical properties of rf sputtered Al doped ZnO films on polymer substrates by low-damage processes

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Hyung Seob; Yang, Min Kyu; Lee, Jeon-Kook

    2009-03-15

    Three types of low-damage radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering processes--an interruptive process, a rotating cylindrical holder method, and an off-axis sputtering method--were designed and studied to reduce the film surface temperature during deposition. Low-damage sputtering processes were investigated to improve the resistivity and optical transmittance in the visible range of Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates. In the case of the polyethersulfone substrate, AZO films with a resistivity of 1.0x10{sup -3} {omega} cm and an optical transmittance of 75% were obtained by the rotating repeat holder method during rf sputtering.

  14. Applications of Eigenstructure Assignment to Design of Robust MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) Decoupling Controllers and to Reconfiguration Algorithms for Damaged Flight Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    0 * NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 00 Monterey, California A DTIC ELECTE MAY 1 4 9871 c~z( D THESIS APPLICATIONS OF EIGENSTRUCTURE ASSIGNMENT TO DESIGN OF... Thesis Advisor D.J. Collins Approved for public release; distribution iE unlimited. 87 U DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY PRACTICABLE. THE...reconfiguring damaged digital flight controllers is then p resented. The thesis concludes with reconfigy red solution demonstrations as applied to the

  15. Can the parasitoid Necremnus tutae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) improve existing biological control of the tomato leafminer Tuta aboluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)?

    PubMed

    Calvo, F J; Soriano, J D; Stansly, P A; Belda, J E

    2016-08-01

    Necremnus tutae is native to the Mediterranean region where it has been observed in greenhouses parasitizing the invasive Tuta absoluta on tomato. The objective of the present study was to determine whether augmentative releases of N. tutae can improve existing biological control of T. absoluta based on predation by Nesidicoris tenuis. Two experiments were carried out, of which the first evaluated different N. tutae release rates (1 and 2 N. tutae m-2 week-1). The parasitoid reduced plant and fruit damage, especially at the higher rate. However, such reduction was considered insufficient given the large numbers of parasitoids needed and still unacceptable level of fruit damage. The second experiment focused on combining the most efficient rate of N. tutae of those evaluated during the first experiment, with the pre- and post-planting release of N. tenuis and supplemental additions of Ephestia kuehniella eggs. Addition of N. tutae decreased leaf damage by T. absoluta regardless the release method for N. tenuis, but the pre-plant release of N. tenuis alone was sufficient to prevent fruit damage by T. absoluta. This suggested that the addition of N. tutae may not be necessary to obtain satisfactory control of T. absoluta following pre-plant application of N. tenuis, although different options for using N. tutae in commercial crops may still be possible.

  16. Huang-lian-jie-du-tang protects rats from cardiac damages induced by metabolic disorder by improving inflammation-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan Bao; Li, Xiao Xing; Chen, Yu Guo; Gao, Hai Qing; Bu, Pei Li; Zhang, Yun; Ji, Xiao Ping

    2013-01-01

    Huang-lian-jie-du-tang (HLJDT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to improve insulin resistance (IR) induced by inflammation, a key event in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of HLJDT on MS and explore the underlying mechanism. MS rats were established with obese-diets and treated with normal saline, aspirin or HLJDT. The myocardial lesions were identified by echocardiogram, transmission electron microscope, and Sirius-red staining. The inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. The activation of NF-κB, JNK, SOCS3, IRS1 and AKT in the heart was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Compared with the controls, MS rats developed obvious obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, IR, inflammation, and cardiac damage. Moreover, phosphorylated IRS-1 at Ser307 was correlated with the activation of NF-κB, JNK and SOCS3 and the inhibition of AKT in the heart from MS rats. These data suggest that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in response to inflammation is mediated, in part, by NF-κB, JNK and SOCS3. Notably, HLJDT inhibited the activation of NF-κB and reduced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. In summary, HLJDT protects myocardium from IR-mediated injury by inhibiting serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in MS rats.

  17. Assessing frost damages using dynamic models in walnut trees: exposure rather than vulnerability controls frost risks.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Guillaume; Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Améglio, Thierry

    2017-02-09

    Frost damages develop when exposure overtakes frost vulnerability. Frost risk assessment therefore needs dynamic simulation of frost hardiness using temperature and photoperiod in interaction with developmental stage. Two models, including or not the effect of photoperiod were calibrated using five years of frost hardiness monitoring (2007-2012), in two locations (low and high elevation) for three walnut genotypes with contrasted phenology and maximum hardiness (Juglans regia cv Franquette, Juglans regia x nigra 'Early' and 'Late'). The Photothermal model predicted more accurate values for all genotypes (Efficiency = 0.879; RMSEP = 2.55 °C) than the Thermal model (Efficiency = 0.801; RMSEP = 3.24 °C). Predicted frost damages were strongly correlated to minimum temperature of the freezing events (ρ = -0.983) rather than actual frost hardiness (ρ = -0.515), or ratio of phenological stage completion (ρ = 0.336). Higher frost risks are consequently predicted during winter, at high elevation, whereas spring is only risky at low elevation in early genotypes exhibiting faster dehardening rate. However, early frost damages, although of lower value, may negatively affect fruit production the subsequent year (R(2)  = 0.381, P = 0.057). These results highlight the interacting pattern between frost exposure and vulnerability at different scales and the necessity of intra-organ studies to understand the time course of frost vulnerability in flower buds along the winter.

  18. Association of sugar content QTL and PQL with physiological traits relevant to frost damage resistance in pea under field and controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Estelle; Fontaine, Véronique; Vuylsteker, Christophe; Sellier, Hélène; Bodèle, Sylvie; Voedts, Najia; Devaux, Rosemonde; Frise, Marlène; Avia, Komlan; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Bahrman, Nasser; Hanocq, Eric; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Delbreil, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    To increase yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.), autumn sowing would be preferable. Hence, frost tolerance of pea became a major trait of interest for breeders. In order to better understand the cold acclimation in pea, Champagne a frost tolerant line and Terese, a frost sensitive line, and their recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were studied. RIL frost tolerance was evaluated by a frost damage scale under field as well as controlled conditions. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach was used to identify chromosomal regions linked to frost tolerance. The detected QTL explained from 6.5 to 46.5% of the phenotypic variance. Amongst them, those located on linkage groups 5 and 6 were consistent with over all experiments, in field as well as in controlled environments. In order to improve the understanding of the frost tolerance mechanisms, several cold acclimation key characters such as concentration of sugars, electrolyte leakage, osmotic pressure, and activity of RuBisCO were assessed. Some of these physiological QTL colocalised with QTL for frost damage, in particular two raffinose QTL on LG5 and LG6 and one RuBisCO activity QTL on LG6, explaining 8.8 to 27.0% of the phenotypic variance. In addition, protein quantitative loci were mapped; some of them colocalised with frost damage and physiological QTL on LG5 and LG6, explaining 16.0-43.6% of the phenotypic variance. Raffinose metabolism and RuBisCO activity and its effect on photosynthesis might play a major role in cold acclimation of pea.

  19. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved vehicle ride performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2016-07-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used in the paper to analyse to which extent the fully active suspension (FAS) can improve the vehicle ride comfort while preserving the wheel holding ability. The method is first applied for a cosine-shaped bump road disturbance of different heights, and for both quarter-car and full 10 degree-of-freedom vehicle models. A nonlinear anti-wheel hop constraint is considered, and the influence of bump preview time period is analysed. The analysis is then extended to the case of square- or cosine-shaped pothole with different lengths, and the quarter-car model. In this case, the cost function is extended with FAS energy consumption and wheel damage resilience costs. The FAS action is found to be such to provide a wheel hop over the pothole, in order to avoid or minimise the damage at the pothole trailing edge. In the case of long pothole, when the FAS cannot provide the wheel hop, the wheel is travelling over the pothole bottom and then hops over the pothole trailing edge. The numerical optimisation results are accompanied by a simplified algebraic analysis.

  20. [Improvement of routine works and quality control in mycobacterial laboratory].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Higuchi, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    Many new methods have been introduced into routine laboratory works in microbiology since 1990. Molecular biology, in particular, opened a new era and promoted a technician's skill much. PCR and hybridization technique have been ordinary one in many laboratories. Since old techniques such as smear and culture are still needed, amount of routine works is increasing gradually. Thus, improving efficiency and keeping quality of routine works are becoming more and more important issues. This symposium focused on such points, and four skilled technicians around Japan presented their own tips. 1. Coexistence of M. tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC) in the MGIT culture system: Yasushi WATANABE (Clinical Laboratory Division, NHO Nishi-Niigata Chuo National Hospital). Sputum samples of some tuberculosis patients yielded only MAC in the MGIT culture system. Such co-infected cases presented problems to mislead proper treatment and infection control. The detection rate of MAC was significantly high, and the growth speed of MAC was significantly rapid in the MGIT culture system, compared to those of M. tuberculosis. Additionally, M. tuberculosis was not detected with even more quantity than MAC in the small amount of mixed samples. Higher sensitivity and growth speed of MAC are the important characteristics of the MGIT system. 2. Internal quality control with ordinary examination results: Akio AONO (Department of Clinical Examination, Double-Barred Cross Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). Our laboratory utilizes ordinary examination results as the internal quality control for specimen pretreatment, culture, and drug susceptibility testing. The contamination rate of MGIT culture system is useful for the evaluation of the decontamination process. It was 6.3% on average in our laboratory in 2005. The number of drug resistant strains is also useful to assess the performance of drug susceptibility testing. The incidence of each anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

  1. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  2. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Lili; Shanklin, John; Khusnutdinova, Anna; ...

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in pro- and eukaryotes but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), subfamily II being split into standalone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metaldependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed amore » novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.« less

  3. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lili; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Petit, Pierre; Flick, Robert; Zallot, Rémi; Balmant, Kelly; Ziemak, Michael J.; Shanklin, John; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Fiehn, Oliver; Gregory, Jesse F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), with subfamily II being split into stand-alone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metal-dependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed a novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.

  4. A family of metal-dependent phosphatases implicated in metabolite damage-control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lili; Shanklin, John; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Petit, Pierre; Flick, Robert; Zallot, Remi; Balmant, Kelly; Ziemak, Michael J.; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie; Fiehn, Oliver; Gregory, III, Jesse F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexie; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2016-06-20

    DUF89 family proteins occur widely in pro- and eukaryotes but their functions are unknown. Here we define three DUF89 subfamilies (I, II, and III), subfamily II being split into standalone proteins and proteins fused to pantothenate kinase (PanK). We demonstrated that DUF89 proteins have metaldependent phosphatase activity against reactive phosphoesters or their damaged forms, notably sugar phosphates (subfamilies II and III), phosphopantetheine and its S-sulfonate or sulfonate (subfamily II-PanK fusions), and nucleotides (subfamily I). Genetic and comparative genomic data strongly associated DUF89 genes with phosphoester metabolism. The crystal structure of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) subfamily III protein YMR027W revealed a novel phosphatase active site with fructose 6-phosphate and Mg2+ bound near conserved signature residues Asp254 and Asn255 that are critical for activity. These findings indicate that DUF89 proteins are previously unrecognized hydrolases whose characteristic in vivo function is to limit potentially harmful buildups of normal or damaged phosphometabolites.

  5. Optical control of filamentation-induced damage to DNA by intense, ultrashort, near-infrared laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Kasuba, K. C.; Bharambe, H.; D’Souza, J. S.; Rathod, K. D.; Mathur, D.

    2016-06-01

    We report on damage to DNA in an aqueous medium induced by ultrashort pulses of intense laser light of 800 nm wavelength. Focusing of such pulses, using lenses of various focal lengths, induces plasma formation within the aqueous medium. Such plasma can have a spatial extent that is far in excess of the Rayleigh range. In the case of water, the resulting ionization and dissociation gives rise to in situ generation of low-energy electrons and OH-radicals. Interactions of these with plasmid DNA produce nicks in the DNA backbone: single strand breaks (SSBs) are induced as are, at higher laser intensities, double strand breaks (DSBs). Under physiological conditions, the latter are not readily amenable to repair. Systematic quantification of SSBs and DSBs at different values of incident laser energy and under different external focusing conditions reveals that damage occurs in two distinct regimes. Numerical aperture is the experimental handle that delineates the two regimes, permitting simple optical control over the extent of DNA damage.

  6. Optical control of filamentation-induced damage to DNA by intense, ultrashort, near-infrared laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Kasuba, K. C.; Bharambe, H.; D’Souza, J. S.; Rathod, K. D.; Mathur, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report on damage to DNA in an aqueous medium induced by ultrashort pulses of intense laser light of 800 nm wavelength. Focusing of such pulses, using lenses of various focal lengths, induces plasma formation within the aqueous medium. Such plasma can have a spatial extent that is far in excess of the Rayleigh range. In the case of water, the resulting ionization and dissociation gives rise to in situ generation of low-energy electrons and OH-radicals. Interactions of these with plasmid DNA produce nicks in the DNA backbone: single strand breaks (SSBs) are induced as are, at higher laser intensities, double strand breaks (DSBs). Under physiological conditions, the latter are not readily amenable to repair. Systematic quantification of SSBs and DSBs at different values of incident laser energy and under different external focusing conditions reveals that damage occurs in two distinct regimes. Numerical aperture is the experimental handle that delineates the two regimes, permitting simple optical control over the extent of DNA damage. PMID:27279565

  7. Improving the precision of sample-based forest damage inventories through two-phase sampling and post-stratification using remotely sensed auxiliary information.

    PubMed

    Roberge, Cornelia; Wulff, Sören; Reese, Heather; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-04-01

    Many countries have a national forest inventory (NFI) designed to produce statistically sound estimates of forest parameters. However, this type of inventory may not provide reliable results for forest damage which usually affects only small parts of the forest in a country. For this reason, specially designed forest damage inventories are performed in many countries, sometimes in coordination with the NFIs. In this study, we evaluated a new approach for damage inventory where existing NFI data form the basis for two-phase sampling for stratification and remotely sensed auxiliary data are applied for further improvement of precision through post-stratification. We applied Monte Carlo sampling simulation to evaluate different sampling strategies linked to different damage scenarios. The use of existing NFI data in a two-phase sampling for stratification design resulted in a relative efficiency of 50 % or lower, i.e., the variance was at least halved compared to a simple random sample of the same size. With post-stratification based on simulated remotely sensed auxiliary data, there was additional improvement, which depended on the accuracy of the auxiliary data and the properties of the forest damage. In many cases, the relative efficiency was further reduced by as much as one-half. In conclusion, the results show that substantial gains in precision can be obtained by utilizing auxiliary information in forest damage surveys, through two-phase sampling, through post-stratification, and through the combination of these two approaches, i.e., post-stratified two-phase sampling for stratification.

  8. Avocado oil induces long-term alleviation of oxidative damage in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic rats by improving glutathione status.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Figueroa-García, María Del Consuelo; García-Berumen, Claudia Isabel; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Hyperglycemia and mitochondrial ROS overproduction have been identified as key factors involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This has encouraged the search for strategies decreasing glucose levels and long-term improvement of redox status of glutathione, the main antioxidant counteracting mitochondrial damage. Previously, we have shown that avocado oil improves redox status of glutathione in liver and brain mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; however, the long-term effects of avocado oil and its hypoglycemic effect cannot be evaluated because this model displays low survival and insulin depletion. Therefore, we tested during 1 year the effects of avocado oil on glycemia, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and glutathione status in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Diabetic rats exhibited glycemia of 120-186 mg/dL the first 9 months with a further increase to 250-300 mg/dL. Avocado oil decreased hyperglycemia at intermediate levels between diabetic and control rats. Diabetic rats displayed augmented lipid peroxidation and depletion of reduced glutathione throughout the study, while increased ROS generation was observed at the 3rd and 12th months along with diminished content of total glutathione at the 6th and 12th months. Avocado oil ameliorated all these defects and augmented the mitochondrial content of oleic acid. The beneficial effects of avocado oil are discussed in terms of the hypoglycemic effect of oleic acid and the probable dependence of glutathione transport on lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation of mitochondrial carriers.

  9. Transplantation of stem cells obtained from murine dental pulp improves pancreatic damage, renal function, and painful diabetic neuropathy in diabetic type 1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela da Silva; Almeida, Tiago Farias de; Souza, Bruno Solano de Freitas; Kaneto, Carla Martins; Vasconcelos, Juliana Fraga; Santos, Washington Luis Conrado dos; Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro-dos; Villarreal, Cristiane Flora; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common and serious chronic diseases in the world. Here, we investigated the effects of mouse dental pulp stem cell (mDPSC) transplantation in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes type 1 model. C57BL/6 mice were treated intraperitoneally with 80 mg/kg of STZ and transplanted with 1 × 10(6) mDPSCs or injected with saline, by an endovenous route, after diabetes onset. Blood and urine glucose levels were reduced in hyperglycemic mice treated with mDPSCs when compared to saline-treated controls. This correlated with an increase in pancreatic islets and insulin production 30 days after mDPSC therapy. Moreover, urea and proteinuria levels normalized after mDPSC transplantation in diabetic mice, indicating an improvement of renal function. This was confirmed by a histopathological analysis of kidney sections. We observed the loss of the epithelial brush border and proximal tubule dilatation only in saline-treated diabetic mice, which is indicative of acute renal lesion. STZ-induced thermal hyperalgesia was also reduced after cell therapy. Three days after transplantation, mDPSC-treated diabetic mice exhibited nociceptive thresholds similar to that of nondiabetic mice, an effect maintained throughout the 90-day evaluation period. Immunofluorescence analyses of the pancreas revealed the presence of GFP(+) cells in, or surrounding, pancreatic islets. Our results demonstrate that mDPSCs may contribute to pancreatic β-cell renewal, prevent renal damage in diabetic animals, and produce a powerful and long-lasting antinociceptive effect on behavioral neuropathic pain. Our results suggest stem cell therapy as an option for the control of diabetes complications such as intractable diabetic neuropathic pain.

  10. Technical innovations that may facilitate real-time telementoring of damage control surgery in austere environments: a proof of concept comparative evaluation of the importance of surgical experience, telepresence, gravity and mentoring in the conduct of damage control laparotomies.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; LaPorta, Anthony; Brien, Susan; Leslie, Tim; Glassberg, Elon; McKee, Jessica; Ball, Chad G; Wright Beatty, Heather E; Keillor, Jocelyn; Roberts, Derek J; Tien, Homer

    2015-06-01

    Bleeding to death is the most preventable cause of posttraumatic death worldwide. Despite the fact that many of these deaths are anatomically salvageable with relatively basic surgical interventions, they remain lethal in actuality in prehospital environments when no facilities and skills exist to contemplate undertaking basic damage control surgery (DCS). With better attention to prehospital control of extremity hemorrhage, intracavitary bleeding (especially intraperitoneal) remains beyond the scope of prehospital providers. However, recent revolutions in the informatics and techniques of telementoring (TMT), DCS and highly realistic accelerated training of motivated first responders suggests that basic lifesaving DCS may have applicability to save bleeding patients in austere environments previously considered unsalvageable. Especially with informatic advances, any provider with Internet connectivity can potentially be supported by highly proficient specialists with content expertise in the index problem. This unprecedented TMT support may allow highly motivated but inexperienced personnel to provide advanced surgical interventions in extreme environments in many austere locations both on and above the planet.

  11. Controlling exfoliation in order to minimize damage during dispersion of long SWCNTs for advanced composites

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Howon; Yamashita, Motoi; Ata, Seisuke; Futaba, Don N.; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We propose an approach to disperse long single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a manner that is most suitable for the fabrication of high-performance composites. We compare three general classes of dispersion mechanisms, which encompass 11 different dispersion methods, and we have dispersed long SWCNTs, short multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and short SWCNTs in order to understand the most appropriate dispersion methods for the different types of CNTs. From this study, we have found that the turbulent flow methods, as represented by the Nanomizer and high-pressure jet mill methods, produced unique and superior dispersibility of long SWCNTs, which was advantageous for the fabrication of highly conductive composites. The results were interpreted to imply that the biaxial shearing force caused an exfoliation effect to disperse the long SWCNTs homogeneously while suppressing damage. A conceptual model was developed to explain this dispersion mechanism, which is important for future work on advanced CNT composites. PMID:24469607

  12. Ultraviolet radiation effects on the infrared damage rate of a thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the infrared reflectance of ZnO silicone white thermal coatings were investigated. Narrow band ultraviolet radiation for wavelengths in the 2200A to 3500A range by a monochromator and a high pressure, 150-W Eimac xenon lamp. The sample was irradiated while in a vacuum of at least 0.000001 torr, and infrared reflectance was measured in situ with a spectroreflectometer at 19,500A. Reflectance degradation was studied as a function of wavelength, time, intensity, and dose. Damage was wavelength dependent at constant exposure, but no maximum was evident above the shortest wavelength investigated here. The degradation rate at constant intensity was an exponential function of time and varies with intensity.

  13. Advanced materials for control of post-earthquake damage in bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Saiid Saiidi, M.; Cruz, Carlos A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents analytical modeling to study the seismic response of bridge systems with conventional and advanced details. For validation, a 33 m quarter-scale model of a four-span bridge incorporating innovative materials and details seismically tested on the shake tables at the University of Nevada, Reno was taken. The bridge specimen involved use of advanced materials and details to reduce damage at plastic hinges and minimize residual displacements. A three-dimensional, nonlinear model incorporating the response of the innovative materials was developed to study the bridge response using the finite-element software OpenSees. Existing finite-element formulations were used to capture the response of the advanced materials used in the bridge. The analytical model was found to be able to reproduce comparable bent displacements and bent shear forces within reasonable accuracy. The validated model was further used to study different types of bridges under suite of scaled bi-directional near-fault ground motions. Comparisons were made on behavior of five different bridge types, first conventional reinforced concrete bridge, second post-tensioned column bridge, third bridge with elastomeric rubber elements at the plastic hinge zone, fourth bridge with nickel-titanium superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforcing bar and fifth bridge with CuAlMn superelastic SMA reinforcing bar. Both the SMA used bridges also utilized engineered cementitious composite element at the plastic hinge zone. The results showed effectiveness of the innovative interventions on the bridges in providing excellent recentering capabilities with minimal damage to the columns.

  14. Compact vehicle drive module having improved thermal control

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Andreas A.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2006-01-03

    An electric vehicle drive includes a thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support, which may be controlled in a closed-loop manner. Interfacing between circuits, circuit mounting structure, and the support provide for greatly enhanced cooling. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  15. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  16. BOTULINUM TOXIN A INDUCED PARALYSIS OF THE LATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL AFTER DAMAGE CONTROL LAPAROTOMY: A MULTIINSTITUTIONAL, PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO CONTROLLED PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Martin D.; Kuntz, Melissa; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zagar, Abigail E.; Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Polites, Stephanie F.; Ferrara, Michael; Harmsen, William S.; Ballman, Karla S.; Park, Myung S.; Schiller, Henry J.; Dries, David; Jenkins, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Damage control laparotomy (DCL) is a life-saving operation used in critically ill patients; however, interval primary fascial closure remains a challenge. We hypothesized that flaccid paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall musculature induced by Botulinum Toxin A (BTX), would improve of rates of primary fascial closure, decrease duration of hospital stay (LOS), and enhance pain control. METHODS Consenting adults who had undergone a DCL at two institutions were prospectively randomized to receive ultrasound-guided injections of their external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus muscles with either BTX (150cc, 2units/cc) or placebo (150cc 0.9%NaCl). Patients were excluded if they had a BMI>50, remained unstable or coagulopathic, were home O2 dependent or had an existing neuromuscular disorder. Outcomes were assessed in a double-blinded manner. Univariate and Kaplan Meier estimates of cumulative probability of abdominal closure were performed. RESULTS We randomized 46 patients (24 BTX, 22 placebo). There were no significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, and physiological status. Injections were performed on average 1.8 ± 2.8 days after DCL (range 0-14). The 10-day cumulative probability of primary fascial closure was similar between groups: 96% for BTX (95% CI 72%-99%) and 93% for placebo (95% CI 61%-99%); HR =1.0 (95% CI 0.5-1.8). No difference between BTX and placebo groups was observed for LOS (37 vs 26 days, p=0.30) or intensive care unit stay (17 vs 11 days, p=0.27). There was no difference in median morphine equivalents following DCL. The overall complication rate was similar (63% vs 68%, p=0.69), with 2 deaths in the placebo group and 0 in the BTX group. No BTX or injection procedure complications were observed. CONCLUSION Use of BTX after DCL was safe but did not appear to affect primary fascial closure, LOS, or pain modulation after DCL. Given higher than expected rates of primary fascial closure, type II error

  17. Metabolic Correction in the Management of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Improving Clinical Results Beyond Symptom Control

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Gonzalez, Michael J.; Jimenez, Francisco J.; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z.; Duconge, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Current Clinical Management Guidelines of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) are based on adequate glucose control and symptomatic pain relief. However, meticulous glycemic control could delay the onset or slow the progression of diabetic neuropathy in patients with DM type 2, but it does not completely prevent the progression of the disease. Complications of DPN as it continues its natural course, produce increasing pain and discomfort, loss of sensation, ulcers, infections, amputations and even death. In addition to the increased suffering, disability and loss of productivity, there is a very significant economic impact related to the treatment of DPN and its complications. In USA alone, it has been estimated that there are more than 5,000,000 patients suffering from DPN and the total annual cost of treating the disease and its complications is over $10,000 million dollars. In order to be able to reduce complications of DPN, it is crucial to improve or correct the metabolic conditions that lead to the pathology present in this condition. Pathophysiologic mechanisms implicated in diabetic neuropathy include: increased polyol pathway with accumulation of sorbitol and reduced Na+/K+-ATPase activity, microvascular damage and hypoxia due to nitric oxide deficit and increased oxygen free radical activity. Moreover, there is a decrease in glutathione and increase in homocysteine. Clinical trials in the last two decades have demonstrated that the use of specific nutrients can correct some of these metabolic derangements, improving symptom control and providing further benefits such as improved sensorium, blood flow and nerve regeneration. We will discuss the evidence on lipoic acid, acetyi-L-carnitine, benfotiamine and the combination of active B vitamins L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin and piridoxal-6-phosphate. In addition, we discuss the role of metforrnin, an important drug in the management of diabetes, and the presence of specific polymorphic genes, in the risk

  18. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P < 0.001, both comparisons); 42% had a reduction in SBP > 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP < 140/90, compared to 38% at baseline (P < 0.001). At follow-up, an increased proportion of previously diagnosed drivers reported home BP monitoring, healthy diet, and regular exercise as components of hypertension self-management. The implementation of our hypertension education, self-management, and awareness program was associated with an improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  19. Targeting of viral interleukin-10 with an antibody fragment specific to damaged arthritic cartilage improves its therapeutic potency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We previously demonstrated that a single-chain fragment variable (scFv) specific to collagen type II (CII) posttranslationally modified by reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be used to target anti-inflammatory therapeutics specifically to inflamed arthritic joints. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the superior efficacy of anti-inflammatory cytokines when targeted to inflamed arthritic joints by the anti-ROS modified CII (anti-ROS-CII) scFv in a mouse model of arthritis. Methods Viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10) was fused to anti-ROS-CII scFv (1-11E) with a matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavable linker to create 1-11E/vIL-10 fusion. Binding of 1-11E/vIL-10 to ROS-CII was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, and immune-staining of arthritic cartilage, whereas vIL-10 bioactivity was evaluated in vitro by using an MC-9 cell-proliferation assay. Specific in vivo localization and therapeutic efficacy of 1-11E/vIL-10 was tested in the mouse model of antigen-induced arthritis. Results 1-11E/vIL-10 bound specifically to ROS-CII and to damaged arthritic cartilage. Interestingly, the in vitro vIL-10 activity in the fusion protein was observed only after cleavage with MMP-1. When systemically administered to arthritic mice, 1-11E/vIL-10 localized specifically to the arthritic knee, with peak accumulation observed after 3 days. Moreover, 1-11E/vIL-10 reduced inflammation significantly quicker than vIL-10 fused to the control anti-hen egg lysozyme scFv (C7/vIL10). Conclusions Targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokines potentiates their anti-arthritic action in a mouse model of arthritis. Our results further support the hypothesis that targeting biotherapeutics to arthritic joints may be extended to include anti-inflammatory cytokines that lack efficacy when administered systemically. PMID:25029910

  20. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P < 0.05). The MS + XST group showed notable decreases in systolic and diastolic pressures than that of the MS group. The MS group showed significant increases in the SOD activity and NO level and decrease in the MDA level after being intervened with Astragali Radix. ACE and AT1R protein expressions in renal tissues of the MS group were higher than that in the NC group, but with lower ACE2 and -Mas receptor expressions (all P < 0.05). Compared with the MS group, the MS + HQ group showed significant increase in Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, Astragali Radix can increase the Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  1. Performance improvement of robots using a learning control scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishna, Ramuhalli; Chiang, Pen-Tai; Yang, Jackson C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Many applications of robots require that the same task be repeated a number of times. In such applications, the errors associated with one cycle are also repeated every cycle of the operation. An off-line learning control scheme is used here to modify the command function which would result in smaller errors in the next operation. The learning scheme is based on a knowledge of the errors and error rates associated with each cycle. Necessary conditions for the iterative scheme to converge to zero errors are derived analytically considering a second order servosystem model. Computer simulations show that the errors are reduced at a faster rate if the error rate is included in the iteration scheme. The results also indicate that the scheme may increase the magnitude of errors if the rate information is not included in the iteration scheme. Modification of the command input using a phase and gain adjustment is also proposed to reduce the errors with one attempt. The scheme is then applied to a computer model of a robot system similar to PUMA 560. Improved performance of the robot is shown by considering various cases of trajectory tracing. The scheme can be successfully used to improve the performance of actual robots within the limitations of the repeatability and noise characteristics of the robot.

  2. Chaotic control of a piezomagnetoelastic beam for improved energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiyer, Daniel; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2015-04-01

    Linear cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters do not typically operate efficiently through a large span of excitation frequencies. Beam theory dictates optimum displacement at resonance excitation; however, typical environments evolve and vary over time with no clear dominant frequency. Nonlinear, non-resonant harvesting techniques have been implemented, but none so far have embraced chaotic behavior as a desirable property of the system. This work aims to benefit from chaotic phenomena by stabilizing high energy periodic orbits located within a chaotic attractor to improve operating bandwidth. Delay coordinate embedding is used to reconstruct the system states from a single time series measurement of displacement. Orbit selection, local linearization, and control perturbation are all computed from the single time series independent of an explicit system model. Although chaos in non-autonomous systems is typically associated with harmonic inputs, chaotic attractor motion can also exist throughout other excitation sources. Accelerometer data from inside a commercial vehicle and a stochastic excitation signal are used to illustrate the existence of chaos in dynamic environments, allowing such environments to be likely candidates for the proposed bandwidth improving energy harvesting technique.

  3. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with < 1.3 m high, and at the advanced stage with >1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies.

  4. Geologic control of severe expansive clay damage to a subdivision in the Pierre Shale, southwest Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, J.D.; West, M.W.; Noe, D.C.; Olsen, H.W.; McCarty, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    Shortly after construction of a subdivision in the southwest Denver metropolitan area in 1986, a portion of the subdivision built directly on steeply-dipping strata of the Pierre Shale began experiencing damaging differential movements, causing house foundations to fail and pavements to warp and crack. This formation is a Late Cretaceous marine clay-shale composed predominantly of fluvial mixed-layer illite/smectite and quartz. During deposition of the shale, periodic and explosive volcanism generated thin beds of bentonite, consisting initially of volcanic ash and subsequently altered to nearly pure smectite. Some of these bentonite beds were exposed in a trench adjacent to the subdivision and perpendicular to the strike of the steeply-dipping strata. The thickest bentonite beds correlated well with linear heave features that these beds parallel the bedrock strike throughout the subdivision were mapped via severely deformed pavements. Mineralogical data show the bentonite bed that correlates with the worst damage within the subdivision consists of about 62% smectite by weight with mixed-layer illite/smectite expandability of 92%. By comparison, a sample of the typical silty claystone, which is fluvial mixed-layer illite/smectite mixed with detrital quartz from the adjacent strata, had about 23% smectite by weight with 70% to 90% illite/smectite expandability. Geotechnical tests for swell potential show that samples of 2 bentonite beds swelled 39% to 43% compared to 2% to 8% for samples of the typical silty claystone. It is proposed that differential swell resulting from stratigraphically-controlled differences in clay mineralogy and grain-size is the primary factor controlling extreme damage for this geologic setting.

  5. Hierarchical Control Scheme for Improving Transient Voltage Recovery of a DFIG-Based WPP

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2015-06-05

    Modern grid codes require that wind power plants (WPPs) inject reactive power according to the voltage dip at a point of interconnection (POI). This requirement helps to support a POI voltage during a fault. However, if a fault is cleared, the POI and wind turbine generator (WTG) voltages are likely to exceed acceptable levels unless the WPP reduces the injected reactive power quickly. This might deteriorate the stability of a grid by allowing the disconnection of WTGs to avoid any damage. This paper proposes a hierarchical control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WPP. The proposed scheme aims to improve the reactive power injecting capability during the fault and suppress the overvoltage after the fault clearance. To achieve the former, an adaptive reactive power-to-voltage scheme is implemented in each DFIG controller so that a DFIG with a larger reactive power capability will inject more reactive power. To achieve the latter, a washout filter is used to capture a high frequency component contained in the WPP voltage, which is used to remove the accumulated values in the proportional-integral controllers. Test results indicate that the scheme successfully supports the grid voltage during the fault, and recovers WPP voltages without exceeding the limit after the fault clearance.

  6. Control of polymeric nanoparticle size to improve therapeutic delivery.

    PubMed

    Hickey, John W; Santos, Jose Luis; Williford, John-Michael; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2015-12-10

    As nanoparticle (NP)-mediated drug delivery research continues to expand, understanding parameters that govern NP interactions with the biological environment becomes paramount. The principles identified from the study of these parameters can be used to engineer new NPs, impart unique functionalities, identify novel utilities, and improve the clinical translation of NP formulations. One key design parameter is NP size. New methods have been developed to produce NPs with increased control of NP size between 10 and 200nm, a size range most relevant to physical and biochemical targeting through both intravascular and site-specific deliveries. Three notable techniques best suited for generating polymeric NPs with narrow size distributions are highlighted in this review: self-assembly, microfluidics-based preparation, and flash nanoprecipitation. Furthermore, the effect of NP size on the biological fate and transport properties at the molecular scale (protein-NP interactions) and the tissue and systemic scale (convective and diffusive transport of NPs) are analyzed here. These analyses underscore the importance of NP size control in considering clinical translation and assessment of therapeutic outcomes of NP delivery vehicles.

  7. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the electromechanical battery

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1999-01-19

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition. 4 figs.

  8. Fail safe controllable output improved version of the Electromechanical battery

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition.

  9. Improvements to tilt rotor performance through passive blade twist control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.

    1988-01-01

    A passive blade twist control is presented in which the twist distribution of a tilt rotor blade is elastically changed as a function of rotor speed. The elastic twist deformation is used to achieve two different blade twist distributions corresponding to the two rotor speeds used on conventional tilt rotors in hover and forward flight. By changing the blade twist distribution, the aerodynamic performance can be improved in both modes of flight. The concept presented obtains a change in twist distribution with extension-twist-coupled composite blade structure. This investigation first determines the linear twists which are optimum for each flight mode. Based on the optimum linear twist distributions, three extension-twist-coupled blade designs are developed using coupled-beam and laminate analyses integrated with an optimization analysis. The designs are optimized for maximum twist deformation subject to material strength limitations. The aerodynamic performances of the final designs are determined which show that the passive blade twist control concept is viable, and can enhance conventional tilt rotor performance.

  10. Baduanjin Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Executive Control Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tingting; Yue, Guang H.; Tian, Yingxue; Jiang, Changhao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the effects of the Baduanjin mind-body (BMB) intervention with a conventional relaxation training program on enhancing the executive function. The study also attempts to explore the neural substrates underlying the cognitive effect of BMB intervention using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique. Forty-two healthy college students were randomly allocated into either the Baduanjin intervention group or relaxation training (control) group. Training lasted for 8 weeks (90 min/day, 5 days/week). Each participant was administered the shortened Profile of Mood States to evaluate their mood status and the flanker task to evaluate executive function before and after training. While performing the flanker task, the NIRS data were collected from each participant. After training, individuals who have participated in BMB exercise showed a significant reduction in depressive mood compared with the same measure before the intervention. However, participants in the control group showed no such reduction. The before vs. after measurement difference in the flanker task incongruent trails was significant only for the Baduanjin intervention group. Interestingly, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin in the left prefrontal cortex was observed during the Incongruent Trails test only after the BMB exercise intervention. These findings implicate that Baduanjin is an effective and easy-to-administering mind-body exercise for improving executive function and perhaps brain self-regulation in a young and healthy population. PMID:28133453

  11. Elasticity improves handgrip performance and user experience during visuomotor control

    PubMed Central

    Rinne, Paul; Liardon, Jean-Luc; Uhomoibhi, Catherine; Bentley, Paul; Burdet, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Passive rehabilitation devices, providing motivation and feedback, potentially offer an automated and low-cost therapy method, and can be used as simple human–machine interfaces. Here, we ask whether there is any advantage for a hand-training device to be elastic, as opposed to rigid, in terms of performance and preference. To address this question, we have developed a highly sensitive and portable digital handgrip, promoting independent and repetitive rehabilitation of grasp function based around a novel elastic force and position sensing structure. A usability study was performed on 66 healthy subjects to assess the effect of elastic versus rigid handgrip control during various visuomotor tracking tasks. The results indicate that, for tasks relying either on feedforward or on feedback control, novice users perform significantly better with the elastic handgrip, compared with the rigid equivalent (11% relative improvement, 9–14% mean range; p < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a threefold increase in the number of subjects who preferred elastic compared with rigid handgrip interaction. Our results suggest that device compliance is an important design consideration for grip training devices. PMID:28386448

  12. Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweisfurth, Meike A.; Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Teich, Florian; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Objective. A drawback of active prostheses is that they detach the subject from the produced forces, thereby preventing direct mechanical feedback. This can be compensated by providing somatosensory feedback to the user through mechanical or electrical stimulation, which in turn may improve the utility, sense of embodiment, and thereby increase the acceptance rate. Approach. In this study, we compared a novel approach to closing the loop, namely EMG feedback (emgFB), to classic force feedback (forceFB), using electrotactile interface in a realistic task setup. Eleven intact-bodied subjects and one transradial amputee performed a routine grasping task while receiving emgFB or forceFB. The two feedback types were delivered through the same electrotactile interface, using a mixed spatial/frequency coding to transmit 8 discrete levels of the feedback variable. In emgFB, the stimulation transmitted the amplitude of the processed myoelectric signal generated by the subject (prosthesis input), and in forceFB the generated grasping force (prosthesis output). The task comprised 150 trials of routine grasping at six forces, randomly presented in blocks of five trials (same force). Interquartile range and changes in the absolute error (AE) distribution (magnitude and dispersion) with respect to the target level were used to assess precision and overall performance, respectively. Main results. Relative to forceFB, emgFB significantly improved the precision of myoelectric commands (min/max of the significant levels) for 23%/36% as well as the precision of force control for 12%/32%, in intact-bodied subjects. Also, the magnitude and dispersion of the AE distribution were reduced. The results were similar in the amputee, showing considerable improvements. Significance. Using emgFB, the subjects therefore decreased the uncertainty of the forward pathway. Since there is a correspondence between the EMG and force, where the former anticipates the latter, the emgFB allowed for

  13. Digitoxin improves cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fardin, Núbia Mantovan; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Montemor, Jairo Augusto Silva; da Veiga, Glaucia Luciano; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Campos, Ruy R

    2016-06-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with digitoxin on arterial baroreceptor sensitivity for heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA) control, cardiopulmonary reflex, and autonomic HR control in an animal model of heart failure (HF) were evaluated. Wistar rats were treated with digitoxin, which was administered in their daily feed (1 mg/kg per day) for 60 days. The following 3 experimental groups were evaluated: sham, HF, and HF treated with digitoxin (HF + DIG). We observed an increase in rSNA in the HF group (190 ± 29 pps, n = 5) compared with the sham group (98 ± 14 pps, n = 5). Digitoxin treatment prevented an increase in rSNA (98 ± 14 pps, n = 7). Therefore, arterial baroreceptor sensitivity was decreased in the HF group (-1.24 ± 0.07 bpm/mm Hg, n = 8) compared with the sham group (-2.27 ± 0.23 bpm/mm Hg, n = 6). Digitoxin did not alter arterial baroreceptor sensitivity in the HF + DIG group. Finally, the HF group showed an increased low frequency band (LFb: 23 ± 5 ms(2), n = 8) and a decreased high frequency band (HFb: 77 ± 5 ms(2), n = 8) compared with the sham group (LFb: 14 ± 3 ms(2); HFb: 86 ± 3 ms(2), n = 9); the HF+DIG group exhibited normalized parameters (LFb: 15 ± 3 ms(2); HFb: 85 ± 3 ms(2), n = 9). In conclusion, the benefits of decreasing rSNA are not directly related to improvements in peripheral cardiovascular reflexes; such occurrences are due in part to changes in the central nuclei of the brain responsible for autonomic cardiovascular control.

  14. Effects of low-level laser therapy on performance, inflammatory markers, and muscle damage in young water polo athletes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Lira, Fábio Santos; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 5 days of 810-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) intervention on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and performance in young water polo players. Twenty young male water polo players participated in the study, which was designed as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Active LLLT or an identical placebo LLLT were delivered to eight points on the adductor muscle region immediately after each training day. Performance was measured by a 200-m maximal swimming (P200) and a 30-s crossbar jump test (30CJ) which was performed every day before training, and blood samples were drawn pre and post the final LLLT intervention to measure interleukins (IL) and muscle damage markers. There was no significant change in the P200 exercise in the LLLT group compared with the placebo group but there was a moderate improvement in the 30CJ (8.7 ± 2.6 %). IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha presented increased (P < 0.016) concentration within group 48 h after the last LLLT intervention compared to pre, 0, and 24 h, but did not differ between groups. IL-10 increased over time in the placebo group and reached a moderate effect compared to the LLLT group. The creatine kinase decreased significantly (P = 0.049) over the time within the LLLT treatment group, but there was no significant change in lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.150). In conclusion, LLLT resulted in a non-significant, but small to moderate effect on inflammatory and muscle damage markers and a moderate effect on performance in water polo players. In addition, the lack of positive results could be due to the small area covered by irradiation and this should be considered in future studies.

  15. Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels: Database Extension Task 3.0 and Impact Damage Effects Control Task 8.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Ross, William L., Sr.; Tapphorn, Ralph M.

    2002-01-01

    This document represents efforts accomplished at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in support of the Enhanced Technology for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Program, a joint research and technology effort among the U.S. Air Force, NASA, and the Aerospace Corporation. WSTF performed testing for several facets of the program. Testing that contributed to the Task 3.0 COPV database extension objective included baseline structural strength, failure mode and safe-life, impact damage tolerance, sustained load/impact effect, and materials compatibility. WSTF was also responsible for establishing impact protection and control requirements under Task 8.0 of the program. This included developing a methodology for establishing an impact control plan. Seven test reports detail the work done at WSTF. As such, this document contributes to the database of information regarding COPV behavior that will ensure performance benefits and safety are maintained throughout vessel service life.

  16. A coordinated MIMO control design for a power plant using improved sliding mode controller.

    PubMed

    Ataei, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Samani, Siavash Golmohammadi

    2014-03-01

    For the participation of the steam power plants in regulating the network frequency, boilers and turbines should be co-ordinately controlled in addition to the base load productions. Lack of coordinated control over boiler-turbine may lead to instability; oscillation in producing power and boiler parameters; reduction in the reliability of the unit; and inflicting thermodynamic tension on devices. This paper proposes a boiler-turbine coordinated multivariable control system based on improved sliding mode controller (ISMC). The system controls two main boiler-turbine parameters i.e., the turbine revolution and superheated steam pressure of the boiler output. For this purpose, a comprehensive model of the system including complete and exact description of the subsystems is extracted. The parameters of this model are determined according to our case study that is the 320MW unit of Islam-Abad power plant in Isfahan/Iran. The ISMC method is simulated on the power plant and its performance is compared with the related real PI (proportional-integral) controllers which have been used in this unit. The simulation results show the capability of the proposed controller system in controlling local network frequency and superheated steam pressure in the presence of load variations and disturbances of boiler.

  17. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  18. Constant rate of p53 tetramerization in response to DNA damage controls the p53 response

    PubMed Central

    Gaglia, Giorgio; Lahav, Galit

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the tumor suppressor protein p53 have been previously investigated in single cells using fluorescently tagged p53. Such approach reports on the total abundance of p53 but does not provide a measure for functional p53. We used fluorescent protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) to quantify in single cells the dynamics of p53 tetramers, the functional units of p53. We found that while total p53 increases proportionally to the input strength, p53 tetramers are formed in cells at a constant rate. This breaks the linear input–output relation and dampens the p53 response. Disruption of the p53-binding protein ARC led to a dose-dependent rate of tetramers formation, resulting in enhanced tetramerization and induction of p53 target genes. Our work suggests that constraining the p53 response in face of variable inputs may protect cells from committing to terminal outcomes and highlights the importance of quantifying the active form of signaling molecules in single cells. Quantification of the dynamics of p53 tetramers in single cells using a fluorescent protein-fragment complementation assay reveals that, while total p53 increases proportionally to the DNA damage strength, p53 tetramers are formed at a constant rate. PMID:25344068

  19. Fracture mode control: a bio-inspired strategy to combat catastrophic damage

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haimin; Xie, Zhaoqian; He, Chong; Dao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of natural biomaterials have attracted intense attention from researchers with focus on the strengthening and toughening mechanisms. Nevertheless, no material is unconquerable under sufficiently high load. If fracture is unavoidable, constraining the damage scope turns to be a practical way to preserve the integrity of the whole structure. Recent studies on biomaterials have revealed that many structural biomaterials tend to be fractured, under sufficiently high indentation load, through ring cracking which is more localized and hence less destructive compared to the radial one. Inspired by this observation, here we explore the factors affecting the fracture mode of structural biomaterials idealized as laminated materials. Our results suggest that fracture mode of laminated materials depends on the coating/substrate modulus mismatch and the indenter size. A map of fracture mode is developed, showing a critical modulus mismatch (CMM), below which ring cracking dominates irrespective of the indenter size. Many structural biomaterials in nature are found to have modulus mismatch close to the CMM. Our results not only shed light on the mechanics of inclination to ring cracking exhibited by structural biomaterials but are of great value to the design of laminated structures with better persistence of structural integrity. PMID:25619564

  20. Controlling the Expansion of Laser-Fusion Plasma to Minimize Impact Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.

    1999-03-18

    I propose to analytically model the rapid, nonequilibrium expansion of laser-fusion plasma from an initial diameter of 1 mm to a final diameter of 10 m. The aim is to devise a counterforce that minimizes the impact damage on optics by laser-plasma debris. This flow model is the basis of an idea for a dynamic target that efficiently converts laser energy to x-rays while minimizing the total mass propelled as debris. Also, the flow model is the basis of an idea to magnetically deflect material away from the optic ports in the vacuum chamber wall. The model combines results for supersonic one-dimensional gas flow of cylindrical-hemispherical symmetry, with a transition from thermal to nonequilibrium (''frozen'') plasma flow, which is set differently along each characteristic line (the ''Bray criterion'' as a Riemann invariant). The model shows how density, pressure, velocity, ionization fraction, electron temperature, and electrical conductivity vary over space and time, given an impulsively-heated source mass. The model is analytical, and examples are calculated on a desktop computer. This ease-of-use makes it possible to iterate quickly when refining ideas, such as a dynamic metal-vapor target that propels minimal debris, and a magnetohydrodynamic generator as a brake on the flow speed directed at the optic ports. The work involved here is that of an individual refining his analysis.

  1. Genetic Control or Repair and Adaptive Response to Low-Level DNA Damage

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Haber

    2009-10-05

    Research was focused on how a single double-strand break - a model of low-dose ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage - could be studied in a simple model system, budding yeast. Breaks were induced in several different ways. We used the site-specific HO endonuclease to create a single DSB in all cells of the population so that its fate could be extensively analyzed genetically and molecularly. We also used two heterologous systems, the plant DS element and the Rag1/Rag2 proteins, to generate different types of DSBs, these containing hairpin ends that needed to be cleaved open before end-joining could take place. All three approaches yielded important new findings. We also extended our analysis of the Mre11 protein that plays key roles in both NHEJ and in homologous recombination. Finally we analyzed the poorly understood recombination events that were independent of the key recombination protein, Rad52. This line of inquiry was strongly motivated by the fact that vertebrate cells do not rely strongly on Rad52 for homologous recombination, so that some clues about alternative mechanisms could be gained by understanding how Rad52-independent recombination occurred. We found that the Mre11 complex was the most important element in Rad52-independent recombination.

  2. Engine Control Improvement through Application of Chaotic Time Series Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.B., Jr.; Daw, C.S.

    2003-07-15

    The objective of this program was to investigate cyclic variations in spark-ignition (SI) engines under lean fueling conditions and to develop options to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines at high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. The CIDI activity builds upon an earlier collaboration between ORNL and Ford examining combustion instabilities in SI engines. Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to understand the fundamental causes of combustion instability in spark-ignition engines operating with lean fueling. The results of this earlier activity demonstrated that such combustion instabilities are dominated by the effects of residual gas remaining in each cylinder from one cycle to the next. A very simple, low-order model was developed that explained the observed combustion instability as a noisy nonlinear dynamical process. The model concept lead to development of a real-time control strategy that could be employed to significantly reduce cyclic variations in real engines using existing sensors and engine control systems. This collaboration led to the issuance of a joint patent for spark-ignition engine control. After a few years, the CRADA was modified to focus more on EGR and CIDI engines. The modified CRADA examined relationships between EGR, combustion, and emissions in CIDI engines. Information from CIDI engine experiments, data analysis, and modeling were employed to identify and characterize new combustion regimes where it is possible to simultaneously achieve significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions. These results were also used to develop an on-line combustion diagnostic (virtual sensor) to make cycle-resolved combustion quality assessments for active feedback control. Extensive experiments on engines at Ford and ORNL led to the development of the virtual sensor concept that may be able to detect simultaneous reductions in NOx and PM

  3. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05). Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG. Conclusion The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  4. Curcumin prevents muscle damage by regulating NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways and improves performance: an in vivo model

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Kazim; Pala, Ragip; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exercise (Ex) increases reactive oxygen species and impairs antioxidant defense systems. Recent data suggest that curcumin (CW) possesses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of CW supplementation on Ex performance, endurance, and changes in serum and muscle proteins in rats after exhaustive Ex. Materials and methods Twenty-eight (28) male Wistar rats (age: 8 weeks and body weight: 180±20 g) were divided into four treatment groups: 1) control (C; no Ex), 2) C + CW (no Ex + CW), 3) C + Ex, and 4) C + Ex + CW (Ex + CW). CW was administered as 100 mg/kg CurcuWin®, providing 20 mg of curcuminoids daily for 6 weeks. A motor-driven rodent treadmill was used to carry out the Ex protocols. During a 5-day period, animals in chronic Ex groups were put through different regimens: day 1, 10 m/min for 10 minutes; day 2, 20 m/min for 10 minutes; day 3, 25 m/min for 10 minutes; day 4, 25 m/min for 20 minutes; and day 5, 25 m/min for 30 minutes. Animals were exercised at 25 m/min for 45 min/d for 5 d/wk for 6 weeks. Blood and muscle samples were analyzed for muscle markers, oxidative stress, and antioxidant markers. Results Lactate and muscle malondialdehyde levels decreased in the CW-treated groups (P<0.0001). However, activities of antioxidant enzyme levels increased in the CW-treated groups. Run to exhaustion (minutes) improved in the CW-treated groups. Muscle nuclear factor-κB (P<0.05) and heat shock protein 70 (P<0.05) levels were much lowered in the CW treated group followed by Ex group. In addition, muscle inhibitors of kappa B, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, thioredoxin-1, sirtuin 1, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, and glucose transporter 4 protein levels in the Ex + CW group were higher than those in the control and Ex groups (P<0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that novel CW has the

  5. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    SciTech Connect

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2005-12-01

    This project is investigating the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point would improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In Phase I, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. In phase II of the project, described in this report, we demonstrate that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. We also establish that analysis algorithms can be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications, and show that it may be possible to use sensor network pulse rate to distinguish the number of occupants in a space. Finally, in this phase of the project we also developed a prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy. This basic capability will be extended in the future by applying an algorithm-based inference to the sensor network data stream, so that the web page displays the likelihood that each monitored office or area is occupied, as a supplement to the actual status of each sensor.

  6. Improvement of electron beam shape control in radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, A.; Fang, R.; Kuntz, F.

    1994-05-01

    The development of radiation processing using electron accelerators requires good control of the treatment parameters to improve the dosimetry quality. Especially, the analysis of the shape of the scanned electron beam that interacts with the product, is of prime necessity. A Multiwire Beam Shape Analyser (MBSA) has been developed by the AERIAL Laboratory in order to insure good monitoring of the scanning length and uniformity. This device consists of an aluminum beam-stop covered with a mesh of individually insulated stainless steel wires, placed under the scanning cone. The current generated by the impact of the electron beam on each wire is converted into voltage. After pulse shaping and multiplexing of the different channels, the beam profile can be displayed on an oscilloscope or on a PC screen. A prototype is now operating on an experimental irradiation plant based on a 2.5 MeV /300 W Van de Graaff electron accelerator. It allows almost continuous visualization of the beam profile (between two conveyor passes) and its response was compared to classical film dosimeters (Gafchromic, FWT 60.00). Considering FWHM and homogeneous treatment regions of the profiles, MBSA and the dosimeters give similar responses and variations remain lower than ± 12%. The acquisition of an electrical signal corresponding to the beam profile in air constitutes the original aspect of the MBSA and is in keeping with the general pattern of continuous control and automation of the irradiation processes. Hereafter, much work has to be done to adapt this device to an industrial use (higher energy, high power electron beams, non-destructive measurements…).

  7. Improved control of exogenous attention in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Cain, Matthew S; Prinzmetal, William; Shimamura, Arthur P; Landau, Ayelet N

    2014-01-01

    Action video game players (VGPs) have demonstrated a number of attentional advantages over non-players. Here, we propose that many of those benefits might be underpinned by improved control over exogenous (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. To test this we used an anti-cueing task, in which a sudden-onset cue indicated that the target would likely appear in a separate location on the opposite side of the fixation point. When the time between the cue onset and the target onset was short (40 ms), non-players (nVGPs) showed a typical exogenous attention effect. Their response times were faster to targets presented at the cued (but less probable) location compared with the opposite (more probable) location. VGPs, however, were less likely to have their attention drawn to the location of the cue. When the onset asynchrony was long (600 ms), VGPs and nVGPs were equally able to endogenously shift their attention to the likely (opposite) target location. In order to rule out processing-speed differences as an explanation for this result, we also tested VGPs and nVGPs on an attentional blink (AB) task. In a version of the AB task that minimized demands on task switching and iconic memory, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in second target identification performance (i.e., VGPs had the same magnitude of AB as nVGPs), suggesting that the anti-cueing results were due to flexible control over exogenous attention rather than to more general speed-of-processing differences.

  8. High-Energy Trauma and Damage Control in the Lower Limb

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and 2 units of thawed AB plasma sent on demand from the blood bank. The blood products are best transfused through a Bel...Fogarty balloon may control troublesome back bleeding from a transected profunda femoral or distal popliteal artery and facilitate repair rather than

  9. Low-cost teleoperator-controlled vehicle for damage assessment and radiation dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Tyree, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    A low-cost, disposable, radio-controlled, remote-reading, ionizing radiation and surveillance teleoperator re-entry vehicle has been built. The vehicle carries equipment, measures radiation levels, and evaluates building conditions. The basic vehicle, radio control with amplifiers, telemetry, elevator, and video camera with monitor cost less than $2500. Velcro-mounted alpha, beta-gamma, and neutron sensing equipment is used in the present system. Many types of health physics radiation measuring equipment may be substituted on the vehicle. The system includes a black-and-white video camera to observe the environment surrounding the vehicle. The camera is mounted on a vertical elevator extendible to 11 feet above the floor. The present vehicle uses a video camera with an umbilical cord between the vehicle and the operators. Preferred operation would eliminate the umbilical. Video monitoring equipment is part of the operator control system. Power for the vehicle equipment is carried on board and supplied by sealed lead-acid batteries. Radios are powered by 9-V alkaline batteries. The radio control receiver, servo drivers, high-power amplifier and 49-MHz FM transceivers were irradiated at moderate rates with neutron and gamma doses to 3000 Rem and 300 Rem, respectively, to ensure system operation.

  10. Dual-tasking postural control in patients with right brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bourlon, Clémence; Lehenaff, Laurent; Batifoulier, Cécile; Bordier, Aurélie; Chatenet, Aurélia; Desailly, Eric; Fouchard, Christian; Marsal, Muriel; Martinez, Marianne; Rastelli, Federica; Thierry, Anaïs; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Duret, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The control of dual-tasking effects is a daily challenge in stroke neurorehabilitation. It maybe one of the reasons why there is poor functional prognosis after a stroke in the right hemisphere, which plays a dominant role in posture control. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive motor interference in right brain-lesioned and healthy subjects maintaining a standing position while performing three different tasks: a control task, a simple attentional task and a complex attentional task. We measured the sway area of the subjects on a force platform, including the center of pressure and its displacements. Results showed that stroke patients presented a reduced postural sway compared to healthy subjects, who were able to maintain their posture while performing a concomitant attentional task in the same dual-tasking conditions. Moreover, in both groups, the postural sway decreased with the increase in attentional load from cognitive tasks. We also noticed that the stability of stroke patients in dual-tasking conditions increased together with the weight-bearing rightward deviation, especially when the attentional load of the cognitive tasks and lower limb motor impairments were high. These results suggest that stroke patients and healthy subjects adopt a similar postural regulation pattern aimed at maintaining stability in dual-tasking conditions involving a static standing position and different attention-related cognitive tasks. Our results indicate that attention processes might facilitate static postural control.

  11. Controlling incipient oxidation of pyrite for improved rejection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Richardson, P.E.; Tao, D.P.

    1996-04-01

    It is well known that superficial oxidation of pyrite produces a hydrophobic sulfur-rich surface and creates problems in separating the mineral from coal using surface-based processes such as flotation and agglomeration. Numerous studies of pyrite oxidation have been conducted but most of them were concerned with the advanced stages of oxidation, and as a result it was not possible to establish a relationship between oxidation and flotation behavior. A better understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of the incipient oxidation reactions, which may vary with the origin, morphology, texture, and solid state properties of pyrite, can lead to the development of new processes that can improve pyrite rejection from coal. This project is aimed at better understanding of the mechanisms involved during the initial stages of pyrite oxidation to foster the development of advanced coal cleaning technologies. Studies were conducted by fracturing pyrite electrodes in-situ in an electrochemical cell to create virgin surfaces. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical techniques were employed to characterize the incipient oxidation of pyrite in aqueous solutions. Microflotation tests were conducted to obtain information on the hydrophobicity of pyrite under controlled E{sub h} and pH conditions, and the results were correlated with electrochemical studies.

  12. Influence of the side of brain damage on postural upper-limb control including the scapula in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Johanna V G; Roche, Nicolas; Roby-Brami, Agnès

    2012-04-01

    Following stroke, control of both the contralesional (paretic) and ipsilesional (less affected) arms is altered. The purpose of this study was to analyse the consequences of stroke on joint rotations of both shoulder girdles, that is, glenohumeral (GH) and scapula motion. Because of hemispheric specialization, we hypothesized that changes would relate to the side of hemisphere damage. Nine stroke patients with left, and 9 with right hemisphere damage (LHD and RHD) and 9 healthy subjects were included. Reaching movements to targets positioned close, far and high in three directions were recorded using an electromagnetic system. Initial and final postures of the scapula, GH and elbow joint were evaluated. Inter-joint rotations throughout the movements were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The main finding was that initial and final postures of the contralesional and ipsilesional shoulders differed depending on the side of brain lesion. On the contralesional side, there was less scapula protraction and GH lateral rotation for both groups. Scapula tilt was less anterior in LHD patients, and GH elevation was greater in RHD patients. On the ipsilesional side, GH lateral rotation was reduced in both groups, and scapula protraction was reduced only for LHD patients. PCA confirmed that postures of both shoulders of the LHD group were substantially different to the healthy subjects, while only the contralesional arm of the RHD subjects differed. These results add to existing knowledge of hemispheric specialization, suggesting that the left hemisphere plays a greater role in bilateral joint postures than the right hemisphere.

  13. A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gursatej; Kaur, Gurpreet; Nisar, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone base stations facilitate good communication, but the continuously emitting radiations from these stations have raised health concerns. Hence in this study, genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls. The power density in the area within 300 m from the base station exceeded the permissive limits and was significantly (p = 0.000) higher compared to the area from where control samples were collected. The study participants comprised 63 persons with residences near a mobile phone tower, and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, alcohol drinking and occupational sub-groups. Genetic damage parameters of DNA migration length, damage frequency (DF) and damage index were significantly (p = 0.000) elevated in the sample group compared to respective values in healthy controls. The female residents (n = 25) of the sample group had significantly (p = 0.004) elevated DF than the male residents (n = 38). The linear regression analysis further revealed daily mobile phone usage, location of residence and power density as significant predictors of genetic damage. The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.

  14. Improving the performance of univariate control charts for abnormal detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiakopoulos, Christos; Koutsoudaki, Maria; Gryllias, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Bearing failures in rotating machinery can cause machine breakdown and economical loss, if no effective actions are taken on time. Therefore, it is of prime importance to detect accurately the presence of faults, especially at their early stage, to prevent sequent damage and reduce costly downtime. The machinery fault diagnosis follows a roadmap of data acquisition, feature extraction and diagnostic decision making, in which mechanical vibration fault feature extraction is the foundation and the key to obtain an accurate diagnostic result. A challenge in this area is the selection of the most sensitive features for various types of fault, especially when the characteristics of failures are difficult to be extracted. Thus, a plethora of complex data-driven fault diagnosis methods are fed by prominent features, which are extracted and reduced through traditional or modern algorithms. Since most of the available datasets are captured during normal operating conditions, the last decade a number of novelty detection methods, able to work when only normal data are available, have been developed. In this study, a hybrid method combining univariate control charts and a feature extraction scheme is introduced focusing towards an abnormal change detection and classification, under the assumption that measurements under normal operating conditions of the machinery are available. The feature extraction method integrates the morphological operators and the Morlet wavelets. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated on two different experimental cases with bearing faults, demonstrating that the proposed approach can improve the fault detection and classification performance of conventional control charts.

  15. Improved control configuration of PWM rectifiers based on neuro-fuzzy controller.

    PubMed

    Acikgoz, Hakan; Kececioglu, O Fatih; Gani, Ahmet; Yildiz, Ceyhun; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that rectifiers are used widely in many applications required AC/DC transformation. With technological advances, many studies are performed for AC/DC converters and many control methods are proposed in order to improve the performance of these rectifiers in recent years. Pulse width modulation (PWM) based rectifiers are one of the most popular rectifier types. PWM rectifiers have lower input current harmonics and higher power factor compared to classical diode and thyristor rectifiers. In this study, neuro-fuzzy controller (NFC) which has robust, nonlinear structure and do not require the mathematical model of the system to be controlled has been proposed for PWM rectifiers. Three NFCs are used in control scheme of proposed PWM rectifier in order to control the dq-axis currents and DC voltage of PWM rectifier. Moreover, simulation studies are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed control scheme at MATLAB/Simulink environment in terms of rise time, settling time, overshoot, power factor, total harmonic distortion and power quality.

  16. Dynamic response of the Trinity River Relief Bridge to controlled pile damage: modeling and experimental data analysis comparing Fourier and Hilbert Huang techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ray Ruichong; King, Robert; Olson, Larry; Xu, You-Lin

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a method for nonlinear, nonstationary data processing, namely the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) in traditional vibration-based approaches to characterizing structural damage and shows the frequency signature of local structural damage in nonstationary vibration recordings. In particular, following the review of traditional approaches to characterizing structural damage from nonstationary vibration recordings, this study first offers the justifications of the HHT as an alternative and complementary data process in addressing the nonstationarity of the vibration. With the use of recordings from controlled field vibration tests of substructures in the Trinity River Relief Bridge in Texas in its intact, minor- and severe-damage pile states, this study then shows that the HHT-based approach can single out some natural frequencies of the structure from a mixed frequency content in recordings that also contain the time-dependent excitation and noise frequencies. Subsequently, this study exposes that the frequency downshift for the damaged pile relative to the undamaged one is an indicative index for the damage extent. The above results are also validated by an ANSYS model-based analysis. Finally, a comprehensive HHT-based characterization of structural damage is discussed, and the potential use for cost-effective, efficient structural damage diagnosis procedures and health-monitoring systems is provided.

  17. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertensive Organ Damage in COPD Patients and Matched Controls. The RETAPOC Study

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, Rafael; Mateos-Colino, Alfonso; Pena-Seijo, Marta; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Martín-Vázquez, Francisco J.; Pose-Reino, Antonio; Domínguez-Pin, Nuria; Garnacho-Gayarre, Nuria; Pérez-de-Llano, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that there is a pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, increased sympathetic tone has been described in several respiratory diseases. Our objective was to determine whether hypertension mediated by sympathetic overactivity is a mechanism that explains the association between COPD and cardiovascular diseases. Methods Prospective nested case-control observational study; 67 COPD patients were matched 1:1 by sex and age to controls with smoking history. 24 hour-blood pressure monitoring, urinary catecholamines and their metabolites measurement, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound examination, nocturnal oximetry and retinography were performed. Findings classic cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were similarly distributed between cases and controls. No significant differences for blood pressure variables (difference for mean systolic blood pressure: -0·13 mmHg; 95% CI: -4·48,4·20; p = 0·94; similar results for all blood presssure variables) or catecholamines values were found between both groups. There was a tendency for lower left ventricle ejection fraction in the COPD cases, that approached statistical significance (64·8 ± 7·4 vs 67·1 ± 6·2, p = 0·05). There were no differences in the retinal arteriovenous ratio, the carotid intima-media thickness, or the number of carotid plaques, between cases and controls. Fibrinogen values were higher in the COPD group (378·4 ± 69·6 vs 352·2 ± 45·6 mg/dL, p = 0·01) and mean nocturnal oxygen saturation values were lower for COPD patients (89·0 ± 4·07 vs 92·3 ± 2·2%, p < 0·0001). Interpretation Hypertension induced by sympathetic overactivity does not seem to be a mechanism that could explain the association between COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27362479

  18. Improved Controllers For Heaters In Toxic-Gas Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wishard, James; Lamb, James; Fortier, Edward; Velasquez, Hugo; Waltman, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Commercial electronic proportional controllers installed in place of mechanical power controllers for electric heaters in toxic-gas combustors at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Designed to maintain temperature of heater at preset value by turning power fully on or fully off when temperature falls below or rises above that value, respectively. Solid-state power controllers overcome deficiencies of mechanical power controllers.

  19. Effects of occupational environmental controls and work management on chromosomal damage in dental technicians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shindo, Taku; Yoshida, Takafumi; Shimoyama, Yasuaki; Satomi, Takashi; Fujii, Satoshi; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Iino, Mitsuyoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Dental technicians use various materials, particularly metal alloys and monomers and polymers based on methylmethacrylate. Environmental hygiene issues surrounding the work of dental technicians have been recognized. Despite the need for observance of occupational environmental controls and work management, compliance among dental laboratories appears to be low. We evaluated the relationship between genotoxic effects in dental technicians and occupational environmental controls and work management. We used cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei (CB-MN) frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and metal levels in scalp hair. We also assessed nutritional factors related to anti-genotoxic effects using a self-administered brief diet history questionnaire. Study subjects were 54 male dental technicians and 38 male clerical workers. The parameters on the micronuclei (MN) frequency in dental technicians and clerical workers were analyzed by forward stepwise multiple regression analyses. Age (P < 0.01, β = 0.561), occupation as a dental technician (P < 0.01, β = 0.636) and aluminum levels in scalp hair (P < 0.05, β = 0.213) were risk factors that significantly increased MN frequency. The significant parameters on the MN frequency in dental technicians were observance of hand-washing as work management (P < 0.01, β = -0.304), work period (P < 0.01, β = 0.509), germanium levels in scalp hair (P < 0.01, β = -0.314) and workplace (P < 0.05, β = 0.235). To avoid genotoxic effects, observance of occupational environmental controls and work management is necessary for dental technicians.

  20. Nomuraea rileyi: a plausible fungi selectively controlling lepidopteron, Paraponyx stratiotata L. damaging queen palm (Livistona rotundifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Svinningen, A E; Jegathambigai, V; Mikunthan, G

    2010-01-01

    Queen Palm (Livistona rotundifolia) is cultivated extensively for both local and foreign ornamental markets with the desired characteristics of even and ever green, pest and disease free healthy palm and quality leaves. The root borer, Paraponyx stratiotata (Lepidoptera) is recently encountered on young palm roots and damaging them within. They emerged as a new pest on L. rotundifolia grown in all the area. Different entomopathogens were evaluated and determined the potential of Nomuroea rileyi selectively due to its greater infective ability. Field collected root borer larvae were reared and N. rileyi was evaluated both in-vitro and in net house conditions. Treatments comprising Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Trichoderma sp., N. rileyi, a standard check with 3% Carbofuran and water as a control were evaluated in potted seedlings (3 months old) of queen palms. Among the entomopathogens tested, N. rileyi was found more effective and recorded the best of 61% mortality. Subsequent experiment had been conducted with commercial bio-products alone or in combination with local isolates as treatments; N. rileyi, B. bassiana, M. anisopliae, B. bassiana + M. anisopliae, N. rileyi + M. anisopliae, N. rileyi+ B. bassiana, and water as a control were evaluated. Among these treatments N. rileyi was alone more effective than in combination with or other entomopathogens alone. In vitro study revealed LD50 of N. rileyi as best spore load of 1 x 10(8) spores/ml compare to other treatments. This proves the potential of N. rileyi on P. stratiotata. The application of N. rileyi had claimed not only to reduce the incidence of root damage but also to sustain the growth and vigor of the L. rotundifolia to most fit for exporting.

  1. 3D positional control of magnetic levitation system using adaptive control: improvement of positioning control in horizontal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Toshimasa; Fujitani, Yasuhiro; Kato, Norihiko; Tsuda, Naoaki; Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish a technique that levitates and conveys a hand, a kind of micro-robot, by applying magnetic forces: the hand is assumed to have a function of holding and detaching the objects. The equipment to be used in our experiments consists of four pole-pieces of electromagnets, and is expected to work as a 4DOF drive unit within some restricted range of 3D space: the three DOF are corresponding to 3D positional control and the remaining one DOF, rotational oscillation damping control. Having used the same equipment, Khamesee et al. had manipulated the impressed voltages on the four electric magnetics by a PID controller by the use of the feedback signal of the hand's 3D position, the controlled variable. However, in this system, there were some problems remaining: in the horizontal direction, when translating the hand out of restricted region, positional control performance was suddenly degraded. The authors propose a method to apply an adaptive control to the horizontal directional control. It is expected that the technique to be presented in this paper contributes not only to the improvement of the response characteristic but also to widening the applicable range in the horizontal directional control.

  2. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, David; Haas, Eric; Miller, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management technologies to contribute to food security in

  3. Reduction of β-amyloid deposits by γ-secretase inhibitor is associated with the attenuation of secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus and sensory functional improvement after focal cortical infarction in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yusheng; Xing, Shihui; Zhang, Jian; Li, Jingjing; Li, Chuo; Pei, Zhong; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2011-02-01

    Abnormal β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the thalamus have been reported after cerebral cortical infarction. In this study, we investigated the association of Aβ deposits, with the secondary thalamic damage after focal cortical infarction in rats. Thirty-six stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats were subjected to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and then randomly divided into MCAO, vehicle, and N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) groups and 12 sham-operated rats as control. The DAPT was administered orally at 72 hours after MCAO. Seven days after MCAO, sensory function, neuron loss, and glial activation and proliferation were evaluated using adhesive removal test, Nissl staining, and immunostaining, respectively. Thalamic Aβ accumulation was evaluated using immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with vehicle group, the ipsilateral thalamic Aβ, neuronal loss, glial activation and proliferation, and the mean time to remove the stimulus from right forepaw significantly decreased in DAPT group. The mean time to remove the stimulus from the right forepaw and thalamic Aβ burden were both negatively correlated with the number of thalamic neurons. These findings suggest that Aβ deposits are associated with the secondary thalamic damage. Reduction of thalamic Aβ by γ-secretase inhibitor may attenuate the secondary damage and improve sensory function after cerebral cortical infarction.

  4. Elucidating the digital control mechanism for DNA damage repair with the p53–Mdm2 system: single cell data analysis and ensemble modelling

    PubMed Central

    Ogunnaike, Babatunde A

    2005-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence about DNA damage response using the p53–Mdm2 system has raised some fundamental questions about the control mechanism employed. In response to DNA damage, an ensemble of cells shows a damped oscillation in p53 expression whose amplitude increases with increased DNA damage—consistent with ‘analogue’ control. Recent experimental results, however, show that the single cell response is a series of discrete pulses in p53; and with increase in DNA damage, neither the height nor the duration of the pulses change, but the mean number of pulses increase—consistent with ‘digital’ control. Here we present a system engineering model that uses published data to elucidate this mechanism and resolve the dilemma of how digital behaviour at the single cell level can manifest as analogue ensemble behaviour. First, we develop a dynamic model of the p53–Mdm2 system that produces non-oscillatory responses to a stress signal. Second, we develop a probability model of the distribution of pulses in a cell population, and combine the two with the simplest digital control algorithm to show how oscillatory responses whose amplitudes grow with DNA damage can arise from single cell behaviour in which each single pulse response is independent of the extent of DNA damage. A stochastic simulation of the hypothesized control mechanism reproduces experimental observations remarkably well. PMID:16849229

  5. Quality control in the application of flow cytometry to studies of environmentally-induced genetic damage

    SciTech Connect

    McCreedy, C.D.; Robinson, J.P.; Dallas, C.E.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1999-07-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) has been used to demonstrate altered DNA content in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals exposed to radionuclides, PAHs and other contaminants. However, artifacts resulting from sample preparation, handling, variations in instrument parameters or other factors may confound such measurements. Some artifacts resemble genotoxic responses and so could lead to erroneous positive conclusions. As part of ongoing studies of effects of various pollutants on DNA content in fishes, the authors tested sample handling and preparation methods for the induction of artifacts. The authors describe QA/QC methods, including control of staining, conditions, doublet discrimination by comparison of peak versus integral fluorescence, internal DNA standards, and the use of time versus fluorescence plots. Consistent application of these practices is essential to obtain valid measurements of DNA content in environmental samples, and neglect of these can result in poor quality data and the acceptance of incorrect hypotheses.

  6. Single administration of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor suppresses neuroinflammation and improves neuronal damage after cardiac arrest in mice.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Noriko; Nakayama, Shin; Tanaka, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) causes ischemia-reperfusion injury in the whole body among victims. Especially in the brain, inflammation and neuronal cell death can lead to irreversible dysfunction. Our goal was to determine whether a single administration of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (AS2586144-CL) has a neuroprotective effect and decreases the inflammatory response after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Global cerebral ischemia was induced in male C57BL/6 mice with 8min of CA. Thirty minutes after recovery of spontaneous circulation, the mice were randomly assigned to three groups and administered AS2586144-CL: 1mg/kg (n=25), 10mg/kg (n=25), or 0mg/kg (vehicle, n=25). At 6 and 7 days after CA/CPR, behavioral tests were conducted and brains were removed for histological evaluation. Analysis of histological damage 7 days after CA/CPR revealed that 10mg/kg of AS2586144-CL protected neurons, and suppressed cytokine production and microglial migration into the hippocampus. Two hours after CA/CPR, 10mg/kg of AS2586144-CL suppressed serum tumor necrosis factor-α and hippocampal nuclear factor κB expression. Our data show that 10mg/kg of AS2586144-CL administered following CA/CPR suppresses inflammation and decreases neuronal damage.

  7. Improving performance using cascade control and a Smith predictor.

    PubMed

    Kaya, I

    2001-01-01

    Many investigations have been done on tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers in single-input single-output (SISO) systems. However, only a few investigations have been carried out on tuning PID controllers in cascade control systems. In this paper, a new approach, namely the use of a Smith predictor in the outer loop of a cascade control system, is investigated. The method can be used in temperature control problems where the secondary part of the process (the inner loop) may have a negligible delay while the primary loop (the outer loop) has a time-delay. Two different approaches, including an autotuning method, to find the controller parameters are proposed. It is shown by some examples that the proposed structure as expected can provide better performance than conventional cascade control, a Smith predictor scheme or single feedback control system.

  8. Technical innovations that may facilitate real-time telementoring of damage control surgery in austere environments: a proof of concept comparative evaluation of the importance of surgical experience, telepresence, gravity and mentoring in the conduct of damage control laparotomies

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Maj Andrew W.; LaPorta, Anthony; Brien, Susan; Leslie, Tim; Glassberg, Col Elon; McKee, Jessica; Ball, Chad G.; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; Keillor, Jocelyn; Roberts, Derek J.; Tien, Col Homer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bleeding to death is the most preventable cause of posttraumatic death worldwide. Despite the fact that many of these deaths are anatomically salvageable with relatively basic surgical interventions, they remain lethal in actuality in prehospital environments when no facilities and skills exist to contemplate undertaking basic damage control surgery (DCS). With better attention to prehospital control of extremity hemorrhage, intracavitary bleeding (especially intraperitoneal) remains beyond the scope of prehospital providers. However, recent revolutions in the informatics and techniques of telementoring (TMT), DCS and highly realistic accelerated training of motivated first responders suggests that basic life-saving DCS may have applicability to save bleeding patients in austere environments previously considered unsalvageable. Especially with informatic advances, any provider with Internet connectivity can potentially be supported by highly proficient specialists with content expertise in the index problem. This unprecedented TMT support may allow highly motivated but inexperienced personnel to provide advanced surgical interventions in extreme environments in many austere locations both on and above the planet. PMID:26100783

  9. Improving the Internal Accounting Controls of Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolou, Nicholas G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Accounting controls are primarily concerned with methods and procedures that safeguard an entity's assets and ensure the reliability of its financial records. This article discusses internal control objectives as applied to educational institutions, outlines specific steps necessary to develop an effective internal control system, and mentions…

  10. Hybrid learning control for improving suppression of hand tremor.

    PubMed

    As'arry, Azizan; Md Zain, Mohd Zarhamdy; Mailah, Musa; Hussein, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Patients with hand tremors may find routine activities such as writing and holding objects affected. In response to this problem, an active control technique has been examined in order to lessen the severity of tremors. In this article, an online method of a hybrid proportional-integral control with active force control strategy for tremor attenuation is presented. An intelligent mechanism using iterative learning control is incorporated into the active force control loop to approximate the estimation mass parameter. Experiments were conducted on a dummy hand model placed horizontally in a tremor test rig. When activated by a shaker in the vertical direction, this resembles a postural tremor condition. In the proportional-integral plus active force control, a linear voice coil actuator is used as the main active tremor suppressive element. A sensitivity analysis is presented to investigate the robustness of the proposed controller in a real-time control environment. The findings of this study demonstrate that the intelligent active force control and iterative learning controller show excellent performance in reducing tremor error compared to classic pure proportional, proportional-integral and hybrid proportional-integral plus active force control controllers.

  11. Improving the performance of photo-electrically controlled lighting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.; Ward, G.; Verderber, R.

    1988-08-01

    The ability of a photo-electrically controlled lighting system to maintain a constant total light level on a task surface by responding to changing daylight levels is affected by the control algorithm used to relate the photosensor signal to the supplied electric light level and by the placement and geometry of the photosensor. We describe the major components of a typical control system, discuss the operation of three different control algorithms, and derive expressions for each algorithm that express the total illuminance at the task as a function of the control photosensor signal. Using a specially-designed scale model, we measured the relationship between the signal generated by various ceiling-mounted control photosensors and workplane illuminance for two room geometries under real sky conditions. The measured data were used to determine the performance of systems obeying the three control algorithms under varying daylight conditions. Control systems employing the commonly-used integral reset algorithm supplied less electric light than required, failing to satisfy the control objective regardless of the control photosensor used. Systems employing an alternative, closed-loop proportional control algorithm achieved the control objective under virtually all tested conditions when operated by a ceiling-mounted photosensor shielded from direct window light.

  12. Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves improved the egg and meat qualities and protected against ethanol-induced oxidative damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Chen, H; Li, W; Miao, J; Chen, N; Shao, X; Cao, Y

    2017-03-09

    Polyphenols in Eucalyptus leaves (PE) were value resources due to various pharmacological activities, but data on the effect on laying hens are very scare. This study was conducted to determine the effect of PE on the laying performance, egg traits, meat quality, antioxidant status and liver tissues of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 256-day-old Yueqinhuang laying hens were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (different levels of PE at 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg diet) for 63 days with 15 replicates per group. Addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg trait by increasing the eggshell thickness and decreasing MDA production and cholesterol content in the egg yolk, but also significantly enhanced meat quality of hens, as suggested by the increase pH45 min (p < .01) and a* value, and decrease drip loss rate (p < .01). Meanwhile, under acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage condition, supplementation of 0.8 g/kg PE enhanced the serum antioxidant status by increasing enzymatic activities (GSH-PX, T-SOD, T-AOC), inhibited oxidative damage and provided protective effect to liver tissue. In conclusion, addition of 0.8 g/kg PE not only improved the egg traits and meat quality without obvious adverse effects, but also increased the serum antioxidant status of the hens and protected their liver tissue from ethanol-induced oxidative damage. This study indicated that PE could be utilized as an effective feed additive for laying hens to improve health performance and egg traits.

  13. Water Chemistry Control System for Recovery of Damaged and Degraded Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Fisher, D.; Thomas, J.

    2011-02-18

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the government of Serbia have led the project cosponsored by the U.S, Russia, European Commission, and others to repackage and repatriate approximately 8000 spent fuel elements from the RA reactor fuel storage basins at the VIN?A Institute of Nuclear Sciences to Russia for reprocessing. The repackaging and transportation activities were implemented by a Russian consortium which includes the Sosny Company, Tekhsnabeksport (TENEX) and Mayak Production Association. High activity of the water of the fuel storage basin posed serious risk and challenges to the fuel removal from storage containers and repackaging for transportation. The risk centered on personnel exposure, even above the basin water, due to the high water activity levels caused by Cs-137 leached from fuel elements with failed cladding. A team of engineers from the U.S. DOE-NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Vinca Institute, and the IAEA performed the design, development, and deployment of a compact underwater water chemistry control system (WCCS) to remove the Cs-137 from the basin water and enable personnel safety above the basin water for repackaging operations. Key elements of the WCCS system included filters, multiple columns containing an inorganic sorbent, submersible pumps and flow meters. All system components were designed to be remotely serviceable and replaceable. The system was assembled and successfully deployed at the Vinca basin to support the fuel removal and repackaging activities. Following the successful operations, the Cs-137 is now safely contained and consolidated on the zeolite sorbent used in the columns of the WCCS, and the fuel has been removed from the basins. This paper reviews the functional requirements, design, and deployment of the WCCS.

  14. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. PMID:26788245

  15. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.

  16. Hemispheric specificity for proprioception: Postural control of standing following right or left hemisphere damage during ankle tendon vibration.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Noémie C; Maynard, Luc; Abbas, Djawad; Mesure, Serge

    2015-11-02

    Right brain damage (RBD) following stroke often causes significant postural instability. In standing (without vision), patients with RBD are more unstable than those with left brain damage (LBD). We hypothesised that this postural instability would relate to the cortical integration of proprioceptive afferents. The aim of this study was to use tendon vibration to investigate whether these changes were specific to the paretic or non-paretic limbs. 14 LBD, 12 RBD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included. Displacement of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) was recorded during quiet standing, then during 3 vibration conditions (80 Hz - 20s): paretic limb, non-paretic limb (left and right limbs for control subjects) and bilateral. Vibration was applied separately to the peroneal and Achilles tendons. Mean antero-posterior position of the CoP, variability and velocity were calculated before (4s), during and after (24s) vibration. For all parameters, the strongest perturbation was during Achilles vibrations. The Achilles non-paretic condition induced a larger backward displacement than the Achilles paretic condition. This condition caused specific behaviour on the velocity: the LBD group was perturbed at the onset of the vibrations, but gradually recovered their stability; the RBD group was significantly perturbed thereafter. After bilateral Achilles vibration, RBD patients required the most time to restore initial posture. The reduction in use of information from the paretic limb may be a central strategy to deal with risk-of-fall situations such as during Achilles vibration. The postural behaviour is profoundly altered by lesions of the right hemisphere when proprioception is perturbed.

  17. Glycol coolants improve heat transfer and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Holfield, R.

    1995-03-01

    Various liquids from plain water to exotic fluids have been used as coolants in large stationary diesel engines that drive compressors on natural gas pipeline distribution systems. Although water is an efficient heat transfer medium, its drawbacks of freezing at {minus}32 F and boiling at 212 F seriously limit its usefulness. Special glycol-based heat transfer fluids are available and refined specifically for long-term needs of gas compressor engines. Appropriate corrosion inhibitors have been formulated for metallurgy and operating conditions encountered with these engines. Propylene glycol was developed as an alternative for use in environmentally sensitive areas. Glycol-based fluids must be specifically inhibited for industrial applications because uninhibited or improperly inhibited coolants can seriously damage reciprocating engines.

  18. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection.

    PubMed

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-04-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3 ) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3 -induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4 ), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23-102 Mt in 2030 - the equivalent of a ~2-8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5-15 billion worldwide (USD2000 ), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ~$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3 -induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 -induced reductions in crop yields.

  19. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection

    PubMed Central

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ∼2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ∼$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

  20. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  1. Hyperbaric Oxygen Pretreatment Improves Cognition and Reduces Hippocampal Damage Via p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baisong; Pan, Yongying; Wang, Zixin; Xu, Haiping

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment on cognitive decline and neuronal damage in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) rat model. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into three groups: normal saline (NS), AD, and HBO+AD. In the AD group, amyloid β peptide (Aβ)1-40 was injected into the hippocampal CA1 region of the brain. NS rats received NS injection. In the HBO+AD group, rats received 5 days of daily HBO therapy following Aβ1-40 injection. Learning and memory capabilities were examined using the Morris water maze task. Neuronal damage and astrocyte activation were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Dendritic spine density was determined by Golgi-Cox staining. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-10 production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neuron apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Protein expression was examined by western blotting. Results Learning and memory dysfunction was ameliorated in the HBO+AD group, as shown by significantly lower swimming distances and escape latency, compared to the AD group. Lower rates of neuronal damage, astrocyte activation, dendritic spine loss, and hippocampal neuron apoptosis were seen in the HBO+AD than in the AD group. A lower rate of hippocampal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was observed in the HBO+AD than in the AD group. Conclusion HBO pretreatment improves cognition and reduces hippocampal damage via p38 MAPK in AD rats. PMID:27873505

  2. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  3. Silicon Sheet Quality is Improved By Meniscus Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, D. A.; Hatch, A. E.; Goldsmith, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Better quality silicon crystals for solar cells are possible with instrument that monitors position of meniscus as sheet of solid silicon is drawn from melt. Using information on meniscus height, instrument generates feedback signal to control melt temperature. Automatic control ensures more uniform silicon sheets.

  4. Vapor-modulated heat pipe for improved temperature control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Ludeke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Dryout induced by vapor throttling makes control of equipment temperature less dependent on variations in sink environment. Mechanism controls flow of vapor in heat pipe by using valve in return path to build difference in pressure and also difference in saturation temperature of the vapor. In steady state, valve closes just enough to produce partial dryout that achieves required temperature drop.

  5. Dapsone improves functional deficit and diminishes brain damage evaluated by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance image after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Heras-Romero, Yessica; Mendez-Armenta, Marisela; Osorio-Rico, Laura; Nava-Ruiz, Concepción; Ríos, Camilo

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a frequent cause of death and the first of disability in the world population. We have shown that dapsone acts as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic agent after brain Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats; however, its therapeutic efficacy, measured by imaging has not been characterized. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dapsone by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate imaging markers with motor function and oxidative stress after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). We used male rats throughout the experiment. Functional deficit after I/R was assessed by using Longa scale. The area of brain tissue damage was measured by histology. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Finally, difussion tensor MRI was employed to measure the fractional anisotropy (FA), as a MRI marker of the pathophysiologic brain status. Results showed a better functional recovery and less damaged tissue in animals treated with dapsone vs control group. The values of FA were higher in animals receiving treatment, indicating a better preservation of brain structure. At early stages of the damage, dapsone was able to reduce both oxidative markers (Nrf-2 and ROS). Our findings provide new evidence for the efficacy of dapsone when administered during the acute phase after I/R and that quantitative sequences of MRI are useful for characterizing its potential therapeutic benefits after stroke.

  6. The Origin of Aging: Imperfectness-Driven Non-Random Damage Defines the Aging Process and Control of Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties preclude ideal biomolecules and perfect biological functions. This inherent imperfectness leads to the generation of damage by every biological process, at all levels, from small molecules to cells. The damage is too numerous to be repaired, is partially invisible to natural selection and manifests as aging. I propose that it is the inherent imperfectness of biological systems that is the true root of the aging process. As each biomolecule generates specific forms of damage, the cumulative damage is largely non-random and is indirectly encoded in the genome. I consider this concept in light of other proposed theories of aging and integrate these disparate ideas into a single model. I also discuss the evolutionary significance of damage accumulation and strategies for reducing damage. Finally, I suggest ways to test this integrated model of aging. PMID:23769208

  7. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM ON DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    HOLTROP,K.L; ANDERSON,P.M; MAUZEY,P.S

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The cryogenic facility that is part of the DIII-D tokamak system supplies liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to the superconducting magnets used for electron cyclotron heating, the D{sub 2} pellet injection system, cryopumps in the DIII-D vessel, and cryopanels in the neutral beam injection system. The liquid helium is liquefied on site using a Sulzer liquefier that has a 150 l/h liquefaction rate. Control of the cryogenic facility at DIII-D was initially accomplished through the use of three different programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Recently, two of those three PLCs, a Sattcon PLC controlling the Sulzer liquefier and a Westinghouse PLC, were removed and all their control logic was merged into the remaining PLC, a Siemens T1555. This replacement was originally undertaken because the removed PLCs were obsolete and unsupported. However, there have been additional benefits from the replacement. The replacement of the RS-232 serial links between the graphical user interface and the PLCs with a high speed Ethernet link allows for real-time display and historical trending of nearly all the cryosystem's data. this has greatly increased the ability to troubleshoot problems with the system, and has permitted optimization of the cryogenic system's performance because of the increased system integration. To move the control logic of the Sattcon control loops into the T1555, an extensive modification of the basic PID control was required. These modifications allow for better control of the control loops and are now being incorporated in other control loops in the system.

  8. Sensitivity-based reactive power control for voltage profile improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Exposito, A.G.; Ramos, J.L.M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Macias, J.L.R. ); Salinas, Y.C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a procedure for dispatching reactive power when voltage deviations are not acceptable. The proposed method, intended for real-time use, determines which control variables are actually effective for solving voltage violations. Efficiency is measured according to sensitivities, current voltage profile and reserve margin of control variables. The selected control variables are rescheduled in proportion to their efficiency coefficients. State-of-the-art sparsity techniques are used to speed-up computation of sensitivities. An example is included to show effectiveness of the method.

  9. The effects of anatabine on non-invasive indicators of muscle damage: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatabine (ANA), a minor tobacco alkaloid found in the Solanaceae family of plants, may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, which may be useful to aid in recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the effects of ANA supplementation on the recovery of isometric strength and selected non-invasive indicators of muscle damage. Methods A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design was used to study eighteen men (mean ± SD age = 22.2 ± 3.1 yrs; body mass = 80.3 ± 15.7 kg) who participated in two randomly-ordered conditions separated by a washout period. The ANA condition consisted of consuming 6–12 mg anatabine per day for 10 days, while testing took place during days 7–10. The placebo (PLA) condition was identical except that the PLA supplement contained no ANA. Maximal voluntary isometric peak torque (PT) of the forearm flexors, arm circumference, hanging joint angle, and subjective pain ratings were measured before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 24, 48, and 72 h after six sets of 10 maximal, eccentric isokinetic forearm flexion muscle actions. Resting heart rate and blood pressure were measured at PRE and 72 h in each condition. Results For PT, hanging joint angle, arm circumference, and subjective pain ratings, there were no condition x time (p > 0.05) interactions, there were no main effects for condition (p > 0.05), but there were main effects for time (p < 0.001). There were no condition x time (p > 0.05) interactions and no main effects for condition (p > 0.05) or time (p > 0.05) for blood pressure or resting heart rate. Conclusions ANA supplementation had no effect on the recovery of muscle strength, hanging joint angle, arm swelling, or subjective pain ratings after a bout of maximal eccentric exercise in the forearm flexors. Therefore, ANA may not be beneficial for those seeking to improve recovery from heavy eccentric

  10. Antioxidant supplementations in vitro improve rat sperm parameters and enhance antioxidant enzyme activities against dimethoate-induced sperm damages.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, F; Fetoui, H; Zribi, N; Fakfakh, F; Ammar-Keskes, L

    2012-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are currently among the most frequently used pesticides worldwide, and therefore, the potential for human exposure to man is considerable. Their toxicity results in negative effects on many organs and systems such as the male reproductive system. So, vitamins that can offer spermatozoa protection are of great importance. This study was designed to investigate (i) the possibility of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide, to induce oxidative stress response in rat spermatozoa in vitro and its effect on antioxidant defence system and (ii) the role of vitamin C and vitamin E in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of dimethoate Epididymal spermatozoa were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C with different concentrations of dimethoate (50, 100 and 200 μm) without vitamins or pre-incubated with 20 mm of vitamin C or 2 mm of vitamin E. Sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were performed. Dimethoate caused a significant induction of oxidative damage in spermatozoa at different concentrations as evidenced by increased MDA levels. However, a significant decrease in sperm mobility, viability and activities SOD, CAT and GPx was observed. Vitamins pre-treated spermatozoa showed a significant protection against the cytotoxic effects induced by dimethoate on studied parameters.

  11. An Improved Wavefront Control Algorithm for Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Wavefront sensing and control is required throughout the mission lifecycle of large space telescopes such as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). When an optic of such a telescope is controlled with both surface-deforming and rigid-body actuators, the sensitivity-matrix obtained from the exit pupil wavefront vector divided by the corresponding actuator command value can sometimes become singular due to difference in actuator types and in actuator command values. In this paper, we propose a simple approach for preventing a sensitivity-matrix from singularity. We also introduce a new "minimum-wavefront and optimal control compensator". It uses an optimal control gain matrix obtained by feeding back the actuator commands along with the measured or estimated wavefront phase information to the estimator, thus eliminating the actuator modes that are not observable in the wavefront sensing process.

  12. Improving statistical analysis of matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Conway, Aaron; Rolley, John X; Fulbrook, Paul; Page, Karen; Thompson, David R

    2013-06-01

    Matched case-control research designs can be useful because matching can increase power due to reduced variability between subjects. However, inappropriate statistical analysis of matched data could result in a change in the strength of association between the dependent and independent variables or a change in the significance of the findings. We sought to ascertain whether matched case-control studies published in the nursing literature utilized appropriate statistical analyses. Of 41 articles identified that met the inclusion criteria, 31 (76%) used an inappropriate statistical test for comparing data derived from case subjects and their matched controls. In response to this finding, we developed an algorithm to support decision-making regarding statistical tests for matched case-control studies.

  13. 77 FR 14805 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the... Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health...

  14. Adaptive Control for Improved Transparency in Haptic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Abdossalami, A; Sirouspour, S

    2009-01-01

    Two adaptive nonlinear controllers are proposed for the coupling of haptic devices with impedance-type and admittance-type virtual environments, respectively. Rigid contacts in admittance-type environments are modeled either as a stiff spring or a constraint on the haptic device motion. Both controllers employ user position and force measurements to replace the natural dynamics of the haptic interface with that of an adjustable mass-damper tool. The transparency and stability of the resulting systems are investigated using a Lyapunov analysis and by taking into account uncertain nonlinear dynamics for the haptic device, and uncertain mass-spring-damper type dynamics for the user and virtual environment. It is shown analytically that low-pass filtering of selected terms in the control signal can significantly reduce a stability related lower bound on the achievable synthesized mass of the haptic interface in a discrete-time implementation of the controllers. An optimization problem is formulated and solved to balance impedance reduction against noise amplification in choosing the filter gain and bandwidth. The proposed controllers as well as a conventional penalty-based method are compared in a set of experiments. The results indicate that the controller with an admittance-type constraint-based rigid environment has far superior performance in terms of the range of impedances that it can stably display to the user.

  15. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Fugate, David L.

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  16. Spider webs: Damage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Kaplan, David L.

    2012-04-01

    A study reveals that spider orb webs fail in a nonlinear fashion, owing to the hierarchical organization of the silk proteins. The discovery may serve as inspiration for engineers for the design of aerial, light-weight, robust architectures.

  17. Improved Models for the Porous Surface with Passive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, Sandra L.; Chokani, Ndaona

    1996-01-01

    A computational investigation of afterbody flow using a passive control method is conducted. The passive control method consists of a porous surface placed over a plenum. The purpose of the passive control method is to exploit the adverse pressure gradient present in afterbody flow in an attempt to reduce boundary layer separation and afterbody drag. Four different porous wall models are used to model the transpiration velocity in the region of passive control. A three-dimensional, time-dependent, Reynolds-averaged, simplified Navier-Stokes solver, PAB3D, is used to simulate afterbody flow with and without passive control. Three afterbody configurations with boat-tail angles of 10, 20, and 30 deg. are used to obtain two-dimensional solutions with a freestream Mach number of 0.6 and nozzle pressure ratio of 6. The region of passive control was initially placed from 20-60% of the nozzle length. The effect of the porous placement and porous extent is also studied. Baseline (no porosity) two-dimensional solutions are qualitatively similar to experimental data but under-predict the magnitude of the pressure recovery. Results for the subsonic solutions show losses in the pressure recovery for some cases with passive control. Three-dimensional effects are also investigated and seen to be very significant. Three-dimensional baseline solutions, for both sub- and super-critical freestream Mach numbers, compare very favorably with the experimental data in comparison to the two-dimensional solution. Future work is required to examine three-dimensional afterbody flows with passive porosity.

  18. Improved Notch Filter For Synchronous-Response Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Downer, James R.; Eisenhaure, David B.; Hockney, Richard; Misovec, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    Tracking differential-notch filter (TDNF) developed to retain good synchronous-response performance of notch filter, but with vastly improved stability properties. Measurement error perfectly filtered from feedback signal used to drive compensator. Provides good stability of simple lead/lag compensator combined with good synchronous-response performance gained by addition of notch filter.

  19. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  20. Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

  1. Improving Control in a Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borders, James; Pearson, David; Prina, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses a modified design of a Joule-Thomson (JT) refrigerator under development to be incorporated into scientific instrumentation aboard a spacecraft. In most other JT refrigerators (including common household refrigerators), the temperature of the evaporator (the cold stage) is kept within a desired narrow range by turning a compressor on and off as needed. This mode of control is inadequate for the present refrigerator because a JT-refrigerator compressor performs poorly when the flow from its evaporator varies substantially, and this refrigerator is required to maintain adequate cooling power. The proposed design modifications include changes in the arrangement of heat exchangers, addition of a clamp that would afford a controlled heat leak from a warmer to a cooler stage to smooth out temperature fluctuations in the cooler stage, and incorporation of a proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control system that would regulate the heat leak to maintain the temperature of the evaporator within a desired narrow range while keeping the amount of liquid in the evaporator within a very narrow range in order to optimize the performance of the compressor. Novelty lies in combining the temperature- and cooling-power-regulating controls into a single control system.

  2. 48 CFR 1845.7209-3 - Loss, damage, or destruction of Government property while in contractor's possession or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Contract Property Management 1845.7209-3 Loss, damage, or destruction of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Loss, damage,...

  3. Compact Microscope Imaging System With Intelligent Controls Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) with intelligent controls is a diagnostic microscope analysis tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. This compact miniature microscope, which can perform tasks usually reserved for conventional microscopes, has unique advantages in the fields of microscopy, biomedical research, inline process inspection, and space science. Its unique approach integrates a machine vision technique with an instrumentation and control technique that provides intelligence via the use of adaptive neural networks. The CMIS system was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center specifically for interface detection used for colloid hard spheres experiments; biological cell detection for patch clamping, cell movement, and tracking; and detection of anode and cathode defects for laboratory samples using microscope technology.

  4. Efficacy and safety of damage control in experimental animal models of injury: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is now widely used to manage major trauma patients, the procedure and its component interventions have not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While some have suggested the need for such trials, they are unlikely to be conducted because of patient safety concerns. As animal studies may overcome several of the limitations of existing observational damage control studies, the primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of damage control versus definitive surgery in experimental animal models of injury. Methods/design We will search electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library), conference abstracts, personal files, and bibliographies of included articles. We will include RCTs and prospective cohort studies that utilized an animal model of injury and compared damage control surgery (or specific damage control interventions or adjuncts) to definitive surgery (or specific definitive surgical interventions). Two investigators will independently evaluate the internal and external/construct validity of individual studies. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes will include blood loss amounts; blood pressures and heart rates; urinary outputs; core body temperatures; arterial lactate, pH, and base deficit/excess values; prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times; international normalized ratios; and thromboelastography (TEG) results/activated clotting times. We will calculate summary relative risks (RRs) of mortality and mean differences (for continuous outcomes) using DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. Heterogeneity will be explored using subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression. We will assess for publication bias using funnel plots and Begg’s and Egger’s tests. When evidence of publication bias exists, we will use the Duval and Tweedie trim

  5. Image Control, not Damage Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for school districts to practice active community relations in order to positively influence information flowing to the community. Addresses performing a communications audit and ways to disseminate information to the public. (EV)

  6. Improving control performance across AWGN channels using a relay node†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Utsaw; Liu, Jie; Gupta, Vijay; Laneman, J. Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Consider an unstable linear time-invariant system in which the sensor transmits information to a controller across an additive white Gaussian noise channel. The designer can optionally utilise a relay node to assist the controller; however, the total transmission power consumed by the sensor and the relay node is constant. We consider two topologies: (1) a Gaussian relay channel and (2) a cascade of two Gaussian point-to-point channels. We propose coding schemes and present sufficient conditions for the stabilisability of the plant through such schemes. The analysis suggests that it is useful to utilise a relay node, even if the total transmission power remains the same.

  7. Improvement of transient stability using unified power flow controller

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalic, R.; Zunko, P.; Povh, D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the effect of an Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on transient stability margin enhancement of a longitudinal system. To utilize the UPFC possibilities fully, the three controllable UPFC parameters were determined during the digital simulation process performed by the NETOMAC simulation program. The basis for determination of the suitable damping strategy and for determination of the optimal UPFC parameters is a mathematical model, which describes the interdependence between longitudinal transmission system parameters, operating conditions and UPFC parameters in the form of analytical equations. On the basis of the mathematical model, the theoretical UPFC limits were also detected, and their appearance explained.

  8. Improved figure control with edge application of forces and moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspinwall, D. M.; Karr, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    A new actuation scheme for mirror figure control, introducing a complete set of membrane shear and bending stresses onto the edges of the mirror, is presented. Thermoelastic response of both segmented and continuous mirrors is analyzed from a closed form solution of the 'exact' Love theory of thin spherical shells. There are significant departures from Reissner's theory of shallow shells. Very low residual figure error is possible by edge control alone, lower than with interior point loads. Minimum rms residual error stress profiles are computed. Engineering applications are discussed.

  9. Understanding and Improving Knowledge Transactions in Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    6310 Greenwich Dr., Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92122 Fax: (858) 535-1665 ramoore@pacific-science.com hors: ald A. Moore1, Janel H. Schermerhorn ...Understanding and Improving K ald A. Moore, Janel H. Schermerhorn , Heath 6310 Greenwich Dr., Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92 Phone: (858) 535 , jscherm@pacific...Naval Research (ONR Introduction For example, sources must ions must be quickly and fully support als and teams produced and ent tasks and

  10. Improving Balance in Subacute Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goljar, Nika; Burger, Helena; Rudolf, Marko; Stanonik, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of balance training in a balance trainer, a newly developed mechanical device for training balance, with conventional balance training in subacute stroke patients. This was a randomized controlled study. Fifty participants met the inclusion criteria and 39 finished the study. The participants were…

  11. Systematic control of nonmetallic materials for improved fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The elements of a systematic fire safety program are summarized and consist of fire safety criteria, design considerations, testing of materials, development of nonmetallic materials, nonmetallic materials information systems, design reviews, and change control. The system described in this report was developed for the Apollo spacecraft. The system can, however, be tailored to many industrial, commercial, and military activities.

  12. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  13. Asthma and Adolescents: Review of Strategies to Improve Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy-Harstad, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One of every 10 adolescents in the United States has asthma. Adolescents who lack asthma control are at increased risk for severe asthma episodes and death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2007 asthma guidelines and research studies indicated that school nurses are instrumental in assisting adolescents to monitor their asthma, learn…

  14. Effect of mechanical damage on emission of volatile organic compounds from plant leaves and implications for evaluation of host plant specificity of prospective biological control agents of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of host plant specificity is a critical step in the evaluation of classical biological control agents of weeds, which is necessary for avoiding possible damage to nontarget plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants likely play an important role in determining which plant...

  15. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md Rakibul; Chowdhury, J M Kamirul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury.

  16. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  17. Improved Intrapulse Raman Scattering Control via Asymmetric Airy Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Wabnitz, Stefan; Kashyap, Raman; Chen, Zhigang; Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the possibility of tuning the frequency of a laser pulse via the use of an Airy pulse-seeded soliton self-frequency shift. The intrinsically asymmetric nature of Airy pulses, typically featured by either leading or trailing oscillatory tails (relatively to the main lobe), is revealed through the nonlinear generation of both a primary and a secondary Raman soliton self-frequency shift, a phenomenon which is driven by the soliton fission processes. The resulting frequency shift can be carefully controlled by using time-reversed Airy pulses or, alternatively, by applying an offset to the cubic phase modulation used to generate the pulses. When compared with the use of conventional chirped Gaussian pulses, our technique brings about unique advantages in terms of both efficient frequency tuning and feasibility, along with the generation and control of multicolor Raman solitons with enhanced tunability. Our theoretical analysis agrees well with our experimental observations.

  18. Operating Standby Redundant Controller to Improve Voltage Source Inverter Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    was built with two FPGAs programmed using XILINX System Generator and ISE foundation with a discrete algorithm representing the controller...additions to SIMULINK that generate the VHDL code required to load the design on the FPGA while the SIMULINK blocks provided a mathematical representation...that generated the code for the FPGA and the SIMULINK blocks that simulated the behavior of the external elements in the hardware, is shown in Figure 23

  19. (abstract) Mission Operations and Control Assurance: Flight Operations Quality Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welz, Linda L.; Bruno, Kristin J.; Kazz, Sheri L.; Witkowski, Mona M.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Operations and Command Assurance (MO&CA), a recent addition to flight operations teams at JPL. provides a system level function to instill quality in mission operations. MO&CA's primary goal at JPL is to help improve the operational reliability for projects during flight. MO&CA tasks include early detection and correction of process design and procedural deficiencies within projects. Early detection and correction are essential during development of operational procedures and training of operational teams. MO&CA's effort focuses directly on reducing the probability of radiating incorrect commands to a spacecraft. Over the last seven years at JPL, MO&CA has become a valuable asset to JPL flight projects. JPL flight projects have benefited significantly from MO&CA's efforts to contain risk and prevent rather than rework errors. MO&CA's ability to provide direct transfer of knowledge allows new projects to benefit directly from previous and ongoing experience. Since MO&CA, like Total Quality Management (TQM), focuses on continuous improvement of processes and elimination of rework, we recommend that this effort be continued on NASA flight projects.

  20. Treatment with zinc, d-aspartate, and coenzyme Q10 protects bull sperm against damage and improves their ability to support embryo development.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, R; Barbato, V; Fiorentino, I; Braun, S; Rizos, D; Longobardi, S; Talevi, R

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are physiologically generated during mitochondrial respiration and are involved in several signaling mechanisms. However, under pathological conditions, the concentration of ROS may exceed the antioxidant scavenging systems and subsequently lead to cell damage. High ROS levels have been proven to be detrimental to spermatozoa and furthermore compromise sperm function through lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA strand breakage. Although the oral administration of antioxidants has been demonstrated to improve the semen quality in subfertile men, it is still a matter of debate if it can positively influence fertilization outcome and embryo developmental competence. Studies carried out in suitable animal models could resolve these fundamental questions. Hence, the main aims of the present study were to evaluate: (1) the effects of zinc, d-aspartate, and coenzyme Q10, included in the dietary supplement Genadis (Merck Serono), on bull sperm motility and DNA fragmentation; and (2) whether treated spermatozoa have a superior competence in fertilization and in supporting the development of healthy embryos. Our data indicate that this treatment prevents the loss of sperm motility and the rise in sperm DNA fragmentation over time. Moreover, blastocyst rate was found to be significantly higher in oocytes fertilized by treated spermatozoa, and these blastocysts harbored a significantly lower percentage of apoptotic cells.

  1. X-ray-induced chromosome damage in live mammalian cells, and improved measurements of its effects on their colony-forming ability.

    PubMed

    Joshi, G P; Nelson, W J; Revell, S H; Shaw, C A

    1982-02-01

    We have improved the precision of the technique described by Grote et al. (1981 a,b) for the observation of the radiation responses of live cultured mammalian cells with an incubated phase-contrast microscope: the colony-forming abilities of single cells obtained by selective detachment of mitoses (instead of cell pairs as previously) may now be followed individually and may be directly compared with chromosome damage detected after post-radiation mitosis (M1). An X-ray dose of 1.4 Gy to diploid Syrian hamster cells (BHK 21 C13) in G1 had no effect on cell ability to reach M1. If chromosome fragment loss was then detected (as micronuclei) in the daughter-cell pair then colony-forming ability nearly always deteriorated, and either a stop-growth (79 per cent) or a slow-growth (21 per cent) colony resulted; but chromosomal bridges which persisted beyond M1 broke during interphase 1 and themselves caused no detectable cell damage additional to that attributable to the micronuclei which accompanied them.

  2. Prebiotic supplementation improves appetite control in children with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hume, Megan P; Nicolucci, Alissa C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-02-22

    Background: Prebiotics have been shown to improve satiety in adults with overweight and obesity; however, studies in children are limited.Objective: We examined the effects of prebiotic supplementation on appetite control and energy intake in children with overweight and obesity.Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two boys and girls, ages 7-12 y, with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥85th percentile were randomly assigned to 8 g oligofructose-enriched inulin/d or placebo (maltodextrin) for 16 wk. Objective measures of appetite included energy intake at an ad libitum breakfast buffet, 3-d food records, and fasting satiety hormone concentrations. Subjective appetite ratings were obtained from visual analog scales before and after the breakfast. Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaires were also completed by caregivers.Results: Compared with placebo, prebiotic intake resulted in significantly higher feelings of fullness (P = 0.04) and lower prospective food consumption (P = 0.03) at the breakfast buffet at 16 wk compared with baseline. Compared with placebo, prebiotic supplementation significantly reduced energy intake at the week 16 breakfast buffet in 11- and 12-y-olds (P = 0.04) but not in 7- to 10-y-olds. Fasting adiponectin (P = 0.04) and ghrelin (P = 0.03) increased at 16 wk with the prebiotic compared with placebo. In intent-to-treat analysis, there was a trend for prebiotic supplementation to reduce BMI z score to a greater extent than placebo (-3.4%; P = 0.09) and a significant -3.8% reduction in per-protocol analysis (P = 0.043).Conclusions: Independent of other lifestyle changes, prebiotic supplementation in children with overweight and obesity improved subjective appetite ratings. This translated into reduced energy intake in a breakfast buffet in older but not in younger children. This simple dietary change has the potential to help with appetite regulation in children with obesity. This trial was registered at

  3. Explanations for improvement in both experimental and control groups.

    PubMed

    Becker, Heather; Roberts, Greg; Voelmeck, Wayne

    2003-10-01

    A true experimental design with random assignment to groups protects against false causal inferences that could be made when both the treatment and control groups change because of factors such as testing effects, reactivity, contamination, maturation, history, and other measurement effects. The occurrence of these phenomena, however, provides interesting information about factors affecting health care attitudes, knowledge, and behavior change, which can interfere with a nursing study's ability to demonstrate an experimental effect. In this article, we discuss these design threats, illustrate them with examples from recent health research, and suggest strategies for decreasing them in clinical nursing studies.

  4. The combined therapy with chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride does not improve joint damage in an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Mediero, Aránzazu; Tardío, Lidia; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Gratal, Paula; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Largo, Raquel

    2017-01-05

    Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disorder especially during aging. Although with controversies, glucosamine, both in its forms of sulfate and hydrochloride, and chondroitin sulfate are commonly employed to treat osteoarthritis. Due to the modest improve in the symptoms observed in patients treated with these drugs alone, a formulation combining both agents has been considered. The discrepant results achieved for pain control or structural improvement in osteoarthritis patients has been attributed to the quality of chemical formulations or different bias in clinical studies. The current study has been designed to test the effects of two different combined formulations with adequate pharmaceutical grade of these drugs in osteoarthritic joints, and to explore the underlying mechanisms modulated by both formulations in different osteoarthritis target tissues. Knee osteoarthritis was surgically induced in experimental rabbits. Some animals received the combined therapy (CT)1, (chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine sulfate 1500mg/day), or the CT2 ((chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine hydrochloride 1500mg/day). Neither CT1 nor CT2 significantly modified the cartilage damage or the synovial inflammation observed in osteoarthritic animals. Treatments were also unable to modify the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators, and the synthesis of metalloproteinases in the cartilage or in the synovium of osteoarthritic animals. Combined therapies did not modify the decrease in the subchondral bone mineral density observed in osteoarthritic rabbits. Therapies of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride failed to improve structural damage or to ameliorate the inflammatory profile of joint tissues during experimental osteoarthritis.

  5. Improved hypertension control after disclosure of decades-old trauma.

    PubMed

    Mann, S J; Delon, M

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the case of a 49-year-old woman who had been treated unsuccessfully for 6 years for longstanding severe and refractory essential hypertension. Although she reported no extraordinary stress or distress, her disclosure of a 3-decade-old rape and the experiencing of previously repressed and unconfided emotions related to it were followed by a dramatic and sustained improvement in her blood pressure. This case suggests that repressed emotions, which patients cannot report, may contribute substantially to the development of essential hypertension, even when they are related to decades-old events. More attention to repressed emotions, and better means of studying them, are needed before the mystery of the links between psychological factors and essential hypertension is unraveled.

  6. Advanced regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for IGCC targeted towards improving power ramp-rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  7. CSMA Versus Prioritized CSMA for Air-Traffic-Control Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2001-01-01

    OPNET version 7.0 simulations are presented involving an important application of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) over the Very High Frequency Data Link, Mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for essentially all incoming and outgoing nonstop air-traffic for just three United States cities: Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Detroit. There are 32 airports in the simulation, 29 of which are either sources or destinations for the air-traffic of the aforementioned three airports. The simulation involves 111 Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations, and 1,235 equally equipped aircraft-taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. Collisionless, Prioritized Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is successfully tested and compared with the traditional CSMA typically associated with VDL-2. The performance measures include latency, throughput, and packet loss. As expected, Prioritized CSMA is much quicker and more efficient than traditional CSMA. These simulation results show the potency of Prioritized CSMA for implementing low latency, high throughput, and efficient connectivity.

  8. Improving venous ulcer healing: designing and reporting randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Weller, Carolina D; McNeil, John; Evans, Sue; Reid, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is often considered the gold standard for judging the benefits of treatments. The application of randomised controlled clinical trials to treatments of venous ulcer healing has lagged behind that of other areas of medicine. To interpret the results of an RCT, readers must understand a variety of aspects of their design, analysis and interpretation. Venous ulcer disease has a high prevalence and has a significant socioeconomic impact in most parts of the world. The management of venous ulcers causes a considerable strain on the health system and is likely to worsen in future. The multi-layer high compression system is described as the current gold standard for treating venous ulcers. A recent meta-analysis of bandaging systems found that multi-layer compression bandages appeared to be superior to single-layer bandages in promoting venous ulcer healing. However, it was noted that many of the studies had small sample sizes and the quality of research in the area was poor. The consolidating standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) statement can help clinicians to discern high-quality studies from ones of poorer quality. This paper discusses how CONSORT can help clinicians and researchers to design and report quality studies to contribute to evidence-based venous ulcer healing.

  9. Fatigue Life Improving of Drill Rod by Inclusion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhu; Yang, Shufeng; Li, Jingshe; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yinghao

    2016-08-01

    Large and hard inclusions often deteriorate the service performance and reduce the fatigue lifetime of drill rods. In this paper, the main reasons of the rupture of drill rods were analyzed by the examination of their fracture and it is found that the large inclusions were the main reason of breakage of rod drill. The inclusions were high of Ca content or Al2O3 rich. Smaller and better deformability inclusions were obtained by the optimization of refining slag, calcium treatment process and the flow control devices of tundish. Results of industrial experiment after optimization show that total oxygen content of drill rods decreased by more than 50%, macro-inclusions weight fraction decreased from about 4 mg/10 kg to about 0.3 mg/10 kg and the micro-inclusions average size decreased from 6 to 3.6 μm. The average using times of drill rods after optimization were increased by about 60%.

  10. Spacecraft control section for the improved Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    The upgraded spacecraft control section for the Small Astronomy Satellite is able to point its thrust axis to any direction in space; it can also spin or slow its outer body rotation to zero for star-locked pointing of side viewing experiments. A programmable telemetry system and delayed command system enhance the inherent capability of a spacecraft designed to be used for a variety of experiments, each of which can be built independently and attached just prior to final acceptance testing and launch. The design of this new spacecraft, whose first launch is scheduled for 1975, is provided in sufficient detail to permit the reader to ascertain its suitability for specific experiments. A summary of the spacecraft characteristics, project reliability requirements, and environmental test conditions are included in the appendices.

  11. CONVERGING REDUNDANT SENSOR NETWORK INFORMATION FOR IMPROVED BUILDING CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2004-11-01

    Knowing how many people occupy a building, and where they are located, is a key component of building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, however, current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of both energy management and security systems. This topical report describes results from the first phase of a project to design, implement, validate, and prototype new technologies to monitor occupancy, control indoor environment services, and promote security in buildings. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In this project phase a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Analysis tools based on Bayesian probability theory were applied to the occupancy data generated by the sensor network. The inference of primary importance is a probability distribution over the number of occupants and their locations in a building, given past and present sensor measurements. Inferences were computed for occupancy and its temporal persistence in individual offices as well as the persistence of sensor status. The raw sensor data were also used to calibrate the sensor belief network, including the occupancy transition matrix used in the Markov model, sensor sensitivity, and sensor failure models. This study shows that the belief network framework can be applied to the analysis of data streams from sensor networks, offering significant benefits to building operation compared to current practice.

  12. Improved current control makes inverters the power sources of choice

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Harada, S.; Ueyama, T.

    1997-02-01

    It is now generally understood that by increasing the operating or switching frequency of a power source the size of the main transformer and main reactor can be shrunk. Thus, a 300-A DC welding power source weighing well under 100 lb can be produced. This makes the inverter power source an ideal choice for applications requiring equipment maneuverability. It is also generally understood that due to higher switching frequencies, a smoother output is obtained from inverter power sources. In the late 1980s, the company developed a new double-inverter power source by which inverted DC weld output is inverted back to AC weld output. This product was the first of its kind in the world. Again, the small compact size of this product was of great interest. Utilizing current waveform control, it was realized that fast response switching from electrode negative to electrode positive could be accurately controlled, offering benefits such as AC GTA welding with high-frequency start only, even at a low welding current. The primary benefit is the ability to limit the electrode positive half cycle to less than 5%. The electrode positive half cycle is responsible for tungsten erosion, which also creates the balling effect of a tungsten electrode. By limiting the electrode positive portion of the AC cycle to a very low level, a rather sharp point can be maintained on the tungsten, which creates a very concentrated, focused arc column. This ability provides excellent joint penetration in fillet welding of aluminum alloys, especially on thick plate. It also reduces the heat-affected zone in AC GTA welding of aluminum.

  13. The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol attenuates tissue damage and improves mitochondrial homeostasis following transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Korde, Amit S; Pettigrew, L Creed; Craddock, Susan D; Maragos, William F

    2005-09-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by acute neuronal degeneration provoked by interruption of cerebral blood flow. Although the mechanisms contributing to ischemic neuronal degeneration are myriad, mitochondrial dysfunction is now recognized as a pivotal event that can lead to either necrotic or apoptotic neuronal death. Lack of suitable 'upstream' targets to prevent loss of mitochondrial homeostasis has, so far, restricted the development of mechanistically based interventions to promote neuronal survival. Here, we show that the uncoupling agent 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) reduces infarct volume approximately 40% in a model of focal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat brain. The mechanism of protection involves an early decrease in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation and calcium uptake leading to improved mitochondrial function and a reduction in the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. The observed effects of DNP were not associated with enhanced cerebral perfusion. These findings indicate that compounds with uncoupling properties may confer neuroprotection through a mechanism involving stabilization of mitochondrial function.

  14. Improvement of spatial memory disorder and hippocampal damage by exposure to electromagnetic fields in an Alzheimer's disease rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zuo, Hongyan; Wang, Dewen; Peng, Ruiyun; Song, Tao; Wang, Shuiming; Xu, Xinping; Gao, Yabing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shaoxia; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Although some epidemiological investigations showed a potential association between long-term exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), no reasonable mechanism can explain this association, and the related animal experiments are rare. In this study, ELF-EMF exposure (50 Hz 400 µT 60 d) combined with D-galactose intraperitoneal (50 mg/kg, q.d., 42 d) and Aβ25-35 hippocampal (5 μl/unilateral, bilateral, single-dose) injection was implemented to establish a complex rat model. Then the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on AD development was studied by using the Morris water maze, pathological analysis, and comparative proteomics. The results showed that ELF-EMF exposure delayed the weight gain of rats, and partially improved cognitive and clinicopathologic symptoms of AD rats. The differential proteomic analysis results suggest that synaptic transmission, oxidative stress, protein degradation, energy metabolism, Tau aggregation, and inflammation involved in the effects mentioned above. Therefore, our findings indicate that certain conditions of ELF-EMF exposure could delay the development of AD in rats.

  15. Activation of sirtuin 1/3 improves vascular hyporeactivity in severe hemorrhagic shock by alleviation of mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Meng, Xianzhong; Bian, Huining; Burns, Nana; Zhao, Ke-seng; Song, Rui

    2015-11-10

    Vascular hyporeactivity is one of the major causes responsible for refractory hypotension and associated mortality in severe hemorrhagic shock. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in arteriolar smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vascular hyporeactivity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial injury in ASMCs during hemorrhagic shock is not well understood. Here we produced an in vivo model of severe hemorrhagic shock in adult Wistar rats. We found that sirtuin (SIRT)1/3 protein levels and deacetylase activities were decreased in ASMCs following severe shock. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed reduced levels of SIRT1 in the nucleus and SIRT3 in the mitochondria, respectively. Acetylation of cyclophilin D (CyPD), a component of mPT pore, was increased. SIRT1 activators suppressed mPT pore opening and ameliorated mitochondrial injury in ASMCs after severe shock. Furthermore, administration of SIRT1 activators improved vasoreactivity in rats under severe shock. Our data suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, namely histone post-translational modifications, are involved in regulation of mPT by SIRT1/SIRT3- mediated deacetylation of CyPD. SIRT1/3 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of severe hemorrhagic shock.

  16. The effect of disposable infection control barriers and physical damage on the power output of light curing units and light curing tips.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, R; Lynch, C D; Pavli, M; Bannon, A; Milward, P

    2011-04-23

    This study investigated the effects that disposable infection control barriers and physical damage through use had on the power output from dental light curing units (LCUs) and light curing tips (LCTs). Five disposable infection control barriers were tested on a number of LCUs and LCTs. Testing involved the repeated measurement of power output of LCUs and LCTs on a radiometer. Two of the barriers tested caused statistically significant reductions in the mean light output intensity when compared to the no barrier control groups. One barrier type reduced the power output by 30 to 40%. It was also noted that physical damage to the LCTs affected power output by between 20 and 30%, which was then further reduced by the disposable barrier. This study showed that three of the five disposable infection control barriers had little effect on the overall efficiency of the power output of the LCUs. It also showed that physical damage to LCUs and LCTs can affect power output significantly. Infection control measures should be carefully considered before use to avoid undue effects on power output delivered from the LCUs/LCTs to ensure that the degree of polymerisation within the resin-based composite and curing efficiency are not affected unduly.

  17. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  18. Dynamic Event Tree advancements and control logic improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Mandelli, Diego; Sen, Ramazan Sonat; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    The RAVEN code has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory since 2012. Its main goal is to create a multi-purpose platform for the deploying of all the capabilities needed for Probabilistic Risk Assessment, uncertainty quantification, data mining analysis and optimization studies. RAVEN is currently equipped with three different sampling categories: Forward samplers (Monte Carlo, Latin Hyper Cube, Stratified, Grid Sampler, Factorials, etc.), Adaptive Samplers (Limit Surface search, Adaptive Polynomial Chaos, etc.) and Dynamic Event Tree (DET) samplers (Deterministic and Adaptive Dynamic Event Trees). The main subject of this document is to report the activities that have been done in order to: start the migration of the RAVEN/RELAP-7 control logic system into MOOSE, and develop advanced dynamic sampling capabilities based on the Dynamic Event Tree approach. In order to provide to all MOOSE-based applications a control logic capability, in this Fiscal Year an initial migration activity has been initiated, moving the control logic system, designed for RELAP-7 by the RAVEN team, into the MOOSE framework. In this document, a brief explanation of what has been done is going to be reported. The second and most important subject of this report is about the development of a Dynamic Event Tree (DET) sampler named “Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree” (HDET) and its Adaptive variant “Adaptive Hybrid Dynamic Event Tree” (AHDET). As other authors have already reported, among the different types of uncertainties, it is possible to discern two principle types: aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. The classical Dynamic Event Tree is in charge of treating the first class (aleatory) uncertainties; the dependence of the probabilistic risk assessment and analysis on the epistemic uncertainties are treated by an initial Monte Carlo sampling (MCDET). From each Monte Carlo sample, a DET analysis is run (in total, N trees). The Monte Carlo employs a pre-sampling of the

  19. Improved Control of Charging Voltage for Li-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2006-01-01

    were controlled by a computer, then this method of charge control could readily be implemented in software.

  20. Neural conflict-control mechanisms improve memory for target stimuli.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, Carsten N; De Belder, Maya; Egner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    According to conflict-monitoring models, conflict serves as an internal signal for reinforcing top-down attention to task-relevant information. While evidence based on measures of ongoing task performance supports this idea, implications for long-term consequences, that is, memory, have not been tested yet. Here, we evaluated the prediction that conflict-triggered attentional enhancement of target-stimulus processing should be associated with superior subsequent memory for those stimuli. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a novel variant of a face-word Stroop task that employed trial-unique face stimuli as targets, we were able to assess subsequent (incidental) memory for target faces as a function of whether a given face had previously been accompanied by congruent, neutral, or incongruent (conflicting) distracters. In line with our predictions, incongruent distracters not only induced behavioral conflict, but also gave rise to enhanced memory for target faces. Moreover, conflict-triggered neural activity in prefrontal and parietal regions was predictive of subsequent retrieval success, and displayed conflict-enhanced functional coupling with medial-temporal lobe regions. These data provide support for the proposal that conflict evokes enhanced top-down attention to task-relevant stimuli, thereby promoting their encoding into long-term memory. Our findings thus delineate the neural mechanisms of a novel link between cognitive control and memory.

  1. Automation of Pressure Control Improves Whole Porcine Heart Decellularization.

    PubMed

    Momtahan, Nima; Poornejad, Nafiseh; Struk, Jeremy A; Castleton, Arthur A; Herrod, Brenden J; Vance, Brady R; Eatough, Jordan P; Roeder, Beverly L; Reynolds, Paul R; Cook, Alonzo D

    2015-11-01

    Whole heart decellularization combined with patient-specific cells may prove to be an extremely valuable approach to engineer new hearts. Mild detergents are commonly used in the decellularization process, but are known to denature and solubilize key proteins and growth factors and can therefore be destructive to the extracellular matrix (ECM) during the decellularization process. In this study, the decellularization of porcine hearts was accomplished in 24 h with only 6 h of sodium dodecyl sulfate exposure and 98% DNA removal. Automatically controlling the pressure during decellularization reduced the detergent exposure time while still completely removing immunogenic cell debris. Stimulation of macrophages was greatly reduced when comparing native tissue samples to the processed ECM. Complete cell removal was confirmed by analysis of DNA content. General collagen and elastin preservation was demonstrated. Glycosaminoglycans and collagen quantification both showed no significant differences in content after decellularization. The compression elastic modulus of the ECM after decellularization was lower than native at low strains, but there was no significant difference at high strains. Polyurethane casts of the vasculature of native and decellularized hearts demonstrated that the microvasculature network was preserved after decellularization. A static blood thrombosis assay using bovine blood was also developed. Finally, the recellularization potential of the ECM samples was demonstrated by reseeding cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial cells on the myocardium and endocardium samples.

  2. Improving electrokinetic microdevice stability by controlling electrolysis bubbles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwi Yong; Barber, Cedrick; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2014-07-01

    The voltage-operating window for many electrokinetic microdevices is limited by electrolysis gas bubbles that destabilize microfluidic system causing noise and irreproducible responses above ∼3 V DC and less than ∼1 kHz AC at 3 Vpp. Surfactant additives, SDS and Triton X-100, and an integrated semipermeable SnakeSkin® membrane were employed to control and assess electrolysis bubbles from platinum electrodes in a 180 by 70 μm, 10 mm long microchannel. Stabilized current responses at 100 V DC were observed with surfactant additives or SnakeSkin® barriers. Electrolysis bubble behaviors, visualized via video microscopy at the electrode surface and in the microchannels, were found to be influenced by surfactant function and SnakeSkin® barriers. Both SDS and Triton X-100 surfactants promoted smaller bubble diameters and faster bubble detachment from electrode surfaces via increasing gas solubility. In contrast, SnakeSkin® membranes enhanced natural convection and blocked bubbles from entering the microchannels and thus reduced current disturbances in the electric field. This data illustrated that electrode surface behaviors had substantially greater impacts on current stability than microbubbles within microchannels. Thus, physically blocking bubbles from microchannels is less effective than electrode functionalization approaches to stabilize electrokinetic microfluidic systems.

  3. An Informatics-supported Intervention Improves Diabetes Control in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ziemer, David C.; Tsui, Circe; Caudle, Jane; Barnes, Catherine S.; Dames, Faye; Phillips, Lawrence S.

    2006-01-01

    Although research has shown that proper management of diabetes can improve outcomes, glucose control is worsening. This partly reflects the failure of providers to intensify diabetes therapy when indicated, termed clinical inertia. Our intervention used (a) decision support reminders which provided patient specific recommendations for management at each visit, and (b) computer generated provider specific feedback on performance. This intervention improved the frequency with which providers intensified the therapy and improved glycemic control. PMID:17238779

  4. Quality Improvement in Surgery Combining Lean Improvement Methods with Teamwork Training: A Controlled Before-After Study

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Eleanor; Morgan, Lauren; New, Steve; Pickering, Sharon; Hadi, Mohammed; Collins, Gary; Rivero Arias, Oliver; Griffin, Damian; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effectiveness of combining teamwork training and lean process improvement, two distinct approaches to improving surgical safety. We conducted a controlled interrupted time series study in a specialist UK Orthopaedic hospital incorporating a plastic surgery team (which received the intervention) and an Orthopaedic theatre team acting as a control. Study Design We used a 3 month intervention with 3 months data collection period before and after it. A combined teamwork training and lean process improvement intervention was delivered by an experienced specialist team. Before and after the intervention we evaluated team non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using the glitch rate and WHO checklist compliance using a simple 3 point scale. We recorded complication rate, readmission rate and length of hospital stay data for 6 months before and after the intervention. Results In the active group, but not the control group, full compliance with WHO Time Out (T/O) increased from 14 to 71% (p = 0.032), Sign Out attempt rate (S/O) increased from 0% to 50% (p<0.001) and Oxford NOTECHS II scores increased after the intervention (P = 0.058). Glitch rate decreased in the active group and increased in the control group (p = 0.001). Complications and length of stay appeared to rise in the control group and fall in the active group. Conclusions Combining teamwork training and systems improvement enhanced both technical and non-technical operating team process measures, and were associated with a trend to better safety outcome measures in a controlled study comparison. We suggest that approaches which address both system and culture dimensions of safety may prove valuable in reducing risks to patients. PMID:26381643

  5. An Improved Tumour Temperature Measurement and Control Method for Superficial Tumour Ultrasound Hyperthermia Therapeutic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen1, G. F.; Chen, Y. Z.; Ren, G. X.

    2006-10-01

    In tumour hyperthermia therapy, the research on measurement and control of tumour temperature is very important. Based on the hardware platform of superficial tumour ultrasound hyperthermia therapeutic system, an improved tumour temperature measurement and control method is presented in this paper. The experiment process, data and results are discussed in detail. The improved method will greatly reduce the pain and dread of the patients during the therapy period on the tumour temperature measurement and control by using the pinhead sensor.

  6. Improving catalytic selectivity through control of adsorption orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Simon H.

    monolayer formed by 1,2-benzenedithiol, we determined that hydrodeoxygenation selectively occurred on catalyst particle steps and edges from an upright structure, whereas decarbonylation occurred on particle terraces from a flat-lying structure. Control of furfural adsorption orientation was also achieved through the use of NiCu bimetallic catalysts. The aromatic furan ring was repelled from surface Cu, leading to an upright structure. However, under hydrogenation conditions, Ni tended to be near the surface of thin films and catalysts, leading to less dramatic selectivity enhancement. The presence of a 1-octadecanethiol monolayer kinetically stabilized the surface termination, allowing Cu to remain at the surface.

  7. Plasma process control for improved PEO coatings on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Riyad Omran

    coating growth, and to determine plasma electron temperatures. The coating requirements for good tribological properties are somewhat different than for good corrosion performance. However, good tribological performance combined with good corrosion performance can be obtained through control of the PEO processing parameters.

  8. Towards Biological Control of Kudzu Through an Improved Understanding of Insect-Kudzu Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, D.; Barber, G.; DeBarr, G.; Thornton, M.

    2001-08-03

    The authors evaluated various approaches to the biological control of kudzu and exotic weed that infests the SRS. A large number of native pollinators were found to be attracted to kudzu. The viability of seed was found to be low, between 2% and 11%. This is the result of native Hemiptera. The results suggest that seed feeding insects should not be targeted for importation. Both kudzu and soybeans had the same level of abundance and diversity of herbivore insects and the same levels of defoliation. No vine or root damaging species were found. Efforts should be targeted to the latter insects to control kudzu.

  9. Reliability improvements of the Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant computer control system AGC and AVC

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, F.; Pescina, M. ); Llort, G. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the computer control system of a large hydroelectric powerplant and the reliability improvements made to the automatic generation control (AGC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) programs. hardware and software modifications were required to improve the interface between the powerplant and the regional load dispatch office. These modifications, and their impact on the AGC and AVC reliability, are also discussed. The changes that have been implemented are recommended for inclusion in new powerplant computer control systems, and as an upgrade feature for existing control systems.

  10. Court Disallows Damage Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomson, Bernard; Coplan, Norman

    1976-01-01

    In rejecting claims for damages, the Court finds that contract's "increase or decrease of cost" language is not applicable to added overhead costs and loss of labor efficiency resulting from delays over which the contractor has no control. (Author)

  11. Role of controlled cardiac reoxygenation in reducing nitric oxide production and cardiac oxidant damage in cyanotic infantile hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, K; Ihnken, K; Buckberg, G D; Sherman, M P; Young, H H; Ignarro, L J

    1994-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used increasingly to correct cyanotic heart defects during early infancy, but myocardial dysfunction is often seen after surgical repair. This study evaluates whether starting CPB at a conventional, hyperoxic pO2 causes an "unintentional" reoxygenation (ReO2) injury. We subjected 2-wk-old piglets to ventilator hypoxemia (FIO2 approximately 0.06, pO2 approximately 25 mmHg) followed by 5 min of ReO2 on CPB before instituting cardioplegia. CPB was begun in hypoxemic piglets by either abrupt ReO2 at a pO2 of 400 mmHg (standard clinical practice) or by maintaining pO2 approximately 25 mmHg on CPB until controlling ReO2 with blood cardioplegic arrest. The effects of abrupt vs. gradual ReO2 without surgical ischemia (blood cardioplegia) were also compared. Myocardial nitric oxide (NO) production (chemiluminescence measurements of NO2- + NO3-) and conjugated diene (CD) generation (spectrophotometric A233 measurements of lipid extracts) using aortic and coronary sinus blood samples were assessed during cardioplegic induction. 30 min after CPB, left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees, catheter conductance method) was used to determine cardiac function. CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest caused no functional or biochemical change in normoxic (control) hearts. Abrupt ReO2 caused a depression of myocardial function (Ees = 25 +/- 5% of control). Functional depression was relatively unaffected by gradual ReO2 without blood cardioplegia (34% recovery of Ees), and abrupt ReO2 immediately before blood cardioplegia caused a 10-fold rise in cardiac NO and CD production, with subsequent depression of myocardial function (Ees 21 +/- 2% of control). In contrast, controlled cardiac ReO2 reduced NO production 94%, CD did not rise, and Ees was 83 +/- 8% of normal. We conclude ReO2 injury is related to increased NO production during abrupt ReO2, nullifies the cardioprotective effects of blood cardioplegia, and that controlled cardiac ReO2 when starting CPB

  12. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  13. 75 FR 28261 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Improved Diagnostics for Lyme Borreliosis, Funding Opportunity... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  14. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  15. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on markers of muscle damage: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Felismino, Amanda Soares; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Araújo Moura Lemos, Telma Maria; de Brito Vieira, Wouber Hérickson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and strength performance) in the biceps brachii. Twenty-two physically active men were randomized into two groups: placebo and laser. All volunteers were submitted to an exercise-induced muscle damage protocol for biceps brachii (biceps curl, 10 sets of 10 repetitions with load of 50% of one-repetition maximum test (1RM)). Active LLLT (808 nm; 100 mW; 35.7 W/cm(2), 357.14 J/cm(2) per point, energy of 1 J per point applied for 10 s on four points of the biceps brachii belly of each arm) or placebo was applied between the sets of the biceps curl exercise. CK activity and maximum strength performance (1RM) were measured before, immediately after, 24, 48, and 72 h after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol. There was an increase in CK activity after the muscle damage protocol in both groups; however, this increase was attenuated in the laser group compared to the placebo group at 72 h (placebo = 841 vs. laser = 357%; p < 0.05). Maximum strength performance was decreased immediately after the muscle damage protocol in both groups (p < 0.05), but at 24, 48, and 72 h, and it returned to the baseline level in both groups. In conclusion, the LLLT attenuated CK activity 72 h after the muscle damage protocol but did not have a positive effect on the recovery of strength performance.

  16. Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used.

  17. Delayed IGF-1 treatment reduced long-term hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage and improved behavior recovery of immature rats.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jin; Zhao, Limin; Du, Yansheng; Wei, Gang; Yao, Wei-Guo; Lee, Wei-Hua

    2009-06-01

    Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia during the perinatal period is the single most important cause of acute newborn mortality and chronic disability. Despite our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of neuronal injury, an effective clinical therapy has yet to be established to mitigate brain damage and improve the prognosis and well-being of these newborn patients. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a well-known neurotrophic factor, essential for the survival and functional maturation of immature neurons. This study demonstrated that subcutaneous administration of IGF-1 at 24 and 48 hours of recovery significantly reduced hypoxia-ischemia-induced injury to immature rat brains and improved long-term memory and cognitive behavior. IGF-1's therapeutic effects likely involve its ability to prevent delayed apoptosis, as we demonstrated in primary cortical neuronal cultures under oxygen and glucose deprivation. IGF-1's neuroprotective effects parallel the activities of phosphatidylinositol-3/Akt and its down-stream signaling pathway, suggesting a potential mechanistic link. Overall, evidence from this investigation strongly supports IGF-1's potential therapeutic use in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn patients.

  18. Improvement of inter-field CDU by using on-product focus control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyeong Dong; Park, Tony; Hwang, Jong Hyun; Choi, Jin Phil; Kang, Young Seog

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces to improve inter-field CDU with on-product focus control by diffraction based focus (DBF) method. For DBF target selection, a robust focus metrology for focus control was obtained, and the selected DBF target was integrated on each seven spot of a product reticle. For on-product focus control, previously on-product focus monitoring was performed, and the monitored lots showed a stable focus fingerprint. Based on the result, Z and Z/ Rx/Ry corrections per field on wafers were applied. Focus uniformity of controlled wafers was improved up to 29% in comparison with non-corrected ones. To demonstrate the improvement of inter-field CDU, Full CDs on wafers were measured by SEM. As a result, inter-field CDU for controlled wafers was improved by 16% (3σ) compared with noncontrolled wafers.

  19. Surface functionalization of titanium implants with chitosan-catechol conjugate for suppression of ROS-induced cells damage and improvement of osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weizhen; Shen, Xinkun; Hu, Yan; Xu, Kui; Ran, Qichun; Yu, Yonglin; Dai, Liangliang; Yuan, Zhang; Huang, Ling; Shen, Tingting; Cai, Kaiyong

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction would hinder bone healing process at the interface of bone/implant, yet underlying mechanism remains to be explored. To endow titanium (Ti) substrates with antioxidant activity for enhanced bone formation, multilayered structure composing of chitosan-catechol (Chi-C), gelatin (Gel) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanofibers was constructed on Ti substrates. Surface wettability and topography of multilayer coated Ti substrates were characterized by water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Chi-C containing multilayer on Ti surface effectively protected osteoblasts from ROS damage, which was revealed by high level of intracellular ROS scavenging activity and reduced oxidative damage on cellular level by regulating the expression of cell adhesion related genes (integrin αv, β3, CDH11 and CDH2). Moreover, it regulated the production of cell adhesive and anti-apoptotic related proteins (p-MYPT1, p-FAK, p-Akt and Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic critical executioners (Bax and cleaved caspase 3). Beside, the composite multilayer of Chi-C/Gel/HA nanofibers on Ti substrates promoted osteoblasts differentiation, which was evidenced by high expression levels of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen secretion, ECM mineralization and osteogenesis-related genes expression in vitro. The in vivo experiments of μ-CT analysis, push out test and histochemistry staining further confirmed that Chi-C multilayered implant had great potential for improved early bone healing. Overall, the study offers an effective strategy for the exploration of high quality Ti implants for orthopedic applications.

  20. Chlorogenic acid improves ex vivo vessel function and protects endothelial cells against HOCl-induced oxidative damage, via increased production of nitric oxide and induction of Hmox-1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rujia; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Mas, Emilie; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are potential contributors toward improved cardiovascular health. Coffee is one of the richest sources of dietary polyphenols in a coffee-drinking population, the most abundant form being chlorogenic acid (CGA). Endothelial dysfunction is an early and major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key factor in regulation of endothelial function. Heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1), an inducible isoform of heme oxygenase that is produced in response to stressors such as oxidative stress, may also play a role in vascular protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CGA on endothelial function with oxidant-induced damage in isolated aortic rings from C57BL mice. We further examine the mechanism by investigating cell viability, activation of eNOS and induction of Hmox-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that pretreatment of isolated aortic rings with 10-μM CGA-protected vessels against HOCl-induced endothelial dysfunction (P<0.05). Pretreatment of cultured HAECs with 10-μM CGA increased endothelial cell viability following exposure to HOCl (P<0.05). Moreover, CGA increased NO production in HAECs in a dose-dependent manner, peaking at 6 h (P<0.05). CGA at 5 μM and 10 μM increased eNOS dimerization at 6 h and induced Hmox-1 protein expression at 6 h and 24 h in HAECs. These results are consistent with the cardiovascular protective effects of coffee polyphenols and demonstrate that CGA can protect vessels and cultured endothelial cells against oxidant-induced damage. The mechanism behind the beneficial effect of CGA appears to be in part via increased production of NO and induction of Hmox-1.

  1. Medium-chain TAG attenuate hepatic oxidative damage in intra-uterine growth-retarded weanling piglets by improving the metabolic efficiency of the glutathione redox cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yueping; Li, Yue; Yang, Li; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Tian

    2014-09-28

    The present study investigated the effects of medium-chain TAG (MCT) on hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). At weaning (mean 21 (SD 1·06) d of age), twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weight (BW; IUGR: mean 0·95 (SD 0·04) kg; NBW: mean 1·58 (SD 0·04) kg) and weight at the time of weaning (IUGR: mean 5·26 (SD 0·15) kg; NBW: mean 6·98 (SD 0·19) kg) and fed either a soyabean oil (SO) diet (containing 5% SO) or a MCT diet (containing 1% SO and 4% MCT) for 28 d. IUGR piglets exhibited poor (P<0·05) growth performance, lower (P<0·05) metabolic efficiency of hepatic glutathione (GSH) redox cycle, and increased (P<0·05) levels of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and necrosis in hepatocytes compared with NBW piglets. The MCT diet increased (P<0·05) the average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets during the first 4 weeks after weaning. Furthermore, MCT diet-fed piglets had a higher (P<0·05) GSH:oxidised glutathione ratio and increased (P<0·05) activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and GSH reductase. The expression of G6PD was up-regulated (P<0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. Moreover, malondialdehyde concentrations in the liver and apoptosis and necrosis levels in hepatocytes were decreased (P<0·05) by the MCT diet irrespective of BW. These results indicate that MCT might have auxiliary therapeutic potential to attenuate hepatic oxidative damage in IUGR offspring during early life, thus leading to an improvement in the metabolic efficiency of the hepatic GSH redox cycle.

  2. Use of neurosurgical decision-making and damage-control neurosurgery courses in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts: a surgeon's experience.

    PubMed

    Teff, Richard J

    2010-05-01

    A shortage of Coalition neurological surgeons in the Iraq conflict prompted a creative approach to standardized neurosurgical care in 2007. After formulation of theater-wide clinical pathway guidelines, a need for standardized triage and neurological resuscitation was identified. The object was to establish a simple, reproducible course for medics, forward surgical and emergency room personnel, and other critical care providers to quickly standardize the ability of all deployed health care personnel to provide state-of-the-art neurosurgical triage and damage-control interventions. The methods applied were Microsoft PowerPoint presentations and hands-on learning. The year-long project resulted in more than 100 individuals being trained in neurosurgical decision making and in more than 15 surgeons being trained in damage-control neurosurgery. At the year's conclusion, hundreds of individuals received exceptional neurosurgical care from nonneurosurgical providers and a legacy course was left for future deployed providers to receive ongoing education at their own pace.

  3. Low-glycaemic index diet to improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: design and methods for a randomised, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Laura; Mirrahimi, Arash; Ireland, Christopher; Mitchell, Sandra; Sahye-Pudaruth, Sandhya; Coveney, Judy; Olowoyeye, Omodele; Maraj, Tishan; Patel, Darshna; de Souza, Russell J; Augustin, Livia S A; Bashyam, Balachandran; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Nishi, Stephanie K; Leiter, Lawrence A; Josse, Robert G; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Moody, Alan R; Berger, Alan R; Kendall, Cyril W C; Sievenpiper, John L; Jenkins, David J A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) produces macrovascular and microvascular damage, significantly increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), renal failure and blindness. As rates of T2DM rise, the need for effective dietary and other lifestyle changes to improve diabetes management become more urgent. Low-glycaemic index (GI) diets may improve glycaemic control in diabetes in the short term; however, there is a lack of evidence on the long-term adherence to low-GI diets, as well as on the association with surrogate markers of CVD beyond traditional risk factors. Recently, advances have been made in measures of subclinical arterial disease through the use of MRI, which, along with standard measures from carotid ultrasound (CUS) scanning, have been associated with CVD events. We therefore designed a randomised, controlled, clinical trial to assess whether low-GI dietary advice can significantly improve surrogate markers of CVD and long-term glycaemic control in T2DM. Methods and analysis 169 otherwise healthy individuals with T2DM were recruited to receive intensive counselling on a low-GI or high-cereal fibre diet for 3 years. To assess macrovascular disease, MRI and CUS are used, and to assess microvascular disease, retinal photography and 24-hour urinary collections are taken at baseline and years 1 and 3. Risk factors for CVD are assessed every 3 months. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol and consent form have been approved by the research ethics board of St. Michael's Hospital. If the study shows a benefit, these data will support the use of low-GI and/or high-fibre foods in the management of T2DM and its complications. Trial Registration number NCT01063374; Pre-results. PMID:27388364

  4. A Prospective Observational Study of Abdominal Injury Management in Contemporary Military Operations: Damage Control Laparotomy Is Associated With High Survivability and Low Rates of Fecal Diversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    evidence - based challenge to the doctrine of mandatory proximal di- version of colonic wounds that arose from (arguably misunderstood43) experience in...injury, damage control laparotomy, war surgery (Ann Surg 2015;261:765–773) From the ∗202 (Midlands) Field Hospital, Birmingham, West Midlands, United...unsuitable for military surgery due to the high associated mortality and the logistic implications of actively treating such massively wounded patients.12

  5. Selective vascular isolation of the liver as part of initial damage control for grade 5 liver injuries: Shouldn’t we use it more frequently?☆

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Rifat; Khalaf, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe liver trauma (grade 4 and 5) carries mortality greater than 40%. It represents a major surgical challenge in patients with hemodynamic instability who require an immediate exploratory laparotomy. Perihepatic packing and damage control can sometimes work, but for severe liver injuries, adjunct maneuvers might be needed (such as early embolization or hepatic artery ligation). During a patient’s first operation for severe liver trauma, anatomic resection is rarely tolerated. Materials and methods We managed a 31 year-old male with a blunt grade 5 right-lobe liver injury in severe hypovolemic shock. Results As part of the initial damage control operation, concurrently with intermittent Pringle maneuver, he underwent intra- and perihepatic packing; selective isolation and ligation of the right portal vein, right hepatic artery, and right hepatic vein; and repair of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava. Then, 36 h later, the patient underwent a right hepatectomy. Conclusion For patients with severe liver injuries, selective vascular isolation and ligation may be considered as part of damage control (in addition to intermittent Pringle maneuver) and might enable anatomic resection at a later stage. PMID:25569195

  6. Draper/CED-1 Mediates an Ancient Damage Response to Control Inflammatory Blood Cell Migration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Iwan Robert; Rodrigues, Frederico S.L.M.; Armitage, Emma Louise; Wood, Will

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue damage leads to a robust and rapid inflammatory response whereby leukocytes are actively drawn toward the wound. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been shown to be an immediate damage signal essential for the recruitment of these inflammatory blood cells to wound sites in both Drosophila and vertebrates [1, 2]. Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that wound-induced H2O2 is detected by the redox-sensitive Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn within the responding blood cells [3]. Here, we show the same signaling occurs in Drosophila inflammatory cells in response to wound-induced H2O2 with mutants for the Lyn homolog Src42A displaying impaired inflammatory migration to wounds. We go on to show that activation of Src42A is necessary to trigger a signaling cascade within the inflammatory cells involving the ITAM domain-containing protein Draper-I (a member of the CED-1 family of apoptotic cell clearance receptors) and a downstream kinase, Shark, that is required for migration to wounds. The Src42A-Draper-Shark-mediated signaling axis is homologous to the well-established SFK-ITAM-Syk-signaling pathway used in vertebrate adaptive immune responses. Consequently, our results suggest that adaptive immunoreceptor-signaling pathways important in distinguishing self from non-self appear to have evolved from a more-ancient damage response. Furthermore, this changes the role of H2O2 from an inflammatory chemoattractant to an activator signal that primes immune cells to respond to damage cues via the activation of damage receptors such as Draper. PMID:26028435

  7. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  8. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-01

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  9. Application of bifurcation theory and siRNA-based control signal to restore the proper response of cancer cells to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Emilia; Puszynski, Krzysztof

    2016-11-07

    Many diseases with a genetic background such as some types of cancer are caused by damage in the p53 signaling pathway. The damage changes the system dynamics providing cancer cells with resistance to therapy such as radiation therapy. The change can be observed as the difference in bifurcation diagrams and equilibria type and location between normal and damaged cells, and summarized as the changes of the mathematical model parameters and following changes of the eigenvalues of Jacobian matrix. Therefore a change in other model parameters, such as mRNA degradation rates, may restore the proper eigenvalues and by that proper system dynamics. From the biological point of view, the change of mRNA degradation rate can be achieved by application of the small interfering RNA (siRNA). Here, we propose a general mathematical framework based on the bifurcation theory and siRNA-based control signal in order to study how to restore the proper response of cells with damaged p53 signaling pathway to therapy by using ionizing radiation (IR) therapy as an example. We show the difference between the cells with normal p53 signaling pathway and cells with abnormalities in the negative (as observed in SJSA-1 cell line) or positive (as observed in MCF-7 or PNT1a cell lines) feedback loop. Then we show how the dynamics of these cells can be restored to normal cell dynamics by using selected siRNA.

  10. The Innovative Vector Control Consortium: improved control of mosquito-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet; Beaty, Barry J; Rowland, Mark; Scott, Thomas W; Sharp, Brian L

    2006-07-01

    Few new insecticides have been produced for control of disease vectors for public health in developing countries over the past three decades, owing to market constraints, and the available insecticides are often poorly deployed. The Innovative Vector Control Consortium will address these market failures by developing a portfolio of chemical and technological tools that will be directly and immediately accessible to populations in the developing world. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has supported this new initiative to enable industry and academia to change the vector control paradigm for malaria and dengue and to ensure that vector control, alongside drugs, case management and vaccines, can be better used to reduce disease.

  11. Control system upgrade performance improvement audit for PSO`s Southwestern Unit 3

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, T.W.; Glegg, J.

    1995-09-01

    The unit`s original 1967 vintage control system was replaced with a Forney ECS-1200 Distributed Control System, in 1993. This audit identifies fuel savings resulting from improved unit control ranging from zero percent at minimum load to three percent at full load. A new hybrid floating pressure control strategy resulted in both improved dispatch performance and reduced heat rate. Based on the current capacity factor of 45%, fuel savings are $520,000 per year which represents a 2.3 year payout for the project.

  12. Improved methods in neural network-based adaptive output feedback control, with applications to flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nakwan

    Utilizing the universal approximation property of neural networks, we develop several novel approaches to neural network-based adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems, and illustrate these approaches for several flight control applications. In particular, we address the problem of non-affine systems and eliminate the fixed point assumption present in earlier work. All of the stability proofs are carried out in a form that eliminates an algebraic loop in the neural network implementation. An approximate input/output feedback linearizing controller is augmented with a neural network using input/output sequences of the uncertain system. These approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. All physical systems also have control position and rate limits, which may either deteriorate performance or cause instability for a sufficiently high control bandwidth. Here we apply a method for protecting an adaptive process from the effects of input saturation and time delays, known as "pseudo control hedging". This method was originally developed for the state feedback case, and we provide a stability analysis that extends its domain of applicability to the case of output feedback. The approach is illustrated by the design of a pitch-attitude flight control system for a linearized model of an R-50 experimental helicopter, and by the design of a pitch-rate control system for a 58-state model of a flexible aircraft consisting of rigid body dynamics coupled with actuator and flexible modes. A new approach to augmentation of an existing linear controller is introduced. It is especially useful when there is limited information concerning the plant model, and the existing controller. The approach is applied to the design of an adaptive autopilot for a guided munition. Design of a neural network adaptive control that ensures asymptotically stable tracking performance is also addressed.

  13. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized crossover clinical trial was that almond consumption would improve glycemic control and decrease risk to cardiovascular disease in 20 Chinese type ...

  14. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The Tokyo Lowland is situated in a Neogene sedimentary basin near the triple junction of the North American, Pacific, and Philippine tectonic plates. The basin is filled with Neogene and Quaternary sediments up to a thickness of 3 km. In the upper 70 m of the basin, thick sequences of soft Holocene sediments occur which are assumed to have played a key role in the spatial variation of damage intensity during the 1923 Kanto earthquake (Magnitude 7.9 to 8.3). Historical records show this earthquake destroyed large parts of the Tokyo urban area which in that time was largely made up by wooden houses. Although the epicentre was 70 km to the southwest of Tokyo, severe damage occurred north of the city centre, presumably due to ground motion amplification in the soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface. In order to assess the presumed relation between the damage pattern of the 1923 earthquake and the occurrence of soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface, we constructed a 3D geological voxel model of the central part of the Tokyo Lowland. The model was constructed using a methodology originally developed for the lowlands of the Netherlands. The modelling workflow basically consists of three steps. First, some 10,000 borehole descriptions (gathered for geomechanical purposes), were subdivided into geological units that have uniform sediment characteristics, using both lithological and geomechanical (N-value) criteria. Second, 2D bounding surfaces were constructed, representing tops and bases of the geological units. These surfaces were used to place each voxel (100 by 100 by 1 m) within the correct geological unit. The N-values and lithological units in the borehole descriptions were subsequently used to perform a 3D stochastic interpolation of N-value and lithological class within each geological unit. Using a vertical voxel stack analysis, we were able to create a map showing the accumulated thickness of soft muds in the Holocene succession. A

  15. Anfis Approach for Sssc Controller Design for the Improvement of Transient Stability Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuntia, Swasti R.; Panda, Sidhartha

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is applied to design a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)-based controller for improvement of transient stability. The proposed ANFIS controller combines the advantages of fuzzy controller and quick response and adaptability nature of ANN. The ANFIS structures were trained using the generated database by fuzzy controller of SSSC. It is observed that the proposed SSSC controller improves greatly the voltage profile of the system under severe disturbances. The results prove that the proposed SSSC-based ANFIS controller is found to be robust to fault location and change in operating conditions. Further, the results obtained are compared with the conventional lead-lag controllers for SSSC.

  16. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  17. A pivoting elliptical training system for improving pivoting neuromuscular control and rehabilitating musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yupeng; Lee, Song Joo; Park, Hyung-Soon; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2013-09-01

    Knee injuries often occur in pivoting activities but most existing training and rehabilitation devices mainly involve sagittal movements. A pivoting elliptical training system (PETS) was developed to train and evaluate neuromuscular control in pivoting for the purposes of prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. The PETS have capabilities of controlling two footplates individually or simultaneously through servomotor control so that the footplates behave like two torsional springs with adjustable offset and stiffness, slippery surface, or under external perturbations. Feasibility of the PETS in improving pivoting neuromuscular control and pivoting neuromechanical properties was demonstrated through experiments on healthy subjects, with reduced pivoting instability and reaction time, and improved proprioceptive acuity following training. The PETS can potentially be used as a therapeutic and research tool to investigate mechanisms underlying pivoting-related injuries and train human subjects for improving neuromuscular control during risky pivoting activities.

  18. Can sensory attention focused exercise facilitate the utilization of proprioception for improved balance control in PD?

    PubMed

    Lefaivre, Shannon C; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-02-01

    Impaired sensory processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been argued to contribute to balance deficits. Exercises aimed at improving sensory feedback and body awareness have the potential to ameliorate balance deficits in PD. Recently, PD SAFEx™, a sensory and attention focused rehabilitation program, has been shown to improve motor deficits in PD, although balance control has never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to measure the effects of PD SAFEx™ on balance control in PD. Twenty-one participants with mild to moderate idiopathic PD completed 12 weeks of PD SAFEx™ training (three times/week) in a group setting. Prior to training, participants completed a pre-assessment evaluating balance in accordance with an objective, computerized test of balance (modified clinical test of sensory integration and balance (m-CTSIB) and postural stability testing (PST)) protocols. The m-CTSIB was our primary outcome measure, which allowed assessment of balance in both eyes open and closed conditions, thus enabling evaluation of specific sensory contributions to balance improvement. At post-test, a significant interaction between time of assessment and vision condition (p=.014) demonstrated that all participants significantly improved balance control, specifically when eyes were closed. Balance control did not change from pre to post with eyes open. These results provide evidence that PD SAFEx™ is effective at improving the ability to utilize proprioceptive information, resulting in improved balance control in the absence of vision. Enhancing the ability to utilize proprioception for individuals with PD is an important intermediary to improving balance deficits.

  19. ProactiveVector control strategies and improved monitoring and evaluation practices for dengue prevention.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J; Morrison, Amy C; Scott, Thomas W

    2009-11-01

    Despite tremendous efforts by public health organizations in dengue-endemic countries, it has proven difficult to achieve effective and sustainable control of the primary dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti (L.) and to effectively disrupt dengue outbreaks. This problem has multiple root causes, including uncontrolled urbanization, increased global spread of dengue viruses, and vector and dengue control programs not being provided adequate resources. In this forum article, we give an overview of the basic elements of a vector and dengue control program and describe a continuous improvement cyclical model to systematically and incrementally improve control program performance by regular efforts to identify ineffective methods and inferior technology, and then replacing them with better performing alternatives. The first step includes assessments of the overall resource allocation among vector/dengue control