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Sample records for improved district heating

  1. Methodology for the Improvement of Large District Heating Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, Anna; Mashatin, Vladislav; Hlebnikov, Aleksander; Siirde, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a methodology for the evaluation of large district heating networks. The methodology includes an analysis of heat generation and distribution based on the models created in the TERMIS and EnergyPro software Data from the large-scale Tallinn district heating system was used for the approbation of the proposed methodology as a basis of the case study. The effective operation of the district heating system, both at the stage of heat generation and heat distribution, can reduce the cost of heat supplied to the consumers. It can become an important factor for increasing the number of district heating consumers and demand for the heat load, which in turn will allow installing new cogeneration plants, using renewable energy sources and heat pump technologies

  2. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  3. Improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondurov, E. P.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    Ways for improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants are considered as a possible approach to improving the nuclear power plant energy efficiency. The results of thermal tests carried out at one of single-circuit NPPs in Russia with a view to reveal the possibilities of improving the existing heat-transfer equipment of the turbine district heating installation without making significant investments in it were taken as a basis for the analysis. The tests have shown that there is certain energy saving potential in some individual units and elements in the turbine district heating installation's process circuit. A significant amount of thermal energy can be obtained only by decreasing the intermediate circuit temperature at the inlet to the heater of the first district-heating extraction. The taking of this measure will also lead to an additional amount of generated electricity because during operation with the partially loaded first heater, the necessary amount of heat has to be obtained from the peaking heater by reducing live steam. An additional amount of thermal energy can also be obtained by eliminating leaks through the bypass control valves. The possibility of achieving smaller consumption of electric energy for power plant auxiliaries by taking measures on reducing the available head in the intermediate circuit installation's pump unit is demonstrated. Partial cutting of pump impellers and dismantling of control valves are regarded to be the most efficient methods. The latter is attributed to qualitative control of the turbine district heating installation's thermal load. Adjustment of the noncondensable gas removal system will make it possible to improve the performance of the turbine district heating installation's heat-transfer equipment owing to bringing the heat-transfer coefficients in the heaters to the design level. The obtained results can be used for estimating the energy saving potential at other

  4. Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; Vīgants, Ģirts; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-01-01

    The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

  5. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  6. Turbine modifications for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhney, H.S.; Oliker, I.; Silaghy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical and economic feasibilities of retrofitting existing turbine-generators and replacing existing turbine-generators with specially designed district heating units. Topics considered include turbine retrofit options (approach and design criteria, district heating equipment), new district heating turbines (approach and design criteria, turbine selection), and heat generation costs. The conclusions of the analysis include: no technical barrier was discovered for converting the Potomac River Power Plant to a cogeneration facility, additional equipment required for the district heating operation is of conventional design, the existing steam turbines and associated system components can be retrofitted for district heating operation, the modified units retain the flexibility of producing 100% electric power output when the district heating load is disconnected, the district heating system uses indirect heating of water by extraction steam (the purity of which is not degraded), about three and a half times more heat can be extracted from units designed specifically for cogeneration than from modified units, and the described methodology can be used for the assessment of retrofitting existing units to cogeneration operation for power plants located close to heat load centers.

  7. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  8. District heating campaign in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Stalebrant, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    During the fall of 1994 a district heating campaign was conducted in Sweden. The campaign was initiated because the Swedish district heating companies agreed that it was time to increase knowledge and awareness of district heating among the general public, especially among potential customers. The campaign involved many district heating companies and was organized as a special project. Advertising companies, media advisers, consultants and investigators were also engaged. The campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaign was conducted in two stages, a national campaign followed by local campaigns. The national campaign was conducted during two weeks of November 1994 and comprised advertising on commercial TV and in the press.

  9. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  11. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  12. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  13. Hitaveita (district heating) in Akureyri

    SciTech Connect

    Flovenz, O.G.; Axelsson, G.; Arnason, F.; Finnsson, M.

    1996-11-01

    Akureyri is a town of 15,000 inhabitants located in central N-Iceland. It has been heated by geothermal energy since the end of the seventies. Prior to that, it was partly heated by electricity, but mainly with oil burners, located within individual buildings. During the period 1928-1970, several attempts were made to exploit known hot spring areas in the vicinity of Akureyri. These attempts failed. Following the jump in energy price during the oil crisis of 1973, considerable effort was put into further exploration. Based on resistivity soundings, the Laugaland field was selected for deep drilling. In 1975, this resulted in the discovery of a big feed zone, which initially yielded around 100 1/s of 90{degrees}C hot water by free flow. Two years later another big feed zone was located at the Ytri-Tjarnir geothermal field initially yielding 50 1/2 of 80{degrees}C water. Based on short-term pump tests, and simulations by the Theis model, it was estimated that these two fields together could yield 240 1/s with a water level drawdown to 190 m below the surface. This was expected to satisfy the energy need for space heating in Akureyri. In 1977, Hitaveita Akureyrar was, therefore, established. Construction of the district heating system was initiated in 1976 and most of the town had been connected in 1979.

  14. Tushino - 3 district heating project/Moscow

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, H.W.

    1995-09-01

    The contract for supply and installation of Honeywell control equipment at the district heating plant in Moscow suburb of Tushino was signed between the Mayor of Moscow and Honeywell in December 1991. Total contract value is US$3 million. The aim is to demonstrate on a pilot project the potential energy savings and improved pleat safety which can be achieved by means of electronic control of latest design. The Honeywell contract basically covers modernization of instrumentation and control of the gas fired heating plant, comprising water preparation and 4 boilers, of 100 Gcal/h each, i.e., 400 Gcal/h total. The plant is feeding the hot water network which has 60 heat exchanger stations connected. The heat exchangers (thermal rating between 2 to 10 Gcal/h each) supply hot water mainly to residential building blocks for apartment heating and domestic hot water. Honeywell`s responsibility covers engineering, supply of TDC 3000 micro-processor based control system for the boilers and DeltaNet Excel control for the Heat Exchangers. The contract also includes installation and start-up of the total control system.

  15. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  16. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  17. Geothermal district heating: basics to success

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    A district heating system using geothermal energy is a viable and economic option in many locations. A successful system, however, is dependent upon a variety of factors, and it is the purpose of this presentation to accent those items that are proving to have significant impact upon the successful operation of geothermal district heating systems. (These lessons can also apply to other sources of energy.) The six major basics to success that are discussed in this paper are economic viability, an adequate geothermal resource, simplicity of design, a closed loop system, a local champion, and good public relations.

  18. Akranes and Borgarfjordur district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnarsson, A.; Hrolfsson, I.

    1998-12-01

    Akranes and Borgarnes are two towns in the western part of Iceland, about 100 km north of Reykjavik. Geothermal investigations for Akranes started as early as around 1950; but in spite of several attempts, a geothermal field, which could be utilized economically, was not found for a long period. After the increase in oil prices in the early 1970s, further studies were carried out. On the basis of the results of those studies, it was decided to build a combined district heating system for Akranes, Borgarnes, Hvanneyri (agricultural school) and some farms in the Borgarfjordur region. The water is piped from the hot spring Deildartunga, which is one of the largest hot springs in the world. Besides that, the system utilizes two wells at the farm Baer. The utilization of the hot spring makes the system different from most other district heating systems in Iceland, which are based on water from wells. Akranes and Borgarfjordur District Heating System was established in 1979. Before that time, space heating in this area was both by oil (93%) and electricity (7%). The system has now been split into three companies: one that is responsible for all the hot water production and transmission, and one district heating system for each of the two communities.

  19. New directions for district heating in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.; Karnitz, M. A.

    A description is given of the status of major US district heating projects and the potential impact of the newly implemented US National District Heating plan. Five major district heating projects moving into the construction and demonstration phase are described. Although all have hot water distribution systems, a variety of heat sources are utilized. These include geothermal water, industrial reject heat, and utility cogeneration using coal-fired power plants.

  20. Alternative institutional vehicles for geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.; Gardner, T.C.; King, D.; Nimmons, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    The attributes of various institutional entities which might participate in various phases of geothermal heating applications are described. Public entities considered include cities, counties, and special districts. Private entities discussed include cooperative organizations and non-member-owned private enterprises. The powers, authority and manner of operation of each of the institutional entities are reviewed. Some of the public utility regulatory implications which may affect choices among available alternatives are considered. (MHR)

  1. District heating system, City of Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, T.

    1984-06-01

    An updated feasibility study of the district heating system is described. The study was made in two parts, Option 1 and Option 2. Option 1 is a district heating system for the city of Caliente only, whereas Option 2 assumes making 140{sup 0}F water available to the Mark West Development, about five miles to the west of the city. The city district heating system is based on a supply water temperature of 175{sup 0}F and 120{sup 0}F return temperature. The capital cost estimate for Option 1 is $3,140,000. The resultant savings in conventional energy cost over a 20 year project life, assuming 12% bond financing, show a present worth of $4,074,000. This shows that the project should be economically feasible. The capital cost for Option 2 is estimated to be $4,230,000. The additional cost of Option 2 over Option 1, $1,090,000, will have to be recovered by the fee charged to the Mark West Development users for the water made available to them. Since, however, this use is unknown an evaluation of the economic feasibility of Option 2 cannot be made at this time.

  2. Exploring the Pathway to Rapid District Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a "Framework for District Capacity Building and Improvement" and, through the use of two illustrative case stories, explore how districts can engage in rapid and sustainable improvement efforts. The supporting research, our framework, and a corresponding set of rapid improvement indicators is…

  3. District heating/cooling feasibility study for Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Buffa, W.; Harms, R.; Preston, E.

    1982-12-01

    The results of the District Heating/Cooling Feasibility Study for Jamestown, NY are presented. The heat source for the system is a power plant located within the city limits. Several options for the extraction of heat from the power plant are developed and heat balances are presented. The options are based on the development of a hot water district heating system. The geography and climate of the area are discussed and the primary potential district heat district is described. The heat load assessment was based on fuel consumption data collected from a sampling of various types of structures and operations. The methodology is presented in detail followed by the block-by-block results which include the heated floor space, the annual total fuel consumed, the annual fuel consumed for comfort use, and the peak heat rate demands. The heating fuel demand and consumption for most of the major industries in the city is presented. A transmission and distribution system is developed to deliver heat from the power plant to the district heating customers. The piping design is described and the proposed pipe routing for the primary district is presented. Cost estimates are presented for the different district heating options developed. The cost of heat from the Jamestown district heating system has been determined using the required revenue approach to determine the minimum rate the utility must charge for district heat in order to break even. An analysis has also been performed to determine the maximum allowable charge for district heat that would allow consumers to recover their retrofit expenses in a five year period.

  4. District heating/cooling feasibility study for Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Buffa, W.; Harms, R.; Preston, E.

    1982-12-01

    The report describes the results of a district heating feasibility study for Jamestown, New York based on the use of a power plant located within the city limits. Several options for the extraction of heat from the power plant were developed, with heat balances presented, based on the development of a hot water district heating system. The geography and climate of the area are discussed, as well as the primary potential heat district. The heat load assessment was based on fuel consumption data collected from a sampling of various types of structures and operations. The report presents the methodology in detail, along with block-by-block results including heated floor space, total annual fuel consumed, and peak heat rate demands. A transmission and distribution system was then developed for delivering heat from the power plant to the district heating customers.

  5. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  6. Reno Industrial Park geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    Ten miles south of Reno, on U.S. 395 near the junction of the road to historic Virginia City, is Steamboat Hot Springs, a popular stop for travelers since the mid-1800s. Legend has it that Mark Twain named the geothermal area because it looked and sounded like a chugging Mississippi River paddle-wheeler. It is said when he first saw the steam rising from the ground he exclaimed, {open_quotes}Behold! A Steamboat in the desert.{close_quotes} Over the years, the area has been used for its relaxing and curative qualities by Indians, settlers, and geothermal experts. Since the mid-1980s five geothermal power plants have been built at Steamboat Springs and in December 1996 it was announced that the proposed largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S. would supply an industrial park in the area. The active geothermal area is located within the north-south trending graben like trough between the Carson and Virginia Ranges at the southern end of Truckee Meadows. Hot springs and other geothermal features occur over an area of about one square mile. The mid-basin location is controlled by faulting more or less parallel to the major mountain-front faults. It is believed that the heat source for the system is a cooling magmatic body at depth. The Steamboat geothermal area consists of a deep, high-temperature (215{degrees}C to 240{degrees} C) geothermal system, a shallower, moderate-temperature (160{degrees}C to 18{degrees} C) system, and a number of shallow low-temperature (30{degrees}C to 80{degrees}C) subsystems. The higher temperature systems are used for electric-power generation. It is proposed that the exit fluids from the electric power plants be used for the geothermal district heating system.

  7. District heating and cooling market assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.; Daniels, E.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    For more than 10 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research on and development of district steam, hot-water, and chilled-water systems in the residential and commercial sectors. In 1991, DOE sponsored a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to reestimate the national market for district heating and cooling (DHC) systems to the year 2010. ANL had previously developed a DHC market-penetration model and used it to project future market penetration. The first step in the project was to conduct a literature search to identify major data sources on historical DHC markets and any past studies on the future market potential of DHC systems. On the basis of an evaluation of the available data and methodologies for estimating market penetration of new technologies, it was concluded that ANL should develop a new econometric model for forecasting DHC markets. By using the 1989 DOE/Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Surveys (CBECS) public-use-tape data, a model was estimated for steam, hot-water, and chilled-water demand in the buildings surveyed. The model provides estimates of building steam, hot-water, and chilled-water consumption and expenditures between now and the year 2010. The analysis shows that the total U.S. market for district steam, hot water, and chilled water could grow from 0.8 quadrillion British thermal units (quad) in 1989 to 1.0 quad by 2000 and 1.25 quad by 2010. The demand for chilled water could nearly double in the forecast period, and its share could approach one-third of the total DHC market. This model, and the results, should be of use to policymakers, researchers, and market participants involved in the planning and implementation of community-based, energy-conserving, and environmentally beneficial energy systems.

  8. Biomass district heating methodology and pilot installations for public buildings groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistougianni, N.; Giagozoglou, E.; Sentzas, K.; Karastergios, E.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Stomoniaris, A.; Maropoulos, S.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to show how locally available biomass can support a small-scale district heating system of public buildings, especially when taking into account energy audit in-situ measurements and energy efficiency improvement measures. The step-by-step methodology is presented, including the research for local biomass availability, the thermal needs study and the study for the biomass district heating system, with and without energy efficiency improvement measures.

  9. District heating and cooling: a 28-city assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meshenberg, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    Findings of a project that assessed the potential for construction of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in 28 US cities are presented. The project sought to determine whether DHC could promote local community and economic development. In the preliminary assessment, 17 of the cities identified up to 23 projects that could be built within three to five years. Most of these projects would rely on nonscarce heat sources such as refuse or geothermal energy, and to improve financial feasibility, the majority would cogenerate electricity along with heat. Many would use existing power plants or industrial boilers to hold down capital costs. Overall, the projects could generate as amany as 24,000 jobs and retain $165 million that otherwise could leave the communities, thereby helping to stabilize local economies.

  10. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  11. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  12. Application of imitation steam'' systems to hot water district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aalto, P.J.; Chen, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Pequod Associates, Inc. and District Energy St. Paul, Inc. installed a pilot project of an innovative District Heating technology through a contract with the US DOE. This applied research was funded by the Energy Research and Development Act (94--163) for District Heating and Cooling Research. The experimental design is an intervention technique that permits hot water district heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems to connect to buildings equipped with steam heating systems. This method can substantially reduce conversion costs in many older buildings. The method circulates Imitation Steam, which is moist hot air, as a heating medium in standard steam radiators and steam heating coils. Based on the operation of the system during the 1989--90 and 1990--91 winter heating seasons, we conclude the following: the basic concept of using Imitation Steam was proved feasible. The performance of the system can be improved beyond the levels achieved in this installation. Imitation Steam did not cause significant corrosion in the piping system. The technology can be used by other district heating systems to lower conversion costs and increase market penetration. Among the additional benefits from this technology are: eliminating old, inefficient boilers; lower maintenance costs; improved fuel efficiency; reduced emissions.

  13. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  14. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: District Heat Model

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) District Heat Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  15. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Georg K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH) systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized) and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  16. HPASS: a computer program for evaluation of district heating with heat pumps. Users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, G.R.; Calm, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    HPASS (Heat Pump district heating ASSessment) is a computer program for assessment of district heating and cooling with heat pumps. The software facilitates comparison of site- and source-energy use, discounted payback, and life-cycle costs of these systems with alternative systems providing similar services. The program also performs parametric studies of these analyses. This report explains the use of HPASS; the input requirements, available outputs, and program options are described.

  17. Energy-conserving heat pump-boiler systems for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, H.; Giedt, W.H.; Kasahara, K.; Kawamura, K.; Kudo, K.; Ohta, J.

    1983-08-01

    The energy saving potential of a proposed heat pump-boiler system for district heating is analyzed. Fuel is supplied to a boiler which generates steam to drive a turbine. The turbine output is used to power a heat pump which takes energy from the environment. Introduction of a screw type expander in place of the throttling valve in the heat pump cycle is planned to increase the system performance. District heating is provided by hot water which is heated as it flows through the condensers in the heat pump and turbine cycles. Both series and parallel connected condenser arrangements are considered. Results show that the heat supplied to the water for district heating can be as high as 200 percent of the heating that would be provided by use of the fuel supplied to a conventional boiler system with a thermal efficiency of 90 percent.

  18. Districts, Unions Seek to Improve Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Wrapping up a two-day conference in Denver designed to improve labor-management relations in school districts, sponsors and participants vowed to work at reforms that will be beneficial to teachers, students, and officials. Teams made up of a local superintendent, a school board representative, and the teachers' union leader descended on the Mile…

  19. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  20. Philip, South Dakota geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal heating project in Philip, South Dakota which uses the waste water from the Haakon School has now been in operation for 15 years. This project was one of the 23 cost shared by the U.S. DOE starting in 1978, of which 15 became operational. This article describes the geothermal heating system for eight buildings in downtown Philip.

  1. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  2. District Support of School Improvement: Highlights from Three Districts. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter addresses various supports that districts are utilizing to help keep students in school and on the path to graduation. Described herein are three districts that have been particularly successful in raising student achievement--even though they differ in their specific strategies, fund allocation, and demographic composition. A…

  3. Use of domestic fuels for large-scale space heating and for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Seppaelae, R.; Asplund, D.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the heating systems for large-scale space heating and district heating with domestic fuels or under development in Finland, and to study alternative technico-economic applications in the size class of 0.5 - 5 MW.

  4. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonina, Alona; Bolonins, Genadijs; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2014-12-01

    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  5. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  6. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, James William

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  7. District heating feasibility for Port Jefferson, NY: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-29

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the feasibility of implementing a centralized district heating system serving the Incorporated Village of Port Jefferson, New York. The study assesses the potential heating loads, develops in conceptual form the distribution system and central heating plant design and implementation plans, and evaluates the system and customer economics for both conventional boiler and cogeneration district heat sources. The placement of the heat source near the largest heat user will keep the largest pipe size to a minimum length of run. The capital costs for all phases were prepared based on previous experience and vendor's budget estimates. The costs were based on 1987 dollars and escalated to the implementation dates using a general inflation rate of 5%. Since piping is costly, the routing must be planned carefully. The disturbance that is a result of excavation can be minimized by laying the pipe under sidewalks or the shoulder. This will show a savings since replacement of concrete is simpler and less costly than road surface. A sidewalk installation requires less excavation and backfill and usually involves less interference. The recommended plan is to install an 110 KW gas turbine cogeneration plant at St. Charles Hospital. It will supply electricity to the hospital and the excess generation will be sold to LILCO. Steam from the plant would be supplied to the hospital and would also be used to generate hot water for a district heating hot water loop that would service both hospitals, the public schools, office and apartment buildings, and the downtown business district. 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  9. District heating feasibility, Industrial Corridor, Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The Industrial Corridor of Jamestown, New York, contains more than twenty industrial/manufacturing companies, whose thermal demands, in addition to space heating, include significant process heating loads. This study investigated in depth, the technical and economic feasibility of implementing a district heating system in the Industrial Corridor which can serve both process and space heating loads. Based upon the heat load assessment conducted, the study focused upon nine companies with the largest thermal demand. Alternative system implementation designs were considered including new conventional centralized boiler plants, gas turbine cogeneration, and both high temperature hot water and steam as the heat transport media in an underground distribution system. The study concluded that, in view of the nature of existing prospective customer loads being primarily steam based, the most economical system for near term phased development is a steam based system with a new conventional centrally located steam boiler plant. The economic potential for a cogeneration system was found to be sensitive to electricity buy back rates, which at present, are not attractive. Implementing a modern high temperature hot water system would require significant customer retrofit costs to convert their steam based systems to hot water, resulting in long and unattractive pay back periods. Unless customer hot water retrofit costs can be expended without penalty to the district system economics, hot water district heating is not considered economically feasible. Chapters describe heat load assessment; heat source analysis; system implementation; transmission and distribution systems assessment; institutional assessment; system economic analysis; and customer retrofit, economic analysis, and conclusions 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

  11. District heating systems in Oradea, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Oradea is located on the Crisul Repede River, in the northwestern corner of Romania almost due west of Budapest, Hungary. The city has a population around half a million people and can trace its origins back to the Neolithic Age. It was an urban settlement beginning in the 13th century and has been an economic and cultural center for the region. It is a geothermal city with 12 wells drilled within the city limits, six in the nearby Felix Spa and five in the Bors geothermal area to the west, with one doublet set at Nufarul. Currently, there are a variety of geothermal uses in the area, including space and greenhouse heating, domestic hot water supply, process heat, balneology and swimming pools. Wellhead temperatures range from 70 to 105{degrees}C with artesian flows of from 5 to 25 L/s. The present installed capacity is 25 MWt and the heat supply is estimated at 60,000 MWh per year (216,000 GJ/yr). With pumping, the production would double and adding four more doublets, the installed capacity be increased to 65 MWt.

  12. Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

  13. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  14. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  15. Feasibility analysis of geothermal district heating for Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-23

    An analysis of the geothermal resource at Lakeview, Oregon, indicates that a substantial resource exists in the area capable of supporting extensive residential, commercial and industrial heat loads. Good resource productivity is expected with water temperatures of 200{degrees}F at depths of 600 to 3000 feet in the immediate vicinity of the town. Preliminary district heating system designs were developed for a Base Case serving 1170 homes, 119 commercial and municipal buildings, and a new alcohol fuel production facility; a second design was prepared for a downtown Mini-district case with 50 commercial users and the alcohol plant. Capital and operating costs were determined for both cases. Initial development of the Lakeview system has involved conducting user surveys, well tests, determinations of institutional requirements, system designs, and project feasibility analyses. A preferred approach for development will be to establish the downtown Mini-district and, as experience and acceptance are obtained, to expand the system to other areas of town. Projected energy costs for the Mini-district are $10.30 per million Btu while those for the larger Base Case design are $8.20 per million Btu. These costs are competitive with costs for existing sources of energy in the Lakeview area.

  16. Key Issue: Improving the Preparation of School and District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In many schools and districts, leaders are lacking the necessary skills and preparation for the roles to which they are assigned. Improving the preparation of school and district leaders prior to hiring or promotion can help schools and districts accomplish the following goals: (1) Meet the growing need for highly qualified leaders; (2) Raise…

  17. District-Led Instructional Improvement in a Remote Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how stakeholders in one school district located in a remote town perceived the instructional improvement efforts of the district, as well as the constraints and enablers of implementing instructional reforms. A qualitative approach, consisting mainly of interviews with teachers, principals, district administrators, and other…

  18. District-Led Instructional Improvement in a Remote Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how stakeholders in one school district located in a remote town perceived the instructional improvement efforts of the district, as well as the constraints and enablers of implementing instructional reforms. A qualitative approach, consisting mainly of interviews with teachers, principals, district administrators, and other…

  19. District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

    2014-01-01

    The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the state's…

  20. How to Compute Complex Interconnected District Heating Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    valid modelling of such systems. 3. Network Hydraulic Characteristics In hot water networks the usual pipe diameters, roughnesses, and flow rates are...with cold water network flow characteristics, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 2. Table 2. Characteristic flow values of water distribution networks...conveyance costs decrease. V󈨋 ....... Figure 2. Flow domains for water networks and district heating system networks cold water I//I//I hot water

  1. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders.

  2. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  3. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  4. Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Gwenn

    2010-01-01

    Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address…

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  6. Health districts as quality improvement collaboratives and multijurisdictional entities.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William; Marshall, Nandi; Peden, Angela; Gonzalez, Ketty; Shah, Gulzar H; Alexander, Dayna; Penix, Kellie; Lawrence, Raymona; Toal, Russell; Woodhouse, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    Local health departments are increasingly challenged to meet emerging health problems at the same time that they are being challenged with dwindling resources and the demands of accreditation. To assess the capacity of Multicounty health districts to serve as "Quality Improvement Collaboratives" and support local health departments to meet accreditation standards. The study used an online survey tool and follow-up phone calls with key informants in health districts and county health departments in Georgia. Data collection was primarily based on an instrument to measure Quality Improvement Collaboratives that was adapted and tested for use with public health agencies in Georgia. The Georgia PBRN conducted this study of health districts and county health departments. The Georgia Department of Public Health supports 18 health districts and 159 county health departments (GA DPH, 2011). The health districts range in county composition from 1 to 16 counties in each district. Key informants comprised district and county health department staff and county health department board members were identified by 13 participating health district offices. Key opinion leaders from both the rural and nonrural counties agreed that the Districts were important for providing essential services and supporting quality improvement collaboration. Psychometric testing of the Quality Improvement Collaborative assessment public health instrument yielded high scores for validity and reliability. Regionalization of local public health capacity is a critical emerging issue for public health accreditation and quality improvement. This study demonstrated the utility of regionalization across traditional local geopolitical boundaries.

  7. District heating feasibility study for Jamestown, New York. Phase Two. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This document presents the results of the second phase District Heating Feasibility Study for Jamestown, NY. The study takes an in-depth look at a hot water district heating system using the Jamestown municipal electric plant as the heat source and the downtown area as the primary load. The study considers phased expansion to outlying areas. This second phase study was performed in light of the findings of a first phase district heating study which determined that district heating was technically and economically feasible in Jamestown. The objective of this second phase study is to perform a detailed assessment of district heating and present the findings to the City in sufficient detail to serve as a basis for deciding whether or not to proceed with final design and construction of a district heating system. The study assesses the technical, financial and institutional feasibility of the system, recommends system ownership and financing strategies, develops a phased implementation plan, identifies prospective users and analyzes potential user performance from both a technical and economic point of view. The study concludes that a municipal district heating system financed with municipal bonds could be developed in Jamestown to economically supply heat to the downtown area and the industrial corridor. The study shows that district heating could successfully compete with alternate fuels, allowing most customers to recover their district heating retrofit costs in three to four years.

  8. Energy Efficiency of Low-Temperature Deaeration of Makeup Water for a District Heating System

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, V. I. Kudryavtseva, E. V.

    2016-07-15

    It is shown that the temperature of makeup water in district heating systems has a strong effect on the energy efficiency of turbines of thermal power plants. A low-temperature deaeration process that considerably improves the energy efficiency of thermal power plants is developed. The desorbing agent is the gas supplied to the burners of the boiler. The energy efficiency of the process for a typical unit of thermal power plant is assessed.

  9. Improved Heat-Stress Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Fehn, Steven

    2007-01-01

    NASA Dryden presents an improved and automated site-specific algorithm for heat-stress approximation using standard atmospheric measurements routinely obtained from the Edwards Air Force Base weather detachment. Heat stress, which is the net heat load a worker may be exposed to, is officially measured using a thermal-environment monitoring system to calculate the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). This instrument uses three independent thermometers to measure wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and the black-globe temperatures. By using these improvements, a more realistic WBGT estimation value can now be produced. This is extremely useful for researchers and other employees who are working on outdoor projects that are distant from the areas that the Web system monitors. Most importantly, the improved WBGT estimations will make outdoor work sites safer by reducing the likelihood of heat stress.

  10. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  11. Exergy-economics of a district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelissen, R.L.; Hirs, G.G.; Lie, A.B.K.; Steenderen, P. van

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to define the exergetic pay back period. This period can be used for energy efficient systems as part of a more general assessment also including financial aspects. For the conservation of the exergy of natural resources investments with a shorter exergetic pay back period will be preferable. To determine exergy savings of exergy efficient systems the exergetic life cycle assessment has been used. As an example a district heating system in combination with a cogeneration plant based on natural gas has been selected. The irreversibility taking place during the life cycle of the system due to the construction, operation, dismantling and waste processing is determined and compared with domestic central heating also based on natural gas. The analysis has been performed for four alternative district heating systems. The exergetic pay back period, defined as additional exergy invested divided by exergy saving, is shown to be between 0.07 and 1.2 years. The life cycle exergy saving varies from 24% to 49%, mainly depending on the density of the distribution system. In addition the differences in exergy saving are due to the fact that the small scale alternatives have a smaller gas turbine, which has a lower exergetic efficiency when compared with the big scale projects. There is no direct relation between the exergetic and financial pay back period in this study. However, the financial pay back period is roughly one order of magnitude higher than the exergetic pay back period. From this can be concluded that heat distribution systems with exergetic pay back periods of more than one year have unacceptable financial pay back periods.

  12. Geothermal district heating systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    There are 18 geothermal district heating systems in the Untied States. These systems use geothermal fluids from 138 F to 218 F (59 C to 103 C), with peak flow rates from 85 gpm to 4000 gpm (5 L/s to 250 L/s). Installed power varies from 0.2 MWt to 31 MWt, and annual energy use from 0.8 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu to 75 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu (0.6 GWh to 22 GWh). Thus, the total installed power is almost 100 MWt and the annual energy use is 572 {times} 10{sup 9} Btu (168 GWh). The oldest systems in operation are the Warm Springs Water District in Boise, Idaho that began operation in 1892, and the private system in Ketchum, Idaho starting in 1929, with the system on the Oregon Institute of Technology in operation since 1962, and Midland, South Dakota since 1964. The remaining systems have all been in operation for less than 20 years. Both open and closed distribution systems are used--the later type using a secondary fluid to supply the heat to the customers. Approximately half of the systems use a central mechanical plant containing heat exchangers, circulating pumps, expansion tanks and controls. Both volume and energy metering systems for customer billing are used. A variety of geothermal fluid disposal systems are used, including injection and disposal in a nearby river or stream. The energy and environmental savings, as compared to fossil fuel, amount to nearly 135,000 barrels of oil equivalent annually, and a reduction of 58,000 metric tons of carbon (coal) or 11,000 metric tons of carbon (natural gas) per year. Three systems are described.

  13. Improving Curriculum in Small School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Newton W.; Van Sant, David

    1980-01-01

    Successful provision for the curriculum needs of students in small schools in the 1980s requires design, planning, hard work, and commitment, as well as administrative leadership, involvement of the board of education, staff participation, resources outside the district, and inservice activities. (SB)

  14. District-heating/cogeneration success keyed to planning, coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, B.I.; Gray, D.; Major, W. )

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the Jamestown (NY) district-heating (DH) system which illustrates the cost-effective incorporation of equipment and techniques into community planning to meet its hot-water and spaceheating needs. It provided experience not only in the use of the technology itself but in the harmonious interaction of concerned community sectors--governmental, technical, environmental, social--toward a common beneficial goal. Overall cooperation and strong support of the community enabled local officials to enthusiastically promote the project, obtain financing, and meet an ambitious construction schedule. Installation of the pilot system in 1984 was a milestone. The heightened public awareness that this brought about, coupled with several marketing activities, led to replacement of initial skepticism in several quarters with general enthusiasm for DH and its anticipated benefits.

  15. Selecting adjustment operating conditions in open-circuit district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, R. L.; Stennikov, N. V.

    2008-11-01

    A procedure for selecting the optimal hydraulic operating conditions for adjustment and alignment of district heating systems is proposed. Results from a study on substantiating efficient operating conditions for adjusting district heating systems are given together with recommendations on how to set up these conditions.

  16. Heat acclimation improves exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Santiago; Halliwill, John R.; Sawka, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of heat acclimation on improving exercise performance in cool and hot environments. Twelve trained cyclists performed tests of maximal aerobic power (V̇o2max), time-trial performance, and lactate threshold, in both cool [13°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (38°C, 30% RH) environments before and after a 10-day heat acclimation (∼50% V̇o2max in 40°C) program. The hot and cool condition V̇o2max and lactate threshold tests were both preceded by either warm (41°C) water or thermoneutral (34°C) water immersion to induce hyperthermia (0.8–1.0°C) or sustain normothermia, respectively. Eight matched control subjects completed the same exercise tests in the same environments before and after 10 days of identical exercise in a cool (13°C) environment. Heat acclimation increased V̇o2max by 5% in cool (66.8 ± 2.1 vs. 70.2 ± 2.3 ml·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.004) and by 8% in hot (55.1 ± 2.5 vs. 59.6 ± 2.0 ml·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.007) conditions. Heat acclimation improved time-trial performance by 6% in cool (879.8 ± 48.5 vs. 934.7 ± 50.9 kJ, P = 0.005) and by 8% in hot (718.7 ± 42.3 vs. 776.2 ± 50.9 kJ, P = 0.014) conditions. Heat acclimation increased power output at lactate threshold by 5% in cool (3.88 ± 0.82 vs. 4.09 ± 0.76 W/kg, P = 0.002) and by 5% in hot (3.45 ± 0.80 vs. 3.60 ± 0.79 W/kg, P < 0.001) conditions. Heat acclimation increased plasma volume (6.5 ± 1.5%) and maximal cardiac output in cool and hot conditions (9.1 ± 3.4% and 4.5 ± 4.6%, respectively). The control group had no changes in V̇o2max, time-trial performance, lactate threshold, or any physiological parameters. These data demonstrate that heat acclimation improves aerobic exercise performance in temperate-cool conditions and provide the scientific basis for employing heat acclimation to augment physical training programs. PMID:20724560

  17. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  18. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-07-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO{sub 2} accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO{sub 2} saving of 48 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO{sub 2}/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  19. Continuous Improvement in Schools and Districts: Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Discussions about improving public education often focus on outcomes without considering how schools and districts can accomplish those outcomes. Research shows that using a continuous improvement process has proven successful in healthcare, manufacturing, and technology, and may hold potential for use in education as well. This brief defines and…

  20. The road to Lockport: Historical background of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The idea of district heating can be traced back to Roman hypocausts, some of which warmed multiple buildings. They were reintroduced into Europe during the Renaissance and slowly evolved into modern hot air, hot water, and steam heating systems. Major heating milestones are summarized, along with requirements to conserve fuel and abate smoke. Early district-heating proposals in London (1623 and 1820s), Pennsylvania (1869), Warsaw and Zuerich (1872) are discussed, as are steam systems actually installed at the US Naval Academy (1853), the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, and a hot water cogeneration system at the Banstead Downs Asylum in England (1876). Birdsill Holly--a Lockport, New York, inventor--installed the first successful commercial district heating system there in 1877. By 1890, more than 50 were installed, many of which are still operating today. District cooling began shortly after that, with successful introduction of systems using brine and ammonia.

  1. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. The Three Essentials: Improving Schools Requires District Vision, District and State Support, and Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Schmidt-Davis, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This research is part of a comprehensive effort to pinpoint the key leadership factors that improve student achievement and increase the number of high school graduates who are ready for college and careers. In this study, SREB (Southern Regional Education Board) examined the role of the district office in providing principals with the working…

  3. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  4. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  5. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  6. Improved ceramic heat exchange material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollister, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    Improved corrosion resistant ceramic materials that are suitable for use as regenerative heat exchangers for vehicular gas turbines is reported. Two glass-ceramic materials, C-144 and C-145, have superior durability towards sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate compared to lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) Corning heat exchange material 9455. Material C-144 is a leached LAS material whose major crystalline phase is silica keatite plus mullite, and C-145 is a LAS keatite solid solution (S.S.) material. In comparison to material 9455, material C-144 is two orders of magnitude better in dimensional stability to sulfuric acid at 300 C, and one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate at 1000 C. Material C-145 is initially two times better in stability to sulfuric acid, and about one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate. Both C-144 and C-145 have less than 300 ppm delta L/L thermal expansion from ambient to 1000 C, and good dimensional stability of less than approximately 100 ppm delta L/L after exposure to 1000 C for 100 hours. The glass-ceramic fabrication process produced a hexagonal honeycomb matrix having an 85% open frontal area, 50 micrometer wall thickness, and less than 5% porosity.

  7. Economics of power plant district and process heating in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    The economic feasibility of utilizing hot water from nuclear reactors to provide district heating for private residences in Richland, Washington, and space and process heating for nearby offices, part of the Hanford Reservation, and the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant is assessed. Specifically, the practicality of using hot water from the Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 reactor, which is currently under construction on the Hanford Reservation, just north of the City of Richland is established. World-wide experience with district heating systems and the advantages of using these systems are described. The GEOCITY computer model used to calculate district heating costs is described and the assumptions upon which the costs are based are presented. District heating costs for the city of Richland, process heating costs for the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, district heating costs for the Horn Rapids triangle area, and process heating costs for the 300 and 3000 areas are discussed. An economic analysis is discussed and institutional restraints are summarized. (MCW)

  8. A Method for Monitoring the Heat Flux from an Urban District with a Single Infrared Remote Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénon, Aurélien; Mestayer, Patrice G.

    2014-07-01

    The proposed methodology relies on the modelling capabilities of the thermo-radiative model Suc(olene) to simulate the heat and radiation energy exchanges between an actual urban district and the atmosphere. It is based on the comparison of the simulated upward infrared and sensible heat flux diurnal cycles that may be measured by elevated sensors above the three-dimensional scene, as a function of sensor position: the heat flux is a function of an equivalent surface temperature given by the infrared sensor and an equivalent heat transfer coefficient deduced from Suc(olene) simulations with the actual geometry. The method is tested against measurements obtained in the city centre of Toulouse, France during an experimental campaign in 2004-2005. To improve the computation of the heat exchanges between air and building surfaces a new algorithm is first implemented, based on an empirical model of the wind distribution within street canyons. This improvement is assessed by a direct comparison of the simulated brightness surface temperatures of the Toulouse city centre to measurements obtained with an airborne infrared sensor. The optimization of the infrared remote sensor position is finally analyzed as a function of its height above the mean roof level: it allows evaluation of the heat flux from an urban district when the three different classes of surfaces (roofs, walls, grounds) have similar contributions to the infrared flux towards the sensor, and to the heat flux into the atmosphere.

  9. District heating from electric-generating plants and municipal incinerators: local planner's assessment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pferdehirt, W.; Kron, N. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This guide is designed to aid local government planners in the preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of district heating using heat recovered from electric generating plants and municipal incinerators. System feasibility is indicated by: (1) the existence of an adequate supply of nearby waste heat, (2) the presence of a sufficiently dense and large thermal load, and (3) a favorable cost comparison with conventional heating methods. 34 references.

  10. District heating/feasibility study for Jamestown, New York. Phase two. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.

    1986-04-01

    This report details an investigation to implement district heating in Jamestown, New York. It is a technical and economic feasibility study of a hot-water district-heating system, using a municipal electric plant as the heat source and the downtown area as a source for customers. As a result of the project, the City of Jamestown built a district-heating system that was a service to four customers in 1984 and expanded to 14 customers in 1985. The City expects it to grow in 1986 and beyond. Customers are realizing a 20 to 30% savings in heating costs. The municipal electric plant burns coal and the system so far has displaced the equivalent of 1 million gallons of oil per year.

  11. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  12. Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storages and Solar District Heating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formhals, Julian; Schulte, Daniel O.; Welsch, Bastian; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The temporal difference between times of high heat demands and times of high solar heat supplies can be compensated by solar district heating (SDH) with borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems. To achieve a good understanding of the system behavior and for optimized dimensioning of the components transient simulations are imperative. In this context the models of SDH systems and BTES pose very different requirements on their simulation environments. Taking this into account, a coupled simulation, in which both models can be realized in separate and specialized simulation environments becomes favorable. The underlying work presents a new approach for a coupled simulation of a SDH system modelled in SimulationX and a BTES system modelled in MATLAB. A case study is performed, in which a SDH system with an annual heat demand of 1,100 MWh and a BTES is designed and dimensioned. The SDH is modelled in SimulationX and later coupled to an existing model of a BTES in MATLAB. Subsequently, a simulation over seven years is carried out to assess the performance of the designed system and the presented coupling method. For the designed system, a storage efficiency of 56.6% and a solar fraction of 36.6% can be achieved after the final year. The implementation of a heat pump proves to be beneficial for the performance of the system. A detailed analysis of the system and component behavior is performed, which concludes in a good understanding of interdependencies between the components and the identification of potential improvements. Following this, an improvement strategy for the system is developed, in which major potentials are related to a more sophisticated control strategy.

  13. Mapping Extreme Heat Vulnerability and Health Outcomes to inform the District of Columbia's Climate Adaptation Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Barreto, J.; Wilhelmi, O.; Goggans, A.

    2016-12-01

    In this collaborative engagement, scientists are partnering with the District of Columbia (DC) to develop an extreme heat vulnerability assessment. To do so, we map socio-demographic and built environment indicators of extreme heat vulnerability in Census Tracts in DC neighborhoods. In order to provide information useful for DC public health and urban planning practitioners, we aggregate the indicators into an index of extreme heat vulnerability. We compare the index against heat-related call data from DC's 911 system to better understand the socio-spatial distribution of extreme heat-related health outcomes. Our assessment can help inform the District's Climate Adaptation Plan as well as increase public engagement in reducing vulnerability to extreme heat.

  14. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  16. The Role of the Latvian District Heating System in the Development of Sustainable Energy Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazbauers, Gatis; Cimdina, Ginta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether and to what extent it is possible to use excess electricity produced by wind power plants during low demand periods for district heat production by heat pumps. Energy system analysis on an hourly basis is conducted at various capacities of wind power plants. The results show that it is possible to increase the share of renewable energy sources, decrease the use of primary energy sources and CO2 emissions per unit of the produced energy, i.e. heat and electricity, by using the surplus electricity produced by wind power in the heat pumps combined with the heat storage.

  17. Challenges Encountered by Connecticut Partner School Districts when Implementing Legislatively Required District Improvement Plans: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Meghan G.

    2010-01-01

    This research developed a survey that measures the degree to which challenges are experienced by school and district leaders, and teachers, when attempting to implement legislatively required District Improvement Plans (DIPs). The data indicate that there are certainly challenges when implementing DIPs and that teachers report experiencing a…

  18. Geothermal district heating and cooling of hotel/casinos in downtown Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Cerci, Y.; Kanoglu, M.; Cengel, Y.A.; Turner, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, potential revenues from the proposed geothermal district heating/cooling system for the hotel/casino complexes in downtown Reno, Nevada are estimated by analyzing their actual electricity and natural gas bills during 1993 through 1994. The geothermal system appears to be feasible, and financially very attractive. The geothermal district system can meet the entire heating and cooling requirements of the hotel/casinos, generating total potential revenues of $3,486,000 per year. Also, other buildings around the downtown area such as Saint Mary`s Hospital, several motels, business complexes, Washoe County School District Building, and even the UNR campus will add extra potential revenues, if these buildings are connected to the geothermal grid. Since most buildings around the downtown use central heating and cooling system, the retrofit costs for the both system should be minimal.

  19. Financial planning for district heating: The Brooklyn Navy Yard project: A project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Financial planning for the Brooklyn Navy Cogeneration and District Heating Project involved the establishment of three distinct potential markets, a determination of economic feasibility and the development of a financial structure that could accommodate the diverse social objectives of the project and the nature of the markets to be served. The Brooklyn Navy Yard (BNY) is owned by the City of New York (City) and managed by the non-profit Brooklyn Navy Yard Development Corporation for operation as an industrial park. Development of a cogeneration/district heating facility at the Navy Yard was undertaken to meet multiple community and economic development objectives.

  20. Application of an intermediate LWR for electricity production and hot-water district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a 400 MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) for supplying district heat to the Minneapolis/St. Paul area. A total of three CNSS reactor sites, located various distances from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area load center, are evaluated. The distance from the load center is determined by the credited safety features of the plant design. Each site is also evaluated for three different hot water supply/return temperatures providing a total of nine CNSS study cases. The cost of district heat delivered to the load center is determined for each case.

  1. Improved heat-resistant garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Fabrication method for protective clothing eliminates the common heat-short by avoiding the stitch which is common to all layers, and preventing external exposure of any stitch to the outer environment. A unique overlap arrangement is described and additional protective methods are discussed.

  2. Leading from the Middle: Mid-Level District Staff and Instructional Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Patricia; Spillane, James

    2004-01-01

    No silver bullets for improving achievement for all students exist. However, anyone whose paycheck comes from a school district is ultimately responsible for these students. "Leading From the Middle: Mid-Level District Staff and Instructional Improvement," the first in a series of reports drawn from a larger, qualitative study of district/school…

  3. Characteristics of Midwest Region School Districts Identified for Improvement. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 121

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Arie; Wan, Yinmei; Garcia, Alicia N.; Wraight, Sara; Burke, Matthew; Norbury, Heather; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    This report presents statistical profiles for the Midwest Region states of school districts designated as "in improvement" for school year 2009/10 under accountability provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and compares the prevalence and characteristics of these districts and those of districts not in improvement. It also…

  4. Improved Ceramic for Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Rauch, H. W.; Mccreeght, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Most promising composition developed in investigation consisted of mixed oxides described generically as ZrMAS. Has been commercially designated as GE-7808. Material was obtained from low-cost clay/talc mixture. Overall assessment of ZrMAS indicates it is a viable candidate for heat-exchanger application in automotive gas-turbine engines and possibly other areas that require dielectric materials of moderate refractoriness, good corrosion resistance, and excellent thermal-shock resistance.

  5. What Districts Can Do To Improve Instruction and Achievement in All Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togneri, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study of five high-poverty districts making strides in improving student achievement revealed that these districts focused on systemwide strategies including new approaches to professional development; making decisions based on data, not instinct; and redefining leadership roles. (MLF)

  6. Blueprint for financing geothermal district heating in California

    SciTech Connect

    Grattan, J.P.; Hansen, D.P.

    1981-03-01

    The current legal and investment climate surrounding geothermal development is depicted. Changes that would make the climate more favorable to direct heat geothermal development are recommended. The Boise, Susanville, and Brady Hot Springs projects are analyzed. (MHR)

  7. District heating/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Impact of a district heating/cogeneration system on annual average SO2 air quality in the twin cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnitz, M. A.; Kornegay, F. C.; McLain, H. A.; Murphy, B. D.; Raridon, R. J.; Shlatter, E. C.

    1981-03-01

    Annual average SO2 concentrations in air at ground level were determined for a base year (1976) and for a future year (1987) with and without a 2600-MW(t) district heating system. Without district heating, the SO2 concentrations in the area are predicted to increase with time because of anticipated increased substitution of oil for curtailed natural gas. Implementation of the district heating/cogeneration system is predicted to mitigate this increase of SO2 concentrations significantly. Although the total emissions will be slightly higher with district heating/cogeneration because of the substitution of coal for natural gas and oil, use of tall stacks at the cogeneration plants will permit greater dispersion of the SO2 emissions. Considerable overall energy savings, particularly in the form of natural gas and oil, will be realized with a district heating/cogeneration system.

  8. Steam on the frontier: District heating in Denver, 1880--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.E.; Pierce, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    In late 1879 a group of Denver businessmen led by pioneer John W. Smith incorporated the Denver City Steam Heating Company to supply heat and power to their frontier own. The following summer they installed a Holly district steam system, including a boiler plant and several thousand feet of underground steam pipe laid under unpaved streets. On November 5, 1880, the company began supplying steam to downtown Denver. Henry M. Porter, Smith`s son-in-law, became president of the company in 1888 and replaced the distribution system with larger pipes in anticipation of asphalt paving. Although rarely meeting the financial expectations of its owners, the system grew over the years and in 1909 was acquired by a predecessor to the Public Service Company of Colorado. The Denver steam system is the oldest commercial district heating company in the world and continues to supply steam for heating and cooling to a large portion of downtown Denver from its original plant location.

  9. Heat Acclimation Improves Exercise Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    environments. Twelve trained cyclists performed tests of maximal aerobic power ( VO2max ), time-trial performance, and lactate threshold, in both cool [13...C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (38°C, 30% RH) environments before and after a 10-day heat acclimation (~50% VO2max in 40°C) program. The hot...and cool condition VO2max and lactate threshold tests were both preceded by either warm (41° C) water or thermoneutral (34°C) water immersion to

  10. Geothermal district heating and cooling system for the city of Calistoga, California

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.

    1982-01-01

    Calistoga has long been known for having moderate (270/sup 0/F maximum) hydrothermal deposits. The economic feasibility of a geothermal heating and cooling district for a portion of the downtown commercial area and city-owned building was studied. Descriptions of existing and proposed systems for each building in the block are presented. Heating and cooling loads for each building, retrofit costs, detailed cost estimates, system schematics, and energy consumption data for each building are included. (MHR)

  11. TX model: a quantitative heat-loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface-temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinko, Heimo; Perers, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of analyzing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that enables the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX-model has been developed, implementing that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground has a temperature signature on the ground surface. A qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques mostly makes use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss in Watt/m. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature variation across the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but affected by some other parameters such as depth, heat diffusivity and so on. In order to analyze the parameters influencing the TX-factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is relatively unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at a testfield in Studsvik, Sweden, with electrically controlled pipe heat losses and long term monitoring of the surface temperature profile and TX factor with temperature sensors at the ground surface. The quantitative TX model for heat loss

  12. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  13. The technical and economic principles and lines of development of nuclear district heating cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu. N.; Khrilev, L. S.; Brailov, V. P.

    2008-11-01

    We consider the social and economic requirements, technical background, and possible lines for future development of nuclear district heating cogeneration for the period leading up to 2030 taking into account the way in which the structure of Russia’s fuel and energy complex is formed.

  14. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  15. Direct-use geothermal district heating projects in the US. A summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fornes, A.O.

    1981-10-01

    Brief summaries of geothermal district heating projects are presented for the following: Boise, Idaho; Elko, Nevada; Ephrata, Washington; Hawthorne, Nevada; Klamath Falls, Oregon; Lakeview, Oregon; Madison County, Idaho; North Bonneville, Washington; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Preston, Idaho; Reno, Nevada; Susanville, California; Thermopolis, Wyoming; and Utah State Prison, Utah. (MHR)

  16. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  17. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  18. Possible ways to implement district heating cogeneration under present conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revzin, B. S.; Komarov, O. V.; Styazhkin, A. A.

    2008-04-01

    We propose a scheme of a combined gas turbine unit intended for medium-capacity units for combined generation of electricity and heat. The use of gas turbine unit constructed in accordance with this scheme makes it possible to have a limited number of peak hot-water boilers.

  19. Feasibility Study for the Ivano-Frankivsk District Heating Repowering: Analysis of Options

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.; Popelka, A.; Laskarevsky, V.

    2002-03-20

    Part of the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation with the Ukraine Inter-Ministerial Commission on Climate Change, financed by the US Department of Energy. The project was implemented by a team consisting of the US company SenTech, Inc. and the Ukrainian company Esco-West. The main objective of the effort was to assess available alternatives of Ivano-Frankivsk (I-F) District Heating repowering and provide information for I-F's investment decision process. This study provides information on positive and negative technical and economic aspects of available options. Three options were analyzed for technical merit and economic performance: 1. Installation of cogeneration system based on Gas Turbine (GT) and Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger with thermal capacity of 30 MW and electrical capacity of 13.5 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. Equipment in this Option was sized for longest operating hours, about 8000 based on the available summer baseload. 2. Installation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (GTCC) and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) with thermal capacity 45 MW and electrical capacity of 58.7 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. The equipment was sized for medium, shoulder season thermal load, and some cooling was assumed during the summer operation for extension of operating hours for electricity production. 3. Retrofit of six existing boilers (NGB) with total thermal capacity of 255.9 MW by installation of modern control system and minor upgrades. This option assumes only heat production with minimum investment. The best economic performance and the largest investment cost would result from alternative GTCC. This alternative has positive Net Present Value (NPV) with discount rate lower than about 12%, and has IRR slightly above 12%. The

  20. The Case for District-Based Reform: Leading, Building, and Sustaining School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the Duval County (Fla.) school system set out to improve every school in the district. Over the next five years, the district achieved stunning results that have drawn nationwide attention. Jonathan A. Supovitz uses the unfolding story of Duval County to develop a sophisticated and thoughtful analysis of the role of the school district in…

  1. Cerritos Community College: Improvements Needed in Aspects of Operating the District and Its Auxiliary Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Auditor General, Sacramento.

    This audit report discusses the operation of the Enterprise Fund by Cerritos Community College District in California. In addition, the Cerritos College Foundation's conflict of interest policies, its relationship with the district, and its award of contracts for services was reviewed. It was found that the district needed improvement in its…

  2. Improved ceramic heat exchanger materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The development and evaluation of materials for potential application as heat exchanger structures in automotive gas turbine engines is discussed. Test specimens in the form of small monolithic bars were evaluated for thermal expansion and dimensional stability before and after exposure to sea salt and sulfuric acid, followed by short and long term cycling at temperatures up to 1200 C. The material finally selected, GE-7808, consists of the oxides, ZrO2-MgO-Al2O3-S1O2, and is described generically as ZrMAS. The original version was based on a commercially available cordierite (MAS) frit. However, a clay/talc mixture was demonstrated to be a satisfactory very low cost source of the cordierite (MAS) phase. Several full size honeycomb regenerator cores, about 10.2 cm thick and 55 cm diameter were fabricated from both the frit and mineral versions of GE-7808. The honeycomb cells in these cores had rectangular dimensions of about 0.5 mm x 2.5 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 0.2 mm. The test data show that GE-7808 is significantly more stable at 1100 C in the presence of sodium than the aluminosilicate reference materials. In addition, thermal exposure up to 1100 C, with and without sodium present, results in essentially no change in thermal expansion of GE-7808.

  3. Optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in the district heating system cooperating with thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents the results of optimizing the coefficient of the share of cogeneration expressed by an empirical formula dedicated to designers, which will allow to determine the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in contemporary cogeneration systems with the thermal storages feeding the district heating systems. This formula bases on the algorithm of the choice of the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems with the thermal storage, taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of high-efficiency cogeneration and the decrease of the cost of CO2 emission thanks to cogeneration. The approach presented in this paper may be applicable both in combined heat and power (CHP) plants with back-pressure turbines and extraction-condensing turbines.

  4. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…

  5. Assessment of district heating/cooling potential in Holland, Michigan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A study undertaken to evaluate the potential for district heating/cooling (DHC) in the City of Holland, Michigan is documented. The purpose of the study was to assess the concept of delivering energy from a centralized source (or several sources) through a piping network to many end users for heating domestic hot water, space heating, space cooling and industrial process use. The Holland community was involved through representation of various businesses, agencies and community groups as part of an Assessment Work Group (AWG) membership. The AWG worked throughout the study with the BPW staff and consultants. Conclusions and recommendations of the study reflect the joint effort.

  6. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A

    2013-02-01

    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production.

  7. Improved heat switch for gas sorption compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal conductivities of the charcoal bed and the copper matrix for the gas adsorption compressor were measured by the concentric-cylinder method. The presence of the copper matrix in the charcoal bed enhanced the bed conductance by at least an order of magnitude. Thermal capacities of the adsorbent cell and the heat leaks to two compressor designs were measured by the transient method. The new gas adsorption compressor had a heat switch that could transfer eight times more heat than the previous one. The cycle time for the new prototype compressor is also improved by a factor of eight to within the minute range.

  8. Biomass district heating in the Tug Hill, NY: Feasibility and regional economic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Aaron

    Biomass district heating (BDH) has the potential to stimulate rural economies in the Tug Hill region of New York State by establishing a local industry and providing lower cost heat compared to the local alternative, #2 fuel oil. However, the competitiveness and economic impact of BDH networks in rural villages is largely unknown. This study proposes a methodology to provide initial assessments of the feasibility of BDH in rural communities. BDH would deliver heat below the cost of the local alternative in eight of the ten study villages examined. Capital costs comprised over 80% of the project costs, illuminating the importance of reaching a sufficient heat density; however, specific building heat was a stronger determinant of a village's feasibility. An input-output analysis determined that BDH would generate $18.6 million in output and create 143 jobs throughout the three county region, a significant impact if concentrated around the study villages.

  9. Exergy analysis of the performance of low-temperature district heating system with geothermal heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekret, Robert; Nitkiewicz, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Exergy analysis of low temperature geothermal heat plant with compressor and absorption heat pump was carried out. In these two concepts heat pumps are using geothermal water at 19.5 oC with spontaneous outflow 24 m3/h as a heat source. The research compares exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of considered systems and its components as well. For the purpose of analysis, the heating system was divided into five components: geothermal heat exchanger, heat pump, heat distribution, heat exchanger and electricity production and transportation. For considered systems the primary exergy consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources was estimated. The analysis was carried out for heat network temperature at 50/40 oC, and the quality regulation was assumed. The results of exergy analysis of the system with electrical and absorption heat pump show that exergy destruction during the whole heating season is lower for the system with electrical heat pump. The exergy efficiencies of total system are 12.8% and 11.2% for the system with electrical heat pump and absorption heat pump, respectively.

  10. Demand for waste as fuel in the swedish district heating sector: a production function approach.

    PubMed

    Furtenback, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates inter-fuel substitution in the Swedish district heating industry by analyzing almost all the district heating plants in Sweden in the period 1989-2003, specifically those plants incinerating waste. A multi-output plant-specific production function is estimated using panel data methods. A procedure for weighting the elasticities of factor demand to produce a single matrix for the whole industry is introduced. The price of waste is assumed to increase in response to the energy and CO2 tax on waste-to-energy incineration that was introduced in Sweden on 1 July 2006. Analysis of the plants involved in waste incineration indicates that an increase in the net price of waste by 10% is likely to reduce the demand for waste by 4.2%, and increase the demand for bio-fuels, fossil fuels, other fuels and electricity by 5.5%, 6.0%, 6.0% and 6.0%, respectively.

  11. Economic tradeoffs between energy conservation measures and district heating in a large US city

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G D; Sullivan, W G; Eksel, M; Karnitz, M A

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the economic implications of applying end-user conservation measures to buildings that are served by a proposed district heating system in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. End-user conservation is a demand-side conservation strategy typified by changes in building operating procedures and changes in the building shell. District heating with cogeneration is a supply-side conservation method that allows scarce fossil fuels to be more efficiently converted into thermal and electrical energy. Technically these two conservation methods can be applied simultaneously to a densely populated urban are such as Minneapolis-St. Paul, but the implementation of one tends to reduce the economic feasibility of the other. This analysis suggests that building coservation measures will be difficult to justify economically in buildings that are connected to the proposed Minneapolis-St. Paul system.

  12. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  13. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  14. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-08-21

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation.

  15. Application of Service Oriented Architecture for Sensors and Actuators in District Heating Substations

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  16. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  17. Achieving Coherence in District Improvement: Managing the Relationship between the Central Office and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Marietta, Geoff; Higgins, Monica C.; Mapp, Karen L.; Grossman, Allen

    2015-01-01

    "Achieving Coherence in District Improvement" focuses on a problem of practice faced by educational leaders across the nation: how to effectively manage the relationship between the central office and schools. The book is based on a study of five large urban districts that have demonstrated improvement in student achievement. The…

  18. Achieving Coherence in District Improvement: Managing the Relationship between the Central Office and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Marietta, Geoff; Higgins, Monica C.; Mapp, Karen L.; Grossman, Allen

    2015-01-01

    "Achieving Coherence in District Improvement" focuses on a problem of practice faced by educational leaders across the nation: how to effectively manage the relationship between the central office and schools. The book is based on a study of five large urban districts that have demonstrated improvement in student achievement. The…

  19. An Exploratory Investigation into the Key Elements Associated with District-Wide Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosunich, Daniel Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Faced with expectations to improve student learning and increasing student alternatives, school districts are challenged to make system-wide and sustainable improvement in student learning outcomes. The national accountability movement is associated with a growing body of research that has considered the role of the district to influence student…

  20. Recent improvements in ocean heat content estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of ocean heat content is an outcome of a persistent and ongoing energy imbalance to the Earth's climate system. This imbalance, largely caused by human emissions of greenhouse gases, has engendered a multi-decade increase in stored thermal energy within the Earth system, manifest principally as an increase in ocean heat content. Consequently, in order to quantify the rate of global warming, it is necessary to measure the rate of increase of ocean heat content. The historical record of ocean heat content is extracted from a history of various devices and spatial/temporal coverage across the globe. One of the most important historical devices is the eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) which has been used for decades to measure ocean temperatures to depths of 700m and deeper. Here, recent progress in improving the XBT record of upper ocean heat content is described including corrections to systematic biases, filling in spatial gaps where data does not exist, and the selection of a proper climatology. In addition, comparisons of the revised historical record and CMIP5 climate models are made. It is seen that there is very good agreement between the models and measurements, with the models slightly under-predicting the increase of ocean heat content in the upper water layers over the past 45 years.

  1. Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.

  2. Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

  3. Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

  4. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second annual technical report entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, and includes work performed during the period February 16, 1986 to February 15, 1987. The program is conducted for NASA under contract NAS3-24384. The objective is the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. The fabrication methods used are to be adaptable for mass production of such parts on an economically sound basis. Injection molding is the forming method selected. This objective is to be accomplished in a two-phase program: (1) to achieve a 20 percent improvement in strength and a 100 percent increase in Weibull modulus of the baseline material; and (2) to produce a complex shaped part, a gas turbine rotor, for example, with the improved mechanical properties attained in the first phase. Eight tasks are included in the first phase covering the characterization of the properties of a baseline material, the improvement of those properties and the fabrication of complex shaped parts. Activities during the first contract year concentrated on two of these areas: fabrication and characterization of the baseline material (Task 1) and improvement of material and processes (Task 7). Activities during the second contract year included an MOR bar matrix study to improve mechanical properties (Task 2), materials and process improvements (Task 7), and a Ford-funded task to mold a turbocharger rotor with an improved material (Task 8).

  5. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  6. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  7. Improving the Small Rural or Remote School: The Role of the District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Simon; Wildy, Helen

    2011-01-01

    There is a robust body of work highlighting distinctive challenges encountered by leaders of small schools in pursuit of school improvement but this work has focused on the school as the unit of change and neglects the role of the district. As the district potentially influences what principals know and how they use their knowledge, this article…

  8. Central Office Transformation for District-Wide Teaching and Learning Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.; Copland, Michael A.; Rainey, Lydia; Lorton, Juli Anna; Newton, Morena

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes main results from a national study of how leaders in urban school district central offices fundamentally transformed their work and relationships with schools to support districtwide teaching and learning improvement. All three study districts had been posting gains in student achievement and credited their progress, in…

  9. Leaders of Learning: How District, School, and Classroom Leaders Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFour, Richard; Marzano, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In their first coauthored book, Dr. DuFour and Dr. Marzano have combined their passions to articulate how effective leaders foster continuous improvement at the district, school, and classroom levels. The book focuses on district leadership, principal leadership, and team leadership and addresses how individual teachers can be most effective in…

  10. Central Office Transformation for District-Wide Teaching and Learning Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.; Copland, Michael A.; Rainey, Lydia; Lorton, Juli Anna; Newton, Morena

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes main results from a national study of how leaders in urban school district central offices fundamentally transformed their work and relationships with schools to support districtwide teaching and learning improvement. All three study districts had been posting gains in student achievement and credited their progress, in…

  11. Resource Allocation and Student Performance Improvements in 12 Districts in the Southwest Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Diane; Rudo, Zena; Smith-Hansen, Lotte

    A policy research study examined the allocation of financial and human resources in 12 school districts that have shown improvements in student achievement over time. The study examined district-level patterns of resource allocation and the decision-making structures that guide spending, as well as barriers and challenges. Data were gathered from…

  12. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third annual technical report for the program entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, for the period February 16, 1987 to February 15, 1988. The objective of the original program was the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. Injection molding is the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals of the revised program are to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in 4-point loading. Two tasks are discussed: Task 1 which involves materials and process improvements, and Task 2 which is a MOR bar matrix to improve strength and reliability. Many statistically designed experiments were completed under task 1 which improved the composition of the batches, the mixing of the powders, the sinter and anneal cycles. The best results were obtained by an attritor mixing process which yielded strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and an individual Weibull modulus of 16.8 for a 9-sample group. Strengths measured at 1200 and 1400 C were equal to the room temperature strength. Annealing of machined test bars significantly improved the strength. Molding yields were measured and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. The second iteration of the Task 2 matrix experiment is described.

  13. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  14. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.; Murphy, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  15. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, F.C.; Mei, V.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1998-12-08

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger. 2 figs.

  16. Ten years of experience of district heat supply from a retrofitted power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gronquist, R.J.; Gustafson, D.; Champ, D.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the development and operation of the Jamestown District Heating System in the City of Jamestown, new York. The conception of the systems through the initial feasibility studies is discussed, followed by the development of the system through phased implementation and the current status of operation. The planning aspects which contributed to the successful development of this system are highlighted and the customer savings are cited. Finally, problems encountered with the development and operation of the system and their solutions are examined.

  17. Institutional and financial guide to geothermal district heating, serial no. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    General planning considerations which affect nearly every community are reviewed, and alternative operating structures which are available to communities are reviewed, including local governments, nonprofit cooperatives, private enterprises, and joint ventures. The financing options available to publicly-owned and privately-owned district heating systems are then summarized. The geothermal production and distribution activities most appropriate to each type of operating structure are reviewed, along with typical equity and debt funding sources. The tax advantages for private developers are described, as are the issues of customer contracts and service prices, and customer retrofit financing. The treatment is limited to an introductory overview.

  18. Leakage and blockage detection in water network of district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    1996-11-01

    A new procedure has been designed to discover the leakage or blocked branch in the water network of a district heating system. The main feature of this procedure is taking the network as a whole system and making the detection according to the distribution of pressures measured at some points in the network. As the information from the measured data can be used with maximum efficiency, the required number of sensors can be reduced significantly. Influence from errors in some sensors can also be reduced greatly. The basic idea of this method is presented first. The procedure is then described step by step. A numerical example is given for illustration at the end.

  19. Towards Improved Estimates of Ocean Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Hollman, Rainer; Kent, Elisabeth; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Recommendations and priorities for ocean heat flux research are for instance outlined in recent CLIVAR and WCRP reports, eg. Yu et al (2013). Among these is the need for improving the accuracy, the consistency, and the spatial and temporal resolution of air-sea fluxes over global as well as at region scales. To meet the main air-sea flux requirements, this study is aimed at obtaining and analyzing all the heat flux components (latent, sensible and radiative) at the ocean surface over global oceans using multiple satellite sensor observations in combination with in-situ measurements and numerical model analyses. The fluxes will be generated daily and monthly for the 20-year (1992-2011) period, between 80N and 80S and at 0.25deg resolution. Simultaneous estimates of all surface heat flux terms have not yet been calculated at such large scale and long time period. Such an effort requires a wide range of expertise and data sources that only recently are becoming available. Needed are methods for integrating many data sources to calculate energy fluxes (short-wave, long wave, sensible and latent heat) across the air-sea interface. We have access to all the relevant, recently available satellite data to perform such computations. Yu, L., K. Haines, M. Bourassa, M. Cronin, S. Gulev, S. Josey, S. Kato, A. Kumar, T. Lee, D. Roemmich: Towards achieving global closure of ocean heat and freshwater budgets: Recommendations for advancing research in air-sea fluxes through collaborative activities. INTERNATIONAL CLIVAR PROJECT OFFICE, 2013: International CLIVAR Publication Series No 189. http://www.clivar.org/sites/default/files/ICPO189_WHOI_fluxes_workshop.pdf

  20. Influence of biomass cofiring on the optimal coefficient of the cogeneration share in a district heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a modified algorithm for choosing the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of highefficiency cogeneration and biomass cofiring. The optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration depends first of all on the share of the heat required for preparing the hot tap water. The final result of investigations is an empirical equation describing the influence of the ratio of the heat flux for the production of hot tap water to the maximum flux for space heating and ventilation, as well as the share of chemical energy of biomass in the fuel mixture on the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems. The approach presented in the paper may be applied both in back-pressure combined heat and power (CHP) plants and in extraction-condensing CHP plants.

  1. Experiences in School Improvement. The Story of 16 American Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulu, Nancy

    This booklet describes the results of "Project Education Reform," a partnership involving the U.S. Department of Education, 8 state governors, and 16 school districts--2 in each participating state--representing a cross-section of the nation. It was generally agreed that a good basis for needed educational changes were the 13…

  2. Assessment of impact of advanced energy transmission fluids on district heating and cooling systems (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Chen, M.M.

    1987-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems, has embarked upon a comprehensive, long-range program to develop high-performance advanced energy transmission fluids for use in district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. ANL has the lead technical role in this DOE program. These advanced fluids will substantially reduce flow frictional losses and enhance energy transfer. In system enhancement scoping studies conducted by ANL, the fluids yielded potentially significant upfront capital equipment cost reductions by allowing the use of smaller pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks as well as reductions in operational costs. This report presents the first-phase results of assessment of impact of the advanced fluids on DHC systems. Future reports will focus on assessment of impact on hardware performance, capital eqiupment, and operation costs. 9 refs., 30 figs., 2 tab.

  3. Damages of the Tallinn District Heating Networks and Indicative Parameters for an Estimation of the Networks General Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlebnikov, Aleksandr; Volkova, Anna; Dzuba, Olga; Poobus, Arvi; Kask, Ülo

    2010-01-01

    District heating networks in Estonia are mostly old and in bad condition. The state of the district heating networks of Tallinn is typical for the rest of Estonian DH networks. The paper includes an analysis of the Tallinn district heating networks. Valid data about damages in district heating systems received for the last 12 years were used for an analysis of the network damages. Different types of network damages are analysed: external corrosion, internal corrosion, defect of installation, factory defects, defect of construction and other reasons. The scale of damages for the different elements of networks is compared in the paper: armature, compensator, construction and pipes. The main factors which influence damages in district heating networks are the age of networks, the quality of construction works and the network operation conditions. The damage quantity dependence on the age of networks is also defined and analysed in the paper. The scale of damages can be diminished by reducing the average age of the networks. This is possible by replacing old pipelines and other network system elements. The pipes average age changes for a 20 year period are simulated according to different intensities of renovation works.

  4. North Plant co-generation project for South Davis County Sewer Improvement District

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.S.

    1993-12-31

    In the summer of 1988, the South Davis County Sewer Improvement District (SDCSID) learned of a grant/loan program being administered by the Utah State Department of Energy(DOE) for projects that demonstrate new and innovative ways of conserving energy or utilizing renewable energy sources. The SDCSID applied for and received from the DOE both a grant and a no-interest loan to finance half of the cost of a co-generation project at the North Wastewater Treatment Plant. This co-generation project utilizes methane gas, a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process, to generate both electricity and heat that is used at the plant. The SDCSID calculated that at the current anaerobic gas production rate, a 140 KW engine generator could be run almost 24 hours a day. Approximately 75% of the current electrical needs at the North Plant are supplied by the 140 KW engine generator. Also, all of the heat necessary to raise the temperature of the incoming sludge to 95{degrees}F, and to heat four large buildings is supplied from the heat recovery system of the engine. The system utilizes an induction type generator to supply electricity, which is somewhat simpler to design and less expensive to install than a synchronous type system. An induction system utilizes the Electrical Utility`s incoming power to excite the generator to correct the phase so that is can be used by the loads in the plant. In addition, the SDCSID installed a second identical engine generator as a back-up and to peak shave. Plant effluent is used to cool the engines instead of air-cooling through radiators.

  5. Drivers of routine immunization coverage improvement in Africa: findings from district-level case studies.

    PubMed

    LaFond, Anne; Kanagat, Natasha; Steinglass, Robert; Fields, Rebecca; Sequeira, Jenny; Mookherji, Sangeeta

    2015-04-01

    There is limited understanding of why routine immunization (RI) coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted in-depth case studies to understand pathways to coverage improvement by comparing immunization programme experience in 12 districts in three countries (Ethiopia, Cameroon and Ghana). Drawing on positive deviance or assets model techniques we compared the experience of districts where diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3)/pentavalent3 (Penta3) coverage improved with districts where DTP3/Penta3 coverage remained unchanged (or steady) over the same period, focusing on basic readiness to deliver immunization services and drivers of coverage improvement. The results informed a model for immunization coverage improvement that emphasizes the dynamics of immunization systems at district level. In all districts, whether improving or steady, we found that a set of basic RI system resources were in place from 2006 to 2010 and did not observe major differences in infrastructure. We found that the differences in coverage trends were due to factors other than basic RI system capacity or service readiness. We identified six common drivers of RI coverage performance improvement-four direct drivers and two enabling drivers-that were present in well-performing districts and weaker or absent in steady coverage districts, and map the pathways from driver to improved supply, demand and coverage. Findings emphasize the critical role of implementation strategies and the need for locally skilled managers that are capable of tailoring strategies to specific settings and community needs. The case studies are unique in their focus on the positive drivers of change and the identification of pathways to coverage improvement, an approach that should be considered in future studies and routine assessments of district-level immunization system performance. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London

  6. Heat pipe with improved wick structures

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David A.; Robino, Charles V.; Palmer, David W.; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2000-01-01

    An improved planar heat pipe wick structure having projections formed by micromachining processes. The projections form arrays of interlocking, semi-closed structures with multiple flow paths on the substrate. The projections also include overhanging caps at their tops to increase the capillary pumping action of the wick structure. The capped projections can be formed in stacked layers. Another layer of smaller, more closely spaced projections without caps can also be formed on the substrate in between the capped projections. Inexpensive materials such as Kovar can be used as substrates, and the projections can be formed by electrodepositing nickel through photoresist masks.

  7. Webinar: Healthy Schools, Healthy Students: Taking Action to Improve IAQ in Your School District

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A page to register to view the first webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Healthy Schools, Healthy Students: Taking Action to Improve IAQ in Your School District

  8. 75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment.... This action is being undertaken to satisfy the federal government obligation to provide...

  9. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  10. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  11. Drivers of routine immunization coverage improvement in Africa: findings from district-level case studies

    PubMed Central

    LaFond, Anne; Kanagat, Natasha; Steinglass, Robert; Fields, Rebecca; Sequeira, Jenny; Mookherji, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of why routine immunization (RI) coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted in-depth case studies to understand pathways to coverage improvement by comparing immunization programme experience in 12 districts in three countries (Ethiopia, Cameroon and Ghana). Drawing on positive deviance or assets model techniques we compared the experience of districts where diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP3)/pentavalent3 (Penta3) coverage improved with districts where DTP3/Penta3 coverage remained unchanged (or steady) over the same period, focusing on basic readiness to deliver immunization services and drivers of coverage improvement. The results informed a model for immunization coverage improvement that emphasizes the dynamics of immunization systems at district level. In all districts, whether improving or steady, we found that a set of basic RI system resources were in place from 2006 to 2010 and did not observe major differences in infrastructure. We found that the differences in coverage trends were due to factors other than basic RI system capacity or service readiness. We identified six common drivers of RI coverage performance improvement—four direct drivers and two enabling drivers—that were present in well-performing districts and weaker or absent in steady coverage districts, and map the pathways from driver to improved supply, demand and coverage. Findings emphasize the critical role of implementation strategies and the need for locally skilled managers that are capable of tailoring strategies to specific settings and community needs. The case studies are unique in their focus on the positive drivers of change and the identification of pathways to coverage improvement, an approach that should be considered in future studies and routine assessments of district-level immunization system performance. PMID:24615431

  12. Heat acclimation improves heat exercise tolerance and heat dissipation in individuals with extensive skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J; Ganio, Matthew S; Pearson, James; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Gagnon, Daniel; Rivas, Eric; Kowalske, Karen J; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-07-01

    Burn survivors with extensive skin grafts have impaired heat dissipation and thus heat tolerance. This study tested the hypothesis that heat acclimation (HA) improves these factors in this population. Thirty-four burn survivors were stratified into highly [>40% body surface area (BSA) grafted, n = 15] and moderately (17-40% BSA grafted, n = 19) grafted groups. Nine healthy nonburned subjects served as controls. Subjects underwent 7 days of HA involving 90 min of exercise at ∼ 50% peak oxygen uptake in 40°C, 30% relative humidity. On days 1 and 7, subjects exercised in the heat at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production. Pre-HA, all controls and 18/19 subjects in the 17-40% group completed 90 min of exercise. Conversely, heat exercise tolerance was lower (P < 0.01) in the > 40% group, with 7/15 subjects not completing 90 min of exercise. Post-HA, heat exercise tolerance was similar between groups (P = 0.39) as all subjects, except one, completed 90 min of exercise. Pre-HA, the magnitude of the increase in internal temperature during exercise occurred sequentially (P ≤ 0.03) according to BSA grafted (>40%: 1.6 ± 0.5°C; 17-40%: 1.2 ± 0.3°C; control: 0.9 ± 0.2°C). HA attenuated (P < 0.01) increases in internal temperature in the control (by 0.2 ± 0.3°C), 17-40% (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C), and > 40% (by 0.3 ± 0.4°C) groups, the magnitude of which was similar between groups (P = 0.42). These data indicate that HA improves heat tolerance and dissipation in burn survivors with grafted skin, and the magnitude of these improvements are not influenced by the extent of skin grafting.

  13. Heat acclimation improves heat exercise tolerance and heat dissipation in individuals with extensive skin grafts

    PubMed Central

    Schlader, Zachary J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Pearson, James; Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Gagnon, Daniel; Rivas, Eric; Kowalske, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Burn survivors with extensive skin grafts have impaired heat dissipation and thus heat tolerance. This study tested the hypothesis that heat acclimation (HA) improves these factors in this population. Thirty-four burn survivors were stratified into highly [>40% body surface area (BSA) grafted, n = 15] and moderately (17-40% BSA grafted, n = 19) grafted groups. Nine healthy nonburned subjects served as controls. Subjects underwent 7 days of HA involving 90 min of exercise at ∼50% peak oxygen uptake in 40°C, 30% relative humidity. On days 1 and 7, subjects exercised in the heat at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production. Pre-HA, all controls and 18/19 subjects in the 17–40% group completed 90 min of exercise. Conversely, heat exercise tolerance was lower (P < 0.01) in the >40% group, with 7/15 subjects not completing 90 min of exercise. Post-HA, heat exercise tolerance was similar between groups (P = 0.39) as all subjects, except one, completed 90 min of exercise. Pre-HA, the magnitude of the increase in internal temperature during exercise occurred sequentially (P ≤ 0.03) according to BSA grafted (>40%: 1.6 ± 0.5°C; 17–40%: 1.2 ± 0.3°C; control: 0.9 ± 0.2°C). HA attenuated (P < 0.01) increases in internal temperature in the control (by 0.2 ± 0.3°C), 17–40% (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C), and >40% (by 0.3 ± 0.4°C) groups, the magnitude of which was similar between groups (P = 0.42). These data indicate that HA improves heat tolerance and dissipation in burn survivors with grafted skin, and the magnitude of these improvements are not influenced by the extent of skin grafting. PMID:25930025

  14. Feasibility and Supply Analysis of U.S. Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoning

    Geothermal energy is a globally distributed sustainable energy with the advantages of a stable base load energy production with a high capacity factor and zero SOx, CO, and particulates emissions. It can provide a potential solution to the depletion of fossil fuels and air pollution problems. The geothermal district heating and cooling system is one of the most common applications of geothermal energy, and consists of geothermal wells to provide hot water from a fractured geothermal reservoir, a surface energy distribution system for hot water transmission, and heating/cooling facilities to provide water and space heating as well as air conditioning for residential and commercial buildings. To gain wider recognition for the geothermal district heating and cooling (GDHC) system, the potential to develop such a system was evaluated in the western United States, and in the state of West Virginia. The geothermal resources were categorized into identified hydrothermal resources, undiscovered hydrothermal resources, near hydrothermal enhanced geothermal system (EGS), and deep EGS. Reservoir characteristics of the first three categories were estimated individually, and their thermal potential calculated. A cost model for such a system was developed for technical performance and economic analysis at each geothermally active location. A supply curve for the system was then developed, establishing the quantity and the cost of potential geothermal energy which can be used for the GDHC system. A West Virginia University (WVU) case study was performed to compare the competiveness of a geothermal energy system to the current steam based system. An Aspen Plus model was created to simulate the year-round campus heating and cooling scenario. Five cases of varying water flow rates and temperatures were simulated to find the lowest levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for the WVU case study. The model was then used to derive a levelized cost of heat as a function of the population density

  15. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines is studied. Injection molding was the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals were to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in four-point loading. Statistically designed experiments were performed throughout the program and a fluid mixing process employing an attritor mixer was developed. Compositional improvements in the amounts and sources of boron and carbon used and a pressureless sintering cycle were developed which provided samples of about 99 percent of theoretical density. Strengths were found to improve significantly by annealing in air. Strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) with Weibull modulus of about 9 were obtained. Further improvements in Weibull modulus to about 16 were realized by proof testing. This is an increase of 86 percent in strength and 100 percent in Weibull modulus over the baseline data generated at the beginning of the program. Molding yields were improved and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were found to be useful in characterizing the SiC powder and the sintered samples. Turbocharger rotors were molded and examined as an indication of the moldability of the mixes which were developed in this program.

  16. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  17. Lessons Learned: A Strategic Alliance to Improve Elementary Physical Education in an Urban School District.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hannah R; Haguewood, Robin; Tantoco, Nicole; Madsen, Kristine A

    2015-01-01

    Physical education (PE) can help to achieve important public health goals, but is often under-prioritized and lacking in schools. To detail the actions, impact, and successes of a strategic alliance formed by three collaborating organizations to improve PE in a large California school district. Semistructured interviews with alliance members, principals, and teachers in 20 elementary schools, 3 years after the alliance formation. Interviewees reported district-level increases in priority and funding for PE and attributed improvements to the alliance's collection and dissemination of local data on the status of PE. Common goals, trust, and open communication within the alliance were seen as critical to the alliance's success. However, changes in district- or school-level accountability measures for PE were not reported. This strategic alliance succeeded in promoting district-level priority and funding for PE. Ongoing alliance work will focus on increasing accountability measures for PE, which may take longer to implement.

  18. Base heating methodology improvements, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.; Somers, Richard E.; Fulton, Michael S.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Pergament, Harold

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA MSFC Contract NAS8-38141. The contracted effort had the broad objective of improving the launch vehicles ascent base heating methodology to improve and simplify the determination of that environment for Advanced Launch System (ALS) concepts. It was pursued as an Advanced Development Plan (ADP) for the Joint DoD/NASA ALS program office with project management assigned to NASA/MSFC. The original study was to be completed in 26 months beginning Sep. 1989. Because of several program changes and emphasis on evolving launch vehicle concepts, the period of performance was extended to the current completion date of Nov. 1992. A computer code incorporating the methodology improvements into a quick prediction tool was developed and is operational for basic configuration and propulsion concepts. The code and its users guide are also provided as part of the contract documentation. Background information describing the specific objectives, limitations, and goals of the contract is summarized. A brief chronology of the ALS/NLS program history is also presented to provide the reader with an overview of the many variables influencing the development of the code over the past three years.

  19. District heating/cooling potential in New York City. phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLoughlin, G.T.; Kuo, R.P.; Karol, J.

    1983-02-01

    New York City through its Energy Office has identified and evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of district heating and cooling at three locations: Brooklyn Navy Yard, Kings County Medical Complex, and the S.W. Brooklyn Incinerator. Of these the Navy Yard has the most immediate potential for implementation. The Navy Yard has an extensive steam and electrical system that has not been used since the Navy turned most of the property over to New York City more than a decade ago. By remodeling several of the smaller boilers still in place or purchasing new boilers, an ample supply of steam and hot water can be produced. The steam will be used for heating and industrial process for the industrial tenants now occupying the former yards. Hot water will be sold to the New York City Housing Authority to heat between 3,500 and 5,000 nearby public housing units operated by the authority. Electricity will be cogenerated using present generators that will be overhauled. It is expected that some of the electricity will be used directly to supply power to a planned nearby Red Hook Sewage Treatment plant, while most will be sold to the industrial tenants of the Navy Yard. Studies will continue to determine the best market for excess power.

  20. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-11-27

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  1. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  2. Environmental analysis of a potential district heating network powered by a large-scale cogeneration plant.

    PubMed

    Ravina, Marco; Panepinto, Deborah; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Among the solutions for the achievement of environmental sustainability in the energy sector, district heating (DH) with combined heat and power (CHP) systems is increasingly being used. The Italian city of Turin is in a leading position in this field, having one of the largest DH networks in Europe. The aim of this work is the analysis of a further development of the network, addressed to reduce the presence of pollutants in a city that has long been subject to high concentration levels. The environmental compatibility of this intervention, especially in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, is evaluated. The pollutants dispersion is estimated using the CALPUFF model. The forecasting scenario is created firstly by simulating the energy production of the main generation plants in response to the estimated heat demand, and secondly by investigating the amount and the dispersion of pollutants removed due to the elimination of the centralized residential heaters. The results show a future reduction in ground level average NOx concentration ranging between 0.2 and 4 μg/m(3). The concentration of PM remains almost unchanged. Measures are then taken to lower the uncertainty in the simulation scenarios. This study provides important information on the effects of a change of the energy configuration on air quality in an urban area. The proposed methodological approach is comprehensive and repeatable.

  3. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality.

  4. Heat-shrinkable film improves adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, J. M.; Reed, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure is applied during adhesive bonding by wrapping parts in heat-shrinkable plastic film. Film eliminates need to vacuum bag or heat parts in expensive autoclave. With procedure, operators are trained quickly, and no special skills are required.

  5. Compact laser through improved heat conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    A 16-joule-pulse laser has been developed in which a boron nitride heat-conductor enclosure is used to remove heat from the elements. Enclosure is smaller and lighter than systems in which cooling fluids are used.

  6. Heat-shrinkable film improves adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, J. M.; Reed, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure is applied during adhesive bonding by wrapping parts in heat-shrinkable plastic film. Film eliminates need to vacuum bag or heat parts in expensive autoclave. With procedure, operators are trained quickly, and no special skills are required.

  7. Demonstration of EPRI heat-rate improvement guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, J.; Higginbotham, D. ); Henry, R.; Warren, S. )

    1991-07-01

    TU Electric used EPRI's Heat Rate Improvement Guidelines to evaluate the thermal performance, determine the magnitude and causes of any heat rate degradation, and recommend corrective actions at its North Lake station, Unit 2. Through the implementation of the short-term improvement activities, full load heat rate improvement of 40 Btu/kWh was achieved. It was also shown that an additional 195 Btu/kWh from long-term improvements was cost-effective. 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  9. A District-Wide High School Formative Experiment Designed to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on district leadership designed to improve student achievement. We employed a formative experiment design methodology, a type of design study, to investigate the leadership efforts to improve student and teacher learning. The findings suggest that leadership through professional development and an instructional framework led to…

  10. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  11. Improved Heat-of-Fusion Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. H.; Manvi, R.

    1982-01-01

    Alkali metal/alkali-halide mixtures proposed for preventing solid buildup during energy recovery. When mixture melts (by absorption of heat of fusion), it forms two immiscible liquids. Salt-rich phase is heavier and has higher melting/recrysallization temperature; so during energy recovery salt crystallizes in this phase first. Since heat exchanger for energy recovery is in lighter metal-rich phase, solids do not form and there is no reduction of heat-recovery efficiency.

  12. Quality improvement and the hierarchy of needs in low resource settings: perspective of a district health officer.

    PubMed

    Durand, A Mark

    2010-02-01

    District services in developing countries are afflicted with frequent system breakdowns, caused by a combination of resource constraints, limitations of the health workforce, and poorly developed management systems. Narrowly focused, outcome-oriented quality improvement initiatives and sporadic accreditation visits fail to address the most pressing need of district health services- to improve manageability. To improve quality at the district level, attention should be directed first toward this need- by building widely focused systems for ongoing, operational monitoring and response.

  13. WCPSS District Improvement Implementation 2010-11. Implementation Insights. D&A Report No. 11.19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgakov-Cooke, Dina; Baenen, Nancy R.

    2011-01-01

    Instructional strategies aimed at improving achievement of low performing student subgroups in need of support were selected by the District Improvement Advisory Committee, so that WCPSS could exit District Improvement status. Impact of each initiative, which often included teacher training and coaching is examined in this implementation report.…

  14. Particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, A.; Lillieblad, L.; Pagels, J.; Strand, M.; Gudmundsson, A.; Gharibi, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Sanati, M.; Bohgard, M.

    The aim of this study was to characterise particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels: forest residues, pellets and sawdust. Boilers used in the three district heating units were of moving grate type, with the maximum thermal output between 1 and 1.5 MW. The measurements were done after multicyclones, the only particle removal devices installed, therefore the direct emissions to ambient air were characterised. Number and mass size distributions were determined. Elemental composition of the particles was determined by particle induced X-ray emissions analysis (PIXE) and thermal-optical analysis. Particles' morphology was assessed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total number concentration of emitted particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 5 μm (PM5) at medium operation load ranged from 6.3 to 7.7×10 7 particles/cm n3, with the slightly higher values from combustion of forest residues. PM5 mass concentration at medium load from low pressure impactor measurements ranged between 51 and 120 mg/m n3, with the highest values from unit operating on forest residues. Both PM5 mass and total number concentrations were dominated by fine mode contributions i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm (PM1). Elements determined by PIXE ( Z>12) contributed to 21-34% of PM1 mass, of which K, S, Cl and Ca contributed to 18-33% of PM1 mass, and Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Pb and Cd to 1-3%. Emitted concentrations of heavy metals depended on type of the fuel and operating load. Particulate organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon contribution to PM1 ranged from 1-19% and 0-56%, respectively. Particulate OC concentrations strongly depended on the operation load regardless the type of the fuel, while EC concentrations seemed to depend both on load and the type of the fuel. Considering the potential public health implications of the obtained results, further research is needed to carefully assess the impact

  15. Compact pulsed laser having improved heat conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A highly efficient, compact pulsed laser having high energy to weight and volume ratios is provided. The laser utilizes a cavity reflector that operates as a heat sink and is essentially characterized by having a high heat conductivity, by being a good electrical insulator and by being substantially immune to the deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation. Manual portability is accomplished by eliminating entirely any need for a conventional circulating fluid cooling system.

  16. The District Leadership Challenge: Empowering Principals to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Fry, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Principals can profoundly influence student achievement by leading school change, but they cannot turn schools around by themselves. District leaders need to create working conditions that support and encourage change for improved achievement, rather than hindering principals' abilities to lead change. This report includes principals' perceptions…

  17. Expanding the Vision: New Roles for Educational Service Agencies in Rural School District Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    This book examines the role of the educational service agency (ESA) in the process of enabling and facilitating rural school improvement. The introductory chapter discusses the continuing significance of rural education, service to rural districts as an explicit reason for establishing ESAs, and the characteristics of several types of ESAs.…

  18. Characteristics of Arizona School Districts in Improvement. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 054

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Huang, Chun-Wei; Derby, Kenwyn; Makkonen, Reino; Goel, Aditi M.

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers in Arizona and the other states served by the West Regional Educational Laboratory, like their counterparts across the country, are actively addressing the school and district improvement requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. They have developed criteria based on assessment and accountability data to identify…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. The District Leadership Challenge: Empowering Principals to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Fry, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Principals can profoundly influence student achievement by leading school change, but they cannot turn schools around by themselves. District leaders need to create working conditions that support and encourage change for improved achievement, rather than hindering principals' abilities to lead change. This report includes principals' perceptions…

  2. Improving Students' Readiness for College: Homewood-Flossmoor High School, Illinois District 233. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates how Homewood-Flossmoor High School, Illinois District 233 addressed the decline in its student achievement results and improved college readiness among its students. This sharp decline caused school officials to stop and reevaluate what they were doing. A review of the facts led to a clear conclusion: "Rigorous…

  3. Research-Practice Partnerships: A Strategy for Leveraging Research for Educational Improvement in School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    Pressures are increasing on educational policy and practice to use research to guide improvement. Recently there have been concerted efforts to forge new and different kinds of relationships between researchers and practitioners. School districts across the country are developing a new kind of partnership with researchers. These research-practice…

  4. Classroom Walkthroughs: Does Such an Approach to Supervision Contribute to District Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cary

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what types of data collection currently exist and what kind of information should be provided through a walkthrough observation process that attempts to enhance teaching practice, contribute to student learning and assist a district's overall improvement planning. In fulfilling this purpose the…

  5. Improving Interagency Collaboration: Effective Strategies Used by High-Performing Local Districts and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Patricia M.; Morningstar, Mary E.; Erickson, Amy Gaumer

    2008-01-01

    Young adults with disabilities often depend on linkages and supports from adult agencies to achieve high-quality adult outcomes. However, interagency collaboration has emerged as a major area of difficulty and a critical area in need of improvement for school districts throughout the United States. Based on the input of research participants from…

  6. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  7. Complex Heat Exchangers for Improved Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran, Gabriela Alejandra

    After a detailed literature review, it was determined that there was a need for a more comprehensive study on the transient behavior of heat exchangers. Computational power was not readily available when most of the work on transient heat exchangers was done (1956 - 1986), so most of these solutions have restrictions, or very specific assumptions. More recently, authors have obtained numerical solutions for more general problems (2003 - 2013), but they have investigated very specific conditions, and cases. For a more complex heat exchanger (i.e. with heat generation), the transient solutions from literature are no longer valid. There was a need to develop a numerical model that relaxes the restrictions of current solutions to explore conditions that have not been explored. A one dimensional transient heat exchanger model was developed. There are no restrictions on the fluids and wall conditions. The model is able to obtain a numerical solution for a wide range of fluid properties and mass flow rates. Another innovative characteristic of the numerical model is that the boundary and initial conditions are not limited to constant values. The boundary conditions can be a function of time (i.e. sinusoidal signal), and the initial conditions can be a function of position. Four different cases were explored in this work. In the first case, the start-up of a system was investigated where the whole system is assumed to be at the same temperature. In the second case, the new steady state in case one gets disrupted by a smaller inlet temperature step change. In the third case, the new steady state in case one gets disrupted by a step change in one of the mass flow rates. The response of these three cases show that there are different transient behaviors, and they depend on the conditions imposed on the system. The fourth case is a system that has a sinusoidal time varying inlet temperature for one of the flows. The results show that the sinusoidal behavior at the inlet

  8. School Improvement Change Grant Community Survey, Final Report. A Report to Toluca Community Unit School District #2, El Paso Community Unit School District #375, Lowpoint-Washburn Community Unit School District #21, Minonk-Dana-Rutland Community Unit School District #108, and Roanoke-Benson Community Unit School District #60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a collaborative study undertaken by five rural, unit school districts in Illinois to provide data to be used in planning for school improvement. Information was gathered from on-site visits by teams of constituents from other districts and through a survey of perceptions of local community persons regarding…

  9. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Garner, J B; Douglas, M L; Williams, S R O; Wales, W J; Marett, L C; Nguyen, T T T; Reich, C M; Hayes, B J

    2016-09-29

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events.

  10. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  11. The technological raw material heating furnaces operation efficiency improving issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The issue of fuel oil applying efficiency improving in the technological raw material heating furnaces by means of its combustion intensification is considered in the paper. The technical and economic optimization problem of the fuel oil heating before combustion is solved. The fuel oil heating optimal temperature defining method and algorithm analytically considering the correlation of thermal, operating parameters and discounted costs for the heating furnace were developed. The obtained optimization functionality provides the heating furnace appropriate thermal indices achievement at minimum discounted costs. The carried out research results prove the expediency of the proposed solutions using.

  12. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  13. Heat Exchange System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Winery

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    In 2000, Fetzer Vineyards implemented a project to improve its process heating cycle at its Hopland Winery in Hopland, California. In an effort to reduce expenditures on natural gas, Fetzer reviewed their wine process heating cycle and discovered that they could reduce their natural gas purchases and improve efficiency by installing a heat exchanger.

  14. Increase of unit efficiency by improved waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; Lankes, F.

    1998-07-01

    For coal-fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization by wet scrubbing and desulfurized exhaust gas discharge via cooling tower, a further improvement of new power plant efficiency is possible by exhaust gas heat recovery. The waste heat of exhaust gas is extracted in a flue gas cooler before the wet scrubber and recovered for combustion air and/or feedwater heating by either direct or indirect coupling of heat transfer. Different process configurations for heat recovery system are described and evaluated with regard to net unit improvement. For unite firing bituminous coal an increase of net unit efficiency of 0.25 to 0.7 percentage points and for lignite 0.7 to 1.6 percentage points can be realized depending on the process configurations of the heat recovery systems.

  15. Quality improvement in emergency obstetric referrals: qualitative study of provider perspectives in Assin North district, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Afari, Henrietta; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Michaelis, Annie; Barker, Pierre; Sodzi-Tettey, Sodzi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe healthcare worker (HCW)-identified system-based bottlenecks and the value of local engagement in designing strategies to improve referral processes related to emergency obstetric care in rural Ghana. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews of participants to obtain provider narratives. Setting Referral systems in obstetrics in Assin North Municipal Assembly, a rural district in Ghana. This included one district hospital, six health centres and four local health posts. This work was embedded in an ongoing quality improvement project in the district addressing barriers to existing referral protocols to lessen delays. Participants 18 HCWs (8 midwives, 4 community health officers, 3 medical assistants, 2 emergency room nurses, 1 doctor) at different facility levels within the district. Results We identified important gaps in referral processes in Assin North, with the most commonly noted including recognising danger signs, alerting receiving units, accompanying critically ill patients, documenting referral cases and giving and obtaining feedback on referred cases. Main root causes identified by providers were in four domains: (1) transportation, (2) communication, (3) clinical skills and management and (4) standards of care and monitoring, and suggested interventions that target these barriers. Mapping these challenges allowed for better understanding of next steps for developing comprehensive, evidence-based solutions to identified referral gaps within the district. Conclusions Providers are an important source of information on local referral delays and in the development of approaches to improvement responsive to these gaps. Better engagement of HCWs can help to identify and evaluate high-impact holistic interventions to address faulty referral systems which result in poor maternal outcomes in resource-poor settings. These perspectives need to be integrated with patient and community perspectives. PMID:24833695

  16. Global carbon impacts of using forest harvest residues for district heating in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, H.A.

    1998-07-01

    Forests in Vermont are selectively logged periodically to generate wood products and useful energy. Carbon remains stored in the wood products during their lifetime and in fossil fuel displaced by using these products in place of energy-intensive products. Additional carbon is sequestered by new forest growth, and the forest inventory is sustained using this procedure. A significant portion of the harvest residue can be used as biofuel in central plants to generate electricity and thermal energy, which also displaces the use of fossil fuels. The impact of this action on the global carbon balance was analyzed using a model derived from the Graz/Oak Ridge Carbon Accounting Model (GORCAM). The analysis showed that when forests are harvested only to manufacture wood products, more than 100 years are required to match the sequestered carbon present if the forest is left undisturbed. If part of the harvest residue is collected and used as biofuel in place of oil or natural gas, it is possible to reduce this time to about 90 years, but it is usually longer. Given that harvesting the forest for products will continue, carbon emission benefits relative to this practice can start within 10 to 70 years if part of the harvest residue is used as biofuel. This time is usually higher for electric generation plants, but it can be reduced substantially by converting to cogeneration operation. Cogeneration makes possible a ratio of carbon emission reduction for district heating to carbon emission increase for electricity generation in the range of 3 to 5. Additional sequestering benefits can be realized by using discarded wood products as biofuels.

  17. Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of

  18. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  19. Improved ceramic heat exchanger materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, H.W. Sr.; McCreight, L.R.

    1980-12-01

    Numerous compositions were developed and evaluated for potential application as heat exchanger structures in automotive gas turbine engines. Test specimens were evaluated for thermal expansion and dimensional stability before and after exposure to sea salt and sulfuric acid, followed by thermal cycling up to 1200/sup 0/C. Materials which survived the screening tests were considered for fabrication into honeycomb form. The material finally selected, GE-7808, consists of the oxides, ZrO/sub 2/-MgO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/, and is described generically as ZrMAS. The original version on which the primary work was done was based on a commercially available cordierite (MAS) frit. Late in the program, however a clay/talc mixture was demonstrated to be a satisfactory very low cost source of the cordierite (MAS) phase. Several full size honeycomb regenerator cores, about 10.2 cm thick and 55 cm dia were fabricated from both the frit and mineral versions of GE-7808. The honeycomb cells in these cores had rectangular dimensions of about 0.5 mm x 2.5 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 0.2 mm (0.008''). Test specimens cut from the cores were evaluated. The multi-phase materials developed in this program demonstrated that their refractoriness and rheological behavior enabled them to retain shape and orientation of the gas passages parallel to the axis much better than some single phase (glass ceramic) materials. The test data show that GE-7808 is significantly more stable at 1100/sup 0/C in the presence of sodium than the Corning 9460 aluminosilicate reference materials.Overall assessment of GE-7808 properties, ease of material preparation, noncritical materials utilized and ready adaptability to honeycomb fabrication qualify this new material as a candidate for heat exchanger applications in automotive gas turbine engines.

  20. Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Individual variations in structure and function of human eccrine sweat gland . Am. j. Physio!. 245, R203-R208. strydom, N.B .. Wyndham, e.H., Williams, e.G...Naval Health Research Center Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation . M. J. Buono S. L. Martha...Biology E!.SFVILR journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jtherbio Peripheral sweat gland function is improved with humid heat acclimation Michael

  1. School District Leadership Styles and School Improvement: Evidence from Selected School Principals in the Eastern Cape Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorosi, Pontso; Bantwini, Bongani D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how leadership styles in the Eastern Cape school districts support school improvement. Mixed methods research was employed and data was collected through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with school principals in various districts. The study was guided by the following questions:…

  2. A Village Route to Early Childhood Education: An Iowa District Partners with Its Community to Improve Kindergarten Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almanza, Julio; Reynolds, Ethel; Schulte, Kathy; Long, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This article features Davenport Community Schools, Iowa's third largest school district that has partnered with its community to improve kindergarten readiness. The district created the Children's Village model to provide preschool classes taught by certified early childhood instructors and serve children from six weeks to five years of age in…

  3. A Village Route to Early Childhood Education: An Iowa District Partners with Its Community to Improve Kindergarten Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almanza, Julio; Reynolds, Ethel; Schulte, Kathy; Long, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This article features Davenport Community Schools, Iowa's third largest school district that has partnered with its community to improve kindergarten readiness. The district created the Children's Village model to provide preschool classes taught by certified early childhood instructors and serve children from six weeks to five years of age in…

  4. Can a District-Level Teacher Salary Incentive Policy Improve Teacher Recruitment and Retention? Policy Brief 13-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Heather J.; Loeb, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    In this policy brief, Heather Hough and Susanna Loeb examine the effect of the Quality Teacher and Education Act of 2008 (QTEA) on teacher recruitment, retention, and overall teacher quality in the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD). They provide evidence that a salary increase can improve a school district's attractiveness within their…

  5. Implementing Efficiencies in SEA Systems to Provide Differentiated Services to Support District and School Improvement. Benchmark. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, S.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating state services to support district and school improvement makes sense for two reasons: (1) support is most effective when targeted to the specific needs of the district or school, based on both performance data and diagnostic data about prevailing operational and professional practice; and (2) state resources of time and money are…

  6. Using School Performance Data to Drive School and Education District Office Accountability and Improvement: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prew, Martin; Quaigrain, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at a school management tool that allows school managers and education district offices to review the performance of their schools and use the broad-based data to undertake orchestrated planning with districts planning delivery based on the needs of schools and in support of school improvement plans. The review process also…

  7. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  8. Assessment of feasibility of a district heating and cooling system for Ecorse, Michigan. Final report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, M.J.; Cason, D. Jr

    1982-10-01

    The City of Ecorse is an older industrial suburb of Detroit with an economy much related to the automobile industry. Ecorse conducted an assessment of the feasibility of building a district heating system which would service an 80 acre redevelopment area in the heart of the community. The system would utilize waste heat in the form of hot water from either of two electric generating plants, or a steel mill, or a nearby chemical plant located within the city. The estimated price of cogenerated thermal energy from one of the power plants was quite competitive. However, the 1980-1985 economy of Ecorse was so weak that the study found no real customer base for the heat in the target redevelopment area.

  9. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Harry C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a four year program to improve the strength and reliability of injection-molded silicon nitride are summarized. Statistically designed processing experiments were performed to identify and optimize critical processing parameters and compositions. Process improvements were monitored by strength testing at room and elevated temperatures, and microstructural characterization by optical, scanning electron microscopes, and scanning transmission electron microscope. Processing modifications resulted in a 20 percent strength and 72 percent Weibull slope improvement of the baseline material. Additional sintering aids screening and optimization experiments succeeded in developing a new composition (GN-10) capable of 581.2 MPa at 1399 C. A SiC whisker toughened composite using this material as a matrix achieved a room temperature toughness of 6.9 MPa m(exp .5) by the Chevron notched bar technique. Exploratory experiments were conducted on injection molding of turbocharger rotors.

  10. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hun C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1987-01-01

    The technology base required to fabricate silicon nitride components with the strength, reliability, and reproducibility necessary for actual heat engine applications is presented. Task 2 was set up to develop test bars with high Weibull slope and greater high temperature strength, and to conduct an initial net shape component fabrication evaluation. Screening experiments were performed in Task 7 on advanced materials and processing for input to Task 2. The technical efforts performed in the second year of a 5-yr program are covered. The first iteration of Task 2 was completed as planned. Two half-replicated, fractional factorial (2 sup 5), statistically designed matrix experiments were conducted. These experiments have identified Denka 9FW Si3N4 as an alternate raw material to GTE SN502 Si3N4 for subsequent process evaluation. A detailed statistical analysis was conducted to correlate processing conditions with as-processed test bar properties. One processing condition produced a material with a 97 ksi average room temperature MOR (100 percent of goal) with 13.2 Weibull slope (83 percent of goal); another condition produced 86 ksi (6 percent over baseline) room temperature strength with a Weibull slope of 20 (125 percent of goal).

  11. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, T. J.; Winterbottom, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Work performed to develop silicon carbide materials of high strength and to form components of complex shape and high reliability is described. A beta-SiC powder and binder system was adapted to the injection molding process and procedures and process parameters developed capable of providing a sintered silicon carbide material with improved properties. The initial effort has been to characterize the baseline precursor materials (beta silicon carbide powder and boron and carbon sintering aids), develop mixing and injection molding procedures for fabricating test bars, and characterize the properties of the sintered materials. Parallel studies of various mixing, dewaxing, and sintering procedures have been carried out in order to distinguish process routes for improving material properties. A total of 276 MOR bars of the baseline material have been molded, and 122 bars have been fully processed to a sinter density of approximately 95 percent. The material has a mean MOR room temperature strength of 43.31 ksi (299 MPa), a Weibull characteristic strength of 45.8 ksi (315 MPa), and a Weibull modulus of 8.0. Mean values of the MOR strengths at 1000, 1200, and 14000 C are 41.4, 43.2, and 47.2 ksi, respectively. Strength controlling flaws in this material were found to consist of regions of high porosity and were attributed to agglomerates originating in the initial mixing procedures. The mean stress rupture lift at 1400 C of five samples tested at 172 MPa (25 ksi) stress was 62 hours and at 207 MPa (30 ksi) stress was 14 hours. New fluid mixing techniques have been developed which significantly reduce flaw size and improve the strength of the material. Initial MOR tests indicate the strength of the fluid-mixed material exceeds the baseline property by more than 33 percent.

  13. Improvement of heat dissipation for polydimethylsiloxane microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Bao, Ning; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2004-11-19

    Effective removing of Joule heat in polymer-based microchip system is an important factor for high efficient separation because of lower heat conductivity of polymers than silica or glass. In this paper, a new kind of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip electrophoresis system integrated with a laser-induced fluorescence detector has been successfully constructed on the basis of a commercial heat sink for computer CPU (central processor unit). Experimental results on separation current using high concentration running buffers demonstrated that heat dissipation of PDMS/PDMS microchip system was significantly improved. Furthermore, with this integrated system, theoretical plate number of fluorescein using 100 mM phosphate-buffered saline + 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as running buffer was determined to be 2750 (for 2.5-cm separation channel, corresponding to 110,000/m). This high separation efficiency demonstrated that such heat sink-based polymer microchip system could be effectively applied for high-concentration buffers.

  14. Improving paediatric and neonatal care in rural district hospitals in the highlands of Papua New Guinea: a quality improvement approach

    PubMed Central

    Sa’avu, Martin; Duke, Trevor; Matai, Sens

    2014-01-01

    Background In developing countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), district hospitals play a vital role in clinical care, training health-care workers, implementing immunization and other public health programmes and providing necessary data on disease burdens and outcomes. Pneumonia and neonatal conditions are a major cause of child admission and death in hospitals throughout PNG. Oxygen therapy is an essential component of the management of pneumonia and neonatal conditions, but facilities for oxygen and care of the sick newborn are often inadequate, especially in district hospitals. Improving this area may be a vehicle for improving overall quality of care. Method A qualitative study of five rural district hospitals in the highlands provinces of Papua New Guinea was undertaken. A structured survey instrument was used by a paediatrician and a biomedical technician to assess the quality of paediatric care, the case-mix and outcomes, resources for delivery of good-quality care for children with pneumonia and neonatal illnesses, existing oxygen systems and equipment, drugs and consumables, infection-control facilities and the reliability of the electricity supply to each hospital. A floor plan was drawn up for the installation of the oxygen concentrators and a plan for improving care of sick neonates, and a process of addressing other priorities was begun. Results In remote parts of PNG, many district hospitals are run by under-resourced non-government organizations. Most hospitals had general wards in which both adults and children were managed together. Paediatric case-loads ranged between 232 and 840 patients per year with overall case-fatality rates (CFR) of 3–6% and up to 15% among sick neonates. Pneumonia accounts for 28–37% of admissions with a CFR of up to 8%. There were no supervisory visits by paediatricians, and little or no continuing professional development of staff. Essential drugs were mostly available, but basic equipment for the care of sick

  15. Improving paediatric and neonatal care in rural district hospitals in the highlands of Papua New Guinea: a quality improvement approach.

    PubMed

    Sa'avu, Martin; Duke, Trevor; Matai, Sens

    2014-05-01

    In developing countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), district hospitals play a vital role in clinical care, training health-care workers, implementing immunization and other public health programmes and providing necessary data on disease burdens and outcomes. Pneumonia and neonatal conditions are a major cause of child admission and death in hospitals throughout PNG. Oxygen therapy is an essential component of the management of pneumonia and neonatal conditions, but facilities for oxygen and care of the sick newborn are often inadequate, especially in district hospitals. Improving this area may be a vehicle for improving overall quality of care. A qualitative study of five rural district hospitals in the highlands provinces of Papua New Guinea was undertaken. A structured survey instrument was used by a paediatrician and a biomedical technician to assess the quality of paediatric care, the case-mix and outcomes, resources for delivery of good-quality care for children with pneumonia and neonatal illnesses, existing oxygen systems and equipment, drugs and consumables, infection-control facilities and the reliability of the electricity supply to each hospital. A floor plan was drawn up for the installation of the oxygen concentrators and a plan for improving care of sick neonates, and a process of addressing other priorities was begun. In remote parts of PNG, many district hospitals are run by under-resourced non-government organizations. Most hospitals had general wards in which both adults and children were managed together. Paediatric case-loads ranged between 232 and 840 patients per year with overall case-fatality rates (CFR) of 3-6% and up to 15% among sick neonates. Pneumonia accounts for 28-37% of admissions with a CFR of up to 8%. There were no supervisory visits by paediatricians, and little or no continuing professional development of staff. Essential drugs were mostly available, but basic equipment for the care of sick neonates was often absent or

  16. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  17. The Role of Districts in Fostering Instructional Improvement Lessons from Three Urban Districts Partnered with the Institute for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.; Kerr, Kerri A.; Ikemoto, Gina S.; Darilek, Hilary; Suttorp, Marika; Zimmer, Ron W.; Barney, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The current high-stakes accountability environment brought on by the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) places great pressure on school districts to demonstrate success by meeting yearly progress goals for student achievement and eventually demonstrating that all students achieve at high standards. In particular, many urban school…

  18. Heat storage in forest biomass improves energy balance closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation very well. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy covariance

  19. Radiocarbon AMS at IOP: System improvements and dating of groundwater from Bhadrak district, Orissa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, G. V. Ravi; Dutta, K.; Ray, D. K.

    2008-04-01

    The radiocarbon AMS facility at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar is based on a 3 MV tandem accelerator. In this paper, we present the recent improvements to the AMS system at this general purpose accelerator facility. We report an effective method of overcoming terminal voltage instability often met with in switching between AMS and other modes of operation of the accelerator. We report the radiocarbon measurements made on connate groundwater samples from the Bhadrak district of Orissa state (eastern India) to identify the regions that require artificial recharge.

  20. A continuous heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator using spiral plate heat exchanger as adsorbers: improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.Z.; Wu, J.Y.; Xu, Y.X.

    1999-02-01

    Spiral plate heat exchangers as adsorbers have been proposed, and a prototype heat regenerative adsorption refrigerator using activated carbon-methanol pair has been developed and tested. Various improvements have been made, the authors get a specific cooling power for 2.6 kg-ice/day-kg adsorbent at the condition of generation temperature lower than 100 C. Discussions on the arrangements of thermal cycles and influences of design are shown.

  1. Summary of hydrologic conditions in the Reedy Creek Improvement District, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement is an area of about 43 square miles in southwestern Orange and northwestern Osceola Counties, Florida. A systematic program of hydrologic data collection in the Reedy Creek Improvement District and vicinity provided data for assessing the impact of development, mostly the Walt Disney World Theme Park and related development on the hydrology. Data collected include stream discharge, water quality, groundwater levels, lakes levels, and climatological. Rainfall has been less than the long-term average in the Reedy Creek Improvement District since development began in 1968. The deficient rainfall has reduced stream discharge, lowered groundwater and lake levels, and possibly affected water quality in the area. Groundwater levels and lake levels have declined since 1970. However, the coincidence of below-average rainfall with the period of development makes it impossible to assess the effect of pumping on declines. Occurrence of toxic metals does not relate to development, but distribution of insecticides and herbicides does appear to relate to development. Specific conductance, phosphorous, and nitrate concentrations have increased in Reedy Creek since 1970, probably due to disposal of treated wastes. (USGS)

  2. Building district-level capacity for continuous improvement in maternal and newborn health.

    PubMed

    Stover, Kim Ethier; Tesfaye, Solomon; Frew, Aynalem Hailemichael; Mohammed, Hajira; Barry, Danika; Alamineh, Lamesgin; Teshome, Abebe; Hepburn, Kenneth; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    The Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) adapted a collaborative improvement strategy to develop woreda (district) leadership capacity to support and facilitate continuous improvement of community maternal and neonatal health (CMNH) and to provide a model for other woredas, dubbed "lead" woredas. Community-level quality improvement (QI) teams tested solutions to improve CMNH care supported by monthly coaching and regular meetings to share experiences. This study examines the extent of the capacity built to support continuous improvement in CMNH care. Surveys and in-depth interviews assessed the extent to which MaNHEP developed improvement capacity. A survey questionnaire evaluated woreda culture, leadership support, motivation, and capacity for improvement activities. Interviews focused on respondents' understanding and perceived value of the MaNHEP improvement approach. Bivariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the survey data. Interview transcripts were organized by region, cadre, and key themes. Respondents reported significant positive changes in many areas of woreda culture and leadership, including involving a cross-section of community stakeholders (increased from 3.0 to 4.6 on 5-point Likert scale), using improvement data for decision making (2.8-4.4), using locally developed and tested solutions to improve CMNH care (2.5-4.3), demonstrating a commitment to improve the health of women and newborns (2.6-4.2), and creating a supportive environment for coaches and QI teams to improve CMNH (2.6-4.0). The mean scores for capacity were 3.7 and higher, reflecting respondents' agreement that they had gained capacity in improvement skills. Interview respondents universally recognized the capacity built in the woredas. The themes of community empowerment and focused improvement emerged strongly from the interviews. MaNHEP was able to build capacity for continuous improvement and develop lead woredas. The

  3. Evaluation of a communication campaign to improve continuation among first-time injectable contraceptive users in Nyando District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    McClain Burke, Holly; Ambasa-Shisanya, Constance

    2014-06-01

    Communication campaigns might be a viable means of improving contraceptive continuation; however, few such interventions aimed at reducing contraceptive discontinuation have been evaluated. Data were collected from independent samples of new injectable users in Nyando District, Kenya-site of a communication campaign to increase contraceptive continuation-and in a comparison district, nine months before and nine months after intervention implementation. Survival analysis was used to compare the intervention and comparison groups with respect to the distribution of time until first discontinuation of modern method use among women still in need of family planning. Exposure to family planning information was high in both the treatment and the comparison district before (97% and 85%, respectively) and after the intervention (99% and 78%). Postintervention, 5% of women in the comparison district discontinued by 98 days, 8% by 196 days and 23% by 294 days; the proportions in the treatment district were 4%, 6% and 16%, respectively. No significant difference between the districts was found in the ninemonth postintervention contraceptive continuation rates. Having method-related side effects or health concerns was the reason most consistently associated with discontinuation. Other factors associated with discontinuation differed between the districts. Addressing method-related side effects and health concerns will be critical in improving continuation of the injectable.

  4. Evidence from district level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    District level healthcare serves as a nexus between community and district level facilities. Inputs at the district level can be broadly divided into governance and accountability mechanisms; leadership and supervision; financial platforms; and information systems. This paper aims to evaluate the effectivness of district level inputs for imporving maternal and newborn health. We considered all available systematic reviews published before May 2013 on the pre-defined district level interventions and included 47 systematic reviews. Evidence suggests that supervision positively influenced provider’s practice, knowledge and client/provider satisfaction. Involving local opinion leaders to promote evidence-based practice improved compliance to the desired practice. Audit and feedback mechanisms and tele-medicine were found to be associated with improved immunization rates and mammogram uptake. User-directed financial schemes including maternal vouchers, user fee exemption and community based health insurance showed significant impact on maternal health service utilization with voucher schemes showing the most significant positive impact across all range of outcomes including antenatal care, skilled birth attendant, institutional delivery, complicated delivery and postnatal care. We found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of electronic health record systems and telemedicine technology to improve maternal and newborn health specific outcomes. There is dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of district level inputs to improve maternal newborn health outcomes. Future studies should evaluate the impact of supervision and monitoring; electronic health record and tele-communication interventions in low-middle-income countries. PMID:25208460

  5. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  6. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-08

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR.

  7. Improved Method for Determining the Heat Capacity of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Roger; Moran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    An improved procedure for laboratory determination of the heat capacities of metals is described. The temperature of cold water is continuously recorded with a computer-interfaced temperature probe and the room temperature metal is added. The method is more accurate and faster than previous methods. It allows students to get accurate measurements…

  8. Improved Method for Determining the Heat Capacity of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Roger; Moran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    An improved procedure for laboratory determination of the heat capacities of metals is described. The temperature of cold water is continuously recorded with a computer-interfaced temperature probe and the room temperature metal is added. The method is more accurate and faster than previous methods. It allows students to get accurate measurements…

  9. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K.; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K.; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Design Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. Results All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. Conclusions In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting

  10. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Background Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Design Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. Results All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. Conclusions In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting

  11. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting priority interventions for child survival.

  12. Performance improvement of optical fiber coupler with electric heating versus gas heating.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Nie, Yi; Peng, Shuping

    2010-08-20

    Gas heating has been widely used in the process of fused biconical tapering. However, as the instability and asymmetric flame temperature of gas heating exist, the performance of the optical devices fabricated by this method was affected. To overcome the problems resulting from gas combustion, an electric heater is designed and manufactured using a metal-ceramic (MoSi(2)) as a heating material. Our experimental data show that the fused-taper machine with an electric heater has improved the performance of optical devices by increasing the consistency of the extinction ratio, excess loss, and the splitting ratio over that of the previous gas heating mode. Microcrystallizations and microcracks were observed at the fused region of the polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber coupler and at the taper region with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The distribution of the microcrystallizations and microcracks are nonuniform along the fiber with gas heating, while their distribution is rather uniform with electric heating. These findings show that the novel optical fiber coupler with an electric heater has improved the performance of optical fiber devices by affecting the consistency of the optical parameters and micromorphology of the surface of PM fiber.

  13. The challenges of improving emergency obstetric care in two rural districts in Mali.

    PubMed

    Otchere, S A; Kayo, A

    2007-11-01

    We describe a collaboration between Save the Children USA, the Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD) program and the Ministry of Health of Mali, to improve the availability, quality and utilization of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Yanfolila and Bougouni rural districts in Sikasso Region of Mali. Project planning, interventions and strategies between 2001 and 2004 were aimed at improving the capacity of 2 district hospitals to provide quality EmOC, sensitizing the community as partners to use services and to influence changes in policy at a national level through advocacy efforts. By the end of 2004, despite many health systems' challenges, the 2 hospitals were providing comprehensive EmOC. Providing 24-hour service proved difficult and, though not effectively institutionalized in the 2 hospitals, the UN Process Indicators showed modest improvements in quality and utilization of EmOC. Met need for EmOC increased from 9% in 2001 to 15% in 2004 in Bougouni and from 6% in 2001 to 15% in 2004 in Yanfolila. Case fatality rates declined by 69% (from 7% in 2001 to 2% in 2004) and by 38% (from 8% in 2001 to 5% in 2004) in Bougouni and Yanfolila, respectively. Although useful policy changes were achieved at the national level, more are needed if UN Guidelines are to be met. Availability of more obstetric functions at the community level, and fewer staff transfers are among policy changes needed. Save the Children's project experience showed that it is possible to improve the quality and use of EmOC in hospitals despite challenges; we drew national attention to EmOC as a key strategy in maternal mortality reduction, and raised awareness of the need for improved EmOC services at clinics that are more accessible to the community.

  14. Equity improvements in maternal and newborn care indicators: results from the Bardiya district of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nonyane, Bareng AS; KC, Ashish; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Debora; Syed, Uzma; Pradhan, Yasho V; Khadka, Neena; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-01-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn care interventions have been shown to improve neonatal survival and other key health indicators. It is important to evaluate whether the improvement in health indicators is accompanied by a parallel increase in the equitable distribution of the intervention activities, and the uptake of healthy newborn care practices. We present an analysis of equity improvements after the implementation of a Community Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) in the Bardiya district of Nepal. The package was implemented alongside other programs that were already in place within the district. We present changes in concentration indices (CIndices) as measures of changes in equity, as well as percentage changes in coverage, between baseline and endline. The CIndices were derived from wealth scores that were based on household assets, and they were compared using t-tests. We observed statistically significant improvements in equity for facility delivery [CIndex: −0.15 (−0.24, −0.06)], knowledge of at least three newborn danger signs [−0.026(−0.06, −0.003)], breastfeeding within 1 h [−0.05(−0.11, −0.0001)], at least one antenatal visit with a skilled provider [−0.25(−0.04, −0.01)], at least four antenatal visits from any provider [−0.15(−0.19, −0.10)] and birth preparedness [−0.09(−0.12, −0.06)]. The largest increases in practices were observed for facility delivery (50%), immediate drying (34%) and delayed bathing (29%). These results and those of similar studies are evidence that community-based interventions delivered by female community health volunteers can be instrumental in improving equity in levels of facility delivery and other newborn care behaviours. We recommend that equity be evaluated in other similar settings within Nepal in order to determine if similar results are observed. PMID:26303057

  15. Study of the causes and identification of the dominant mechanisms of failure of bellows expansion joints used in district heating system pipelines at MOEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.; Shepelev, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    The results of laboratory studies of material properties and of numerical and analytical investigations to assess the stress-strain state of the metal of the bellows expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK subjected to corrosion failure are presented. The main causes and the dominant mechanisms of failure of the expansion joints have been identified. The influence of the initial crevice defects and the operating conditions on the features and intensity of destruction processes in expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK has been established.

  16. Comparing District Achievement to Improve Decision Making in Clark County, Nevada. Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In response to changing demographics, a tightening budget, and drastic achievement gaps (white students outperform Latino students on standardized tests) the Clark County School District in Nevada (the fifth largest district in the country) commissioned, in 2011, an educational and operational efficiency review. The district commissioned the…

  17. West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of…

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  19. Technical feasibility and economics of retrofitting an existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration for hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, J.O.; Bauman, H.F.; Jones, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the hypothetical conversion of the Prairie Island Nuclear Plant of the Northern States Power Company to cogeneration operation to supply a future hot water district heating system load in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The conceptual design of the nuclear turbine retrofitted for cogeneration and of a hot water transmission system has been performed, and the capital investment and annual owning and operating costs have been estimated for thermal energy capacities of 600 and 1200 MW(t). Unit costs of thermal energy (in mid-1982 dollars/million Btu) have been estimated for cogenerated hot water at the plant gate and also for the most economic transmission system from Prairie Island to the Twin Cities. The economic results from the analysis of the Prairie Island plant and transmission route have been generalized for other transmission distances in other locations.

  20. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Afyon geothermal district heating system by using neural network and neuro-fuzzy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şencan Şahin, Arzu; Yazıcı, Hilmi

    2012-07-01

    In this study, energy and exergy analysis of the Afyon geothermal district heating system (AGDHS) in Afyon, Turkey using artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) methods is carried out. Actual system data in the analysis of the AGDHS are used. The results of ANN are compared with ANFIS in which the same data sets are used. ANN model is slightly better than ANFIS in determining the energy and exergy rates. In addition, new formulations obtained from ANN are presented for the determination of the energy and exergy rates of the AGDHS. The R2-values obtained when unknown data were used in the networks were 0.999999847 and 0.99999997 for the energy and exergy rates respectively, which are very satisfactory.

  1. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  2. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Thanh Nhon

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  3. Heat-Assisted Machining for Material Removal Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Hadzley, A. B.; Hafiz, S. Muhammad; Azahar, W.; Izamshah, R.; Mohd Shahir, K.; Abu, A.

    2015-09-01

    Heat assisted machining (HAM) is a process where an intense heat source is used to locally soften the workpiece material before machined by high speed cutting tool. In this paper, an HAM machine is developed by modification of small CNC machine with the addition of special jig to hold the heat sources in front of the machine spindle. Preliminary experiment to evaluate the capability of HAM machine to produce groove formation for slotting process was conducted. A block AISI D2 tool steel with100mm (width) × 100mm (length) × 20mm (height) size has been cut by plasma heating with different setting of arc current, feed rate and air pressure. Their effect has been analyzed based on distance of cut (DOC).Experimental results demonstrated the most significant factor that contributed to the DOC is arc current, followed by the feed rate and air pressure. HAM improves the slotting process of AISI D2 by increasing distance of cut due to initial cutting groove that formed during thermal melting and pressurized air from the heat source.

  4. Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.

    2016-07-13

    A combined space- and water-heating (combi) system uses a high-efficiency direct-vent burner that eliminates safety issues associated with natural draft appliances. Past research with these systems shows that using condensing water heaters or boilers with hydronic air handling units can provide both space and water heating with efficiencies of 90% or higher. Improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. This project demonstrates that controls can significantly benefit these first-generation systems. Laboratory tests and daily load/performance models showed that the set point temperature reset control produced a 2.1%-4.3% (20-40 therms/year) savings for storage and hybrid water heater combi systems operated in moderate-load homes.

  5. Federal Efforts to Improve the Lowest-Performing Schools: District Views on School Improvement Grant Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    As Congress considers legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, one topic of debate is the program of school improvement grants (SIGs) authorized by section 1003(g) of Title I. SIGs are intended to help to turn around low-performing schools and are part of the larger ESEA Title I program to improve…

  6. An on-line expert system to improve heat rate

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley, R.S.; Forbes, H.; Nelson, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    A closed-loop expert system for supervisory control is described. The expert system, called ThermoPlus, is designed to help improve heat rates in a power plant, and is tested on a research, solar/fossil pilot plant. This paper describes the management of the project, including problem selection, controlling problem size, and designing the knowledge base. Initial results form running the expert system on line (but not closed-loop) are included.

  7. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.

  8. The effect of business improvement districts on the incidence of violent crimes.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, John; Golinelli, Daniela; Stokes, Robert J; Bluthenthal, Ricky

    2010-10-01

    To examine whether business improvement districts (BID) contributed to greater than expected declines in the incidence of violent crimes in affected neighbourhoods. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to assess the changes in the incidence of violent crimes between 1994 and 2005 and the implementation of 30 BID in Los Angeles neighbourhoods. The implementation of BID was associated with a 12% reduction in the incidence of robbery (95% posterior probability interval -2 to 24) and an 8% reduction in the total incidence of violent crimes (95% posterior probability interval -5 to 21). The strength of the effect of BID on robbery crimes varied by location. These findings indicate that the implementation of BID can reduce the incidence of violent crimes likely to result in injury to individuals. The findings also indicate that the establishment of a BID by itself is not a panacea, and highlight the importance of targeting BID efforts to crime prevention interventions that reduce violence exposure associated with criminal behaviours.

  9. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An assessment is made of four applications of biomass and solar energy conversion technologies. The first is an energy self-sufficient farm that provides all of its space heating and hot water needs by burning wood obtained by selective timber cutting on the farm acreage. The heating system is a commerical boiler furnace. A Purox gasification system is described which uses wood feedstock with a capacity of 850 dry tons/day. This system requires 2,000 farms, each with 30 acres of wooded land having a sustainable capacity of 5 dry tons/day per acre. The efficiency of silviculture plantations is then addressed in regard to different conversion strategies. Finally, a solar heat and cooling system designed for a one story school building is assessed. Land and materials requirements, climatology, and economic factors are discussed.

  10. Feasibility of cogenerated district heating and cooling for North Loop project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    A thermal-economic analysis was performed in order to determine feasibility of cogeneration with central heating and cooling for Chicago's North Loop Development Project. Heating, cooling and electrical loads were predicted by using energy data according to use and floor area, representative of downtown Chicago. The central facility proposed would supply cogenerated heating for a part of the development's demand and about one half of the cooling demand by means of combined conventional and cogeneration equipment together on the 4-pipe distribution system. Electricity would also be distributed and used to substantially displace purchases. Additional options are also discussed and, if economical, could make implementation more attractive. Four alternatives involving gas turbines and diesels were selected for study and are reported. Energy savings extend over the assumed 25 years of the project and are indexed to inflation and fuel-cost escalation. It would appear that cogeneration could assist economic development of the North Loop Project.

  11. Factors affecting the utilisation of improved ventilated latrines among communities in Mtwara Rural District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kema, Koronel; Semali, Innocent; Mkuwa, Serafina; Kagonji, Ignatio; Temu, Florence; Ilako, Festus; Mkuye, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Tanzania government, working in partnership with other stakeholders implemented a community-based project aimed at increasing access to clean and safe water basic sanitation and promotion of personal hygiene in Mtwara Rural District. Mid-term evaluation revealed that progress had been made towards improved ventilated latrines; however, there was no adequate information on utilisation of these latrines and associated factors. This study was therefore conducted to establish the factors influencing the utilisation of these latrines. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 randomly selected households using a pre-tested questionnaire to determine whether the households owned improved ventilated latrines and how they utilised them. Resuls About half (50.5%) of the households had an improved ventilated latrine and households with earnings of more than 50,000 Tanzanian Shillings were two times more likely to own an improved latrine than those that earned less (AOR 2.1, 95% CI=1.1-4.0, p= 0.034). The likelihood of owning an improved latrine was reduced by more than 60 percent for female-headed households (AOR=0.38; 95% CI=0.20-0.71; p=0.002). Furthermore, it was established that all members of a household were more likely to use a latrine if it was an improved ventilated latrine (AOR=2.4; 95% CI=1.1-5.1; p= 0.024). Conclusion Findings suggest adoption of strategies to improve the wellbeing of households and deploying those who had acquired improved ventilated latrines as resource persons to help train others. Furthermore, efforts are needed to increase access to soft loans for disadvantaged members and increasing community participation. PMID:23467697

  12. Heating boilers in Krakow, Poland: Options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cyklis, P.; Wlodkowski, A.; Butcher, T.; Kowalski, J.; Zaczkowski, A.; Kroll, J.; Boron, J.

    1995-08-01

    In Krakow, Poland, coal-fired boilers are used to heat single apartment buildings and local heating districts. Tile population includes 2,930 small, hand-fired boilers and 227 larger traveling grate stoker-fired boilers. These boilers are important contributors to air quality problems in Krakow, and an assessment of their efficiency and emissions characteristics was recently undertaken. For the larger, stoker-fired boilers, efficiency was measured using a stack-loss method In addition to the normal baseline fuel, the effects of coal cleaning and grading were evaluated Testing was done at two selected sites. Boiler efficiencies were found to be low-50% to 67%. These boilers operate without combustion controls or instrumentation for flue gas analysis. As a result, excess air levels are very high (up to 400%) leading to poor performance. Emissions were found to be typical for boilers of this type. Using the improved fuels yields reductions in emissions and improvement in efficiency when combined with proper adjustments. In the case of the hand-fired boilers, one set of cast-iron boilers and one set of steel boilers were tested. Efficiency in this case was measured using an input-output method for sets of three boilers taken together as a system. Emissions from these boilers are lowest when low volatile fuels, such as coke or smokeless briquettes, are used.

  13. Passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractility in humans.

    PubMed

    Racinais, S; Wilson, M G; Périard, J D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e., acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen nonheat-acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions [Cool: 24°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (Hot: 44-50°C, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5°C in Cool and was maintained at ~39°C throughout Hot. Both trials were repeated after 11 days of passive heat acclimation (1 h per day, 48-50°C, 50% RH). Heat acclimation decreased core temperature in Cool (-0.2°C, P < 0.05), increased the time required to reach 39°C in Hot (+9 min, P < 0.05) and increased sweat rate in Hot (+0.7 liter/h, P < 0.05). Moreover, passive heat acclimation improved skeletal muscle contractility as evidenced by an increase in evoked peak twitch amplitude both in Cool (20.5 ± 3.6 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) and Hot (20.5 ± 4.7 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) (+9%, P < 0.05). Maximal voluntary torque production was also increased both in Cool (145 ± 42 vs. 161 ± 36 N·m) and Hot (125 ± 36 vs. 145 ± 30 N·m) (+17%, P < 0.05), despite voluntary activation remaining unchanged. Furthermore, the slope of the relative torque/electromyographic linear relationship was improved postacclimation (P < 0.05). These adjustments demonstrate that passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractile function during electrically evoked and voluntary muscle contractions of different intensities both in Cool and Hot. These results suggest that repeated heat exposure may have important implications to passively maintain or even improve muscle function in a variety of performance and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  15. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  16. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeringer, M. R.; Crist, W. K.; Dunn, J. R.

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of sub-surface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Eight wells about 400-feet deep, one 600-foot well and one 2232-foot well were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  17. Would You Like To Swing on a Star? Opportunities To Improve Education in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District. A Report to the Shakertown Roundtable Conference on Economic Development and Education in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Carol; And Others

    Interviews conducted in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District sought answers for improving educational quality in the district, which has the highest dropout rate, the lowest holding power, and the lowest standardized test scores in Kentucky. Members of the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development interviewed 155 people from 15 of…

  18. Opinion survey on proposals for improving code stroke in Murcia Health District V, 2014.

    PubMed

    González-Navarro, M; Martínez-Sánchez, M A; Morales-Camacho, V; Valera-Albert, M; Atienza-Ayala, S V; Limiñana-Alcaraz, G

    2017-05-01

    Stroke is a time-dependent neurological disease. Health District V in the Murcia Health System has certain demographic and geographical characteristics that make it necessary to create specific improvement strategies to ensure proper functioning of code stroke (CS). The study objectives were to assess local professionals' opinions about code stroke activation and procedure, and to share these suggestions with the regional multidisciplinary group for code stroke. This cross-sectional and descriptive study used the Delphi technique to develop a questionnaire for doctors and nurses working at all care levels in Area V. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to 154 professionals. The analysis was performed using the SWOT method (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats). Researchers collected 51 questionnaires. The main proposals were providing training, promoting communication with the neurologist, overcoming physical distances, using diagnostic imaging tests, motivating professionals, and raising awareness in the general population. Most of the interventions proposed by the participants have been listed in published literature. These improvement proposals were forwarded to the Regional Code Stroke Improvement Group. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district level in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the causes of a low cure rate at the district level of a tuberculosis (TB) control programme and to formulate, implement, and evaluate an intervention to improve the situation. METHODS: The study setting was Mzuzu (population 60,000), where the annual smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence was 160 per 100,000 and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence was 67% among TB patients. There is one TB treatment unit, but several other organizations are involved with TB control. An examination of case-holding activities was carried out, potential areas for improvement were identified, and interventions performed. FINDINGS: In 1990-91, the cure rate was 24% among smear-positive cases (29% among survivors to end of treatment). Problems identified included a fragmented TB control programme; inadequate training and supervision; suboptimal recording of patients' addresses; and nonadherence to national TB control programme protocols. These problems were addressed, and in 1992-93 the cure rate rose to 68% (relative risk (RR) = 2.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 4.96)) and to 92% among survivors to the end of treatment (RR = 3.12 (95% CI = 1.84, 5.29)). High cure rates are therefore achievable despite high HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Simple, inexpensive, local programmatic interventions can dramatically improve TB case holding. This study demonstrates the need for evaluation, training, and supervision at all levels of the programme. PMID:11242817

  20. Long-term heating to improve receiver performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The buildup of hydrogen in the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates through components of parabolic trough power plants decreases receiver thermal efficiency, and ultimately, it decreases plant performance and electricity output. The generation and occurrence of hydrogen in the HTF provides the driving force for hydrogen to permeate from the HTF through the absorber tube wall and into the receiver annulus. Getters adsorb hydrogen from the annulus volume until they saturate and are no longer able to maintain low hydrogen pressure. The increase in hydrogen pressure within the annulus significantly degrades thermal performance of the receiver and decreases overall power-plant efficiency. NREL and Acciona Energy North America (Acciona) are developing a method to control the levels of dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF. The basic approach is to remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks of the HTF subsystem at a rate that maintains hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a target level. Full-plant steady-state models developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) predict that if hydrogen is removed from the HTF within the expansion tanks, the HTF that circulates through the collector field remains essentially free of hydrogen until the HTF returns to the power block in the hot headers. One of the key findings of our modeling is the prediction that hydrogen will reverse-permeate out of the receiver annulus if dissolved hydrogen in the HTF is kept sufficiently low. To test this prediction, we performed extended heating of an in-service receiver that initially had high levels of hydrogen in its annulus. The heating was performed using NREL's receiver test stand. Results of our testing showed that receiver heat loss steadily decreased with daily heating, resulting in a corresponding improvement in receiver thermal efficiency.

  1. Improving Hurricane Heat Content Estimates From Satellite Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Matthaeis, P.; Jacob, S.; Roubert, L. M.; Shay, N.; Black, P.

    2007-12-01

    Hurricanes are amongst the most destructive natural disasters known to mankind. The primary energy source driving these storms is the latent heat release due to the condensation of water vapor, which ultimately comes from the ocean. While the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has a direct correlation with wind speeds, the oceanic heat content is dependent on the upper ocean vertical structure. Understanding the impact of these factors in the mutual interaction of hurricane-ocean is critical to more accurately forecasting intensity change in land-falling hurricanes. Use of hurricane heat content derived from the satellite radar altimeter measurements of sea surface height has been shown to improve intensity prediction. The general approach of estimating ocean heat content uses a two-layer model representing the ocean with its anomalies derived from altimeter data. Although these estimates compare reasonably well with in-situ measurements, they are generally about 10% under-biased. Additionally, recent studies show that the comparisons are less than satisfactory in the Western North Pacific. Therefore, our objective is to develop a methodology to more accurately represent the upper ocean structure using in-situ data. As part of a NOAA/ USWRP sponsored research, upper ocean observations were acquired in the Gulf of Mexico during the summers of 1999 and 2000. Overall, 260 expendable profilers (XCTD, XBT and XCP) acquired vertical temperature structure in the high heat content regions corresponding to the Loop Current and Warm Core Eddies. Using the temperature and salinity data from the XCTDs, first the Temperature-Salinity relationships in the Loop Current Water and Gulf Common water are derived based on the depth of the 26° C isotherm. These derived T-S relationships compare well with those inferred from climatology. By means of these relationships, estimated salinity values corresponding to the XBT and XCP temperature measurements are calculated, and used to derive

  2. "Educational Improvement in Majority Negro School Districts in Seventeen Southern and Border States" (AERA Symposium, Los Angeles, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Morrill M.; And Others

    The symposium presented at the 1969 American Educational Research Association meeting was concerned with program development for rural isolated school districts and the opportunities for research opened through this project for educational improvement. The papers from the symposium describe an on-going program which can have great influence in…

  3. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Abstract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Corcoran, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon; Uzzell, Renata; Simon, Candace; Heppen, Jessica; Leinwand, Steve; Salinger, Terry; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Dogan, Enis; Novotny, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This is an abridged, summary report of selected findings from "Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress"--a comprehensive study prepared by the Council of the Great City Schools in collaboration with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and with…

  4. A Case Study of Systemic Reform to Improve Ninth Grade Advancement toward Graduation in a Multi-High School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Too many freshmen students remain mired in the ninth grade, presenting a growing problem for America's secondary schools as they struggle to improve high school completion rates. In an effort to stem the tide of high school dropouts, a southeast Texas suburban school district with five comprehensive high schools engaged in a systemic reform effort…

  5. Using Systems Thinking to Leverage Technology for School Improvement: Lessons Learned from Award-Winning Secondary Schools/Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Barbara B.; Schrum, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers lessons learned about what it takes to successfully leverage technology for school improvement based on a cross-case analysis of eight award-winning secondary schools/districts around the United States. The researchers analyzed data from 150 interviews, 30 focus groups, and more than 300 hours of observation in 150 classrooms,…

  6. 2011-12 District Improvement Initiatives Evaluation. Eye on Evaluation. D&A Report No.12.12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgakov-Cooke, Dina

    2013-01-01

    Seven district improvement initiatives were implemented in 2011-12 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS). All were well designed and coordinated, with common goal setting processes and use of common monitoring tools. All initiatives either met or partially met 2011-12 goals. Some were more successful in showing student outcomes, with the…

  7. Urban District Central Office Transformation for Teaching and Learning Improvement: Beyond a Zero-Sum Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.; Lorton, Juli Swinnerton; Copland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, a growing number of mid-sized to large school district central offices have engaged in radical reforms to strengthen teaching and learning for all students districtwide. Such efforts mark a significant change in urban educational governance. The authors call these efforts "district central office transformation for teaching…

  8. The District Master Plan for School Improvement: Instructions and Suggestions. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document provides step-by-step instructions for completing a school district master plan. It can be used by administrative personnel to pull together those policies, procedures, and criteria that can enhance an effective working partnership between school and district. The document uses boldface, italic type to identify instructions set forth…

  9. Improving Outcomes for Students with Disabilities: Identifying Characteristics of Successful Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Melissa; Tkatchov, Oran

    2017-01-01

    The common characteristics among Arizona districts and charters with high academic outcomes for student disabilities were identified in a qualitative study involving site visits and interviews. In 2014, the Arizona Department of Education examined over three years of state testing data to identify districts and charter schools that closed the…

  10. Los Angeles Community College District: It Has Improved Its Procedures for Selecting College Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Auditor General, Sacramento.

    This auditor's report reviews the procedures used by the Los Angeles Community College District (California) to select its college presidents. In September 1999 the district revised its procedures by designating a person who is solely responsible for ensuring compliance with board procedure, establishing timelines for the selection process, and…

  11. Urban District Central Office Transformation for Teaching and Learning Improvement: Beyond a Zero-Sum Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.; Lorton, Juli Swinnerton; Copland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, a growing number of mid-sized to large school district central offices have engaged in radical reforms to strengthen teaching and learning for all students districtwide. Such efforts mark a significant change in urban educational governance. The authors call these efforts "district central office transformation for teaching…

  12. Evaluating and Improving the State of Global Competency within the Appoquinimink School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas, Jody Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The Appoquinimink School District renewed its commitment to its stakeholders in 2006 by refocusing district attention toward providing "a world-class education where each of our students gains the knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes needed to contribute and flourish in a global society" (ASD Strategic Plan, 2008). As a result…

  13. Primed for Reform: A District's Use of Existing Assets to Drive Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Region IX Equity Assistance Center at WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief reports on the early stages and initial successes of turnaround efforts in a California school district. With administrators and educators in the midst of implementing a robust reform agenda, there are clear signs that the district is on the rise. The reform initiatives have stopped a downward slide in student attendance, behavior, and…

  14. The Student Voice Collaborative: An Effort to Systematize Student Participation in School and District Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This chapter recounts the first 3 years of the Student Voice Collaborative (SVC) in New York City, a district supported student leadership initiative that engages high school aged youth in school reform work at school and district levels. Based on his experiences developing and running the SVC, the author identifies nine design and implementation…

  15. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L

    2010-03-08

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to overpressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  16. Improvement in performance of heat exchanger fitted with twisted tape

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashanmugam, P.; Sundaram, S.

    1999-04-01

    The improvement in performance of a double pipe heat exchanger fitted with twisted tape as a turbulence promoter with twist ratios of 15.649, 8.54, 5.882, 4.95, and 4.149 was experimentally studied. A maximum percentage gain of 44.7% in energy transfer rate was obtained for the twisted tape of twist ratio 4.149. For all twist ratios, the gain decreases with the Reynolds number and becomes constant for Reynolds numbers greater than 3,000. The smaller the twist ratio is, the larger the gain in energy for a specific Reynolds number.

  17. Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) District Improvement: 2009-10 Implementation Status [Revised September 17, 2010]. E&R Report No. 10.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgakov-Cooke, Dina

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10 Wake County Public Schools System (WCPSS) exited District Improvement in reading and remained in level one for mathematics. All District Improvement efforts gained momentum. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP®) continued as the primary focus to meet the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students in elementary…

  18. A Comparative Case Study of the Role of the School District in Influencing School Improvement: Supporting and Turning around Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efforts of school districts in developing and sustaining their capacity to improve student achievement in response to increased accountability. The study sought to confirm what the research says regarding the role of the school district in influencing school improvement. While there is a significant…

  19. A Comparative Case Study of the Role of the School District in Influencing School Improvement: Supporting and Turning around Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efforts of school districts in developing and sustaining their capacity to improve student achievement in response to increased accountability. The study sought to confirm what the research says regarding the role of the school district in influencing school improvement. While there is a significant…

  20. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  1. [Association between heat wave and stroke mortality in Jiang'an District of Wuhan, China during 2003 to 2010: a time-series analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Zhang, Yunquan; Zhu, Cihua; Ma, Lu; Tan, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    To assess the association between heat wave and stroke mortality in Jiang'an District of Wuhan, China during 2003 to 2010. Daily data of stroke mortality, meteorological factor and ambient pollution were collected from June to September during 2003 to 2010 in Jiang'an District of Wuhan.Quasi-Poisson regression in generalized additive model was applied to evaluate the impact of heat wave on stroke mortality on different lag days. During the study period, a total of 38 heat wave events and 191 heat wave days were registered. The total stroke death was 2 455 (1 182 women and 1 998 people aged 65 years old and over). Quasi-Poisson regression in generalized additive model showed that after controlling for long-term trend and seasonal trend, weekday, holiday, and relative humidity, heat wave was associated with stroke mortality on current day with relative risk of 1.15 (95%CI 1.01-1.30). Heat wave was not significantly associated with stroke mortality on current day among men (RR= 0.98, 95%CI 0.82-1.18, P=0.848) and people aged below 65 years old (RR=0.90, 95%CI 0.67-1.22, P=0.500), but relative risk increased to 1.34 (95%CI 1.12-1.62, P=0.002) and 1.20 (95%CI 1.04-1.39, P=0.002) for women and elderly (≥65 years old) people, respectively. When ambient pollutants (PM(10), sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide) were involved into the models, the impacts of heat wave on stroke mortality almost remained unchanged. Lagged effects were found in the association between heat wave and stroke mortality, relative risks reached the highest on lag of 2 days and the effects of heat wave usually lasted for 3 to 5 days. Moreover, lagged patterns of the effects of heat wave on stroke mortality were different between female and male and people of different age groups.significantly increased relative risks were found on current day in the elderly (≥65 years old) people and women, while significant associations occurred on lag of 2 days for men and people aged below 65 years old. Heat

  2. Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect

    B. Schoenbauer; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.

    2016-07-13

    A combined space- and water-heating (combi) system uses a high-efficiency direct-vent burner that eliminates safety issues associated with natural draft appliances. Past research with these systems shows that using condensing water heaters or boilers with hydronic air handling units can provide both space and water heating with efficiencies of 90% or higher. Improved controls have the potential to reduce complexity and improve upon the measured performance. This project demonstrates that controls can significantly benefit these first-generation systems. Laboratory tests and daily load/performance models showed that the set point temperature reset control produced a 2.1%–4.3% (20–40 therms/year) savings for storage and hybrid water heater combi systems operated in moderate-load homes. The full modulation control showed additional savings over set point control (in high-load homes almost doubling the savings: 4%–5% over the no-control case). At the time of installation the reset control can be implemented for $200–$400, which would provide paybacks of 6–25 years for low-load houses and 3–15 years for high-load houses. Full modulation implementation costs would be similar to the outdoor reset and would provide paybacks of 5-½–20 years for low-load houses and 2-½–10 years for high-load houses.

  3. The effect of business improvement districts on the incidence of violent crimes

    PubMed Central

    Golinelli, Daniela; Stokes, Robert J; Bluthenthal, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether business improvement districts (BID) contributed to greater than expected declines in the incidence of violent crimes in affected neighbourhoods. Method A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to assess the changes in the incidence of violent crimes between 1994 and 2005 and the implementation of 30 BID in Los Angeles neighbourhoods. Results The implementation of BID was associated with a 12% reduction in the incidence of robbery (95% posterior probability interval −2 to 24) and an 8% reduction in the total incidence of violent crimes (95% posterior probability interval −5 to 21). The strength of the effect of BID on robbery crimes varied by location. Conclusion These findings indicate that the implementation of BID can reduce the incidence of violent crimes likely to result in injury to individuals. The findings also indicate that the establishment of a BID by itself is not a panacea, and highlight the importance of targeting BID efforts to crime prevention interventions that reduce violence exposure associated with criminal behaviours. PMID:20587814

  4. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  5. Preferential heating using transurethral thermoablation (T3) improves clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Ernest W.; Miller, Paul D.; Parsons, Keith

    1997-05-01

    Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) has been widely reported for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) but with variable results. This is likely due to the inability to develop and maintain high intraprostatic temperatures. The T3 device has a preferential heating pattern which prevents shutdowns as a result of rectal heating thus allowing continuous energy delivery throughout the therapy. High temperatures greater than 70 degrees Celsius are maintained resulting in extensive coagulative necrosis in the transitional zone. Treatment was performed in an outpatient clinic using topical anaesthesia with occasional low dose I.V. analgesia. One hundred and fifty-four patients have been treated in 3 centers using a similar protocol. Inclusion criteria required an AUA symptom score greater than or equal to 9 and a peak uroflow rate less than or equal to 12 ml/sec. Mean prostate size was 40.6 cc. One hundred and eighteen patients have been followed for at least 12 months, and 58 for 24 months. AUA symptom score decreased from a mean of 19.8 to 8.9 (12 M), and 7.6 (24 M). Improvement was seen in all 7 symptoms evaluated. Peak flow rates increased from a mean of 9.3 to 13.4 (12 M), and 13.1 (24 M). Improvement in symptom score and peak flow was observed across all prostate sizes. By 2 years, 15 patients had dropped out of the study, 8 for alternative treatment (6 TURP, 1 bladder neck incision, 1 urethrotomy) and 7 for administrative or other reasons. Treatment with the T3 device provides excellent improvement in symptoms, flow rates and patients satisfaction. T3 fulfills the criteria for an effective, minimally invasive, outpatient treatment for symptomatic BPH.

  6. Progressive resistance training (PRT) improves rheumatoid arthritis outcomes: A district general hospital (DGH) model.

    PubMed

    Morsley, Klara; Berntzen, Berna; Erwood, Lisa; Bellerby, Toby; Williamson, Lyn

    2017-04-12

    Rheumatoid cachexia is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and develops soon after diagnosis, despite adequate drug therapy. It is associated with multiple adverse effects on body composition, function and mortality. Progressive resistance training (PRT) improves these outcomes but is not widely prescribed outside of a research setting. The aim of the present study was to explore the practicality and effectiveness of providing PRT to patients in a district general hospital within the constraints of existing resources. Patients attending a rheumatology clinic were invited to participate in a weekly PRT class for 6 weeks, supervised by a physiotherapist. Outcome measures included: body composition measures (waist and hip circumference, weight, percentage body fat); functional measures (grip strength, 60-s sit-to-stand test, single leg stance, Health Assessment Questionnaire); mood; fatigue and disease activity measures (sleep scale, hospital anxiety and depression scale, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy, pain visual analogue scale). These were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks. A total of 83 patients completed the programme (60% female, mean age 51.2 years), of whom 34.9% had early RA. Improvements were seen in multiple measures inpatients with early RA and with established inflammatory arthritis, and were not affected by age or gender. Patients with early and established inflammatory arthritis alike benefited from a 6-week PRT programme provided within a National Health Service setting. Although further work is needed to look at long-term effects, we suggest that this intervention should be more widely available. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  8. Cold drink ingestion improves exercise endurance capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason K W; Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of drink temperature on cycling capacity in the heat. On two separate trials, eight males cycled at 66 +/- 2% VO2peak (mean +/- SD) to exhaustion in hot (35.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C) and humid (60 +/- 1%) environments. Participants ingested three 300-mL aliquots of either a cold (4 degrees C) or a warm (37 degrees C) drink during 30 min of seated rest before exercise and 100 mL of the same drink every 10 min during exercise. Rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, and sweat rate were recorded. Ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion were assessed. Exercise time was longer (P < 0.001) with the cold drink (63.8 +/- 4.3 min) than with the warm drink (52.0 +/- 4.1 min). Rectal temperature fell by 0.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P < 0.001) at the end of the resting period after ingestion of the cold drinks. There was no effect of drink temperature on mean skin temperature at rest (P = 0.870), but mean skin temperature was lower from 20 min during exercise with ingestion of the cold drink than with the warm drink (P < 0.05). Heart rate was lower before exercise and for the first 35 min of exercise with ingestion of the cold drink than with the warm drink (P < 0.05). Drink temperature influenced sweat rate (1.22 +/- 0.34 and 1.40 +/- 0.41 L x h(-1) for the cold and the warm drink, respectively; P < 0.05). Ratings of thermal sensation and perceived exertion (P < 0.01) during exercise were lower when the cold drink was ingested. Compared with a drink at 37 degrees C, the ingestion of a cold drink before and during exercise in the heat reduced physiological strain (reduced heat accumulation) during exercise, leading to an improved endurance capacity (23 +/- 6%).

  9. Wisdom and eagerness to improve women's health. JICA Reproductive Health Project. Nghi Loc district.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thi Hien

    1999-01-01

    This article concerns a report by Nguyen Thi Hien, chairperson of Nghi Loc District Women's Union on the contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project to their organization. She states that prior to the start of the JICA project, the women's union had a lot of campaigns for maternal and child health and family planning. However, the impact was not strongly felt. After the implementation of the JICA project, women in the district have become interested and excited about the various activities conducted under the project. Subsequently, more women understood the correct way to take care of their health and their children's health. Furthermore, more people in the district frequently use the services of commune health centers and district health centers. In the family planning field, contraceptive prevalence rate has increased and the number of abortions and menstrual regulations has been reduced. Despite the achievements of the campaign, the district still has a few big problems to address. These problems include: 1) a gap between commune health centers in remote areas and those near the district health centers; and 2) a low level of family planning acceptance in Catholic communes.

  10. Axisymmetric heat conduction analysis under steady state by improved multiple-reciprocity boundary element method

    SciTech Connect

    Ochiai, Yoshihiro

    1995-09-01

    Heat-conduction analysis under steady state without heat generation can easily be treated by the boundary element method. However, in the case with heat conduction with heat generation can approximately be solved without a domain integral by an improved multiple-reciprocity boundary element method. The convention multiple-reciprocity boundary element method is not suitable for complicated heat generation. In the improved multiple-reciprocity boundary element method, on the other hand, the domain integral in each step is divided into point, line, and area integrals. In order to solve the problem, the contour lines of heat generation, which approximate the actual heat generation, are used.

  11. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology.

  12. City of Kansas City, Missouri Public Works Department: Solid waste management plan, district heating and cooling plan, and waste-to-energy feasibility study: Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Garbage and Trash (Municipal Solid Waste Storage and Ordinance of Kansas City with Proposed Modifications; Contract (Draft Solid Waste Collection Contract); Solid Waste Disposal Services Contract; Electric Power Purchase Agreement; Steam Delivery Agreement; Results of Telecon Survey of Companies Paying for Recycled Materials; Regional Hazardous Waste Processing and Disposal Facilities; Summary of Downtown District Heating Survey; Steam Distribution System Information; Ruling by Missouri Public Service Commission: KCPandL Downtown Steam Heating System for Kansas City, Missouri; and Review of Kansas City Power and Light Waste-to-Energy Study.

  13. Infrared Heating for Improved Safety and Processing Efficiency of Dry-Roasted Almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of infrared (IR) heating technology was investigated for improving safety and processing efficiency of dry-roasted almonds. Almonds were roasted at 130, 140 and 150°C with three different methods: IR heating, sequential infrared and hot air (SIRHA) heating, and traditional hot air (HA) heat...

  14. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Hari S; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Finnegan, Karen; Uwingabiye, Alice; Shyaka, Edward; Niyonzima, Saleh; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Drobac, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    While health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions are recommended by global health policy experts to improve population health in resource-limited settings, few examples exist of evaluations of HSS interventions conducted at the district level. In 2009, a partnership between Partners In Health (PIH), a non-governmental organization, and the Rwandan Ministry of Health (RMOH) was provided funds to implement and evaluate a district-level HSS intervention in two rural districts of Rwanda. The partnership provided limited funds to 14 health centers for targeted systems support in 2010; six others received support prior to the intervention (reference). RMOH health systems norms were mapped across the WHO HSS framework, scored from 0 to 10 and incorporated into a rapid survey assessing 11 domains of facility readiness. Stakeholder meetings allowed partnership leaders to review results, set priorities, and allocate resources. Investments included salary support, infrastructure improvements, medical equipment, and social support for patients. We compared facility domain scores from the start of the intervention to 12 months and tested for correlation between change in score and change in funding allocation to assess equity in our approach. We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001), clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03), infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03), medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02), information use (+2, p=0.002)]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002). Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4) at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use of limited resources, improve facility

  15. Improved Differential Evolution for Combined Heat and Power Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, C.; Basu, M.; Panigrahi, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an improved differential evolution to solve non-smooth non-convex combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. Valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones of conventional thermal generators are taken into account. Differential evolution (DE) exploits the differences of randomly sampled pairs of objective vectors for its mutation process. Consequently the variation between vectors will outfit the objective function toward the optimization process and therefore provides efficient global optimization capability. However, although DE is shown to be precise, fast as well as robust, its search efficiency will be impaired during solution process with fast descending diversity of population. This paper proposes Gaussian random variable instead of scaling factor which improves search efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on four test systems. The results of the proposed approach are compared with those obtained by other evolutionary methods. It is found that the proposed improved differential evolution based approach is able to provide better solution.

  16. Improving quality through performance-based financing in district hospitals in Rwanda between 2006 and 2010: a 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Willy; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Matungwa, Michel; Van Bastelaere, Stefaan

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000 performance-based financing (PBF) made its way to sub-Saharan health systems in an attempt to improve service delivery. In Rwanda initial experiences in 2001 and 2002 led to a scaling up of the initiative to all health centres (HC) and district hospitals (DH). In 2008 PBF became national strategy. PBF was introduced in Rwanda in 2006 at the DH level. Evaluation on their service delivery was carried out quarterly in the following areas: hospital management, support to the health centres and clinical activities. We studied four DHs. After 5 years, an improvement in the quantity of clinical activities was observed, as well as quality in hospital management, in HC support and in clinical activities. PBF proves to be a promising approach in strengthening and maintaining quality service delivery in the sub-Saharan district hospitals. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Improved retention of patients starting antiretroviral treatment in Karonga District, northern Malawi, 2005-2012

    PubMed Central

    Mzembe, Themba; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Kayange, Michael; Jahn, Andreas; Chimbwandira, Frank; Glynn, Judith R; Crampin, Amelia C

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs remains a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined whether and why retention in ART care has changed with increasing access. Methods Retrospective cohort study combining individual data from ART registers and interview data, enabling us to link patients across different ART clinics in Karonga District, Malawi. We recorded information on all adults (≥15 years) starting ART between July 2005 and August 2012, including those initiating due to pregnancy and breastfeeding (Option B+). Retention in care was defined as being alive and receiving ART at the end of study. Predictors of attrition were assessed using a multi-variable Cox-proportional hazards model. Results The number of clinics providing ART increased from one in 2005 to 16 in 2012. Six month retention increased from 73% (95%CI 71-76) to 93% (92-94) when comparing the 2005-06 and 2011-12 cohorts, and 12-month retention increased from 70% (67-73) to 92% (90-93). Over the study period, the proportion of patients starting ART at WHO stage 4 declined from 62% to 10%. Being a man, younger than 35 years, having a more advanced WHO stage and being part of an earlier cohort were all independently associated with attrition. Women starting ART for Option B+ experienced higher attrition than women of child-bearing age starting for other reasons. Conclusions In this area retention in care has increased dramatically. Improved health in patients starting ART and decentralization of ART care to peripheral health centres appear to be the major drivers for this change. PMID:24977375

  18. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  19. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

  20. Improving Heat Health Resilience through Urban Infrastructure Planning and Design

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar will explore ways in which public health and environmental agencies can collaborate to reduce the heat island effect, increase resilience to extreme heat events, and help each other further their respective missions.

  1. Chicago, IL Adapts to Improve Extreme Heat Preparedness

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recognizing that heat waves are expected to increase in Chicago due to climate change,–supported by the Chicago Climate Impacts Report, the city adopted a comprehensive set of actions to reduce deaths from extreme heat events.

  2. Improving Heat Health Resilience through Urban Infrastructure Planning and Design

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar will explore ways in which public health and environmental agencies can collaborate to reduce the heat island effect, increase resilience to extreme heat events, and help each other further their respective missions.

  3. Can district nurses and care home staff improve bowel care for older people using a clinical benchmarking tool?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Claire; L Davies, Sue; Norton, Christine; Fader, Mandy; Morris, Jackie; Wells, Mandy; Gage, Heather

    2013-12-01

    A quasi-experimental study tested a clinical benchmarking tool (Essence of Care) to improve bowel-related care for older people living in six care homes. In the intervention care homes, district nurses and care home staff used the clinical benchmarking tool to discuss and plan how to improve bowel care for residents. In the control care homes, staff were provided with detailed information about the residents and continence services contact details. The intervention was acceptable to care home and district nursing staff, and possible to incorporate into existing working patterns. The study did not demonstrate a significant reduction in bowel-related problems, although there was evidence in one care home of reduction in episodes of avoidable faecal incontinence. At an individual level of care, there were observable benefits, and examples of person-centred care were prompted through participating in the intervention and improved staff awareness. Clinical benchmarking tools can be used to structure discussion between district nurses and care home staff to review and plan care for residents. However, it takes time to achieve change and embedding this kind of approach requires either robust pre-existing working relationships or the involvement of a facilitator.

  4. Mounting improves heat-sink contact with beryllia washer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    To conduct heat away from electrical components that must be electrically insulated from a metal heat sink, a metal washer and a coil spring are placed between one end of the electrical component and the beryllia washer mounted on the heat sink. The thermal paths are formed by the component lead and base, the metal and beryllia washers, and the compressed spring.

  5. District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications. Final report, August 20, 1990--January 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.

  6. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. Methods The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1) district documents (n = 23); 2) key interviews with district health managers (n = 10), health workers (n = 16), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), and community management committees (n = 11); 3) non-participant observations in health centres; 4) focus groups in communities (n = 62); 5) a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. Results All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved may reduce the

  7. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Belaid, Loubna; Ridde, Valéry

    2012-12-08

    To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1) district documents (n = 23); 2) key interviews with district health managers (n = 10), health workers (n = 16), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), and community management committees (n = 11); 3) non-participant observations in health centres; 4) focus groups in communities (n = 62); 5) a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved may reduce the effectiveness of the policy

  8. Leather Coated with Mixtures of Humectant and Antioxidants to Improve UV and Heat Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ultraviolet (UV) and heat resistance are very important qualities for leather products. We recently developed an environmentally friendly finishing process for improving the UV- and heat resistance of automobile upholstery leather. We previously reported and demonstrated some promising results fro...

  9. Neck-cooling improves repeated sprint performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Caroline; Stevens, Ryan; Everson, Bethan; Tyler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of neck-cooling during exercise on repeated sprint ability in a hot environment. Seven team-sport playing males completed two experimental trials involving repeated sprint exercise (5 × 6 s) before and after two 45 min bouts of a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol in the heat (33.0 ± 0.2°C; 53 ± 2% relative humidity). Participants wore a neck-cooling collar in one of the trials (CC). Mean power output and peak power output declined over time in both trials but were higher in CC (540 ± 99 v 507 ± 122 W, d = 0.32; 719 ± 158 v 680 ± 182 W, d = 0.24 respectively). The improved power output was particularly pronounced (d = 0.51-0.88) after the 2nd 45 min bout but the CC had no effect on % fatigue. The collar lowered neck temperature and the thermal sensation of the neck (P < 0.001) but had no effect on heart rate, fluid loss, fluid consumption, lactate, glucose, plasma volume change, cortisol, or thermal sensation (P > 0.05). There were no trial differences but interaction effects were demonstrated for prolactin concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Prolactin concentration was initially higher in the collar cold trial and then was lower from 45 min onwards (interaction trial × time P = 0.04). RPE was lower during the football intermittent treadmill protocol in the collar cold trial (interaction trial × time P = 0.01). Neck-cooling during exercise improves repeated sprint performance in a hot environment without altering physiological or neuroendocrinological responses. RPE is reduced and may partially explain the performance improvement.

  10. Neck-cooling improves repeated sprint performance in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, Caroline; Stevens, Ryan; Everson, Bethan; Tyler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of neck-cooling during exercise on repeated sprint ability in a hot environment. Seven team-sport playing males completed two experimental trials involving repeated sprint exercise (5 × 6 s) before and after two 45 min bouts of a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol in the heat (33.0 ± 0.2°C; 53 ± 2% relative humidity). Participants wore a neck-cooling collar in one of the trials (CC). Mean power output and peak power output declined over time in both trials but were higher in CC (540 ± 99 v 507 ± 122 W, d = 0.32; 719 ± 158 v 680 ± 182 W, d = 0.24 respectively). The improved power output was particularly pronounced (d = 0.51–0.88) after the 2nd 45 min bout but the CC had no effect on % fatigue. The collar lowered neck temperature and the thermal sensation of the neck (P < 0.001) but had no effect on heart rate, fluid loss, fluid consumption, lactate, glucose, plasma volume change, cortisol, or thermal sensation (P > 0.05). There were no trial differences but interaction effects were demonstrated for prolactin concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Prolactin concentration was initially higher in the collar cold trial and then was lower from 45 min onwards (interaction trial × time P = 0.04). RPE was lower during the football intermittent treadmill protocol in the collar cold trial (interaction trial × time P = 0.01). Neck-cooling during exercise improves repeated sprint performance in a hot environment without altering physiological or neuroendocrinological responses. RPE is reduced and may partially explain the performance improvement. PMID:26594177

  11. An examination of heat rate improvements due to waste heat integration in an oxycombustion pulverized coal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Joshua M.

    Oxyfuel, or oxycombustion, technology has been proposed as one carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants. An oxycombustion plant would fire coal in an oxidizer consisting primarily of CO2, oxygen, and water vapor. Flue gas with high CO2 concentrations is produced and can be compressed for sequestration. Since this compression generates large amounts of heat, it was theorized that this heat could be utilized elsewhere in the plant. Process models of the oxycombustion boiler, steam cycle, and compressors were created in ASPEN Plus and Excel to test this hypothesis. Using these models, heat from compression stages was integrated to the flue gas recirculation heater, feedwater heaters, and to a fluidized bed coal dryer. All possible combinations of these heat sinks were examined, with improvements in coal flow rate, Qcoal, net power, and unit heat rate being noted. These improvements would help offset the large efficiency impacts inherent to oxycombustion technology.

  12. One School District's Strategy to Improve Fitness Levels: A Fitness Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Tass, Brian; Peterson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a district-wide fitness challenge that was implemented by the elementary physical education program in the Waterford (Michigan) public schools. Its purpose was to (1) encourage students to be active outside of the classroom, (2) provide parents and families with information about the importance of fitness and physical…

  13. Improving Attainment across a Whole District: School Reform through Peer Tutoring in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Thurston, Allen; Andor, John; Topping, Keith; Miller, David

    2011-01-01

    Districts are an important unit for administrative purposes, but they vary little in their impact on students' attainment, at least in the UK. Further, government attempts to raise attainment are often disappointing. The project described in this article aimed to engage schools in reform to change students' attainment and attitudes in schools…

  14. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  15. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  16. The Role of External Diagnosis in School Improvement in an Ontario School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Sibbald, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    External diagnosis is recommended when schools lack the capacity to assess their needs. This qualitative study of one Ontario district compared 33 elementary schools that conducted external diagnosis with 47 schools that used internal diagnosis. External diagnosis created pressure for change, helped schools develop a plan that included previously…

  17. Using Evaluation Systems for Teacher Improvement: Are School Districts Ready to Meet New Federal Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Rachel; Parise, Leigh M.

    2017-01-01

    The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA--the main federal education law) was signed into law at the end of 2015, but schools and districts have until the 2017-2018 school year to begin implementing their plans to comply with it. ESSA represents a substantial shift from prior law in how it addresses teacher professional growth and evaluation, and as…

  18. Born to Fail? Some Lessons from a National Programme to Improve Education in Poor Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrantes, Pedro; Roldao, Cristina; Amaral, Patricia; Mauritti, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the main benefits of a Portuguese programme, launched in 1996, which was designed to support schools in segregated districts (TEIPs). The first part of the article presents a theoretical framework, before moving on to the main features of the TEIP programme in contemporary Portuguese society and education. An explanation of…

  19. Improving Attainment across a Whole District: School Reform through Peer Tutoring in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Thurston, Allen; Andor, John; Topping, Keith; Miller, David

    2011-01-01

    Districts are an important unit for administrative purposes, but they vary little in their impact on students' attainment, at least in the UK. Further, government attempts to raise attainment are often disappointing. The project described in this article aimed to engage schools in reform to change students' attainment and attitudes in schools…

  20. Maze of Mistrust: How District Politics and Cross Talk Are Stalling Efforts to Improve Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve; Duffett, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In 1993, the Kettering Foundation and Public Agenda released a report titled "Divided Within, Besieged Without: The Politics of Education in Four American School Districts." The study's attention to communities was distinct from the conventional focus on the technical issues of school administration and funding, and it reported on what…

  1. Improving Information Dissemination Impact on Districts and Schools. Knowledge Brief Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Stephen R.

    The California Department of Education commissioned a study to help guide ongoing information dissemination practices to the educational community. A pilot study, department of education staff interviews, and field interviews preceded document tracking. Phone interviews were conducted with district administrators, principals, and teachers…

  2. Born to Fail? Some Lessons from a National Programme to Improve Education in Poor Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrantes, Pedro; Roldao, Cristina; Amaral, Patricia; Mauritti, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the main benefits of a Portuguese programme, launched in 1996, which was designed to support schools in segregated districts (TEIPs). The first part of the article presents a theoretical framework, before moving on to the main features of the TEIP programme in contemporary Portuguese society and education. An explanation of…

  3. Impact of extension interventions in improving livelihood of dairy farmers of Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Garai, Suman; Garai, Sanchita; Maiti, Sanjit; Meena, B S; Ghosh, M K; Bhakat, Champak; Dutta, T K

    2017-03-01

    Livestock is a one of the major sources of livelihood for most of the small and marginal farmers in India, particularly for rural households who live in below poverty line. Extension interventions have long been seen as a key element for enabling farmers to obtain information and technologies that can improve their livelihoods. It is also recognized that extension is an important factor in promoting dairy development. Ex-post-facto cause to effect research design was applied in this study to trace out the impact of extension interventions in improving knowledge, attitude, adoption towards scientific dairy farming practices and improvement in milk production of dairy animal and income from dairying which will be resulted into improved livelihood of rural poor in Nadia district of West Bengal, India. Therefore, 60 dairy farmers of experimental villages who were considered as beneficiaries and 60 dairy farmers of control villages who were considered as non-beneficiaries were selected as sample for the study. It was found that beneficiaries had significantly higher score in all the five components of livelihood improvement with its all sub components, i.e., knowledge, attitude, adoption of scientific dairy farming practices, milk production per household per day and monthly income from dairying except disease control, and marketing component of adoption. Hence, it may be concluded that extension interventions had a significant impact on improving livelihood of rural dairy farmers in Nadia district of West Bengal, India.

  4. Dysart Unified School District: How One School District Used Collaborative Planning to Improve Outcomes for All Students. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaven, Chip; Hall, Sara; Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan; Jones, Rachel; Wolf, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Dysart Unified School District (Dysart) in Arizona covers 140 square miles and serves numerous communities, including the cities of Surprise and El Mirage and some unincorporated areas of Maricopa County. At one time the fastest-growing school system in Arizona, Dysart has tripled in size since 2000. The district continues to grow, and in…

  5. Dysart Unified School District: How One School District Used Collaborative Planning to Improve Outcomes for All Students. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaven, Chip; Hall, Sara; Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan; Jones, Rachel; Wolf, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Dysart Unified School District (Dysart) in Arizona covers 140 square miles and serves numerous communities, including the cities of Surprise and El Mirage and some unincorporated areas of Maricopa County. At one time the fastest-growing school system in Arizona, Dysart has tripled in size since 2000. The district continues to grow, and in…

  6. Cooling performance improvements of a horizontal ground coupled heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, B.A.; Baugh, R.N.; Johnson, W.S.; Griffith, W.

    1984-10-01

    Performance of the horizontal-coil ground-coupled heat pump system in TECH House I at the Tennessee Energy Conservation in Housing Facility is reported for the summers of 1983 and 1984. The overall coefficients of performance (COP) were 1.80 (1983 and 2.41 (1984) while the overall cooling seasonal performance factor (SPF) was 1.11 (1983) and 1.43 (1984) with the system located within the conditioned space. If the system had been outside the conditioned space, an SPF of 1.31 (1983) and 1.76 (1984) would have been realized. In both years, the systems were identical with the exception that prior to the 1984 cooling season, the ground coil was excavated and a new one of identical length was installed using sand as a backfill material. Although the 1984 SPF was 29% higher than that measured in 1983, the improvement cannot be totally attributed to the backfill material. During the summer of 1983, 30% more cooling degree days were incurred than in 1984. A decrease in runtime (as a result of lower ambient temperatures) would also increase the performance factor.

  7. Liquid-Infused Smooth Surface for Improved Condensation Heat Transfer.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hirotaka; Tenjimbayashi, Mizuki; Moriya, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Ryohei; Sasaki, Kaichi; Togasawa, Ryo; Yamazaki, Taku; Manabe, Kengo; Shiratori, Seimei

    2017-09-12

    Control of vapor condensation properties is a promising approach to manage a crucial part of energy infrastructure conditions. Heat transfer by vapor condensation on superhydrophobic coatings has garnered attention, because dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with rough structures leads to favorable heat-transfer performance. However, pinned condensed water droplets within the rough structure and a high thermodynamic energy barrier for nucleation of superhydrophobic surfaces limit their heat-transfer increase. Recently, slippery liquid-infused surfaces (SLIPS) have been investigated, because of their high water sliding ability and surface smoothness originating from the liquid layer. However, even on SLIPS, condensed water droplets are eventually pinned to degrade their heat-transfer properties after extended use, because the rough base layer is exposed as infused liquid is lost. Herein, we report a liquid-infused smooth surface named "SPLASH" (surface with π electron interaction liquid adsorption, smoothness, and hydrophobicity) to overcome the problems derived from the rough structures in previous approaches to obtain stable, high heat-transfer performance. The SPLASH displayed a maximum condensation heat-transfer coefficient that was 175% higher than that of an uncoated substrate. The SPLASH also showed higher heat-transfer performance and more stable dropwise condensation than superhydrophobic surfaces and SLIPS from the viewpoints of condensed water droplet mobility and the thermodynamic energy barrier for nucleation. The effects of liquid-infused surface roughness and liquid viscosity on condensation heat transfer were investigated to compare heat-transfer performance. This research will aid industrial applications using vapor condensation.

  8. Concerning the improvement of solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidov, Iu. K.

    It is suggested that systems of solar heating and cooling can be simplified by the use of 'organized hydrothermal processes' (OHP) in the elements (e.g., circulation systems and heat storage units) of such systems. This paper defines and classifies such processes. Design diagrams are presented for two types of systems: (1) a heating, hot-water, and storage system with one-phase OHPs; and (2) a gravity-assisted heat pipe and an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system with two-phase OHPs.

  9. Improvement of heat transfer by means of ultrasound: Application to a double-tube heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Legay, M; Simony, B; Boldo, P; Gondrexon, N; Le Person, S; Bontemps, A

    2012-11-01

    A new kind of ultrasonically-assisted heat exchanger has been designed, built and studied. It can be seen as a vibrating heat exchanger. A comprehensive description of the overall experimental set-up is provided, i.e. of the test rig and the acquisition system. Data acquisition and processing are explained step-by-step with a detailed example of graph obtained and how, from these experimental data, energy balance is calculated on the heat exchanger. It is demonstrated that ultrasound can be used efficiently as a heat transfer enhancement technique, even in such complex systems as heat exchangers.

  10. Improved Heat Removal by Microscopic Surface Texturing of Capillaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    177, 1978. 36. T.R. Thomas, Ed., Rough Surfaces, Longman, New York, 1982. 37. D.J. Whitehouse and J.F. Archard , "Properties of Random Surface of... David P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1981. 54. Frank Kreith and William Z. Black, Basic Heat Transfer, Harper & Row, NY

  11. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensor of Improved Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gus; Wrbanek, John; Blaha, Charles

    2002-01-01

    A new design for a thin film heat flux sensor is presented. It is easier to fabricate than previous designs, for a given heat flux has an order of magnitude larger signal, and is more easily scalable than previous designs. Transient and steady state data are also presented.

  12. Improving Heat Transfer Performance of Printed Circuit Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzel, Donald V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will explore the ability of printed circuit boards laminated with a Carbon Core Laminate to transfer heat vs. standard printed circuit boards that use only thick layers of copper. The paper will compare the differences in heat transfer performance of printed circuit boards with and without CCL.

  13. Improving Heat Transfer Performance of Printed Circuit Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzel, Donald V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will explore the ability of printed circuit boards laminated with a Carbon Core Laminate to transfer heat vs. standard printed circuit boards that use only thick layers of copper. The paper will compare the differences in heat transfer performance of printed circuit boards with and without CCL.

  14. Computer simulation for improving radio frequency (RF) heating uniformity of food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi; Marra, Francesco; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Wang, Shaojin

    2016-11-28

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric heating in foods, providing safe and high quality food products due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the non-uniform heating problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the heated product) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots. The mathematical modelling for RF heating processes has been extensively studied in a wide variety of agricultural products recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent progresses in computer simulation for RF heating uniformity improvement and the offered solutions to reduce the heating non-uniformity. It provides a brief introduction on the basic principle of RF heating technology, analyzes the applications of numerical simulation, and discusses the factors influencing the RF heating uniformity and the possible methods to improve heating uniformity. Mathematical modelling improves the understanding of RF heating of food and is essential to optimize the RF treatment protocol for pasteurization and disinfestation applications. Recommendations for future research have been proposed to further improve the accuracy of numerical models, by covering both heat and mass transfers in the model, validating these models with sample movement and mixing, and identifying the important model parameters by sensitivity analysis.

  15. [Study on tuberculosis in a Seville Health Care District. Current situation and control improvement alternatives].

    PubMed

    Limón Mora, Juan; Nieto Cervera, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    In our setting (District, Seville, Andalusia, Spain....) it is not rare to find annual incidence rates for TBC of more than 30 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. It reveals that this problem is nowhere near being eradicated. This study is aimed at describing the clinical and public health patterns of tuberculosis cases within the "South-East Seville" Healthcare District. Descriptive study of the reported cases (personal traits, location, time, type of disease, risk factors) throughout the 1992-2000 period in the "South-East Seville" Healthcare District, located in the city of Seville and including some rural centers of population. Percentage distribution of cases for the different studied factors and the incidence rates for group of interest (sex, age groups, geographic areas) are provided. A mean annual incidence rate of 19.4 cases/100,000 inhabitants has been estimated. Notable differences in incidence depending on group of sex (RR = 2.1), age (annual incidence of more than 24 cases/100,000 inhabitants among children age 0-4 and adults age 25-39) and geographical area were found. The frequency of relapses and repeated treatments, as well as shortcomings with regard to conducting and reporting the studies on family members and contacts were noted. The situation analysis in a Healthcare District such as the one described here (currently approx. 610,000 inhabitants) throughout a nine-year follow-up period -entailing 1,065 reported cases- may well provide us some orientation about the situation in our environment. It also gives us the possibility to compare it with some other studies. A downward trend in the incidence rate has been noted as of 1997. Some organizational measures to be taken into account for controlling this infection are provided.

  16. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Hari S.; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Finnegan, Karen; Uwingabiye, Alice; Shyaka, Edward; Niyonzima, Saleh; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Drobac, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background While health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions are recommended by global health policy experts to improve population health in resource-limited settings, few examples exist of evaluations of HSS interventions conducted at the district level. In 2009, a partnership between Partners In Health (PIH), a non-governmental organization, and the Rwandan Ministry of Health (RMOH) was provided funds to implement and evaluate a district-level HSS intervention in two rural districts of Rwanda. Design The partnership provided limited funds to 14 health centers for targeted systems support in 2010; six others received support prior to the intervention (reference). RMOH health systems norms were mapped across the WHO HSS framework, scored from 0 to 10 and incorporated into a rapid survey assessing 11 domains of facility readiness. Stakeholder meetings allowed partnership leaders to review results, set priorities, and allocate resources. Investments included salary support, infrastructure improvements, medical equipment, and social support for patients. We compared facility domain scores from the start of the intervention to 12 months and tested for correlation between change in score and change in funding allocation to assess equity in our approach. Results We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001), clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03), infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03), medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02), information use (+2, p=0.002)]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002). Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4) at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Conclusions Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use

  17. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Hari S; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Finnegan, Karen; Uwingabiye, Alice; Shyaka, Edward; Niyonzima, Saleh; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Drobac, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Background While health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions are recommended by global health policy experts to improve population health in resource-limited settings, few examples exist of evaluations of HSS interventions conducted at the district level. In 2009, a partnership between Partners In Health (PIH), a non-governmental organization, and the Rwandan Ministry of Health (RMOH) was provided funds to implement and evaluate a district-level HSS intervention in two rural districts of Rwanda. Design The partnership provided limited funds to 14 health centers for targeted systems support in 2010; six others received support prior to the intervention (reference). RMOH health systems norms were mapped across the WHO HSS framework, scored from 0 to 10 and incorporated into a rapid survey assessing 11 domains of facility readiness. Stakeholder meetings allowed partnership leaders to review results, set priorities, and allocate resources. Investments included salary support, infrastructure improvements, medical equipment, and social support for patients. We compared facility domain scores from the start of the intervention to 12 months and tested for correlation between change in score and change in funding allocation to assess equity in our approach. Results We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001), clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03), infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03), medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02), information use (+2, p=0.002)]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002). Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4) at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Conclusions Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use

  18. Optimization of Transient Heat Exchanger Performance for Improved Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Wirz, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Heat exchangers are used in a multitude of applications within systems for energy generation, energy conversion, or energy storage. Many of these systems (e.g. solar power plants) function under transient conditions, but the design of the heat exchangers is typically optimized assuming steady state conditions. There is a potential for significant energy savings if the transient behavior of the heat exchanger is taken into account in designing the heat exchanger by optimizing its operating conditions in relation to the transient behavior of the overall system. The physics of the transient behavior of a heat exchanger needs to be understood to provide design parameters for transient heat exchangers to deliver energy savings. A numerical model was used to determine the optimized mass flow rates thermal properties for a thermal energy storage system. The transient behavior is strongly linked to the dimensionless parameters relating fluid properties, the mass flow rates, and the temperature of the fluids at the inlet of each stream. Smart metals, or advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction will be used to meet the three goals mentioned before: 1) energy and cost reduction, 2) size reduction, and 3) optimal performance for all modes of operation.

  19. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  20. Various methods to improve heat transfer in exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Zitek; Vaclav, Valenta

    2015-05-01

    The University of West Bohemia in Pilsen (Department of Power System Engineering) is working on the selection of effective heat exchangers. Conventional shell and tube heat exchangers use simple segmental baffles. It can be replaced by helical baffles, which increase the heat transfer efficiency and reduce pressure losses. Their usage is demonstrated in the primary circuit of IV. generation MSR (Molten Salt Reactors). For high-temperature reactors we consider the use of compact desk heat exchangers, which are small, which allows the integral configuration of reactor. We design them from graphite composites, which allow up to 1000°C and are usable as exchangers: salt-salt or salt-acid (e.g. for the hydrogen production). In the paper there are shown thermo-physical properties of salts, material properties and principles of calculations.

  1. Assembly of opto-electronic module with improved heat sink

    DOEpatents

    Chan, Benson; Fortier, Paul Francis; Freitag, Ladd William; Galli, Gary T.; Guindon, Francois; Johnson, Glen Walden; Letourneau, Martial; Sherman, John H.; Tetreault, Real

    2004-11-23

    A heat sink for a transceiver optoelectronic module including dual direct heat paths and a structure which encloses a number of chips having a central web which electrically isolates transmitter and receiver chips from each other. A retainer for an optical coupler having a port into which epoxy is poured. An overmolded base for an optoelectronic module having epoxy flow controller members built thereon. Assembly methods for an optoelectronic module including gap setting and variation of a TAB bonding process.

  2. Identification of existing waste heat recovery and process improvement technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Dodge, R.E.; Smith, S.A.; Ames, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    General information is provided on waste heat recovery opportunities. The currently available equipment for high- and low-temperature applications are described. Other equipment related to wasteheat recovery equipment such as components, instruments and controls, and cleaning equipment is discussed briefly. A description of the microcomputer data base is included. Suppliers of waste heat equipment are mentioned throughout the report, with specific contacts, addresses, and telephone numbers provided in an Appendix.

  3. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  4. Improved heat transfer modeling of the eye for electromagnetic wave exposures.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa

    2007-05-01

    This study proposed an improved heat transfer model of the eye for exposure to electromagnetic (EM) waves. Particular attention was paid to the difference from the simplified heat transfer model commonly used in this field. From our computational results, the temperature elevation in the eye calculated with the simplified heat transfer model was largely influenced by the EM absorption outside the eyeball, but not when we used our improved model.

  5. Improvements in heat tolerance induced by interval running training in the heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, B; Pyke, F S; Morton, A R

    1989-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of training in heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions on improving heat tolerance, two groups of active subjects (n = 6 in each) performed an interval running heat-tolerance test before and after a 7-day experimental treatment. On each treatment day the subjects attempted to complete 4 x 15 min interval treadmill running periods (a 7.5 s effort every 30 s, on 15 km h-1, 15% grade; the same exercise format as the heat-tolerance test), which were interspersed with 5-min recovery periods (total time each day = 80 min). Group 1 (heat) ran in shorts, socks and shoes in hot humid conditions, and Group 2 (sweat clothing) ran in cool conditions dressed in shorts, socks and T-shirt covered by a polyester-cotton tracksuit, over which was worn 100% nylon spray-proof pants and jacket (cotton lined) with an acrylic cloth bobble hat (beanie) on the head. Both groups displayed changes typical of heat acclimatization over the 7-day period, with significant decreases in final rectal temperature (Tr) and heart rate (HR) being evident, but no change in sweat loss. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) was similar in both groups during the training sessions (heat group: 34.8-35.7 degrees C; sweat clothing group 34.9-35.5 degrees C). After the heat-tolerance test, both groups had significantly lower Tr, Tsk and HR values than before, and sweating sensitivity (g m-2 h-1 degrees C rise in Tr) was significantly increased. There was only one significant difference between the two groups (Tsk, 20th min value). It was concluded that training in sweat clothing in cool conditions can provide the same improvements in heat tolerance as training in hot humid conditions where a fixed exercise intensity and duration are used.

  6. Vendor-to-vendor education to improve malaria treatment by private drug outlets in Bungoma District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tavrow, Paula; Shabahang, Jennifer; Makama, Sammy

    2003-05-07

    Private outlets are the main suppliers of uncomplicated malaria treatment in Africa. However, they are so numerous that they are difficult for governments to influence and regulate. This study's objective was to evaluate a low-cost outreach education (vendor-to-vendor) programme to improve the private sector's compliance with malaria guidelines in Bungoma district, Kenya. The cornerstone of the programme was the district's training of 73 wholesalers who were equipped with customized job aids for distribution to small retailers. Six months after training the wholesalers, the programme was evaluated using mystery shoppers. The shoppers posed as caretakers of sick children needing medication at 252 drug outlets. Afterwards, supervisors assessed the outlets' knowledge, drug stocks, and prices. The intervention seems to have had a significant impact on stocking patterns, malaria knowledge and prescribing practices of shops/kiosks, but not consistently on other types of outlets. About 32% of shops receiving job aids prescribed to mystery shoppers the approved first-line drug, sulfadoxine-pyremethamine, as compared to only 3% of the control shops. In the first six months, it is estimated that 500 outlets were reached, at a cost of about $8000. Changing private sector knowledge and practices is widely acknowledged to be slow and difficult. The vendor-to-vendor programme seems a feasible district-level strategy for achieving significant improvements in knowledge and practices of shops/kiosks. However, alternate strategies will be needed to influence pharmacies and clinics. Overall, the impact will be only moderate unless national policies and programmes are also introduced.

  7. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  8. Improving heat transfer with pool boiling by covering of heating surface with metallic spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, M.; Djuric, M.; Zavargo, Z.; Novakovic, M. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, boiling heat transfer (BHT) is investigated experimentally. Smooth copper walls were covered with single sphere layer and corresponding temperature difference and heat flux were measured. The results were compared with published data for several types of heating surfaces. Comparative analysis shows that surfaces covered with spheres have characteristics as good as the other systems, if not better. There are many ways to enhance boiling heat transfer. One of them is to cover the heating surface with a layer of solid particles, which either remain on the surface during the process or circulate through the boiling liquid, generating a porous two-component, three-phase system. Particles are made of various materials (glass, alumosilicate, corundum, sand, mullite some metals, etc.), which are shaped as spheres mostly, but sometimes are irregular bodies. Many different parameters were proposed to characterize the porous layer. The influence of particles can be expressed by introducing the effective thermal-physical properties of a complex medium. Also, if the working regime can be described as any kind of fluidization, then all quantities developed to be applied to this matter can be used in the case of heat fluidization.

  9. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    PubMed

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that acute lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner.

  10. Vapor-modulated heat pipe for improved temperature control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Ludeke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Dryout induced by vapor throttling makes control of equipment temperature less dependent on variations in sink environment. Mechanism controls flow of vapor in heat pipe by using valve in return path to build difference in pressure and also difference in saturation temperature of the vapor. In steady state, valve closes just enough to produce partial dryout that achieves required temperature drop.

  11. Pre-weld heat treatment improves welds in Rene 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1968-01-01

    Cooling of Rene 41 prior to welding reduces the incidence of cracking during post-weld heat treatment. The microstructure formed during the slow cooling rate favors elevated temperature ductility. Some vestiges of this microstructure are apparently retained during welding and thus enhance strain-age crack resistance in air.

  12. Vapor-modulated heat pipe for improved temperature control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Ludeke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Dryout induced by vapor throttling makes control of equipment temperature less dependent on variations in sink environment. Mechanism controls flow of vapor in heat pipe by using valve in return path to build difference in pressure and also difference in saturation temperature of the vapor. In steady state, valve closes just enough to produce partial dryout that achieves required temperature drop.

  13. Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Improving Structures for Healthy and Self-Determined Ageing in an Urban District].

    PubMed

    Heusinger, J; Kammerer, K; Wolter, B; Schuster, M

    2015-09-01

    Between 2007 and 2010 the Institut für Gerontologische Forschung e.V. investigated the "Primary Prevention Effects of the Märkisches Viertel Network" in the Berlin district "Märkisches Viertel". The study integrates, amongst others, various participatory methods to investigate the health promotion effects of the volunteer Märkisches Viertel Network, an organisation that brings together different local actors working to assist and encourage older people to live independent lives. Sustained active collaboration by a heterogeneous mixture of actors in a spatially defined quarter, engagement by the local housing association, and increasing acknowledgement of and participation by older residents were identified as success factors for a change in local structures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Heating experiments for flowability improvement of near-freezing aviation fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental jet fuel with a -33 C freezing point was chilled in a wing tank simulator with superimposed fuel heating to improve low temperature flowability. Heating consisted of circulating a portion of the fuel to an external heat exchanger and returning the heated fuel to the tank. Flowability was determined by the mass percent of unpumpable fuel (holdup) left in the simulator upon withdrawal of fuel at the conclusion of testing. The study demonstrated that fuel heating is feasible and improves flowability as compared to that of baseline, unheated tests. Delayed heating with initiation when the fuel reaches a prescribed low temperature limit, showed promise of being more efficient than continuous heating. Regardless of the mode or rate of heating, complete flowability (zero holdup) could not be restored by fuel heating. The severe, extreme-day environment imposed by the test caused a very small amount of subfreezing fuel to be retained near the tank surfaces even at high rates of heating. Correlations of flowability established for unheated fuel tests also could be applied to the heated test results if based on boundary-layer temperature or a solid index (subfreezing point) characteristic of the fuel. Previously announced in STAR as N82-26483

  16. Preliminary investigation on a primary energy saving heat supply system for the residential district "Maria Lindenhof" in Dorsten, West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, A.; Berlinghoff, K.; Grossmann, H.; Kaschube, H.; Reinmuth, F.

    1980-12-01

    Ways and means to operate a heating station by gas motor-driven heat pumps, using river water as heat source are investigated. The economic viability of the scheme is considered. A comparison with conventional technologies clearly shows the feasibility and effectiveness of this application, and at the same time supplies guidelines for design and dimensioning. Because of possible energy saving, the present investigation supports the realization of the project.

  17. Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary

    SciTech Connect

    Eltimsahy, A.H.

    1980-06-01

    The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

  18. Development of an improved toughness hyperpure silica reflective heat shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusert, E. L.; Hackett, T. L.; Drennan, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    High purity three dimensionally woven silica-silica materials were evaluated for use as a tough reflective heat shield for planetary entry probes. A special weave design was selected to minimize light piping effects through the heat shield thickness. Various weave spacings were evaluated for densification efficiency with an 0.7 micron particle size high purity silica. Spectral hemispherical reflectance was measured from 0.2 to 2.5 microns at room temperature. Reflectance increases due to densification and purity of material were measured. Reflectance of 3D hyperpure silica was higher than 3D astroquartz silica for all wavelengths. Mechanical properties were measured in beam flexure and beam shear tests. Results indicated strengths lower than reported for slip cast fused silica. Low strengths were attributed to low densities achieved through vacuum impregnation.

  19. Glycol coolants improve heat transfer and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Holfield, R.

    1995-03-01

    Various liquids from plain water to exotic fluids have been used as coolants in large stationary diesel engines that drive compressors on natural gas pipeline distribution systems. Although water is an efficient heat transfer medium, its drawbacks of freezing at {minus}32 F and boiling at 212 F seriously limit its usefulness. Special glycol-based heat transfer fluids are available and refined specifically for long-term needs of gas compressor engines. Appropriate corrosion inhibitors have been formulated for metallurgy and operating conditions encountered with these engines. Propylene glycol was developed as an alternative for use in environmentally sensitive areas. Glycol-based fluids must be specifically inhibited for industrial applications because uninhibited or improperly inhibited coolants can seriously damage reciprocating engines.

  20. Real-Time Learning, Real-World Teaching: University Teams with School District to Improve Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Steven; Borg, Terry

    2011-01-01

    An Illinois district brings a local university into the district to craft advanced learning embedded in the needs of specific schools. Community High School District 155 in Crystal Lake, Ill., and Northern Illinois University (NIU) College of Education engaged in a partnership that has provided significant benefits, posed limited challenges, and…

  1. Real-Time Learning, Real-World Teaching: University Teams with School District to Improve Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Steven; Borg, Terry

    2011-01-01

    An Illinois district brings a local university into the district to craft advanced learning embedded in the needs of specific schools. Community High School District 155 in Crystal Lake, Ill., and Northern Illinois University (NIU) College of Education engaged in a partnership that has provided significant benefits, posed limited challenges, and…

  2. Evaluation of the District of Columbia Energy Office Residential Conservation Assistance Program for Natural Gas-Heated Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2007-03-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), with assistance from the District of Columbia Energy Office (DCEO) performed an evaluation of part of the DCEO Residential Conservation Assistance Program (RCAP). The primary objective of the evaluation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the DCEO weatherization program. Because Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds are used primarily for weatherization of single-family homes and because evaluating the performance of multi-family residences would be more complex than the project budget would support, ORNL and DCEO focused the study on gas-heated single-family homes. DCEO provided treatment information and arranged for the gas utility to provide billing data for 100 treatment houses and 434 control houses. The Princeton Scorkeeping Method (PRISM) software package was used to normalize energy use for standard weather conditions. The houses of the initial treatment group of 100 houses received over 450 measures costing a little over $180,000, including labor and materials. The average cost per house was $1,811 and the median cost per house was $1,674. Window replacement was the most common measure and accounted for about 35% of total expenditures. Ceiling and floor insulation was installed in 61 houses and accounts for almost 22% of the expenditures. Twenty-seven houses received replacement doors at an average cost of $620 per house. Eight houses received furnace or boiler replacements at an average cost of about $3,000 per house. The control-adjusted average measured savings are about 20 therms/year. The 95% confidence interval is approximately +20 to +60 therms/year. The average pre-weatherization energy consumption of the houses was about 1,100 therm/year. Consequently, the adjusted average savings is approximately 2% ({+-}4%)-not significantly different than zero. Most RCAP expenditures appear to go to repairs. While some repairs may have energy benefits, measures

  3. Improvements in Certain District of Columbia Public Schools' Administrative Operations. Report to the Superintendent of the District of Columbia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The District of Columbia Public Schools system has taken action to ensure that supply items will be obtained at the most competitive prices. Because lack of storage facilities prevented bulk purchase of emergency items at competitive rates, the Division of Buildings and Grounds has remodeled a building as a warehouse to store large quantities of…

  4. On the potential for BECCS efficiency improvement through heat recovery from both post-combustion and oxy-combustion facilities.

    PubMed

    Dowell, N Mac; Fajardy, M

    2016-10-20

    In order to mitigate climate change to no more than 2 °C, it is well understood that it will be necessary to directly remove significant quantities of CO2, with bioenergy CCS (BECCS) regarded as a promising technology. However, BECCS will likely be more costly and less efficient at power generation than conventional CCS. Thus, approaches to improve BECCS performance and reduce costs are of importance to facilitate the deployment of this key technology. In this study, the impact of biomass co-firing rate and biomass moisture content on BECCS efficiency with both post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies was evaluated. It was found that post-combustion capture BECCS (PCC-BECCS) facilities will be appreciably less efficient than oxy-combustion capture BECCS (OCC-BECCS) facilities. Consequently, PCC-BECCS have the potential to be more carbon negative than OCC-BECCS per unit electricity generated. It was further observed that the biomass moisture content plays an important role in determining the BECCS facilities' efficiency. This will in turn affect the enthalpic content of the BECCS plant exhaust and implies that exhaust gas heat recovery may be an attractive option at higher rates of co-firing. It was found that there is the potential for the recovery of approximately 2.5 GJheat per tCO2 at a temperature of 100 °C from both PCC-BECCS and OCC-BECCS. On- and off-site applications for this recovered heat are discussed, considering boiler feedwater pre-heating, solvent regeneration and district heating cases.

  5. Design and construction of a hyperthermia system with improved interaction of magnetic induction-heating.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Fang; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lo, Wei-Hung

    2010-01-01

    For the applications of localized hyperthermia, an improved magnetic induction-heating system is described. The associated components of this system, for example, coils for generating magnetic field, magnetic circuit for flux path, and ferrite needles for generating heat by magnetic induction, all have been explained. An animal experiment of induction-heating hyperthermia for rat's liver is also carried out, and the consequent pathology of Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay are also conducted for evaluation.

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  7. Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework: Perceptions of stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees. Methods Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged. Results Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context. Conclusion This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting processes in the

  8. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  9. Decentralisation to Improve Teacher Quality? District Institutes of Education and Training in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Decentralisation is often expected to improve democratic participation and empowerment, and improve government responsiveness to local needs. International experience demonstrates that striking the right balance between centralisation and decentralisation remains highly challenging, and that developing appropriate institutional capacity to…

  10. Polymeric Coatings Containing Antioxidants to Improve UV- and Heat Resistance of Chrome-Free Leather

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For automotive upholstery leather, UV and heat resistance are very important qualities, particularly for non-chrome-tanned (chrome-free) leather. One of our research endeavors has focused on an environmentally friendly finishing process that will improve the UV and heat resistance of automobile uph...

  11. The mobile compressor unit heat losses recovery system compactness improving possibility evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusha, V. L.; Chernov, G. I.; Medkova, E. Ju.

    2017-08-01

    The mobile compressor unit heat losses recovery system compactness improving possibility by means of removing the condenser from the recuperative Rankine cycle is considered in the paper. In this case circulating in the Rankine circuit heat carrier (water) losses are compensated by the humidity supplied from the compressed air, air consumed by the internal combustion engine and humidity as the ICE fuel combustion product.

  12. Flash-Fire Propensity and Heat-Release Rate Studies of Improved Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-six improved fire resistant materials were tested for flash-fire propensity and heat release rate properties. The tests were conducted to obtain a descriptive index based on the production of ignitable gases during the thermal degradation process and on the response of the materials under a specific heat load.

  13. IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2007-03-06

    This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.

  14. Current performance and potential improvements in solar thermal industrial heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, M. J.; Williams, T.; Barker, G.

    1992-12-01

    A representative current state-of-the-art system using parabolic trough technology was developed using data from a system recently installed in Tehachapi, California. A simulation model was used to estimate the annual energy output from the system at three different insolation locations. Based on discussions with industry personnel and within NREL, we identified a number of technology improvements that offer the potential for increasing the energy performance and reducing the energy-cost of the baseline system. The technology improvements modeled included an evacuated-tube receiver, an antireflective coating on the receiver tube, an improved absorber material, a cleaner reflecting surface, a reflecting surface that can withstand contact cleaning, and two silver reflectors. The properties associated with the improvements were incorporated into the model simulation at the three insolation locations to determine if there were any performance gains. The results showed that there was a potential for a more than 50 percent improvement in the annual energy delivered by a 2677 sq m system incorporating a combination of the enumerated technology improvements. We discuss the commercial and technological status of each design improvement and present performance predictions for the trough-design improvements.

  15. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA Report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Engen, I.A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effort assesses the conversion of Colorado School District 50 facilities - a high school and gym, and a middle school building - at Pagosa Springs, Colorado to geothermal space heating. A preliminary cost-benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 150/sup 0/F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system-compatible components would be used for the building modifications. Asbestos-cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates. In view of the favorable economics and the uncertain future availability and escalating cost of natural gas, the conversion appears economicaly feasible and desirable.

  16. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  17. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  18. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  19. HTRATE; Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.J.

    1990-06-01

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  20. Passive heat therapy improves cutaneous microvascular function in sedentary humans via improved nitric oxide-dependent dilation.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Vienna E; Eymann, Taylor M; Francisco, Michael A; Howard, Matthew J; Minson, Christopher T

    2016-09-01

    Passive heat therapy (repeated hot tub or sauna use) reduces cardiovascular risk, but its effects on the mechanisms underlying improvements in microvascular function have yet to be studied. We investigated the effects of heat therapy on microvascular function and whether improvements were related to changes in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability using cutaneous microdialysis. Eighteen young, sedentary, otherwise healthy subjects participated in 8 wk of heat therapy (hot water immersion to maintain rectal temperature ≥38.5°C for 60 min/session; n = 9) or thermoneutral water immersion (sham, n = 9), and participated in experiments before and after the 8-wk intervention in which forearm cutaneous hyperemia to 39°C local heating was assessed at three microdialysis sites receiving 1) Lactated Ringer's (Control), 2) N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA; nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor), and 3) 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (Tempol), a superoxide dismutase mimetic. The arm used for microdialysis experiments remained out of the water at all times. Data are means ± SE cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC = laser Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure), presented as percent maximal CVC (% CVCmax). Heat therapy increased local heating plateau from 42 ± 6 to 53 ± 6% CVCmax (P < 0.001) and increased NO-dependent dilation (difference in plateau between Control and l-NNA sites) from 26 ± 6 to 38 ± 4% CVCmax (P < 0.01), while no changes were observed in the sham group. When data were pooled across all subjects at 0 wk, Tempol had no effect on the local heating response (P = 0.53 vs. Control). There were no changes at the Tempol site across interventions (P = 0.58). Passive heat therapy improves cutaneous microvascular function by improving NO-dependent dilation, which may have clinical implications. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Health education and peer leaders' role in improving low vaccination coverage in Akre district, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahman, M A; Al-Dabbagh, S A; Al-Habeeb, Q S

    2013-02-01

    The role of religious leaders in improving vaccination coverage has not been well researched. This intervention study investigated the role of a health education campaign and peer spiritual leaders in improving vaccination coverage rates in Akre district in Kurdistan region, Iraq. An information campaign was conducted in 30 villages with low vaccination coverage. The participation of peer spiritual leaders was sought in 15 villages of the Sorchi tribe known to have persistent low coverage rates. The vaccination coverage rates of DPT1, DPT2, DPT3 and measles vaccines during the post-intervention period (January to June 2007) were significantly improved (95.5%, 90.0%, 84.4% and 80.3% respectively) compared with the pre-intervention period (January to June 2006) (55.9%, 42.7%, 21.5% and 27.6% respectively). The dropout rates of those vaccines were also significantly decreased. Vaccination in villages where spiritual leaders were involved improved significantly more than other villages.

  2. Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells improve heat tolerance and hypothalamic damage in heat stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ling-Shu; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Lin, Ying-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour) and then returned to room temperature (26°C) for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C). Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i) systemic inflammation; (ii) ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone); (iv) decreased fractional survival; and (v) thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature). These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment.

  3. Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Trenberth, K. E.; Fasullo, J.; Boyer, T.; Abraham, J. P.; Zhu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) drives the ongoing global warming and can best be assessed across the historical record by ocean heat content (OHC) changes. An accurate assessment of OHC is a challenge mainly due to insufficient and irregular data coverage. Here we provide updated OHC estimates since 1960 with the goal of minimizing associated sampling error. A subsample test, in which subsets of data in the data-rich Argo era are co-located with historical ocean observation locations, is performed to quantify this error. Results imply that OHC variations on decadal and multi-decadal scales can reliably be represented by our advanced mapping method (i.e. ratio of signal to error is 3-25). The inferred integrated EEI based on the updated OHC is greater than reported in previous assessments, but is consistent with a reconstruction of the radiative imbalance at the top of atmosphere since 1985. Besides, OHC changes in six major ocean basins can also be reliably reconstructed on decadal-scales (ratio of signal to error is 2-20). All examined ocean basins experienced significant warming since 1998, although the heat was mainly stored in the Southern Ocean, Tropical Pacific and Tropical Atlantic during 1960-1998. A new look at OHC and EEI changes over time has provided greater confidence than previously possible. Changes in OHC were small prior to about 1980, but with fairly steady increases since then and increasingly involving deeper layers of the ocean after 1990. These datasets provide a valuable resource for further studies.

  4. Improved simulations of heat transfer in liquid metal flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.

    2011-04-01

    In liquid-metal flows, the predictions of the Nusselt number (heat transfer) by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models of turbulence that use the assumption of a constant turbulent Prandtl number can be significantly off. Heat transfer analyses were performed with a number of turbulence models for flows in a triangular rod bundle and in a pipe, and model predictions were compared with experimental data. Emphasis was placed on the low Reynolds (low-Re) number k-{var_epsilon} model that resolves the boundary layer and does not use 'logarithmic wall functions.' The high Reynolds (high-Re) number k-{var_epsilon} model underpredicts the Nusselt number up to 30%, while the low-Re number model overpredicts it up to 34%. For high Peclet number values, the low-Re number model provides better predictions than the high-Re number model. For Peclet numbers higher than 1500, the predictions of the Reynolds stress model (RSM) are in very good agreement with experimental measurements, but for lower Peclet number values its predictions are significantly off. A relationship was developed that expresses the turbulent Prandtl number as a function of the ratio of the turbulent viscosity to the molecular viscosity. With this modified turbulent Prandtl number, for the flow in the rod bundle the predictions of the low-Re number model are well within the spread of the experimental measurements. For pipe flow, the model predictions are not as sensitive to the correction of the turbulent Prandtl number as they are in the case of the flow in a bundle. The modified low-Re number model underpredicts the limited experimental data by 4%.

  5. Performance improvement of air source heat pump by using gas-injected rotary compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B. L.; Liu, X. R.; Ding, Y. C.; Shi, W. X.

    2017-08-01

    Rotary compressor is most widely used in small capacity refrigeration and heat pump systems. For the air source heat pump, the heating capacity and the COP will be obviously degraded when it is utilized in low temperature ambient. Gas injection is an effective method to enhance its performance under those situations, which has been well applied in air source heat pump with scroll compressor. However, the development of the gas injection technology in rotary compressor is relatively slow due to limited performance improvement. In this research, the essential reason constraining the improvement of the gas injection on the rotary compressor and its heat pump system is identified. Two new injection structures for rotary compressors has been put forward to overcome the drawback of traditional injection structures. Based on a verified numerical model, the thermodynamic performance of air source heat pumps with the new gas-injected rotary compressor are investigated. The results indicate that, compared to the air source heat pump with the traditional gas injected rotary compressor, the new injection structures both can enhance heating capacity and COP of the air source heat pump obviously.

  6. A Coherent Approach to High School Improvement: A District and School Self-Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Lindsay; Johnson, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High school improvement initiatives often focus on specific intervention strategies, programs, or priority topics (e.g., dropout intervention, dual enrollment, freshman academies). However, research shows that systemic and sustainable improvement can be achieved only when initiatives are implemented with consideration for the broader education…

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  8. Improving Coverage and Compliance in Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of LF in Two ‘Endgame’ Districts in Indonesia Using Micronarrative Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Krentel, Alison; Damayanti, Rita; Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Suharno, Nugroho; Bradley, Mark; Lynam, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission. In these cases, districts must continue with additional rounds of MDA. Two districts in Indonesia (Agam District, Depok City) fit this criteria—one had not met the pre-TAS criteria and the other, had not passed the TAS criteria. In both cases, the district health teams needed insight into their drug delivery programs in order to improve drug coverage in the subsequent MDA rounds. Methodology/Principal Findings To inform the subsequent MDA round, a micronarrative survey tool was developed to capture community members’ experience with MDA and the social realm where drug delivery and compliance occur. A baseline survey was implemented after the 2013 MDA in endemic communities in both districts using the EPI sampling criteria (n = 806). Compliance in the last MDA was associated with perceived importance of the LF drugs for health (p<0.001); perceived safety of the LF drugs (p<0.001) and knowing someone in the household has complied (p<0.001). Results indicated that specialized messages were needed to reach women and younger men. Both districts used these recommendations to implement changes to their MDA without additional financial support. An endline survey was performed after the 2014 MDA using the same sampling criteria (n = 811). Reported compliance in the last MDA improved in both districts from 57% to 77% (p<0.05). Those who reported having ever taken the LF drug rose from 79% to 90% (p<0.001) in both sites. Conclusions/Significance Micronarrative surveys were shown

  9. Improving Coverage and Compliance in Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of LF in Two 'Endgame' Districts in Indonesia Using Micronarrative Surveys.

    PubMed

    Krentel, Alison; Damayanti, Rita; Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Suharno, Nugroho; Bradley, Mark; Lynam, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission. In these cases, districts must continue with additional rounds of MDA. Two districts in Indonesia (Agam District, Depok City) fit this criteria-one had not met the pre-TAS criteria and the other, had not passed the TAS criteria. In both cases, the district health teams needed insight into their drug delivery programs in order to improve drug coverage in the subsequent MDA rounds. To inform the subsequent MDA round, a micronarrative survey tool was developed to capture community members' experience with MDA and the social realm where drug delivery and compliance occur. A baseline survey was implemented after the 2013 MDA in endemic communities in both districts using the EPI sampling criteria (n = 806). Compliance in the last MDA was associated with perceived importance of the LF drugs for health (p<0.001); perceived safety of the LF drugs (p<0.001) and knowing someone in the household has complied (p<0.001). Results indicated that specialized messages were needed to reach women and younger men. Both districts used these recommendations to implement changes to their MDA without additional financial support. An endline survey was performed after the 2014 MDA using the same sampling criteria (n = 811). Reported compliance in the last MDA improved in both districts from 57% to 77% (p<0.05). Those who reported having ever taken the LF drug rose from 79% to 90% (p<0.001) in both sites. Micronarrative surveys were shown to be a valid and effective tool to detect operational issues within

  10. Improved boundary layer heat transfer calculations near a stagnation point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Kyung Hwan

    1990-01-01

    A thermal design of a solar receiver has been developed for the solutions of problems involving phase-change thermal energy storage and natural convection loss. Two dimensional axisymmetrical solidification and melting of materials contained between two concentric cylinders of finite length has been studied for thermal energy storage analysis. For calculation of free convection loss inside receiver cavity, two dimensional axisymmetrical, laminar, transient free convection including radiation effects has been studied using integral/finite difference method. Finite difference equations are derived for the above analysis subject to constant or variable material properties, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. The validity of the analyses has been substantiated by comparing results of the present general method with available analytic solutions or numerical results reported in the literature. Both explicit and implicit schemes are tested in phase change analysis with different number of nodes ranging from 4 to 18. The above numerical methods have been applied to the existing solar receiver analyzing computer code as additional subroutines. The results were computed for one of the proposed Brayton cycle solar receiver models running under the actual environmental conditions. Effect of thermal energy storage on the thermal behavior of the receiver has been estimated. Due to the thermal energy storage, about 65% reduction on working gas outlet temperature fluctuation has been obtained; however, maximum temperature of thermal energy storage containment has been increased about 18%. Also, effect of natural convection inside a receiver cavity on the receiver heat transfer has been analyzed. The finding indicated that thermal stratification occurs during the sun time resulting in higher receiver temperatures at the outlet section of the gas tube, and lower temperatures at the inlet section of the gas tube when compared with the results with no natural convection. Due

  11. A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines and Improve Admission Paediatric Care in Kenyan District Hospitals: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ayieko, Philip; Ntoburi, Stephen; Wagai, John; Opondo, Charles; Opiyo, Newton; Migiro, Santau; Wamae, Annah; Mogoa, Wycliffe; Were, Fred; Wasunna, Aggrey; Fegan, Greg; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Background In developing countries referral of severely ill children from primary care to district hospitals is common, but hospital care is often of poor quality. However, strategies to change multiple paediatric care practices in rural hospitals have rarely been evaluated. Methods and Findings This cluster randomized trial was conducted in eight rural Kenyan district hospitals, four of which were randomly assigned to a full intervention aimed at improving quality of clinical care (evidence-based guidelines, training, job aides, local facilitation, supervision, and face-to-face feedback; n = 4) and the remaining four to control intervention (guidelines, didactic training, job aides, and written feedback; n = 4). Prespecified structure, process, and outcome indicators were measured at baseline and during three and five 6-monthly surveys in control and intervention hospitals, respectively. Primary outcomes were process of care measures, assessed at 18 months postbaseline. In both groups performance improved from baseline. Completion of admission assessment tasks was higher in intervention sites at 18 months (mean = 0.94 versus 0.65, adjusted difference 0.54 [95% confidence interval 0.05–0.29]). Uptake of guideline recommended therapeutic practices was also higher within intervention hospitals: adoption of once daily gentamicin (89.2% versus 74.4%; 17.1% [8.04%–26.1%]); loading dose quinine (91.9% versus 66.7%, 26.3% [−3.66% to 56.3%]); and adequate prescriptions of intravenous fluids for severe dehydration (67.2% versus 40.6%; 29.9% [10.9%–48.9%]). The proportion of children receiving inappropriate doses of drugs in intervention hospitals was lower (quinine dose >40 mg/kg/day; 1.0% versus 7.5%; −6.5% [−12.9% to 0.20%]), and inadequate gentamicin dose (2.2% versus 9.0%; −6.8% [−11.9% to −1.6%]). Conclusions Specific efforts are needed to improve hospital care in developing countries. A full, multifaceted intervention was associated with

  12. Stirling engine or heat pump having an improved seal

    DOEpatents

    White, Maurice A.; Riggle, Peter; Emigh, Stuart G.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling Engine or Heat Pump having two relatively movable machine elements for power transmission purposes includes a hermetic seal bellows interposed between the elements for separating a working gas from a pressure compensating liquid that balances pressure across the bellows to reduce bellows stress and to assure long bellows life. The volume of pressure compensating liquid displaced due to relative movement between the machine elements is minimized by enclosing the compensating liquid within a region exposed to portions of both machine elements at one axial end of a slidable interface presented between them by a clearance seal having an effective diameter of the seal bellows. Pressure equalization across the bellows is achieved by a separate hermetically sealed compensator including a movable enclosed bellows. The interior of the compensator bellows is in communication with one side of the seal bellows, and its exterior is in communication with the remaining side of the seal bellows. A buffer gas or additional liquid region can be provided at the remaining axial end of the clearnace seal, along with valved arrangements for makeup of liquid leakage through the clearance seal.

  13. Improving the management of acute pancreatitis in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Nicola; Kahvo, Mia; Chana, Prem

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common problem seen in the United Kingdom, with an incidence of 56.6 per 100,000 population.[1,2,3] Optimising management has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity, and the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) published revised guidelines in 2005 to standardise treatment for this potentially life threatening condition.[4] The aim of this quality improvement project was to investigate and improve the initial management of acute pancreatitis in patients presenting to the Great Western Hospital (GWH) in Swindon between November 2012 and July 2013. Patients presenting to the surgical team during this time with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were identified for the initial data collection. Notes were prospectively reviewed and data collected allowing a comparison between management in GWH against BSG guidelines. Following this stage, a pro forma based on the 2005 guidelines was created and implemented, with the aim of raising awareness and standardising care among surgical staff. Following implementation of the pro forma, data collection was repeated between May and June 2013 to assess the impact of the intervention. Results revealed an improvement from 93% to 100% of patients receiving the correct diagnosis within 24 hours of presentation. Severity stratification within 48 hours of diagnosis improved from 75% to 88% and identification of aetiology also improved from 64% to 74%. The implementation of an acute pancreatitis management protocol and education of junior surgical staff has been shown to improve compliance with BSG guidelines at the GWH, and ultimately aims to improves patient care and outcomes.

  14. Improving the management of acute pancreatitis in a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Nicola; Kahvo, Mia; Chana, Prem

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common problem seen in the United Kingdom, with an incidence of 56.6 per 100,000 population.[1,2,3] Optimising management has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity, and the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) published revised guidelines in 2005 to standardise treatment for this potentially life threatening condition.[4] The aim of this quality improvement project was to investigate and improve the initial management of acute pancreatitis in patients presenting to the Great Western Hospital (GWH) in Swindon between November 2012 and July 2013. Patients presenting to the surgical team during this time with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were identified for the initial data collection. Notes were prospectively reviewed and data collected allowing a comparison between management in GWH against BSG guidelines. Following this stage, a pro forma based on the 2005 guidelines was created and implemented, with the aim of raising awareness and standardising care among surgical staff. Following implementation of the pro forma, data collection was repeated between May and June 2013 to assess the impact of the intervention. Results revealed an improvement from 93% to 100% of patients receiving the correct diagnosis within 24 hours of presentation. Severity stratification within 48 hours of diagnosis improved from 75% to 88% and identification of aetiology also improved from 64% to 74%. The implementation of an acute pancreatitis management protocol and education of junior surgical staff has been shown to improve compliance with BSG guidelines at the GWH, and ultimately aims to improves patient care and outcomes. PMID:26734376

  15. Exploration of the enhanced geothermal system (EGS) potential of crystalline rocks for district heating (Elbe Zone, Saxony, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, Andrea; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Krentz, Ottomar

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses aspects of a baseline geothermal exploration of the thermally quiescent Elbe Zone (hosting the cities of Meissen and Dresden) for a potential deployment of geothermal heat in municipal heating systems. Low-permeable to impermeable igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute the major rock types at depth, implying that an enhanced geothermal system needs to be developed by creating artificial flow paths for fluids to enhance the heat extraction from the subsurface. The study includes the development of geological models for two areas on the basis of which temperature models are generated at upper crustal scale. The models are parameterized with laboratory-measured rock thermal properties (thermal conductivity k, radiogenic heat production H). The uncertainties of modelled temperature caused by observed variations of k and H and inferred mantle heat flow are assessed. The study delineates highest temperatures within the intermediate (monzonite/syenite unit) and mafic rocks (diorite/monzodiorite unit) forming the deeper portions of the Meissen Massif and, specifically for the Dresden area, also within the low-metamorphic rocks (slates/phyllites/quartzites) of the Elbtalschiefergebirge. Boreholes 3-4 km deep need to be drilled to reach the envisioned economically favourable temperatures of 120 °C. The metamorphic and mafic rocks exhibit low concentrations of U and Th, thus being advantageous for a geothermal use. For the monzonite/syenite unit of high heat production ( 6 µW m-3) in the Meissen Massif, the mobilization of Th and U into the geothermal working fluid is assumed to be minor, although their various radioactive decay products will be omnipresent during geothermal use.

  16. Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lijing; Trenberth, Kevin E; Fasullo, John; Boyer, Tim; Abraham, John; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) drives the ongoing global warming and can best be assessed across the historical record (that is, since 1960) from ocean heat content (OHC) changes. An accurate assessment of OHC is a challenge, mainly because of insufficient and irregular data coverage. We provide updated OHC estimates with the goal of minimizing associated sampling error. We performed a subsample test, in which subsets of data during the data-rich Argo era are colocated with locations of earlier ocean observations, to quantify this error. Our results provide a new OHC estimate with an unbiased mean sampling error and with variability on decadal and multidecadal time scales (signal) that can be reliably distinguished from sampling error (noise) with signal-to-noise ratios higher than 3. The inferred integrated EEI is greater than that reported in previous assessments and is consistent with a reconstruction of the radiative imbalance at the top of atmosphere starting in 1985. We found that changes in OHC are relatively small before about 1980; since then, OHC has increased fairly steadily and, since 1990, has increasingly involved deeper layers of the ocean. In addition, OHC changes in six major oceans are reliable on decadal time scales. All ocean basins examined have experienced significant warming since 1998, with the greatest warming in the southern oceans, the tropical/subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the tropical/subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This new look at OHC and EEI changes over time provides greater confidence than previously possible, and the data sets produced are a valuable resource for further study.

  17. Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lijing; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John; Boyer, Tim; Abraham, John; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Earth’s energy imbalance (EEI) drives the ongoing global warming and can best be assessed across the historical record (that is, since 1960) from ocean heat content (OHC) changes. An accurate assessment of OHC is a challenge, mainly because of insufficient and irregular data coverage. We provide updated OHC estimates with the goal of minimizing associated sampling error. We performed a subsample test, in which subsets of data during the data-rich Argo era are colocated with locations of earlier ocean observations, to quantify this error. Our results provide a new OHC estimate with an unbiased mean sampling error and with variability on decadal and multidecadal time scales (signal) that can be reliably distinguished from sampling error (noise) with signal-to-noise ratios higher than 3. The inferred integrated EEI is greater than that reported in previous assessments and is consistent with a reconstruction of the radiative imbalance at the top of atmosphere starting in 1985. We found that changes in OHC are relatively small before about 1980; since then, OHC has increased fairly steadily and, since 1990, has increasingly involved deeper layers of the ocean. In addition, OHC changes in six major oceans are reliable on decadal time scales. All ocean basins examined have experienced significant warming since 1998, with the greatest warming in the southern oceans, the tropical/subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the tropical/subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This new look at OHC and EEI changes over time provides greater confidence than previously possible, and the data sets produced are a valuable resource for further study. PMID:28345033

  18. A Phase-Shifting Method for Improving the Heating Uniformity of Microwave Processing Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yinhong; Lan, Junqing; Zhang, Chun; Hong, Tao; Yang, Yang; Huang, Kama; Zhu, Huacheng

    2016-01-01

    Microwave processing of materials has been found to deliver enormous advantages over conventional processing methods in terms of mechanical and physical properties of the materials. However, the non-uniform temperature distribution is the key problem of microwave processing, which is related to the structure of the cavity, and the placement and physical parameters of the material. In this paper, a new microwave cavity structure with a sliding short based on phase-shifting heating is creatively proposed to improve the temperature uniformity. An electronic mathematical model based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is built to predict the temperature distribution. Meanwhile, a new computational approach based on the theory of transformation optics is first provided to solve the problem of the moving boundary in the model simulation. At first, the experiment is carried out to validate the model, and heating results from the experiment show good agreement with the model’s prediction. Based on the verified model, materials selected among a wide range of dielectric constants are treated by stationary heating and phase-shifting heating. The coefficient of variation (COV) of the temperature and temperature difference has been compared in detail between stationary heating and phase-shifting heating. A significant improvement in heating uniformity can be seen from the temperature distribution for most of the materials. Furthermore, three other materials are also treated at high temperature and the heating uniformity is also improved. Briefly, the strategy of phase-shifting heating plays a significant role in solve the problem of non-uniform heating in microwave-based material processing. A 25%–58% increase in uniformity from adapting the phase-shifting method can be observed for the microwave-processed materials. PMID:28773433

  19. Need Two-Thirds To Pass? (No Worries). The Planning and Execution of the Elk Grove Unified School District's Successful 1987 School Improvement Bond Election.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Vern; Albiani, Gil

    After years of struggling with increasing student enrollments, the Elk Grove Unified School District (Sacramento County, California) conducted two $70 million bond elections to supplement State funding for new schools, improve existing schools, and provide transportation and student support facilities. The 1986 election failed with 64.8 percent…

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SOUTH TRUCKEE MEADOWS GENERAL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (STMIG), NV. INTERIM EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first 32 weeks of operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology currently being demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. ...

  1. What States and Districts Can Do--Together--to Improve School Leadership. Knowledge in Brief: Findings You Can Use from New Wallace Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Buttressed by strong evidence that quality leadership is a virtual necessity for turning around troubled schools, states and districts around the country have been paying more attention in recent years to the need for better school leadership. Many have adopted a range of new policies and practices aimed at dramatically improving the preparation…

  2. What States and Districts Can Do--Together--to Improve School Leadership. Knowledge in Brief: Findings You Can Use from New Wallace Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Buttressed by strong evidence that quality leadership is a virtual necessity for turning around troubled schools, states and districts around the country have been paying more attention in recent years to the need for better school leadership. Many have adopted a range of new policies and practices aimed at dramatically improving the preparation…

  3. Using a Response to Intervention Framework to Improve Student Learning: A Pocket Guide for State and District Leaders. Implementing ESEA Flexibility Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Maurice; Elledge, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) contained provisions that expanded state and district accountability for improving all schools and increasing the learning and achievement of all students, including those who struggle to master basic skills in reading and mathematics. In 2011, the U.S. Department of…

  4. 2001: A Vision for the Future, 1988-89. A Plan for Improving Instruction and Reducing Dropout and Grade Retention in Charleston County School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston County School District, SC. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    "A Vision for the Future" is a comprehensive long-range plan to study, develop, implement, and evaluate an ambitious dropout reduction program in the Charleston (South Carolina) School District. The program entails: (1) improved data reporting on student performance, grade retention, and attrition to identify dropout indicators and risk…

  5. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SOUTH TRUCKEE MEADOWS GENERAL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (STMIG), NV. INTERIM EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first 32 weeks of operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology currently being demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. ...

  6. Heat stress management program improving worker health and operational effectiveness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Rosalyn G; Skelton, Scott B; Alvis, Kimberly L; Shane, Leigh A

    2013-03-01

    Heat stress monitoring is a vital component of an effective health and safety program when employees work in exceptionally warm environments. Workers at hazardous waste sites often wear personal protective equipment (PPE), which increases the body heat stress load. No specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations address heat stress; however, OSHA does provide several guidance documents to assist employers in addressing this serious workplace health hazard. This article describes a heat stress and surveillance plan implemented at a hazardous waste site as part of the overall health and safety program. The PPE requirement for work at this site, coupled with extreme environmental temperatures, made heat stress a significant concern. Occupational health nurses and industrial hygienists developed a monitoring program for heat stress designed to prevent the occurrence of significant heat-related illness in site workers. The program included worker education on the signs of heat-related illness and continuous physiologic monitoring to detect early signs of heat-related health problems. Biological monitoring data were collected before workers entered the exclusion zone and on exiting the zone following decontamination. Sixty-six site workers were monitored throughout site remediation. More than 1,700 biological monitoring data points were recorded. Outcomes included improved worker health and safety, and increased operational effectiveness. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Leading with Focus: Elevating the Essentials for School and District Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In his 2011 ASCD best-seller "Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning," author Mike Schmoker described a fresh approach to K-12 teaching built on three core elements: a focused and coherent curriculum; clear, structured lessons; and purposeful reading and writing, or authentic literacy. Now, in "Leading…

  8. Leading with Focus: Elevating the Essentials for School and District Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In his 2011 ASCD best-seller "Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning," author Mike Schmoker described a fresh approach to K-12 teaching built on three core elements: a focused and coherent curriculum; clear, structured lessons; and purposeful reading and writing, or authentic literacy. Now, in "Leading…

  9. Scaling Turnaround: A District-Improvement Approach. Education Outlook No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavadsky, Heather

    2013-01-01

    For years, US education reform has focused on simple, isolated reform elements such as promoting reading programs or redesigning individual schools. These efforts have only provided sporadic improvements in student achievement. School-level and single-focus reforms ultimately fail because they do not acknowledge the larger school system's role in…

  10. Nuts & Bolts of a District Improvement Effort in Maryland Centers on the Staff Development Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sharon; Duffield, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The staff development teacher facilitates the evolution of a school-based professional learning community focused on improving teaching and learning by being a catalyst for teacher change and reflection. These teacher leaders needed the knowledge and skills to transform individual school staffs into professional learning communities focused on…

  11. Nuts & Bolts of a District Improvement Effort in Maryland Centers on the Staff Development Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sharon; Duffield, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The staff development teacher facilitates the evolution of a school-based professional learning community focused on improving teaching and learning by being a catalyst for teacher change and reflection. These teacher leaders needed the knowledge and skills to transform individual school staffs into professional learning communities focused on…

  12. Scaling Turnaround: A District-Improvement Approach. Education Outlook No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavadsky, Heather

    2013-01-01

    For years, US education reform has focused on simple, isolated reform elements such as promoting reading programs or redesigning individual schools. These efforts have only provided sporadic improvements in student achievement. School-level and single-focus reforms ultimately fail because they do not acknowledge the larger school system's role in…

  13. Reduced heat input keyhole welding through improved joint design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, John M. (Inventor); Harwig, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An improved high energy density welding method for reducing input keyhole welding prepares the weld joint (8) between two edges (10, 14) of at least one member by separating the edges (10, 14) of the member (12, 16) with a controllable gap (22) by a projecting portion (24) selectively positioned on one edge (10, 14) of the member (12, 16). The projecting portion (24) closely abuts the other edge of the member for maintaining the controlled distance (d) of the controllable gap (22) to enhance the welding method.

  14. Thermal energy storage to minimize cost and improve efficiency of a polygeneration district energy system in a real-time electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Kody M.; Kim, Jong Suk; Cole, Wesley J.; Kapoor, Kriti; Mojica, Jose L.; Hedengren, John D.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2016-10-01

    District energy systems can produce low-cost utilities for large energy networks, but can also be a resource for the electric grid by their ability to ramp production or to store thermal energy by responding to real-time market signals. In this work, dynamic optimization exploits the flexibility of thermal energy storage by determining optimal times to store and extract excess energy. This concept is applied to a polygeneration distributed energy system with combined heat and power, district heating, district cooling, and chilled water thermal energy storage. The system is a university campus responsible for meeting the energy needs of tens of thousands of people. The objective for the dynamic optimization problem is to minimize cost over a 24-h period while meeting multiple loads in real time. The paper presents a novel algorithm to solve this dynamic optimization problem with energy storage by decomposing the problem into multiple static mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problems. Another innovative feature of this work is the study of a large, complex energy network which includes the interrelations of a wide variety of energy technologies. Results indicate that a cost savings of 16.5% is realized when the system can participate in the wholesale electricity market.

  15. Improving Ethnic Balance and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Corona Unified School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.

    This report contains the findings of a field study of the ethnic and racial composition and intergroup relations in the schools in the Corona Unified School District, California. These findings are information on (1) the district's approaches to desegregation and its policy on intergroup relations, (2) students' achievement differences, (3)…

  16. Improving consent form documentation and introduction of procedure-specific labels in a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bajada, Stefan; Dwamena, Samuel; Abdul, Zabihullah; Williams, Rhodri; Ennis, Owain

    2017-01-01

    Informed consent is an important aspect in patient care. Failings in this area may result in patient dissatisfaction or litigation. The aim of this project was to assess our practice in consenting and institute changes to maintain best practice. A consecutive series of 140 patients undergoing elective and trauma procedures were randomly identified over a nine-month period. The consent forms were reviewed and the following information collected: patient/ consenter details, procedure, legibility, if copy was offered/ given to patient and adequacy of procedure-specific complications listed (scored 0-3). The issues identified included: 25% of consents were not fully legible particularly in the complications section. 62% were noted to have inadequate complications listed (score 0 [>5 risks missing]) when compared to an accepted standard. None of the consent form copies were offered or given to the patients. Focused teaching to juniors as well as procedure-specific complication stickers were implemented to improve the documentation of complications. Following several improvement cycles all consents (100%) were fully legible and had the adequate procedure-specific labels with all complications listed. There was an increase to 38% of consent forms offered to patients. We have asked surgeons in the department to comment on which consent method they prefer and all consenters felt that the procedure-specific labels where easier to read and understand. Departmental education as well as introduction of simple procedure-specific complication stickers has resulted in significant improvements in practice. PMID:28243444

  17. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  18. Multivariate analysis of heat tolerance characteristics in Santa Inês and crossbred lambs in the Federal District of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correa, Marilma Pachêco Chediak; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Canozzi, Maria Eugênia Andrighetto; Louvandini, Helder; Barcellos, Júlio Jardim; McManus, Concepta

    2013-08-01

    Heat tolerance is an important trait for deciding on which genetic resource to use on farms in tropical regions. Three genetic groups of lambs were evaluated by physical and physiological parameters related to adaptation and multivariate analyses used to test if these traits were efficient in separating the genetic groups and which traits were more important in this separation. Crossbred lambs were more similar to each other than to Santa Inês, in general; but individually there was an overlap between Ile de France and Santa Inês lambs. Size traits had higher canonical correlation with physiological variables, while rectal temperature, heart rate, and hemoglobin were more highly correlated with physical traits. Error rates using only physiological traits were high, suggesting that these are inefficient in separating groups of lambs for heat tolerance, while separation with physical traits was more efficient.

  19. Social autopsy of neonatal mortality suggests needed improvements in maternal and neonatal interventions in Balaka and Salima districts of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Koffi, Alain K; Mleme, Tiope; Nsona, Humphreys; Banda, Benjamin; Amouzou, Agbessi; Kalter, Henry D

    2015-06-01

    The Every Newborn Action Plan calls for reducing the neonatal mortality rates to fewer than 10 deaths per 1000 live births in all countries by 2035. The current study aims to increase our understanding of the social and modifiable factors that can be addressed or reinforced to improve and accelerate the decline in neonatal mortality in Malawi. The data come from the 2013 Verbal and Social Autopsy (VASA) study that collected data in order to describe the biological causes and the social determinants of deaths of children under 5 years of age in Balaka and Salima districts of Malawi. This paper analyses the social autopsy data of the neonatal deaths and presents results of a review of the coverage of key interventions along the continuum of normal maternal and newborn care and the description of breakdowns in the care provided for neonatal illnesses within the Pathway to Survival framework. A total of 320 neonatal deaths were confirmed from the VASA survey. While one antenatal care (ANC) visit was high at 94%, the recommended four ANC visits was much lower at 41% and just 17% of the mothers had their urines tested during the pregnancy. 173 (54%) mothers of the deceased newborns had at least one labor/delivery complication that began at home. The caregivers of 65% (n = 75) of the 180 newborns that were born at home or born and left a health facility alive perceived them to be severely ill at the onset of their illness, yet only 44% (n = 80) attempted and 36% (n = 65)could reach the first health provider after an average of 91 minutes travel time. Distance, lack of transport and cost emerged as the most important constraints to formal care-seeking during delivery and during the newborn fatal illness. This study suggests that maternal and neonatal health organizations and the local government of Malawi should increase the demand for key maternal and child health interventions, including the recommended 4 ANC visits, and ensure urine screening for all

  20. Method of Heat Treating Aluminum-Lithium Alloy to Improve Formability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn Kurgan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method is provided for heat treating aluminum-lithium alloys to improve their formability. The alloy is heated to a first temperature, maintained at the first temperature for a first time period, heated at the conclusion of the first time period to a second temperature, maintained at the second temperature for a second time period, actively cooled at the conclusion of the second time period to a third temperature, maintained at the third temperature for a third time period, and then passively cooled at the conclusion of the third time period to room temperature.

  1. Post-exercise hot water immersion induces heat acclimation and improves endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Zurawlew, M J; Walsh, N P; Fortes, M B; Potter, C

    2016-07-01

    We examined whether daily hot water immersion (HWI) after exercise in temperate conditions induces heat acclimation and improves endurance performance in temperate and hot conditions. Seventeen non-heat-acclimatized males performed a 6-day intervention involving a daily treadmill run for 40 min at 65% V̇O2max in temperate conditions (18 °C) followed immediately by either HWI (N = 10; 40 °C) or thermoneutral (CON, N = 7; 34 °C) immersion for 40 min. Before and after the 6-day intervention, participants performed a treadmill run for 40 min at 65% V̇O2max followed by a 5-km treadmill time trial (TT) in temperate (18 °C, 40% humidity) and hot (33 °C, 40% humidity) conditions. HWI induced heat acclimation demonstrated by lower resting rectal temperature (Tre , mean, -0.27 °C, P < 0.01), and final Tre during submaximal exercise in 18 °C (-0.28 °C, P < 0.01) and 33 °C (-0.36 °C, P < 0.01). Skin temperature, Tre at sweating onset and RPE were lower during submaximal exercise in 18 °C and 33 °C after 6 days in HWI (P < 0.05). Physiological strain and thermal sensation were also lower during submaximal exercise in 33 °C after 6 days in HWI (P < 0.05). HWI improved TT performance in 33 °C (4.9%, P < 0.01) but not in 18 °C. Thermoregulatory measures and performance did not change in CON. Hot water immersion after exercise on 6 days presents a simple, practical, and effective heat acclimation strategy to improve endurance performance in the heat. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Improving neonatal care in district and community health facilities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Woods, David Lawrance

    2015-08-01

    A high standard of newborn care, especially at a primary level, is needed to address the neonatal mortality rate in South Africa. The current approach to continuing training of health-care workers uses traditional methods of centralised teaching by formal tutors away from the place of work. This is no longer affordable, achievable or desirable, particularly in rural areas. An innovative system of self-directed learning by groups of nurses caring for mothers and their newborn infants uses specially prepared course books without the need for trainers. Using self-study supported by peer discussion groups, nurses can take responsibility for their own professional growth. This builds competence, confidence and a sense of pride. Since 1993, the Perinatal Education Programme has provided continuing learning opportunities for thousands of nurses in Southern Africa. A number of prospective trials have demonstrated that study groups can significantly improve knowledge and understanding, attitudes, clinical skills and quality of care provided to mothers and infants. A recent review of 10,000 successful participants across a wide range of provinces, ages and home languages documented the success of the project. Using a question-and-answer format to promote problem-solving, case studies, simple skills workshops and multiple choice tests, each module addresses common conditions with appropriate care practices such as thorough drying at birth, delayed cord-clamping, skin-to-skin care, breast feeding, basic resuscitation, correct use of oxygen therapy, hand-washing, blood glucose monitoring and promotion of parental bonding. The training material is now also available free of charge on an on-line website as well as being presented as e-books which can be downloaded onto personal computers, tablet readers and smart phones. This is supplemented by regular SMS text messages providing nurses with relevant 'knowledge bites'. All nurses caring for newborn infants now have easy

  3. Improving the diagnostic quality and adequacy of shoulder radiographs in a District General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Bethany; Riley, James; Saithna, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of suboptimal shoulder radiographs was identified during a service evaluation exercise in our orthopaedic outpatient clinics. Inadequate radiographs require a return to the radiology department for further imaging, a resultant increased workload, delays in the clinic, increased radiation for patients, and inconvenience and decreased patient satisfaction. Furthermore, if a sub-optimal radiograph is accepted there is concern that diagnoses may be missed. The aim of this project was to decrease the rate of suboptimal radiographs by delivering a teaching package directed towards quality improvement. Evaluation criteria were set for standard orthopaedic shoulder radiographs (Anterior-posterior, axillary, and Velpeau views). Baseline data collection was performed over three, two-week periods and included all patients attending the shoulder clinic. The percentage of x-rays which were deemed adequate was only 19.4% for anterior-posterior views and 57.9% for axillary views. A comprehensive educational package was delivered to radiographers. This included a formal PowerPoint based teaching session, hands on training with practice using a skeleton, posters with step-by step instructions on how to obtain an adequate image, and PDF aide memoires suitable for viewing on a smartphone. Two subsequent two-week periods of data collection were performed to evaluate the benefit of this intervention. Delivery of focussed training and provision of easily accessible aide memoires to facilitate improved quality of radiographs resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the rate of inadequate images. There was also a significant decreases in the rate of return to the radiology department for repeat imaging. PMID:27559473

  4. Hypokalaemia: Improving the investigation, management and therapeutic monitoring of hypokalaemic medical inpatients at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark; Caesar, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Hypokalaemia is prevalent in 20% of hospitalised patients. Furthermore, inadequate management of hypokalemia was identified in 24% of these patients. Associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality, the identification, investigation, and treatment of hypokalaemia was identified as an area for improvement in the management of medical inpatients. The project aims to measure the assessment, management, and therapeutic monitoring of medical inpatients with hypokalaemia in a district general hospital. All medical inpatients over a one week period who met the criteria for hypokalaemia (serum potassium <3.5 mmol/L on standard biochemical sample) were included in the audit. Patient's notes were located and evaluated to identify if they had mild, moderate, or severe hypokalaemia. Further data on ECG requests, repeat U&Es, serum magnesium analysis, treatment prescribed, and medication review dates was collated. A re-audit was completed after the introduction of a set of interventions which included a hypokalaemia treatment algorithm. Pre-intervention analysis of all medical inpatients, who met our inclusion criteria for hypokalaemia, identified 32 patients. 25 of these patients met the criteria for mild hypokalaemia (3.1-3.4 mmol/L) and 7 met the criteria for moderate hypokalaemia (2.5-3.0 mmol/L). Only 7/32 (22 %) patients were receiving adequate treatment based on trust guidelines. Post intervention results showed marked improvement in the management of patients with hypokalaemia. A total of 30 patients were identified in this post-intervention group. There were 16/30 patients who qualified as mild hypokalaemia (3.1-3.4 mmol/L) and 14/30 with moderate hypokalaemia (2.5-3.0 mmol/L). 19/30 (63%) patients in the post-intervention group were correctly prescribed appropriate medication doses consistent with the treatment algorithm. Following the initial success of the project, analysis at 3 months showed a positive trend for sustained improvement when compared to

  5. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice.

  6. Adopting and sustaining a Virtual Fracture Clinic model in the District Hospital setting – a quality improvement approach

    PubMed Central

    Logishetty, Kartik; Subramanyam, Soosainathan

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Fracture Clinics (VFCs) are an alternative to the conventional fracture clinics, to manage certain musculoskeletal injuries. This has recently been reported as a safe, cost-effective and efficient care model. As demonstrated at vanguard sites in the United Kingdom, VFCs can enhance patient care by standardising treatment and reducing outpatient appointments. This project demonstrates how a Quality Improvement approach was applied to introduce VFCs in the District General Hospital setting. We demonstrate how undertaking Process Mapping, Driver Diagrams, and Stakeholder Analysis can assist implementation. We discuss Whole Systems Measures applicable to VFCs, to consider how robust and specific data collection can progress this care model. Three Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles led to a change in practice over a 21-month period. Our target for uptake of new patients seen in VFCs within 6 months of starting was set at 50%. It increased from 0% to 56.1% soon after introduction, and plateaued at an average of 56.4% in the six-months before the end of the study period. Careful planning, frequent monitoring, and gathering feedback from a multidisciplinary team of varying seniority, were the important factors in transitioning to, and sustaining, a successful VFC model. PMID:28243440

  7. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part I: Dynamic intake fraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature by proposing a novel, state-of-the-art approach to estimate incremental air quality and health impacts of proposed or installed district energy systems (DES), such as the growing biomass-based DES, on the immediately surrounding community where population density varies significantly during day as well as the micrometeorological conditions. Spatial and temporal dynamics of pollutant concentrations at sensitive receptors obtained from modeled actual source emissions, inclusion of site-specific terrain, land use and microclimatic characteristics, population density and breathing rates are examined based on their impacts on the exposure potential expressed by the intake fraction (iF). Overall, results revealed that when those parameters are changing, the increase of iF calculated based on average ambient concentrations at each receptor for the UBC campus for the day and night hours for September 2012, ranges from 6.2% to 43.0%: introducing actual spatial receptor distribution led to 43% increase of iF, combined spatial and population dynamics led to 11.3% increase of iF, while introducing temporal dynamics and varying breathing rates resulted in 6.2% and 21.4% increase in iF respectively, compared to the base case box model where receptors and population were treated as static and uniformly distributed across the modeling domain. It is thus essential to take into consideration temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric conditions and dispersion, population density and varying aspiration rates in accurately assessing the health impacts of DES located at densely populated urban communities.

  8. Wireless sensor network for remote monitoring of parameters in distribution points of district utilities for heat and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Ilie, Ioana; Vasile, Alexandru; Svasta, Paul; Tapu, Adina

    2009-01-01

    Rigorous monitoring of technological parameters optimizes the activities and reduces energy losses in distribution points of heat and water from utility companies. Extra efficiency can be achieved by remote monitoring via Internet or GSM communications and using networks of wireless sensors for collecting data. Presented paper focuses on hardware and software design aspects of wireless sensors for measuring parameters required by water and heat distribution, with focus on flow and temperature measurement. The sensors consist of two modules - one control and communication unit and sensing unit. Sensing unit is specific to measured parameter (flow, temperature, humidity etc.) but control and communication unit is the same for all sensors. Software for sensing unit was developed and tested on a universal electronic module for industrial control. Sensors group together in a plug-and-play wireless mesh network and one of them is connected to an Internet/GSM communication module for remote access. Wireless sensors are battery based devices so energy management issues (hardware and software) play a big role in sensor design. Current consumption of different configurations and in different operation states is analyzed.

  9. Photosynthesis is improved by exogenous calcium in heat-stressed tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Meng, Qing wei; Brestic, Marian; Olsovska, Katarina; Yang, Xinghong

    2011-11-15

    Effects of exogenous calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) (20 mM) on photosynthetic gas exchange, photosystem II photochemistry, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in tobacco plants under high temperature stress (43°C for 2 h) were investigated. Heat stress resulted in a decrease in net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance as well as the apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of photosynthesis. Heat stress also caused a decrease of the maximal photochemical efficiency of primary photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)). On the other hand, CaCl(2) application improved P(n), AQY, and CE as well as F(v)/F(m) under high temperature stress. Heat stress reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), whereas the activities of these enzymes either decreased less or increased in plants pretreated with CaCl(2); glutathione reductase (GR) activity increased under high temperature, and it increased more in plants pretreated with CaCl(2). There was an obvious accumulation of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) under high temperature, but CaCl(2) application decreased the contents of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) under heat stress conditions. Heat stress induced the level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), while CaCl(2) pretreatment enhanced it. These results suggested that photosynthesis was improved by CaCl(2) application in heat-stressed plants and such an improvement was associated with an improvement in stomatal conductance and the thermostability of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which might be due to less accumulation of reactive oxygen species.

  10. Preliminary study on improvement of cementitious grout thermal conductivity for geothermal heat pump applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    Preliminary studies were preformed to determine whether thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts used to backfill heat exchanger loops for geothermal heat pumps could be improved, thus improving efficiency. Grouts containing selected additives were compares with conventional bentonite and cement grouts. Significant enhancement of grout alumina grit, steel fibers, and silicon carbide increased the thermal conductivity when compared to unfilled, high solids bentonite grouts and conventional cement grouts. Furthermore, the developed grouts retained high thermal conductivity in the dry state, where as conventional bentonite and cement grouts tend to act as insulators if moisture is lost. The cementitious grouts studied can be mixed and placed using conventional grouting equipment.

  11. Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) improves long term recovery after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Ouyang, Yibing; Barreto, George; Giffard, Rona

    2011-01-25

    Many brain protective strategies have been tested over short survival intervals, but few have been examined for long term benefit. The inducible member of the Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family, Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), has been widely found to reduce ischemic injury. Here we assessed outcome in Hsp72 transgenic overexpressing mice and wild type littermates for one month following transient focal ischemia. Hsp72 reduced infarct area lost and improved behavioral outcome on rotarod and foot fault at one month. Thus protection by Hsp72 overexpression is long lasting, and includes improved recovery of motor function over one month.

  12. Improving malaria treatment and prevention in India by aiding district managers to manage their programmes with local information: a trial assessing the impact of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling on programme outcomes.

    PubMed

    Valadez, Joseph J; Devkota, Baburam; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Meherda, Pramod; Sonal, G S; Dhariwal, Akshay; Davis, Rosemary

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the first trial of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) assessing associations between access to LQAS data and subsequent improvements in district programming. This trial concerns India's approach to addressing an increase in malaria-attributable deaths by training community health workers to diagnose, treat and prevent malaria, while using LQAS to monitor sub-district performance and make programme improvements. The Ministry of Health introduced LQAS into four matched high malaria burden districts (Annual Parasite Incidence >5) (N > 5 million). In each sub-district, we sampled four populations in three 6-monthly surveys: households, children <5 years, people with fever in the last 2 weeks and community health workers. In three districts, trained local staff collected, analysed and used data for programme management; in one control district, non-local staff collected data and did not disseminate results. For eight indicators, we calculated the change in proportion from survey one to three and used a Difference-in-Differences test to compare the relative change between intervention and control districts. Coverage increased from survey one to three for 24 of 32 comparisons. Difference-in-Differences tests revealed that intervention districts exhibited significantly greater change in four of six vertical strategies (insecticide treated bed-nets and indoor residual spraying), one of six treatment-seeking behaviours and four of 12 health worker capacity indicators. The control district displayed greater improvement than two intervention districts for one health worker capacity indicator. One district with poor management did not improve. In this study, LQAS results appeared to support district managers to increase coverage in underperforming areas, especially for vertical strategies in the presence of diligent managers. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Role of courtyard counselling meeting in improving household food safety knowledge and practices in Munshiganj district of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Alim, Md Abdul; Islam, Anm Shamsul; Amin, Km Bayzid; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hasan, Khaled; Ashad-Uz-Zaman, Md Noor; Selim, Shahjada; Quaiyum, Salman; Haque, Emdadul; Monir Hossain, Shah; Ryder, John; Khanam, Rokeya

    2016-12-01

    Unsafe food is linked to the deaths of an estimated two million people annually. Food containing harmful agents is responsible for more than 200 diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. A one-sample pilot intervention study was conducted to evaluate the role of courtyard counselling meetings as the means of intervention for improving food safety knowledge and practices among household food handlers in a district of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three phases: a baseline survey, the intervention and an end-line survey between April and November 2015 where 194 food handlers took part. Data were collected through observations and face-to-face interviews. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 (±12.4) years, all of whom were females. Hand washing before eating, and washing utensils with soap were significantly improved at the end-line in comparison to the baseline (57% vs. 40% and 83% vs. 69%, respectively). Hand washing with soap was increased by 4%. The mean score of food handling practices was significantly increased after the intervention (20.5 vs. 22.1; P<0.001). However, hand washing after use of toilet was unchanged after the intervention (75% vs.76%). Knowledge about safe food and the necessity of thorough cooking were significantly increased after the intervention (88% from 64% and 34% from 21%, respectively). Mean scores of knowledge and practice on food safety were significantly increased by 1.9 and 1.6, respectively after the one month intervention. Thus this food safety education in rural communities should be scaled up and, indeed, strengthened using the courtyard counselling meetings in Bangladesh.

  14. Role of courtyard counselling meeting in improving household food safety knowledge and practices in Munshiganj district of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Alim, Md Abdul; Islam, ANM Shamsul; Amin, KM Bayzid; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hasan, Khaled; Ashad-Uz-Zaman, Md Noor; Selim, Shahjada; Quaiyum, Salman; Haque, Emdadul; Monir Hossain, Shah; Ryder, John; Khanam, Rokeya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Unsafe food is linked to the deaths of an estimated two million people annually. Food containing harmful agents is responsible for more than 200 diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. A one-sample pilot intervention study was conducted to evaluate the role of courtyard counselling meetings as the means of intervention for improving food safety knowledge and practices among household food handlers in a district of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three phases: a baseline survey, the intervention and an end-line survey between April and November 2015 where 194 food handlers took part. Data were collected through observations and face-to-face interviews. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 (±12.4) years, all of whom were females. Hand washing before eating, and washing utensils with soap were significantly improved at the end-line in comparison to the baseline (57% vs. 40% and 83% vs. 69%, respectively). Hand washing with soap was increased by 4%. The mean score of food handling practices was significantly increased after the intervention (20.5 vs. 22.1; P<0.001). However, hand washing after use of toilet was unchanged after the intervention (75% vs.76%). Knowledge about safe food and the necessity of thorough cooking were significantly increased after the intervention (88% from 64% and 34% from 21%, respectively). Mean scores of knowledge and practice on food safety were significantly increased by 1.9 and 1.6, respectively after the one month intervention. Thus this food safety education in rural communities should be scaled up and, indeed, strengthened using the courtyard counselling meetings in Bangladesh. PMID:28008194

  15. Plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to combined heat stress and central hypovolemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Ngo, Hai; Poh, Paula Y S; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat-stressed humans. With the use of a counterbalanced and crossover design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0.9% iso-osmotic (ISO) or 3.0% hyperosmotic (HYPER) saline. Subjects were subsequently heated until core temperature increased ~1.4°C, after which all subjects underwent progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope. Plasma hyperosmolality improved LBNP tolerance (ISO: 288 ± 193 vs. 382 ± 145 mmHg × min, P = 0.04). However, no differences in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.10), heart rate (P = 0.09), or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P = 0.60, n = 6) were observed between conditions. When individual data were assessed, LBNP tolerance improved ≥25% in eight subjects but remained unchanged in the remaining four subjects. In subjects who exhibited improved LBNP tolerance, plasma hyperosmolality resulted in elevated mean arterial pressure (ISO: 62 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a greater increase in heart rate (ISO: +12 ± 24 vs. HYPER: +23 ± 17 beats/min, P = 0.05) before presyncope. No differences in these variables were observed between conditions in subjects that did not improve LBNP tolerance (all P ≥ 0.55). These results suggest that plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to central hypovolemia during heat stress in most, but not all, individuals. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Overview of direct use R&D at the Geo-Heat Center

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    Geo-Heat Center research, during the past year, on geothermal district heating and greenhouse projects is intended to improve the design and cost effectiveness of these systems. The largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S., proposed at Reno, is describe and is one of 271 collocated sites in western states could benefit from the research. The geothermal district heating research investigated a variety of factors that could reduce development cost for residential areas. Many greenhouse operators prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. As facilities using these types of heating systems expand they could benefit from peaking with fossil fuels. It is possible to design a geothermal heating system for only 60% of the peak heat loss of a greenhouse and still meet over 90% of the annual heat energy needs of the structure. The design and cost effectiveness of this novel approach is summarized.

  17. Improving the installation of renewable heating technology in UK social housing properties through user centred design.

    PubMed

    Moore, Natalie; Haines, Victoria; Lilley, Debra

    2015-11-01

    Social housing organisations are increasingly installing renewable energy technologies, particularly for the provision of heating and hot water. To meet carbon reduction targets, uptake and installation must allow occupants to use the technology effectively. This paper describes research which investigated the service of installing heat pumps into UK social housing properties, from both landlords' and tenants' experiences. Adopting a user centred design approach, the research was in three phases: an exploration study to investigate landlords' and tenants' experiences of heat pump installation and use; refinement and development of the requirements for improved service delivery, primarily technology introduction and control; and the development and initial evaluation of an information leaflet as a key touchpoint in the service delivery. Recommendations for improved service delivery, to enable heat pumps to be accepted and used more effectively, are presented, as well as reflection on the process of applying user centred design in this context. In a relatively immature area of industry, installations to date have been heavily focused on technical aspects. This paper provides an insight into the human aspects of the service delivery of heat pumps in social housing, providing designers and social housing landlords with insight about how to improve the service.

  18. Improving the installation of renewable heating technology in UK social housing properties through user centred design

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Natalie; Lilley, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Social housing organisations are increasingly installing renewable energy technologies, particularly for the provision of heating and hot water. To meet carbon reduction targets, uptake and installation must allow occupants to use the technology effectively. This paper describes research which investigated the service of installing heat pumps into UK social housing properties, from both landlords’ and tenants’ experiences. Adopting a user centred design approach, the research was in three phases: an exploration study to investigate landlords’ and tenants’ experiences of heat pump installation and use; refinement and development of the requirements for improved service delivery, primarily technology introduction and control; and the development and initial evaluation of an information leaflet as a key touchpoint in the service delivery. Recommendations for improved service delivery, to enable heat pumps to be accepted and used more effectively, are presented, as well as reflection on the process of applying user centred design in this context. In a relatively immature area of industry, installations to date have been heavily focused on technical aspects. This paper provides an insight into the human aspects of the service delivery of heat pumps in social housing, providing designers and social housing landlords with insight about how to improve the service. PMID:26539060

  19. Development and Application of a Numerical Framework for Improving Building Foundation Heat Transfer Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruis, Nathanael J. F.

    Heat transfer from building foundations varies significantly in all three spatial dimensions and has important dynamic effects at all timescales, from one hour to several years. With the additional consideration of moisture transport, ground freezing, evapotranspiration, and other physical phenomena, the estimation of foundation heat transfer becomes increasingly sophisticated and computationally intensive to the point where accuracy must be compromised for reasonable computation time. The tools currently available to calculate foundation heat transfer are often either too limited in their capabilities to draw meaningful conclusions or too sophisticated to use in common practices. This work presents Kiva, a new foundation heat transfer computational framework. Kiva provides a flexible environment for testing different numerical schemes, initialization methods, spatial and temporal discretizations, and geometric approximations. Comparisons within this framework provide insight into the balance of computation speed and accuracy relative to highly detailed reference solutions. The accuracy and computational performance of six finite difference numerical schemes are verified against established IEA BESTEST test cases for slab-on-grade heat conduction. Of the schemes tested, the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme demonstrates the best balance between accuracy, performance, and numerical stability. Kiva features four approaches of initializing soil temperatures for an annual simulation. A new accelerated initialization approach is shown to significantly reduce the required years of presimulation. Methods of approximating three-dimensional heat transfer within a representative two-dimensional context further improve computational performance. A new approximation called the boundary layer adjustment method is shown to improve accuracy over other established methods with a negligible increase in computation time. This method accounts for the reduced heat transfer

  20. Substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Seungjun; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jeong, Jaewook; Kim, Jang-Joo; Hong, Yongtaek

    2009-06-01

    We report substrate thermal conductivity effect on heat dissipation and lifetime improvement of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Heat dissipation behavior of top-emission OLEDs fabricated on silicon, glass, and planarized stainless steel substrates was measured by using an infrared camera. Peak temperature measured from the backside of each substrate was saturated to be 21.4, 64.5, and 40.5 °C, 180 s after the OLED was operated at luminance of 10 000 cd/m2 and 80% luminance lifetime was about 198, 31, and 96 h, respectively. Efficient heat dissipation through the highly thermally conductive substrates reduced temperature increase, resulting in much improved OLED lifetime.

  1. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  2. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill.

  3. The Measurement of the Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice: Two Improved Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, S. Y.; Chun, C. K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two methods for measuring the specific latent heat of ice fusion for high school physics laboratories. The first method is an ice calorimeter which is made from simple materials. The second method improves the thermal contact and allows for a more accurate measurement. Lists instructions for both methods. (Author/YDS)

  4. Modern trends in improvement of steel heating technology in continuous furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshpolskiy, V. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Trusova, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    The principles and approaches in the development and improvement of steel heating technology in the furnaces of rolling manufacture of various structural design, based on the systematic study of thermal physical and technological processes, including mathematical modeling, industrial experiments, development of rational temperature-thermal modes.

  5. The Measurement of the Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice: Two Improved Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, S. Y.; Chun, C. K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two methods for measuring the specific latent heat of ice fusion for high school physics laboratories. The first method is an ice calorimeter which is made from simple materials. The second method improves the thermal contact and allows for a more accurate measurement. Lists instructions for both methods. (Author/YDS)

  6. Housing and health: does installing heating in their homes improve the health of children with asthma?

    PubMed

    Somerville, M; Mackenzie, I; Owen, P; Miles, D

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of NHS money to improve health by improving housing conditions. A pilot study assessing health outcomes before and after improving housing conditions was conducted, studying 72 children with previously diagnosed asthma living in 59 damp houses in Cornwall. The intervention was the installation of central heating. This improved the energy efficiency of the housing. The children's health was a symptom-based outcome measure for asthma and time lost from school. Improvements comprised installation of gas central heating in 28/59 (47%) houses, electric storage heaters in 22/59 (37%), solid fuel central heating in 7/59 (12%) and oil-fired central heating in 2/59 (4%) houses. Energy efficiency improved by a mean of 2.1 on the National Home Energy Rating scale (95% CI 1.68-2.47, P<0.001) in the 37/59 (62%) houses for which two readings were available. Initially, 69/72 (92%) children's bedrooms were unheated and 44/72 (61%) were damp; following improvements, the proportions were 10/72 (14%) and 15/72 (21%) respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly reduced after intervention; the greatest reduction was seen in nocturnal cough from a median score of 3 (most nights) to 1 (on one or several nights) (P<0.001) in the previous month. School-age children lost significantly less time from school for asthma in the previous 3 months (9.3 days per 100 school days before intervention and 2.1 days afterwards, P<0.01) but not for other reasons (1.4 days per 100 school days before and 3.2 after, P>0.05). In conclusion, this study provides the first evaluation of health outcomes following housing improvements. Lack of a comparison group means that effects of age, season and biased reporting cannot be eliminated. More work is needed to substantiate these results.

  7. Operations research to add postpartum family planning to maternal and neonatal health to improve birth spacing in Sylhet District, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Norton, Maureen; Williams, Emma; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Shah, Rasheduzzaman; Begum, Nazma; Mungia, Jaime; Lefevre, Amnesty; Al-Kabir, Ahmed; Winch, Peter J; McKaig, Catharine; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Short birth intervals are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health (MNH) outcomes. Improving postpartum contraceptive use is an important programmatic strategy to improve the health and well-being of women, newborns, and children. This article documents the intervention package and evaluation design of a study conducted in a rural district of Bangladesh to evaluate the effects of an integrated, community-based MNH and postpartum family planning program on contraceptive use and birth-interval lengths. Intervention: The study integrated family planning counseling within 5 community health worker (CHW)-household visits to pregnant and postpartum women, while a community mobilizer (CM) led community meetings on the importance of postpartum family planning and pregnancy spacing for maternal and child health. The CM and the CHWs emphasized 3 messages: (1) Use of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) during the first 6 months postpartum and transition to another modern contraceptive method; (2) Exclusive, rather than fully or nearly fully, breastfeeding to support LAM effectiveness and good infant breastfeeding practices; (3) Use of a modern contraceptive method after a live birth for at least 24 months before attempting another pregnancy (a birth-to-birth interval of about 3 years) to support improved infant health and nutrition. CHWs provided only family planning counseling in the original study design, but we later added community-based distribution of methods, and referrals for clinical methods, to meet women's demand. Methods: Using a quasi-experimental design, and relying primarily on pre/post-household surveys, we selected pregnant women from 4 unions to receive the intervention (n = 2,280) and pregnant women from 4 other unions (n = 2,290) to serve as the comparison group. Enrollment occurred between 2007 and 2009, and data collection ended in January 2013. Preliminary Results: Formative research showed

  8. Improvement of heat pipe performance through integration of a coral biomaterial wick structure into the heat pipe of a CPU cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Nandy; Septiadi, Wayan Nata

    2017-04-01

    The very high heat flux dissipated by a Central Processing Unit (CPU) can no longer be handled by a conventional, single-phased cooling system. Thermal management of a CPU is now moving towards two-phase systems to maintain CPUs below their maximum temperature. A heat pipe is one of the emerging cooling systems to address this issue because of its superior efficiency and energy input independence. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of a heat pipe by integrating a biomaterial as the wick structure. In this work, the heat pipe was made from copper pipe and the biomaterial wick structure was made from tabulate coral with a mean pore diameter of 52.95 μm. For comparison purposes, the wick structure was fabricated from sintered Cu-powder with a mean pore diameter of 58.57 µm. The working fluid for this experiment was water. The experiment was conducted using a processor as the heat source and a plate simulator to measure the heat flux. The utilization of coral as the wick structure can improve the performance of a heat pipe and can decrease the temperature of a simulator plate by as much as 38.6 % at the maximum heat load compared to a conventional copper heat sink. This method also decreased the temperature of the simulator plate by as much as 44.25 °C compared to a heat pipe composed of a sintered Cu-powder wick.

  9. Improvement of heat pipe performance through integration of a coral biomaterial wick structure into the heat pipe of a CPU cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Nandy; Septiadi, Wayan Nata

    2016-08-01

    The very high heat flux dissipated by a Central Processing Unit (CPU) can no longer be handled by a conventional, single-phased cooling system. Thermal management of a CPU is now moving towards two-phase systems to maintain CPUs below their maximum temperature. A heat pipe is one of the emerging cooling systems to address this issue because of its superior efficiency and energy input independence. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of a heat pipe by integrating a biomaterial as the wick structure. In this work, the heat pipe was made from copper pipe and the biomaterial wick structure was made from tabulate coral with a mean pore diameter of 52.95 μm. For comparison purposes, the wick structure was fabricated from sintered Cu-powder with a mean pore diameter of 58.57 µm. The working fluid for this experiment was water. The experiment was conducted using a processor as the heat source and a plate simulator to measure the heat flux. The utilization of coral as the wick structure can improve the performance of a heat pipe and can decrease the temperature of a simulator plate by as much as 38.6 % at the maximum heat load compared to a conventional copper heat sink. This method also decreased the temperature of the simulator plate by as much as 44.25 °C compared to a heat pipe composed of a sintered Cu-powder wick.

  10. Improving Heat Pump Water Heater Effeciency by Avoiding Electric Resistance Heater Use

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Parkison, April E.; Nutaro, James J.

    2014-09-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are a promising technology that can decrease the domestic hot water energy consumption over an electric resistance storage water heater by up to 50%. Heat pump water heaters are really two water heaters in one; they can heat water by using a heat pump or by using electric resistance elements. During large water draw events the HPWHs will use the resistance elements that decrease the overall efficiency of the units. ORNL proposed and tested an advanced control algorithm that anticipates the large water draw events and appropriately sets-up the temperature of the tank water using only the heat pump. With sufficient energy stored in the tank at the elevated temperature, the large water draw is provided for and electric resistance use is avoided. Simulations using a validated heat pump water heater model, and measured water draw data from 25 homes, show average yearly energy savings of 9% for the advanced control algorithm. If the advanced control algorithm perfectly predicts the large water draw events then the savings increase to 19%. This discrepancy could be due to a lack of predictability of water draw patterns in some homes, or the water draw forecasting algorithm could be improved.

  11. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on improving the heat stability of whey protein isolate solutions.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Suresh; Patel, Hasmukh

    2017-05-15

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions (12.8%w/w protein) were treated with varying concentrations of H2O2 in the range of 0-0.144 H2O2 to protein ratios (HTPR) by the addition of the required quantity of H2O2 and deionized water. The samples were analyzed for heat stability, rheological properties, denaturation level of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and α-lactalbumin (α-LA). The samples treated with H2O2 concentration >0.072 (HTPR) showed significant improvement in the heat stability, and decreased whey protein denaturation and aggregation. The WPI solution treated with H2O2 (>0.072 HTPR) remained in the liquid state after heat treatment at 120°C, whereas the control samples formed gel upon heat treatment. Detailed analysis of these samples suggested that the improvement in the heat stability of H2O2 treated WPI solution was attributed to the significant reduction in the sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reaction during denaturation of β-LG and α-LA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement in the mechanical properties of PTFE bonded NdFeB magnets by heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattam, C.; Williams, A. J.; Hay, J. N.; Harris, I. R.; Tedstone, S. F.; Ashraf, M. M.

    1996-05-01

    Rotary forging has been used to produce high density bonded magnets using NdFeB based melt spun ribbons (MQP-D). The binder used was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A post-forging heat treatment at temperatures above the crystalline melting point of PTFE (˜ 340°C) has been seen to improve substantially the mechanical integrity of the compacts. Heat treatments that were undertaken in air resulted in oxidation of the magnets, but the extent of oxidation was reduced with increasing PTFE content, characterised by a greater retention of magnetic properties. This behaviour suggests that to some extent. PTFE is effective as a barrier to oxidation. By heat treating in a vacuum, an improvement of over 100% in the mechanical strength of the compacts could be obtained with little loss in the magnetic properties. The fracture surfaces of both as-forged and heat treated compacts have been examined using scanning electron microscopy and it appears that bonding between the melt spun ribbon (MQI) and PTFE occurs during heat treatment.

  13. Design of an Improved Heater Array to Measure Microscale Wall Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Chng, Choon Ping; Kalkur, T. S.

    1996-01-01

    An improved array of microscale heaters is being developed to measure the heat transfer coefficient at many points underneath individual bubbles during boiling as a function of space and time. This heater array enables the local heat transfer from a surface during the bubble growth and departure process to be measured with very high temporal and spatial resolution, and should allow better understanding of the boiling heat transfer mechanisms by pin-pointing when and where in the bubble departure cycle large amounts of wall heat transfer occur. Such information can provide much needed data regarding the important heat transfer mechanisms during the bubble departure cycle, and can serve as benchmarks to validate many of the analytical and numerical models used to simulate boiling. The improvements to the heater array include using a silicon-on-quartz substrate to reduce thermal cross-talk between the heaters, decreased space between the heaters, increased pad sizes on the heaters, and progressive heater sizes. Some results using the present heater array are discussed.

  14. Short-term heat acclimation improves the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km running performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, Carl A; Richardson, Alan J; Watt, Peter W; Willmott, Ashley G B; Gibson, Oliver R; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of 5 days of controlled short-term heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W·kg(-1)), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXTs) in cool (13 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), pre-training) and hot conditions (32 °C, 60% RH, pre- and post-training), as well as 5-km time trials (TTs) in the heat, pre- and post-training. STHA reduced resting (p = 0.01) and exercising (p = 0.04) core temperature alongside a smaller change in thermal sensation (p = 0.04). Both groups improved the lactate threshold (LT, p = 0.021), lactate turnpoint (LTP, p = 0.005) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (vV̇O2max; p = 0.031) similarly. Statistical differences between training methods were observed in TT performance (STHA, -6.2(5.5)%; CON, -0.6(1.7)%, p = 0.029) and total running time during the GXT (STHA, +20.8(12.7)%; CON, +9.8(1.2)%, p = 0.006). There were large mean differences in change in maximal oxygen consumption between STHA +4.0(2.2) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (7.3(4.0)%) and CON +1.9(3.7) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (3.8(7.2)%). Running economy (RE) deteriorated following both training programmes (p = 0.008). Similarly, RE was impaired in the cool GXT, relative to the hot GXT (p = 0.004). STHA improved endurance running performance in comparison with work-matched normothermic training, despite equality of adaptation for typical determinants of performance (LT, LTP, vV̇O2max). Accordingly, these data highlight the ergogenic effect of STHA, potentially via greater improvements in maximal oxygen consumption and specific thermoregulatory and associated thermal perception adaptations absent in normothermic training.

  15. Next generation commercial heat pumpwater heater using carbon dioxide using different improvement approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Chad; Petersen, Michael; Elbel, Stefan; Hrnjak, Pega

    2012-07-15

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  16. Performance improvements in commercial heat pump water heaters using carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, C. D.; Elbel, S.; Petersen, M.; Hrnjak, P. S.

    2011-09-15

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC (180ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  17. Georgia Pacific: Crossett Mill Identifies Heat Recovery Projects and Operational Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    2003-10-01

    An assessment team conducted a mill-wide energy survey at Georgia-Pacific's Crossett, Arkansas mill to update a previous pinch analysis. Three heat recovery projects were identified that could reduce annual costs by $4.8 million and reduce natural gas use by 1,845,000 x 106 Btu. The overall payback period for the heat recovery projects would be less than 1 year. Furthermore, by implementing operational improvements, the mill could save $4.8 million more annually and 1,500,000 x 106 Btu in natural gas.

  18. Microseismic monitoring for evidence of geothermal heat in the capital district of New York. Final report, Phases I-III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The seismic monitoring work of the geothermal project was initiated for the purpose of determining more exactly the relationship between seismicity and the postulated geothermal and related activity in the Albany-Saratoga Springs area in upstate New York. The seismic monitoring aspect of this work consisted of setting up and operating a network of seven seismograph stations within and around the study area capable of detecting and locating small earthquakes. To supplement the evidence from present day seismic activity, a list of all known historical and early instrumental earthquakes was compiled and improved from original sources for a larger region centered on the study area. Additional field work was done to determine seismic velocities of P and S phases by special recording of quarry blasts. The velocity results were used both as an aid to improve earthquake locations based on computer programs and to make inferences about the existence of temperature anomalies, and hence geothermal potential, at depths beneath the study area. Finally, the level in the continuous background earth vibration, microseisms, was measured throughout the study area to test a possibility that a relationship may exist at the surface between the level in microseisms and the geothermal or related activity. The observed seismic activity within the study area, although considerably higher (two to three times) than inferred from the historical and early instrumental data, is still not only low for a potential geothermal area but appears to be related to coherent regional tectonic stresses and not to the proposed more localized geothermal activity reflected in the mineralized, CO/sub 2/ rich spring discharge.

  19. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  20. Development of improved analysis of non-local electron parallel heat transport in divertor plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allais, Fabrice; Alouani Bibi, Fathallah; Kim, Chang-Geun; Matte, Jean-Pierre; Stotler, Daren P.

    2004-03-01

    Parallel electron heat transport in divertor plasmas is investigated. Our electron kinetic code "FPI" has been upgraded to take into account the hydrogen's atomic physics, including 30 energy levels in the computation. This required important improvements in the numerical algorithms in order to run the code within a reasonable time and compute the effects of each inelastic process. Their effects on non-local transport and the large enhancement of the effective (i.e. including ionization via excited states) ionization rates in the cold plasma due to nonlocal transport will be presented. A non-local electron heat flow formula [1] has been adapted and implemented in the "UEDGE" code. Simulations using it were compared to runs made with the more traditional flux limited heat diffusion formula. Considerable differences were seen in the temperature profiles. [1] F. Alouani Bibi and J.P. Matte, Phys. Rev. E 66, 066414 (2002)

  1. Investigation of an Evaluation Method on the Improvement of Thrust and Specific Impulse by Nozzle Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganuma, Tetsushi; Iwaki, Yuuki; Sato, Shunya; Totani, Tsuyoshi; Wakita, Masashi; Nagata, Harunori

    A numerical analysis program is created to research effect of heat transfer for propellant flow in Laval nozzle and estimate improvements of thrust and specific impulse. Several types of gases are assumed as propellant. The energy ratio is defined as ratio of energy supplied to propellant by convective heat transfer to enthalpy of propellant at the inlet of nozzle. The energy ratio increases with elongating length of divergent nozzle, and finally becomes maximum value that depends on Prandtl number, propellant temperature and wall temperature at the inlet of nozzle. The conversion efficiency is defined as ratio of energy conversion to kinetic energy with nozzle to energy supplied to propellant. The conversion efficiency increases with elongating of divergent nozzle, and depends on profile of supplied heat.

  2. Improved superconducting properties of melt-textured Nd123 by additional heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikumoto, N.; Yoshioka, J.; Murakami, M.

    1997-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of additional heat-treatment on the superconducting transition and the flux pinning properties of NdBaCuO melt-textured in air. After the heat-treatment at high temperatures, >900°C, under low oxygen partial pressure, P(O 2) = 0.001 atm, the superconducting transition became sharper accompanied by an increase of Jc. However, the increase of Jc was very small and the secondary peak effect commonly observed in NdBaCuO melt textured in low P(O 2) could not be observed. Transmission electron microscopic observations and energy dispersive X-ray analyses show that the spatial variation of the Nd/Ba ratio is reduced after high-temperature heat-treatment, which indicates that an improvement in Tc and Jc is attributed to a suppression of Nd substitution on the Ba site.

  3. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  4. Cross Acclimation between Heat and Hypoxia: Heat Acclimation Improves Cellular Tolerance and Exercise Performance in Acute Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Miller, Amanda; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential for cross acclimation between environmental stressors is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of fixed-workload heat or hypoxic acclimation on cellular, physiological, and performance responses during post acclimation hypoxic exercise in humans. Method: Twenty-one males (age 22 ± 5 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.07 m; mass 71.8 ± 7.9 kg; V˙O2 peak 51 ± 7 mL.kg−1.min−1) completed a cycling hypoxic stress test (HST) and self-paced 16.1 km time trial (TT) before (HST1, TT1), and after (HST2, TT2) a series of 10 daily 60 min training sessions (50% N V˙O2 peak) in control (CON, n = 7; 18°C, 35% RH), hypoxic (HYP, n = 7; fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.14, 18°C, 35% RH), or hot (HOT, n = 7; 40°C, 25% RH) conditions. Results: TT performance in hypoxia was improved following both acclimation treatments, HYP (−3:16 ± 3:10 min:s; p = 0.0006) and HOT (−2:02 ± 1:02 min:s; p = 0.005), but unchanged after CON (+0:31 ± 1:42 min:s). Resting monocyte heat shock protein 72 (mHSP72) increased prior to HST2 in HOT (62 ± 46%) and HYP (58 ± 52%), but was unchanged after CON (9 ± 46%), leading to an attenuated mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise in HOT and HYP HST2 compared to HST1 (p < 0.01). Changes in extracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α followed a similar pattern to those of mHSP72. Physiological strain index (PSI) was attenuated in HOT (HST1 = 4.12 ± 0.58, HST2 = 3.60 ± 0.42; p = 0.007) as a result of a reduced HR (HST1 = 140 ± 14 b.min−1; HST2 131 ± 9 b.min−1 p = 0.0006) and Trectal (HST1 = 37.55 ± 0.18°C; HST2 37.45 ± 0.14°C; p = 0.018) during exercise. Whereas PSI did not change in HYP (HST1 = 4.82 ± 0.64, HST2 4.83 ± 0.63). Conclusion: Heat acclimation improved cellular and systemic physiological tolerance to steady state exercise in moderate hypoxia. Additionally we show, for the first time, that heat acclimation improved cycling time trial performance to a magnitude

  5. Metabolic Effects of Acibenzolar-S-Methyl for Improving Heat or Drought Stress in Creeping Bentgrass

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, David; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) is a synthetic functional analog of salicylic acid which can induce systemic acquired resistance in plants, but its effects on abiotic stress tolerance is not well known. The objectives of this study were to examine effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl on heat or drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and to determine major ASM-responsive metabolites and proteins associated with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance. Creeping bentgrass plants (cv. ‘Penncross’) were foliarly sprayed with ASM and were exposed to non-stress (20/15°C day/night), heat stress (35/30°C), or drought conditions (by withholding irrigation) in controlled-environment growth chambers. Exogenous ASM treatment resulted in improved heat or drought tolerance, as demonstrated by higher overall turf quality, relative water content, and chlorophyll content compared to the untreated control. Western blotting revealed that ASM application resulted in up-regulation of ATP synthase, HSP-20, PR-3, and Rubisco in plants exposed to heat stress, and greater accumulation of dehydrin in plants exposed to drought stress. Metabolite profiling identified a number of amino acids, organic acids, and sugars which were differentially accumulated between ASM treated and untreated plants under heat or drought stress, including aspartic acid, glycine, citric acid, malic acid, and the sugars glucose, and fructose. Our results suggested that ASM was effective in improving heat or drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass, mainly through enhancing protein synthesis and metabolite accumulation involved in osmotic adjustment, energy metabolism, and stress signaling. PMID:28744300

  6. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netshandama, Vhonani O.; Francis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83%) and assurance (80%) domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. PMID:27380835

  7. District-level hospital trauma care audit filters: Delphi technique for defining context-appropriate indicators for quality improvement initiative evaluation in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Addo, Wilfred Larbi; Afoko, Akis; Agbenorku, Pius; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Ankomah, James; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Baffoe, Peter; Debrah, Sam; Donkor, Peter; Dorvlo, Theodor; Japiong, Kennedy; Kushner, Adam L; Morna, Martin; Ofosu, Anthony; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Tabiri, Stephen; Mock, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prospective clinical audit of trauma care improves outcomes for the injured in high-income countries (HICs). However, equivalent, context-appropriate audit filters for use in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) district-level hospitals have not been well established. We aimed to develop context-appropriate trauma care audit filters for district-level hospitals in Ghana, was well as other LMICs more broadly. Methods Consensus on trauma care audit filters was built between twenty panelists using a Delphi technique with four anonymous, iterative surveys designed to elicit: i) trauma care processes to be measured; ii) important features of audit filters for the district-level hospital setting; and iii) potentially useful filters. Filters were ranked on a scale from 0 – 10 (10 being very useful). Consensus was measured with average percent majority opinion (APMO) cut-off rate. Target consensus was defined a priori as: a median rank of ≥9 for each filter and an APMO cut-off rate of ≥0.8. Results Panelists agreed on trauma care processes to target (e.g. triage, phases of trauma assessment, early referral if needed) and specific features of filters for district-level hospital use (e.g. simplicity, unassuming of resource capacity). APMO cut-off rate increased successively: Round 1 - 0.58; Round 2 - 0.66; Round 3 - 0.76; and Round 4 - 0.82. After Round 4, target consensus on 22 trauma care and referral-specific filters was reached. Example filters include: triage - vital signs are recorded within 15 minutes of arrival (must include breathing assessment, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation if available); circulation - a large bore IV was placed within 15 minutes of patient arrival; referral - if referral is activated, the referring clinician and receiving facility communicate by phone or radio prior to transfer. Conclusion This study proposes trauma care audit filters appropriate for LMIC district-level hospitals. Given the successes of similar

  8. District-level hospital trauma care audit filters: Delphi technique for defining context-appropriate indicators for quality improvement initiative evaluation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Quansah, Robert; Addo, Wilfred Larbi; Afoko, Akis; Agbenorku, Pius; Amponsah-Manu, Forster; Ankomah, James; Appiah-Denkyira, Ebenezer; Baffoe, Peter; Debrah, Sam; Donkor, Peter; Dorvlo, Theodor; Japiong, Kennedy; Kushner, Adam L; Morna, Martin; Ofosu, Anthony; Oppong-Nketia, Victor; Tabiri, Stephen; Mock, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Prospective clinical audit of trauma care improves outcomes for the injured in high-income countries (HICs). However, equivalent, context-appropriate audit filters for use in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) district-level hospitals have not been well established. We aimed to develop context-appropriate trauma care audit filters for district-level hospitals in Ghana, was well as other LMICs more broadly. Consensus on trauma care audit filters was built between twenty panellists using a Delphi technique with four anonymous, iterative surveys designed to elicit: (i) trauma care processes to be measured; (ii) important features of audit filters for the district-level hospital setting; and (iii) potentially useful filters. Filters were ranked on a scale from 0 to 10 (10 being very useful). Consensus was measured with average percent majority opinion (APMO) cut-off rate. Target consensus was defined a priori as: a median rank of ≥9 for each filter and an APMO cut-off rate of ≥0.8. Panellists agreed on trauma care processes to target (e.g. triage, phases of trauma assessment, early referral if needed) and specific features of filters for district-level hospital use (e.g. simplicity, unassuming of resource capacity). APMO cut-off rate increased successively: Round 1--0.58; Round 2--0.66; Round 3--0.76; and Round 4--0.82. After Round 4, target consensus on 22 trauma care and referral-specific filters was reached. Example filters include: triage--vital signs are recorded within 15 min of arrival (must include breathing assessment, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation if available); circulation--a large bore IV was placed within 15 min of patient arrival; referral--if referral is activated, the referring clinician and receiving facility communicate by phone or radio prior to transfer. This study proposes trauma care audit filters appropriate for LMIC district-level hospitals. Given the successes of similar filters in HICs and obstetric care filters in LMICs

  9. Palmdale School District & Pivot Learning Partners--A Relentless Focus on Improving Student Learning (2006 to 2011). Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Judith W.

    2011-01-01

    When Palmdale School District and Pivot Learning Partners entered into their first contract in 2006, neither organization foresaw the magnitude and complexity the relationship would take over time. Pivot Learning Partners (formerly known as Springboard Schools) is a non-profit service provider that first entered the Palmdale School District…

  10. District Disruption & Revival: School Systems Reshape to Compete-and Improve. Quality Counts, 2014. Volume 33, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    For all the national and even international debate about the state of American education, public schooling in the U.S. is still a local matter--and the school district remains its hub. As administrators know, there's nothing abstract about the process of getting millions of students into their seats, assuring they receive the instruction they're…

  11. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Corcoran, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon; Uzzell, Renata; Simon, Candace; Heppen, Jessica; Leinwand, Steve; Salinger, Terry; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Dogan, Enis; Novotny, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes preliminary and exploratory research conducted by the Council of the Great City Schools and the American Institutes for Research on urban school systems participating in the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The study is one of the first large-scale analyses…

  12. Investigating the Role of Instructional Rounds in the Development of Social Networks and District-Wide Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Thomas; Hill, Kathryn; Roegman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how organizational routines involving instructional rounds--collective, structured observations and reflections on classroom practice--might contribute to the development of social networks among administrators and support a common, district-wide focus on instruction. Building on work on communities of practice, we…

  13. Do Small Schools Improve Performance in Large, Urban Districts? Causal Evidence from New York City. Working Paper #01-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Wiswall, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the effectiveness of small high school reform in the country's largest school district, New York City. Using a rich administrative dataset for multiple cohorts of students and distance between student residence and school to instrument for endogenous school selection, we find substantial heterogeneity in school effects: newly created…

  14. Investigating the Role of Instructional Rounds in the Development of Social Networks and District-Wide Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Thomas; Hill, Kathryn; Roegman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how organizational routines involving instructional rounds--collective, structured observations and reflections on classroom practice--might contribute to the development of social networks among administrators and support a common, district-wide focus on instruction. Building on work on communities of practice, we…

  15. Palmdale School District & Pivot Learning Partners--A Relentless Focus on Improving Student Learning (2006 to 2011). Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Judith W.

    2011-01-01

    When Palmdale School District and Pivot Learning Partners entered into their first contract in 2006, neither organization foresaw the magnitude and complexity the relationship would take over time. Pivot Learning Partners (formerly known as Springboard Schools) is a non-profit service provider that first entered the Palmdale School District…

  16. Benefits of 25 Years of School District-University Partnerships to Improve Teacher Preparation and Advance School Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Michael C.; Yunk, Dan C.

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing about school district-teacher education program relationships across the long history and broad landscape of teacher preparation in America can prove challenging. However, if partnerships imply stable, long-term, mutually beneficial arrangements characterized by shared decision-making and resources, even a relatively cursory scan…

  17. District Disruption & Revival: School Systems Reshape to Compete-and Improve. Quality Counts, 2014. Volume 33, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    For all the national and even international debate about the state of American education, public schooling in the U.S. is still a local matter--and the school district remains its hub. As administrators know, there's nothing abstract about the process of getting millions of students into their seats, assuring they receive the instruction they're…

  18. Fluid Analysis and Improved Structure of an ATEG Heat Exchanger Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. B.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been employed to analyze the internal flow field distribution in a heat exchanger applied for an automotive thermoelectric generator based on computational fluid dynamics. The model simulates the influence of factors relevant to the heat exchanger, including the automotive waste heat mass flow velocity, temperature, internal fins, and back pressure. The result is in good agreement with experimental test data. Sensitivity analysis of the inlet parameters shows that increase of the exhaust velocity, compared with the inlet temperature, makes little contribution (0.1 versus 0.19) to the heat transfer but results in a detrimental back pressure increase (0.69 versus 0.21). A configuration equipped with internal fins is proved to offer better thermal performance compared with that without fins. Finally, based on an attempt to improve the internal flow field, a more rational structure is obtained, offering a more homogeneous temperature distribution, higher average heat transfer coefficient, and lower back pressure.

  19. Improved heat dissipation in gallium nitride light-emitting diodes with embedded graphene oxide pattern.

    PubMed

    Han, Nam; Cuong, Tran Viet; Han, Min; Ryu, Beo Deul; Chandramohan, S; Park, Jong Bae; Kang, Ji Hye; Park, Young-Jae; Ko, Kang Bok; Kim, Hee Yun; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Jae Hyoung; Katharria, Y S; Choi, Chel-Jong; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The future of solid-state lighting relies on how the performance parameters will be improved further for developing high-brightness light-emitting diodes. Eventually, heat removal is becoming a crucial issue because the requirement of high brightness necessitates high-operating current densities that would trigger more joule heating. Here we demonstrate that the embedded graphene oxide in a gallium nitride light-emitting diode alleviates the self-heating issues by virtue of its heat-spreading ability and reducing the thermal boundary resistance. The fabrication process involves the generation of scalable graphene oxide microscale patterns on a sapphire substrate, followed by its thermal reduction and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of gallium nitride in a metal-organic chemical vapour deposition system under one-step process. The device with embedded graphene oxide outperforms its conventional counterpart by emitting bright light with relatively low-junction temperature and thermal resistance. This facile strategy may enable integration of large-scale graphene into practical devices for effective heat removal.

  20. Using Research to Improve College Readiness: A Research Partnership Between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors to produce accessible and high-quality research to inform pressing problems of practice. The article also presents findings from an ongoing partnership research project analyzing a district policy focused on improving college readiness by aligning high school graduation and college-eligibility requirements. In a cohort that went through high school before the policy became mandatory for all students, less than 1/5 of all students (and 30% of graduates) met the college eligibility criteria. Our findings indicate that academic and behavioral indicators from 8th and 9th grade can help identify for possible intervention students who are not on track to meet these new graduation requirements. PMID:26709340