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Sample records for improved eddy-current inspection

  1. Improved eddy-current inspection for steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the research and development of eddy-current tests for a wide range of different problems. Recent advances have been made on our multiple-property techniques. This technique generates a set of coefficients that correlate the readings from an eddy-current instrument to the properties of the test that produce the readings. While this technique will work with reflection probes, pancake probes, or bobbin probes, we have concentrated on the latter since this type of test is the most widely used in the commercial inspection of steam generators. The test properties varied include tube supports, tube sheets, copper deposits, magnetite deposits, denting, wastage, pitting, cracking and IGA. While our multiple-property technique has given good results for several years, recent advances in personal computers have considerably improved the results. Fits have been run for the differential bobbin probe that have included over 95,000 different sets of property values and their corresponding readings. Multiple-property fits of these readings have given defect size fits with root-mean-square errors under 5% of the wall thickness for ASME Section XI standards. Although the actual measurement of the defect depths is not that good (without corrections), the signal-to-noise ratio is very good, even at copper and magnetite interfaces. Different types of function fits have been tested for the various types of probes and defects, and optimum functions have been determined for each. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Improved eddy-current inspection for steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.; Allen, J.D. Jr.; Allen , Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    Computer programs have been written to allow the analysis of different types of eddy-current probes and their performance under different steam generator test conditions. The probe types include the differential bobbin probe, the absolute bobbin probe, the pancake probe and the reflection probe. The generator test conditions include tube supports, copper deposits, magnetite deposits, denting, wastage, pitting, cracking and IGA. These studies are based mostly on computed values, with the limited number of test specimens available used to verify the computed results. The instrument readings were computed for a complete matrix of the different test conditions, and then the test conditions determined as a function of the readings by a least-squares technique. A comparison was made of the errors in fit and instrument drift for the different probe types. The computations of the change in instrument reading due to the defects have led to an inversion'' technique in which the defect properties can be computed from the instrument readings. This has been done both experimentally and analytically for each of these probe types. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Improved multi-directional eddy current inspection test apparatus for detecting flaws in metal articles

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Roy A.; Hartley, William H.; Caffarel, Alfred J.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus is described for detecting flaws in a tubular workpiece in a single scan. The coils of a dual coil bobbin eddy current inspection probe are wound at a 45.degree. angle to the transverse axis of the probe, one coil having an angular position about the axis about 90.degree. relative to the angular position of the other coil, and the angle of intersection of the planes containing the coils being about 60.degree..

  4. Eddy current inspection of graphite fiber components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.; Bryson, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    The recognition of defects in materials properties still presents a number of problems for nondestructive testing in aerospace systems. This project attempts to utilize current capabilities in eddy current instrumentation, artificial intelligence, and robotics in order to provide insight into defining geometrical aspects of flaws in composite materials which are capable of being evaluated using eddy current inspection techniques. The unique capabilities of E-probes and horseshoe probes for inspecting probes for inspecting graphite fiber materials were evaluated and appear to hold great promise once the technology development matures. The initial results are described of modeling eddy current interactions with certain flaws in graphite fiber samples.

  5. Process Specification for Eddy Current Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    This process specification establishes the minimum requirements for eddy current inspection of flat surfaces, fastener holes, threaded fasteners and seamless and welded tubular products made from nonmagnetic alloys such as aluminum and stainless steel.

  6. Contoured Surface Eddy Current Inspection System

    DOEpatents

    Batzinger, Thomas James; Fulton, James Paul; Rose, Curtis Wayne; Perocchi, Lee Cranford

    2003-04-08

    Eddy current inspection of a contoured surface of a workpiece is performed by forming a backing piece of flexible, resiliently yieldable material with a contoured exterior surface conforming in shape to the workpiece contoured surface. The backing piece is preferably cast in place so as to conform to the workpiece contoured surface. A flexible eddy current array probe is attached to the contoured exterior surface of the backing piece such that the probe faces the contoured surface of the workpiece to be inspected when the backing piece is disposed adjacent to the workpiece. The backing piece is then expanded volumetrically by inserting at least one shim into a slot in the backing piece to provide sufficient contact pressure between the probe and the workpiece contoured surface to enable the inspection of the workpiece contoured surface to be performed.

  7. Eddy current inspection tool. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, R.R.; Van Lue, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A miniaturized inspection tool, for testing and inspection of metal objects in locations with difficult accessibility, which comprises eddy current sensing equipment with a probe coil, and associated coaxial coil cable, oil energizing means, and circuit means responsive to impedance changes in the coil as effected by induced eddy currents in a test object to produce a data output signal proportional to such changes. The coil and cable are slideably received in the utility channel of the flexible insertion tube of a fiberoptic scope. The scope is provided with light transmitting and receiving fiberoptics for viewing through the flexible tube, and articulation means for articulating the distal end of the tube and permitting close control of coil placement relative to a test object. The eddy current sensing equipment includes a tone generator for generating audible signals responsive to the data output signal. In one selected mode of operation, the tone generator responsive to the output signal above a selected level generates a constant single frequency tone for signalling detection of a discontinuity and, in a second selected mode, generates a tone whose frequency is proportional to the difference between the output signal and a predetermined selected threshold level.

  8. Eddy-Current Inspection Of Graphite-Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.; Bryson, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum describes initial research on, and proposed development of, automated system for nondestructive eddy-current inspection of parts made of graphite-fiber/epoxy-matrix composite materials. Sensors in system E-shaped or U-shaped eddy-current probes like those described in "Eddy-Current Probes For Inspecting Graphite-Fiber Composites" (MFS-26129).

  9. Automated Eddy Current Inspection on Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, John; Felker, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Over the life time of the Space Shuttle program, metal parts used for the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) have been nondestructively inspected for cracks and surface breaking discontinuities using magnetic particle (steel) and penetrant methods. Although these inspections adequately screened for critical sized cracks in most regions of the hardware, it became apparent after detection of several sub-critical flaws that the processes were very dependent on operator attentiveness and training. Throughout the 1990's, eddy current inspections were added to areas that had either limited visual access or were more fracture critical. In the late 1990's. a project was initiated to upgrade NDE inspections with the overall objective of improving inspection reliability and control. An automated eddy current inspection system was installed in 2001. A figure shows one of the inspection bays with the robotic axis of the system highlighted. The system was programmed to inspect the various case, nozzle, and igniter metal components that make up an RSRM. both steel and aluminum. For the past few years, the automated inspection system has been a part of the baseline inspection process for steel components. Although the majority of the RSRM metal part inventory ts free of detectable surface flaws, a few small, sub-critical manufacturing defects have been detected with the automated system. This paper will summarize the benefits that have been realized with the current automated eddy current system, as well as the flaws that have been detected.

  10. Eddy-Current Inspection of Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, B.

    1985-01-01

    Custom eddy-current probe locates surface anomalies. Low friction air cushion within cone allows ball to roll easily. Eddy current probe reliably detects surface and near-surface cracks, voids, and material anomalies in bearing balls or other spherical objects. Defects in ball surface detected by probe displayed on CRT and recorded on strip-chart recorder.

  11. Eddy-Current Inspection Of Tab Seals On Beverage Cans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-current inspection system monitors tab seals on beverage cans. Device inspects all cans at usual production rate of 1,500 to 2,000 cans per minute. Automated inspection of all units replaces visual inspection by microscope aided by mass spectrometry. System detects defects in real time. Sealed cans on conveyor pass near one of two coils in differential eddy-current probe. Other coil in differential eddy-current probe positioned near stationary reference can on which tab seal is known to be of acceptable quality. Signal of certain magnitude at output of probe indicates defective can, automatically ejected from conveyor.

  12. Improved Imaging With Laser-Induced Eddy Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.

    1993-01-01

    System tests specimen of material nondestructively by laser-induced eddy-current imaging improved by changing method of processing of eddy-current signal. Changes in impedance of eddy-current coil measured in absolute instead of relative units.

  13. Apparatus For Eddy-Current Inspection Of Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, Jay M.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-current apparatus for inspection of bolts, studs, and other threaded fasteners detects flaws in threads, shanks, and head fillets. With help of apparatus, technician quickly inspects fasteners of various dimensions. Accommodates fasteners with diameters from 0.190 in. to 1 in. and with lengths up to 5 in. Basic design modified to accommodate fasteners of other sizes.

  14. Eddy Current Inspection of Components with Complex Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Wang, Changting; McKnight, William; Suh, Ui

    2008-02-01

    Eddy current (EC) technique is a common inspection method for the detection of open surface cracks and subsurface anomalies. While manual EC inspection is quite reliable on parts with flat (or large curvature) surfaces and parts with consistent subsurface geometry, EC inspection of parts having more complicated surface and subsurface profiles has to rely on automated scan/data collection and post-processing. Examples of the structures with complex geometries are aircraft engine rotating parts and multi-layer aircraft structures (lap joints). Data collection for such structures, in most cases, can be performed by using multiple scans of a single sensor EC probe with multi-frequency excitation. To improve productivity of the inspection, arrays of EC sensors are applied during inspection for surface flaws. In this work, the flexible ECAP (EC array probe) with sensitivity to the cracks of variable orientations is presented. To resolve the complex subsurface geometry of the aircraft skin, pulsed excitation is employed. This makes for a faster data collection and full post-processing capabilities. Conversion to multi-frequency (multi-layer) image analysis is done after data collection is completed. The subsurface flaws present in a particular layer of a riveted lap joint become evident from several EC images, which cannot be accomplished by manual inspection.

  15. Eddy current system for inspection of train hollow axles

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, Tomasz; Psuj, Grzegorz; Sikora, Ryszard; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Spychalski, Ireneusz

    2014-02-18

    The structural integrity of wheelsets used in rolling stock is of great importance to the safety. In this paper, electromagnetic system with an eddy current transducer suitable for the inspection of hollow axles have been presented. The transducer was developed to detect surface braking defects having depth not smaller than 0.5 mm. Ultrasound technique can be utilized to inspect the whole axle, but it is not sufficiently sensitive to shallow defects located close to the surface. Therefore, the electromagnetic technique is proposed to detect surface breaking cracks that cannot be detected by ultrasonic technique.

  16. Eddy Current Probe for Surface and Sub-Surface Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An eddy current probe includes an excitation coil for coupling to a low-frequency alternating current (AC) source. A magneto-resistive sensor is centrally disposed within and at one end of the excitation coil to thereby define a sensing end of the probe. A tubular flux-focusing lens is disposed between the excitation coil and the magneto-resistive sensor. An excitation wire is spaced apart from the magneto-resistive sensor in a plane that is perpendicular to the sensor's axis of sensitivity and such that, when the sensing end of the eddy current probe is positioned adjacent to the surface of a structure, the excitation wire is disposed between the magneto-resistive sensor and the surface of the structure. The excitation wire is coupled to a high-frequency AC source. The excitation coil and flux-focusing lens can be omitted when only surface inspection is required.

  17. Evaluation and field validation of Eddy-Current array probes for steam generator tube inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generator Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification, and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC`s mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report describes the design of specialized high-speed 16-coil eddy-current array probes. Both pancake and reflection coils are considered. Test results from inspections using the probes in working steam generators are given. Computer programs developed for probe calculations are also supplied.

  18. Eddy-current inspection of shuttle heat exchanger tube welds

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Scott, G.W.; Chitwood, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    This goal of this project was to develop the system necessary to demonstrate in the laboratory that an eddy-current system can inspect the tubes and welds described above, screening for the existence of flaws equal in size to, or larger than, the target flaw. The laboratory system was to include the probe necessary to traverse the tubing, the electronics to drive (i.e., electrically excite) the probe and receive and process signals from it, a data display, data recording and playback devices, and microprocessor software or firmware necessary to operate the system. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Eddy-current inspection of shuttle heat exchanger tube welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Casius V.; Scott, G. W.; Chitwood, L. D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop the system necessary to demonstrate in the laboratory that an eddy current system can inspect the tubes and welds described, screening for the existence of flaws equal in size to, or larger than, the target flaw. The laboratory system was to include the probe necessary to traverse the tubing, the electronics to drive (i.e., electrically excite) the probe and receive and process signals from it, a data display, data recording, and playback devices, and microprocessor software or firmware necessary to operate the system.

  20. Eddy current inspection of weld defects in tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katragadda, G.; Lord, W.

    1992-01-01

    An approach using differential probes for the inspection of weld defects in tubing is studied. Finite element analysis is used to model the weld regions and defects. Impedance plane signals are predicted for different weld defect types and compared wherever possible with signals from actual welds in tubing. Results show that detection and sizing of defects in tubing is possible using differential eddy current techniques. The phase angle of the impedance plane trajectory gives a good indication of the sizing of the crack. Data on the type of defect can be obtained from the shape of the impedance plane trajectory and the phase. Depending on the skin depth, detection of outer wall, inner wall, and subsurface defects is possible.

  1. Investigation of casing inspection through tubing with pulsed eddy current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuewen; Yu, Runqiao; Peng, Xuewen; Ren, Shangkun

    2012-12-01

    Corrosion and cracks of casing string in oil wells is a serious problem on which little research has been done when inspecting casing through tubing. In this study, inspecting casing through tubing with pulsed eddy current is investigated. Longitudinal and transverse probes are centred inside the tubing to detect wall thinnings and cracks in casing. A time slice of induced voltage in the receiving coil of the probe is used as the feature to recognise defects. The experimental results show that large area wall thinnings and long cracks in casing are detected successfully through the tubing with appropriate inspection parameters. The probe's orientation to the crack is important and a particular discovery is that the transverse probe should be parallel to the transverse crack and not be perpendicular to it when inspecting. A method based on linear regression is proposed to estimate flaws in casing while wall thinning in the tubing occurs at the same location. The method is effective for large area thinning in casing when tubing thinning is wide.

  2. Pulsed eddy current inspection of CF-188 inner wing spar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, Peter Francis

    Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) CF-188 Hornet aircraft engineering authorities have stated a requirement for a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technique to detect Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the inner wing spars without fastener or composite wing skin removal. Current radiographic inspections involve significant aircraft downtime, and Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) inspection is proposed as a solution. The aluminum inner wing spars of CF-188 Hornet aircraft may undergo stress corrosion cracking (SCC) along the spar between the fasteners that secure carbon-fiber/ epoxy composite skin to the wing. Inspection of the spar through the wing skin is required to avoid wing disassembly. The thickness of the wing skin varies between 8 and 20 mm (0.3 to 0.8 inch) and fasteners may be either titanium or ferrous. PEC generated by a probe centered over a fastener, demonstrates capability of detecting simulated cracks within spars with the wing skin present. Comparison of signals from separate sensors, mounted to either side of the excitation coil, is used to detect differences in induced eddy current fields, which arise in the presence of cracks. To overcome variability in PEC signal response due to variation in 1) skin thickness, 2) fastener material and size, and 3) centering over fasteners, a large calibration data set is acquired. Multi-dimensional scores from a Modified Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the data are reduced to one dimension (1D) using a Discriminant Analysis method. Under inspection conditions, calibrated PCA scores combined with discriminant analysis permit rapid real time go/no-go PEC detection of cracks in CF-188 inner wing spar. Probe designs using both pickup coils and Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors were tested on samples with the same ferrous and titanium fasteners found on the CF-188. Flaws were correctly detected at lift-offs of up to 21mm utilizing a variety of insulating skin materials simulating the carbon-fibre reinforced polymer

  3. Eddy Current System for Material Inspection and Flaw Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachnak, R.; King, S.; Maeger, W.; Nguyen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Eddy current methods have been successfully used in a variety of non-destructive evaluation applications including detection of cracks, measurements of material thickness, determining metal thinning due to corrosion, measurements of coating thickness, determining electrical conductivity, identification of materials, and detection of corrosion in heat exchanger tubes. This paper describes the development of an eddy current prototype that combines positional and eddy-current data to produce a C-scan of tested material. The preliminary system consists of an eddy current probe, a position tracking mechanism, and basic data visualization capability. Initial test results of the prototype are presented in this paper.

  4. REMOTE FIELD EDDY CURRENT INSPECTION OF UNPIGGABLE PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Teitsma

    2004-03-01

    The Remote Field Eddy Current (RFEC) technique is ideal for inspecting unpiggable pipelines because all its components can be made much smaller than the diameter of the pipe to be inspected. We reviewed the technique, and used demonstrations from prior work by others in presentations on the technique and how we plan to develop it. Coils were wound; a jig for pulling the coils through the pipe was manufactured; defects were machined in one six-inch diameter, ten-foot long pipe; and the equipment was assembled. After completing first crude pullout test to show that RFEC inspection would work, we repeated the experiment with a proper jig and got excellent results. The test showed the expected behavior, with the direct field dominating the signal to about two pipe diameters from the drive coil, and the remote field dominating for greater separations between the drive coil and the sensing coils. Response of RFEC to a typical defect was measured, as was the sensitivity to defect size. Before manufacturing defects in the pipe, we measured the effect of defect separation and concluded that defects separated by 18 inches or 1/3rd of the pipe diameter did not interfere with each other. We manufactured a set of 13 defects, and measured the RFEC signals. We found a background variation that was eventually attributed to permeability variations in the seamless pipe. We scanned all thirteen defects and got satisfactory results. The two smallest defects did not show a signal, but these were much too small to be reported in a pipeline inspection. We acquired a ten-foot seam welded pipe that has much less background variation. We are measuring the sensitivity of RFEC signals to mechanical variations between the exciter and sensing coils.

  5. Application of finite element models to eddy current probe design for aircraft inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sarit

    Eddy current nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are used extensively in the inspection of aircraft structures. Improvements and innovations in probe design are constantly required for detection of flaws in complex multilayer aircraft structures. This thesis investigates alternate designs of eddy current probes for addressing some of these problems. An important aspect of probe design is the capability to simulate probe performance. Numerical computation and visualization of the electromagnetic fields can provide valuable insight into the design of new probes. Finite element methods have been used in this dissertation to numerically compute the electromagnetic fields associated with the probe coils, and the eddy current probe signals. A major contribution of this thesis is development of techniques to reduce the computer resource requirement in the finite element modeling: of the eddy current phenomenon. The first flaw detection problem is addressed by focusing the flux of the probe using active compensation techniques. A novel eddy current probe using a combination of coils is proposed and studied using: the 3D model simulation. The probe consists of two current carrying concentric coils to detect flaws closer to the sample edges. Detection of defects in second and third layer of samples has been demonstrated using: the remote field eddy current (RFEC) method. In the RFEC method the pickup coils are located in the far field region which leads to a large volume to be modeled numerically with large number of elements. A method involving partitioning the volume in the 3D finite element model is demonstrated for the RFEC detection of defects. Magneto-optic/eddy current imaging (MOI) techniques have shown considerable promise in the detection of corrosion in the second layer. MOI is a nondestructive testing method currently in use in aircraft frame inspection and it involves optically sensing the magnetic field induced by the eddy currents in the test sample. A

  6. Eddy-Current Probes For Inspecting Graphite-Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Wang, Morgan

    1992-01-01

    Eddy-current probes with E-shaped and U-shaped magnetic cores developed to detect flaws in graphite-fiber/epoxy and other composites. Magnetic fields more concentrated, yielding better coupling with specimens.

  7. Eddy Current Rail Inspection Using AC Bridge Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ze; Koffman, Andrew D; Waltrip, Bryan C; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    AC bridge techniques commonly used for precision impedance measurements have been adapted to develop an eddy current sensor for rail defect detection. By using two detection coils instead of just one as in a conventional sensor, we can balance out the large baseline signals corresponding to a normal rail. We have significantly enhanced the detection sensitivity of the eddy current method by detecting and demodulating the differential signal of the two coils induced by rail defects, using a digital lock-in amplifier algorithm. We have also explored compensating for the lift-off effect of the eddy current sensor due to vibrations by using the summing signal of the detection coils to measure the lift-off distance. The dominant component of the summing signal is a constant resulting from direct coupling from the excitation coil, which can be experimentally determined. The remainder of the summing signal, which decreases as the lift-off distance increases, is induced by the secondary eddy current. This dependence on the lift-off distance is used to calibrate the differential signal, allowing for a more accurate characterization of the defects. Simulated experiments on a sample rail have been performed using a computer controlled X-Y moving table with the X-axis mimicking the train’s motion and the Y-axis mimicking the train’s vibrational bumping. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new detection method. PMID:26401427

  8. Analysis of pulsed eddy current data using regression models for steam generator tube support structure inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear steam generators (SGs) are a critical component for ensuring safe and efficient operation of a reactor. Life management strategies are implemented in which SG tubes are regularly inspected by conventional eddy current testing (ECT) and ultrasonic testing (UT) technologies to size flaws, and safe operating life of SGs is predicted based on growth models. ECT, the more commonly used technique, due to the rapidity with which full SG tube wall inspection can be performed, is challenged when inspecting ferromagnetic support structure materials in the presence of magnetite sludge and multiple overlapping degradation modes. In this work, an emerging inspection method, pulsed eddy current (PEC), is being investigated to address some of these particular inspection conditions. Time-domain signals were collected by an 8 coil array PEC probe in which ferromagnetic drilled support hole diameter, depth of rectangular tube frets and 2D tube off-centering were varied. Data sets were analyzed with a modified principal components analysis (MPCA) to extract dominant signal features. Multiple linear regression models were applied to MPCA scores to size hole diameter as well as size rectangular outer diameter tube frets. Models were improved through exploratory factor analysis, which was applied to MPCA scores to refine selection for regression models inputs by removing nonessential information.

  9. Reduced Mandated Inspection by Remote Field Eddy Current Inspection of Unpiggable Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Teitsma; Julie Maupin

    2006-09-29

    The Remote Field Eddy Current (RFEC) technique is ideal for inspecting unpiggable pipelines because all of its components can be made much smaller than the diameter of the pipe to be inspected. For this reason, RFEC was chosen as a technology for unpiggable pipeline inspections by DOE-NETL with the support of OTD and PRCI, to be integrated with platforms selected by DOENETL. As part of the project, the RFEC laboratory facilities were upgraded and data collection was made nearly autonomous. The resulting improved data collection speeds allowed GTI to test more variables to improve the performance of the combined RFEC and platform technologies. Tests were conducted on 6-, 8-, and 12-inch seamless and seam-welded pipes. Testing on the 6-inch pipes included using seven exciter coils, each of different geometry with an initial focus on preparing the technology for use on an autonomous robotic platform with limited battery capacity. Reductions in power consumption proved successful. Tests with metal components similar to the Explorer II modules were performed to check for interference with the electromagnetic fields. The results of these tests indicated RFEC would be able to produce quality inspections while on the robot. Mechanical constraints imposed by the platform, power requirements, control and communication protocols, and potential busses and connectors were addressed. Much work went into sensor module design including the mechanics and electronic diagrams and schematics. GTI participated in two Technology Demonstrations for inspection technologies held at Battelle Laboratories. GTI showed excellent detection and sizing abilities for natural corrosion. Following the demonstration, module building commenced but was stopped when funding reductions did not permit continued development for the selected robotic platform. Conference calls were held between GTI and its sponsors to resolve the issue of how to proceed with reduced funding. The project was rescoped for 10

  10. Multifrequency eddy-current inspection of seam weld in steel sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Dodd, C.V.; Chitwood, L.D.

    1985-04-01

    Multifrequency eddy-current techniques were used to perform a continuous on-line inspection of the seam weld in the steel jacket for a superconducting cable. The inspection was required to detect both surface and internal weld flaws in the presence of a large, highly conductive central conductor. Raw eddy-current data were recorded on magnetic tape, and test properties such as discontinuity size and weld penetration were determined by mathematically fitting these data to coefficients developed with representative standards. A sophisticated computer-controlled scanning technique was applied, and a unique scanning device was developed to provide full coverage of the weld and heat-affected zone. The techniques used to develop this multifrequency eddy-current examination are described in this report along with the test equipment, test procedures, and computer programs.

  11. A Flexible Arrayed Eddy Current Sensor for Inspection of Hollow Axle Inner Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Zou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A reliable and accurate inspection of the hollow axle inner surface is important for the safe operation of high-speed trains. In order to improve the reliability of the inspection, a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor for non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surface was designed, fabricated and characterized. The sensor, consisting of two excitation traces and 28 sensing traces, was developed by using the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) technique to conform the geometric features of the inner surfaces of the hollow axles. The main innovative aspect of the sensor was the new arrangement of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential configuration. Finite element model was established to analyze sensor responses and to determine the optimal excitation frequency. Experimental validations were conducted on a specimen with several artificial defects. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, with the maximum relative error less than 4%. Both results proved that the sensor was capable of detecting longitudinal and transverse defects with the depth of 0.5 mm under the optimal excitation frequency of 0.9 MHz. PMID:27347952

  12. Pulsed eddy-current inspection of thin-walled stainless steel tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Koerner, D.W.; Deeds, W.E.; Pickett, C.A.

    1987-09-01

    A pulsed eddy-current system has been developed for production inspection of small, thin-wall, non-ferromagnetic tubing. To detect and accurately size both outer and bore-side flaws required an operating frequency higher than available from present commercial equipment. A pulsed eddy-current instrument was designed and constructed that used 3.2 MHz square waves, with a bandwidth of 20 MHz. The system is able to reliably detect flaws as small as 0.015 mm (0.6 mils) on either the inner or outer surface of the tube. A computer controls the scanning of the tube, as recording, analyzing, and plotting the data. The computer programs and instrument details are given in the report.

  13. Modeling of new/commercial eddy current probe for steam generator inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Naiguang; Xin, Junjun; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2012-05-01

    Computational models serve an important role in Non-Destructive Evaluation applications for enabling effective use of the technology. The solution of simulation models provide valuable insight into the underlying physics, help visualize the field/flaw interaction and help optimize sensor design and develop algorithms for interpreting the measured signals. This paper presents a simulation model for predicting defect signals in Steam Generator tube inspections using commercial eddy current probe used in industry. The model, based on finite element analysis, uses reduced vector potential formulation and novel strategies for modeling ferrite core probes. Experimental validations of model predictions for a number of defect geometries are presented.

  14. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given.

  15. Validation Test Results for Orthogonal Probe Eddy Current Thruster Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent nondestructive evaluation efforts within NASA have focused on an inspection system for the detection of intergranular cracking originating in the relief radius of Primary Reaction Control System (PCRS) Thrusters. Of particular concern is deep cracking in this area which could lead to combustion leakage in the event of through wall cracking from the relief radius into an acoustic cavity of the combustion chamber. In order to reliably detect such defects while ensuring minimal false positives during inspection, the Orthogonal Probe Eddy Current (OPEC) system has been developed and an extensive validation study performed. This report describes the validation procedure, sample set, and inspection results as well as comparing validation flaws with the response from naturally occuring damage.

  16. A 3D Model for Eddy Current Inspection in Aeronautics: Application to Riveted Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, S.; Pichenot, G.; Lambert, M.; Voillaume, H.; Dominguez, N.

    2007-03-01

    Eddy current technique is currently an operational tool used for fastener inspection which is an important issue for the maintenance of aircraft structures. The industry calls for faster, more sensitive and reliable NDT techniques for the detection and characterization of potential flaws nearby rivet. In order to reduce the development time and to optimize the design and the performances assessment of an inspection procedure, the CEA and EADS have started a collaborative work aiming at extending the modeling features of the CIVA non destructive simulation plat-form in order to handle the configuration of a layered planar structure with a rivet and an embedded flaw nearby. Therefore, an approach based on the Volume Integral Method using the Green dyadic formalism which greatly increases computation efficiency has been developed. The first step, modeling the rivet without flaw as a hole in a multi-stratified structure, has been reached and validated in several configurations with experimental data.

  17. Nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel and stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report presents a nondestructive inspection assessment of eddy current and electrochemical analysis to separate inconel alloys from stainless steel alloys as well as an evaluation of cleaning techniques to remove a thermal oxide layer on aircraft exhaust components. The results of this assessment are presented in terms of how effective each technique classifies a known exhaust material. Results indicate that either inspection technique can separate inconel and stainless steel alloys. Based on the experiments conducted, the electrochemical spot test is the optimum for use by airframe and powerplant mechanics. A spot test procedure is proposed for incorporation into the Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 65-9A Airframe & Powerplant Mechanic - General Handbook. 3 refs., 70 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Enhancing pulsed eddy current for inspection of P-3 Orion lap-joint structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, D. M.; Underhill, P. R.; Krause, T. W.

    2016-02-01

    During flight, aircraft are subjected to cyclic loading. In the Lockheed P-3 Orion airframe, this cyclic loading can lead to development of fatigue cracks at steel fastener locations in the top and second layers of aluminum wing skin lap-joints. An inspection method that is capable of detecting these cracks, without fastener removal, is desirable as this can minimize aircraft downtime, while subsequently reducing the risk of collateral damage. The ability to detect second layer cracks has been demonstrated using a Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) probe design that utilizes the ferrous fastener as a flux conduit. This allows for deeper penetration of flux into the lap-joint second layer and consequently, sensitivity to the presence of cracks. Differential pick-up coil pairs are used to sense the eddy current response due to the presence of a crack. The differential signal obtained from pick-up coils on opposing sides of the fastener is analyzed using a Modified Principal Components Analysis (MPCA). This is followed by a cluster analysis of the resulting MPCA scores to separate fastener locations with cracks from those without. Probe design features, data acquisition system parameters and signal post-processing can each have a strong impact on crack detection. Physical probe configurations and signal analysis processes, used to enhance the PEC system for detection of cracks in P-3 Orion lap-joint structures, are investigated and an enhanced probe design is identified.

  19. Evaluation and Improvement of Eddy Current Position Sensors in Magnetically Suspended Flywheel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Thomas, Erwin M., III; Jansen, Ralph H.; McLallin, Kerry (Technical Monitor); Soeder, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Eddy current position sensor performance is evaluated for use in a high-speed flywheel development system. The flywheel utilizes a five axis active magnetic bearing system. The eddy current sensors are used for position feedback for the bearing controller. Measured characteristics include sensitivity to multiple target materials and susceptibility to noise from the magnetic bearings and from sensor-to-sensor crosstalk. Improvements in axial sensor configuration and techniques for noise reduction are described.

  20. Eddy current signal deconvolution technique for the improvement of steam generator tubing burst pressure predictions.

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, M. C.; Wei, T. Y. C.; Kupperman, D. S.; Reifman, J.; Morman, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Eddy current techniques are extremely sensitive to the presence of axial cracks in nuclear power plant steam generator tube walls, but they are equally sensitive to the presence of dents, fretting, support structures, corrosion products, and other artifacts. Eddy current signal interpretation is further complicated by cracking geometries more complex than a single axial crack. Although there has been limited success in classifying and sizing defects through artificial neural networks, the ability to predict tubing integrity has, so far, eluded modelers. In large part, this lack of success stems from an inability to distinguish crack signals from those arising from artifacts. We present here a new signal processing technique that deconvolves raw eddy current voltage signals into separate signal contributions from different sources, which allows signals associated with a dominant crack to be identified. The signal deconvolution technique, combined with artificial neural network modeling, significantly improves the prediction of tube burst pressure from bobbin-coil eddy current measurements of steam generator tubing.

  1. Automated eddy current inspection of Space Shuttle APU turbine wheel blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Jay L.; Rowland, Stephen N.; Stolte, Jeffrey S.; Salkowski, Charles

    1991-01-01

    An automated inspection system based on eddy current testing (ET) techniques has been developed to inspect turbine wheel blades on the APU used in NASA's Space Transportation system. The APU is a hydrazine-powered gas turbine with a 15-cm diameter Rene 41 turbine wheel, which has 123 first-stage blades and 123 second-stage blades. The flaw detection capability of the ET system is verified through comparison with fluorescent penetrant test results. Results of the comparison indicate that ET is capable of inspecting surfaces with very restrictive geometries. The ET capability requires development of probes with extremely small coils to allow inspection within 0.4 mm of the blade root and the leading and trailing edges of the blade and within a height restriction of less than 1 mm. The color 2D presentation of the ET data provided crack-growth pattern and length information similar to those found with visual techniques. It also provided visual clues to minimize geometry effects such as generated from blade edges, a neighoring blade, and changes in the blade thickness.

  2. Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection of Corrosion in Clad Aluminum Riveted Lap Joints and Its Effect on Fatigue Life

    SciTech Connect

    Okafor, A. C.; Natarajan, S.

    2007-03-21

    Aging aircraft are prone to corrosion damage and fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of fuselage skin panels. This can cause catastrophic failure if not detected and repaired. Hence detection of corrosion damage and monitoring its effect on structural integrity are essential. This paper presents multifrequency eddy current (EC) inspection of corrosion damage and machined material loss defect in clad A1 2024-T3 riveted lap joints and its effect on fatigue life. Results of eddy current inspection, corrosion product removal and fatigue testing are presented.

  3. Multifrequency Eddy Current Inspection of Corrosion in Clad Aluminum Riveted Lap Joints and Its Effect on Fatigue Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okafor, A. C.; Natarajan, S.

    2007-03-01

    Aging aircraft are prone to corrosion damage and fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of fuselage skin panels. This can cause catastrophic failure if not detected and repaired. Hence detection of corrosion damage and monitoring its effect on structural integrity are essential. This paper presents multifrequency eddy current (EC) inspection of corrosion damage and machined material loss defect in clad A1 2024-T3 riveted lap joints and its effect on fatigue life. Results of eddy current inspection, corrosion product removal and fatigue testing are presented.

  4. Numerical design of outer diameter remote field eddy current probe for the inspection of nuclear fuel rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Kil; Sun, Yushi

    2001-04-01

    In this paper, an encircling outer diameter (OD) remote field eddy current (RFEC) probe is proposed to inspect the nuclear fuel rod. To force the electromagnetic energy from exciter coil to penetrate into the rod, shielding by laminations of iron is applied outside the exciter coil. The operating frequency and effects of shielding are studied by the finite element analysis and modeling results show the existence of RFEC effects. Based on these results, the location for an encircling OD sensor coil is decided. However, predicted signals do not clearly show defect indications when the sensor passes a defect and exhibit certain symptoms that the fields from the exciter directly affect the sensor signal. To prevent direct contact with exciter fields, the sensor coil is also shielded. This shielding of sensor coil dramatically improves signal characteristics. The resulting signals have very similar characteristics to those of inner diameter RFEC signals and show almost equal sensitivity to inner diameter and outer diameter defects.

  5. Application of coupled electric field method for eddy current non-destructive inspection of multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchala, T.; Abdelhadi, B.; Benoudjit, A.

    2015-04-01

    The development of fast and accurate method describing the electromagnetic phenomena intervening in eddy current non-destructive systems is very interesting, since it permits the design of reliable systems permitting the detection and the characterisation of defect in conductive materials. The coupled electric field method presented in this article can assume a large part of these objectives, because it is fast in comparison to the finite element method and easily invertible since the sensor impedance variation is an explicit function of target physical and geometrical characteristics. These advantages have motivated us to extend this method for multilayered structures, very interesting in aeronautic industry, by superposing the inductive effects in different layers. The impedance of an absolute sensor operating above three conducting layers will be calculated and compared to those obtained with finite element method. Afterwards, we shall exploit the model to study the effect of defect characteristics on the sensor impedance. Furthermore, regarding to the depth penetration effect, we shall make into evidence the necessity of accomplishing an optimal choice of the exciting field frequency during the inspection of multilayered materials. The essential importance of this method, besides of its rapidity, resides in its possibility to be extended to 2D irregular and 3D asymmetric configurations.

  6. Axisymmetric eddy current inspection of highly conducting thin layers via asymptotic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddar, Houssem; Jiang, Zixian

    2015-11-01

    Thin copper deposits covering the steam generator tubes can blind eddy current probes in non-destructive testings of problematic faults and it is therefore important that they are identified. Existing methods based on shape reconstruction using eddy current signals encounter difficulties of high numerical costs due to the layer’s small thickness and high conductivity. In this article, we approximate the axisymmetric eddy current problem with some appropriate asymptotic models using effective transmission conditions representing the thin deposits. In these models, the geometrical information related to the deposit is transformed into parameter coefficients on a fictitious interface. A standard iterative inversion algorithm is then applied to the asymptotic models to reconstruct the thickness of the thin copper layers. Numerical tests both validating the asymptotic model and showing the benefits of the inversion procedure are provided.

  7. Eddy current inspection tool which is selectively operable in a discontinuity detection mode and a discontinuity magnitude mode

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, R.R.; Van Lue, D.F.

    1983-10-25

    A miniaturized inspection tool, for testing and inspection of metal objects in locations with difficult accessibility, which comprises eddy current sensing equipment with a probe coil, and associated coaxial coil cable, coil energizing means, and circuit means responsive to impedance changes in the coil as effected by induced eddy currents in a test object to produce a data output signal proportional to such changes. The coil and cable are slideably received in the utility channel of the flexible insertion tube of fiberoptic scope. The scope is provided with light transmitting and receiving fiberoptics for viewing through the flexible tube, and articulation means for articulating the distal end of the tube and permitting close control of coil placement relative to a test object. The eddy current sensing equipment includes a tone generator 30 for generating audibly signals responsive to the data output signal. In one selected mode of operation, the tone generator responsive to the output signal above a selected level generates a constant single frequency tone for signaling detection of a discontinuity and, in a second selected mode, generates a tone whose frequency is proportional to the difference between the output signal and a predetermined selected threshold level. 5 figs.

  8. Eddy current inspection tool which is selectively operable in a discontinuity detection mode and a discontinuity magnitude mode

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, Richard R.; Van Lue, Dorin F.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized inspection tool, for testing and inspection of metal objects in locations with difficult accessibility, which comprises eddy current sensing equipment (12) with a probe coil (11), and associated coaxial coil cable (13), coil energizing means (21), and circuit means (21, 12) responsive to impedance changes in the coil as effected by induced eddy currents in a test object to produce a data output signal proportional to such changes. The coil and cable are slideably received in the utility channel of the flexible insertion tube 17 of fiberoptic scope 10. The scope 10 is provided with light transmitting and receiving fiberoptics for viewing through the flexible tube, and articulation means (19, 20) for articulating the distal end of the tube and permitting close control of coil placement relative to a test object. The eddy current sensing equipment includes a tone generator 30 for generating audibly signals responsive to the data output signal. In one selected mode of operation, the tone generator responsive to the output signal above a selected level generates a constant single frequency tone for signalling detection of a discontinuity and, in a second selected mode, generates a tone whose frequency is proportional to the difference between the output signal and a predetermined selected threshold level.

  9. Separation of conductivity and distance measurements for eddy current nondestructive inspection of graphite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Isabelle; Placko, Dominique

    1993-06-01

    This article deals with the study of a process based on the principle of eddy current sensors for the nondestructive evaluation of graphite composite plates. This research has been carried out in the Laboratoire d'Electricitd Signaux et Robotique by the team working on datacollecting sensors for robotics in collaboration with Aerospatiale. Eddy current sensors are characterized by their impedance, which varies when a conducting material is approached in their sensitive area. For a given sensor, the output signal depends directly on the electrical and geometrical properties of the object. In the case discussed here, the interesting data are the distance between the sensor and the object, and its local conductivity. In order to invert the relationships between the sensor signal and the properties of the material, an external parametrical model has been developed. A scanning of the surface with a sensor designed for good spatial resolution measurements gives two accurate maps of the useful data.

  10. Development of eddy current testing system for inspection of combustion chambers of liquid rocket engines.

    PubMed

    He, D F; Zhang, Y Z; Shiwa, M; Moriya, S

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system using a high sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor was developed. In this system, a 20 turn circular coil with a diameter of 3 mm was used to produce the excitation field. A high sensitivity AMR sensor was used to measure the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy currents. A specimen made of copper alloy was prepared to simulate the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. Scanning was realized by rotating the chamber with a motor. To reduce the influence of liftoff variance during scanning, a dual frequency excitation method was used. The experimental results proved that ECT system with an AMR sensor could be used to check liquid rocket combustion chamber.

  11. Advances in transient (pulsed) eddy current for inspection of multi-layer aluminum structures in the presence of ferrous fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, D. R.; Vallières, G.; Whalen, P. P.; Krause, T. W.

    2012-05-01

    An experimental investigation of the electromagnetic processes underlying transient (pulsed) eddy current inspection of aircraft wing structures in the vicinity of ferrous fasteners is performed. The separate effects of transient excitation of ferrous fastener and eddy currents induced in the surrounding aluminum structure are explored using a transmit-receive configuration with transient excitation of a steel rod, an aluminum plate with a bore hole and a steel rod through the bore hole. Observations are used to interpret results from a coupled driving and differential coil sensing unit applied to detect fatigue cracks emanating from bolt holes in aluminum structures with ferrous fasteners present. In particular, it is noted that abrupt magnetization of the fastener, by the probe's central driving unit, can transfer flux and consequently, induce strong eddy current responses deep within the aluminum structure in the vicinity of the bore hole. Rotation of the probe, centered over the fastener, permits detection of subsurface discontinuities, such as cracks, by the pair of differentially connected pickup coils.

  12. Automated eddy current analysis of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of eddy current techniques for characterizing flaws in graphite-based filament-wound cylindrical structures is described. A major emphasis was also placed upon incorporating artificial intelligence techniques into the signal analysis portion of the inspection process. Developing an eddy current scanning system using a commercial robot for inspecting graphite structures (and others) was a goal in the overall concept and is essential for the final implementation for the expert systems interpretation. Manual scans, as performed in the preliminary work here, do not provide sufficiently reproducible eddy current signatures to be easily built into a real time expert system. The expert systems approach to eddy current signal analysis requires that a suitable knowledge base exist in which correct decisions as to the nature of a flaw can be performed. A robotic workcell using eddy current transducers for the inspection of carbon filament materials with improved sensitivity was developed. Improved coupling efficiencies achieved with the E-probes and horseshoe probes are exceptional for graphite fibers. The eddy current supervisory system and expert system was partially developed on a MacIvory system. Continued utilization of finite element models for predetermining eddy current signals was shown to be useful in this work, both for understanding how electromagnetic fields interact with graphite fibers, and also for use in determining how to develop the knowledge base. Sufficient data was taken to indicate that the E-probe and the horseshoe probe can be useful eddy current transducers for inspecting graphite fiber components. The lacking component at this time is a large enough probe to have sensitivity in both the far and near field of a thick graphite epoxy component.

  13. Research on defects inspection of solder balls based on eddy current pulsed thermography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuyun; Zhou, Jinlong; Tian, Guiyun; Wang, Yizhe

    2015-10-13

    In order to solve tiny defect detection for solder balls in high-density flip-chip, this paper proposed feasibility study on the effect of detectability as well as classification based on eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT). Specifically, numerical analysis of 3D finite element inductive heat model is generated to investigate disturbance on the temperature field for different kind of defects such as cracks, voids, etc. The temperature variation between defective and non-defective solder balls is monitored for defects identification and classification. Finally, experimental study is carried on the diameter 1mm tiny solder balls by using ECPT and verify the efficacy of the technique.

  14. Research on defects inspection of solder balls based on eddy current pulsed thermography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuyun; Zhou, Jinlong; Tian, Guiyun; Wang, Yizhe

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve tiny defect detection for solder balls in high-density flip-chip, this paper proposed feasibility study on the effect of detectability as well as classification based on eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT). Specifically, numerical analysis of 3D finite element inductive heat model is generated to investigate disturbance on the temperature field for different kind of defects such as cracks, voids, etc. The temperature variation between defective and non-defective solder balls is monitored for defects identification and classification. Finally, experimental study is carried on the diameter 1mm tiny solder balls by using ECPT and verify the efficacy of the technique. PMID:26473871

  15. Inspection of corrosion in carbody and under frame for rolling stocks using pulsed eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. W.; Chung, J. D.

    2011-04-01

    Under frame side sill and carbody of rolling stock structures are designed for preventing corrosion in order to meet mechanical requirements. However during long operation time more than 30 years, there are corrosion in the under frame side sill caused by environmental effect, vibration and etc. So, detection and evaluation of the corrosion in the under frame nondestructive is one of important and extending their life time. So, in this study, we have investigated performance of pulsed eddy current testing method by measuring thickness variation of fabricate of carbody and under frame for rolling stocks. And then, the process of evaluating remaining life according to testing of corrosion amount is introduced.

  16. Research on Defects Inspection of Solder Balls Based on Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiuyun; Zhou, Jinlong; Tian, Guiyun; Wang, Yizhe

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve tiny defect detection for solder balls in high-density flip-chip, this paper proposed feasibility study on the effect of detectability as well as classification based on eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT). Specifically, numerical analysis of 3D finite element inductive heat model is generated to investigate disturbance on the temperature field for different kind of defects such as cracks, voids, etc. The temperature variation between defective and non-defective solder balls is monitored for defects identification and classification. Finally, experimental study is carried on the diameter 1mm tiny solder balls by using ECPT and verify the efficacy of the technique. PMID:26473871

  17. Eddy current inspection of axial cooling holes in generator rotor teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Gomien, D.A.; Leath, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    During the rewind of a 43 inch generator rotor, cracks were detected in the axial cooling holes used to vent hydrogen from below the retaining rings. The holes are located in each tooth directly below the shrink fit area of the rings. TVA has a fleet of twelve units and one spare with this rotor design. To understand the root cause of the cracking, finite element stress analysis and fracture mechanics critical flaw size/crack growth models were built. To confirm the structural models and support decisions on run/repair/replace for these rotors. TVA needed to establish the presence of cracks, the crack lengths, and their propagation with time. Crack detection and sizing using non-destructive testing is necessary to ensure safe operation and prevent unnecessary or premature rotor replacement. A semi-automated eddy current technique was developed to meet this requirement. This paper describes the process used to select the NDE technique, develop the equipment to perform the examinations, and the calibration and examination procedure. The detection capabilities and the method of crack sizing are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of findings from the examination of fifteen rotors and the plans for future monitoring of crack growth.

  18. Study of eddy current probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Wang, Morgan

    1992-01-01

    The recognition of materials properties still presents a number of problems for nondestructive testing in aerospace systems. This project attempts to utilize current capabilities in eddy current instrumentation, artificial intelligence, and robotics in order to provide insight into defining geometrical aspects of flaws in composite materials which are capable of being evaluated using eddy current inspection techniques.

  19. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  20. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-18

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  1. Field experiences with multifrequency-multiparameter eddy-current technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S.

    1982-03-01

    A multifrequency/multiparameter eddy current system was assembled for the inservice inspection of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubing. Five steam generators were inspected for a total data base of approximately 11,000 tubes. Based on a comparison with conventional single frequency inspection methods, multifrequency/multiparameter eddy current technology offers significant improvements. Multifrequency eddy current, with its multiple frequency coil excitation, can offer benefits in reducing in containment data acquisition time by the performance of parallel tube tests; in addition the resulting broad spectrum data base is useful for the analysis of complex or nonunique signals which can arise during a steam generator inspection. Multiparameter eddy current offers an approach for the real time suppression of extraneous variables such as support plates/tube sheet, ID noise and denting. With appropriate mixing/basis frequency combinations, tube degradation in the presence of the extraneous variables can be more reliably detected and characterized.

  2. In-line inspection device to detect and size stress corrosion cracks utilizing low frequency eddy currents in combination with magnetic saturation of the pipe wall in natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hayford, D.T.; Davis, R.J.

    1992-12-21

    In two earlier research programs conducted for the NDT Supervisory Committee, Battelle developed low-frequency eddy current equipment for detecting and characterizing stress corrosion cracks from the outside of gas transmission pipelines without requiring the removal of the protective coating. In this program, Battelle examined the possibility of using this or similar equipment to detect stress corrosion cracks from the interior of the pipeline by magnetically saturating the pipeline to reduce the permeability of the pipeline material and thereby increase the penetration of eddy current fields into the pipeline. The study was divided into two parts, an analytical study to determine how well eddy currents could be used to detect cracks if the permeability of the pipeline material is reduced by using magnetic saturation and an experimental study to verify the results of the analytical study and to determine how much the permeability could be reduced using a large magnetizing field. The analytical study indicated that significant improvements could be made in the defect sensitivity of eddy current probes to external cracks even if the pipeline is not completely saturated; reducing the permeability to a value as high as 10 would be sufficient. However, the experimental study showed just how difficult it is to reduce the permeability of the pipeline to such a low value. The power required to reduce the permeability to 33 was about 5 kilowatts, which we believe is excessive for an internal inspection device; however, this power requirement may be reduced by a better design. With a transverse permeability of 33, we believe that defects which are 70 percent or more of the pipe wall in depth would be detectable with an eddy current device.

  3. Detection and Inspection of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Active Infrared Thermography with Microwave Excitation and Eddy Current Sensors.

    PubMed

    Szymanik, Barbara; Frankowski, Paweł Karol; Chady, Tomasz; John Chelliah, Cyril Robinson Azariah

    2016-02-16

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-sensor approach to the detection and inspection of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures. In connection with our past experience related to non-destructive testing of different materials, we propose using two potentially effective methods: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation and the eddy current technique. In this article active infrared thermography with microwave excitation is analyzed both by numerical modeling and experiments. This method, based on thermal imaging, due to its characteriatics should be considered as a preliminary method for the assessment of relatively shallowly located steel bar reinforcements. The eddy current technique, on the other hand, allows for more detailed evaluation and detection of deeply located rebars. In this paper a series of measurement results, together with the initial identification of certain features of steel reinforcement bars will be presented.

  4. Detection and Inspection of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Active Infrared Thermography with Microwave Excitation and Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Szymanik, Barbara; Frankowski, Paweł Karol; Chady, Tomasz; John Chelliah, Cyril Robinson Azariah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-sensor approach to the detection and inspection of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures. In connection with our past experience related to non-destructive testing of different materials, we propose using two potentially effective methods: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation and the eddy current technique. In this article active infrared thermography with microwave excitation is analyzed both by numerical modeling and experiments. This method, based on thermal imaging, due to its characteriatics should be considered as a preliminary method for the assessment of relatively shallowly located steel bar reinforcements. The eddy current technique, on the other hand, allows for more detailed evaluation and detection of deeply located rebars. In this paper a series of measurement results, together with the initial identification of certain features of steel reinforcement bars will be presented. PMID:26891305

  5. Models in the Design and Validation of Eddy Current Inspection for Cracking in the Shuttle Reaction Control System Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrin, John C.; Williams, Phillip A.; Wincheski, Russell (Buzz) A.

    2008-01-01

    A case study is presented for using models in eddy current NDE design for crack detection in Shuttle Reaction Control System thruster components. Numerical methods were used to address the complex geometry of the part and perform parametric studies of potential transducer designs. Simulations were found to show agreement with experimental results. Accurate representation of the coherent noise associated with the measurement and part geometry was found to be critical to properly evaluate the best probe designs.

  6. Eddy current technique for predicting burst pressure

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Mark C.; Kupperman, David S.; Morman, James A.; Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2003-01-01

    A signal processing technique which correlates eddy current inspection data from a tube having a critical tubing defect with a range of predicted burst pressures for the tube is provided. The method can directly correlate the raw eddy current inspection data representing the critical tubing defect with the range of burst pressures using a regression technique, preferably an artificial neural network. Alternatively, the technique deconvolves the raw eddy current inspection data into a set of undistorted signals, each of which represents a separate defect of the tube. The undistorted defect signal which represents the critical tubing defect is related to a range of burst pressures utilizing a regression technique.

  7. Combining eddy-current and magnetic methods for the defectoscopy of ferromagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkatov, Petr

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a theoretical study of the combined eddy current-magnetic method of defectoscopy of objects made of ferromagnetic metals. The main part of the method is a simultaneous subjection of the inspected object to the static magnetic and alternating electromagnetic fields. The subjection of the object to the latter creates eddy current in the inspected object, whereas changes in the former caused by the defect lead to the change in magnetic permeability in the vicinity of the defect, including on its surface. The areas where the changes in magnetic permeability occur are, in turn, detected using the eddy current method. We then show that the way the static magnetic field is applied to the object and the frequency of the eddy currents induced by the application of the alternating electromagnetic fields to the object affects the properties of the signals detected while inspecting surface and subsurface defects using the eddy current method. Using this combined eddy current-magnetic method allows us to detect subsurface defects that lie deeper in the inspected object compared to the depths of the defects detectable by the magnetic method alone. At the same time, we obtain more precise information about the size and shape of the defect due to processing eddy current signals, which have not just a frequency, but also a phase; we note that this might require eddy currents of different frequencies. Thus, using the combined method, we can obtain more detailed information about deeper hidden defects, compared to using either magnetic or eddy current method on its own. The main contribution of this paper is not to show the advantages of the combined method, which were already recognised, but to provide a theoretical foundation of the method, which is poorly understood. Such an increased understanding should lead to further improvements in the method.

  8. Eddy current damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Rich, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    A high torque capacity eddy current damper used as a rate limiting device for a large solar array deployment mechanism is discussed. The eddy current damper eliminates the problems associated with the outgassing or leaking of damping fluids. It also provides performance advantages such as damping torque rates, which are truly linear with respect to input speed, continuous 360 degree operation in both directions of rotation, wide operating temperature range, and the capability of convenient adjustment of damping rates by the user without disassembly or special tools.

  9. Aviation focused eddy current and ultrasonic scanner assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.

    1995-07-01

    Ultrasonic and eddy current C-scan images have been produced for non-destructive inspection (NDI) with laboratory scanners for over 25 years. In the last five years, portable mechanical scanner designs have been improved and modified so that they are suitable for application on aircraft structures. Eddy current and ultrasonic C-scan inspections are significant because they can be used for early detection of hidden damage. As an aid to the airline inspection industry, an evaluation of commercially available portable scanner systems and methodologies used for C-scan imaging of eddy current and ultrasonic inspection data was performed. Eight basic scanner designs were identified and scanner systems from eleven different companies were evaluated. Vendors of the equipment provided hands-on demonstrations on actual aircraft samples in the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC). From observations and information recorded during the demonstrations, capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software were tabulated.

  10. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  11. Automated eddy current analysis of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    This research effort focused on the use of eddy current techniques for characterizing flaws in graphite-based filament-wound cylindrical structures. A major emphasis was on incorporating artificial intelligence techniques into the signal analysis portion of the inspection process. Developing an eddy current scanning system using a commercial robot for inspecting graphite structures (and others) has been a goal in the overall concept and is essential for the final implementation for expert system interpretation. Manual scans, as performed in the preliminary work here, do not provide sufficiently reproducible eddy current signatures to be easily built into a real time expert system. The expert systems approach to eddy current signal analysis requires that a suitable knowledge base exist in which correct decisions as to the nature of the flaw can be performed. In eddy current or any other expert systems used to analyze signals in real time in a production environment, it is important to simplify computational procedures as much as possible. For that reason, we have chosen to use the measured resistance and reactance values for the preliminary aspects of this work. A simple computation, such as phase angle of the signal, is certainly within the real time processing capability of the computer system. In the work described here, there is a balance between physical measurements and finite element calculations of those measurements. The goal is to evolve into the most cost effective procedures for maintaining the correctness of the knowledge base.

  12. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Dennis P.; Walkington, Phil; Rackow, Kirk A.; Hohman, Ed

    2008-04-01

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  13. Eddy Current System and Method for Crack Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An eddy current system and method enables detection of sub-surface damage in a cylindrical object. The invention incorporates a dual frequency, orthogonally wound eddy current probe mounted on a stepper motor-controlled scanning system. The system is designed to inspect for outer surface damage from the interior of the cylindrical object.

  14. Revolving Eddy-Current Probe Detects Cracks Near Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, James P.; Nath, Shridhar; Simpson, John

    1995-01-01

    Scanning eddy-current probe in circular pattern increases sensitivity with which probe indicates fatigue cracks and other defects in metal surfaces in vicinity of rivets. Technique devised to facilitate inspection of riveted joints in aircraft. Eddy-current probe in question described in "Electro-magnetic Flaw Detector Is Easier To Use" (LAR-15046).

  15. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S. W. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com; Vojvodic, R. E-mail: Ratko.Vojvodic@areva.com

    2015-03-31

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  16. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Vojvodic, R.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  17. NONDESTRUCTIVE EDDY CURRENT TESTING

    DOEpatents

    Renken, C.J. Jr.

    1961-05-23

    An eddy current testing device is described for measuring metal continuity independent of probe-to-sample spacing. An inductance would test probe is made a leg of a variable impedance bridge and the bridge is balanced with the probe away from the sample. An a-c signal is applied across the input terminals of the bridge circuit. As the probe is brought into proximity with the metal sample, the resulting impedance change in the probe gives an output signal from the bridge whose phase angle is proportional to the sample continuity and amplitude is proportional to the probe-tosample spacing. The output signal from the bridge is applied to a compensating network where, responsive to amplitude changes from the bridge output signal, a constant phased voltage output is maintained when the sample is continuous regardless of probe-to-sample spacing. A phase meter calibrated to read changes in resistivity of the metal sample measures the phase shift between the output of the compensating network and the original a-c signal applied to the bridge.

  18. Windmill driven eddy current heater

    SciTech Connect

    Birgel, W. J.; Hajec, C. S.

    1983-12-20

    A windmill electric heater converts wind energy to heat energy. A windmill drives a rotor of an eddy current heater. Magnetic fields are provided at an air gap between the rotor and a stator of the eddy current heater. Rotation of the rotor with respect to the stator causes eddy currents, and therefore heat, to be generated in the rotor. The heat generated in the rotor is drawn off for beneficial use such as in heating a house or other building. Excitation of the magnetic fields (and therefore the amount of heat generated) is controlled as a function of sensed parameters such as wind velocity, ambient temperature of the surroundings to be heated and temperature of the eddy current heater.

  19. Eddy-Current Reference Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, H. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic properties of metallic reference standards duplicated and stabilized for eddy-current coil measurements over long times. Concept uses precisely machined notched samples of known annealed materials as reference standards.

  20. Electromagnetic Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandache, Catalin V.; Vivier Lefebvre, J. H.

    2007-03-01

    The sensitivity of pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing is increased when a layer of magnetic material is placed on the far side of the conductive test piece. This procedure ensures preservation of the lift-off point of intersection (LOI) feature, otherwise non-existent for the PEC inspections of magnetic materials. The presented method could find applications in non-destructive inspections for corrosion thinning, thickness measurement of conductive coatings over ferrous substrates, and integrity of thermally insulated pipes. Laboratory-obtained examples are given to support the method applicability.

  1. Pulsed eddy current testing. [nondestructive tests of the external tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    Since a large number of the procedures used for inspecting the external tank are concerned with determining flaws in welds, there is a need to develop an inspection technique, which can be automated, to determine flaws in welds and structures with complex geometries. Techniques whereby an eddy current is generated in a metallic material and the changes in the circuit parameters due to material differences are observed, were chosen as one possible approach. Pulsed eddy current and its relationship to multifrequency techniques is discussed as well as some preliminary results obtained from observing pulsed waveforms with apparatus and algorithms currently in use for ultrasonic testing of welds. It can be shown the pulsed eddy current techniques can provide similar results, can eliminate some of the noncritical parameters affecting the eddy current signals, and can facilitate in the detection of critical parameter such as flaws, subsurface voids, and corrosion.

  2. Remote field eddy current-crack and defect detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, W.

    1989-03-16

    No single nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique is currently capable of detecting and characterizing all the defect types that can occur in gas pipeline. Conventional in-line inspection tools for example, have not shown significant sensitivity to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. For this reason considerable research and development work is still needed in order to provide the in-line inspection tools whose results are essential for structural integrity evaluations. The remote field eddy current method shows more promise than conventional eddy current methods, in gas pipeline inspection, due to the increased sensitivity to inner and outer pipe wall inhomogeneities. Even though the fundamental physical principles governing the conventional eddy current method and the remote field eddy current method is one and the same (that of electromagnetic induction), the differences in operating frequencies in the two methods result in field patterns that have different characteristic properties, such as extremely small skin depths associated with conventional eddy currents testing and the phenomena of potential valley'' and phase knot'' associated with remote field eddy current technique. 20 refs., 26 figs.

  3. Eddy current scanning at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.; Foley, M.; Brinkmann, A.; Ozelis, J.; /Jefferson Lab

    2005-07-01

    In the framework of SRF cavity development, Fermilab is creating the infrastructure needed for the characterization of the material used in the cavity fabrication. An important step in the characterization of ''as received'' niobium sheets is the eddy current scanning. Eddy current scanning is a non-destructive technique first adopted and further developed by DESY with the purpose of checking the cavity material for sub-surface defects and inclusions. Fermilab has received and further upgraded a commercial eddy current scanner previously used for the SNS project. The upgrading process included developing new filtering software. This scanner is now used daily to scan the niobium sheets for the Fermilab third harmonic and transverse deflecting cavities. This paper gives a status report on the scanning results obtained so far, including a discussion of the typology of signals being detected. We also report on the efforts to calibrate this scanner, a work conducted in collaboration with DESY.

  4. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the findings and recommendations from the NESC assessment.

  5. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Main Propulsion System (MPS) Gaseous Hydrogen (GH2) Flow Control Valve (FCV) Poppet Eddy Current (EC) Inspection Probability of Detection (POD) Study. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Prosser, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The Director of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), requested an independent assessment of the anomalous gaseous hydrogen (GH2) flow incident on the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Orbiter Vehicle (OV)-105 during the Space Transportation System (STS)-126 mission. The main propulsion system (MPS) engine #2 GH2 flow control valve (FCV) LV-57 transition from low towards high flow position without being commanded. Post-flight examination revealed that the FCV LV-57 poppet had experienced a fatigue failure that liberated a section of the poppet flange. The NESC assessment provided a peer review of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), stress analysis, and impact testing. A probability of detection (POD) study was requested by the SSP Orbiter Project for the eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that were developed to inspect the flight FCV poppets. This report contains the Appendices to the main report.

  6. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  7. Inexpensive Eddy-Current Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Robert F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radial crack replicas serve as evaluation standards. Technique entails intimately joining two pieces of appropriate aluminum alloy stock and centering drilled hole through and along interface. Bore surface of hole presents two vertical stock interface lines 180 degrees apart. These lines serve as radial crack defect replicas during eddy-current technique setup and verification.

  8. Eddy current detection of pitting corrosion around fastener holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heida, J. H.; Thart, W. G. J.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation of the eddy current technique for the detection and depth assessment of corrosion around fastener holes in F-16 lower wing skins is described. The corrosion type in this structure is pitting corrosion at the countersink edge of the fastener holes. Due to a corrosion clean-up limit of only 1.5 - 2.5 percent, a maximum thickness reduction in the range of 0.08 - 0.32 mm is allowed (depending on local skin thickness). This specifies the needed sensitivity for in-service corrosion inspection. In the evaluation use was made of specimens cut out of the F-16 lower wing skin structure. In total twelve specimens were exposed to an accelerated corrosion test (EXCO-test). Eddy current inspection of the specimens with installed fasteners was performed with a standard eddy scope and four different eddy current probes. After the eddy current inspection cross-sections of the twelve-specimens were made to determine the extent of pitting corrosion at the countersink edges. After evaluation of the inspection results the following conclusions can be drawn: for in-service detection of countersink edge corrosion standard visual inspection is the preferred technique regarding the simplicity, sensitivity and reliability of inspection; and for the purpose of depth assessment the eddy current technique is capable of detecting countersink edge corrosion with a depth from about 0.1 mm. Due to the corrosion clean-up limit of only 1.5 - 2.5 percent (0.08 - 0.32 mm), however, the eddy current technique is considered not applicable for in-service depth assessment of countersink edge corrosion in F-16 lower wing skins.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 180 - Eddy Current Examination With Visual Inspection for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for DOT 3AL Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 C Appendix C to Part 180 Transportation... Cylinders Manufactured of Aluminum Alloy 6351-T6 1. Examination Procedure. Each facility performing eddy... ring and probe for each DOT-3AL cylinder manufactured of aluminum alloy 6351-T6 to be inspected must...

  14. electromagnetics, eddy current, computer codes

    2002-03-12

    TORO Version 4 is designed for finite element analysis of steady, transient and time-harmonic, multi-dimensional, quasi-static problems in electromagnetics. The code allows simulation of electrostatic fields, steady current flows, magnetostatics and eddy current problems in plane or axisymmetric, two-dimensional geometries. TORO is easily coupled to heat conduction and solid mechanics codes to allow multi-physics simulations to be performed.

  15. Eddy current correction in volume-localized MR spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C.; Wendt, R. E. 3rd; Evans, H. J.; Rowe, R. M.; Hedrick, T. D.; LeBlanc, A. D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality of volume-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy is affected by eddy currents caused by gradient switching. Eddy currents can be reduced with improved gradient systems; however, it has been suggested that the distortion due to eddy currents can be compensated for during postprocessing with a single-frequency reference signal. The authors propose modifying current techniques for acquiring the single-frequency reference signal by using relaxation weighting to reduce interference from components that cannot be eliminated by digital filtering alone. Additional sequences with T1 or T2 weighting for reference signal acquisition are shown to have the same eddy current characteristics as the original signal without relaxation weighting. The authors also studied a new eddy current correction method that does not require a single-frequency reference signal. This method uses two free induction decays (FIDs) collected from the same volume with two sequences with opposite gradients. Phase errors caused by eddy currents are opposite in these two FIDs and can be canceled completely by combining the FIDs. These methods were tested in a phantom. Eddy current distortions were corrected, allowing quantitative measurement of structures such as the -CH = CH- component, which is otherwise undetectable.

  16. Eddy current pulsed thermography for fatigue evaluation of gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Yin, Aijun; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Jishan; Shaw, Brian

    2014-02-01

    The pulsed eddy current (PEC) technique generates responses over a wide range of frequencies, containing more spectral coverage than traditional eddy current inspection. Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT), a newly developed non-destructive testing (NDT) technique, has advantages such as rapid inspection of a large area within a short time, high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and stand-off measurement distance. This paper investigates ECPT for the evaluation of gear fatigue tests. The paper proposes a statistical method based on single channel blind source separation to extract details of gear fatigue. The discussion of transient thermal distribution and patterns of fatigue contact surfaces as well as the non-contact surfaces have been reported. In addition, the measurement for gears with different cycles of fatigue tests by ECPTand the comparison results between ECPT with magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) have been evaluated. The comparison shows the competitive capability of ECPT in fatigue evaluation.

  17. Eddy current pulsed phase thermography considering volumetric induction heating for delamination evaluation in carbon fiber reinforced polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze

    2015-06-01

    Anisotropy and inhomogeneity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) result in that many traditional non-destructive inspection techniques are inapplicable on the delamination evaluation. This letter introduces eddy current pulsed phase thermography (ECPPT) for CFRPs evaluation considering volumetric induction heating due to small electrical conductivity, abnormal thermal wave propagation, and Fourier analysis. The proposed methods were verified through experimental studies under transmission and reflection modes. Using ECPPT, the influence of the non-uniform heating effect and carbon fiber structures can be suppressed, and then delamination detectability can be improved dramatically over eddy current pulsed thermography.

  18. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Arthur J.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Brudnoy, David M.; Englund, James M.; Loomis, Kent C.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  19. Transient eddy current flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbriger, J.; Stefani, F.

    2015-10-01

    Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.

  20. Eddy current pulsed phase thermography and feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunze; Tian, GuiYun; Pan, Mengchun; Chen, Dixiang

    2013-08-01

    This letter proposed an eddy current pulsed phase thermography technique combing eddy current excitation, infrared imaging, and phase analysis. One steel sample is selected as the material under test to avoid the influence of skin depth, which provides subsurface defects with different depths. The experimental results show that this proposed method can eliminate non-uniform heating and improve defect detectability. Several features are extracted from differential phase spectra and the preliminary linear relationships are built to measure these subsurface defects' depth.

  1. Eddy-Current Damage Test for Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive test method detects cracks in materials of low conductivity. Test setup includes eddycurrent unit with frequency of 2 to 20 MHz/ and storage oscilloscope. High frequency required to assure depth of penetration less than substrate thickness, to prevent thickness from influencing reading. Eddy-current analysis confirmed by visual inspection as damaged area was sectioned and evaluated.

  2. Remote field eddy current detection of stress-corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Nestleroth, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    The feasibility of detecting stress-corrosion cracks (SSC) using the Remote Field Eddy Current (RFEC) technique was demonstrated. The RFEC technique interrogates the entire thickness of the pipe and is applicable for in-line inspection. If it can be shown that the RFEC technique is effective in detecting SSC, then the technique is an ideal method for detecting the defects of interest. A defect detection model is proposed for explaining the mechanism for crack detection. For axially oriented, closed cracks, such as SCC, the conventional defect detection model proved to be too simplistic and not applicable. Therefore, a new detection mode that examines the flow of circumferential eddy currents was developed based on experimental results. This model, though not rigorous, provides a general understanding of the applicability of the RFEC technique for finding SSC. The data from the cracks and various artificial defects is presented in three formats: isometric projections, pseudocolor images and line-of-sight data. Though only two cracks were found, the experimental results correlate well with the circumferential eddy current theory. A theoretical analysis of the effects of motion on the output signal of the receiver is presented. This analysis indicates that inspection speed of simple implementations may be limited to a few miles per hour. Remote field eddy current inspection has excellent potential for inspection of gas transmission lines for detecting stress corrosion cracks that should be further developed.

  3. Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered Coatings by Pulsed Eddy Current Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, Chris; Lee Changqing; Danon, Yaron

    2005-04-09

    A method that uses induced pulsed eddy currents for characterization of thick magnetron sputtered Nb coatings on steel is presented in this paper. The objectives of this work are to develop a system for rapid quantitative nondestructive inspection of coatings as well as to determine the correlation between coating properties, such as density and purity, and eddy current measured resistivity of coatings. A two-probe differential system having higher sensitivity and less noise than a one-probe system with 2-D scanning ability was developed.

  4. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  5. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  6. Eddy current array probe for corrosion mapping on ageing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Rémi; Samson, Rock

    2000-05-01

    The life of an airplane in the civil and military fleet is expanding by many years. The corrosion on aircraft is becoming a serious problem. The corrosion can also lead to the development of "multi-site damage" (MSD) and catastrophic failure. The need for a fast and reliable nondestructive technique for the detection of corrosion is a prime concern. A simple eddy current or ultrasonic probe can be very time consuming in the inspection because of the small area covered by the probe. The use of an eddy current array probe can cut the time use for an inspection or increase the surface scanned. Because it is an eddy current technology, the surface preparation is minimal compared to other techniques like ultrasound. It is also possible to detect defects beyond the first layer in a multiple layer panel. A flexible probe was employed to demonstrate the capacities of an eddy current array probe. This flexible probe can also match the profile of the structure to inspect limiting the lift-off. The C-scan technique is used in the display to see all the data on the same screen. The interpretation is also simplified.

  7. Eddy-Current Detection of Cracks in Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parent, R.; Kettering, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nondestructive device tests narrow, sharply-bent metal tubes. Eddycurrent probe detects incipient cracks inside small metal tubes. Tube-centering device consisting of pair of opposed bars ensures tube centered on eddy-current coil. Probe moves along length of bent tube to inspect repeatably for cracks. Compatible with tubes of different cross sections, oval, flattened, square, rectangular,or irregular. Adapts for inspecting formed tubes in petrochemical, automotive, nuclear, and medical equipment.

  8. Advanced Eddy current NDE steam generator tubing.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, S.

    1999-03-29

    As part of a multifaceted project on steam generator integrity funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out research on the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). A particular area of interest is the impact of advanced eddy current (EC) NDE technology. This paper presents an overview of work that supports this effort in the areas of numerical electromagnetic (EM) modeling, data analysis, signal processing, and visualization of EC inspection results. Finite-element modeling has been utilized to study conventional and emerging EC probe designs. This research is aimed at determining probe responses to flaw morphologies of current interest. Application of signal processing and automated data analysis algorithms has also been addressed. Efforts have focused on assessment of frequency and spatial domain filters and implementation of more effective data analysis and display methods. Data analysis studies have dealt with implementation of linear and nonlinear multivariate models to relate EC inspection parameters to steam generator tubing defect size and structural integrity. Various signal enhancement and visualization schemes are also being evaluated and will serve as integral parts of computer-aided data analysis algorithms. Results from this research will ultimately be substantiated through testing on laboratory-grown and in-service-degraded tubes.

  9. Eddy Current Flexible Probes for Complex Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Decitre, J. M.; Vacher, F.; Fermon, C.; Pannetier, M.; Cattiaux, G.

    2006-03-01

    The inspection of materials used in aerospace, nuclear or transport industry is a critical issue for the safety of components exposed to stress or/and corrosion. The industry claims for faster, more sensitive, and more flexible techniques. Technologies based on Eddy Current (EC) flexible array probe and magnetic sensor with high sensitivity such as giant magneto-resistance (GMR) could be a good solution to detect surface-breaking flaws in complex shaped surfaces. The CEA has recently developed, with support from the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), a flexible array probe based on micro-coils etched on Kapton. The probe's performances have been assessed for the inspection of reactor residual heat removal pipes, and for aeronautical applications within the framework of the European project VERDICT. The experimental results confirm the very good detection of narrow cracks on plane and curve shaped surfaces. This paper also describes the recent progresses concerning the application of GMR sensors to EC testing, and the results obtained for the detection of small surface breaking flaws.

  10. Unified Ultrasonic/Eddy-Current Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging station for detecting cracks and flaws in solid materials developed combining both ultrasonic C-scan and eddy-current imaging. Incorporation of both techniques into one system eliminates duplication of computers and of mechanical scanners; unifies acquisition, processing, and storage of data; reduces setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy-current scans; and increases efficiency of system. Same mechanical scanner used to maneuver either ultrasonic or eddy-current probe over specimen and acquire point-by-point data. For ultrasonic scanning, probe linked to ultrasonic pulser/receiver circuit card, while, for eddy-current imaging, probe linked to impedance-analyzer circuit card. Both ultrasonic and eddy-current imaging subsystems share same desktop-computer controller, containing dedicated plug-in circuit boards for each.

  11. Eddy current analysis in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.

    1988-06-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, particularly tokamaks and reversed field pinch (RFP) experiments, time-varying magnetic fields are in intimate contact with electrically conducting components of the device. Induced currents, fields, forces, and torques result. This note reviews the analysis of eddy current effects in the following systems: Interaction of a tokamak plasma with the eddy currents in the first wall, blanket, and shield (FWBS) systems; Eddy currents in a complex but two-dimensional vacuum vessel, as in TFTR, JET, and JT-60; Eddy currents in the FWBS system of a tokamak reactor, such as NET, FER, or ITER; and Eddy currents in a RFP shell. The cited studies are chosen to be illustrative, rather than exhaustive. 42 refs.

  12. Limitations of eddy current testing in a fast reactor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Bowler, John R.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility of using eddy current probes for detecting flaws in fast nuclear reactor structures has been investigated with the aim of detecting defects immersed in electrically conductive coolant including under liquid sodium during standby. For the inspections to be viable, there is a need to use an encapsulated sensor system that can be move into position with the aid of visualization tools. The initial objective being to locate the surface to be investigated using, for example, a combination of electromagnetic sensors and sonar. Here we focus on one feature of the task in which eddy current probe impedance variations due to interaction with the external surface of a tube are evaluated in order to monitor the probe location and orientation during inspection.

  13. Use of eddy current mixes to solve a weld examination application

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.C.; LaBoissonniere, A.

    1995-12-31

    The augmentation of typical nondestructive (i.e., ultrasound) weld inspection techniques by the use of eddy current tools may significantly enhance the quality and reliability of weld inspections. One recent example is the development of an eddy current technique for use in the examination of BWR core shroud welds, where multi-frequency mixes are used to eliminate signals coming from the weld material so that the examination of the heat affected zone is enhanced. An analysis tool most commonly associated with ultrasound examinations, the C-Scan based on gated information, may be implemented with eddy current data to enhance analysis.

  14. Method for removal of random noise in eddy-current testing system

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Eddy-current response voltages, generated during inspection of metallic structures for anomalies, are often replete with noise. Therefore, analysis of the inspection data and results is difficult or near impossible, resulting in inconsistent or unreliable evaluation of the structure. This invention processes the eddy-current response voltage, removing the effect of random noise, to allow proper identification of anomalies within and associated with the structure.

  15. Automated detection and location of indications in eddy current signals

    DOEpatents

    Brudnoy, David M.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Levy, Arthur J.

    2000-01-01

    A computer implemented information extraction process that locates and identifies eddy current signal features in digital point-ordered signals, signals representing data from inspection of test materials, by enhancing the signal features relative to signal noise, detecting features of the signals, verifying the location of the signal features that can be known in advance, and outputting information about the identity and location of all detected signal features.

  16. The eddy-current technique for nondestructive evaluation of generator retaining rings: Feasibility study: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Elmo, P.M.; Nottingham, L.D.

    1988-05-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility of using eddy current nondestructive inspection techniques to detect intergranular stress corrosion in generator rotor retaining rings was conducted by the EPRI NDE Center. Experiments were conducted using a bend-bar containing representative stress corrosion damage, a calibration block containing electrical discharge machined (EDM) notches, and four retired retaining rings containing EDM notches and stress corrosion damage. An eddy current transducer transport was designed and fabricated to interface with an existing computer-controlled, two-axis positioner and digital eddy current data acquisition system. Test results of experiments performed with this equipment on the retaining ring test-bed provided experimental validation of the eddy current method's feasibility as a retaining ring inspection method. Details are given of the system and its performance under laboratory and simulated service-inspection conditions. 9 refs., 47 figs.

  17. Flowpath evaluation and reconnaissance by remote field Eddy current testing (FERRET)

    SciTech Connect

    Smoak, A.E.; Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-12-31

    This document describes the design and development of FERRET (Flowpath Evaluation and Reconnaisance by Remote-field Eddy current Testing). FERRET is a system for inspecting the steel pipes which carry cooling water to underground nuclear waste storage tanks. The FERRET system has been tested in a small scale cooling pipe mock-up, an improved full scale mock-up, and in flaw detection experiments. Early prototype designs of FERRET and the FERRET launcher (a device which inserts, moves, and retrieves probes from a piping system) as well as the field-ready design are discussed.

  18. EDDY CURRENT SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF CRACKING BENEATH BRAIDING IN CORRUGATED METAL HOSE

    SciTech Connect

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Hall, George

    2009-03-03

    In this paper an eddy current system for the detection of partially-through-the-thickness cracks in corrugated metal hose is presented. Design criteria based upon the geometry and conductivity of the part are developed and applied to the fabrication of a prototype inspection system. Experimental data are used to highlight the capabilities of the system and an image processing technique is presented to improve flaw detection capabilities. A case study for detection of cracking damage in a space shuttle radiator retract flex hoses is also presented.

  19. Eddy Current System for Detection of Cracking Beneath Braiding in Corrugated Metal Hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Hall, George

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an eddy current system for the detection of partially-through-the-thickness cracks in corrugated metal hose is presented. Design criteria based upon the geometry and conductivity of the part are developed and applied to the fabrication of a prototype inspection system. Experimental data are used to highlight the capabilities of the system and an image processing technique is presented to improve flaw detection capabilities. A case study for detection of cracking damage in a space shuttle radiator retract flex hoses is also presented.

  20. Thin film eddy current impulse deicer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samuel O.; Zieve, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    Two new styles of electrical impulse deicers has been developed and tested in NASA's Icing Research Tunnel. With the Eddy Current Repulsion Deicing Boot (EDB), a thin and flexible spiral coil is encapsulated between two thicknesses of elastomer. The coil, made by an industrial printed circuit board manufacturer, is bonded to the aluminum aircraft leading edge. A capacitor bank is discharged through the coil. Induced eddy currents repel the coil from the aluminum aircraft structure and shed accumulated ice. A second configuration, the Eddy Current Repulsion Deicing-Strip (EDS) uses an outer metal erosion strip fastened over the coil. Opposite flowing eddy currents repel the strip and create the impulse deicing force. The outer strip serves as a surface for the collection and shedding of ice and does not require any structural properties. The EDS is suitable for composite aircraft structures. Both systems successfully dispelled over 95 percent of the accumulated ice from airfoils over the range of the FAA icing envelope.

  1. Eddy currents in a conducting sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, John; Hestenes, David

    1986-01-01

    This report analyzes the eddy current induced in a solid conducting sphere by a sinusoidal current in a circular loop. Analytical expressions for the eddy currents are derived as a power series in the vectorial displacement of the center of the sphere from the axis of the loop. These are used for first order calculations of the power dissipated in the sphere and the force and torque exerted on the sphere by the electromagnetic field of the loop.

  2. Flux focusing eddy current probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Clendenin, C. Gerald (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. The maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. Hence, by obtaining the position of the maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. The accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output which results in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip which enables the region for searching to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion damage causes an incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. The low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of the thickness of the test sample.

  3. Subsurface Defect Detection in Metals with Pulsed Eddy Current

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Bantz, Walter J.

    2005-04-09

    The eddy current (EC) method is traditionally used for open surface crack detection in metallic components. Subsurface voids in bulk metals can also be detected by the eddy current devices. Taking into consideration the skin effect in conductive materials, a lower frequency of electromagnetic excitation is used for a deeper penetration. A set of special specimens was designed and fabricated to investigate sensitivity to subsurface voids. Typically, flat bottom holes (FBHs) are used for subsurface defect simulation. This approach is not very representative of real defects for eddy current inspection because the FBH depth extends to the bottom of the specimen. Two-layer specimens with finite depth FBHs were fabricated and scanned with conventional EC of variable frequency. Sensitivity and spatial resolution of EC diminish with flaw depth. The pulsed EC approach was applied for flaw detection at variable distance under the surface. The transient response from multi-layer model was derived and compared to experiments. The multi-frequency nature of pulsed excitation provides effective coverage of a thick layer of material in one pass. Challenging aspects of subsurface flaw detection and visualization using the EC technique are discussed.

  4. Eddy current heating in magnetic refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Eddy current heating can be a significant source of parasitic heating in low temperature magnetic refrigerators. To study this problem a technique to approximate the heating due to eddy currents has been developed. A formula is presented for estimating the heating within a variety of shapes commonly found in magnetic refrigerators. These shapes include circular, square, and rectangular rods; cylindrical and split cylindrical shells; wire loops; and 'coil foil. One set of components evaluated are different types of thermal radiation shields. This comparison shows that a simple split shield is almost as effective (only 23 percent more heating) as using a shield, with the same axial thermal conductivity, made of 'coil foil'.

  5. Eddy Current Testing, RQA/M1-5330.17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of classroom training handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, instructional material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on eddy current testing. The subject is presented under the following headings: Introduction, Eddy Current Principles, Eddy Current Equipment, Eddy Current Methods,…

  6. Eddy current sensing of intermetallic composite consolidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharmasena, Kumar P.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1991-01-01

    A finite element method is used to explore the feasibility and optimization of a probe-type eddy current sensor for determining the thickness of plate specimens during a hot isostatic pressing cycle. The dependence of the sensor's impedance upon sample-sensor separation in the high frequency limit is calculated, and factors that maximize sensitivity to the final stages of densification are identified.

  7. Eddy Current Nondestructive Residual Stress Assessment in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, M. P.; Yu, F.; Nagy, P. B.

    2005-04-01

    Shot peening and other mechanical surface enhancement methods improve the fatigue resistance and foreign-object damage tolerance of metallic components by introducing beneficial near-surface compressive residual stresses and hardening the surface. However, the fatigue life improvement gained via surface enhancement is not explicitly accounted for in current engine component life prediction models because of the lack of accurate and reliable nondestructive methods that could verify the presence of compressive near-surface residual stresses in shot-peened hardware. In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electrical resistivity. We found that, in contrast with most other materials, surface-treated nickel-base superalloys exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies, i.e., at decreasing penetration depths. Experimental results are presented to illustrate that the excess frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity of shot-peened nickel-base superalloys can be used to estimate the absolute level and penetration depth of the compressive residual stress layer both before and after partial thermal relaxation.

  8. Procedure for Automated Eddy Current Crack Detection in Thin Titanium Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    This procedure provides the detailed instructions for conducting Eddy Current (EC) inspections of thin (5-30 mils) titanium membranes with thickness and material properties typical of the development of Ultra-Lightweight diaphragm Tanks Technology (ULTT). The inspection focuses on the detection of part-through, surface breaking fatigue cracks with depths between approximately 0.002" and 0.007" and aspect ratios (a/c) of 0.2-1.0 using an automated eddy current scanning and image processing technique.

  9. INNOVATIVE EDDY CURRENT PROBE FOR MICRO DEFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Telmo G.; Vilaca, Pedro; Quintino, Luisa; Santos, Jorge dos; Rosado, Luis

    2010-02-22

    This paper reports the development of an innovative eddy current (EC) probe, and its application to micro-defects on the root of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The new EC probe presents innovative concept issues, allowing 3D induced current in the material, and a lift-off independence. Validation experiments were performed on aluminium alloys processed by FSW. The results clearly show that the new EC probe is able to detect and sizing surface defects about 60 microns depth.

  10. Pulsed eddy current and ultrasonic data fusion applied to stress measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibalahi, A.; Safizadeh, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    Stress measurement and its variation are key problems in the operating performance of materials. Stress can affect the material properties and the life of components. There are several destructive and nondestructive techniques that are used to measure stress. However, no single nondestructive testing (NDT) technique or method is satisfactory to fully assess stress. This paper presents an NDT data fusion method to improve stress measurement. An aluminum alloy 2024 specimen subjected to stress simulation is nondestructively inspected using pulsed eddy current and ultrasonic techniques. Following these nondestructive examinations, the information gathered from these two NDT methods has been fused using a suitable fuzzy combination operator. The results obtained with these processes are presented in this paper and their efficiency is discussed. It is shown that the fusion of NDT data with a suitable fuzzy operator can be adequate to improve the reliability of stress measurements.

  11. The influence of eddy currents on magnetic actuator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmood, R. B.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The present investigation of the effects of eddy currents on EM actuators' transient performance notes that a transfer function representation encompassing a first-order model of the eddy current influence can be useful in control system analysis. The method can be extended to represent the higher-order effects of eddy currents for actuators that cannot be represented by semiinfinite planes.

  12. An expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.J.; Oppenlander, J.E.; Brudnoy, D.M.; Englund, J.M.; Loomis, K.C.

    1991-12-31

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits, DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, an obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  13. Variable-Force Eddy-Current Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Variable damping achieved without problems of containing viscous fluids. Eddy-current damping obtained by moving copper or aluminum conductors through magnetic fields. Position of magnet carrier determines amount of field engagement and, therefore, amount of damping. Three advantages of concept: Magnitudes of stiffness and damping continously varied from maximum to zero without bringing rotor or shaft to stop; used in rotating machines not having viscous fluids available such as lubricating oils; produces sizable damping forces in machines that pump liquid hydrogen at - 246 degrees C and liquid oxygen at - 183 degrees C and are compact in size.

  14. Eddy-Current Monitoring Of Composite Layups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Buckley, John D.

    1993-01-01

    Eddy-current-probe apparatus used to determine predominant orientations of fibers in fiber/matrix composite materials. Apparatus nondestructive, noninvasive means for monitoring composite prepregs and layups during fabrication to ensure predictable and repeatable mechanical properties of finished composite panels. Consists essentially of electromagnet coil wrapped around horseshoe-shaped powdered-iron or ferrite ore. Optionally, capacitor included in series or parallel with coil to form resonant circuit. Impedance monitor excites radio-frequency current in coil and measures impedance of probe circuit. Affected by whatever material placed near ends of core, where material intercepts alternating magnetic field excited in core by current in coil.

  15. Eddy current X-Y scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation Branch of the Materials and Processes Laboratory became aware of a need for a miniature, portable X-Y scanner capable of performing eddy current or other nondestructive testing scanning operations such as ultrasonic, or small areas of flat plate. The technical description and operational theory of the X-Y scanner system designed and built to fulfill this need are covered. The scanner was given limited testing and performs according to its design intent, which is to scan flat plate areas of approximately 412 sq cm (64 sq in) during each complete cycle of scanning.

  16. Casimir Interaction from Magnetically Coupled Eddy Currents

    SciTech Connect

    Intravaia, Francesco; Henkel, Carsten

    2009-09-25

    We study the quantum and thermal fluctuations of eddy (Foucault) currents in thick metallic plates. A Casimir interaction between two plates arises from the coupling via quasistatic magnetic fields. As a function of distance, the relevant eddy current modes cross over from a quantum to a thermal regime. These modes alone reproduce previously discussed thermal anomalies of the electromagnetic Casimir interaction between good conductors. In particular, they provide a physical picture for the Casimir entropy whose nonzero value at zero temperature arises from a correlated, glassy state.

  17. Inverse source problems for eddy current equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Ana; Camaño, Jessika; Valli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We study the inverse source problem for the eddy current approximation of Maxwell equations. As for the full system of Maxwell equations, we show that a volume current source cannot be uniquely identified by knowledge of the tangential components of the electromagnetic fields on the boundary, and we characterize the space of non-radiating sources. On the other hand, we prove that the inverse source problem has a unique solution if the source is supported on the boundary of a subdomain or if it is the sum of a finite number of dipoles. We address the applicability of this result for the localization of brain activity from electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography measurements.

  18. Eddy current measurement of tube element spacing

    DOEpatents

    Latham, Wayne Meredith; Hancock, Jimmy Wade; Grut, Jayne Marie

    1998-01-01

    A method of electromagnetically measuring the distance between adjacent tube elements in a heat exchanger. A cylindrical, high magnetic permeability ferrite slug is placed in the tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. A bobbin or annular coil type probe operated in the absolute mode is inserted into a second tube adjacent the spacing to be measured. From prior calibrations on the response of the eddy current coil, the signals from the coil, when sensing the presence of the ferrite slug, are used to determine the spacing between the tubes.

  19. Remote field eddy current detection of stress-corrosion cracks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestleroth, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    The feasibility of detecting stress-corrosion cracks (SSC) using the Remote Field Eddy Current (RFEC) technique was demonstrated. The RFEC technique interrogates the entire thickness of the pipe and is applicable for in-line inspection. If it can be shown that the RFEC technique is effective in detecting SSC, then the technique is an ideal method for detecting the defects of interest. A defect detection model is proposed for explaining the mechanism for crack detection. For axially oriented, closed cracks, such as SCC, the conventional defect detection model proved to be too simplistic and not applicable. Therefore, a new detection mode that examines the flow of circumferential eddy currents was developed based on experimental results. This model, though not rigorous, provides a general understanding of the applicability of the RFEC technique for finding SSC. The data from the cracks and various artificial defects is presented in three formats: isometric projections, pseudocolor images and line-of-sight data. Though only two cracks were found, the experimental results correlate well with the circumferential eddy current theory. A theoretical analysis of the effects of motion on the output signal of the receiver is presented. This analysis indicates that inspection speed of simple implementations may be limited to a few miles per hour. Remote field eddy current inspection has excellent potential for inspection of gas transmission lines for detecting stress corrosion cracks that should be further developed.

  20. Evaluation of outer flaws in titanium alloys using eddy current measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, T.; Psuj, G.; Kowalczyk, J.

    2011-06-23

    In this paper results of shallow outer flaw detection in thick titanium alloy specimens is presented. In order to increase efficiency of inspections of minor defects an eddy current measuring system with a lock-in amplifier was used. The measurements were carried out for flat and cylindrical specimens with artificial flaws.

  1. Magnetoresistive Flux Focusing Eddy Current Flaw Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A giant magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current device effectively detects deep flaws in thick multilayer conductive materials. The probe uses an excitation coil to induce eddy currents in conducting material perpendicularly oriented to the coil s longitudinal axis. A giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, surrounded by the excitation coil, is used to detect generated fields. Between the excitation coil and GMR sensor is a highly permeable flux focusing lens which magnetically separates the GMR sensor and excitation coil and produces high flux density at the outer edge of the GMR sensor. The use of feedback inside the flux focusing lens enables complete cancellation of the leakage fields at the GMR sensor location and biasing of the GMR sensor to a location of high magnetic field sensitivity. In an alternate embodiment, a permanent magnet is positioned adjacent to the GMR sensor to accomplish the biasing. Experimental results have demonstrated identification of flaws up to 1 cm deep in aluminum alloy structures. To detect deep flaws about circular fasteners or inhomogeneities in thick multi-layer conductive materials, the device is mounted in a hand-held rotating probe assembly that is connected to a computer for system control, data acquisition, processing and storage.

  2. Magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current flaw detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A giant magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current device effectively detects deep flaws in thick multilayer conductive materials. The probe uses an excitation coil to induce eddy currents in conducting material perpendicularly oriented to the coil's longitudinal axis. A giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, surrounded by the excitation coil, is used to detect generated fields. Between the excitation coil and GMR sensor is a highly permeable flux focusing lens which magnetically separates the GMR sensor and excitation coil and produces high flux density at the outer edge of the GMR sensor. The use of feedback inside the flux focusing lens enables complete cancellation of the leakage fields at the GMR sensor location and biasing of the GMR sensor to a location of high magnetic field sensitivity. In an alternate embodiment, a permanent magnet is positioned adjacent to the GMR sensor to accomplish the biasing. Experimental results have demonstrated identification of flaws up to 1 cm deep in aluminum alloy structures. To detect deep flaws about circular fasteners or inhomogeneities in thick multilayer conductive materials, the device is mounted in a hand-held rotating probe assembly that is connected to a computer for system control, data acquisition, processing and storage.

  3. Structural state testing using eddy current inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, N. Y.; Chernov, L. A.

    2000-05-01

    The inverse eddy current problem can be described as the task of reconstructing an unknown distribution of electrical conductivity from eddy-current probe voltage measurements recorded as function of excitation frequency. Conductivity variation may be a result of surface processing with substances like hydrogen and carbon or surface heating. We developed mathematical reasons and supporting software for inverse conductivity profiling. Inverse problem was solved for layered plane and cylindrical conductors. Because the inverse problem is nonlinear, we propose using an iterative algorithm which can be formalized as the minimization of an error functional related to the difference between the probe voltages theoretically predicted by the direct problem solving and the measured probe voltages. Numerical results were obtained for some models of conductivity distribution. It was shown that inverse problem can be solved exactly in case of correct measurements. Good estimation of the true conductivity distribution takes place also for measurement noise about 2 percent but in the case of 5 percent error, results are worse.

  4. Ultrasonic and eddy current characterization of impact damage in graphite/epoxy rocket motor cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtyar, Andrei D.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2000-05-01

    Impact damage sustained during the manufacturing, storage and transportation of rocket motors could lead to a catastrophic motor failure during launch. It is important to detect and characterize such damage. This paper considers the complementary use of ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for impact damage quantification. Tests have been conducted on graphite/epoxy panels of one laminate configuration representative of composite rocket motor cases. The panels were impacted with different energies under solid and edge support conditions. The damaged panels were inspected with ultrasound and eddy current in a scanning mode. Damage extent and type (delaminations, matrix cracking, and fiber breakage) were correlated with nondestructive measurements.

  5. Eddy Current Examination of Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Closure Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur D. Watkins; Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2006-04-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has developed standardized DOE SNF canisters for handling and interim storage of SNF at various DOE sites as well as SNF transport to and SNF handling and disposal at the repository. The final closure weld of the canister will be produced remotely in a hot cell after loading and must meet American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III, Division 3 code requirements thereby requiring volumetric and surface nondestructive evaluation to verify integrity. This paper discusses the use of eddy current testing (ET) to perform surface examination of the completed welds and repair cavities. Descriptions of integrated remote welding/inspection system and how the equipment is intended function will also be discussed.

  6. Development of eddy current probes based on magnetoresistive sensors arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva-Chollet, N.; Decitre, J.-M.; Fermon, C.; Pelkner, M.; Reimund, V.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2014-02-01

    Eddy Current Technique is a powerful method for detection of surface notches and of buried flaws during inspection of metallic parts. Recent EC array probes have demonstrated a fast and efficient control of large surfaces. Nevertheless, when the size of flaws decreases or the defect is rather deep, traditional winding coil probes turn out to be useless. Magnetoresistive sensors present the advantages of flat frequency response and micron size. These sensors are hence very attractive for the detection of buried defects that require low frequencies because of skin depth effect. An optimization of the probe with magnetoresistive sensors as receivers has been made by simulations using CIVA software and finite elements methods with OPERA. EC probes for buried flaw detection have been designed. Experimental results have been compared with simulations.

  7. Eddy current pulsed phase thermography for subsurface defect quantitatively evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Tian, GuiYun; Chen, Dixiang; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Hong

    2013-09-01

    This Letter verified eddy current pulse phase thermography through numerical and experimental studies. During the numerical studies, two characteristic features, blind frequency and min phase, were extracted from differential phase spectra, and their monotonic relationships with defects' depth under different heating time were compared. According to the numerical studies, 100 ms was employed as heating time during the improved experimental studies. The experimental results agreed with the numerical results. Based on their linear relationship with defects' depths, both features can be used to measure the defect's depth.

  8. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality By Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mi; G. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-08-10

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang (George); Bayles, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  10. Classification of eddy current signals using fuzzy logic and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, Hartmut; Stieper, Michael

    1996-11-01

    The nondestructive eddy current methods are commonly used for automated defect inspection to detect cracks in materials which are used in cars, power and aircraft industries. The eddy current signal from a infinitely long crack can be classified with the help of the fuzzy logic and the neural network techniques. A rule based fuzzy logic classification guarantees better results than fuzzy-cluster- means algorithm, because the classification results can be increased in this case step by step. By using the neural network for the classification of the crack signals it is very important to have a good 'learning pattern.' The advantage of time-delay networks in this application is the fact that the network can 'learn' the eddy-current time signal; a signal preprocessing is not necessary.

  11. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B.Mi; X. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-05-26

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with different surface preparation conditions before applying the coating, e.g., grit-blasted surface, wire-brush cleaned surface, and a dirty surface. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that the three surface preparation conditions can be successfully differentiated by looking into the impedance difference observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. More specimens are also prepared with variations of process parameters, such as spray angle, stand-off distance, and application of corrosion protective sealant, etc. They are blindly tested to evaluate the reliability of the eddy current system. Quantitative relations between the coating bond strength and the eddy current response are also established with the support of destructive testing. This non-contact, non-destructive, easy to use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  12. Eddy current losses in passive magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouty, Olivier

    2002-12-01

    Passive magnetic bearings built with permanent magnets, such as NdFeB (neodynium-iron-boron) or SmCo (samarium-cobalt), are very reliable systems when used for industrial applications such as centrifuges or flywheels, as they do not require any electromagnetic coil supply. Nevertheless, during the rotational motion, gyroscopic effects (like precession) or inhomogeneous magnetization can lead to power losses created by eddy currents flowing over the magnetic materials. This article provides a theoretical description and quantification of these phenomena by means of Ampere's laws. For this purpose, the magnets are assumed to be ring-shaped and axially magnetized. Virtual surface and volume current densities are applied to the calculation of the time-dependent electric field, and consequently to the power loss. Numerical applications are presented for a typical bearing configuration.

  13. Eddy current losses in ferromagnetic laminations

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, C.; Visone, C.; Mayergoyz, I. D.; Basso, V.; Miano, G.

    2000-05-01

    It is demonstrated through the comparison of analytical, numerical, and experimental results that the existence of excess eddy current losses can be explained by the peculiar nature of the nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in magnetically nonlinear laminations. The essence of this peculiar nature is that nonlinear diffusion occurs as inward progress of almost rectangular profiles of magnetic flux density of variable height. Approximating actual profiles of magnetic flux density by rectangular ones, the problem of nonlinear diffusion can be treated analytically by using a simple model. The accuracy and the limit of applicability of the rectangular profile model are discussed by comparing its predictions with finite elements numerical solutions of nonlinear diffusion equation as well as with experimental results. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Neural nets and eddy-current testing

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.D. Jr.; Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.; Schell, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial neural networks of a novel type have been trained and tested on a variety of eddy-current flaw signals commonly occurring in nuclear reactor steam generators with the ultimate goal of emulating, at least crudely, the vision and reasoning capabilities of the human analyst. The network methodology itself was that of Allen and Schell developed originally for studies of such biologically relevant neural properties as cognitive complementarity and concept formation. Because they are so important to the results obtained, we discuss the general characteristics of the approach in the Preamble. In Section I we describe the relevant aspects of the neural network configuration presently in use and in Section II the method by which the artificial neural systems have been trained. Finally, we discuss results of the training process for systems explored.

  15. Material condition assessment with eddy current sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfine, Neil J. (Inventor); Washabaugh, Andrew P. (Inventor); Sheiretov, Yanko K. (Inventor); Schlicker, Darrell E. (Inventor); Lyons, Robert J. (Inventor); Windoloski, Mark D. (Inventor); Craven, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tsukernik, Vladimir B. (Inventor); Grundy, David C. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Eddy current sensors and sensor arrays are used for process quality and material condition assessment of conducting materials. In an embodiment, changes in spatially registered high resolution images taken before and after cold work processing reflect the quality of the process, such as intensity and coverage. These images also permit the suppression or removal of local outlier variations. Anisotropy in a material property, such as magnetic permeability or electrical conductivity, can be intentionally introduced and used to assess material condition resulting from an operation, such as a cold work or heat treatment. The anisotropy is determined by sensors that provide directional property measurements. The sensor directionality arises from constructs that use a linear conducting drive segment to impose the magnetic field in a test material. Maintaining the orientation of this drive segment, and associated sense elements, relative to a material edge provides enhanced sensitivity for crack detection at edges.

  16. Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.; Polosky, Marc A.

    2009-12-15

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

  17. Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.; Polosky, Marc A.

    2007-10-30

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

  18. Eddy-current steam generator data analysis performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.H.

    1993-06-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of eddy current, bobbin coil data analysis of steam generator tubes conducted under the structure of the PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines, Individual and team performance measures were obtained from independent analyses of data from 1619 locations in a sample of 199 steam generator tubes. The 92 reportable indications contained in the tube sample, including 64 repairable indications, were attributable to: wear at anti-vibration bars, intergranular attack/stress-corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) within tube sheet crevice regions, primary-water stress-corrosion cracking (PWSCC) at tube roll transitions, or thinning at cold-leg tube supports. Analyses were conducted by 20 analysts, four each from five vendors of eddy current steam generator examination services. In accordance with the guidelines, site orientation was provided with plant-specific guidelines; preanalysis practice was completed on plant-specific data; analysts were qualified by performance testing; and independent primary-secondary analyses were conducted with resolution of discrepancies (team analyses). Measures of analysis performance included percentages of indications correctly reported, percentages of false reports, and relative operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves presented comprehensive pictures of analysis accuracy generalizable beyond the specific conditions of this study. They also provided single-value measures of analysis accuracy. Conclusions and recommendations were provided relative to analysis accuracy, effect of primary-secondary analyses, analyses of tube sheet crevice regions, establishment of reporting criteria, improvement of examination guidelines, and needed research.

  19. A feature-based eddy-current imaging system for personal computers: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elmo, P.M.; Shankar, R.

    1989-03-01

    Imaging eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) data on low-cost, field-deployable personal computer (PC) systems is now possible. This report describes the modification of a previously developed feature-based ultrasonic (UT) testing system for automatic eddy current (EC) inspection. This EC system was applied to flat plate and circular geometries. The PC system manipulates the eddy current probe around the part to be inspected; acquires multi-frequency, dual-channel digital data and displays images of an operator-selected channel; and utilizes advanced signal processing software to generate and display impedance-plane trajectories for all frequencies. Laboratory experiments using this eddy current test system on flaw calibration standards, induced intergranular-stress-corrosion-cracking (IGSCC) in retaining ring material coupons, and induced cracks in full size retaining rings have demonstrated the system's capability to detect surface damage. Future efforts will incorporate other problem-relevant signal processing algorithms to aid in detecting and characterizing surface-damage, such as pitting and cracking. 6 refs., 20 figs.

  20. Eddy Currents: Levitation, Metal Detectors, and Induction Heating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouch, G.; Lord, A. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A simple and accessible calculation is given of the effects of eddy currents for a sphere in the field of a single circular loop of alternating current. These calculations should help toward the inclusion of eddy current effects in upper undergraduate physics courses. (BB)

  1. Localized Eddy Current Compensation Using Quantitative Field Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpstra, M.; Andersen, P. M.; Gruetter, R.

    1998-03-01

    Eddy current effects induced by switched gradients in proximal conducting structures are traditionally reduced by applying preemphasis currents whose amplitudes and decay characteristics must be set to offset the eddy current fields. We present an expeditious, localized, and quantitative method for mapping and adjusting the parameters for eddy current compensation. Mapping is based on analysis of projections as used in the fast automatic shimming technique by mapping along projections (FASTMAP). Adjustment methods are demonstrated in high-field horizontal bore systems. The proposed localized eddy current mapping technique may also be used for localized measurements in situations where asymmetric conducting structures may cause nonlinear eddy current fields, such as in interventional MRI and open magnet designs.

  2. Rare earth magnets resisting eddy currents

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.; Li, W.; Cui, L.Y.; Li, X.M.; Guo, Z.H.

    1999-09-01

    Magnets with high electrical resistance were prepared by electrically isolating Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powder particles. It is done by a polymer mixture consisting of epoxy polyester-insulant (EPI), polyvinylbutyral (PVB), epoxy resin (ER) and silane coupling (SC). The properties of interest for anisotropic Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and isotropic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnets respectively are {rho} = 1 x 10{sup 5} {Omega} {minus}cm{sup 2}/m, Br = 6.8 kGs, {sub 1}H{sub c} = 10.0 kOe, (BH){sub max} = 9.2 MGOe in 5% EPI, 4%PVB, 2%ER, 1%SC and {rho} = 9.4 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} {minus}cm{sup 2}/m, Br = 4.5kG, {sub i}H{sub c} = 9.5 kOe, (BH){sub max} = 4.3 MGOe in 4%EPI, 3%PVB, 2% ER, 1%SC. The insulated magnets exhibit far better magnetic stability than those of sintered and bonded magnets after magnetizing in radio frequency. The insulated Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} magnet has the best performance in resisting eddy current. In 500 kHz frequency, 830 Oe magnetizing-field and in one minute, the irreversible loss of recoil remanence is 1.47% and 22.2% respectively for insulated Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnets.

  3. Crack detection on HC-130H aircraft using low frequency eddy current

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Mihelic, J.E.; Barnes, J.D.

    1998-02-01

    An eddy current inspection method was developed at the Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to easily and rapidly detect subsurface fatigue cracks in the wheel well fairing on the US Coast Guard (USCG) HC-130H aircraft caused by fatigue. The inspection procedure locates cracks as small as 10.2 millimeters in length at 2.54 mm below the skin surface at raised fastener sites. The test procedure developed baseline three USCG aircraft. Inspection results on the three aircraft reveals good correlation with results made during subsequent structural disassembly.

  4. Some thoughts on an eddy current septum magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K. |

    1995-08-01

    It is the purpose of this report to describe the thinking and work that went into thoroughly understanding, a specific eddy current septum magnet that will be used in the APS and needs ``fixing.`` The goal is to go beyond mere qualitative understanding and carry the analysis far enough to recognize the real problems of this magnet and to develop the tools to solve them. While it would be very tempting to write this report in very general terms, it would be very difficult to achieve complete generality, and one would risk losing the focus on this specific magnet that needs to have an improved performance. The discussion contains, however, so many generally useful concepts and procedures that it might further be useful for designers of other eddy current septum magnets both at the APS and elsewhere. Since it is necessary not only to have a deep qualitative understanding of several aspects of this type of magnet, but also to quantitatively assess what has to be done to achieve the desired performance, fairly heavy use of mathematical tools was made. In doing so it became clear that the extensive use of these tools is essential not only for this purpose, but also to get the required good qualitative understanding of the device. For instance, it turns out that in this particular instance, an important part of the underlying physics does not become clear until one seems to run into what one might consider, at first, a mathematical problem, whose resolution is not clear until one has found the solution, which then seems ``obvious.`` Even though iron in the septum has a nonlinear relationship between B and H, assuming a constant permeability is sufficient to obtain the information needed to develop a sufficient understanding of the magnet to make some crucial decisions.

  5. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to a Conductive Cylindrical Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Fangwei; Bowler, J. R.

    2007-03-01

    Transient eddy current test systems have been developed for the inspection of aircraft structures and for oil and gas pipelines. This work is supported by theoretical developments in which transient fields and time domain signals are determined for the geometry of interest. However most of the models to date have been aimed at structures that are planar, relatively little attention being paid to the corresponding problems in cylindrical geometries. In order to rectify this deficiency, we have examined theoretically the transient probe signal response due to a cylindrical conductive rod excited by an encircling coil. The transient fields can be calculated from a Fourier transform of the frequency domain solutions for infinite rods or tubes but, as with planar structures, we have found that it is better to use series solutions in the time domain since these provide more accurate and flexible representations of transient fields. Two types of series are used; one which converges faster at short times and one which converges faster at longer times. Calculations using these series show that they are in mutual agreement and agree with results computed using the fast Fourier transform.

  6. A novel eddy current damper: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Khamesee, Mir Behrad; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2009-04-01

    A novel eddy current damper is developed and its damping characteristics are studied analytically and experimentally. The proposed eddy current damper consists of a conductor as an outer tube, and an array of axially magnetized ring-shaped permanent magnets separated by iron pole pieces as a mover. The relative movement of the magnets and the conductor causes the conductor to undergo motional eddy currents. Since the eddy currents produce a repulsive force that is proportional to the velocity of the conductor, the moving magnet and the conductor behave as a viscous damper. The eddy current generation causes the vibration to dissipate through the Joule heating generated in the conductor part. An accurate, analytical model of the system is obtained by applying electromagnetic theory to estimate the damping properties of the proposed eddy current damper. A prototype eddy current damper is fabricated, and experiments are carried out to verify the accuracy of the theoretical model. The experimental test bed consists of a one-degree-of-freedom vibration isolation system and is used for the frequency and transient time response analysis of the system. The eddy current damper model has a 0.1 m s-2 (4.8%) RMS error in the estimation of the mass acceleration. A damping coefficient as high as 53 Ns m-1 is achievable with the fabricated prototype. This novel eddy current damper is an oil-free, inexpensive damper that is applicable in various vibration isolation systems such as precision machinery, micro-mechanical suspension systems and structure vibration isolation.

  7. Electronic flaw simulator for eddy current probe calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almasy, L. J.; Cowfer, C. D.

    1970-01-01

    Electronic flaw simulator cycled into the eddy current system eliminates errors in probe calibration. A discrimination level reference established in the probe permits recognition of those flaws in materials with an equivalent volume equal to or greater than the reference.

  8. Foam-machining tool with eddy-current transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copper, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three-cutter machining system for foam-covered tanks incorporates eddy-current sensor. Sensor feeds signal to numerical controller which programs rotational and vertical axes of sensor travel, enabling cutterhead to profile around tank protrusions.

  9. Eddy-Current Measurement Of Turning Or Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J.

    1993-01-01

    Rotatable conductive plate covers sensing coil to varying degree. Curvature of pipe at remote or otherwise inaccessible location inside pipe measured using relatively simple angular-displacement eddy-current probe. Crawler and sensor assemblies move along inside of pipe on wheels. Conductive plate pivots to follow curvature of pipe, partly covering one of eddy-current coils to degree depending on local curvature on pipe.

  10. Application of Eddy Current Techniques for Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John

    2005-01-01

    The development and application of advanced nondestructive evaluation techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) components of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS) was identified as a crucial step toward returning the shuttle fleet to service. In order to help meet this requirement, eddy current techniques have been developed for application to RCC components. Eddy current technology has been found to be particularly useful for measuring the protective coating thickness over the reinforced carbon-carbon and for the identification of near surface cracking and voids in the RCC matrix. Testing has been performed on as manufactured and flown RCC components with both actual and fabricated defects representing impact and oxidation damage. Encouraging initial results have led to the development of two separate eddy current systems for in-situ RCC inspections in the orbiter processing facility. Each of these systems has undergone blind validation testing on a full scale leading edge panel, and recently transitioned to Kennedy Space Center to be applied as a part of a comprehensive RCC inspection strategy to be performed in the orbiter processing facility after each shuttle flight.

  11. Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.

  12. Numerical modelling as a cost-reduction tool for probability of detection of bolt hole eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandache, C.; Khan, M.; Fahr, A.; Yanishevsky, M.

    2011-03-01

    Probability of detection (PoD) studies are broadly used to determine the reliability of specific nondestructive inspection procedures, as well as to provide data for damage tolerance life estimations and calculation of inspection intervals for critical components. They require inspections on a large set of samples, a fact that makes these statistical assessments time- and cost-consuming. Physics-based numerical simulations of nondestructive testing inspections could be used as a cost-effective alternative to empirical investigations. They realistically predict the inspection outputs as functions of the input characteristics related to the test piece, transducer and instrument settings, which are subsequently used to partially substitute and/or complement inspection data in PoD analysis. This work focuses on the numerical modelling aspects of eddy current testing for the bolt hole inspections of wing box structures typical of the Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules and P-3 Orion aircraft, found in the air force inventory of many countries. Boundary element-based numerical modelling software was employed to predict the eddy current signal responses when varying inspection parameters related to probe characteristics, crack geometry and test piece properties. Two demonstrator exercises were used for eddy current signal prediction when lowering the driver probe frequency and changing the material's electrical conductivity, followed by subsequent discussions and examination of the implications on using simulated data in the PoD analysis. Despite some simplifying assumptions, the modelled eddy current signals were found to provide similar results to the actual inspections. It is concluded that physics-based numerical simulations have the potential to partially substitute or complement inspection data required for PoD studies, reducing the cost, time, effort and resources necessary for a full empirical PoD assessment.

  13. Fast solver for large scale eddy current non-destructive evaluation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Naiguang

    Eddy current testing plays a very important role in non-destructive evaluations of conducting test samples. Based on Faraday's law, an alternating magnetic field source generates induced currents, called eddy currents, in an electrically conducting test specimen. The eddy currents generate induced magnetic fields that oppose the direction of the inducing magnetic field in accordance with Lenz's law. In the presence of discontinuities in material property or defects in the test specimen, the induced eddy current paths are perturbed and the associated magnetic fields can be detected by coils or magnetic field sensors, such as Hall elements or magneto-resistance sensors. Due to the complexity of the test specimen and the inspection environments, the availability of theoretical simulation models is extremely valuable for studying the basic field/flaw interactions in order to obtain a fuller understanding of non-destructive testing phenomena. Theoretical models of the forward problem are also useful for training and validation of automated defect detection systems. Theoretical models generate defect signatures that are expensive to replicate experimentally. In general, modelling methods can be classified into two categories: analytical and numerical. Although analytical approaches offer closed form solution, it is generally not possible to obtain largely due to the complex sample and defect geometries, especially in three-dimensional space. Numerical modelling has become popular with advances in computer technology and computational methods. However, due to the huge time consumption in the case of large scale problems, accelerations/fast solvers are needed to enhance numerical models. This dissertation describes a numerical simulation model for eddy current problems using finite element analysis. Validation of the accuracy of this model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental measurements of steam generator tube wall defects. These simulations generating two

  14. Corrosion Detection in Airframes Using a New Flux-Focusing Eddy Current Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz; Nath, Shridhar; Namkung, Min

    1994-01-01

    A new flux-focusing eddy current probe was recently developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The new probe is similar in design to a reflection type eddy current probe, but is unique in that it does not require the use of an impedance bridge for balancing. The device monitors the RMS output voltage of a pickup coil and, as a result, is easier to operate and interpret than traditional eddy current instruments. The unique design feature of the probe is a ferromagnetic cylinder, typically 1020 steel, which separates a concentrically positioned drive and pickup coil. The increased permeability of the steel causes the magnetic flux produced by the drive coil to be focused in a ring around the pickup coil. At high frequencies the eddy currents induced in both the sample and the cylinder allow little or no flux to link with the pickup coil. This results in a self-nulling condition which has been shown to be useful for the unambiguous detection of cracks in conducting materials. As the frequency is lowered the flux produced by the drive coil begins to link with the pickup coil causing an output which, among other things, is proportional to the thickness of the test specimen. This enables highly accurate measurements of the thickness of conducting materials and helps to facilitate the monitoring of thickness variations in a conducting structure such as an aircraft fuselage. Under ideal laboratory conditions the probe can sense thickness changes on the order of 1% as illustrated. However, this is highly dependent upon the thickness, and the geometric complexity of the sample being tested and for practical problems the sensitivity is usually much less. In this presentation we highlight some of the advantages and limitations in using the probe to inspect aircraft panels for corrosion and other types of material nonuniformities. In particular, we present preliminary results which illustrate the probes capabilities for detecting first and second layer corrosion in aircraft

  15. Non-Contact EDDY Current Hole Eccentricity and Diameter Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Precision holes are among the most critical features of a mechanical component. Deviations from permissible tolerances can impede operation and result in unexpected failure. We have developed an automated non-contact eddy current hole diameter and eccentricity measuring system. The operating principle is based on the eddy current lift-off effect, which is the coil impedance as a function of the distance between the coil and the test object. An absolute eddy current probe rotates in the hole. The impedance of each angular position is acquired and input to the computer for integration and analysis. The eccentricity of the hole is the profile of the impedance as a function of angular position as compared to a straight line, an ideal hole. The diameter of the hole is the sum of the diameter of the probe and twice the distance-calibrated impedance. An eddy current image is generated by integrating angular scans for a plurality of depths between the top and bottom to display the eccentricity profile. This system can also detect and image defects in the hole. The method for non-contact eddy current hole diameter and eccentricity measurement has been granted a patent by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  16. Eddy Current Method for Fatigue Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor using a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. A ferrous shield isolates a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. Use of the magnetic shield produces a null voltage output across the receiving coil in presence of an unflawed sample. Redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws. eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. Maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. By obtaining position of maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. Accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output resulting in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip enabling the search region to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion causes incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. Low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of thickness of the test sample. Fatigue testing a conductive material is accomplished by applying load to the material, applying current to the sensor, scanning the material with the sensor, monitoring the sensor output signal, adjusting material load based on the sensor output signal of the sensor, and adjusting position of the sensor based on its output signal.

  17. Exact temporal eddy current compensation in magnetic resonance imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Morich, M A; Lampman, D A; Dannels, W R; Goldie, F D

    1988-01-01

    A step-response method has been developed to extract the properties (amplitudes and decay time constants) of intrinsic-eddy-current-sourced magnetic fields generated in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging systems when pulsed field gradients are applied. Exact compensation for the eddy-current effect is achieved through a polynomial rooting procedure and matrix inversion once the 2 N properties of the N-term decay process are known. The output of the inversion procedure yields the required characteristics of the filter for spectrum magnitude and phase equalization. The method is described for the general case along with experimental results for one-, two-, and three-term inversions. The method's usefulness is demonstrated for the usually difficult case of long-term (200-1000-ms) eddy-current compensation. Field-gradient spectral flatness measurements over 30 mHz-100 Hz are given to validate the method.

  18. Eddy current measurement system evaluation for corrosion depth determination on cast aluminum aircraft structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surendra; Greving, Dan; Kinney, Andy; Vensel, Fred; Ohm, Jim; Peeler, Mike

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current (EC) technique was developed to determine the corrosion depth on a bare flange face of a cast aluminum A356-T6 aircraft engine structure. The EC response and the corrosion depths determined through metallurgical cross sections were used to develop an empirical relation between EC response and depth. The EC technique and depth determination are used to inspect the engine structures during overhaul to determine if they are fit for continued service. An accurate and reliable Non-Destructive Inspection is required to ensure that structures returned to service are safe for continued operation. NDE system reliability demonstrations of the eddy current technique are traditionally reported in terms of Probability of Detection (POD) data using MIL-HDBK-1823A. However, the calculation of POD data is based on a simple linear predictive model that is valid only if certain criteria are met. These are: 1) NDE system response is measurable (i.e. continuous data), 2) Flaw size is known and measurable (i.e. continuous data), 3) relationship between the NDE system response and flaw size is linear (or linear on a log scale), 4) variation in measured responseresponse around a predicted response for a given flaw size is normally distributed, 5) the variation around the predicted response is constant (i.e. variation does not change with flaw size), and 6) inherent variability in the NDE system is known and fully understood. In this work, a Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) of the Eddy Current System was used to address some of these concerns. This work was completed on two aircraft structures having varying corrosion depths. The data were acquired in a random manner at fifty regions of interests (ROIs). Three operators participated in this study, and each operator measured Eddy Current response three times in each ROI. In total, there were four hundred and fifty data points collected. Following this, the two structures were sectioned for measuring corrosion depth. The

  19. Low frequency eddy current benchmark study for model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mooers, R. D.; Boehnlein, T. R.; Cherry, M. R.; Knopp, J. S.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.

    2011-06-23

    This paper presents results of an eddy current model validation study. Precise measurements were made using an impedance analyzer to investigate changes in impedance due to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) notches in aluminum plates. Each plate contained one EDM notch at an angle of 0, 10, 20, or 30 degrees from the normal of the plate surface. Measurements were made with the eddy current probe both scanning parallel and perpendicular to the notch length. The experimental response from the vertical and oblique notches will be reported and compared to results from different numerical simulation codes.

  20. Eddy current NDE performance demonstrations using simulation tools

    SciTech Connect

    Maurice, L.; Costan, V.; Guillot, E.; Thomas, P.

    2013-01-25

    To carry out performance demonstrations of the Eddy-Current NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, EDF studies the possibility of using simulation tools as an alternative to measurements on steam generator tube mocks-up. This paper focuses on the strategy led by EDF to assess and use code{sub C}armel3D and Civa, on the case of Eddy-Current NDE on wears problem which may appear in the U-shape region of steam generator tubes due to the rubbing of anti-vibration bars.

  1. Enhanced Eddy-Current Detection Of Weld Flaws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wyk, Lisa M.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Mixing of impedances measured at different frequencies reduces noise and helps reveal flaws. In new method, one excites eddy-current probe simultaneously at two different frequencies; usually, one of which integral multiple of other. Resistive and reactive components of impedance of eddy-current probe measured at two frequencies, mixed in computer, and displayed in real time on video terminal of computer. Mixing of measurements obtained at two different frequencies often "cleans up" displayed signal in situations in which band-pass filtering alone cannot: mixing removes most noise, and displayed signal resolves flaws well.

  2. Vessel eddy current measurement for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.E.; Marsala, R.J.

    2004-12-01

    A simple analog circuit that measures the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) axisymmetric eddy current distribution has been designed and constructed. It is based on simple circuit model of the NSTX vacuum vessel that was calibrated using a special axisymmetric eddy current code which was written so that accuracy was maintained in the vicinity of the current filaments [J. Menard, J. Fusion Tech. (to be published)]. The measurement and the model have been benchmarked against data from numerous vacuum shots and they are in excellent agreement. This is an important measurement that helps give more accurate equilibrium reconstructions.

  3. Eddy current NDE performance demonstrations using simulation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, L.; Costan, V.; Guillot, E.; Thomas, P.

    2013-01-01

    To carry out performance demonstrations of the Eddy-Current NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, EDF studies the possibility of using simulation tools as an alternative to measurements on steam generator tube mocks-up. This paper focuses on the strategy led by EDF to assess and use code_Carmel3D and Civa, on the case of Eddy-Current NDE on wears problem which may appear in the U-shape region of steam generator tubes due to the rubbing of anti-vibration bars.

  4. Low Frequency Eddy Current Benchmark Study for Model Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, R. D.; Cherry, M. R.; Knopp, J. S.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.; Boehnlein, T. R.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents results of an eddy current model validation study. Precise measurements were made using an impedance analyzer to investigate changes in impedance due to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) notches in aluminum plates. Each plate contained one EDM notch at an angle of 0, 10, 20, or 30 degrees from the normal of the plate surface. Measurements were made with the eddy current probe both scanning parallel and perpendicular to the notch length. The experimental response from the vertical and oblique notches will be reported and compared to results from different numerical simulation codes.

  5. Eddy current step heating thermography for quantitatively evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Chen, Dixiang; Tian, GuiYun; Zhang, Hong

    2013-11-01

    This Letter proposed eddy current step heating thermography (ECSHT) combing eddy current excitation with SHT. It has been verified through numerical and experimental studies that the temperature-time1/2 curve can be used to detect the subsurface defects. Separation time was defined and extracted from temperature responses as characteristic feature. Experiment studies with mild steel sample were conducted, and the experimental results showed that two features representing separation time can be used to measure the defect's depth based on their linear relationships.

  6. Evaluation of the Self-Nulling Rotating Eddy Current Probe System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagemaier, Don; Rengel, Kent; Wincheski, Buzz; Namkung, Min

    1999-01-01

    In order to detect multi-site fatigue cracks located under flush-head rivets, automated eddy current equipment is required. To assure a reliable system, the eddy current probe must be centered easily over the installed rivets. To meet these requirements, the NDE Group at NASA LaRC developed the Self-Nulling Rotating Eddy Current Probe System (SNRECPS) which will be referred to as RPS in this document. The system was evaluated at the FAA, NDI Validation Center, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The system was capable of detecting a 0.032 inch long crack with a 90/95% PoD. Further evaluations were conducted at Boeing in Long Beach, California. These evaluations included fatigue cracks and notches in a range from 0.025 to 0.100 inch long under flush-head aluminum rivets, and titanium or steel flush-head fasteners. The results of these tests are reported herein. Subsequently, the system was loaned to the USAF Structures Laboratory for the purpose of detecting and measuring short cracks under flush-head rivets in a variety of fatigue test specimens. The inspection task was to detect and plot crack growth from numbered fasteners in lettered rows. In January, 1998, the system was taken to Northwest Airlines Maintenance Base, in Atlanta, to inspect a DC-9, for multi-site cracks in three circumferential splices. The aircraft had 83,000 cycles. The inspection was conducted at 30 kHz from longeron 5 left to longeron 5 right. The system was calibrated using a 0,030 EDM first layer notch. The instrument gain was set to 19 mV from the notch. The reject level was set at 10 mV and the unflawed fasteners yielded a signal amplitude of 2 to 3 mV. Only one fastener location, out of about 2,500 tested, yielded a signal of 58 mV. The rivet was removed and visually evaluated. It appeared to be a slight gouge in the counter-sink zone. No fatigue cracks were detected. The same fastener locations were also inspected using the Boeing MAUS system at 60 kHz. No cracks were detected. Thus far, the

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF WATER MAIN INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...

  8. A Laboratory Activity on the Eddy Current Brake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-Bolivar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and…

  9. Physical interpretation and separation of eddy current pulsed thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Aijun; Gao, Bin; Yun Tian, Gui; Woo, W. L.; Li, Kongjing

    2013-02-01

    Eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) applies induction heating and a thermal camera for non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E). Because of the variation in resultant surface heat distribution, the physical mechanism that corresponds to the general behavior of ECPT can be divided into an accumulation of Joule heating via eddy current and heat diffusion. However, throughout the literature, the heating mechanisms of ECPT are not given in detail in the above two thermal phenomena and they are difficult to be separated. Nevertheless, once these two physical parameters are separated, they can be directly used to detect anomalies and predict the variation in material properties such as electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability and microstructure. This paper reports physical interpretation of these two physical phenomena that can be found in different time responses given the ECPT image sequences. Based on the phenomenon and their behaviors, the paper proposes a statistical method based on single channel blind source separation to decompose the two physical phenomena using different stages of eddy current and thermal propagation from the ECPT images. Links between mathematical models and physical models have been discussed and verified. This fundamental understanding of transient eddy current distribution and heating propagation can be applied to the development of feature extraction and pattern recognition for the quantitative analysis of ECPT measurement images and defect characterization.

  10. A study of eddy current measurement (1986-1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted in 1986 to evaluate a modified eddy current system for measuring copper thickness on Kapton. Results showed a measurement error of 0.42 {mu}in. for a thickness range of 165 to 170 {mu}in. and a measurement variability of 3.2 {mu}in.

  11. 53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears in south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing east. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  13. Differential-Coil Eddy-Current Material Sorter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummelin, J.; Buckley, D.

    1985-01-01

    Small metal or other electrically conductive parts of same shape but different composition quickly sorted with differential-coil eddy-current sorter. Developed to distinguish between turbine blades of different alloys, hardnesses, and residual stress, sorter generally applicable to parts of simple and complex shape.

  14. Technique for temperature compensation of eddy-current proximity probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Eddy-current proximity probes are used in turbomachinery evaluation testing and operation to measure distances, primarily vibration, deflection, or displacment of shafts, bearings and seals. Measurements of steady-state conditions made with standard eddy-current proximity probes are susceptible to error caused by temperature variations during normal operation of the component under investigation. Errors resulting from temperature effects for the specific probes used in this study were approximately 1.016 x 10 to the -3 mm/deg C over the temperature range of -252 to 100 C. This report examines temperature caused changes on the eddy-current proximity probe measurement system, establishes their origin, and discusses what may be done to minimize their effect on the output signal. In addition, recommendations are made for the installation and operation of the electronic components associated with an eddy-current proximity probe. Several techniques are described that provide active on-line error compensation for over 95 percent of the temperature effects.

  15. Pulsed eddy current thickness measurements of transuranic waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, T.K.; Kunerth, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Thickness measurements on fifty five gallon waste drums for drum integrity purposes have been traditionally performed at the INEL using ultrasonic testing methods. Ultrasonic methods provide high resolution repeatable thickness measurements in a timely manner, however, the major drawback of using ultrasonic techniques is coupling to the drum. Areas with severe exterior corrosion, debonded paper labels or any other obstacle in the acoustic path will have to be omitted from the ultrasonic scan. We have developed a pulsed eddy current scanning system that can take thickness measurements on fifty five gallon carbon steel drums with wall thicknesses up to 65 mils. This type of measurement is not susceptible to the problems mentioned above. Eddy current measurements in the past have excluded ferromagnetic materials such as carbon steel because of the difficulty in penetrating the material and in compensating for changes in permeability from material to material. New developments in data acquisition electronics as well as advances in personal computers have made a pulsed eddy current system practical and inexpensive. Certain aspects of the pulsed eddy current technique as well as the operation of such a system and features such as real time pass/fail thresholds for overpacking identification and full scan data archiving for future evaluation will be discussed.

  16. Eddy current analysis round robin using the NRC steam generator mockup.

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D. S.; Muscara, J.; Bakhtiari, S.; Park, J. Y.; Shack, W. J.

    2002-02-20

    This paper discusses round-robin exercises to assess inspection reliability using the NRC steam generator (SG) mock-up at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the round robins is to assess the current reliability of SG tubing inservice inspection, determine the probability of detection (POD) as function of flaw size or severity, and assess the capability for sizing of flaws. The mock-up contains hundreds of cracks and simulations of artifacts such as corrosion deposits and tube support plates that make detection and characterization of cracks more difficult in operating steam generators than in most laboratory situations. Eddy current signals from the laboratory-grown cracks used in the mock-up have been reviewed to ensure that they provide reasonable simulations of those obtained in the field. The mock-up contains 400 tube openings. Each tube contains nine 22.2-mm (7/8-in.) diameter, 30.5-cm (1-ft) long, Alloy 600 test sections. The flaws are located in the tube sheet near the roll transition zone (RTZ), in the tube support plate (TSP), and in the freespan. The flaws are primarily intergranular stress corrosion cracks (axial and circumferential, ID and OD). In addition to the simulated tube sheet and TSP the mock-up has simulated sludge and magnetite deposits. A validated multiparameter eddy current algorithm that provided a detailed isometric plot for every flaw was used to establish the reference state of defects in the mock-up. The detection results for the 11 teams were used to develop POD curves as a function of maximum depth, voltage and the parameter m{sub p}, for the various types of flaws. The 95% one-sided confidence limits (OSL), which include errors in maximum depth estimates, are presented along with the POD curves. For the second round robin a reconfigured mock-up is being used to evaluate the effectiveness of eddy current arrays.

  17. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  18. Logarithmic analysis of eddy current thermography based on longitudinal heat conduction for subsurface defect evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruizhen; He, Yunze

    2014-11-01

    Longitudinal heat conduction from surface to inside of solid material could be used to evaluate the subsurface defects. Considering that the skin depth of high frequency eddy current in metal is quite small, this paper proposed logarithmic analysis of eddy current thermography (ECT) to quantify the depth of subsurface defects. The proposed method was verified through numerical and experimental studies. In numerical study, ferromagnetic material and non-ferromagnetic material were both considered. Results showed that the temperature-time curve in the logarithm domain could be used to detect subsurface defects. Separation time was defined as the characteristic feature to measure the defect's depth based on their linear relationships. The thermograms reconstructed by logarithm of temperature can improve defect detectability.

  19. Remote Field Eddy Current Probes for the Detection of Stress Corrosion in Transmission Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Plamen Alexandroz Ivanov

    2002-08-27

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is a technique used widely in non-destructive testing (NDT) of natural gas and petroleum transmission pipelines. This inspection method relies on magnetizing the pipe-wall in axial direction. The MFL inspection tool is equipped with an array of Hall sensors located around the circumference of the pipe, which registers the flux leakage caused by any defects present in the pipe-wall. Currently, the tool magnetizes the pipewall in axial direction making it largely insensitive to axially oriented defects. One type of defect, which is of a growing concern in the gas and petroleum industry is the stress corrosion crack (SCC). The SCCs are a result of aging, corrosion, fatigue and thermal stresses. SCCs are predominantly axially oriented and are extremely tight, which makes them impossible to be detected using current inspection technology. A possible solution to this problem is to utilize the remote field eddy current (RFEC) effect to detect axially oriented defects. The RFEC method has been widely used in industry in the inspection of tubular products. The method uses a pair of excitation and pick-up coils. The pick-up coil located in the remote field region, usually two, three pipe-diameters away from the excitation coil. With RFEC the presence of defects is detected by the disturbance in the phase of the signal measured by the pick-up coil relative to that of the excitation coil. Unlike conventional eddy current testing the RFEC method is sensitive to defects on the exterior of the inspected product, which makes it a good candidate for the development of in-line inspection technology. This work focuses on the development of non-destructive testing technique, which uses remote field eddy currents induced by rotating magnetic field (RMF). A major advantage of the RMF is that it makes possible to not only detect a defect but also localize its position in circumferential direction. Also, it could potentially allow detection of defects

  20. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ruifang; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Tian, Wugang; Wu, Xuezhong; Zhou, Weihong; Tang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM), the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm. PMID:26703608

  1. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruifang; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Tian, Wugang; Wu, Xuezhong; Zhou, Weihong; Tang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM), the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm. PMID:26703608

  2. Development of Ground Coils with Low Eddy Current Loss by Applying the Compression Molding Method after the Coil Winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masao; Aiba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ota, Satoru; Okada, Shigenori

    In a magnetically levitated transportation (MAGLEV) system, a huge number of ground coils will be required because they must be laid for the whole line. Therefore, stable performance and reduced cost are essential requirements for the ground coil development. On the other hand, because the magnetic field changes when the superconducting magnet passes by, an eddy current will be generated in the conductor of the ground coil and will result in energy loss. The loss not only increases the magnetic resistance for the train running but also brings an increase in the ground coil temperature. Therefore, the reduction of the eddy current loss is extremely important. This study examined ground coils in which both the eddy current loss and temperature increase were small. Furthermore, quantitative comparison for the eddy current loss of various magnet wire samples was performed by bench test. On the basis of the comparison, a round twisted wire having low eddy current loss was selected as an effective ground coil material. In addition, the ground coils were manufactured on trial. A favorable outlook to improve the size accuracy of the winding coil and uneven thickness of molded resin was obtained without reducing the insulation strength between the coil layers by applying a compression molding after winding.

  3. Eddy current modeling of silicon steel for use on SPICE

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Toru; Tahara, Ryoichi

    1995-11-01

    The relation between the equivalent eddy current field He and the instantaneous flux density rate dB/dt is experimentally obtained for current transformers made of silicon steel. The results show that He is proportional to (dB/dt){sup 0.6-0.7} in the operating frequency range ({approximately}100 Hz) of the current transformers. The ac B-H loop calculated by combining the proposed eddy current model with the Jiles-Atherton model agrees well with the measured data. In addition, this combined model allows magnetic component characteristics using SPICE to be simulated. The simulated secondary voltage waveforms of current transformers are in satisfactory agreement with the measured values.

  4. Analytical Modeling for the Grating Eddy Current Displacement Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunfeng; Tao, Wei; Lei, Huaming; Jiang, Yingying; Zhao, Hui

    2015-02-01

    As a new type of displacement sensor, grating eddy current displacement sensor (GECDS) combines traditional eddy current sensors and grating structure in one. The GECDS performs a wide range displacement measurement without precision reduction. This paper proposes an analytical modeling approach for the GECDS. The solution model is established in the Cartesian coordinate system, and the solving domain is limited to finite extents by using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion method. Based on the second order vector potential, expressions for the electromagnetic field as well as coil impedance related to the displacement can be expressed in closed-form. Theoretical results are then confirmed by experiments, which prove the suitability and effectiveness of the analytical modeling approach.

  5. Modeling and strain gauging of eddy current repulsion deicing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samuel O.

    1993-01-01

    Work described in this paper confirms and extends work done by Zumwalt, et al., on a variety of in-flight deicing systems that use eddy current repulsion for repelling ice. Two such systems are known as electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) and the eddy current repulsion deicing strip (EDS). Mathematical models for these systems are discussed for their capabilities and limitations. The author duplicates a particular model of the EDS. Theoretical voltage, current, and force results are compared directly to experimental results. Dynamic strain measurements results are presented for the EDS system. Dynamic strain measurements near EDS or EIDI coils are complicated by the high magnetic fields in the vicinity of the coils. High magnetic fields induce false voltage signals out of the gages.

  6. Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    1992-01-01

    Eddy current impedance measuring methods have been applied to study the effect that magnetically treated materials have on service life extension. Eddy current impedance measurements have been performed on Nickel 200 specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening. Experimental results have demonstrated a functional relationship between coil impedance, resistance and reactance, and specimens subjected to various engineering processes. It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in a material's electromagnetic properties and does exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic-field processing effect on machine tool service life.

  7. FIONDA (Filtering Images of Niobium Disks Application): Filter application for Eddy Current Scanner data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    As part of the material QC process, each Niobium disk from which a superconducting RF cavity is built must undergo an eddy current scan [1]. This process allows to discover embedded defects in the material that are not visible to the naked eye because too small or under the surface. Moreover, during the production process of SC cavities the outer layer of Nb is removed via chemical or electro-chemical etching, thus it is important to evaluate the quality of the subsurface layer (in the order of 100nm) where superconductivity will happen. The reference eddy current scanning machine is operated at DESY; at Fermilab we are using the SNS eddy current scanner on loan, courtesy of SNS. In the past year, several upgrades were implemented aiming at raising the SNS machine performance to that of the DESY reference machine [2]. As part of this effort an algorithm that enables the filtering of the results of the scans and thus improves the resolution of the process was developed. The description of the algorithm and of the software used to filter the scan results is presented in this note.

  8. Eddy Current Influences on the Dynamic Behaviour of Magnetic Suspension Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Bloodgood, Dale V.

    1998-01-01

    This report will summarize some results from a multi-year research effort at NASA Langley Research Center aimed at the development of an improved capability for practical modelling of eddy current effects in magnetic suspension systems. Particular attention is paid to large-gap systems, although generic results applicable to both large-gap and small-gap systems are presented. It is shown that eddy currents can significantly affect the dynamic behavior of magnetic suspension systems, but that these effects can be amenable to modelling and measurement. Theoretical frameworks are presented, together with comparisons of computed and experimental data particularly related to the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture at NASA Langley Research Center, and the Annular Suspension and Pointing System at Old Dominion University. In both cases, practical computations are capable of providing reasonable estimates of important performance-related parameters. The most difficult case is seen to be that of eddy currents in highly permeable material, due to the low skin depths. Problems associated with specification of material properties and areas for future research are discussed.

  9. Eddy-Current Detection of Weak Bolt Heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messina, C. P.

    1987-01-01

    Electronic test identifies flawed units passing hardness tests. Eddy-current test detects weakness in head-to-shank junctions of 1/4-28 cup-washer lock bolts. Developed for alloy A286 steel bolts in Space Shuttle main engine fuel turbo-pump. Test examines full volume of head, including head-to-shank transition and nondestructively screens out potentially defective units. Test adapts to any other alloys.

  10. A magnetic bearing based on eddy-current repulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolajsen, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of electromagnetic bearing, called the Eddy-Current Bearing, which works by repulsion between fixed AC-electromagnets and a conducting rotor. The following advantages are expected: inherent stability, higher load carrying capacity than DC-electromagnetic bearings, simultaneous radial, angular and thrust support, motoring and generating capability, and backup mode of operation in case of primary power failure. A prototype is under construction.

  11. Development of Eddy Current Techniques for Detection of Deep Fatigue Cracks in Multi-Layer Airframe Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Thick, multi-layer aluminum structure has been widely used in aircraft design in critical wing splice areas. The multi-layer structure generally consists of three or four aluminum layers with different geometry and varying thickness, which are held together with fasteners. The detection of cracks under fasteners with ultrasonic techniques in subsurface layers away from the skin is impeded primarily by interlayer bonds and faying sealant condition. Further, assessment of such sealant condition is extremely challenging in terms of complexity of structure, limited access, and inspection cost. Although Eddy current techniques can be applied on in-service aircraft from the exterior of the skin without knowing sealant condition, the current eddy current techniques are not able to detect defects with wanted sensitivity. In this work a series of low frequency eddy current probes have been designed, fabricated and tested for this application. A probe design incorporating a shielded magnetic field sensor concentrically located in the interior of a drive coil has been employed to enable a localized deep diffusion of the electromagnetic field into the part under test. Due to the required low frequency inspections, probes have been testing using a variety of magnetic field sensors (pickup coil, giant magneto-resistive, anisotropic magneto-resistive, and spin-dependent tunneling). The probe designs as well as capabilities based upon a target inspection for sub-layer cracking in an airframe wing spar joint is presented.

  12. Development of Eddy Current Technique for the Detection of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Koshti, Ajay

    2006-01-01

    A recent identification of stress corrosion cracking in the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters triggered an extensive nondestructive evaluation effort to develop techniques capable of identifying such damage on installed shuttle hardware. As a part of this effort, specially designed eddy current probes inserted into the acoustic cavity were explored for the detection of such flaws and for evaluation of the remaining material between the crack tip and acoustic cavity. The technique utilizes two orthogonal eddy current probes which are scanned under stepper motor control in the acoustic cavity to identify cracks hidden with as much as 0.060 remaining wall thickness to the cavity. As crack growth rates in this area have been determined to be very slow, such an inspection provides a large safety margin for continued operation of the critical shuttle hardware. Testing has been performed on thruster components with both actual and fabricated defects. This paper will review the design and performance of the developed eddy current inspection system. Detection of flaws as a function of remaining wall thickness will be presented along with the proposed system configuration for depot level or on-vehicle inspection capabilities.

  13. Development of Eddy Current Techniques for the Detection of Cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz A.; Simpson, John W.; Koshti, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    A recent identification of cracking in the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters triggered an extensive nondestructive evaluation effort to develop techniques capable of identifying such damage on installed shuttle hardware. As a part of this effort, specially designed eddy current probes inserted into the acoustic cavity were explored for the detection of such flaws and for evaluation of the remaining material between the crack tip and acoustic cavity. The technique utilizes two orthogonal eddy current probes which are scanned under stepper motor control in the acoustic cavity to identify cracks hidden with as much as 0.060 remaining wall thickness to the cavity. As crack growth rates in this area have been determined to be very slow, such an inspection provides a large safety margin for continued operation of the critical shuttle hardware. Testing has been performed on thruster components with both actual and fabricated defects. This paper will review the design and performance of the developed eddy current inspection system. Detection of flaws as a function of remaining wall thickness will be presented along with the proposed system configuration for depot level or on-vehicle inspection capabilities.

  14. Transmit-receive eddy current probes for defect detection and sizing in steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Cecco, V.S.; Sullivan, S.P.

    1997-02-01

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in aging Nuclear Generating Stations is increasingly important. Defect detection and sizing, especially in defect prone areas such as the tubesheet, support plates and U-bend regions, are required to assess the fitness-for-service of the steam generators. Information about defect morphology is required to address operational integrity issues, i.e., risk of tube rupture, number of tubes at risk, consequential leakage. A major challenge continues to be the detection and sizing of circumferential cracks. Utilities around the world have experienced this type of tube failure. Conventional in-service inspection, performed with eddy current bobbin probes, is ineffectual in detecting circumferential cracks in tubing. It has been demonstrated in CANDU steam generators, with deformation, magnetite and copper deposits that multi-channel probes with transmit-receive eddy current coils are superior to those using surface impedance coils. Transmit-receive probes have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization according to crack orientation. They are less sensitive to lift-off noise and magnetite deposits and possess good discrimination to internal defects. A single pass C3 array transmit-receive probe developed by AECL can detect and size circumferential stress corrosion cracks as shallow as 40% through-wall. Since its first trial in 1992, it has been used routinely for steam generator in-service inspection of four CANDU plants, preventing unscheduled shutdowns due to leaking steam generator tubes. More recently, a need has surfaced for simultaneous detection of both circumferential and axial cracks. The C5 probe was designed to address this concern. It combines transmit-receive array probe technology for equal sensitivity to axial and circumferential cracks with a bobbin probe for historical reference. This paper will discuss the operating principles of transmit-receive probes, along with inspection results.

  15. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  16. Pulsed remote field eddy current technique applied to non-magnetic flat conductive plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhanbin

    2013-12-01

    Non-magnetic metal plates are widely used in aviation and industrial applications. The detection of cracks in thick plate structures, such as multilayered structures of aircraft fuselage, has been challenging in nondestructive evaluation societies. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) technique has shown advantages of deep penetration and high sensitivity to deeply buried anomalies. However, the RFEC technique is mainly used to evaluate ferromagnetic tubes. There are many problems that should be fixed before the expansion and application of this technique for the inspection of non-magnetic conductive plates. In this article, the pulsed remote field eddy current (PRFEC) technique for the detection of defects in non-magnetic conducting plates was investigated. First, the principle of the PRFEC technique was analysed, followed by the analysis of the differences between the detection of defects in ferromagnetic and non-magnetic plain structures. Three different models of the PRFEC probe were simulated using ANSYS. The location of the transition zone, defect detection sensitivity and the ability to detect defects in thick plates using three probes were analysed and compared. The simulation results showed that the probe with a ferrite core had the highest detecting ability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study were also validated by conducting experiments.

  17. Improving the results of thermographic electrical inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, J.

    1996-12-31

    Thermography is one of the most powerful tools available for electrical maintenance. With professional training and some experience a thermographer can quickly locate high resistance connections, imbalances, and overloads while the system is in operation. This can all be accomplished without direct contact to the energized system. Electrical inspections have typically produced remarkable returns, with documented returns of 30:1 on the part of a major industrial insurer. The major limitations to thermographic inspections of electrical equipment are quite obvious. Some, inherent to physics, one can only live with or work around. Others are related to environmental or operating conditions. The latest infrared inspection equipment is no longer a limiting factor--it will do more than is needed most of the time. But inadequate data collection procedures and a poor understanding of how to use the information gathered are very much limiting factors. In this presentation the author will discuss how to improve electrical inspections by dealing with these limitations.

  18. Analysis of Eddy Current Capabilities for the Detection of Outer Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking in Small Bore Metallic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Williams, Phillip; Simpson, John

    2007-01-01

    The use of eddy current techniques for the detection of outer diameter damage in tubing and many complex aerospace structures often requires the use of an inner diameter probe due to a lack of access to the outside of the part. In small bore structures the probe size and orientation are constrained by the inner diameter of the part, complicating the optimization of the inspection technique. Detection of flaws through a significant remaining wall thickness becomes limited not only by the standard depth of penetration, but also geometrical aspects of the probe. Recently, an orthogonal eddy current probe was developed for detection of such flaws in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) Thrusters. In this case, the detection of deeply buried stress corrosion cracking by an inner diameter eddy current probe was sought. Probe optimization was performed based upon the limiting spatial dimensions, flaw orientation, and required detection sensitivity. Analysis of the probe/flaw interaction was performed through the use of finite and boundary element modeling techniques. Experimental data for the flaw detection capabilities, including a probability of detection study, will be presented along with the simulation data. The results of this work have led to the successful deployment of an inspection system for the detection of stress corrosion cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) Thrusters.

  19. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  20. Methods of and apparatus for levitating an eddy current probe

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1988-05-03

    An eddy current probe is supported against the force of gravity with an air earing while being urged horizontally toward the specimen being examined by a spring and displaced horizontally against the force of the spring pneumatically. The pneumatic displacement is accomplished by flowing air between a plenum chamber fixed with respect to the probe and the surface of the specimen. In this way, the surface of the specimen can be examined without making mechanical contact therewith while precisely controlling the distance at which the probe stands-off from the surface of the specimen.

  1. A Model for Axial Magnetic Bearings Including Eddy Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Ladislav; Ahrens, Markus

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method of modelling eddy currents inside axial bearings. The problem is solved by dividing an axial bearing into elementary geometric forms, solving the Maxwell equations for these simplified geometries, defining boundary conditions and combining the geometries. The final result is an analytical solution for the flux, from which the impedance and the force of an axial bearing can be derived. Several impedance measurements have shown that the analytical solution can fit the measured data with a precision of approximately 5%.

  2. Solving time-dependent two-dimensional eddy current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Min Eig; Hariharan, S. I.; Ida, Nathan

    1990-01-01

    Transient eddy current calculations are presented for an EM wave-scattering and field-penetrating case in which a two-dimensional transverse magnetic field is incident on a good (i.e., not perfect) and infinitely long conductor. The problem thus posed is of initial boundary-value interface type, where the boundary of the conductor constitutes the interface. A potential function is used for time-domain modeling of the situation, and finite difference-time domain techniques are used to march the potential function explicitly in time. Attention is given to the case of LF radiation conditions.

  3. Investigating electrical resonance in eddy-current array probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R.; Fan, Y.; Dixon, S.

    2016-02-01

    The sensitivity enhancing effects of eddy-current testing at frequencies close to electrical resonance are explored. Var-ied techniques exploiting the phenomenon, dubbed near electrical resonance signal enhancement (NERSE), were experimentally investigated to evaluate its potential exploitation for other interesting applications in aerospace materials, in particular its potential for boosting the sensitivity of standard ECT measurements. Methods for setting and controlling the typically unstable resonant frequencies of such systems are discussed. This research is funded by the EPSRC, via the Research Centre for Non-Destructive Evaluation RCNDE, and Rolls-Royce plc.

  4. Crack detection using pulsed eddy current stimulated thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Kostson, E.; Weekes, B.; Almond, D. P.; Wilson, J.; Tian, G. Y.

    2011-06-23

    This contribution presents results from studies investigating factors that influence the detection of surface breaking cracks using pulsed eddy current thermography. The influences of the current strength and crack orientation in both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic metals have been investigated. It has been found that crack detection is far more sensitive to crack orientation in non-ferromagnetic metals than in ferromagnetic metals. The effects of crack size on detectability are presented for a large number of steel, nickel alloy and titanium samples. Results of studies comparing crack images obtained prior and after coating a nickel alloy sample with a thermal barrier coating are presented.

  5. Experimental verification of an eddy-current bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolajsen, Jorgen L.

    1989-01-01

    A new type of electromagnetic bearing was built and tested. It consists of fixed AC-electromagnets in a star formation surrounding a conducting rotor. The bearing works by repulsion due to eddy-currents induced in the rotor. A single bearing is able to fully support a short rotor. The rotor support is inherently stable in all five degrees of freedom. No feedback control is needed. The bearing is also able to accelerate the rotor up to speed and decelerate the rotor back to standstill. The bearing design and the experimentation to verify its capabilities are described.

  6. Eddy current gauge for monitoring displacement using printed circuit coil

    DOEpatents

    Visioli, Jr., Armando J.

    1977-01-01

    A proximity detection system for non-contact displacement and proximity measurement of static or dynamic metallic or conductive surfaces is provided wherein the measurement is obtained by monitoring the change in impedance of a flat, generally spiral-wound, printed circuit coil which is excited by a constant current, constant frequency source. The change in impedance, which is detected as a corresponding change in voltage across the coil, is related to the eddy current losses in the distant conductive material target. The arrangement provides for considerable linear displacement range with increased accuracies, stability, and sensitivity over the entire range.

  7. Solving time-dependent two-dimensional eddy current problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Min Eig; Hariharan, S. I.; Ida, Nathan

    1988-01-01

    Results of transient eddy current calculations are reported. For simplicity, a two-dimensional transverse magnetic field which is incident on an infinitely long conductor is considered. The conductor is assumed to be a good but not perfect conductor. The resulting problem is an interface initial boundary value problem with the boundary of the conductor being the interface. A finite difference method is used to march the solution explicitly in time. The method is shown. Treatment of appropriate radiation conditions is given special consideration. Results are validated with approximate analytic solutions. Two stringent test cases of high and low frequency incident waves are considered to validate the results.

  8. Finite element modeling of wall-loss sizing in a steam generator tube using a pulsed eddy current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babbar, V. K.; Lepine, B.; Buck, J.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of steam generator (SG) tubes by conventional eddy current may, in general, involve analysis of indications from volumetric wall loss, cracks, fouling and support-plate degradation; however, it may be difficult to size or quantify effects from support-to-tube gap and tube tilt, especially in the presence of support plates. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology is being developed to investigate such complex tube and flaw geometries. The present work employs finite element modeling to investigate the effectiveness of PEC in identifying and sizing the outer diameter wall-loss in SG tubes. The signals analyzed using a modified principal components analysis (PCA) method reveal the potential success of a PEC-PCA combination to produce scores that can be used to size the wall-loss in the presence of support plates. The modeling results are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  9. Improved portable lighting for visual aircraft inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Shagam, R.N.; Lerner, J.; Shie, R.

    1995-04-01

    The most common tool used by aircraft inspectors is the personal flashlight. While it is compact and very portable, it is generally typified by poor beam quality which can interfere with the ability for an inspector to detect small defects and anomalies, such as cracks and corrosion sites, which may be indicators of major structural problems. A Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) installed in a stock flashlight as a replacement to the lens can improve the uniformity of an average flashlight and improve the quality of the inspection. Field trials at aircraft maintenance facilities have demonstrated general acceptance of the LSD by aircraft inspection and maintenance personnel.

  10. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  11. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed. PMID:26413505

  12. Behavior of an eddy-current magnetic bearing

    SciTech Connect

    Ting Leehua.

    1991-01-01

    The perturbation method (PM) in conjunction with the symbolic computing software MATHEMATICA' is employed to solve Maxwell's equations to obtain the theoretical results of forces, stiffness, and damping coefficients for a simplified eddy current magnetic bearing (ECMB). In addition, a finite element method software FLUX2D' and some deliberately designed experiments are employed to check some of the results obtained by the perturbation method. Finally, the results are used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the ECMB, and are extended to conjecture concerning the prospect of a similar application, Maglev (Magnetically Levitated High-Speed Trains). The theoretical results of forces, stiffness, and damping coefficients obtained by the perturbation method show that such kind of bearing has extremely low damping, probably negative, and moderately low stiffness and forces, compared to ordinary bearings. Data are also obtained by inputting the presumed Maglev features to the perturbation method solutions. It is found that the eddy current type magnetic suspension is more practical in the large scale application (Maglev) than in small scale application (ECMB).

  13. New Eddy Current Probe for Thickness Gauging of Conductive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Nath, Shridhar; Namkung, Min

    1993-01-01

    The accurate measure of material thickness is important for many non-destructive evaluation applications. Factors such as corrosion damage can jeopardize structural integrity through material thinning and process control considerations often mandate strict limits on material dimensions. Access to the material under test can be limited to a single side and large areas may need to be examined in a small time period. In an effort to enhance the effectiveness of material thickness measurements a flux focusing eddy current probe has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The probe provides an accurate measure of the thickness of conducting materials from a single sided measurement. It is straight forward to use and can be easily automated for production line testing. The probe also requires only minimal instrumentation and power so that extremely portable units can be manufactured at a low cost. This new eddy current probe has been used to accurately measure the thickness of aluminum alloy plates with a resolution of greater than 0.001 in. (25 microns). Simulated corrosion damage has also been detected on both single layer and multi-layer samples. The present work will explain the output voltage dependence of the device as a function of material thickness and present experimental results for thickness gauging and corrosion detection.

  14. Optimization design of the coil of the eddy current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Tiecheng; Fan, Shangchun

    2006-11-01

    An eddy current sensor is usually used to measure the departure of a shaft from its axes, in order to avoid destroying the system because of collision. The design of the coil as the sense organ of an eddy current sensor is to search a set of proper sizes (includes the outer radius, the inner radius and tallness of the coil) in which the quality factor and the grads of magnetic field strength is great as soon as possible but the length of the lead is not much long. So an optimization function is introduced here for efficient design. This function is direct ratio with the quality factor of the core and the magnetic grads product by the coil and inverse ratio with the lead length. The proportions of three parameters can be changed according to the instance. When the value of the function reaches the maximum, the sizes of coil are the anticipant optimal sizes and the integration capability of the coil is at the high-point. To search the maximum of the function, the genetic algorithm is adopted. The simulation result by Matlab proves the practicability of the method.

  15. Eddy current techniques for super duplex stainless steel characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerini, C.; Sacramento, R.; Areiza, M. C.; Rocha, A.; Santos, R.; Rebello, J. M.; Pereira, G.

    2015-08-01

    Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a two-phase material where the microstructure consists of grains of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ). SDSS exhibit an attractive combination of properties, such as: strength, toughness and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Nevertheless, SDSS attain these properties after a controlled solution heat treatment, leading to a similar volumetric fraction of δ and γ. Any further heat treatment, welding operation for example, can change the balance of the original phases, or may also lead to precipitation of a deleterious phase, such as sigma (σ). For these situations, the material corrosion resistance is severely impaired. In the present study, several SDSS samples with low σ phase content and non-balanced microstructure were intentionally obtained by thermally treating SDSS specimens. Electromagnetic techniques, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC), were employed to characterize the SDSS samples. The results showed that ECT and SLOFEC are reliable techniques to evaluate σ phase presence in SDSS and can provide an estimation of the δ content.

  16. Multiple sensor multifrequency eddy current monitor for solidification and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, John

    1990-01-01

    A compact cylindrical multisensor eddy current measuring system with integral furnace was develop to monitor II-VI crystal growth to provide interfacial information, solutal segregation, and conductivities of the growth materials. The use of an array of sensors surrounding the furnace element allows one to monitor the volume of interest. Coupling these data with inverse multifrequency analysis allows radial conductivity profiles to be generated at each sensor position. These outputs were incorporated to control the processes within the melt volume. The standard eddy current system functions with materials whose electric conductivities are as low as 2E2 Mhos/m. A need was seen to extend the measurement range to poorly conducting media so the unit was modified to allow measurement of materials conductivities 4 order of magnitude lower and bulk dielectric properties. Typically these included submicron thick films and semiinsulating GaAs. This system was used to monitor complex heat transfer in grey bodies as well as semiconductor and metallic solidification.

  17. Vacuum chamber eddy current correction coil for the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The AGS Booster injector will perform a variety of functions. Heavy ion acceleration requires a bakeable, ultra-high vacuum system (VC). Acceleration for intense proton beams requires rapid cycling (B /preceq/ 10T/sec). If straight forward heavy walled VC are used, the field perturbations due to eddy currents are large. The state of the art lattice has highly distributed lumped sextupoles capable of substantially correcting the induced field nonlinearity. Nevertheless, for the very highest space charge-intensity limits, it is desirable to have the capability to remove eddy current fields at the source. Correction coils attached to the outside of the VC cancel its current aberrations over the required good field aperture. These can be passively powered by transformer action, using two turn windings around the magnet yoke. Programmed power supplies can also be used. This inexpensive additional correction option uses a three turn per quadrant coil which follows the local contour of the VC. Transverse movements of several mms of the VC will have no beam optical effect since the large field aberrations and their corrections have the same displaced coordinates. Experimental and computer studies will be presented, as well as mechanical and electrical design of a simple method of construction. 6 figs.

  18. Finite element analysis of gradient z-coil induced eddy currents in a permanent MRI magnet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Xia, Ling; Chen, Wufan; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart; Xie, Dexin

    2011-01-01

    In permanent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, pulsed gradient fields induce strong eddy currents in the conducting structures of the magnet body. The gradient field for image encoding is perturbed by these eddy currents leading to MR image distortions. This paper presents a comprehensive finite element (FE) analysis of the eddy current generation in the magnet conductors. In the proposed FE model, the hysteretic characteristics of ferromagnetic materials are considered and a scalar Preisach hysteresis model is employed. The developed FE model was applied to study gradient z-coil induced eddy currents in a 0.5 T permanent MRI device. The simulation results demonstrate that the approach could be effectively used to investigate eddy current problems involving ferromagnetic materials. With the knowledge gained from this eddy current model, our next step is to design a passive magnet structure and active gradient coils to reduce the eddy current effects.

  19. Nonlinear, non-stationary image processing technique for eddy current NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Dib, Gerges; Kim, Jaejoon; Zhang, Lu; Xin, Junjun; Udpa, Lalita

    2012-05-01

    Automatic analysis of eddy current (EC) data has facilitated the analysis of large volumes of data generated in the inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants. The traditional procedure for analysis of EC data includes data calibration, pre-processing, region of interest (ROI) detection, feature extraction and classification. Accurate ROI detection has been enhanced by pre-processing, which involves reducing noise and other undesirable components as well as enhancing defect indications in the raw measurement. This paper presents the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) for feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM) for classification. The performance is shown to significantly better than the existing rule based classification approach used in industry.

  20. Application of Millimeter Wave, Eddy Current and Thermographic Methods for Detection of Corrosion in Aluminum Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Ryley, A. C.; Ghasr, M. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Steffes, Gary

    2007-03-21

    Aluminum structures exposed to the elements are susceptible to corrosion. Corrosion may cause various mechanical and structural deficiencies such as material thinning. It is desirable to rapidly detect and evaluate the properties of an aluminum substrate early in the corrosion process to avoid costly maintenance actions later. There are several nondestructive testing methods for this purpose. To investigate capabilities of millimeter wave, conventional eddy current, and flash thermography techniques for detection of large corrosion areas in aluminum substrates, two corroded samples were inspected with and without dielectric coating (applique). This paper presents the results of the c-scan imaging of these samples using the methods mentioned above. The attributes of these methods for detection and evaluation of large, severe and non-uniform corrosion areas with and without a dielectric coating are discussed.

  1. Developments in near electrical resonance signal enhancement (NERSE) eddy-current methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Robert; Dixon, Steve

    2015-03-01

    In industry, the detection of small defects above a background noise threshold is always a limiting factor. This is true for even the most sensitivity and reliable of NDT techniques. However, defect signals in eddy-current (EC) inspections have the potential to be boosted above noise thresholds by exploiting the near electrical resonance signal enhancement (NERSE) phenomena, resulting from resonant frequency-shifting of an EC system as the coil passes over a defect. Following on from the observation and characterisation of this phenomenon, NERSE based EC methods are being investigated and developed for the detection of sub-millimeter surface defects in Aerospace superalloys. This paper discusses current advances in the development of such techniques and explores the potential of NERSE exploitation as well as examining its limitations.

  2. Original non-stationary eddy current imaging process for the evaluation of defects in metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placko, Dominique; Bore, Thierry; Rivollet, Alain; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the problem of imaging defects in metallic structures through eddy current (EC) inspections, and proposes an original process for a possible tomographical crack evaluation. This process is based on a semi analytical modeling, called "distributed point source method" (DPSM) which is used to describe and equate the interactions between the implemented EC probes and the structure under test. Several steps will be successively described, illustrating the feasibility of this new imaging process dedicated to the quantitative evaluation of defects. The basic principles of this imaging process firstly consist in creating a 3D grid by meshing the volume potentially inspected by the sensor. As a result, a given number of elemental volumes (called voxels) are obtained. Secondly, the DPSM modeling is used to compute an image for all occurrences in which only one of the voxels has a different conductivity among all the other ones. The assumption consists to consider that a real defect may be truly represented by a superimposition of elemental voxels: the resulting accuracy will naturally depend on the density of space sampling. On other hand, the excitation device of the EC imager has the capability to be oriented in several directions, and driven by an excitation current at variable frequency. So, the simulation will be performed for several frequencies and directions of the eddy currents induced in the structure, which increases the signal entropy. All these results are merged in a so-called "observation matrix" containing all the probe/structure interaction configurations. This matrix is then used in an inversion scheme in order to perform the evaluation of the defect location and geometry. The modeled EC data provided by the DPSM are compared to the experimental images provided by an eddy current imager (ECI), implemented on aluminum plates containing some buried defects. In order to validate the proposed inversion process, we feed it with computed

  3. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, J. R.; Dodd, C. V.

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs.

  4. Eddy current jet engine disk-crack monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    A disk-crack monitor is described that is suitable for use on the ground or in flight. The system consists of an engine-mounted eddy current sensor, a series capacitance in each leg of the sensor circuit, and a capacitance-conductance bridge followed by an oscilloscope capable of advanced signal processing. It was applied to the detection of service-induced cracks in the first-stage turbine wheel of a helicopter engine. A 3.5 mm long radial fatigue crack plus smaller cracks, all located in the blade root region of the wheel, were detected during engine test stand operation at ground idle speed and temperature. The calculation of the value of series capacitance is also presented.

  5. Method and apparatus for deflection measurements using eddy current effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inserting and moving a sensing assembly with a mechanical positioning assembly to a desired remote location of a surface of a specimen under test and measuring angle and/or deflection by sensing the change in the impedance of at least one sensor coil located in a base plate which has a rotatable conductive plate pivotally mounted thereon so as to uncover the sensor coil(s) whose impedance changes as a function of deflection away from the center line of the base plate in response to the movement of the rotator plate when contacting the surface of the specimen under test is presented. The apparatus includes the combination of a system controller, a sensing assembly, an eddy current impedance measuring apparatus, and a mechanical positioning assembly driven by the impedance measuring apparatus to position the sensing assembly at a desired location of the specimen.

  6. A laboratory activity on the eddy current brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and electromagnetic properties of the magnet on the magnetic drag force. This video-based experiment is ideal for the study of kinematic graphs and the application of Newton's laws. Video motion analysis software enables students to make precise measurements of the magnet's position at incremental times during its motion, thus allowing them to quantify electromagnetic induction phenomena. The equipment needed for this experiment and data collection software are present in most physics teaching laboratories or are inexpensive and available.

  7. Surface Characterization of Stainless Steel Part by Eddy Current

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Eric S.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Prince, James M.; Good, Morris S.

    2003-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has nearly a 40 year history of research and development in the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). One area of NDE expertise at PNNL is electromagnetic testing which includes a field of eddy current testing (ET). One benefit is that ET can typically be performed at high speeds, and as a result has found many applications in process monitoring and poduction lines. ET has been used in the nuclear, aerospace, and automotive industries for many years. Et technology lends itself well to the detection of near-surface or surface breaking defects such as surface scratches. This paper provides an overview of theory regarding the usage of ET, selected application studies performed by PNNL, a safety analysis, and a wrtie up pertaining to the operations of ET to detect surface scratches.

  8. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-08-01

    A series of six workshops was held in 1986 and 1987 to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems included transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems were based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. A second two-year series of TEAM (Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods) workshops, using six more problems, is underway. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Practical Application of Eddy Currents Generated by Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, I.; Kleperis, J.

    2011-06-01

    When a conductive material is subjected to time-varying magnetic fluxes, eddy (Foucault) currents are generated in it and magnetic field of opposite polarity as the applied one arises. Due to the internal resistance of the conductive material, the eddy currents will be dissipated into heat (Joule heating). Conventional domestic water heaters utilize gas burners or electric resistance heating elements to heat the water in the tank and substantial part of the energy to use for it is wasted. In this paper the origin of electromagnetic induction heat generated by wind turbine in special heat exchange camera connected to water boiler is discussed and material evaluation performed using mathematical modelling (comparing the 2D finite element model with analytical and numerical calculation results).

  10. Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of nickel 200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    Eddy current methods have been applied to characterize the effect of magnetic treatments on component service-life extension. Coil impedance measurements were acquired and analyzed on nickel 200 specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening. Experimental results have demonstrated a functional relationship between coil impedance, resistance and reactance, and specimens subjected to various engineering processes. It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in electromagnetic properties of nickel 200 that then exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic field processing effect on machine-tool service life.

  11. Transient-spatial pattern mining of eddy current pulsed thermography using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hailong; Gao, Bin; Tian, Guiyun; Ren, Wenwei; Woo, Wai Lok

    2014-07-01

    Eddy current pulsed thermography(ECPT) is an emerging Non-destructive testing and evaluation(NDT & E) technique, which uses hybrid eddy current and thermography NDT & E techniques that enhances the detectability from their compensation. Currently, this technique is limited by the manual selection of proper contrast frames and the issue of improving the efficiency of defect detection of complex structure samples remains a challenge. In order to select a specific frame from transient thermal image sequences to maximize the contrast of thermal variation and defect pattern from complex structure samples, an energy driven approach to compute the coefficient energy of wavelet transform is proposed which has the potential of automatically selecting both optimal transient frame and spatial scale for defect detection using ECPT. According to analysis of the variation of different frequency component and the comparison study of the detection performance of different scale and wavelets, the frame at the end of heating phase is automatically selected as an optimal transient frame for defect detection. In addition, the detection capabilities of the complex structure samples can be enhanced through proper spatial scale and wavelet selection. The proposed method has successfully been applied to low speed impact damage detection of carbon fibre reinforced polymer(CFRP) composite as well as providing the guidance to improve the detectability of ECPT technique.

  12. Method and apparatus for correcting eddy current signal voltage for temperature effects

    DOEpatents

    Kustra, Thomas A.; Caffarel, Alfred J.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring physical characteristics of an electrically conductive material by the use of eddy-current techniques and compensating measurement errors caused by changes in temperature includes a switching arrangement connected between primary and reference coils of an eddy-current probe which allows the probe to be selectively connected between an eddy current output oscilloscope and a digital ohm-meter for measuring the resistances of the primary and reference coils substantially at the time of eddy current measurement. In this way, changes in resistance due to temperature effects can be completely taken into account in determining the true error in the eddy current measurement. The true error can consequently be converted into an equivalent eddy current measurement correction.

  13. Coupling between eddy currents and rigid body rotation: analysis, computation, and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, T.Q.; Turner, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Computation and experiment show that the coupling between eddy currents and the angular deflections resulting from those eddy currents can reduce electromagnetic effects such as forces, torques, and power dissipation to levels far less severe than would be predicted without regard for the coupling. This paper explores the coupling effects beyond the parameter range that has been explored experimentally, using analytical means and the eddy-current computer code EDDYNET. The paper also describes upcoming FELIX experiments with cantilevered beams.

  14. Eddy-current system for the vibration-testing of blades

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention is an improved system for the vibration-testing of cantilevered non-ferrous articles by inducing eddy currents therein. The principal advantage of the system is that relatively little heat is generated in the article being vibrated. Thus, a more accurate measurement of the fatigue characteristics of the article is obtained. Furthermore, the generation of relatively little heat in the blade permits tests to be conducted in low-pressure atmospheres simulating certain actual processes environments. Heat-generation in the vibrated article is minimized by utilizing eddy currents which are generated by an electromagnet whose magnetic field varies but does not change polarity. The typical winding for the electromagnet is excited with pulsating d.c. That is, the winding is alternately charged by connecting it across a d.c. power supply and then discharged by connecting it across a circuit for receiving current generated in the winding by self-induction. Preferably, the discharge circuit is designed so that the waveform of the discharging current approximates that of the charging current.

  15. Eddy current probe with foil sensor mounted on flexible probe tip and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Viertl, John R. M.; Lee, Martin K.

    2001-01-01

    A pair of copper coils are embedded in the foil strip. A first coil of the pair generates an electromagnetic field that induces eddy currents on the surface, and the second coil carries a current influenced by the eddy currents on the surface. The currents in the second coil are analyzed to obtain information on the surface eddy currents. An eddy current probe has a metal housing having a tip that is covered by a flexible conductive foil strip. The foil strip is mounted on a deformable nose at the probe tip so that the strip and coils will conform to the surface to which they are applied.

  16. An Ink-Jet Printed Eddy Current Position Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Jeranče, Nikola; Bednar, Nikola; Stojanović, Goran

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current sensor with an ink-jet printed flexible inductor has been designed and fabricated. The inductor has been designed by means of software developed in-house. It has been fabricated by ink-jet printing with silver ink on a flexible substrate. The inductor is a part of the oscillator circuit whose oscillating frequency is measured by a microcontroller. The sensor characteristics have been analyzed for two types of application. The first considered application is the displacement of a large conductive target in a direction perpendicular to the inductor plane. The second considered application is the displacement of a small steel ball parallel to the inductor plane. Inductance and oscillating frequency have been measured in order to completely characterize the sensor. The obtained results validate the use of the sensor for both considered applications, and are in good agreement with the simulations. The advantages of this type of sensor are low cost, the possibility for the inductor to match any curved surface and flexibility and precision of the inductor design. PMID:23598504

  17. Three dimensional boundary element solutions for eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Song, Jiming; Nakagawa, Norio

    2014-02-01

    The boundary integral equations (BIE) method is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations. It can be applied in many areas of engineering and science including fluid mechanics, acoustics, electromagnetics, and fracture mechanics. The eddy current problem is formulated by the BIE and discretized into matrix equations by the method of moments (MoM) or the boundary element method (BEM). The three dimensional arbitrarily shaped objects are described by a number of triangular patches. The Stratton-Chu formulation is specialized for the conductive medium. The equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents are expanded in terms of Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) vector basis function while the normal component of magnetic field is expanded in terms of the pulse basis function. Also, a low frequency approximation is applied in the external medium. Additionally, we introduce Auld's impedance formulas to calculate impedance variation. There are very good agreements between numerical results and those from theory and/or experiments for a finite cross-section above a wedge.

  18. Inverse problem of pulsed eddy current field of ferromagnetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing-Le; Lei, Yin-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    To determine the wall thickness, conductivity and permeability of a ferromagnetic plate, an inverse problem is established with measured values and calculated values of time-domain induced voltage in pulsed eddy current testing on the plate. From time-domain analytical expressions of the partial derivatives of induced voltage with respect to parameters, it is deduced that the partial derivatives are approximately linearly dependent. Then the constraints of these parameters are obtained by solving a partial linear differential equation. It is indicated that only the product of conductivity and wall thickness, and the product of relative permeability and wall thickness can be determined accurately through the inverse problem with time-domain induced voltage. In the practical testing, supposing the conductivity of the ferromagnetic plate under test is a fixed value, and then the relative variation of wall thickness between two testing points can be calculated via the ratio of the corresponding inversion results of the product of conductivity and wall thickness. Finally, this method for wall thickness measurement is verified by the experiment results of a carbon steel plate. Project supported by the National Defense Basic Technology Research Program of China (Grant No. Z132013T001).

  19. Diffusion of electromagnetic eddy currents in unconsolidated alluvium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, E. S.; Weiss, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies on the diffusive transport of electromagnetic eddy currents in complex geologic materials have invited speculation on novel theoretical frameworks to encapsulate the macroscopic effects of multi-scale geologic complexity. These ideas have been based on a limited amount of data from a restricted suite of geologic environments. To test the veracity of the various diffusion theories proposed in the literature, a new data set is presented here which consists of transient electromagnetic data collected over an alluvial fill aquifer in the Estancia Basin of central New Mexico. Geologic mapping and correlation of historical well-log data show the experiment site to consist of mainly unconsolidated felsic alluvium with intermittent cobble horizons. Analysis of the electromagnetic data in terms of its diagnostic move-out behavior of the source wavelet shows some similarity to previously obtained results in floodplain environments. Further analysis of the data shows that this behavior is dominated by the alluvial texture and not influenced by the underlying basement rock.

  20. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  1. Preliminary Investigations of Eddy Current Effects on a Spinning Disk

    SciTech Connect

    Piggott, W T; Walston, S; Mayhall, D

    2006-09-08

    The design of the positron source target for the International Linear Collider (ILC) envisions a Ti6Al4V wheel rotating in a large magnetic field (5-10 Tesla) being impacted by a photon beam to produce positrons. One of the many challenges for this system is determining how large a motor will be needed to spin the shaft. The wheel spinning in the magnetic field induces an eddy current in the wheel, which retards the spinning motion of the wheel. Earlier calculations by Mayhall [1] have shown that those eddy forces could be quite large, and resulted in the preliminary design being moved from a solid disk to a rim and spoke design, as shown in Figure 1. A series of experiments with a spinning metal disk were run at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to provide experimental validation of the Maxwell 3D simulations. This report will give a brief outline of the experimental setup and results. In addition, earlier work by Smythe [2] will be used to compare with the experimental results.

  2. An ink-jet printed eddy current position sensor.

    PubMed

    Jeranče, Nikola; Bednar, Nikola; Stojanović, Goran

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current sensor with an ink-jet printed flexible inductor has been designed and fabricated. The inductor has been designed by means of software developed in-house. It has been fabricated by ink-jet printing with silver ink on a flexible substrate. The inductor is a part of the oscillator circuit whose oscillating frequency is measured by a microcontroller. The sensor characteristics have been analyzed for two types of application. The first considered application is the displacement of a large conductive target in a direction perpendicular to the inductor plane. The second considered application is the displacement of a small steel ball parallel to the inductor plane. Inductance and oscillating frequency have been measured in order to completely characterize the sensor. The obtained results validate the use of the sensor for both considered applications, and are in good agreement with the simulations. The advantages of this type of sensor are low cost, the possibility for the inductor to match any curved surface and flexibility and precision of the inductor design.

  3. Fast valve based on double-layer eddy-current repulsion for disruption mitigation in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H D; Zhang, X D

    2015-05-01

    A fast valve based on the double-layer eddy-current repulsion mechanism has been developed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In addition to a double-layer eddy-current coil, a preload system was added to improve the security of the valve, whereby the valve opens more quickly and the open-valve time becomes shorter, making it much safer than before. In this contribution, testing platforms, open-valve characteristics, and throughput of the fast valve are discussed. Tests revealed that by choosing appropriate parameters the valve opened within 0.15 ms, and open-valve times were no longer than 2 ms. By adjusting working parameter values, the maximum number of particles injected during this open-valve time was estimated at 7 × 10(22). The fast valve will become a useful tool to further explore disruption mitigation experiments on EAST in 2015.

  4. Development of eddy current microscopy for high resolution electrical conductivity imaging using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalladega, V.; Sathish, S.; Jata, K. V.; Blodgett, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    We present a high resolution electrical conductivity imaging technique based on the principles of eddy current and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An electromagnetic coil is used to generate eddy currents in an electrically conducting material. The eddy currents generated in the conducting sample are detected and measured with a magnetic tip attached to a flexible cantilever of an AFM. The eddy current generation and its interaction with the magnetic tip cantilever are theoretically modeled using monopole approximation. The model is used to estimate the eddy current force between the magnetic tip and the electrically conducting sample. The theoretical model is also used to choose a magnetic tip-cantilever system with appropriate magnetic field and spring constant to facilitate the design of a high resolution electrical conductivity imaging system. The force between the tip and the sample due to eddy currents is measured as a function of the separation distance and compared to the model in a single crystal copper. Images of electrical conductivity variations in a polycrystalline dual phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) sample are obtained by scanning the magnetic tip-cantilever held at a standoff distance from the sample surface. The contrast in the image is explained based on the electrical conductivity and eddy current force between the magnetic tip and the sample. The spatial resolution of the eddy current imaging system is determined by imaging carbon nanofibers in a polymer matrix. The advantages, limitations, and applications of the technique are discussed.

  5. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-02-26

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper.

  6. Extremely short impulse eddy current system for titanium and inconel samples testing

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, T.; Frankowski, P.

    2011-06-23

    This paper presents a new system for eddy current testing. The system enables tests with very short current impulses. Therefore, the frequency spectrum of the excitation signal is very wide. In this paper, a study of eddy current differential transducer for testing titanium element is also presented.

  7. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper. PMID:26927123

  8. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper. PMID:26927123

  9. Pre-crack fatigue life assessment of relevant aircraft materials using fractal analysis of eddy current test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Jürgen; Cikalova, Ulana; Hillmann, Susanne; Meyendorf, Norbert; Hoffmann, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Successful determination of residual fatigue life requires a comprehensive understanding of the fatigue related material deformation mechanism. Neither macroscopic continuum mechanics nor micromechanic observations provide sufficient data to explain subsequent deformation structures occurring during the fatigue life of a metallic structure. Instead mesomechanic deformation on different scaling levels can be studied by applying fractal analysis of various means of nondestructive inspection measurements. The resulting fractal dimension data can be correlated to the actual material damage states, providing an estimation of the remaining residual fatigue life before macroscopic fracture develops. Recent efforts were aimed to apply the fractal concept to aerospace relevant materials AA7075-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V. Proven and newly developed fractal analysis methods were applied to eddy current (EC) measurements of fatigued specimens, with the potential to transition this approach to an aircraft for an in-situ nondestructive inspection. The occurrence of mesomechanic deformation at the material surface of both AA7075-T6 and Ti-6Al-4V specimens could be established via topography images using confocal microscopy (CM). Furthermore, a pulsed eddy current (PEC) approach was developed, combined with a sophisticated new fractal analysis algorithm based on short pulse excitation and evaluation of EC relaxation behavior. This paper presents concept, experimental realization, fractal analysis procedures, and results of this effort.

  10. New semi-active damping concept using eddy currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodano, Henry A.; Inman, Daniel J.; Belvin, W. K.

    2005-05-01

    A damping effect can be induced on a conductive structure that is vibrating in a magnetic field. This damping effect is caused by the eddy currents that are induced in the material due to a time varying magnetic field. The density of these currents is directly related to the velocity of the conductor in the magnetic field. However, once the currents are formed the internal resistance of the conductive material causes them to dissipate into heat, resulting in a removal of energy from the system and a damping effect. In a previous study, a permanent magnetic was fixed in a location such that the poling axis was perpendicular to the beam's motion and the radial magnetic flux was used to passively suppress the beam"s vibration. Using this passive damping concept and the idea that the damping force is directly related to the velocity of the conductor, a new semi-active damping mechanism will be created. This new damper will function by allowing the position of the magnet to change relative to the beam and thus allowing the net velocity between the two to be maximized and the damping force significantly increased. Using this concept, a model of both the passive and active portion of the system will be developed, allowing the beams response to be simulated. To verify the accuracy of this model, experiments will be performed that demonstrate both the accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of this semi-active control system for use in suppressing the transverse vibration of a structure.

  11. Storage strategies of eddy-current FE-BI model for GPU implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardel, Charles; Lei, Naiguang; Udpa, Lalita

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years graphical processing units (GPUs) have shown tremendous improvements in computational throughput over standard CPU architecture. However, this comes at the cost of restructuring the algorithms to meet the strengths and drawbacks of this GPU architecture. A major drawback is the state of limited memory, and hence storage of FE stiffness matrices on the GPU is important. In contrast to storage on CPU the GPU storage format has significant influence on the overall performance. This paper presents an investigation of a storage strategy in the implementation of a two-dimensional finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) model for Eddy current NDE applications, on GPU architecture. Specifically, the high dimensional matrices are manipulated by examining the matrix structure and optimally splitting into structurally independent component matrices for efficient storage and retrieval of each component. Results obtained using the proposed approach are compared to those of conventional CPU implementation for validating the method.

  12. Research and Development of Automated Eddy Current Testing for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carver, Kyle L.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Nichols, Charles T.; Spencer, Paul R.; Lucero, Ralph E.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current testing (ET) was used to scan bare metallic liners used in the fabrication of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) for flaws which could result in premature failure of the vessel. The main goal of the project was to make improvements in the areas of scan signal to noise ratio, sensitivity of flaw detection, and estimation of flaw dimensions. Scan settings were optimized resulting in an increased signal to noise ratio. Previously undiscovered flaw indications were observed and investigated. Threshold criteria were determined for the system software's flaw report and estimation of flaw dimensions were brought to an acceptable level of accuracy. Computer algorithms were written to import data for filtering and a numerical derivative filtering algorithm was evaluated.

  13. High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy for Near-Surface Residual Stress Profiling in Surface-Treated Nickel-Base Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2007-03-21

    Recent research indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements can be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stress in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistive effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. Previous experimental studies were conducted on excessively peened (Almen 10-16A peening intensity levels) nickel-base superalloy specimens that exhibited harmful cold work in excess of 30% plastic strain. The main reason for choosing peening intensities above recommended normal levels was that the eddy current penetration depth could not be decreased below 0.2 mm without conducting accurate measurements above 10 MHz, which is beyond the operational range of most commercially available eddy current instruments. In this paper we report the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz with a single probe coil. In addition, the new system offers better reproducibility, accuracy, and measurement speed than the previously used conventional system.

  14. 2015 WFNDEC eddy current benchmark modeling of impedance variation in coil due to a crack located at the plate edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, João Vicente; Camerini, Cesar; Pereira, Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 World Federation of NDE Centers (WFNDEC) eddy current benchmark problem involves the inspection of two EDM notches placed at the edge of a conducting plate with a pancake coil that runs parallel to the plate's edge line. Experimental data consists of impedance variation measured with a precision LCR bridge as a XY scanner moves the coil. The authors are pleased to present the numerical results obtained with commercial FEM packages (OPERA 3-D). Values of electrical resistance and inductive reactance variation between base material and the region around the notch are plotted as function of the coil displacement over the plate. The calculations were made for frequencies of 1 kHz and 10 kHz and agreement between experimental and numerical results are excellent for all inspection conditions. Explanations are made about how the impedance is calculated as well as pros and cons of the presented methods.

  15. The Effect of School Inspections on School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaertner, Holger; Wurster, Sebastian; Pant, Hans Anand

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a school-level longitudinal control-group design to examine how teachers and principals of inspected versus uninspected schools perceive school improvement at their schools. During the phasing in of school inspections in the states of Berlin and Brandenburg (Germany), both inspected and uninspected schools were surveyed with…

  16. Calculation of Eddy Currents In the CTH Vacuum Vessel and Coil Frame

    SciTech Connect

    A. Zolfaghari, A. Brooks, A. Michaels, J. Hanson, and G. Hartwell

    2012-09-25

    Knowledge of eddy currents in the vacuum vessel walls and nearby conducting support structures can significantly contribute to the accuracy of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium reconstruction in toroidal plasmas. Moreover, the magnetic fields produced by the eddy currents could generate error fields that may give rise to islands at rational surfaces or cause field lines to become chaotic. In the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) device (R0 = 0.75 m, a = 0.29 m, B ≤ 0.7 T), the primary driver of the eddy currents during the plasma discharge is the changing flux of the ohmic heating transformer. Electromagnetic simulations are used to calculate eddy current paths and profile in the vacuum vessel and in the coil frame pieces with known time dependent currents in the ohmic heating coils. MAXWELL and SPARK codes were used for the Electromagnetic modeling and simulation. MAXWELL code was used for detailed 3D finite-element analysis of the eddy currents in the structures. SPARK code was used to calculate the eddy currents in the structures as modeled with shell/surface elements, with each element representing a current loop. In both cases current filaments representing the eddy currents were prepared for input into VMEC code for MHD equilibrium reconstruction of the plasma discharge. __________________________________________________

  17. Design of encircling send-receive type pulsed eddy current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Kil

    2014-02-01

    An encircling send-receive type pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe is designed for use in the tube inspection. When bare receive coils, which are located away from the exciter, are used, the peak time of the signal does not change although the distance from the exciter increases. This is because the magnetic fields from exciter coil arrive directly at the receive coil without passing through the tube. Therefore, in this work, both exciter and sensor coils are shielded to reduce the influence of direct fields from the exciter coil. Numerical simulation with the designed shielded encircling PEC probe shows the corresponding increase of peak time as the sensor distance increases. Ferrite and carbon steel shields are compared and found that the ferrite shielding results in slightly stronger peak value and quicker peak time than the carbon steel shielding. Sensitivity of peak value to defect depth variation is also investigated and found that the normalized peak value is more sensitive when the sensor is located closer to the exciter for aluminum tube. In the case of magnetic tube, however, all the characteristics are opposite to those obtained from nonmagnetic aluminum tube.

  18. Detection and sizing of defects in control rod drive mechanism penetrations using eddy current and ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Light, G.M.; Fisher, J.L.; Tennis, R.F.; Stolte, J.S.; Hendrix, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    Over the last two years, concern has been generated about the capabilities of performing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the closure-head penetrations in nuclear-reactor pressure vessels. These penetrations are primarily for instrumentation and control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) and are usually thick-walled Inconel tubes, which are shrink-fitted into the steel closure head. The penetrations are then welded between the outside surface of the penetration and the inside surface of the closure head. Stress corrosion cracks initiating at the inner surface of the penetration have been reported at several plants. Through-wall cracks in the CRDM penetration or CRDM weld could lead to loss of coolant in the reactor vessel. The CRDM penetration presents a complex inspection geometry for conventional NDE techniques. A thermal sleeve, through which pass the mechanical linkages for operating the control rods, is inserted into the penetration in such a way that only a small annulus (nominally 3 mm) exists between the thermal sleeve and inside surface of the penetration. Ultrasonic (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) techniques that could be used to provide defect detection and sizing capability were investigated. This paper describes the ET and UT techniques, the probes developed, and the results obtained using these probes and techniques on CRDM penetration mock-ups.

  19. Application of 3D eddy current analysis on magnetically levitated vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, H.; Kameoka, Y.; Yoshioka, K.; Takizawa, T.; Kobayashi, T. )

    1993-03-01

    The eddy currents induced on the superconducting magnet (SCM) vessels of magnetically levitated vehicles (MAGLEV) have been analyzed. A 3D eddy current analysis code, based on a finite element method with thin shell approximation, is developed and verified through a mock-up SCM experiment. Through a coupled electromagnetic and mechanical analysis under SCM vibration, a SCM structure with low resistivity material coating on the inner vessel of SCM is found to be suitable for the significant reduction of helium evaporation due to eddy current loss.

  20. Discontinuity interaction and anomalous source models in through transmission eddy current testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mergelas, B.J.; Atherton, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Growing interest in the detection of external, axially aligned stress corrosion cracks in ferromagnetic oil and gas transmission pipelines, has prompted a detailed investigation of discontinuity interactions in remote field eddy current (RFEC) testing. Experimental measurements and numerical modeling were undertaken to study discontinuity interactions in a single through-wall transmission geometry for ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic pipes. Anomalous source models have been introduced in order to explain the responses of axial discontinuities to circumferential eddy currents or circumferential AC magnetic fields. In nonferromagnetic material, discontinuity responses may be modeled by two types of anomalous eddy current sources. In ferromagnetic materials, an anomalous magnetization source is useful for explaining discontinuity response.

  1. Analysis of eddy current losses during discharging period in a 600 kJ SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. J.; Kwak, S. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, W. S.; Lee, J. K.; Park, C.; Choi, K.; Bae, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sim, K. D.; Seong, K. C.; Jung, H. K.; Hahn, S.

    2008-09-01

    The operation of the SMES system can be divided into three modes such as charging, operating and discharging. During the charging and the discharging modes, a magnetic field variation due to the current increase and decrease generate eddy current losses in the SMES system. The eddy current loss in discharging mode is the major factor to be considered because the operating time in the mode is fixed, whereas the charging mode has the arbitrary operating time which is not fixed. In this paper, we present the analysis results of the eddy current losses which are generated in the 600 kJ class HTS SMES system during the discharging mode.

  2. Acceptance testing of the eddy current probes for measurement of aluminum hydroxide coating thickness on K West Basin fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-21

    During a recent visual inspection campaign of fuel elements stored in the K West Basin, it was noted that fuel elements contained in sealed aluminum canisters had a heavy translucent type coating on their surfaces (Pitner 1997a). Subsequent sampling of this coating in a hot cell (Pitner 1997b) and analysis of the material identified it as aluminum hydroxide. Because of the relatively high water content of this material, safety related concerns are raised with respect to long term storage of this fuel in Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). A campaign in the basin is planned to demonstrate whether this coating can be removed by mechanical brushing (Bridges 1998). Part of this campaign involves before-and-after measurements of the coating thickness to determine the effectiveness of coating removal by the brushing machine. Measurements of the as-deposited coating thickness on multiple fuel elements are also expected to provide total coating inventory information needed for MCO safety evaluations. The measurement technique must be capable of measuring coating thicknesses on the order of several mils, with a measurement accuracy of 0.5 mil. Several different methods for quantitatively measuring these thin coatings were considered in selecting the most promising approach. Ultrasonic measurement was investigated, but it was determined that due to the thin coating depth and the high water content of the material, the signal would likely pass directly through to the cladding without ever sensing the coating surface. X-ray fluorescence was also identified as a candidate technique, but would not work because the high gamma background from the irradiated fuel would swamp out the low energy aluminum signal. Laser interferometry could possibly be applied, but considerable development would be required and it was considered to be high risk on a short term basis. The consensus reached was that standard eddy current techniques for coating thickness measurement had the best chance for

  3. On the Feasibility of Eddy Current Characterization of the Near-Surface Residual Stress Distribution in Nickel-Base Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, Mark P.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2004-02-26

    In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in shot-peened specimens. This technique is based on the so-called electroelastic effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of the electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, the relatively small ({approx}1%) change in electrical conductivity caused by the presence of compressive residual stresses is often distorted, or even completely overshadowed, by the accompanying conductivity loss caused by cold work and surface roughness effects. Recently, it was observed that, in contrast with most other materials, shot-peened Waspaloy and IN100 specimens exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies. This observation by itself indicates that in these materials the measured conductivity change is probably dominated by residual stress effects, since both surface roughness and increased dislocation density are known to decrease rather than increase the conductivity and the presence of crystallographic texture does not affect the electrical conductivity of these materials, which crystallize in cubic symmetry. Our preliminary experiments indicate that probably there exists a unique 'window of opportunity' for eddy current NDE in nickel-base superalloys. We identified five major effects that contribute to this fortunate constellation of material properties, which will be reviewed in this presentation.

  4. 3D analysis of eddy current loss in the permanent magnet coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zina; Meng, Zhuo

    2016-07-01

    This paper first presents a 3D analytical model for analyzing the radial air-gap magnetic field between the inner and outer magnetic rotors of the permanent magnet couplings by using the Amperian current model. Based on the air-gap field analysis, the eddy current loss in the isolation cover is predicted according to the Maxwell's equations. A 3D finite element analysis model is constructed to analyze the magnetic field spatial distributions and vector eddy currents, and then the simulation results obtained are analyzed and compared with the analytical method. Finally, the current losses of two types of practical magnet couplings are measured in the experiment to compare with the theoretical results. It is concluded that the 3D analytical method of eddy current loss in the magnet coupling is viable and could be used for the eddy current loss prediction of magnet couplings. PMID:27475575

  5. 3D analysis of eddy current loss in the permanent magnet coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zina; Meng, Zhuo

    2016-07-01

    This paper first presents a 3D analytical model for analyzing the radial air-gap magnetic field between the inner and outer magnetic rotors of the permanent magnet couplings by using the Amperian current model. Based on the air-gap field analysis, the eddy current loss in the isolation cover is predicted according to the Maxwell's equations. A 3D finite element analysis model is constructed to analyze the magnetic field spatial distributions and vector eddy currents, and then the simulation results obtained are analyzed and compared with the analytical method. Finally, the current losses of two types of practical magnet couplings are measured in the experiment to compare with the theoretical results. It is concluded that the 3D analytical method of eddy current loss in the magnet coupling is viable and could be used for the eddy current loss prediction of magnet couplings.

  6. Radially Focused Eddy Current Sensor for Detection of Longitudinal Flaws in Metallic Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radially focused eddy current sensor detects longitudinal flaws in a metal tube. A drive coil induces eddy currents within the wall of the metal tube. A pick-up cod is spaced apart from the drive coil along the length of the metal tube. The pick@up coil is positioned with one end thereof lying adjacent the wall of the metal tube such that the pick-up coil's longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the wall of the metal tube. To isolate the pick-up coil from the magnetic flux of the drive coil and the flux from the induced eddy currents. except the eddy currents diverted by a longitudinal flaw. an electrically conducting material high in magnetic permeability surrounds all of the pick-up coil except its one end that is adjacent the walls of the metal tube. The electrically conducting material can extend into and through the drive coil in a coaxial relationship therewith.

  7. Modelling of eddy currents related to large angle magnetic suspension test fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Foster, Lucas E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of the mathematical modelling of eddy current effects in a large-gap magnetic suspension system. It is shown that eddy currents can significantly affect the dynamic behavior and control of these systems, but are amenable to measurement and modelling. A theoretical framework is presented, together with a comparison of computed and experimental data related to the Large Angle Magnetic Suspension Test Fixture at NASA Langley Research Center.

  8. EDDY CURRENT INVERSION AND ESTIMATION METRICS FOR EVALUATING THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Knopp, Jeremy S.; Aldrin, John C.; Nyenhuis, John

    2010-02-22

    In this paper, sophisticated eddy-current techniques incorporating model-based inverse methods were successfully demonstrated to measure the thickness and remaining-life of high-temperature coatings. To further assure the performance of these inverse methods, several estimation metrics including Fisher Information, Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), covariance, and singular value decomposition (SVD) are introduced. The connections and utility of these metrics are illustrated in the design of eddy current methods for estimating layer thickness, conductivity and probe liftoff.

  9. Parametric Studies and Optimization of Eddy Current Techniques through Computer Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, E. I.

    2007-03-21

    The paper demonstrates the use of computer models for parametric studies and optimization of surface and subsurface eddy current techniques. The study with high-frequency probe investigates the effect of eddy current frequency and probe shape on the detectability of flaws in the steel substrate. The low-frequency sliding probe study addresses the effect of conductivity between the fastener and the hole, frequency and coil separation distance on detectability of flaws in subsurface layers.

  10. Hand-held computer improves line inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new computer-based tool for transmission line inspection, maintenance and data management is quickly winning favor in the field with line managers, supervisors, and most importantly, with patrolmen and inspectors. The Transmission Inspection and Maintenance (TIM) system, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, allows transmission line personnel to create and store detailed data and graphic images of transmission lines, structures and components in a central, office computer program. The system consists of an integrated 486-based microprocessor hand-held computer, digital camera and office PC server. This setup facilitates easy long-term storage, manipulation and assessment of the inspection database in a portable package.

  11. Rapid Measurement and Correction of Phase Errors from B0 Eddy Currents: Impact on Image Quality for Non-Cartesian Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Ethan K.; Klaers, Jessica L.; Samsonov, Alexey A.; Kijowski, Richard; Block, Walter F.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Cartesian imaging sequences and navigational methods can be more sensitive to scanner imperfections that have little impact on conventional clinical sequences, an issue which has repeatedly complicated the commercialization of these techniques by frustrating transitions to multi-center evaluations. One such imperfection is phase errors caused by resonant frequency shifts from eddy currents induced in the cryostat by time-varying gradients, a phenomemon known as B0 eddy currents. These phase errors can have a substantial impact on sequences that use ramp sampling, bipolar gradients, and readouts at varying azimuthal angles. We present a method for measuring and correcting phase errors from B0 eddy currents and examine the results on two different scanner models. This technique yields significant improvements in image quality for high-resolution joint imaging on certain scanners. The results suggest that correction of short time B0 eddy currents in manufacturer provided service routines would simplify adoption of non-Cartesian sampling methods. PMID:22488532

  12. Development of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM (Register Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors for the Health Monitoring, Modeling and Damage Detection of High Temperature Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Washabaugh, Andy; Sheiretov, Yanko; Martin, Christopher; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The increased use of high-temperature composite materials in modern and next generation aircraft and spacecraft have led to the need for improved nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring techniques. Such technologies are desirable to improve quality control, damage detection, stress evaluation and temperature measurement capabilities. Novel eddy current sensors and sensor arrays, such as Meandering Winding Magnetometers (MWMs) have provided alternate or complimentary techniques to ultrasound and thermography for both nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). This includes imaging of composite material quality, damage detection and .the monitoring of fiber temperatures and multidirectional stresses. Historically, implementation of MWM technology for the inspection of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Composite (RCC) leading edge panels was developed by JENTEK Sensors and was subsequently transitioned by NASA as an operational pre and post flight in-situ inspection at the Kennedy Space Center. A manual scanner, which conformed'automatically to the curvature of the RCC panels was developed and used as a secondary technique if a defect was found during an infrared thermography screening, During a recent proof of concept study on composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's), three different MWM sensors were tested at three orientations to demonstrate the ability of the technology to measure stresses at various fiber orientations and depths. These results showed excellent correlation with actual surface strain gage measurements. Recent advancements of this technology have been made applying MWM sensor technology for scanning COPVs for mechanical damage. This presentation will outline the recent advance in the MWM.technology and the development of MWM techniques for NDE and SHM of carbon wraped composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) including the measurement of internal stresses via a surface mounted sensor

  13. Applying program comprehension techniques to improve software inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rifkin, Stan; Deimel, Lionel

    1994-01-01

    Software inspections are widely regarded as a cost-effective mechanism for removing defects in software, though performing them does not always reduce the number of customer-discovered defects. We present a case study in which an attempt was made to reduce such defects through inspection training that introduced program comprehension ideas. The training was designed to address the problem of understanding the artifact being reviewed, as well as other perceived deficiencies of the inspection process itself. Measures, both formal and informal, suggest that explicit training in program understanding may improve inspection effectiveness.

  14. Does Accountability Pressure through School Inspections Promote School Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Kemethofer, David

    2015-01-01

    "New" school inspections are essential parts of "evidence-based governance" concepts and have been implemented by many European countries as a major strategy to assure and improve the effectiveness and quality of their education systems. However, national inspection systems vary in their composition and in their contextual…

  15. Conductive shield for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Theory and measurements of eddy currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Busch, Sarah; Hatridge, Michael; Öisjöen, Fredrik; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Clarke, John

    2014-03-01

    Eddy currents induced by applied magnetic-field pulses have been a common issue in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, a relatively large prepolarizing field—applied before each signal acquisition sequence to increase the signal—induces currents in the walls of the surrounding conductive shielded room. The magnetic-field transient generated by the eddy currents may cause severe image distortions and signal loss, especially with the large prepolarizing coils designed for in vivo imaging. We derive a theory of eddy currents in thin conducting structures and enclosures to provide intuitive understanding and efficient computations. We present detailed measurements of the eddy-current patterns and their time evolution in a previous-generation shielded room. The analysis led to the design and construction of a new shielded room with symmetrically placed 1.6-mm-thick aluminum sheets that were weakly coupled electrically. The currents flowing around the entire room were heavily damped, resulting in a decay time constant of about 6 ms for both the measured and computed field transients. The measured eddy-current vector maps were in excellent agreement with predictions based on the theory, suggesting that both the experimental methods and the theory were successful and could be applied to a wide variety of thin conducting structures.

  16. An integrated eddy current detection and imaging system on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, H. Thurman; Kartalia, K. P.; Dury, Joseph D.

    1991-01-01

    Eddy current probes have been used for many years for numerous sensing applications including crack detection in metals. However, these applications have traditionally used the eddy current effect in the form of a physically wound single or different probe pairs which of necessity must be made quite large compared to microelectronics dimensions. Also, the traditional wound probe can only take a point reading, although that point might include tens of individual cracks or crack arrays; thus, conventional eddy current probes are beset by two major problems: (1) no detailed information can be obtained about the crack or crack array; and (2) for applications such as quality assurance, a vast amount of time must be taken to scan a complete surface. Laboratory efforts have been made to fabricate linear arrays of single turn probes in a thick film format on a ceramic substrate as well as in a flexible cable format; however, such efforts inherently suffer from relatively large size requirements as well as sensitivity issues. Preliminary efforts to fully extend eddy current probing from a point or single dimensional level to a two dimensional micro-eddy current format on a silicon chip, which might overcome all of the above problems, are presented.

  17. Conductive shield for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Theory and measurements of eddy currents.

    PubMed

    Zevenhoven, Koos C J; Busch, Sarah; Hatridge, Michael; Oisjöen, Fredrik; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Clarke, John

    2014-03-14

    Eddy currents induced by applied magnetic-field pulses have been a common issue in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, a relatively large prepolarizing field-applied before each signal acquisition sequence to increase the signal-induces currents in the walls of the surrounding conductive shielded room. The magnetic-field transient generated by the eddy currents may cause severe image distortions and signal loss, especially with the large prepolarizing coils designed for in vivo imaging. We derive a theory of eddy currents in thin conducting structures and enclosures to provide intuitive understanding and efficient computations. We present detailed measurements of the eddy-current patterns and their time evolution in a previous-generation shielded room. The analysis led to the design and construction of a new shielded room with symmetrically placed 1.6-mm-thick aluminum sheets that were weakly coupled electrically. The currents flowing around the entire room were heavily damped, resulting in a decay time constant of about 6 ms for both the measured and computed field transients. The measured eddy-current vector maps were in excellent agreement with predictions based on the theory, suggesting that both the experimental methods and the theory were successful and could be applied to a wide variety of thin conducting structures. PMID:24753629

  18. Conductive shield for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging: Theory and measurements of eddy currents

    PubMed Central

    Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Busch, Sarah; Hatridge, Michael; Öisjöen, Fredrik; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Clarke, John

    2014-01-01

    Eddy currents induced by applied magnetic-field pulses have been a common issue in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, a relatively large prepolarizing field—applied before each signal acquisition sequence to increase the signal—induces currents in the walls of the surrounding conductive shielded room. The magnetic-field transient generated by the eddy currents may cause severe image distortions and signal loss, especially with the large prepolarizing coils designed for in vivo imaging. We derive a theory of eddy currents in thin conducting structures and enclosures to provide intuitive understanding and efficient computations. We present detailed measurements of the eddy-current patterns and their time evolution in a previous-generation shielded room. The analysis led to the design and construction of a new shielded room with symmetrically placed 1.6-mm-thick aluminum sheets that were weakly coupled electrically. The currents flowing around the entire room were heavily damped, resulting in a decay time constant of about 6 ms for both the measured and computed field transients. The measured eddy-current vector maps were in excellent agreement with predictions based on the theory, suggesting that both the experimental methods and the theory were successful and could be applied to a wide variety of thin conducting structures. PMID:24753629

  19. Rotating flux-focusing eddy current probe for flaw detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil, The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  20. Eddy Current COPV Overwrap and Liner Thickness Measurement System and Data Analysis for 40-Inch Kevlar COPVs SN002 and SN027

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the health assessment of flight spare 40in diameter Kevlar composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) SN002 and SN027 an eddy current characterization of the composite and liner thickness change during pressurization was requested under WSTF-TP-1085-07.A, "Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System P/N MC282-0082-0101 S/N 002 and Orbital Maneuvering System P/N MC282-0082-001 S/N 027 COPV Health Assessment." The through the thickness strains have been determined to be an important parameter in the analysis of the reliability and likelihood of stress rupture failure. Eddy current techniques provide a means to measure these thicknesses changes based upon the change in impedance of an eddy current sensor mounted on the exterior of the vessel. Careful probe and technique design have resulted in the capability to independently measure the liner and overwrap thickness changes to better than +/- 0.0005 in. at each sensor location. Descriptions of the inspection system and test results are discussed.

  1. 2012 eddy current benchmark modeling of impedance variation in coil due to a thin longitudinal through-wall notch in an inconel 600 tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, João Marcos; Camerini, Cesar; Rocha, João Vicente; Areiza, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Eddy Current Benchmark Problem involves the inspection of an inconel pipe using an internal pancake coil situated with its axis perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. The experimental data were supported by the Benchmark Eddy Current 2012, as released by the World Federation of Non Destructive Evaluation Centers (WFNDEC). The software OPERA 3D and COMSOL were used by the authors to solve the proposed simulation problem. The simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental ones. However some simulated results exhibited a small variation in the impedance and electrical resistance between the base material and the region around the notch. The values of these changes were plotted as a function of the displacement of the sensor over the notch region. The calculations were made for frequencies of 25kHz to 200kHz. A good agreement was obtained at low frequency. However, the simulation at high frequencies presented differences, which can be attributed to the mesh refinement. The finite elements in both software should be adjusted to two regions: the change of the small notch region and its neighborhood. It is important to adjust the mesh size parameter to compensate the low skin depth inherent to eddy current testing at high frequencies.

  2. Testing of inductively coupled Eddy current position sensor of diverse safety rod in sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayashree, R.; Veeraswamy, R.; Nashine, B. K.; Dash, S. K.; Sharma, P.; Rajan, K. K.; Vijayakumar, G.; Rao, C. B.; Sosamma, S.; Kalyanasundaram, P.

    2011-07-01

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is 500 MWe sodium cooled reactor under construction at Kalpakkam (India)). To improve the reliability of shutdown, Diverse Safety Rods (DSRs) are used in-addition to normal Control and Safety rods. During reactor operating condition, the DSR is parked above the active core and held in its top position by an electromagnet. In the event of a scram signal from the safety logic, the electromagnet holding the DSR is de-energised. Hence the DSR is released into the active core and at the end of travel DSR gets deposited in its bottom position. Because of the mechanical constraints, hard wired connectivity is not permitted from the DSR subassembly to the instrumentation outside the reactor. Hence an inductively coupled Eddy Current Position Sensor (ECPS) has been conceptualized to detect that the DSR has reached its bottom most position and to measure the drop time. Results of feasibility study on laboratory model have been reported earlier. Testing of a 1:1 scale engineering model of ECPS is reported in this paper. Results obtained from the high temperature sodium testing of ECPS indicate a clearly measurable change in pick up voltage with sensitivity of 11 % at 675 Hz. The ECPS is in advanced stage of implementation in DSRDM of PFBR. (authors)

  3. Eddy currents in a nonperiodic vacuum vessel induced by axisymmetric plasma motion

    SciTech Connect

    DeLucia, J.

    1985-12-01

    A method is described for calculating the two-dimensional trajectory of a vertically or horizontally unstable axisymmetric tokamak plasma in the presence of a resistive vacuum vessel. The vessel is not assumed to have toroidal symmetry. The plasma is represented by a current-filament loop that is free to move vertically and to change its major radius. Its position is evolved in time self-consistently with the vacuum vessel eddy currents. The plasma current, internal inductance, and poloidal beta can be specified functions of time so that eddy currents resulting from a disruption can be modeled. The vacuum vessel is represented by a set of current-filaments whose positions and orientations are chosen to model the dominant eddy current paths. Although the specific application is to TFTR, the present model is of general applicability. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J C; Bialek, J; Lazerson, S; Majeski, R

    2014-11-01

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment is a spherical tokamak with a close-fitting low-recycling wall composed of thin lithium layers evaporated onto a stainless steel-lined copper shell. Long-lived non-axisymmetric eddy currents are induced in the shell and vacuum vessel by transient plasma and coil currents and these eddy currents influence both the plasma and the magnetic diagnostic signals that are used as constraints for equilibrium reconstruction. A newly installed set of re-entrant magnetic diagnostics and internal saddle flux loops, compatible with high-temperatures and lithium environments, is discussed. Details of the axisymmetric (2D) and non-axisymmetric (3D) treatments of the eddy currents and the equilibrium reconstruction are presented. PMID:25430382

  5. Measurements of beam pipe eddy current effects in Main Injector dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, D.G.C.; Bleadon, M.E.; Brown, B.C.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Sim, J.W.

    1992-08-01

    The dipole magnets for the proposed Main Injector project at Fermilab are designed to ramp to maximum field (1.7 T) at rates over 2.5 T/s. These ramp rates will produce eddy current effects which degrade overall field quality. A harmonics probe was constructed for the purpose of measuring eddy current field components during the ramp cycle. Three separate ramp rates were employed ranging from 1.3 T/s to 2.7 T/s. Tests were performed using beam pipes with two different resistivities. The dominant multipole contribution resulting from eddy current effects in each beam pipe was sextupole. The sextupole component closely matched the calculated prediction.

  6. Development and Application of Wide Bandwidth Magneto-Resistive Sensor Based Eddy Current Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John

    2010-01-01

    The integration of magneto-resistive sensors into eddy current probes can significantly expand the capabilities of conventional eddy current nondestructive evaluation techniques. The room temperature solid-state sensors have typical bandwidths in the megahertz range and resolutions of tens of microgauss. The low frequency sensitivity of magneto-resistive sensors has been capitalized upon in previous research to fabricate very low frequency eddy current sensors for deep flaw detection in multilayer conductors. In this work a modified probe design is presented to expand the capabilities of the device. The new probe design incorporates a dual induction source enabling operation from low frequency deep flaw detection to high frequency high resolution near surface material characterization. Applications of the probe for the detection of localized near surface conductivity anomalies are presented. Finite element modeling of the probe is shown to be in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  7. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the lithium tokamak experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bialek, J.; Lazerson, S.; Majeski, R.

    2014-11-01

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment is a spherical tokamak with a close-fitting low-recycling wall composed of thin lithium layers evaporated onto a stainless steel-lined copper shell. Long-lived non-axisymmetric eddy currents are induced in the shell and vacuum vessel by transient plasma and coil currents and these eddy currents influence both the plasma and the magnetic diagnostic signals that are used as constraints for equilibrium reconstruction. A newly installed set of re-entrant magnetic diagnostics and internal saddle flux loops, compatible with high-temperatures and lithium environments, is discussed. Details of the axisymmetric (2D) and non-axisymmetric (3D) treatments of the eddy currents and the equilibrium reconstruction are presented.

  8. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J C; Bialek, J; Lazerson, S; Majeski, R

    2014-11-01

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment is a spherical tokamak with a close-fitting low-recycling wall composed of thin lithium layers evaporated onto a stainless steel-lined copper shell. Long-lived non-axisymmetric eddy currents are induced in the shell and vacuum vessel by transient plasma and coil currents and these eddy currents influence both the plasma and the magnetic diagnostic signals that are used as constraints for equilibrium reconstruction. A newly installed set of re-entrant magnetic diagnostics and internal saddle flux loops, compatible with high-temperatures and lithium environments, is discussed. Details of the axisymmetric (2D) and non-axisymmetric (3D) treatments of the eddy currents and the equilibrium reconstruction are presented.

  9. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the lithium tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C. Lazerson, S.; Majeski, R.; Bialek, J.

    2014-11-15

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment is a spherical tokamak with a close-fitting low-recycling wall composed of thin lithium layers evaporated onto a stainless steel-lined copper shell. Long-lived non-axisymmetric eddy currents are induced in the shell and vacuum vessel by transient plasma and coil currents and these eddy currents influence both the plasma and the magnetic diagnostic signals that are used as constraints for equilibrium reconstruction. A newly installed set of re-entrant magnetic diagnostics and internal saddle flux loops, compatible with high-temperatures and lithium environments, is discussed. Details of the axisymmetric (2D) and non-axisymmetric (3D) treatments of the eddy currents and the equilibrium reconstruction are presented.

  10. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the lithium tokamak experimenta)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bialek, J.; Lazerson, S.; Majeski, R.

    2014-11-01

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment is a spherical tokamak with a close-fitting low-recycling wall composed of thin lithium layers evaporated onto a stainless steel-lined copper shell. Long-lived non-axisymmetric eddy currents are induced in the shell and vacuum vessel by transient plasma and coil currents and these eddy currents influence both the plasma and the magnetic diagnositc signals that are used as constraints for equilibrium reconstruction. A newly installed set of re-entrant magnetic diagnostics and internal saddle flux loops, compatible with high-temperatures and lithium environments, is discussed. Details of the axisymmetric (2D) and non-axisymmetric (3D) treatments of the eddy currents and the equilibrium reconstruction are presented.

  11. Eddy current effects in the magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, S. I.; Lyutyy, T. V.; Pedchenko, B. O.; Babych, H. V.

    2014-07-01

    We develop an analytical model for describing the magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles, which is based on the coupled system of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) and Maxwell equations. By solving Maxwell's equations in the quasi-static approximation and finding the magnetic field of eddy currents, we derive the closed LLG equation for the magnetization that fully accounts for the effects of conductivity. We analyze the difference between the LLG equations in metallic and dielectric nanoparticles and show that these effects can strongly influence the magnetization dynamics. As an example illustrating the importance of eddy currents, the phenomenon of precessional switching of magnetization is considered.

  12. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to a Subsurface Crack in a Conductive Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Fangwei

    2006-01-01

    Eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is usually carried out by exciting a time harmonic field using an inductive probe. However, a viable alternative is to use transient eddy current NDE in which a current pulse in a driver coil produces a transient .eld in a conductor that decays at a rate dependent on the conductivity and the permeability of the material and the coil configuration. By using transient eddy current, it is possible to estimate the properties of the conductive medium and to locate and size potential .aws from the measured probe response. The fundamental study described in this dissertation seeks to establish a theoretical understanding of the transient eddy current NDE. Compared with the Fourier transform method, the derived analytical formulations are more convenient when the transient eddy current response within a narrow time range is evaluated. The theoretical analysis provides a valuable tool to study the effect of layer thickness, location of defect, crack opening as well as the optimization of probe design. Analytical expressions have been developed to evaluate the transient response due to eddy currents in a conductive plate based on two asymptotic series. One series converges rapidly for a short time regime and the other for a long time regime and both of them agree with the results calculated by fast Fourier transform over all the times considered. The idea of asymptotic expansion is further applied to determine the induced electromotive force (EMF) in a pick-up coil due to eddy currents in a cylindrical rod. Starting from frequency domain representation, a quasi-static time domain dyadic Green's function for an electric source in a conductive plate has been derived. The resulting expression has three parts; a free space term, multiple image terms and partial reflection terms. The dyadic Green's function serves as the kernel of an electric field integral equation which defines the interaction of an ideal crack with the transient

  13. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  14. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  15. A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.

  16. Note: Void effects on eddy current distortion in two-phase liquid metal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Tordjeman, Ph; Bergez, W; Cavaro, M

    2015-10-01

    A model based on the first order perturbation expansion of magnetic flux in a two-phase liquid metal flow has been developed for low magnetic Reynolds number Rem. This model takes into account the distortion of the induced eddy currents due to the presence of void in the conducting medium. Specific experiments with an eddy current flow meter have been realized for two periodic void distributions. The results have shown, in agreement with the model, that the effects of velocity and void on the emf modulation are decoupled. The magnitude of the void fraction and the void spatial frequency can be determined from the spectral density of the demodulated emf. PMID:26521001

  17. Effect of vacuum chamber eddy current and compensation by digital feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.

    1992-07-27

    Measurement of the effect of the eddy current induced in the APS storage ring vacuum chamber by the storage ring sextupole magnet and its compensation using digital feedback with proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm are presented. The magnetic field in the vacuum chamber shows strong quadrupole and sextupole components varying with frequency, in addition to significant attenuation and phase shift. Large changes in the magnet resistance and inductance were also observed. Development of a theory of digital feedback to obtain system responses and the conditions for optimal control will be described, in conduction with design of a digital filter to compensate for the eddy current effect.

  18. Compulsory Checking of Nuclear Power Engineering Materials by Direct and Eddy Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. V.; Lider, A. M.; Sednev, D. A.; Xu, Shupeng

    2016-08-01

    The testing technology of copper parts designed for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel with application of direct and eddy current has been developed. Measurements results of flaw quantity caused hydrogenation and oxidation processes are presented. Evolution of copper M 001 flaw structure during hydrogenation from gaseous medium is analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the dependence of copper p electrical resistance on number of flaws in its structure has dome shaped character and changes with eddy current frequency change. Number of flaws formed by hydrogen depends on direction (100) or (200) of the crystal structure of copper lattice.

  19. Vessel Eddy Current Measurement for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates; J. Menard; R. Marsala

    2004-11-19

    A simple analog circuit that measures the NSTX axisymmetric eddy current distribution has been designed and constructed. It is based on simple circuit model of the NSTX vacuum vessel that was calibrated using a special axisymmetric eddy current code which was written so that accuracy was maintained in the vicinity of the current filaments. The measurement and the model have been benchmarked against data from numerous vacuum shots and they are in excellent agreement. This is an important measurement that helps give more accurate equilibrium reconstructions.

  20. Eddy Current Analysis and Optimization for Superconducting Magnetic Bearing of Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Yuuki; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Taro; Kaimori, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Terumasa

    Levitation and guidance force is electromagnetic generated between a superconducting coil and zero field cooled bulk superconductors used in our flywheel energy storage system (FESS). Because the magnetic field depends on the configuration of the coil and the bulks, the eccentricity and the vibration of a rotor cause fluctuation in the magnetic field which induces eddy current and consequent Joule heat on electric conductors such as cooling plates. Heat generation in the cryogenic region critically reduces the efficiency of the FESS. In this paper, we will report the result of the electromagnetic analysis of the SMB and propose an optimal divided cooling plate for reducing the eddy current and Joule heat.

  1. Eddy currents in the vacuum vessel of the ETE spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, G. O.; DelBosco, E.; Ferreira, J. G.

    2005-07-01

    A Green's function method is developed to evaluate the currents induced during startup in the vacuum vessel of ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esférico). The non-homogeneous integral equation for the axisymmetric eddy currents distribution is determined using a thin shell approximation for the vacuum vessel and local curvilinear coordinates. This problem is reduced to a circuit model by adopting spectral representations both for the centreline of the vacuum vessel and the surface current density. Results of this model are compared with the distribution of eddy currents measured in ETE.

  2. Inspection of aging aircraft: A manufacturer's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagemaier, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Douglas, in conjunction with operators and regulators, has established interrelated programs to identify and address issues regarding inspection of aging aircraft. These inspection programs consist of the following: Supplemental Inspection Documents; Corrosion Prevention and Control Documents; Repair Assessment Documents; and Service Bulletin Compliance Documents. In addition, airframe manufacturers perform extended airframe fatigue tests to deal with potential problems before they can develop in the fleet. Lastly, nondestructive inspection (NDI) plays a role in all these programs through the detection of cracks, corrosion, and disbonds. However, improved and more cost effective NDI methods are needed. Some methods such as magneto-optic imaging, electronic shearography, Diffractor-Sight, and multi-parameter eddy current testing appear viable for near-term improvements in NDI of aging aircraft.

  3. Novel rotating field probe for inspection of tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, J.; Tarkleson, E.; Lei, N.; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. S.

    2012-05-17

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants is extremely critical for safe operation of the power plant. In the nuclear industry, steam generator tube inspection using eddy current techniques has evolved over the years from a single bobbin coil, to rotating probe coil (RPC) and array probe, in an attempt to improve the speed and reliability of inspection. The RPC probe offers the accurate spatial resolution but involves complex mechanical rotation. This paper presents a novel design of eddy current probes based on rotating fields produced by three identical coils excited by a balanced three-phase supply. The sensor thereby achieves rotating probe functionality by electronic means and eliminates the need for mechanical rotation. The field generated by the probe is largely radial that result in induced currents that flow circularly around the radial axis and rotating around the tube at a synchronous speed effectively producing induced eddy currents that are multidirectional. The probe will consequently be sensitive to cracks of all orientations in the tube wall. The finite element model (FEM) results of the rotating fields and induced currents are presented. A prototype probe is being built to validate simulation results.

  4. Empirical compensation function for eddy current effects in pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X X; Macdonald, P M

    1995-05-01

    An empirical compensation function for the correction of eddy current effects in the Stejskal-Tanner pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments has been established. Eddy currents may arise as a result of the application of sharp and strong gradient pulses and may cause severe distortion of the NMR signals. In this method, the length of one gradient pulse is altered to compensate for the eddy current effects. The compensation is considered to be ideal when the position and the phase of the spin-echo maximum obtained from an aqueous solution of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the same in the presence and absence of a gradient pulse in the PGSE pulse sequence. We first characterized the functional dependence of the length of the required compensation on the three principal variables in the PGSE experiment: the gradient strength, the duration of the gradient pulse, and the interval between the two gradient pulses. Subsequently, we derived a model which successfully describes the general relationship between these variables and the size of the induced eddy current. The parameters extracted from fitting the model to the experimental compensation data may be used to predict the correct compensation for any combination of the three principal variables.

  5. Design and Application of Hybrid Magnetic Field-Eddy Current Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Simpson, John

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of magnetic field sensors into eddy current probes can result in novel probe designs with unique performance characteristics. One such example is a recently developed electromagnetic probe consisting of a two-channel magnetoresistive sensor with an embedded single-strand eddy current inducer. Magnetic flux leakage maps of ferrous materials are generated from the DC sensor response while high-resolution eddy current imaging is simultaneously performed at frequencies up to 5 megahertz. In this work the design and optimization of this probe will be presented, along with an application toward analysis of sensory materials with embedded ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles. The sensory material is designed to produce a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the FSMA particles under strain. Mapping of the stray magnetic field and eddy current response of the sample with the hybrid probe can thereby image locations in the structure which have experienced an overstrain condition. Numerical modeling of the probe response is performed with good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Exploring the eddy current excitation invariance to infer about defect characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, A. Lopes; Ramos, H. G.

    2011-06-23

    This paper explores the excitation probe excitation field invariance when the eddy current method is applied to detect, localize and characterize material defects in conductive nonmagnetic media. The cases relative to rotational symmetry in circular solenoidal probes and translation symmetry in constant field probes are presented. The experimental data shows that this theoretical treatment is useful to preview the behavior of these probes.

  7. Field errors introduced by eddy currents in Fermilab main injector magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, D.G.C.; Brown, B.C.; Dinanco, J.B.; Sharoran, S.A.; Sim, J.W.

    1997-10-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector ramps from 8 GeV to 120 GeV in about half a second. The rapidly changing magnetic field induces eddy currents in the stainless steel vacuum tubes, which in turn produce error fields that can affect the beam. Field calculations and measurements are presented for the dipole and quadrupole magnets.

  8. Analytical modeling of a simple passive electromagnetic eddy current friction damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjadian, Mohsen; Agrawal, Anil K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents analytical modeling of a novel type of passive friction damper for seismic hazard mitigation of structural systems. This seismic protective device, which is termed as Passive Electromagnetic Eddy Current Friction Damper (PEMECFD), utilizes a solid-friction mechanism in parallel with an eddy current damping system to dissipate a larger amount of input seismic energy than that by a device with based on solid friction only. In this passive damper, friction force is produced through a magnetic repulsive action between two permanent magnets (PMs) magnetized in the direction normal to the friction surface. The eddy current damping force in the damper is generated because of the motion of the PMS in the vicinity of a conductor. Friction and eddy current damping parts of the damper are able to produce ideal rectangular and elliptical hysteresis loops individually. Seismic hazard mitigation effectiveness of the proposed damper has been demonstrated through an implementation on a two-degree-of-freedom frame building structure. Numerical results show that the proposed damper is more efficient in dissipating input seismic energy than a Passive Linear Viscous Damper (PLVD) with same force capacity.

  9. Design and application of hybrid magnetic field-eddy current probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Wallace, Terryl; Newman, Andy; Leser, Paul; Simpson, John

    2014-02-01

    The incorporation of magnetic field sensors into eddy current probes can result in novel probe designs with unique performance characteristics. One such example is a recently developed electromagnetic probe consisting of a twochannel magnetoresistive sensor with an embedded single-strand eddy current inducer. Magnetic flux leakage maps of ferrous materials are generated from the DC sensor response while high-resolution eddy current imaging is simultaneously performed at frequencies up to 5 MHz. In this work the design and optimization of this probe will be presented, along with an application toward analysis of sensory materials with embedded ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles. The sensory material is designed to produce a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in the FSMA particles under strain. Mapping of the stray magnetic field and eddy current response of the sample with the hybrid probe can thereby image locations in the structure which have experienced an overstrain condition. Numerical modeling of the probe response is performed with good agreement with experimental results.

  10. Predicting the influence of plate geometry on the eddy-current pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Catherine; Wachter, Jeremy M.; Wagoner, Paul; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2016-09-01

    We quantitatively analyze a familiar classroom demonstration, Van Waltenhofen's eddy current pendulum, to predict the damping effect for a variety of plate geometries from first principles. Results from conformal mapping, finite element simulations, and a simplified model suitable for introductory classes are compared with experiments.

  11. Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle and Hardness Testing, Aviation Quality Control (Advanced): 9227.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction includes the principles of eddy current, magnetic particle and hardness testing; standards used for analyzing test results; techniques of operating equipment; interpretation of indications; advantages and limitations of these methods of testing; care and calibration of equipment; and safety and work precautions. Motion…

  12. Eddy Current Assessment of the Cold Rolled Deformation Behavior of AISI 321 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kunpeng; Zhao, Zihua; Zhang, Zheng

    2012-08-01

    Applicability of the eddy current (EC) technique in assessing martensite phase transformation during cold reduction in AISI 321 stainless steel was investigated. An empirical model based on measured EC parameters was developed for predicting the volume fraction of strain-induced martensite. Good agreement was found between the model-predicted and the experimental data.

  13. Non destructive technique for cracks detection by an eddy current in differential mode for steel frames

    SciTech Connect

    Harzalla, S. Chabaat, M.; Belgacem, F. Bin Muhammad

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, a nondestructive technique is used as a tool to control cracks and microcracks in materials. A simulation by a numerical approach such as the finite element method is employed to detect cracks and eventually; to study their propagation using a crucial parameter such as the stress intensity factor. This approach has been used in the aircraft industry to control cracks. Besides, it makes it possible to highlight the defects of parts while preserving the integrity of the controlled products. On the other side, it is proven that the reliability of the control of defects gives convincing results for the improvement of the quality and the safety of the material. Eddy current testing (ECT) is a standard technique in industry for the detection of surface breaking flaws in magnetic materials such as steels. In this context, simulation tools can be used to improve the understanding of experimental signals, optimize the design of sensors or evaluate the performance of ECT procedures. CEA-LIST has developed for many years semi-analytical models embedded into the simulation platform CIVA dedicated to non-destructive testing. The developments presented herein address the case of flaws located inside a planar and magnetic medium. Simulation results are obtained through the application of the Volume Integral Method (VIM). When considering the ECT of a single flaw, a system of two differential equations is derived from Maxwell equations. The numerical resolution of the system is carried out using the classical Galerkin variant of the Method of Moments. Besides, a probe response is calculated by application of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Finally, the approach itself as well as comparisons between simulation results and measured data are presented.

  14. Coupled circuit numerical analysis of eddy currents in an open MRI system.

    PubMed

    Akram, Md Shahadat Hossain; Terada, Yasuhiko; Keiichiro, Ishi; Kose, Katsumi

    2014-08-01

    We performed a new coupled circuit numerical simulation of eddy currents in an open compact magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Following the coupled circuit approach, the conducting structures were divided into subdomains along the length (or width) and the thickness, and by implementing coupled circuit concepts we have simulated transient responses of eddy currents for subdomains in different locations. We implemented the Eigen matrix technique to solve the network of coupled differential equations to speed up our simulation program. On the other hand, to compute the coupling relations between the biplanar gradient coil and any other conducting structure, we implemented the solid angle form of Ampere's law. We have also calculated the solid angle for three dimensions to compute inductive couplings in any subdomain of the conducting structures. Details of the temporal and spatial distribution of the eddy currents were then implemented in the secondary magnetic field calculation by the Biot-Savart law. In a desktop computer (Programming platform: Wolfram Mathematica 8.0®, Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo E7500 @ 2.93GHz; OS: Windows 7 Professional; Memory (RAM): 4.00GB), it took less than 3min to simulate the entire calculation of eddy currents and fields, and approximately 6min for X-gradient coil. The results are given in the time-space domain for both the direct and the cross-terms of the eddy current magnetic fields generated by the Z-gradient coil. We have also conducted free induction decay (FID) experiments of eddy fields using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe to verify our simulation results. The simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In this study we have also conducted simulations for transient and spatial responses of secondary magnetic field induced by X-gradient coil. Our approach is fast and has much less computational complexity than the conventional electromagnetic numerical simulation

  15. Coupled circuit numerical analysis of eddy currents in an open MRI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Md. Shahadat Hossain; Terada, Yasuhiko; Keiichiro, Ishi; Kose, Katsumi

    2014-08-01

    We performed a new coupled circuit numerical simulation of eddy currents in an open compact magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Following the coupled circuit approach, the conducting structures were divided into subdomains along the length (or width) and the thickness, and by implementing coupled circuit concepts we have simulated transient responses of eddy currents for subdomains in different locations. We implemented the Eigen matrix technique to solve the network of coupled differential equations to speed up our simulation program. On the other hand, to compute the coupling relations between the biplanar gradient coil and any other conducting structure, we implemented the solid angle form of Ampere’s law. We have also calculated the solid angle for three dimensions to compute inductive couplings in any subdomain of the conducting structures. Details of the temporal and spatial distribution of the eddy currents were then implemented in the secondary magnetic field calculation by the Biot-Savart law. In a desktop computer (Programming platform: Wolfram Mathematica 8.0®, Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo E7500 @ 2.93 GHz; OS: Windows 7 Professional; Memory (RAM): 4.00 GB), it took less than 3 min to simulate the entire calculation of eddy currents and fields, and approximately 6 min for X-gradient coil. The results are given in the time-space domain for both the direct and the cross-terms of the eddy current magnetic fields generated by the Z-gradient coil. We have also conducted free induction decay (FID) experiments of eddy fields using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe to verify our simulation results. The simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In this study we have also conducted simulations for transient and spatial responses of secondary magnetic field induced by X-gradient coil. Our approach is fast and has much less computational complexity than the conventional electromagnetic numerical

  16. Coupled circuit numerical analysis of eddy currents in an open MRI system.

    PubMed

    Akram, Md Shahadat Hossain; Terada, Yasuhiko; Keiichiro, Ishi; Kose, Katsumi

    2014-08-01

    We performed a new coupled circuit numerical simulation of eddy currents in an open compact magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Following the coupled circuit approach, the conducting structures were divided into subdomains along the length (or width) and the thickness, and by implementing coupled circuit concepts we have simulated transient responses of eddy currents for subdomains in different locations. We implemented the Eigen matrix technique to solve the network of coupled differential equations to speed up our simulation program. On the other hand, to compute the coupling relations between the biplanar gradient coil and any other conducting structure, we implemented the solid angle form of Ampere's law. We have also calculated the solid angle for three dimensions to compute inductive couplings in any subdomain of the conducting structures. Details of the temporal and spatial distribution of the eddy currents were then implemented in the secondary magnetic field calculation by the Biot-Savart law. In a desktop computer (Programming platform: Wolfram Mathematica 8.0®, Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo E7500 @ 2.93GHz; OS: Windows 7 Professional; Memory (RAM): 4.00GB), it took less than 3min to simulate the entire calculation of eddy currents and fields, and approximately 6min for X-gradient coil. The results are given in the time-space domain for both the direct and the cross-terms of the eddy current magnetic fields generated by the Z-gradient coil. We have also conducted free induction decay (FID) experiments of eddy fields using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe to verify our simulation results. The simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In this study we have also conducted simulations for transient and spatial responses of secondary magnetic field induced by X-gradient coil. Our approach is fast and has much less computational complexity than the conventional electromagnetic numerical simulation

  17. Sensor-based control in eddy current separation of incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Abdur; Bakker, M C M

    2013-06-01

    A sensor unit was placed online in the particle stream produced by an eddy current separator (ECS) to investigate its functionality in non-ferrous metals recovery. The targeted feed was the 1-6mm size fraction bottom ash from a municipal waste incinerator. The sensor unit was attached to the ECS splitter, where it counted in real-time metal and mineral particles and accurately measured the grade of the stream in the metals product. Influence of segregation (e.g. due to particle size or density) on the metals concentrate were detected and studied using the sensor data collected at different splitter distances. Tests were performed in the laboratory and in a bottom ash processing plant with two different types of ECS and two sources of bottom ash with different moisture content. The measured metal grades matched the manual analyses with errors 0%, 1.5% and 3.1% for moist, dry and very wet feed, respectively. For very wet feed the ECS metals recovery dropped, which was observed from the strongly reduced particle counts and the large changes in cumulative particle properties. The measured sample proved representative for the whole metals concentrate if it is collected at a representative position within the metals particle trajectory fan produced by the ECS. ECS-performance proved sensitively dependent on splitter distance, since a 10mm shift may result in 10% change in metal recovery and 18% change in grade. The main functionalities of the sensor unit are determined as online quality control and facilitation of automatic control over the ECS splitter distance. These functionalities translate in significant improvements in ECS metals recovery which in turn is linked to economic benefits, increased recycling rate of scrap metals and a further reduction of the ecological drawbacks of incinerator bottom ash. PMID:23490354

  18. Fibre optics improving deepwater rov pipeline inspection

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, D.

    1983-09-01

    Pipeline inspection is a complex test requiring a variety of sensors. The trend in recent times has been to fit, simultaneously, all of the above sensors to a vehicle in order to maximise data collection from the pipeline in a single pass. This data is then processed in real time as the ROV travels the pipeline. Thus, a chart representing all the available data can be made available shortly after completion of a dive. The current generation of ROVs uses umbilicals containing various combinations of power conductors, co-axia and twisted pairs to carry the sensor data. These umbilicals, however, have inherent disadvantages which become apparent as sensor data increase in quantity and complexity. This disadvantage is the incompatibility of required high quality-data being transmitted to the surface and the large amounts of electrical energy demanded by the vehicle. Another disadvantage is the incompatibility between sensor signals in terms of frequency and power. However, to eliminate these problems, and to provide for future developments in ROV technology, the new generation of ROVs utilise fibre-optic conductors, the advantages being that they are immune from electro-magnetic interference, they offer wider band-widths with lower power losses (typically 5 dB or less per km) than conventional copper conductors, and are easier to handle as umbilicals lengthen due to demand for vehicles to reach greater depths. Typically, these new umbilicals will be 1.5 km in length.

  19. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of an improved LED lightbar, fabrication of a line-scan sensor head for the Smart-Camera based prototype, and development of prototype vulcanized splice detection algorithms.

  20. Development of an ultralow frequency eddy current instrument for the detection and sizing of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Hayford, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes an investigation of the potential to use remote field eddy currents at low frequencies that would permit penetration of pipeline steels and use this technique to detect stress corrosion cracking on coated pipelines without requiring coating to be removed. The report describes development of a prototype eddy current instrument.

  1. Improve mask inspection capacity with Automatic Defect Classification (ADC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Crystal; Ho, Steven; Guo, Eric; Wang, Kechang; Lakkapragada, Suresh; Yu, Jiao; Hu, Peter; Tolani, Vikram; Pang, Linyong

    2013-09-01

    As optical lithography continues to extend into low-k1 regime, resolution of mask patterns continues to diminish. The adoption of RET techniques like aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features combined with the requirements to detect even smaller defects on masks due to increasing MEEF, poses considerable challenges for mask inspection operators and engineers. Therefore a comprehensive approach is required in handling defects post-inspections by correctly identifying and classifying the real killer defects impacting the printability on wafer, and ignoring nuisance defect and false defects caused by inspection systems. This paper focuses on the results from the evaluation of Automatic Defect Classification (ADC) product at the SMIC mask shop for the 40nm technology node. Traditionally, each defect is manually examined and classified by the inspection operator based on a set of predefined rules and human judgment. At SMIC mask shop due to the significant total number of detected defects, manual classification is not cost-effective due to increased inspection cycle time, resulting in constrained mask inspection capacity, since the review has to be performed while the mask stays on the inspection system. Luminescent Technologies Automated Defect Classification (ADC) product offers a complete and systematic approach for defect disposition and classification offline, resulting in improved utilization of the current mask inspection capability. Based on results from implementation of ADC in SMIC mask production flow, there was around 20% improvement in the inspection capacity compared to the traditional flow. This approach of computationally reviewing defects post mask-inspection ensures no yield loss by qualifying reticles without the errors associated with operator mis-classification or human error. The ADC engine retrieves the high resolution inspection images and uses a decision-tree flow to classify a given defect. Some identification mechanisms adopted by ADC to

  2. Continued Development of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM (Register Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors for the Health Monitoring, Modeling and Damage Detection of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard; Wincheski, Russell; Jablonski, David; Washabaugh, Andy; Sheiretov, Yanko; Martin, Christopher; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are used in essentially all NASA spacecraft, launch. vehicles and payloads to contain high-pressure fluids for propulsion, life support systems and science experiments. Failure of any COPV either in flight or during ground processing would result in catastrophic damage to the spacecraft or payload, and could lead to loss of life. Therefore, NASA continues to investigate new methods to non-destructively inspect (NDE) COPVs for structural anomalies and to provide a means for in-situ structural health monitoring (SHM) during operational service. Partnering with JENTEK Sensors, engineers at NASA, Kennedy Space Center have successfully conducted a proof-of-concept study to develop Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM) eddy current sensors designed to make direct measurements of the stresses of the internal layers of a carbon fiber composite wrapped COPV. During this study three different MWM sensors were tested at three orientations to demonstrate the ability of the technology to measure stresses at various fiber orientations and depths. These results showed good correlation with actual surface strain gage measurements. MWM-Array technology for scanning COPVs can reliably be used to image and detect mechanical damage. To validate this conclusion, several COPVs were scanned to obtain a baseline, and then each COPV was impacted at varying energy levels and then rescanned. The baseline subtracted images were used to demonstrate damage detection. These scans were performed with two different MWM-Arrays. with different geometries for near-surface and deeper penetration imaging at multiple frequencies and in multiple orientations of the linear MWM drive. This presentation will include a review of micromechanical models that relate measured sensor responses to composite material constituent properties, validated by the proof of concept study, as the basis for SHM and NDE data analysis as well as potential improvements including

  3. Real-time, multitasking control system for reactor inspection robots

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, T.J.; Jenkins, J.B.; Lewis, W.I.; Park, L.R.; Reeves, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Equipment Engineering Division of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Laboratory in Aiken, South Carolina has developed a remote system to perform ultrasonic (UT) and eddy current (ET) wall weld inspections inside the nuclear reactors at the site. The basic components of the inspection system include an inspection robot and control hardware, a supervisory computer, and ultrasonic and eddy current data collection and analysis computers. The ultrasonic and eddy current systems are responsible for driving the transducers, and digitizing, displaying, and storing the information. 7 figs.

  4. Robotic NDE inspection of advanced solid rocket motor casings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneelege, Glenn E.; Sarantos, Chris

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program determined the need to inspect ASRM forgings and segments for potentially catastrophic defects. To minimize costs, an automated eddy current inspection system was designed and manufactured for inspection of ASRM forgings in the initial phases of production. This system utilizes custom manipulators and motion control algorithms and integrated six channel eddy current data acquisition and analysis hardware and software. Total system integration is through a personal computer based workcell controller. Segment inspection demands the use of a gantry robot for the EMAT/ET inspection system. The EMAT/ET system utilized similar mechanical compliancy and software logic to accommodate complex part geometries. EMAT provides volumetric inspection capability while eddy current is limited to surface and near surface inspection. Each aspect of the systems are applicable to other industries, such as, inspection of pressure vessels, weld inspection, and traditional ultrasonic inspection applications.

  5. Certified kitchen managers: do they improve restaurant inspection outcomes?

    PubMed

    Cates, Sheryl C; Muth, Mary K; Karns, Shawn A; Penne, Michael A; Stone, Carmily N; Harrison, Judy E; Radke, Vincent J

    2009-02-01

    Restaurants are associated with a significant number of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States. Certification of kitchen managers through an accredited training and testing program may help improve food safety practices and thus prevent foodborne illness. In this study, relationships between the results of routine restaurant inspections and the presence of a certified kitchen manager (CKM) were examined. We analyzed data for 4461 restaurants in Iowa that were inspected during 2005 and 2006 (8338 total inspections). Using logistic regression analysis, we modeled the outcome variable (0 = no critical violations [CVs]; 1 = one or more CVs) as a function of presence or absence of a CKM and other explanatory variables. We estimated separate models for seven inspection categories. Restaurants with a CKM present during inspection were less likely to have a CV for personnel (P < 0.01), food source or handling (P < 0.01), facility or equipment requirements (P < 0.05), ware-washing (P < 0.10), and other operations (P < 0.10). However, restaurants with a CKM present during inspection were equally likely to have a CV for temperature or time control and plumbing, water, or sewage as were restaurants without a CKM present. Analyses by type of violation within the temperature and time control category revealed that restaurants with a CKM present during inspection were less likely to have a CV for hot holding (P < 0.05), but the presence of a CKM did not affect other types of temperature and time control violations. Our analyses suggest that the presence of a CKM is protective for most types of CVs, and we identify areas for improving training of CKMs. PMID:19350984

  6. Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography with Different Excitation Configurations for Metallic Material and Defect Characterization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Yunlai; Li, Kongjing; Wang, Yizhe; Gao, Bin; He, Yunze

    2016-06-08

    This paper reviews recent developments of eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Due to the fact that line-coil-based ECPT, with the limitation of non-uniform heating and a restricted view, is not suitable for complex geometry structures evaluation, Helmholtz coils and ferrite-yoke-based excitation configurations of ECPT are proposed and compared. Simulations and experiments of new ECPT configurations considering the multi-physical-phenomenon of hysteresis losses, stray losses, and eddy current heating in conjunction with uniform induction magnetic field have been conducted and implemented for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. These configurations of ECPT for metallic material and defect characterization are discussed and compared with conventional line-coil configuration. The results indicate that the proposed ECPT excitation configurations can be applied for different shapes of samples such as turbine blade edges and rail tracks.

  7. Towards increased speed computations in 3D moving eddy current finite element modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N.; Rodger, D.; Coles, P.C.; Street, S.; Leonard, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    Attractive and drag forces on such devices as magnetically levitated (MAGLEV) vehicles and magnetic bearings are crucially dependent on induced eddy currents. Here, a finite element scheme used to model eddy current problems with motional velocity is described here. The formulation is a variation on the A {minus} {psi} method. An additional Minkowski-transformation term is required to take into account the velocity. However, computational instability arises when the velocity increases to the point that the first order velocity terms severely dominate the second order diffusion terms. The method presented here uses upwinding to help regain stability. An additional degree of stability is inserted at higher speeds by using a lower speed result as an initial vector. This leads to a reduced permeability in saturated regions which counter-balances to some extent the increase in velocity. The method is validated by experimental measurement.

  8. Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers

    DOEpatents

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1990-03-19

    A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations (dB/dt) in the particle beam.

  9. Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers

    DOEpatents

    Danby, Gordon T.; Jackson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.

  10. Plasma surface and wall eddy currents and their connection to Halo currents during disruptions in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovskiy, Vadim; Paccagnella, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The behaviour of plasma surface currents and resistive wall eddy currents is analysed analytically within a cylindrical model for pressureless ideal plasma with flat and parabolic equilibrium current profiles. This mimics possible conditions in tokamak plasmas during disruptions between the thermal and the current quench phases. Earlier studies predict that plasma surface currents have to be taken into account for explanation of the Halo currents intensity and distribution. Our results show that this is true only in a very narrow window of edge safety factor qa and that in a wide region of qa the wall eddy currents are comparable or much larger than the plasma skin currents. The study reveals ranges of plasma and wall parameters for which the surface currents could play a role in Halo currents dynamics. Some comparison of the results with previous works on this topic is also presented.

  11. Preliminary results on passive eddy current damper technology for SSME turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Some preliminary results have been obtained for the dynamic response of a rotor operating over a speed range of 800 to 10,000 rpm. Amplitude frequency plots show the lateral vibratory response of an unbalanced rotor with and without external damping. The mode of damping is by means of eddy currents generated with 4 c shaped permanent magnets installed at the lower bearing of a vertically oriented rotor. The lower ball bearing and its damper assembly are totally immersed in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -197 deg C (-320 deg F). These preliminary results for a referenced or base line passive eddy current damper assembly show that the amplitude of synchronous vibration is reduced at the resonant frequency. Measured damping coefficients were calculated to phi = .086; this compares with a theoretically calculated value of phi = .079.

  12. Design of Diaphragm and Coil for Stable Performance of an Eddy Current Type Pressure Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Ryeol; Lee, Gil Seung; Kim, Hwa Young; Ahn, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an eddy current type pressure sensor and investigate its fundamental characteristics affected by the mechanical and electrical design parameters of sensor. The sensor has two key components, i.e., diaphragm and coil. On the condition that the outer diameter of sensor is 10 mm, two key parts should be designed so as to keep a good linearity and sensitivity. Experiments showed that aluminum is the best target material for eddy current detection. A round-grooved diaphragm is suggested in order to measure more precisely its deflection caused by applied pressures. The design parameters of a round-grooved diaphragm can be selected depending on the measuring requirements. A developed pressure sensor with diaphragm of t = 0.2 mm and w = 1.05 mm was verified to measure pressure up to 10 MPa with very good linearity and errors of less than 0.16%. PMID:27376306

  13. Design of Diaphragm and Coil for Stable Performance of an Eddy Current Type Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Ryeol; Lee, Gil Seung; Kim, Hwa Young; Ahn, Jung Hwan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an eddy current type pressure sensor and investigate its fundamental characteristics affected by the mechanical and electrical design parameters of sensor. The sensor has two key components, i.e., diaphragm and coil. On the condition that the outer diameter of sensor is 10 mm, two key parts should be designed so as to keep a good linearity and sensitivity. Experiments showed that aluminum is the best target material for eddy current detection. A round-grooved diaphragm is suggested in order to measure more precisely its deflection caused by applied pressures. The design parameters of a round-grooved diaphragm can be selected depending on the measuring requirements. A developed pressure sensor with diaphragm of t = 0.2 mm and w = 1.05 mm was verified to measure pressure up to 10 MPa with very good linearity and errors of less than 0.16%.

  14. Passive eddy-current damping as a means of vibration control in cryogenic turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral shaft vibrations produced by a rotating unbalance weight were damped by means of eddy currents generated in copper conductors that were precessing cyclicly in the gap formed by the pole faces of C-shaped, permanent magnets. The damper assembly, which was located at the lower bearing support of a vertically oriented rotor was completely immersed in liquid nitrogen during the test run. The test rotor was operated over a speed range from 800 to 10,000 rpm. Three magnet/conductor designs were evaluated. Experimental damping coefficients varied from 180 to 530 N sec/m. Reasonable agreement was noted for theoretical values of damping for these same assemblies. Values of damping coefficients varied from 150 to 780 N sec/m. The results demonstrate that passive eddy-current damping is a viable candidate for vibration control in cryogenic turbomachinery.

  15. Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography with Different Excitation Configurations for Metallic Material and Defect Characterization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Yunlai; Li, Kongjing; Wang, Yizhe; Gao, Bin; He, Yunze

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Due to the fact that line-coil-based ECPT, with the limitation of non-uniform heating and a restricted view, is not suitable for complex geometry structures evaluation, Helmholtz coils and ferrite-yoke-based excitation configurations of ECPT are proposed and compared. Simulations and experiments of new ECPT configurations considering the multi-physical-phenomenon of hysteresis losses, stray losses, and eddy current heating in conjunction with uniform induction magnetic field have been conducted and implemented for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. These configurations of ECPT for metallic material and defect characterization are discussed and compared with conventional line-coil configuration. The results indicate that the proposed ECPT excitation configurations can be applied for different shapes of samples such as turbine blade edges and rail tracks. PMID:27338389

  16. Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography with Different Excitation Configurations for Metallic Material and Defect Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Yunlai; Li, Kongjing; Wang, Yizhe; Gao, Bin; He, Yunze

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Due to the fact that line-coil-based ECPT, with the limitation of non-uniform heating and a restricted view, is not suitable for complex geometry structures evaluation, Helmholtz coils and ferrite-yoke-based excitation configurations of ECPT are proposed and compared. Simulations and experiments of new ECPT configurations considering the multi-physical-phenomenon of hysteresis losses, stray losses, and eddy current heating in conjunction with uniform induction magnetic field have been conducted and implemented for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. These configurations of ECPT for metallic material and defect characterization are discussed and compared with conventional line-coil configuration. The results indicate that the proposed ECPT excitation configurations can be applied for different shapes of samples such as turbine blade edges and rail tracks. PMID:27338389

  17. Study of eddy currents non destructive testing system in riveted assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Rasolonjanahary, J.L.; Thollon, F.; Burais, N.; Brunotte, X.

    1996-05-01

    In order to optimize eddy current sensors, the authors have to simulate electromagnetic phenomena to predict sensors` response. 2D and 3D codes can be used but what kind of result can be expected from each of these codes? In this paper, performances of 3D formulations are testing using FEM package Flux3d. Adapted coupled formulations and boundary conditions are used to study eddy currents perturbation by flaws in aircraft riveted assemblies. Physical informations about the influence of flaw depth are obtained. The 3D calculations allow one to choose the most adapted measurement quantity and to define the position of the measurement sensors. Then, for optimizing the sensor, 2D FEM package Fissure is used taking into account the 3D results.

  18. Transient Eddy Current Response Due to an Open Subsurface Crack In a Conductive Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Fangwei; Bowler, J. R.

    2006-03-01

    Calculations have been carried out to evaluate pulsed eddy current interactions with a planar subsurface crack in a conductive plate. In eddy current nondestructive evaluation, flaws can be detected by measuring the changes in the magnetic field that occur when an induced current is perturbed. In previous work, the evolution of magnetic field change due to an open crack in a conductor was evaluated with the assumption that the conductor can be treated as a half space. The response is obtained by solving an electrical field integral equation with a half space Green's function kernel. Recently, a time domain dyadic Green's function for a plate was developed in a series form, which allows us to extend the approach to a crack in a plate. The effect of crack opening, ligament and crack size have been investigated.

  19. Comparison of multipole expansion and exact form of the eddy current field of the AGS Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, G.F.; Lee, S.Y.; Parzen, G.

    1990-01-01

    Studies are made on magnetic field representation using a multipole expansion as well as the exact form to calculate the magnetic field produced by eddy currents in the vacuum chamber of the AGS Booster as well as the field produced by three turn correction coils attached to the top and bottom of the vacuum chamber. The multiple representation of the chamber field does not converge to the next field when X > 30mm and limits the particle motion. When the exact form of the chamber field is used, initial amplitudes in the horizontal plane (measured at QF) can be nearly as large as the chamber half aperture. Use of three turn correction coils to compensate the eddy current fields seems to reduce rather than increase the acceptance. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Iron yoke eddy current induced losses with application to the ALS septum magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1991-08-16

    The theoretical development of relations governing the eddy current induced losses in iron electromagnet yokes is reviewed. A baseline laminated electromagnet design is analyzed and a parametric study illustrates the sensitivity of core losses to perturbations of various geometrical, material, and excitation parameters. Core losses and field gradients for the ALS septum magnets are calculated. Design modifications capable of eliminating transverse and longitudinal field gradients are discussed.

  1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED EDDY CURRENT TRANSDUCERS FOR TITANIUM ALLOY EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chady, T.; Sikora, R.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Lopato, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Psuj, G.; Caryk, M.

    2010-02-22

    Titanium alloy based details due to their mechanical properties continue to be in extensive use in various structures (mainly aerospace, automotive and petro-chemical industrial applications). In this paper comparative study of various types of eddy current NDT transducers for testing titanium elements was done. Probes of absolute, differential and array configurations were constructed and analyzed. Two and three dimensional numerical analysis (FEM) were done in order to find the best type and configuration of the proposed transducers.

  2. Recent advances in modeling discontinuities in anisotropic and heterogeneous materials in eddy current NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrin, John C.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.

    2011-06-23

    Recent advances are presented to model discontinuities in random anisotropies that arise in certain materials, such as titanium alloys. A numerical model is developed to provide a full anisotropic representation of each crystalline in a gridded region of the material. Several simulated and experimental demonstrations are presented highlighting the effect of grain noise on eddy current measurements. Agreement between VIC-3D(c) model calculations and experimental data in titanium alloy specimens with known flaws is demonstrated.

  3. Compensation for the eddy current effect in the APS storage ring vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.

    1990-05-30

    The amplitude attenuation and the phase shift of the correction magnet field inside the APS storage ring vacuum chamber due to the eddy current effect were measured. A circuit to compensate for this effect was then inserted between the signal source and the magnet power supply. The amplitude was restored with an error of less than 20% of the source signal amplitude and the phase shift was reduced from 80{degrees} to 12{degrees} at 10 Hz.

  4. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions

    DOEpatents

    Libby, Hugo L.; Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1978-01-01

    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  5. Unsupervised Classification of Surface Defects in Wire Rod Production Obtained by Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Saludes-Rodil, Sergio; Baeyens, Enrique; Rodríguez-Juan, Carlos P.

    2015-01-01

    An unsupervised approach to classify surface defects in wire rod manufacturing is developed in this paper. The defects are extracted from an eddy current signal and classified using a clustering technique that uses the dynamic time warping distance as the dissimilarity measure. The new approach has been successfully tested using industrial data. It is shown that it outperforms other classification alternatives, such as the modified Fourier descriptors. PMID:25938201

  6. Unsupervised classification of surface defects in wire rod production obtained by eddy current sensors.

    PubMed

    Saludes-Rodil, Sergio; Baeyens, Enrique; Rodríguez-Juan, Carlos P

    2015-01-01

    An unsupervised approach to classify surface defects in wire rod manufacturing is developed in this paper. The defects are extracted from an eddy current signal and classified using a clustering technique that uses the dynamic time warping distance as the dissimilarity measure. The new approach has been successfully tested using industrial data. It is shown that it outperforms other classification alternatives, such as the modified Fourier descriptors. PMID:25938201

  7. Assessment of eddy current effects on compression experiments in the TFTR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.L.; Park, W.

    1986-05-01

    The eddy current induced on the TFTR vacuum vessel during compression experiments is estimated based on a cylindrical model. It produces an error magnetic field that generates magnetic islands at the rational magnetic surfaces. The widths of these islands are calculated and found to have some effect on electron energy confinement. However, resistive MHD simulation results indicate that the island formation process can be slowed down by plasma rotation.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Selected Eddy Current Transducers for Titanium Alloy Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chady, T.; Sikora, R.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Lopato, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Psuj, G.; Caryk, M.

    2010-02-01

    Titanium alloy based details due to their mechanical properties continue to be in extensive use in various structures (mainly aerospace, automotive and petro-chemical industrial applications). In this paper comparative study of various types of eddy current NDT transducers for testing titanium elements was done. Probes of absolute, differential and array configurations were constructed and analyzed. Two and three dimensional numerical analysis (FEM) were done in order to find the best type and configuration of the proposed transducers.

  9. STUDIES ON SEXTUPOLE COMPONENTS GENERATED BY EDDY CURRENTS IN THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON.

    SciTech Connect

    CARDONA,J.ABELL,D.T.PEGGS,S.

    2003-05-12

    The Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron is a second generation medical accelerator that it has been designed with a repetition frequency of 30 Hz. This repetition frequency is far above the typical repetition frequency used in medical accelerators. An elliptical beam pipe has been chosen for the RCMS design in order to win as much physical aperture as possible while keeping the magnet dimensions as small as possible. Rapid Cycling induces Eddy current in the magnets. Eddy currents and elliptical beam pipes generate sextupole components that might be necessary to consider. In this paper, the effects of these sextupoles components are evaluated, first by looking at the phase space of a bunch of particles that has been tracked for 62530 turns, and also by evaluating the dynamical aperture of the accelerator. The effect of the sextupoles component in the tuneshift is also evaluated. First results obtained with Marylie show that the width of a phase space ellipse of a bunch of particles is slightly affected by the sextupoles due to the Eddy currents.

  10. Open-loop correction for an eddy current dominated beam-switching magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Koseki, K. Nakayama, H.; Tawada, M.

    2014-04-15

    A beam-switching magnet and the pulsed power supply it requires have been developed for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. To switch bunched proton beams, the dipole magnetic field must reach its maximum value within 40 ms. In addition, the field flatness should be less than 5 × 10{sup −4} to guide each bunched beam to the designed orbit. From a magnetic field measurement by using a long search coil, it was found that an eddy current in the thick endplates and laminated core disturbs the rise of the magnetic field. The eddy current also deteriorates the field flatness over the required flat-top period. The measured field flatness was 5 × 10{sup −3}. By using a double-exponential equation to approximate the measured magnetic field, a compensation pattern for the eddy current was calculated. The integrated magnetic field was measured while using the newly developed open-loop compensation system. A field flatness of less than 5 × 10{sup −4}, which is an acceptable value, was achieved.

  11. Open-loop correction for an eddy current dominated beam-switching magnet.

    PubMed

    Koseki, K; Nakayama, H; Tawada, M

    2014-04-01

    A beam-switching magnet and the pulsed power supply it requires have been developed for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. To switch bunched proton beams, the dipole magnetic field must reach its maximum value within 40 ms. In addition, the field flatness should be less than 5 × 10(-4) to guide each bunched beam to the designed orbit. From a magnetic field measurement by using a long search coil, it was found that an eddy current in the thick endplates and laminated core disturbs the rise of the magnetic field. The eddy current also deteriorates the field flatness over the required flat-top period. The measured field flatness was 5 × 10(-3). By using a double-exponential equation to approximate the measured magnetic field, a compensation pattern for the eddy current was calculated. The integrated magnetic field was measured while using the newly developed open-loop compensation system. A field flatness of less than 5 × 10(-4), which is an acceptable value, was achieved.

  12. Open-loop correction for an eddy current dominated beam-switching magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, K.; Nakayama, H.; Tawada, M.

    2014-04-01

    A beam-switching magnet and the pulsed power supply it requires have been developed for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. To switch bunched proton beams, the dipole magnetic field must reach its maximum value within 40 ms. In addition, the field flatness should be less than 5 × 10-4 to guide each bunched beam to the designed orbit. From a magnetic field measurement by using a long search coil, it was found that an eddy current in the thick endplates and laminated core disturbs the rise of the magnetic field. The eddy current also deteriorates the field flatness over the required flat-top period. The measured field flatness was 5 × 10-3. By using a double-exponential equation to approximate the measured magnetic field, a compensation pattern for the eddy current was calculated. The integrated magnetic field was measured while using the newly developed open-loop compensation system. A field flatness of less than 5 × 10-4, which is an acceptable value, was achieved.

  13. Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

    1999-07-20

    An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements.

  14. Eddy current effect on the microwave permeability of Fe-based nanocrystalline flakes with different sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanhui; Han, Mangui; Tang, Zhongkai; Deng, Longjiang

    2014-04-01

    The effective permeability values of composites containing Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B nanocrystalline flakes have been studied within 0.5-10 GHz. Obvious differences in microwave permeability have been observed between large flakes (size range: 23-111 μm, average thickness: 4.5 μm) and small flakes (size range: 3-21 μm, average thickness: 1.3 μm). The initial real part of microwave permeability of large flakes is larger but it is decreasing faster. The larger flakes also show a larger magnetic loss. Taking into account the eddy current effect, the intrinsic microwave permeability values have been extracted based on the modified Maxwell-Garnet law, which have also been verified by the Acher's law. The dependences of skin depth on frequency have been calculated for both kinds of flakes. It is shown that the eddy current effect in the large flakes is significant. However, the eddy current effect can be ignored in the small flakes.

  15. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions in the presence of nonaxisymmetric eddy current distributions in tokamaks (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Berzak, L.; Jones, A. D.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Logan, N.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Zakharov, L.

    2010-10-15

    The lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) is a modest-sized spherical tokamak (R{sub 0}=0.4 m and a=0.26 m) designed to investigate the low-recycling lithium wall operating regime for magnetically confined plasmas. LTX will reach this regime through a lithium-coated shell internal to the vacuum vessel, conformal to the plasma last-closed-flux surface, and heated to 300-400 deg. C. This structure is highly conductive and not axisymmetric. The three-dimensional nature of the shell causes the eddy currents and magnetic fields to be three-dimensional as well. In order to analyze the plasma equilibrium in the presence of three-dimensional eddy currents, an extensive array of unique magnetic diagnostics has been implemented. Sensors are designed to survive high temperatures and incidental contact with lithium and provide data on toroidal asymmetries as well as full coverage of the poloidal cross-section. The magnetic array has been utilized to determine the effects of nonaxisymmetric eddy currents and to model the start-up phase of LTX. Measurements from the magnetic array, coupled with two-dimensional field component modeling, have allowed a suitable field null and initial plasma current to be produced. For full magnetic reconstructions, a three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the vacuum vessel and shell is under development.

  16. Application of projection methods of multivariate data analysis in eddy current testing of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, V. V.; Egorov, A. V.; Pirogov, A. A.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The paper considers the applicability of projection methods of multivariate data analysis to discriminate between the factors that simultaneously affect the results of multi-frequency eddy current testing of nonmagnetic metals and alloys. Measurements were carried out for copper, magnesium, aluminum alloy and bronze specimens with different electrical conductivity equal to 57, 22, 16 and 7.5 S/m, respectively. The measured probe impedance changes were used to plot hodographs within the frequency range from 100 Hz to 6.4 kHz. The gap width between an attachable parametric probe and the specimen surface was specified using dielectric spacers within the range from 0 to 1 mm. The principal component analysis applied to experimental hodographs allowed us to safely discriminate between the influence of such factors as electrical conductivity of the material and gap width. The proposed approach to discriminating between individual factors that strongly affect eddy current measurement results is an enhancement in eddy current testing of materials.

  17. Vacuum chamber eddy current self-correction for the AGS Booster Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The large sextupole and other multipoles induced by eddy currents in the vacuum chamber (VC) designed for the AGS Booster dipoles have been cancelled by simple coils attached to the VC surface. A two turns per pole back leg winding provides the mmf required to power the correction coil by transformer action, automatically correcting even for the variable {dot B} magnet excitation. Much larger VC positional errors of translation and rotation are acceptable because the coils follow the VC contour: the aberrations and their corrections locally have the same misplaced coordinate system. The self-correction concept could be applied to quadrupoles. However, Booster quadrupole measurements show that induced higher harmonics from VC and other eddy current sources are very small. Thus, with self-correction of the dipole VC eddy current fields, {dot B} effects on the proton rapid cycling Booster optics are reduced to tracking of the fundamental dipole and quadrupole fields. This can be automatically controlled using field monitoring transducers located in a dipole and quadrupole operated in series with the Booster magnets. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-21

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system.

  19. Magnetic Diagnostics for Equilibrium Reconstructions in the Presence of Nonaxisymmetric Eddy Current Distributions in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Logan, N.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Zakharov, L.

    2010-12-10

    The lithium tokamak experiment LTX is a modest-sized spherical tokamak R0=0.4 m and a =0.26 m designed to investigate the low-recycling lithium wall operating regime for magnetically confined plasmas. LTX will reach this regime through a lithium-coated shell internal to the vacuum vessel, conformal to the plasma last-closed-flux surface, and heated to 300-400 oC. This structure is highly conductive and not axisymmetric. The three-dimensional nature of the shell causes the eddy currents and magnetic fields to be three-dimensional as well. In order to analyze the plasma equilibrium in the presence of three-dimensional eddy currents, an extensive array of unique magnetic diagnostics has been implemented. Sensors are designed to survive high temperatures and incidental contact with lithium and provide data on toroidal asymmetries as well as full coverage of the poloidal cross-section. The magnetic array has been utilized to determine the effects of nonaxisymmetric eddy currents and to model the start-up phase of LTX. Measurements from the magnetic array, coupled with two-dimensional field component modeling, have allowed a suitable field null and initial plasma current to be produced. For full magnetic reconstructions, a three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the vacuum vessel and shell is under development.

  20. Inspection and Improvement in Three Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between inspection and improvement, especially on the leadership of teaching, learning and assessment, in three contrasting further education colleges in England. In two of the three colleges, the criteria within the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) Children's Services and Skills' Common Inspection…

  1. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of low-cost prototype hardware, acquisition of infrared thermal data, and initial design of a Smart-Camera based system.

  2. School Improvement through Inspections? First Empirical Insights from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedering, Kathrin; Muller, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, broad discussions on education and educational quality have given impetus to the implementation of many new measures aimed at the improvement of schools in Germany. In this context, school inspections have been introduced in all 16 German federal states during the last 6 years. In the meantime, scientific research into the…

  3. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  4. Effective Conveyer Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    David LaRose

    2006-11-14

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from May 15, 2006 to November 14, 2006. Progress during this period includes significant advances in development of a Smart Camera based prototype system for on-site mechanical splice detection, and continued deployment of both the mechanical splice detection system and the vulcanized splice detection system in area coal mines.

  5. Measurement of eddy-current distribution in the vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Tan, Y; Liu, Y Q

    2015-08-01

    Eddy currents have an important effect on tokamak plasma equilibrium and control of magneto hydrodynamic activity. The vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak is separated into two hemispherical sections by a toroidal insulating barrier. Consequently, the characteristics of eddy currents are more complex than those found in a standard tokamak. Thus, it is necessary to measure and analyze the eddy-current distribution. In this study, we propose an experimental method for measuring the eddy-current distribution in a vacuum vessel. By placing a flexible printed circuit board with magnetic probes onto the external surface of the vacuum vessel to measure the magnetic field parallel to the surface and then subtracting the magnetic field generated by the vertical-field coils, the magnetic field due to the eddy current can be obtained, and its distribution can be determined. We successfully applied this method to the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak, and thus, we obtained the eddy-current distribution despite the presence of the magnetic field generated by the external coils. PMID:26329187

  6. Measurement of eddy-current distribution in the vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Tan, Y.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2015-08-01

    Eddy currents have an important effect on tokamak plasma equilibrium and control of magneto hydrodynamic activity. The vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak is separated into two hemispherical sections by a toroidal insulating barrier. Consequently, the characteristics of eddy currents are more complex than those found in a standard tokamak. Thus, it is necessary to measure and analyze the eddy-current distribution. In this study, we propose an experimental method for measuring the eddy-current distribution in a vacuum vessel. By placing a flexible printed circuit board with magnetic probes onto the external surface of the vacuum vessel to measure the magnetic field parallel to the surface and then subtracting the magnetic field generated by the vertical-field coils, the magnetic field due to the eddy current can be obtained, and its distribution can be determined. We successfully applied this method to the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak, and thus, we obtained the eddy-current distribution despite the presence of the magnetic field generated by the external coils.

  7. Measurement of eddy-current distribution in the vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Tan, Y; Liu, Y Q

    2015-08-01

    Eddy currents have an important effect on tokamak plasma equilibrium and control of magneto hydrodynamic activity. The vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak is separated into two hemispherical sections by a toroidal insulating barrier. Consequently, the characteristics of eddy currents are more complex than those found in a standard tokamak. Thus, it is necessary to measure and analyze the eddy-current distribution. In this study, we propose an experimental method for measuring the eddy-current distribution in a vacuum vessel. By placing a flexible printed circuit board with magnetic probes onto the external surface of the vacuum vessel to measure the magnetic field parallel to the surface and then subtracting the magnetic field generated by the vertical-field coils, the magnetic field due to the eddy current can be obtained, and its distribution can be determined. We successfully applied this method to the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak, and thus, we obtained the eddy-current distribution despite the presence of the magnetic field generated by the external coils.

  8. Simulation for the assessment of wall thinning using eddy current method

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, W.; Komura, I.

    2011-06-23

    A pipe with protective cladding and insulation was simplified to a four-layered structure when the diameter of a pipe is large enough, and analytical solutions for sinusoidal and pulsed wave excitation were derived. Simulation implemented by using the analytical solutions showed that sinusoidal excitation is not appropriate for the monitoring of inner thinning, while pulsed eddy current method can be used to measure wall-thickness regardless of inner or outer thinning by using the decay rate of log(Bz) as a particular parameter to evaluate wall thickness.

  9. The RF performance of cavity made from defective niobium material determined by Eddy Current Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Cooley, L.; Sergatskov, D.; Ozelis, J.; Brinkmann, A.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Pekeler, M.

    2010-10-01

    Eddy current scanning (ECS) has been used to screen niobium sheets to avoid defective material being used in costly cavity fabrication. The evaluation criterion of this quality control tool is not well understood. Past surface studies showed some features were shallow enough to be removed by chemical etching. The remaining features were identified to be small number of deeper inclusions, but mostly unidentifiable features (by chemical analysis). A real cavity made of defective niobium material has been tested. The cavity achieved high performance with comparable results to the cavities made from defect free cavities. Temperature mapping could help to define the control standard clearly.

  10. Eddy-Current Detection Of Cracks In Reinforced Carbon/Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Scott V.; Koshti, Ajay M.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of failures of components made of reinforced carbon/carbon show eddy-current flaw-detection techniques applicable to these components. Investigation focused on space shuttle parts, but applicable to other parts made of carbon/carbon materials. Techniques reveal cracks, too small to be detected visually, in carbon/carbon matrix substrates and in silicon carbide coates on substrates. Also reveals delaminations in carbon/carbon matrices. Used to characterize extents and locations of discontinuities in substrates in situations in which ultrasonic techniques and destructive techniques not practical.

  11. PULSED EDDY CURRENT THICKNESS MEASUREMENT OF SELECTIVE PHASE CORROSION ON NICKEL ALUMINUM BRONZE VALVES

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T. W.; Harlley, D.; Babbar, V. K.; Wannamaker, K.

    2010-02-22

    Nickel Aluminum Bronze (NAB) is a material with marine environment applications that under certain conditions can undergo selective phase corrosion (SPC). SPC involves the removal of minority elements while leaving behind a copper matrix. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) was evaluated for determination of SPC thickness on a NAB valve section with access from the surface corroded side. A primarily linear response of PEC amplitude, up to the maximum available SPC thickness of 4 mm was observed. The combination of reduced conductivity and permeability in the SPC phase relative to the base NAB was used to explain the observed sensitivity of PEC to SPC thickness variations.

  12. Eddy-current-induced artifacts caused by an "MR-compatible" halo device.

    PubMed

    Malko, J A; Hoffman, J C; Jarrett, P J

    1989-11-01

    Traction or halo devices thought to be compatible with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and made of nonferromagnetic metals may actually cause MR image artifacts. The authors have observed such artifacts caused by eddy currents generated in the conducting frame of the device by the radio-frequency excitation field. The severity of the artifact depends on the orientation of the device in the MR unit and can be effectively eliminated by disrupting the electrical continuity of the supporting frame of the device. PMID:2798891

  13. Identification of rebars in a reinforced mesh using eddy current method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankowski, P. K.; Sikora, R.; Chady, T.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an expert system for identification of the basic reinforcement concrete structures parameters like: rebars diameter, thickness of a concrete cover and a kind of rebar's alloy (class). The results of measurement carried out by the eddy current transducers were utilized for the designed system. Measured waveforms are represented by two kinds of attributes, the d-factors represent a waveform shape, and a maximal amplitude. In order to extract an association rules between the specific attributes and the structure parameters a rough set theory was used.

  14. Detecting Weld Zone Over Anticorrosion Painting by Rotating Uniform Eddy Current Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshikawa, H.; Koyama, K.; Naruse, Y.

    2005-04-09

    The authors have studied application of rotating uniform eddy current probe to detecting weld zone in steed material over anticorrosion painting. The probe detects not only weld position by the signal level but also weld direction by the signal phase. The experimental results have indicated that the probe provides a signal almost linear to its position with respect to weld zone center over the full width of weld. The signal of the probe is much less influenced by the painting thickness variation than that of the conventional differential pancake-coils probe.

  15. Eddy Current Minimizing Flow Plug for Use in Flow Conditioning and Flow Metering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An eddy-current-minimizing flow plug has open flow channels formed between the plug's inlet and outlet. Each open flow channel includes (i) a first portion that originates at the inlet face and converges to a location within the plug that is downstream of the inlet, and (ii) a second portion that originates within the plug and diverges to the outlet. The diverging second portion is approximately twice the length of the converging first portion. The plug is devoid of planar surface regions at its inlet and outlet, and in fluid flow planes of the plug that are perpendicular to the given direction of a fluid flowing therethrough.

  16. Analysis and measurements of Eddy current effects of a beam tube in a pulsed magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, S.

    1997-05-01

    The power supply design of the {gamma}{sub f} - jump system in FNAL Main Injector uses a resonant circuit. A critical design parameter is the ac losses of the beam tube in a pulsed quadrupole. This paper gives an analysis to this problem. An equivalent circuit model based on the impedance measurement was established. The measured and calculated losses are in agreement. Another effect of the eddy current is the distortion of the magnetic field inside the beam tube. A Morgan coil was used for field measurements up to 10 KHz. These results are presented in this paper.

  17. Rolling magnets down a conductive hill: Revisiting a classic demonstration of the effects of eddy currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasel, Fernando G.; Marconi, Mario C.

    2012-09-01

    We re-examine the case of rare-earth magnets rolling down an inclined plane, presenting an approach to conducting quantitative investigations that results in high-quality experimental data connecting simple experiments to a handful of important applications of eddy currents. These include not only magnetic braking but also the characterization of conductive materials, measurement of the thickness of dielectric coatings, and nondestructive evaluation of conductive objects. The simplicity of the proposed experimental setups, which include the use of widely available smart phones to record video that can be post-processed with free software, makes these experiments appealing to high school and college physics students.

  18. Thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings using multifrequency eddy current techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dejun; Yu, Yating; Lai, Chao; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-07-01

    To ensure the key structural performance in high-temperature and high-stress environments, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are often adopted in engineering. The thickness of these multi-layer conductive coatings is an important quality indicator. In order to measure the thickness of multi-layer conductive coatings, a new measurement approach is presented using eddy current testing techniques, and then, an inversion algorithm is proposed and proved efficient and applicable, of which the maximum experimental relative error is within 10%. Therefore, the new approach can be effectively applied to thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings such as TBCs.

  19. Highly sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistance magnetometer for Eddy-current nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    He, D F; Tachiki, M; Itozaki, H

    2009-03-01

    Using a commercially available anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) sensor of HMC1001, we developed a sensitive magnetometer. It could operate in amplifier mode or feedback mode. The magnetic field sensitivity of the AMR sensor was about 3.2 mV/V G. When the AMR sensor was biased by a voltage of 24 V, the magnetic field resolutions of the AMR magnetometer were about 12 pT/square root(Hz) at 1 kHz and 20 pT/square root(Hz) at 100 Hz. We used the AMR magnetometer for Eddy-current nondestructive evaluation in unshielded environment.

  20. Design study of magnetic eddy-current vibration suppression dampers for application to cryogenic turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, E. J.; Humphris, R. R.; Severson, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cryogenic turbomachinery used to pump high pressure fuel (liquid H2) and oxidizer (liquid O2) to the main engines of the Space Shuttle have experienced rotor instabilities. Subsynchronous whirl, an extremely destructive instability, has caused bearing failures and severe rubs in the seals. These failures have resulted in premature engine shutdowns or, in many instances, have limited the power level to which the turbopumps could be operated. The feasibility of using an eddy current type of damping mechanism for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is outlined.

  1. Improving the reliability of automated non-destructive inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, N.; Tippetts, T.; Cawley, P.

    2014-02-18

    In automated NDE a region of an inspected component is often interrogated several times, be it within a single data channel, across multiple channels or over the course of repeated inspections. The systematic combination of these diverse readings is recognized to provide a means to improve the reliability of the inspection, for example by enabling noise suppression. Specifically, such data fusion makes it possible to declare regions of the component defect-free to a very high probability whilst readily identifying indications. Registration, aligning input datasets to a common coordinate system, is a critical pre-computation before meaningful data fusion takes place. A novel scheme based on a multiobjective optimization is described. The developed data fusion framework, that is able to identify and rate possible indications in the dataset probabilistically, based on local data statistics, is outlined. The process is demonstrated on large data sets from the industrial ultrasonic testing of aerospace turbine disks, with major improvements in the probability of detection and probability of false call being obtained.

  2. Design and development of scanning eddy current force microscopy for characterization of electrical, magnetic and ferroelectric properties with nanometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalladega, Vijayaraghava

    This dissertation describes the design and development of a new high-resolution electrical conductivity imaging technique combining the basic principles of eddy currents and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An electromagnetic coil is used to generate eddy currents in an electrically conducting material. The eddy currents induced in the sample are detected and measured with a magnetic tip attached to the AFM cantilever. The interaction of eddy currents with the magnetic tip-cantilever is theoretically modeled. The model is then used to estimate the eddy current forces generated in a typical metallic material placed in induced current field. The magnitude of the eddy current force is directly proportional to the electrical conductivity of the sample. The theoretical eddy current forces are used to design a magnetic tip-cantilever system with appropriate magnetic field and spring constant to facilitate the development of a high-resolution, high sensitivity electrical conductivity imaging technique. The technique is used to experimentally measure eddy current forces in metals of different conductivities and compared with theoretical and finite element models. The experimental results show that the technique is capable of measuring pN range eddy current forces. The experimental eddy current forces are used to determine the electrical resistivity of a thin copper wire and the experimental value agrees with the bulk resistivity of copper reported in literature. The imaging capabilities of the new technique are demonstrated by imaging the electrical conductivity variations in a composite sample and a dual-phase titanium alloy in lift mode AFM. The results indicate that this technique can be used to detect very small variations in electrical conductivity. The spatial resolution of the technique is determined to be about 25 nm by imaging carbon nanofibers reinforced in polymer matrix. Since AFM is extensively used to characterize nanomaterials, the newly developed technique is

  3. Reconstruction of stress corrosion cracks using signals of pulsed eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Xie, Shejuan; Chen, Zhenmao; Li, Yong; Wang, Xiaowei; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-01

    A scheme to apply signals of pulsed eddy current testing (PECT) to reconstruct a deep stress corrosion crack (SCC) is proposed on the basis of a multi-layer and multi-frequency reconstruction strategy. First, a numerical method is introduced to extract conventional eddy current testing (ECT) signals of different frequencies from the PECT responses at different scanning points, which are necessary for multi-frequency ECT inversion. Second, the conventional fast forward solver for ECT signal simulation is upgraded to calculate the single-frequency pickup signal of a magnetic field by introducing a strategy that employs a tiny search coil. Using the multiple-frequency ECT signals and the upgraded fast signal simulator, we reconstructed the shape profiles and conductivity of an SCC at different depths layer-by-layer with a hybrid inversion scheme of the conjugate gradient and particle swarm optimisation. Several modelled SCCs of rectangular or stepwise shape in an SUS304 plate are reconstructed from simulated PECT signals with artificial noise. The reconstruction results show better precision in crack depth than the conventional ECT inversion method, which demonstrates the validity and efficiency of the proposed PECT inversion scheme.

  4. Suppressing local hot spots due to eddy currents in magnetic coil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhen; Shojinaga, Aaron; Wu, Yong; Shvartsman, Shmaryu; Eagan, Timothy; Chmielewski, Thomas; Brown, Robert

    2011-03-01

    A particular goal in magnetic field applications is to avoid eddy current heating in coils and shields. It is important, in MRI, for example, to avoid hot spots near the patient to be imaged as well as in the vicinity of soldering joints. We develop effective analytical formulas for the eddy current behavior of sources close to surrounding conductors, we verify these via numerical simulations, and we make successful comparisons to corresponding experimental temperature distributions. Optimized patterns of incisions made in the conductors are discovered for addressing particularly troublesome heating locations. The criteria include the need to minimize the number and length of the cuts. Theory and experiment are in agreement on the efficacy of this method for reducing steady-state temperatures. An example of results in the practical design of commercial coils and shields is that a single cut parallel to the long edge of rectangular conductors reduces the temperatures much more than making multiple cuts parallel to the short edge. Supported by Ohio Third Frontier Program

  5. Combined investigation of Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques for composite materials NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. W.; Nath, S.; Fulton, J. P.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced composites are not without trade-offs. Their increased designability brings an increase in the complexity of their internal geometry and, as a result, an increase in the number of failure modes associated with a defect. When two or more isotropic materials are combined in a composite, the isotropic material failure modes may also combine. In a laminate, matrix delamination, cracking and crazing, and voids and porosity, will often combine with fiber breakage, shattering, waviness, and separation to bring about ultimate structural failure. This combining of failure modes can result in defect boundaries of different sizes, corresponding to the failure of each structural component. This paper discusses a dual-technology NDE (Non Destructive Evaluation) (eddy current (EC) and ultrasonics (UT)) study of graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) laminate samples. Eddy current and ultrasonic raster (Cscan) imaging were used together to characterize the effects of mechanical impact damage, high temperature thermal damage and various types of inserts in gr/ep laminate samples of various stacking sequences.

  6. An analytical demonstration of coupling schemes between magnetohydrodynamic codes and eddy current codes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yueqiang

    2008-07-15

    In order to model a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability that strongly couples to external conducting structures (walls and/or coils) in a fusion device, it is often necessary to combine a MHD code solving for the plasma response, with an eddy current code computing the fields and currents of conductors. We present a rigorous proof of the coupling schemes between these two types of codes. One of the coupling schemes has been introduced and implemented in the CARMA code [R. Albanese, Y. Q. Liu, A. Portone, G. Rubinacci, and F. Villone, IEEE Trans. Magn. 44, 1654 (2008); A. Portone, F. Villone, Y. Q. Liu, R. Albanese, and G. Rubinacci, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 085004 (2008)] that couples the MHD code MARS-F[Y. Q. Liu, A. Bondeson, C. M. Fransson, B. Lennartson, and C. Breitholtz, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] and the eddy current code CARIDDI[R. Albanese and G. Rubinacci, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 102, 1 (1998)]. While the coupling schemes are described for a general toroidal geometry, we give the analytical proof for a cylindrical plasma.

  7. Angular approach combined to mechanical model for tool breakage detection by eddy current sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritou, M.; Garnier, S.; Furet, B.; Hascoet, J. Y.

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents a new complete approach for Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM) in milling. The aim is the early detection of small damages so that catastrophic tool failures are prevented. A versatile in-process monitoring system is introduced for reliability concerns. The tool condition is determined by estimates of the radial eccentricity of the teeth. An adequate criterion is proposed combining mechanical model of milling and angular approach.Then, a new solution is proposed for the estimate of cutting force using eddy current sensors implemented close to spindle nose. Signals are analysed in the angular domain, notably by synchronous averaging technique. Phase shifts induced by changes of machining direction are compensated. Results are compared with cutting forces measured with a dynamometer table.The proposed method is implemented in an industrial case of pocket machining operation. One of the cutting edges has been slightly damaged during the machining, as shown by a direct measurement of the tool. A control chart is established with the estimates of cutter eccentricity obtained during the machining from the eddy current sensors signals. Efficiency and reliability of the method is demonstrated by a successful detection of the damage.

  8. Eddy Current Analysis of Thin Metal Container in Induction Heating by Line Integral Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hagino; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    In recent years, induction-heating cookers have been disseminated explosively. It is wished to commercialize flexible and disposable food containers that are available for induction heating. In order to develop a good quality food container that is heated moderately, it is necessary to analyze accurately eddy currents induced in a thin metal plate. The integral equation method is widely used for solving induction-heating problems. If the plate thickness approaches zero, the surface integral equations on the upper and lower plate surfaces tend to become the same and the equations become ill conditioned. In this paper, firstly, we derive line integral equations from the boundary integral equations on the assumption that the electromagnetic fields in metal are attenuated rapidly compared with those along the metal surface. Next, so as to test validity of the line integral equations, we solve the eddy current induced in a thin metal container in induction heating and obtain power density given to the container and impedance characteristics of the heating coil. We compare computed results with those by FEM.

  9. Characterization of coatings on magnetic metal using the swept-frequency eddy current method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2000-08-01

    A measurement technique using the swept-frequency eddy current (SFEC) method for determining the thickness, conductivity, and permeability of metallic coatings on metal substrates for the case when either coating, substrate, or both are magnetic was developed. This technique involved using the empirically determined permeability of the metals as input to the model calculation. This technique is demonstrated for nickel layers (25-200 μm) over copper substrates, copper layers (25-200 μm) over nickel substrates, and zinc layers (50-400 μm) over steel substrates. The electrical impedance was measured for air-core coils in the presence and absence of the layer using a 4194A Hewlett-Packard impedance analyzer. An analytic closed-form solution for calculating the impedance of a cylindrical air-core probe over a layered metallic half-space is presented. The determination of coating thickness and conductivity and permeability of the metals is based on the comparison of the data taken with air-core coils and theoretical calculation that using the closed-form solution developed. Most of the cases studied show experiment and theory agreeing fairly well, within 10%, with no adjustable parameters. The physical phenomena of eddy currents interaction with the coated magnetic metals are also discussed.

  10. Eddy currents: A misleading contribution when measuring magnetoelectric voltage coefficients of thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More-Chevalier, J.; Cibert, C.; Bouregba, R.; Poullain, G.

    2015-04-01

    Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2/Pt/PbZr0.56Ti0.44O3 (Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT) magnetoelectric (ME) thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate. The ME voltage coefficient αHME was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier and by applying to the sample an alternating magnetic field of a few mT. Surprisingly, very similar responses were obtained from a simple commercial capacitor set in series with a small loop of wire. This allowed us first to accurately model and reproduce the frequency response of the ferroelectric PZT layer alone. We also observed that, at low frequency, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor and the current in the circuit did not decrease significantly when diminishing then removing, the area of the conductive loop. One major conclusion is that eddy currents in the lead wires, rather than the classical electromotive force across conductive loops, contribute significantly to the total voltage response, at least for thin film ME devices. A model taking into account eddy currents was then developed for the extraction of the true αHME. A large αHME of 4.6 V/cm.Oe was thus obtained for the Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field.

  11. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-04-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses.

  12. Numerical analysis of angular defects in bent plates using tone burst eddy-current thermography (TBET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libin, M. N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Maxfield, B. W.

    2013-01-01

    Tone Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET) is a new hybrid, non-contacting, Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDT) method which employs a combination of Pulsed Eddy current Thermography (PEC) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TNDE). For understanding angular cracks, fundamental knowledge about the induced current density distribution in the component under test is required. Further, this information enables us to find the amount of heat produced at those locations and how it diffuses to the surface. This paper describes simulation work done for cracks set at an angle to the surface in flat and bent aluminum plates. The investigation is implemented by the simulating transient thermal distribution for 2D angular cracks via finite element package COMSOL multi-physics with AC/DC module and general heat transfer. At crack edges, induced current is seen concentrated thus indicating a localized high heating in those areas relative to other regions. A numerical study was also carried out by varying parameters like crack angle (0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5°) and crack length (0.6mm, 1.2mm, 1.8mm) the transient thermal distributions were compared for different plate bend angles (180°, 120°, 90°, 60°, 30°). TBET method was found well suited for the detection of service induced cracks, usually caused by either rolling contact fatigue or stress corrosion, with a high degree of sensitivity.

  13. Eddy currents in the anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility measurement - A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezek, Josef; Hrouda, Frantisek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical solutions of Maxwell equations for eddy currents caused by AC field in a conductive sphere, known from 1950s, provide a general formula for magnetic susceptibility. It contains the parameters describing the sphere (its size, conductivity and permeability), surrounding medium (permeability) and the applied field (frequency). The formula is complex and without numerical evaluation it is difficult to distinguish the real (in-phase) and imaginary (out-of-phase) part of susceptibility. Representing all the parameters by only two, relative permeability (sphere vs. medium) and skin ratio (summarizing the effect of sphere size, conductivity and permeability, and frequency of the field), we derive approximate formulas for both phases and the phase angle. These are valid for a reasonable range of parameters (from rock magnetism point of view) and enable us to study their influence. The in-phase susceptibility depends very weakly on the fourth power of the skin ratio while the out-of-phase susceptibility depends more strongly on its second power. The coefficients of the dependence are expressed by means of relative permeability. The approximations of in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibilities provide a possibility to assess possible effects of eddy currents in rocks in case of low content of conductive minerals and solve problems of the type by which size one piece of a mineral in the measured sample can produce a phase shift that is observed by measurement. Examples of magnetite and pyrrhotite are given.

  14. Foucault pendulum with eddy-current damping of the elliptical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastner, G.; Vokurka, V.; Maschek, M.; Vogt, E.; Kaufmann, H. P.

    1984-10-01

    A newly designed Foucault pendulum is described in which the mechanical Charron ring, used throughout in previous designs for damping of the elliptical motion of the pendulum, is replaced by an electromagnetic eddy-current brake, consisting of a permanent magnet attached to the bottom of the bob and a metallic ring. This damping device is very efficient, as it is self-aligning, symmetrical in the damping effect, and never wears out. The permanent magnet is also used, together with a coil assembly and an electronic circuitry, for the dipole-torque drive of the pendulum as well as for accurate stabilization of the amplitude of the swing. A latched time display, controlled by Hall probes activated by the magnet, is used to visualize the Foucault rotation. The pendulum system and its associated electronic circuitry are described in detail. The optimizing of the drive mode is discussed. Measurements of deviations from theoretical value of the Foucault rotation velocity made automatically in a continuous run show a reproducible accuracy of ±1% or better in individual 360° rotations during the summer months. The quality factor of the pendulum as mechanical resonator was measured as a function of the amplitude in the presence of the eddy-current damping ring.

  15. Textural analyses of carbon fiber materials by 2D-FFT of complex images obtained by high frequency eddy current imaging (HF-ECI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Martin H.; Heuer, Henning

    2012-04-01

    Carbon fiber based materials are used in many lightweight applications in aeronautical, automotive, machine and civil engineering application. By the increasing automation in the production process of CFRP laminates a manual optical inspection of each resin transfer molding (RTM) layer is not practicable. Due to the limitation to surface inspection, the quality parameters of multilayer 3 dimensional materials cannot be observed by optical systems. The Imaging Eddy- Current (EC) NDT is the only suitable inspection method for non-resin materials in the textile state that allows an inspection of surface and hidden layers in parallel. The HF-ECI method has the capability to measure layer displacements (misaligned angle orientations) and gap sizes in a multilayer carbon fiber structure. EC technique uses the variation of the electrical conductivity of carbon based materials to obtain material properties. Beside the determination of textural parameters like layer orientation and gap sizes between rovings, the detection of foreign polymer particles, fuzzy balls or visualization of undulations can be done by the method. For all of these typical parameters an imaging classification process chain based on a high resolving directional ECimaging device named EddyCus® MPECS and a 2D-FFT with adapted preprocessing algorithms are developed.

  16. Effect of asymmetrical eddy currents on magnetic diagnosis signals for equilibrium reconstruction in the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Z; Tan, Y; Gao, Z; Wang, L

    2014-11-01

    The vacuum vessel of Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak was split into two insulated hemispheres, both of which were insulated from the central cylinder. The eddy currents flowing in the vacuum vessel would become asymmetrical due to discontinuity. A 3D finite elements model was applied in order to study the eddy currents. The modeling results indicated that when the Poloidal Field (PF) was applied, the induced eddy currents would flow in the toroidal direction in the center of the hemispheres and would be forced to turn to the poloidal and radial directions due to the insulated slit. Since the eddy currents converged on the top and bottom of the vessel, the current densities there tended to be much higher than those in the equatorial plane were. Moreover, the eddy currents on the top and bottom of vacuum vessel had the same direction when the current flowed in the PF coils. These features resulted in the leading phases of signals on the top and bottom flux loops when compared with the PF waveforms. PMID:25430380

  17. Effect of asymmetrical eddy currents on magnetic diagnosis signals for equilibrium reconstruction in the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamaka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. Z.; Tan, Y.; Gao, Z.; Wang, L.

    2014-11-01

    The vacuum vessel of Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak was split into two insulated hemispheres, both of which were insulated from the central cylinder. The eddy currents flowing in the vacuum vessel would become asymmetrical due to discontinuity. A 3D finite elements model was applied in order to study the eddy currents. The modeling results indicated that when the Poloidal Field (PF) was applied, the induced eddy currents would flow in the toroidal direction in the center of the hemispheres and would be forced to turn to the poloidal and radial directions due to the insulated slit. Since the eddy currents converged on the top and bottom of the vessel, the current densities there tended to be much higher than those in the equatorial plane were. Moreover, the eddy currents on the top and bottom of vacuum vessel had the same direction when the current flowed in the PF coils. These features resulted in the leading phases of signals on the top and bottom flux loops when compared with the PF waveforms.

  18. Effect of asymmetrical eddy currents on magnetic diagnosis signals for equilibrium reconstruction in the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Z; Tan, Y; Gao, Z; Wang, L

    2014-11-01

    The vacuum vessel of Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak was split into two insulated hemispheres, both of which were insulated from the central cylinder. The eddy currents flowing in the vacuum vessel would become asymmetrical due to discontinuity. A 3D finite elements model was applied in order to study the eddy currents. The modeling results indicated that when the Poloidal Field (PF) was applied, the induced eddy currents would flow in the toroidal direction in the center of the hemispheres and would be forced to turn to the poloidal and radial directions due to the insulated slit. Since the eddy currents converged on the top and bottom of the vessel, the current densities there tended to be much higher than those in the equatorial plane were. Moreover, the eddy currents on the top and bottom of vacuum vessel had the same direction when the current flowed in the PF coils. These features resulted in the leading phases of signals on the top and bottom flux loops when compared with the PF waveforms.

  19. Characterization of Heat Treated Titanium-Based Implants by Nondestructive Eddy Current and Ultrasonic Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Ekinci, Sinasi; Oktay, Enver

    2014-06-01

    This study presents nondestructive characterization of microstructure and mechanical properties of heat treated Ti, Ti-Cu, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium-based alloys and 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy for biomedical implant applications. Ti, Ti-Cu, and 17-4 PH stainless steel based implants were produced by powder metallurgy. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as bulk wrought specimens. Effects of sintering temperature, aging, and grain size on mechanical properties were investigated by nondestructive and destructive tests comparatively. Ultrasonic velocity in specimens was measured by using pulse-echo and transmission methods. Electrical conductivity of specimens was determined by eddy current tests. Determination of Young's modulus and strength is important in biomedical implants. Young's modulus of specimens was calculated by using ultrasonic velocities. Calculated Young's modulus values were compared and correlated with experimental values.

  20. Calculation of motion induced eddy current forces in null flux coils

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.; Morris, T.; Shaaf, J.; Rote, D.

    1995-11-01

    Time dependent motion induced eddy current forces can be quite difficult to compute. The movement of null flux coils between magnets is approached using a coupled boundary element-circuit approach to compute the forces on the structure. The technique involves treating the magnets as a separate circuit whose current is dictated by the product of the magnet thickness and the working coercivity. The mutual inductance between the windows of the moving null flux coil and the stationary equivalent magnet coil hold the key for predicting lift, guidance, and drag forces on the coil. The rate of change of these inductances with respect to position determines the forces and currents. A steady state approximation to these forces is derived in addition to a numerical simulation when the steady state assumption is invalid. The results compare favorably to laboratory results from a 4 ft. diameter experimental test wheel.

  1. Self-Nulling Eddy Current Probe for Surface and Subsurface Flaw Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, B.; Fulton, J. P.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.; Simpson, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    An eddy current probe which provides a null-signal in the presence of unflawed material without the need for any balancing circuitry has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Such a unique capability of the probe reduces set-up time, eliminates tester configuration errors, and decreases instrumentation requirements. The probe is highly sensitive to surface breaking fatigue cracks, and shows excellent resolution for the measurement of material thickness, including material loss due to corrosion damage. The presence of flaws in the material under test causes an increase in the extremely stable and reproducible output voltage of the probe. The design of the probe and some examples illustrating its flaw detection capabilities are presented.

  2. Analysis of Dissimilar Material Defect Based on Eddy Current Conductivity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Lifu

    In this experiment, the conductivity distribution of lack of penetration (LOP) in friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar materials has been tested, and has been compared with the conductivity distribution of the same kind of material, by using eddy current conductivity meter. CZ state and M state LY12 aluminum alloy has been studied. The results show that when the depth of LOP is small, the conductivity of M state is the highest, the conductivity decreases gradually to the weld center, reduce to the minimum until reach the CZ state base metal. When the depth of LOP is larger, the conductivity of the weld center decreases sharply with the depth of LOP increases gradually. Scilicet, the larger the depth of LOP, the lower the conductivity. The conductivity distribution of other areas is similar to the distribution when the depth of LOP is small.

  3. Eddy Current Minimizing Flow Plug for Use in Flow Conditioning and Flow Metering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An eddy-current-minimizing flow plug has an outer radial wall with open flow channels formed between the plug's inlet and outlet. The plug has a central region coupled to the inner surface of the outer radial wall. Each open flow channel includes (i) a first portion originating at the inlet and converging to a location in the plug where convergence is contributed to by changes in thickness of the outer radial wall and divergence of the central region, and (ii) a second portion originating in the plug and diverging to the outlet where divergence is contributed to by changes in thickness of the outer radial wall and convergence of the central region. For at least a portion of the open flow channels, a central axis passing through the first and second portions is non-parallel with respect to the given direction of the flow.

  4. Surface impedance method applied to the prediction of eddy currents in hydrogenerator stator end regions

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, V.C.; Marechal, Y.; Foggia, A.

    1995-05-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element analysis is employed to investigate the losses of hydrogenerator stator end regions by using surface-impedance boundary conditions. The three-dimensional complexity of the end-winding geometry is fully taken into account by the model. The purpose of this work is also to evaluate the eddy-current paths allowing for slits in the stator teeth and their effectiveness in reducing stator core-end losses. The methodology was applied to the stator core of a 52-pole 300-MVA hydrogenerator in two different cases: (1) with non-slit teeth; (2) with fully slit teeth. It may also be extended to large turbogenerators end regions.

  5. Comparison of three eddy current formulations for superconductor hysteresis loss modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, V.; Lyly, M.; Stenvall, A.; Tarhasaari, T.

    2012-11-01

    As is well known, the superconductor hysteresis loss modelling problem may be formulated as an eddy current (EC) problem in which the resistivity of the superconducting region is modelled with a power law. We compare three EC formulations suitable for the modelling of superconductor hysteresis losses. Namely, the a-v-j-, T-φ- and h-formulations are discussed. We review these formulations, and through simulation results the properties of these formulations are discussed and their suitabilities for different modelling situations are compared. Special attention is paid to the h-formulation: we investigate the effects of the modelling decisions related to resistivity of the air region in an h-formulation based EC solver. According to the results, these decisions affect the energy distribution of the field solution and may even lead to seemingly contradictory behaviour.

  6. Developing and Using Benchmarks for Eddy Current Simulation Codes Validation to Address Industrial Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayos, M.; Buvat, F.; Costan, V.; Moreau, O.; Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Reboud, C.; Foucher, F.

    2011-06-01

    To achieve performance demonstration, which is a legal requirement for the qualification of NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, the use of modeling tools is a valuable support, provided that the employed models have been previously validated. To achieve this, in particular for eddy current modeling, a validation methodology based on the use of specific benchmarks close to the actual industrial issue has to be defined. Nonetheless, considering the high variability in code origin and complexity, the feedback from experience on actual cases has shown that it was critical to define simpler generic and public benchmarks in order to perform a preliminary selection. A specific Working Group has been launched in the frame of COFREND, the French Association for NDE, resulting in the definition of several benchmark problems. This action is now ready for mutualization with similar international approaches.

  7. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  8. A novel high sensitivity sensor for remote field eddy current non-destructive testing based on orthogonal magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojie; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Zhanbin; Jia, Yueling

    2014-01-01

    Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors' disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted. PMID:25615738

  9. A Novel High Sensitivity Sensor for Remote Field Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing Based on Orthogonal Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojie; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Zhanbin; Jia, Yueling

    2014-01-01

    Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors' disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted. PMID:25615738

  10. Robotic Welding and Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    H. B. Smartt; D. P. Pace; E. D. Larsen; T. R. McJunkin; C. I. Nichol; D. E. Clark; K. L. Skinner; M. L. Clark; T. G. Kaser; C. R. Tolle

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a robotic system for GTA welding of lids on cylindrical vessels. The system consists of an articulated robot arm, a rotating positioner, end effectors for welding, grinding, ultrasonic and eddy current inspection. Features include weld viewing cameras, modular software, and text-based procedural files for process and motion trajectories.

  11. On the modeling, design and validation of two dimensional quasi-static eddy current forces in a mechanical oscillator.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, John Anthony; Epp, David S.; Wittwer, Jonathan W.

    2005-10-01

    Damping vibrations is important in the design of some types of inertial sensing devices. One method for adding damping to a device is to use magnetic forces generated by a static magnetic field interacting with eddy currents. In this report, we develop a 2-dimensional finite element model for the analysis of quasistatic eddy currents in a thin sheet of conducting material. The model was used for design and sensitivity analyses of a novel mechanical oscillator that consists of a shuttle mass (thin sheet of conducting material) and a set of folded spring elements. The oscillator is damped through the interaction of a static magnetic field and eddy currents in the shuttle mass. Using a prototype device and Laser Dopler Velocimetry (LDV), measurements were compared to the model in a validation study using simulation based uncertainty analyses. Measurements were found to follow the trends predicted by the model.

  12. Effects of eddy currents due to a vacuum chamber wall in the airgap of a moving-magnet linear actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J. W.; Lomonova, E. A.; Rovers, J. M. M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper discusses the effects of eddy currents induced in an electrically conducting plate which is placed in the airgap of a linear synchronous actuator with moving permanent magnets. The eddy currents induced in this plate, which is part of a controlled atmosphere chamber, cause not only damping but also deteriorate the actuator performance by disturbing the position measurement with Hall sensors. Furthermore, feed-forward controllers are less effective due to the suppression of high frequent armature fields. These effects are analyzed with an analytical model and verified with finite element simulations and measurements.

  13. Computer Calculations of Eddy-Current Power Loss in Rotating Titanium Wheels and Rims in Localized Axial Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhall, D J; Stein, W; Gronberg, J B

    2006-05-15

    We have performed preliminary computer-based, transient, magnetostatic calculations of the eddy-current power loss in rotating titanium-alloy and aluminum wheels and wheel rims in the predominantly axially-directed, steady magnetic fields of two small, solenoidal coils. These calculations have been undertaken to assess the eddy-current power loss in various possible International Linear Collider (ILC) positron target wheels. They have also been done to validate the simulation code module against known results published in the literature. The commercially available software package used in these calculations is the Maxwell 3D, Version 10, Transient Module from the Ansoft Corporation.

  14. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Equipment, Methods and Applications RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U. S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on eddy current testing. The subject is presented under the following headings: Test Coils, Methods and Indications, and Applications. High product quality and…

  15. Mountable eddy current sensor for in-situ remote detection of surface and sub-surface fatigue cracks

    DOEpatents

    Yepez, III, Esteban; Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk A.; DeLong, Waylon A.

    2011-09-06

    A wireless, integrated, mountable, portable, battery-operated, non-contact eddy current sensor that provides similar accuracy to 1970's laboratory scale equipment (e.g., a Hewlett-Packard GP4194A Impedance Analyzer) at a fraction of the size and cost.

  16. Analysis of the temporal and spatial dependence of the eddy current fields in a 40-cm bore magnet.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S; Hughes, D G; Liu, Q; Allen, P S

    1992-05-01

    Eddy current fields, generated in an animal-size superconducting NMR magnet by a nominally rectangular pulsed transverse gradient applied in the vertical direction, have been studied by measuring the offset frequency of the proton NMR signal obtained from a small spherical sample. Measurements were made, after various time delays, at nine different locations in the sample space. Analysis of the data shows that the time-dependent fields at all nine locations are quite well accounted for by the superposition of only four independent exponentially decaying components that have time constants in the range from 9 to 400 ms. Two of these were found to be caused by eddy currents generated in the magnet structure. They generate primarily linear gradients, though one of them also produces a B0 shift, indicating a significant asymmetry about the isocenter of the conducting structure in which the eddy current flows. The other two exponentially decaying components, which had very different time constants from the eddy currents and also initial amplitudes of the opposite sign, were generated by the preemphasis unit. This calls into question the procedure used to adjust the preemphasis unit and an alternative method is proposed.

  17. Characterization and correction of eddy-current artifacts in unipolar and bipolar diffusion sequences using magnetic field monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Rachel W.; von Deuster, Constantin; Giese, Daniel; Stoeck, Christian T.; Harmer, Jack; Aitken, Andrew P.; Atkinson, David; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of moving organs is gaining increasing attention but robust performance requires sequence modifications and dedicated correction methods to account for system imperfections. In this study, eddy currents in the "unipolar" Stejskal-Tanner and the velocity-compensated "bipolar" spin-echo diffusion sequences were investigated and corrected for using a magnetic field monitoring approach in combination with higher-order image reconstruction. From the field-camera measurements, increased levels of second-order eddy currents were quantified in the unipolar sequence relative to the bipolar diffusion sequence while zeroth and linear orders were found to be similar between both sequences. Second-order image reconstruction based on field-monitoring data resulted in reduced spatial misalignment artifacts and residual displacements of less than 0.43 mm and 0.29 mm (in the unipolar and bipolar sequences, respectively) after second-order eddy-current correction. Results demonstrate the need for second-order correction in unipolar encoding schemes but also show that bipolar sequences benefit from second-order reconstruction to correct for incomplete intrinsic cancellation of eddy-currents.

  18. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-5, Fundamentals of Eddy Current Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This fifth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the fundamental concepts applicable to eddy current testing in general. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to…

  19. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-6, Operation of Eddy Current Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This sixth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II details eddy current examination of steam generator tubing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  20. Detection of cold cracks in the cast-steels by the methods of ultrasonic and eddy-current infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheprasov, A. I.; Knyazev, S. V.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Dolgopolov, A. E.; Mamedov, R. O.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of detection of cold cracks in the massive steel products using ultrasonic and eddy-current excitation, as well as the thermal imaging method of temperature recording, that in the perspective should be completed by the development of requirements for the monitoring equipment.

  1. Characterization and correction of eddy-current artifacts in unipolar and bipolar diffusion sequences using magnetic field monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chan, Rachel W; von Deuster, Constantin; Giese, Daniel; Stoeck, Christian T; Harmer, Jack; Aitken, Andrew P; Atkinson, David; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of moving organs is gaining increasing attention but robust performance requires sequence modifications and dedicated correction methods to account for system imperfections. In this study, eddy currents in the "unipolar" Stejskal-Tanner and the velocity-compensated "bipolar" spin-echo diffusion sequences were investigated and corrected for using a magnetic field monitoring approach in combination with higher-order image reconstruction. From the field-camera measurements, increased levels of second-order eddy currents were quantified in the unipolar sequence relative to the bipolar diffusion sequence while zeroth and linear orders were found to be similar between both sequences. Second-order image reconstruction based on field-monitoring data resulted in reduced spatial misalignment artifacts and residual displacements of less than 0.43 mm and 0.29 mm (in the unipolar and bipolar sequences, respectively) after second-order eddy-current correction. Results demonstrate the need for second-order correction in unipolar encoding schemes but also show that bipolar sequences benefit from second-order reconstruction to correct for incomplete intrinsic cancellation of eddy-currents. PMID:24880880

  2. The development of an ultralow frequency eddy current instrument for the detection and sizing of stress corrosion cracks: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hayford, D.T.

    1988-05-04

    Eddy current testing has received only limited application to ferrous materials because the high permeability of the material in combination with the normally high frequency of the eddy current instrument results in a very small depth of penetration of the eddy currents into the material. The objectives of this research program were threefold. The first goal was to develop an eddy current instrument with frequencies low enough to penetrate pipeline steel. The second was to use the new instrument to develop techniques for locating stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) on coated pipelines without requiring the removal of the coating. Our last goal was to develop methods of characterizing SCC, i.e., determining the lengths and depths of the defects. We accomplished two out of these three goals; we were able to build the instrument and use it to detect SCC in pipelines. Simple defect characterization algorithms (measuring defect length and depth) have been more difficult to develop. At present we can estimate the depth of ''long'' defects (relative to the coil diameter) but have problems with shorter ones. 24 figs.

  3. Test for fine defects beneath precision surface using novel magneto-optic/pulsed eddy current NDT technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mu-cheng; Wang, Ya-ping

    2006-02-01

    A Magneto-Optic (MO) system is being utilized in aerospace industry for the detection of surface defects. To extend the capability of the instrument to detect and quantify sub-surface defect, we present a new Magneto-Optic (MO)/Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) imaging system which, supported by laser, is being used for testing fine defects beneath precision surface of mental materials. The technique is based on the combination of pulsed eddy current excitation and magneto-optic sensing and imaging. In the experimental set-up, the induction of eddy currents is conventionally performed by pulsed current excitation coil over the object surface. The magnetic field induced by the pulsed eddy currents is detected by using Faraday effect. For this target, a laser beam passes through a special crystal, Faraday rotation glass (FRG), which has its easy axis of magnetization in the direction of normal magnetic fields and memory effect, integrated in the excitation coil. The polarization direction of laser beam is rotated in crystal depending on local magnetic field. The area distribution of rotation angle caused by fine defects beneath precision surface is transformed into "light" or "dark" picture using an optical set-up, which consists of a conventional microscope, a lighting, a polarimeter, and a CCD sensor. In the paper, the basic principle, configuration of the test equipment and image processing are described, and an original experimental results of fine artificial defects beneath precision surface of mental materials is presented.

  4. Corrosion Assessment of Steel Bars Used in Reinforced Concrete Structures by Means of Eddy Current Testing.

    PubMed

    de Alcantara, Naasson P; da Silva, Felipe M; Guimarães, Mateus T; Pereira, Matheus D

    2015-12-24

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on the use of Eddy Current Testing (ECT) to evaluate corrosion processes in steel bars used in reinforced concrete structures. The paper presents the mathematical basis of the ECT sensor built by the authors; followed by a finite element analysis. The results obtained in the simulations are compared with those obtained in experimental tests performed by the authors. Effective resistances and inductances; voltage drops and phase angles of wound coil are calculated using both; simulated and experimental data; and demonstrate a strong correlation. The production of samples of corroded steel bars; by using an impressed current technique is also presented. The authors performed experimental tests in the laboratory using handmade sensors; and the corroded samples. In the tests four gauges; with five levels of loss-of-mass references for each one were used. The results are analyzed in the light of the loss-of-mass and show a strong linear behavior for the analyzed parameters. The conclusions emphasize the feasibility of the proposed technique and highlight opportunities for future works.

  5. An eddy current vector potential formulation for estimating hysteresis losses of superconductors with FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, A.; Tarhasaari, T.

    2010-12-01

    Many people these days employ only commercial finite element method (FEM) software when solving for the hysteresis losses of superconductors. Thus, the knowledge of a modeller is in the capability of using the black boxes of software efficiently. This has led to a relatively superficial examination of different formulations while the discussion stays mainly on the usage of the user interfaces of these programs. Also, if we stay only at the mercy of commercial software producers, we end up having less and less knowledge on the details of solvers. Then, it becomes more and more difficult to conceptually solve new kinds of problem. This may prevent us finding new kinds of method to solve old problems more efficiently, or finding a solution for a problem that was considered almost impossible earlier. In our earlier research, we presented the background of a co-tree gauged T-phiv FEM solver for computing the hysteresis losses of superconductors. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of FEM and eddy current vector potential formulation in the same problem.

  6. Investigation of pulsed eddy current probes for detection of defects in riveted structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Binfeng; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-09-01

    The fatigue crack is the threat to integrity and safety of fuselage lap-joints. Quantification of fatigue cracks by designing and utilisation of an optimised electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation probe can insure the flight safety of aircrafts. In this paper, pulsed eddy current (PEC) for detection and characterisation of fatigue cracks is investigated. The principle of PEC is analysed first, from which four different models of PEC probes are simulated in ANSYS. The signal features, namely zero-crossing time, zero-crossing frequency and peak value are extracted from the time and frequency domains in an effort to qualitatively compare the crack detectability of the four models. The sensitivities of the different probes to cracks are analysed quantitatively. The difference in detectability among the probes is investigated based on the working principle. Simulation results show that the probe consisting of two horizontal detecting coils along with a magnetic field shield focusing the flux has the highest detectability. The conclusions derived from the simulation study are also validated by experiments.

  7. Measurements of the transverse resistance and eddy current losses in a cable-in-conduit conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Il'in, A. A.; Naumov, A. V.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Shutov, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of plasma current interruption in tokamaks, the conductor of toroidial field (TF) coils experiences the action of a pulsed decreasing magnetic field (PDMF) parallel to the conductor's axis. To estimate the stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor against the PDMF, a new experimental method to study different types of losses is applied. This method exploits a high sensitivity of temperature and gas pressure to input energy in a closed volume. It allows one to measure hysteresis losses with a rather high accuracy (provided that the rate of change of the PDMF is low) and a sum of hysteresis losses and eddy current losses (when the rate of change of the PDMF is high). An experimental setup to measure the transverse (circumferential) resistance and losses has been developed at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. A Russianmade Nb3Sn conductor intended for the TF coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is subjected to a PDMF with different amplitudes and characteristic times. The electromagnetic time constant and the transverse resistivity of the conductor are experimentally determined. The maximum temperature of strands under the action of the PDMF is calculated.

  8. An eddy-current-based sensor for preventing knots in metallic wire drawing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Bernat; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Baquero, Grau; Ferrater, Cèsar

    2011-06-01

    During metallic wire drawing processes, the presence of knots and the failure to detect them can lead to long production interruptions, significant economic losses and a lower quality of final product. Consequently, there is a pressing need to develop methods for real-time detection and prevention of this fault. In this paper, a sensor to prevent the formation of knots during the metallic wire drawing process is presented and evaluated by means of experimental data. This fast, inexpensive, non-contact sensor is based on electromagnetic principles such as eddy current induction, magnetic reluctance variations and magnetic coupling. The proposed sensor without direct contact can detect knots in a target metallic wire by measuring the impedance variations of a calibrated sensing coil caused by either a knot or an unwound loop rising from a wire rod. The incorporation of this type of sensor into a wire-drawing machine can avoid the tightening of the knot, thereby reducing downtime and increasing the security and reliability of the process. Experiments were conducted using a scale model of the above proposed system. This allowed highlighting the sensor's potential by carrying out an automatic, real-time knot detection during steel wire drawing.

  9. A discrete geometric formulation for eddy-current problems in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, Paolo; Furno Palumbo, Maurizio; Specogna, Ruben

    2014-03-01

    All thermonuclear controlled fusion devices under construction or design have such high performances to require a special care in the dimensioning of various components, specifically from the electromagnetic point of view. To this purpose, it is fundamental to develop models which are both accurate (i.e. able to describe the physical phenomena) and predictive (i.e. useful not only to explain what happens in running experiments, but also to reliably extrapolate to other range of parameters). The dynamics of fusion plasmas is often conveniently described by Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) equations, which predict that some unstable evolution modes may exist. On the other hand, the complexity of the intrinsically 3D model of the interactions between a realistic unstable plasma, the surrounding passive structures (important to guarantee a good MHD stability) and the active conductors (coils) require the numerical solution of challenging electromagnetic problems. In this work a discrete geometric formulation for eddy-current problems in the frequency domain is developed; the magnetic fields produced by a typical active coil system is calculated in the presence of 3D conductive structures.

  10. Global electromagnetic induction in the moon and planets. [poloidal eddy current transient response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments and analyses concerning electromagnetic induction in the moon and other extraterrestrial bodies are summarized. The theory of classical electromagnetic induction in a sphere is first considered, and this treatment is extended to the case of the moon, where poloidal eddy-current response has been found experimentally to dominate other induction modes. Analysis of lunar poloidal induction yields lunar internal electrical conductivity and temperature profiles. Two poloidal-induction analytical techniques are discussed: a transient-response method applied to time-series magnetometer data, and a harmonic-analysis method applied to data numerically Fourier-transformed to the frequency domain, with emphasis on the former technique. Attention is given to complicating effects of the solar wind interaction with both induced poloidal fields and remanent steady fields. The static magnetization field induction mode is described, from which are calculated bulk magnetic permeability profiles. Magnetic field measurements obtained from the moon and from fly-bys of Venus and Mars are studied to determine the feasibility of extending theoretical and experimental induction techniques to other bodies in the solar system.

  11. Application of Hilbert-Huang transform for defect recognition in pulsed eddy current testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoling; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Guangxin

    2015-07-01

    Defect recognition plays an important role in the structure integrity and health monitor of in-service equipment. However, it is difficult to recognise deep-layer defect or small-size defect in conductive structure during pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing. Aiming at the issue, this article proposes a method based on Hilbert-Huang transform which consists of two modules: data processing and defect recognition. In the data processing module, the PEC response signal is decomposed into a few of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. The IMFs whose variance contribution rates are bigger than 1% are chosen to reconstruct signal in order to remove noise. In the defect recognition module, the features based on specific frequency components of marginal spectrum (MS) of the reconstructed signals are extracted to discriminate those defects in surface and subsurface. Furthermore, the normalisation MS energy ratio is proposed to quantify defects which cannot be distinguished using peak value in time domain. Experiments show that the proposed method can achieve better de-noising effect and defect evaluation, which contributes to the recognition of those complicated defects such as deep-layered and small-sized defect.

  12. Corrosion Assessment of Steel Bars Used in Reinforced Concrete Structures by Means of Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    de Alcantara, Naasson P.; da Silva, Felipe M.; Guimarães, Mateus T.; Pereira, Matheus D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on the use of Eddy Current Testing (ECT) to evaluate corrosion processes in steel bars used in reinforced concrete structures. The paper presents the mathematical basis of the ECT sensor built by the authors; followed by a finite element analysis. The results obtained in the simulations are compared with those obtained in experimental tests performed by the authors. Effective resistances and inductances; voltage drops and phase angles of wound coil are calculated using both; simulated and experimental data; and demonstrate a strong correlation. The production of samples of corroded steel bars; by using an impressed current technique is also presented. The authors performed experimental tests in the laboratory using handmade sensors; and the corroded samples. In the tests four gauges; with five levels of loss-of-mass references for each one were used. The results are analyzed in the light of the loss-of-mass and show a strong linear behavior for the analyzed parameters. The conclusions emphasize the feasibility of the proposed technique and highlight opportunities for future works. PMID:26712754

  13. Open loop compensation for the eddy current effect in the APS storage ring vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Bridges, J.; Emery, L.; Decker, G.

    1991-01-01

    In the third generation synchrotron light sources, closed orbit stabilization against external vibrations is critical to ensure low emittance and high brightness. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will use a large number (678) of correction magnets to create local bumps and to achieve global orbit stabilization. In this paper, we will present the result of the effort to counter the effect due to the finite inductance of the magnet and the eddy current in the 1/2 in.-thick aluminum storage ring vacuum chamber. The amplitude attenuation and the phase shift of the correction magnet field inside the APS storage ring vacuum chamber were measured. A circuit to compensate for this effect was then inserted between the signal source and the magnet power supply. The amplitude was restored with an error of less than 20% of the source signal amplitude and the phase shift was reduced from 80{degrees} to 12{degrees} at 10 Hz. Incorporation of this circuit in the closed loop feedback scheme and the resulting beneficial effect in the closed orbit stabilization will be discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Frequency Optimization for Enhancement of Surface Defect Classification Using the Eddy Current Technique

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Mengbao; Wang, Qi; Cao, Binghua; Ye, Bo; Sunny, Ali Imam; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    Eddy current testing is quite a popular non-contact and cost-effective method for nondestructive evaluation of product quality and structural integrity. Excitation frequency is one of the key performance factors for defect characterization. In the literature, there are many interesting papers dealing with wide spectral content and optimal frequency in terms of detection sensitivity. However, research activity on frequency optimization with respect to characterization performances is lacking. In this paper, an investigation into optimum excitation frequency has been conducted to enhance surface defect classification performance. The influences of excitation frequency for a group of defects were revealed in terms of detection sensitivity, contrast between defect features, and classification accuracy using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and a support vector machine (SVM). It is observed that probe signals are the most sensitive on the whole for a group of defects when excitation frequency is set near the frequency at which maximum probe signals are retrieved for the largest defect. After the use of KPCA, the margins between the defect features are optimum from the perspective of the SVM, which adopts optimal hyperplanes for structure risk minimization. As a result, the best classification accuracy is obtained. The main contribution is that the influences of excitation frequency on defect characterization are interpreted, and experiment-based procedures are proposed to determine the optimal excitation frequency for a group of defects rather than a single defect with respect to optimal characterization performances. PMID:27164112

  15. 3-D transient eddy current calculations for the FELIX cylinder experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.R.; Turner, L.R.

    1986-12-01

    The three-dimensional eddy current transient field problem is formulated first using the U-V method. This method breaks the vector Helmholtz equation into two scalar Helmholtz equations. Null field integral equations and the appropriate boundary conditions are used to set up an identification matrix which is independent of null field point locations. Embedded in the identification matrix are the unknown eigenvalues of the problem representing its impulse response in time. These eigenvalues are found by equating the determinant of the identification matrix to zero. When this initial forcing function is Fourier decomposed into its spatial harmonics, each Fourier component can be associated with a unique eigenvalue by this technique. The true transient solution comes through a convolution of the impulse response so obtained with the particular external field decay governing the problem at hand. The technique is applied to the FELIX cylinder experiments; computed results are compared to data. A pseudoanalytic confirmation of the eigenvalues so obtained is formulated to validate the procedure.

  16. Frequency Optimization for Enhancement of Surface Defect Classification Using the Eddy Current Technique.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mengbao; Wang, Qi; Cao, Binghua; Ye, Bo; Sunny, Ali Imam; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-05-07

    Eddy current testing is quite a popular non-contact and cost-effective method for nondestructive evaluation of product quality and structural integrity. Excitation frequency is one of the key performance factors for defect characterization. In the literature, there are many interesting papers dealing with wide spectral content and optimal frequency in terms of detection sensitivity. However, research activity on frequency optimization with respect to characterization performances is lacking. In this paper, an investigation into optimum excitation frequency has been conducted to enhance surface defect classification performance. The influences of excitation frequency for a group of defects were revealed in terms of detection sensitivity, contrast between defect features, and classification accuracy using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and a support vector machine (SVM). It is observed that probe signals are the most sensitive on the whole for a group of defects when excitation frequency is set near the frequency at which maximum probe signals are retrieved for the largest defect. After the use of KPCA, the margins between the defect features are optimum from the perspective of the SVM, which adopts optimal hyperplanes for structure risk minimization. As a result, the best classification accuracy is obtained. The main contribution is that the influences of excitation frequency on defect characterization are interpreted, and experiment-based procedures are proposed to determine the optimal excitation frequency for a group of defects rather than a single defect with respect to optimal characterization performances.

  17. Fast numerical calculation for crack modeling in eddy current testing of ferromagnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haoyu; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2003-11-01

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is a nondestructive testing method for metal materials. Numerical methods are applied to predict the ECT signals, to aid in the design of ECT probes, and to reconstruct crack shapes from their ECT signals. For the testing of nonferromagnetic materials, the high accuracy of some numerical simulation techniques has been demonstrated and several fast computational methods have been presented. However, the numerical calculation of electromagnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials remains a difficult and time-consuming task. Representing cracks in ferromagnetic materials with secondary electric and magnetic sources leads to a fast method for predicting ECT signals as presented in this article. The method developed here, that can be used to treat ferromagnetics, is an extension of the precomputed database approach based on the magnetic vector potential method. With the aid of precomputed databases, ECT signals of different cracks can be computed from changes in the secondary sources in a small region, without considering the geometries of the whole conductor. This results in fewer degrees of freedom than those of typical finite element approaches, and the method provides a forward simulator that is about 80 times faster than the conventional one without loss of accuracy, even in the case of ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Modeling and evaluation of damping coefficient of eddy current dampers in rotordynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detoni, J. G.; Cui, Q.; Amati, N.; Tonoli, A.

    2016-07-01

    Eddy current dampers (ECD) can be used to introduce damping in rotordynamic applications. ECDs are contactless in nature and can be made to introduce negligible drag force, thus being a perfect match for passive magnetic bearings such as permanent magnet bearings and superconducting bearings. However, modeling and estimating the amount of damping introduced by an ECD is a difficult task due to complicated geometry and working conditions. The present study presents a novel method for modeling and identification of the damping characteristics of ECDs for rotordynamic applications. The proposed method employs an analytical dynamic model of the ECD and curve fitting with results of electromagnetic finite element (FE) models to obtain the parameters characterizing the ECD's mechanical impedance. The damping coefficient can be obtained with great accuracy from a single FE solution in quasistatic conditions. The validity of the proposed method is limited to the case of ECDs employing an axisymmetric conductor, such as a disc or a cylinder, thus covering most cases in rotordynamic applications. Finally, the accuracy of the identification procedure is verified experimentally by comparing the model's results with experimental tests.

  19. Fast Acting Eddy Current Driven Valve for Massive Gas Injection on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Lyttle, Mark S; Baylor, Larry R; Carmichael, Justin R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Ericson, Milton Nance; Ezell, N Dianne Bull; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, David A; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Maruyama, So; Kiss, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Tokamak plasma disruptions present a significant challenge to ITER as they can result in intense heat flux, large forces from halo and eddy currents, and potential first-wall damage from the generation of multi-MeV runaway electrons. Massive gas injection (MGI) of high Z material using fast acting valves is being explored on existing tokamaks and is planned for ITER as a method to evenly distribute the thermal load of the plasma to prevent melting, control the rate of the current decay to minimize mechanical loads, and to suppress the generation of runaway electrons. A fast acting valve and accompanying power supply have been designed and first test articles produced to meet the requirements for a disruption mitigation system on ITER. The test valve incorporates a flyer plate actuator similar to designs deployed on TEXTOR, ASDEX upgrade, and JET [1 3] of a size useful for ITER with special considerations to mitigate the high mechanical forces developed during actuation due to high background magnetic fields. The valve includes a tip design and all-metal valve stem sealing for compatibility with tritium and high neutron and gamma fluxes.

  20. Frequency Optimization for Enhancement of Surface Defect Classification Using the Eddy Current Technique.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mengbao; Wang, Qi; Cao, Binghua; Ye, Bo; Sunny, Ali Imam; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    Eddy current testing is quite a popular non-contact and cost-effective method for nondestructive evaluation of product quality and structural integrity. Excitation frequency is one of the key performance factors for defect characterization. In the literature, there are many interesting papers dealing with wide spectral content and optimal frequency in terms of detection sensitivity. However, research activity on frequency optimization with respect to characterization performances is lacking. In this paper, an investigation into optimum excitation frequency has been conducted to enhance surface defect classification performance. The influences of excitation frequency for a group of defects were revealed in terms of detection sensitivity, contrast between defect features, and classification accuracy using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and a support vector machine (SVM). It is observed that probe signals are the most sensitive on the whole for a group of defects when excitation frequency is set near the frequency at which maximum probe signals are retrieved for the largest defect. After the use of KPCA, the margins between the defect features are optimum from the perspective of the SVM, which adopts optimal hyperplanes for structure risk minimization. As a result, the best classification accuracy is obtained. The main contribution is that the influences of excitation frequency on defect characterization are interpreted, and experiment-based procedures are proposed to determine the optimal excitation frequency for a group of defects rather than a single defect with respect to optimal characterization performances. PMID:27164112

  1. Eddy current characterization of small cracks using least square support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelabi, M.; Hacib, T.; Le Bihan, Y.; Ikhlef, N.; Boughedda, H.; Mekideche, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    Eddy current (EC) sensors are used for non-destructive testing since they are able to probe conductive materials. Despite being a conventional technique for defect detection and localization, the main weakness of this technique is that defect characterization, of the exact determination of the shape and dimension, is still a question to be answered. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of small crack sizing using signals acquired from an EC sensor. We report our effort to develop a systematic approach to estimate the size of rectangular and thin defects (length and depth) in a conductive plate. The achieved approach by the novel combination of a finite element method (FEM) with a statistical learning method is called least square support vector machines (LS-SVM). First, we use the FEM to design the forward problem. Next, an algorithm is used to find an adaptive database. Finally, the LS-SVM is used to solve the inverse problems, creating polynomial functions able to approximate the correlation between the crack dimension and the signal picked up from the EC sensor. Several methods are used to find the parameters of the LS-SVM. In this study, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed for tuning the LS-SVM. The results of the design and the inversions were compared to both simulated and experimental data, with accuracy experimentally verified. These suggested results prove the applicability of the presented approach.

  2. Modelling and control of an adaptive tuned mass damper based on shape memory alloys and eddy currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardengo, M.; Cigada, A.; Guanziroli, F.; Manzoni, S.

    2015-08-01

    Tuned mass dampers have long since been used to attenuate vibrations. The need to make them adaptive in order to function even after changes of the dynamic characteristics of the system to be controlled has led to using many different technologies with the aim of improving adaptation performances. Shape memory alloys have already been proven to have properties suitable for creating adaptive tuned mass dampers for light structures. However, the literature has evidenced a number of issues concerning tuned mass dampers based on shape memory alloys, for instance the limited range of adaptation for the eigenfrequency of the damper. The present paper proposes a new layout for adaptive tuned mass dampers based on shape memory alloys, which allows to overcome many of the limitations and to reach a wide range of adaptation for the eigenfrequency. This layout relies on the use of shape memory alloy wires, so that the change of eigenfrequency is achieved by changing the axial load acting on these wires. The new tuned mass damper is then made fully adaptive by including a device that uses the principle of eddy currents, which allows also to change the damping of the tuned mass damper. Indeed, this new kind of damper is designed to dampen vibrations in systems excited by a random disturbance. The paper illustrates the layout and the model of the whole damper and validates it. This model moreover evidences all the advantages allowed by the new layout proposed. Finally, two different strategies to control the dynamic characteristics of the new adaptive tuned mass damper are presented and compared, both numerically as well as experimentally, so to illustrate strengths and drawbacks of each. The experiments and the simulations show that this new damper is fully capable of functioning when random excitation acts as disturbance on the system to control.

  3. In Situ Robotic Inspection Of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Wyk, Lisa M.; Garcia, Raul C., Jr.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Automated system reduces delays in inspection and rework. System reduces inspection-and-rework delay from days to hours. Path of inspection sensors taken directly from welding path saving time in programming for inspection. Inspection data stored so not lost as inspection equipment turned off. Same robot welding workpiece used to inspect it. In preparation, welding tool mounted on end effector of robot replaced with eddy-current or ultrasonic sensor. Robot recalls welding path from memory and retraces it, recording sensor output as it proceeds.

  4. Characterization and correction of system delays and eddy currents for MR imaging with ultrashort echo-time and time-varying gradients.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Ian C; Lu, Aiming; Thulborn, Keith R

    2009-08-01

    Reconstruction of high-quality MR images requires precise knowledge of the dynamic gradient magnetic fields used to perform spatial encoding. System delays and eddy currents can perturb the gradient fields in both time and space and significantly degrade the image quality for acquisitions with an ultrashort echo time or with rapidly varying readout gradient waveforms. A technique for simultaneously characterizing and correcting the system delay and linear- and zero-order eddy currents of an MR system is proposed. A single set of calibration scans were used to compute a set of system constants that describe the effects of system delays and eddy currents to enable accurate reconstruction of data collected before uncorrected eddy currents have decayed. The ability of the proposed technique to reproducibly characterize small fixed delays (<50 micros) and short-time constant (<1 ms) eddy currents is demonstrated.

  5. Nondestructive evaluation of loose assemblies using multi-frequency eddy currents and artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourc'h, Eric; Joubert, Pierre-Yves; Le Gac, Guillaume; larzabal, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of the evaluation of metallic assemblies in an aeronautical context, by means of a non-invasive method. The problems lies in the estimation of the distance separating two aluminum plates representative of a loose assembly (up to 300 µm), the top plate being possibly of unknown thickness ranging from 1 to 8 mm. To do so, the eddy current (EC) method is chosen, because it allows non-contact evaluation of conducting media to be carried out, which is sensitive to electrical conductivity changes in the part under evaluation, and hence to the presence of an air gap between parts. The problem falls into the category of evaluation of a multilayered conductive structure starting from EC data, which is an ill-posed problem. In order to bypass these difficulties, as well as to deal with the uncertainties that may be introduced by the experimental set-up, a ‘non-model’ approach is implemented by means of an artificial neural network (ANN). The latter is elaborated in a statistical learning approach starting from the experimental EC data provided by a ferrite cored coil EC probe used to investigate an assembly mockup of adjustable configuration. Moreover, in order to build a learning database allowing a robust and accurate ANN to be elaborated, as well as to deal with assemblies of unknown thicknesses, we consider EC data obtained at different frequencies chosen in an adjusted frequency bandwidth, experimentally determined so as to optimize the sensitivity toward the presence of an air gap between parts. The implementation of the proposed approach for distances between parts ranging from 60 to 300 µm provided estimated root mean square errors ranging from 7 μm up to 50 µm for the estimation of the distance between parts, and ranging from 20 µm up to 1.4 mm for the estimation of the top plates, ranging from 1 to 8 mm, respectively.

  6. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnikov, Yuri Karp, Jason Knobloch, Aaron Kapusta, Chris Lin, David

    2015-03-31

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100×125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  7. Eddy Current Measurements of Corrosion and Metal Loss in Zircaloy Cladding with Ferromagnetic Crud

    SciTech Connect

    Yagnik, Suresh K.; Johnson, Duane P.; Kervinen, John A

    2004-08-15

    The routine method of monitoring Zircaloy cladding corrosion in nuclear fuel pools is based on eddy current (EC) measurements at a single high frequency in the range of 1-3 MHz. At this frequency the rf wave does not penetrate through the cladding wall and, ideally, the EC response can be correlated to the thickness of the oxide layer that separates the sensor head from the metal substrate. In practice, however, the cladding corrosion is often overestimated by this method due to the primary circuit corrosion products (or crud) that are deposited on the fuel rod surface. In addition, the crud, which is primarily nickel ferrite oxides, may significantly interfere with the EC response due to its ferromagnetic nature. We describe a two-frequency method with four-dimensional vector analyses of the EC response to more precisely assess the cladding corrosion. Two independent approaches for measuring the corrosion damage are suggested in this study. First, the four-dimensional data treatment enables a direct measure of the oxide thickness, even in the presence of ferromagnetic crud. Second, it can also provide a direct measure of the substrate wall thickness, and hence the degree of corrosion, provided the original wall thickness is known. By comparison, the approaches to crud correction currently available prove inadequate, especially if both the thickness and permeability of the crud deposits vary over the fuel rod surface, as is generally the case. The new method has been applied to inactive samples with and without the ferromagnetic crud effect. In the reported laboratory simulations, the oxide thickness and wall thinning were measured independently to within {+-}4 {mu}m, irrespective of unknown crud thickness and permeability.

  8. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Karp, Jason; Knobloch, Aaron; Kapusta, Chris; Lin, David

    2015-03-01

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100×125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  9. ORCHID - a computer simulation of the reliability of an NDE inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Moles, M.D.C.

    1987-03-01

    CANDU pressurized heavy water reactors contain several hundred horizontally-mounted zirconium alloy pressure tubes. Following a pressure tube failure, a pressure tube inspection system called CIGARette was rapidly designed, manufactured and put in operation. Defects called hydride blisters were found to be the cause of the failure, and were detected using a combination of eddy current and ultrasonic scans. A number of improvements were made to CIGARette during the inspection period. The ORCHID computer program models the operation of the delivery system, eddy current and ultrasonic systems by imitating the on-reactor decision-making procedure. ORCHID predicts that during the early stage of development, less than one blistered tube in three would be detected, while less than one in two would be detected in the middle development stage. However, ORCHID predicts that during the late development stage, probability of detection will be over 90%, primarily due to the inclusion of axial ultrasonic scans (a procedural modification). Rotational and axial slip could severely reduce probability of detection. Comparison of CIGARette's inspection data with ORCHID's predictions indicate that the latter are compatible with the actual inspection results, through the numbers are small and data uncertain. It should be emphasized that the CIGARette system has been essentially replaced with the much more reliable CIGAR system.

  10. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D. F.; Fan, Chang-Xin; Ruan, J. Z.; Han, S. G.; Wong, K. W.; Sun, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A nondestructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUID's and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUID's. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  11. Non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.F.; Fan, C.; Ruan, J.Z.

    1994-12-31

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A non-destructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUIDs and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUIDs. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  12. Mapping B(1)-induced eddy current effects near metallic structures in MR images: a comparison of simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Vashaee, S; Goora, F; Britton, M M; Newling, B; Balcom, B J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the presence of metallic structures is very common in medical and non-medical fields. Metallic structures cause MRI image distortions by three mechanisms: (1) static field distortion through magnetic susceptibility mismatch, (2) eddy currents induced by switched magnetic field gradients and (3) radio frequency (RF) induced eddy currents. Single point ramped imaging with T1 enhancement (SPRITE) MRI measurements are largely immune to susceptibility and gradient induced eddy current artifacts. As a result, one can isolate the effects of metal objects on the RF field. The RF field affects both the excitation and detection of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. This is challenging with conventional MRI methods, which cannot readily separate the three effects. RF induced MRI artifacts were investigated experimentally at 2.4 T by analyzing image distortions surrounding two geometrically identical metallic strips of aluminum and lead. The strips were immersed in agar gel doped with contrast agent and imaged employing the conical SPRITE sequence. B1 mapping with pure phase encode SPRITE was employed to measure the B1 field around the strips of metal. The strip geometry was chosen to mimic metal electrodes employed in electrochemistry studies. Simulations are employed to investigate the RF field induced eddy currents in the two metallic strips. The RF simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results. Experimental and simulation results show that the metal has a pronounced effect on the B1 distribution and B1 amplitude in the surrounding space. The electrical conductivity of the metal has a minimal effect. PMID:25459883

  13. Mapping B1-induced eddy current effects near metallic structures in MR images: A comparison of simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashaee, S.; Goora, F.; Britton, M. M.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the presence of metallic structures is very common in medical and non-medical fields. Metallic structures cause MRI image distortions by three mechanisms: (1) static field distortion through magnetic susceptibility mismatch, (2) eddy currents induced by switched magnetic field gradients and (3) radio frequency (RF) induced eddy currents. Single point ramped imaging with T1 enhancement (SPRITE) MRI measurements are largely immune to susceptibility and gradient induced eddy current artifacts. As a result, one can isolate the effects of metal objects on the RF field. The RF field affects both the excitation and detection of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. This is challenging with conventional MRI methods, which cannot readily separate the three effects. RF induced MRI artifacts were investigated experimentally at 2.4 T by analyzing image distortions surrounding two geometrically identical metallic strips of aluminum and lead. The strips were immersed in agar gel doped with contrast agent and imaged employing the conical SPRITE sequence. B1 mapping with pure phase encode SPRITE was employed to measure the B1 field around the strips of metal. The strip geometry was chosen to mimic metal electrodes employed in electrochemistry studies. Simulations are employed to investigate the RF field induced eddy currents in the two metallic strips. The RF simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results. Experimental and simulation results show that the metal has a pronounced effect on the B1 distribution and B1 amplitude in the surrounding space. The electrical conductivity of the metal has a minimal effect.

  14. EDDY CURRENT EFFECT OF THE BNL-AGS VACUUM CHAMBER ON THE OPTICS OF THE BNL-AGS SYNCHROTRON.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.A.; GLENN,J.W.; GARDNER,K.

    1999-03-29

    During the acceleration cycle of the AGS synchrotron, eddy currents are generated within the walls of the vacuum chambers of the AGS main magnets. The vacuum chambers have elliptical cross section, are made of inconel material with a wall thickness of 2 mm and are placed within the gap of the combined-function main magnets of the AGS synchrotron. The generation of the eddy currents in the walls of the vacuum chambers, creates various magnetic multipoles, which affect the optics of the AGS machine. In this report these magnetic multipoles are calculated for various time interval starting at the acceleration cycle, where the magnetic field of the main magnet is {approx}0.1 T, and ending before the beam extraction process, where the magnetic field of the main magnet is almost constant at {approx}1.1 T. The calculations show that the magnetic multipoles generated by the eddy-currents affect the optics of the AGS synchrotron during the acceleration cycle and in particular at low magnetic fields of the main magnet. Their effect is too weak to affect the optics of the AGS machine during beam extraction at the nominal energies.

  15. Scanning tone burst eddy-current thermography (S-TBET) for NDT of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components

    SciTech Connect

    Libin, M. N.; Maxfield, B. W.; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2014-02-18

    Tone Burst Eddy Current technique uses eddy current to apply transient heating inside a component and uses a conventional IR camera for visualization of the response to the transient heating. This technique has been earliest demonstrated for metallic components made of AL, Steel, Stainless Steel, etc., and for detection of cracks, corrosion and adhesive dis-bonds. Although, not nearly as conducting as metals, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) material absorbs measurable electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range above 10 kHz. When the surface temperature is observed on the surface that is being heated (defined as the surface just beneath and slightly to one side of the heating coil), the surface temperature increases with increasing frequency because the internal heating increases with frequency. A 2-D anisotropic transient Eddy current heating and thermal conduction model has been developed that provides a reasonable description of the processes described above. The inherent anisotropy of CFRP laminates is included in this model by calculating the heating due to three superimposed, tightly coupled isotropic layers having a specified ply-layup. The experimental apparatus consists of an induction heating coil and an IR camera with low NETD and high frame rates. The coil is moved over the sample using a stepper motor controlled manipulator. The IR data recording is synchronized with the motion control to provide a movie of the surface temperature over time. Several components were evaluated for detection of impact damage, location of stiffeners, etc. on CFRP components.

  16. Avoiding eddy-current problems in ultra-low-field MRI with self-shielded polarizing coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Vesanen, Panu T.; Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Dabek, Juhani; Hassel, Juha; Luomahaara, Juho; Penttilä, Jari S.; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2011-09-01

    In ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging (ULF MRI), superconductive sensors are used to detect MRI signals typically in fields on the order of 10-100 μT. Despite the highly sensitive detectors, it is necessary to prepolarize the sample in a stronger magnetic field on the order of 10-100 mT, which has to be switched off rapidly in a few milliseconds before signal acquisition. In addition, external magnetic interference is commonly reduced by situating the ULF-MRI system inside a magnetically shielded room (MSR). With typical dipolar polarizing coil designs, the stray field induces strong eddy currents in the conductive layers of the MSR. These eddy currents cause significant secondary magnetic fields that may distort the spin dynamics of the sample, exceed the dynamic range of the sensors, and prevent simultaneous magnetoencephalography and MRI acquisitions. In this paper, we describe a method to design self-shielded polarizing coils for ULF MRI. The experimental results show that with a simple self-shielded polarizing coil, the magnetic fields caused by the eddy currents are largely reduced. With the presented shielding technique, ULF-MRI devices can utilize stronger and spatially broader polarizing fields than achievable with unshielded polarizing coils.

  17. LIMITATIONS OF EDDY CURRENT RESIDUAL STRESS PROFILING IN SURFACE-TREATED ENGINE ALLOYS OF VARIOUS HARDNESS LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Nabah, B. A.; Hassan, W. T.; Blodgett, M. P.; Nagy, P. B.

    2010-02-22

    Recent research results indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements might be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in surface-treated nickel-base superalloy components. This paper presents new results that indicate that in some popular nickel-base superalloys the relationship between the electric conductivity profile and the sought residual stress profile is more tenuous than previously thought. It is shown that in IN718 the relationship is very sensitive to the state of precipitation hardening and, if left uncorrected, could render the eddy current technique unsuitable for residual stress profiling in components of 36 HRC or harder, i.e., in most critical engine applications. The presented experimental results show that the observed dramatic change in the eddy current response of hardened IN718 to surface treatment is caused by very fine nanometer-scale features of the microstructure, such as gamma' and gamma'' precipitates, rather than micrometer-scale features, such as changing grain size or carbide precipitates.

  18. High-frequency eddy current based impedance spectroscopy for characterization of the percolation process of wet conductive coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsora, Iryna; Hillmann, Susanne; Heuer, Henning; Foos, Bryan C.; Calzada, Juan G.

    2015-03-01

    Coatings based on wet particles containing pastes are currently used in many industries, such as automotive, aircraft and/or wind-power plants, to protect carbon-fiber reinforced plastic against damages caused by electrical effects, such as a lightning strike. In order to understand and control the percolation behavior during the drying, a non-contact Eddy Current based Impedance Spectroscopy can be used. This technique can be applied in the wet state of the coating and it works non-destructively. Percolation behaviors of the wet conductive coatings are strongly affected by the type of particles used as a filling and the thickness of the coating. Experimental results of Eddy Current measurements on wet conductive coatings based on different conductive particles and deposited with different thicknesses are discussed. Based on High-Frequency Eddy Current measurements, a prognosis of the coating parameters after final curing during the wet state becomes conceivable. This, for example, offers a wide opportunity for process control and repairs.

  19. Scanning tone burst eddy-current thermography (S-TBET) for NDT of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libin, M. N.; Maxfield, B. W.; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2014-02-01

    Tone Burst Eddy Current technique uses eddy current to apply transient heating inside a component and uses a conventional IR camera for visualization of the response to the transient heating. This technique has been earliest demonstrated for metallic components made of AL, Steel, Stainless Steel, etc., and for detection of cracks, corrosion and adhesive dis-bonds. Although, not nearly as conducting as metals, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) material absorbs measurable electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range above 10 kHz. When the surface temperature is observed on the surface that is being heated (defined as the surface just beneath and slightly to one side of the heating coil), the surface temperature increases with increasing frequency because the internal heating increases with frequency. A 2-D anisotropic transient Eddy current heating and thermal conduction model has been developed that provides a reasonable description of the processes described above. The inherent anisotropy of CFRP laminates is included in this model by calculating the heating due to three superimposed, tightly coupled isotropic layers having a specified ply-layup. The experimental apparatus consists of an induction heating coil and an IR camera with low NETD and high frame rates. The coil is moved over the sample using a stepper motor controlled manipulator. The IR data recording is synchronized with the motion control to provide a movie of the surface temperature over time. Several components were evaluated for detection of impact damage, location of stiffeners, etc. on CFRP components.

  20. Swept frequency eddy current (SFEC) measurements of Inconel 718 as a function of microstructure and residual stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, Ramya

    The goal of this thesis was to determine the dependency of swept frequency eddy current (SFEC) measurements on the microstructure of the Ni-based alloy, Inconel 718 as a function of heat treatment and shot peening. This involved extensive characterization of the sample using SEM and TEM coupled with measurements and analysis of the eddy current response of the various sample conditions using SFEC data. Specific objectives included determining the eddy current response at varying depths within the sample, and this was accomplished by taking SFEC measurements in frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 50 MHz. Conductivity profile fitting of the resulting SFEC signals was obtained by considering influencing factors (such as surface damage). The problems associated with surface roughness and near surface damage produced by shot peening were overcome by using an inversion model. Differences in signal were seen as a result of precipitation produced by heat treatment and by residual stresses induced due to the shot peening. Hardness of the material, which is related both to precipitation and shot peening, was seen to correlate with the measured SFEC signal. Surface stress measurement was carried out using XRD giving stress in the near surface regions, but not included in the calculations due to shallow depth information provided by the technique compared to SFEC. By comparing theoretical SFEC signal computed using the microstructural values (precipitate fraction) and experimental SFEC data, dependency of the SFEC signals on microstructure and residual stress was obtained.

  1. Improving aircraft composite inspections using optimized reference standards

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Dorrell, L.; Kollgaard, J.; Dreher, T.

    1998-10-01

    The rapidly increasing use of composites on commercial airplanes coupled with the potential for economic savings associated with their use in aircraft structures means that the demand for composite materials technology will continue to increase. Inspecting these composite structures is a critical element in assuring this continued airworthiness. The FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair committee, is developing a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed.

  2. Ergonomics improvements of the visual inspection process in a printed circuit assembly factory.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Paul H P; Sen, Rabindra Nath

    2004-01-01

    An ergonomics improvement study was conducted on the visual inspection process of a printed circuit assembly (PCA) factory. The process was studied through subjective assessment and direct observation. Three problems were identified: operators' eye problems, insufficient time for inspection and ineffective visual inspection. These problems caused a huge yearly rejection cost of US 298,240 dollars, poor quality, customer dissatisfaction and poor occupational health and safety. Ergonomics interventions were made to rectify the problems: reduced usage of a magnifying glass, the use of less glaring inspection templates, inspection of only electrically non-tested components and introduction of a visual inspection sequence. The interventions produced savings in rejection cost, reduced operators' eye strain, headaches and watery eyes, lowered the defect percentage at customers' sites and increased the factory's productivity and customer satisfaction.

  3. In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy structures on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy composite structures on commercial transport aircraft are determined. Graphite/epoxy structures, service incurred defects, current inspection practices and concerns of the airline and manufacturers, and other related information were determind by survey. Based on this information, applicable inspection nondestructive inspection methods are evaluated and inspection techniques determined. Technology is developed primarily in eddy current inspection.

  4. Light shaping diffusers{trademark} improve aircraft inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Shagam, R.N.; Shie, R.; Lerner, J.

    1994-11-01

    Physical Optical Corporation has introduced a Light Shaping Diffuser{trademark} (LSD) for the specialized illumination requirements of aircraft inspection. Attached to a handheld, battery-powered flashlight, this light-weight, holographic diffuser element provides bright, even illumination as aircraft inspectors perform the important task of visually examining aircraft for possible structural defects. Field trials conducted by the Aging Aircraft Program at Sandia National Laboratories confirm that the LSD-equipped flashlights are preferred by visual inspectors over stock flashlights.

  5. Development of the Non-Destructive Evaluation System Using an Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.

    2006-03-01

    The non-destructive evaluation system which is developed using an eddy current probe to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel is reported in this paper. This probe is composed of the ferrite core and two pick-up coils connected differentially. The eddy current induced by the excitation coil is disarranged by nonuniform distribution of electromagnetic characteristics due to fatigue damage. The structural function of the eddy current probe proposed, enable to detect the eddy current disarrangement by fatigue damage. This probe detects the change of electromagnetic characteristics in the direction of X. In this paper, SUS304, a austenitic stainless steel was used as the sample. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the probe clearly depends on the number of stress cycles.

  6. Development of the Non-Destructive Evaluation System Using an Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.

    2006-03-06

    The non-destructive evaluation system which is developed using an eddy current probe to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel is reported in this paper. This probe is composed of the ferrite core and two pick-up coils connected differentially. The eddy current induced by the excitation coil is disarranged by nonuniform distribution of electromagnetic characteristics due to fatigue damage. The structural function of the eddy current probe proposed, enable to detect the eddy current disarrangement by fatigue damage. This probe detects the change of electromagnetic characteristics in the direction of X. In this paper, SUS304, a austenitic stainless steel was used as the sample. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the probe clearly depends on the number of stress cycles.

  7. Harmonics suppression of vacuum chamber eddy current induced fields with application to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy Booster (LEB) Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1991-12-04

    This memo presents the formulation of an expression for eddy currents induced in a thin-walled conductor due to a time-dependent electromagnet field excitation. Then follows an analytical development for prediction of vacuum chamber eddy current induced field harmonics in iron-core electromagnets. A passive technique for harmonics suppression is presented with specific application to the design of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy B (LEB) Magnets.

  8. Harmonics suppression of vacuum chamber eddy current-induced fields with application to the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.; Halbach, K.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the formulation of an expression for eddy currents induced in a thin-walled conductor due to a time-dependent electromagnet field excitation. Then follows an analytical development for prediction of vacuum chamber eddy current-induced field harmonics in iron-core electromagnets. A passive technique for harmonics suppression is presented with specific application to the design of the Superconducting Super Collider Low Energy Booster Magnets.

  9. In-situ calibration of pulsed eddy current detection of cracks at fasteners in CP-140 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Ross; Stott, Colette; Krause, Thomas W.

    2016-02-01

    The use of the Smallest Half Volume (SHV) robust statistics method and the Mahalanobis distance to blindly distinguish fasteners with cracks from fasteners without is examined. Pulsed eddy current data obtained from CP140 Aurora wing structures is used to test the approach. It is shown that the method can achieve levels of detection very close to those obtained when the same measurement technique is applied with full knowledge of which fasteners have no cracks. The method is applicable to a broad range of similar situations when an objective hit/miss criterion is used.

  10. Eddy current position indicating apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Day, Clifford K.; Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor by means of an eddy current probe. The active portion of the probe is located within a dry thimble which is supported on a stationary portion of the reactor core support structure. Split rings of metal, having a resistivity significantly different than sodium, are fixedly mounted on the core component to be monitored. The split rings are slidably positioned around, concentric with the probe and symmetrically situated along the axis of the probe so that motion of the ring along the axis of the probe produces a proportional change in the probes electrical output.

  11. Mechanical forces simulation and stress analysis of the TEXTOR vacuum vessel during plasma disruption under 3D eddy current load

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, H.; Giesen, B.; Belov, A.

    1996-07-01

    The TEXTOR vacuum vessel represents a steel torus shell with numerous radial and vertical ports. The induced eddy currents as well as electromagnetic forces in the vessel during plasma disruption have been calculated using the TYPHOON code. For the purposes of the stress analysis the vessel shells are modeled with shell elements. The bellows and flanges are built with 3D anisotropic solid elements. To apply the calculated electromagnetic forces to this model a special interface code has been developed. Stress analysis has been performed in two steps of loading in reference to symmetry and antisymmetry boundary conditions and the results have been superimposed.

  12. Eddy current loss and coil inductance evaluation in DC machines by a PG-based F. E. Code

    SciTech Connect

    Arturi, C.M.; Ubaldini, M. )

    1991-09-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of both the eddy current loss and the self and mutual inductances of the commutating coils of a dc machine armature-winding for railway traction by a two-dimension PC-based finite element commercial code. The comparison among several distribution of the conductors occupying a given slot and among slots with different ratio of depth to width is made in this paper in order to determine, for a given dc machine, the best design solution with references to both the loss and the self and mutual inductances of the commutating coils.

  13. Eddy current imager based on bobbin-type hall sensor arrays for nondestructive evaluation in small-bore piping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Jongwoo; Lee, Jinyi; Kim, Jungmin; Le, Minhhuy; Lee, Sehoon

    2013-01-01

    A bobbin coil with bobbin-type solid-state Hall sensor arrays was proposed for eddy current testing. A 32×32 matrix of InSb Hall sensors was set on a cylinder 15 mm in diameter and 25 mm long. The distorted alternating magnetic fields around inner diameter (ID) and outer-diameter stress corrosion cracks (ODSCCs)were imaged at 1 fps. The effectiveness of the proposed techniquewas verified with a standard copper alloy specimen with hole-type circumferential ID-and ODSCCs.

  14. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  15. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  16. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    PubMed

    Draper, Chris; Browne, William; Harris, Stephen

    2013-11-08

    We analysed two consecutive inspection reports for each of 136 British zoos made by government-appointed inspectors between 2005 and 2011 to assess how well British zoos were complying with minimum animal welfare standards; median interval between inspections was 1,107 days. There was no conclusive evidence for overall improvements in the levels of compliance by British zoos. Having the same zoo inspector at both inspections affected the outcome of an inspection; animal welfare criteria were more likely to be assessed as unchanged if the same inspector was present on both inspections. This, and erratic decisions as to whether a criterion applied to a particular zoo, suggest inconsistency in assessments between inspectors. Zoos that were members of a professional association (BIAZA) did not differ significantly from non-members in the overall number of criteria assessed as substandard at the second inspection but were more likely to meet the standards on both inspections and less likely to have criteria remaining substandard. Lack of consistency between inspectors, and the high proportion of zoos failing to meet minimum animal welfare standards nearly thirty years after the Zoo Licensing Act came into force, suggest that the current system of licensing and inspection is not meeting key objectives and requires revision.

  17. Investigation of eddy current examination on OD fatigue crack for steam generator tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yuying; Ding, Boyuan; Li, Ming; Liu, Jinhong; Chen, Huaidong; Meyendorf, Norbert G.

    2015-03-01

    The opening width of fatigue crack was very small, and conventional Bobbin probe was very difficult to detect it in steam generator tubes. Different sizes of 8 fatigue cracks were inspected using bobbin probe rotating probe. The analysis results showed that, bobbin probe was not sensitive for fatigue crack even for small through wall crack mixed with denting signal. On the other hand, the rotating probe was easily to detect all cracks. Finally, the OD phase to depth curve for fatigue crack using rotating probe was established and the results agreed very well with the true crack size.

  18. Effect of conductivity between fasteners and aluminum skin on eddy current specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Hutchinson, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (FAA-AANC) and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group are currently developing a study pertaining to the detection of cracks in multi-layered aluminum sheets. The specimen panels model pertinent aspects of the lap splice joints for Boeing 737 aircraft, Line Numbers 292 - 2565. Upon initial characterization of the specimen panels, it became clear that signals produced from a sliding probe at fastener sites were not representative of an in-service lap splice, and therefore, could not be used in a probability of detection experiment. This paper discusses specimen characterization and steps taken to make the specimens useful for nondestructive technology assessment.

  19. A Wide Linear Range Eddy Current Displacement Sensor Equipped with Dual-Coil Probe Applied in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wen, Tong

    2012-01-01

    The Eddy Current Displacement Sensor (ECDS) is widely used in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel (MSFW) to measure the tiny clearance between the rotor and the magnetic bearings. The linear range of the ECDS is determined by the diameter of its probe coil. Wide clearances must be measured in some new MSFWs recently designed for the different space missions, but the coil diameter is limited by some restrictions. In this paper, a multi-channel ECDS equipped with dual-coil probes is proposed to extend the linear range to satisfy the demands of such MSFWs. In order to determine the best configuration of the dual-coil probe, the quality factors of the potential types of the dual-coil probes, the induced eddy current and the magnetic intensity on the surface of the measuring object are compared with those of the conventional single-coil probe. The linear range of the ECDS equipped with the selected dual-coil probe is extended from 1.1 mm to 2.4 mm under the restrictions without adding any cost for additional compensation circuits or expensive coil materials. The effectiveness of the linear range extension ability and the dynamic response of the designed ECDS are confirmed by the testing and the applications in the MSFW. PMID:23112623

  20. A wide linear range Eddy Current Displacement Sensor equipped with dual-coil probe applied in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wen, Tong

    2012-01-01

    The Eddy Current Displacement Sensor (ECDS) is widely used in the Magnetic Suspension Flywheel (MSFW) to measure the tiny clearance between the rotor and the magnetic bearings. The linear range of the ECDS is determined by the diameter of its probe coil. Wide clearances must be measured in some new MSFWs recently designed for the different space missions, but the coil diameter is limited by some restrictions. In this paper, a multi-channel ECDS equipped with dual-coil probes is proposed to extend the linear range to satisfy the demands of such MSFWs. In order to determine the best configuration of the dual-coil probe, the quality factors of the potential types of the dual-coil probes, the induced eddy current and the magnetic intensity on the surface of the measuring object are compared with those of the conventional single-coil probe. The linear range of the ECDS equipped with the selected dual-coil probe is extended from 1.1 mm to 2.4 mm under the restrictions without adding any cost for additional compensation circuits or expensive coil materials. The effectiveness of the linear range extension ability and the dynamic response of the designed ECDS are confirmed by the testing and the applications in the MSFW.