NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yunes, Nicolas; Tichy, Wolfgang
2006-04-01
The accuracy of gravitational wave templates produced by numerical simulations is partially determined by the initial data chosen. A promising method to construct accurate data employs asymptotic matching to construct an approximate global 4-metric. In this talk, we will apply this method to a binary system of non-spinning black holes and discuss improvements. A global metric can be constructed by asymptotically matching two tidally perturbed Schwarzschild metrics in isotropic coordinates valid near each hole to an ADMTT post-Newtonian metric valid far from them. As a result, adjacent metrics agree in the matching region up to uncontrolled remainders in the approximations. We build a smooth global 4-metric with transition functions, carefully constructed to avoid introducing errors larger than those in the approximations. The main improvement arises by using metrics in similar coordinates before performing the matching. This similarity leads to adjacent metrics that are similar even near the horizons, thus allowing for a smoother transition and constraint violations. We also construct a map that takes this metric to Kerr-Schild coordinates near each hole.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Committee for Citizens in Education, Columbia, MD.
School-based management and improvement, supported by parent and community involvement, offer the most promising route to lasting reform in the public schools. Following an extensive introduction (part I) outlining school-based management and improvement concepts, the effective schools connection, the Dade County (Florida) experience, and 10…
Team Tennis and Camps, a Perfect Match.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Michael D.
1993-01-01
Team tennis programs offer campers an equal chance to share the responsibilities and excitement of team competition, fostering feelings of self-esteem that can lead to remarkable changes in behavior. Recommendations cover organization of a team tennis program, conducting matches, and program adaptations for special circumstances. (LP)
Adaptive Perfectly Matched Layer for Wood's anomalies in diffraction gratings.
Vial, Benjamin; Zolla, Frédéric; Nicolet, André; Commandré, Mireille; Tisserand, Stéphane
2012-12-17
We propose an Adaptive Perfectly Matched Layer (APML) to be used in diffraction grating modeling. With a properly tailored co-ordinate stretching depending both on the incident field and on grating parameters, the APML may efficiently absorb diffracted orders near grazing angles (the so-called Wood's anomalies). The new design is implemented in a finite element method (FEM) scheme and applied on a numerical example of a dielectric slit grating. Its performances are compared with classical PML with constant stretching coefficient.
Perfectly matched layers for Maxwell's equations in second order formulation
Sjogreen, B; Petersson, A
2004-07-26
We consider the two-dimensional Maxwell's equations in domains external to perfectly conducting objects of complex shape. The equations are discretized using a node-centered finite-difference scheme on a Cartesian grid and the boundary condition are discretized to second order accuracy employing an embedded technique which does not suffer from a ''small-cell'' time-step restriction in the explicit time-integration method. The computational domain is truncated by a perfectly matched layer (PML). We derive estimates for both the error due to reflections at the outer boundary of the PML, and due to discretizing the continuous PML equations. Using these estimates, we show how the parameters of the PML can be chosen to make the discrete solution of the PML equations converge to the solution of Maxwell's equations on the unbounded domain, as the grid size goes to zero. Several numerical examples are given.
Asymmetric perfectly matched layer for the absorption of waves
Vay, Jean-Luc
2002-02-10
The Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) has become a standard for comparison in the techniques that have been developed to close the system of Maxwell equations (more generally wave equations) when simulating an open system. The original Berenger PML formulation relies on a split version of Maxwell equations with numerical electric and magnetic conductivities. They present here an extension of this formulation which introduces counterparts of the electric and magnetic conductivities affecting the term which is spatially differentiated in the equations. they phase velocity along each direction is also multiplied by an additional coefficient. They show that, under certain constraints on the additional numerical coefficients, this ''medium'' does not generate any reflection at any angle and any frequency and is then a Perfectly Matched Layer. Technically it is a super-set of Berenger's PML to which it reduces for a specific set of parameters and like it, it is anisotropic. However, unlike the PML, it introduces some asymmetry in the absorption rate and is therefore labeled an APML for Asymmetric Perfectly Matched Layer. They present here the numerical considerations that have led them to introduce such a medium as well as its theory. Several finite-different numerical implementations are derived (in one, two and three dimensions) and the performance of the APML is contrasted with that of the PML in one and two dimensions. Using plane wave analysis, they show that the APML implementations lead to higher absorption rates than the considered PML implementations. Although they have considered in this paper the finite-different discretization of Maxwell-like equations only, the APML system of equations may be used with other discretization schemes, such as finite-elements, and may be applied to other equations, for applications beyond electromagnetics.
A PERFECT MATCH CONDITION FOR POINT-SET MATCHING PROBLEMS USING THE OPTIMAL MASS TRANSPORT APPROACH
CHEN, PENGWEN; LIN, CHING-LONG; CHERN, I-LIANG
2013-01-01
We study the performance of optimal mass transport-based methods applied to point-set matching problems. The present study, which is based on the L2 mass transport cost, states that perfect matches always occur when the product of the point-set cardinality and the norm of the curl of the non-rigid deformation field does not exceed some constant. This analytic result is justified by a numerical study of matching two sets of pulmonary vascular tree branch points whose displacement is caused by the lung volume changes in the same human subject. The nearly perfect match performance verifies the effectiveness of this mass transport-based approach. PMID:23687536
AN FDTD ALGORITHM WITH PERFECTLY MATCHED LAYERS FOR CONDUCTIVE MEDIA. (R825225)
We extend Berenger's perfectly matched layers (PML) to conductive media. A finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with PML as an absorbing boundary condition is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations in inhomogeneous, conductive media. For a perfectly matched laye...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
The perfectly matched layer (PML) technique is developed in the context of a high- order spectral-element Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is applied to a range of test cases and is shown to be superior compared to other approaches, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers, for treating the inflow and outflow boundaries of computational domains. In general, the PML technique improves the quality of the numerical results for simulations of practical flow configurations, but it also exhibits some instabilities for large perturbations. A preliminary analysis that attempts to understand the source of these instabilities is discussed.
The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?
Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah
2016-08-01
This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
2009-01-01
In this paper we show by means of numerical experiments that the error introduced in a numerical domain because of a Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer boundary treatment can be controlled. These experimental demonstrations are for acoustic propagation with the Linearized Euler Equations with both uniform and steady jet flows. The propagating signal is driven by a time harmonic pressure source. Combinations of Perfectly Matched and Damping Layers are used with different damping profiles. These layer and profile combinations allow the relative error introduced by a layer to be kept as small as desired, in principle. Tradeoffs between error and cost are explored.
Improving Our Teaching: Practice Makes Perfect.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Druger, Marvin
2001-01-01
Discusses effective ways to improve teaching and focuses on self awareness, peer videotaping, and student feedback. Explains the practice cycle with five elements: set goal, practice, feedback, reflection, and adjustment. (YDS)
The Analysis and Construction of Perfectly Matched Layers for the Linearized Euler Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesthaven, J. S.
1997-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed perfectly matched layer (PML) method for the absorption of acoustic waves. The split set of equations is shown to be only weakly well-posed, and ill-posed under small low order perturbations. This analysis provides the explanation for the stability problems associated with the split field formulation and illustrates why applying a filter has a stabilizing effect. Utilizing recent results obtained within the context of electromagnetics, we develop strongly well-posed absorbing layers for the linearized Euler equations. The schemes are shown to be perfectly absorbing independent of frequency and angle of incidence of the wave in the case of a non-convecting mean flow. In the general case of a convecting mean flow, a number of techniques is combined to obtain a absorbing layers exhibiting PML-like behavior. The efficacy of the proposed absorbing layers is illustrated though computation of benchmark problems in aero-acoustics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian; Chu, Risheng
2016-09-01
In order to improve the perfectly matched layer (PML) efficiency in viscoelastic media, we firstly propose a split multi-axial PML (M-PML) and an unsplit convolutional PML (C-PML) in the second-order viscoelastic wave equations with the displacement as the only unknown. The advantage of these formulations is that it is easy and efficient to revise the existing codes of the second-order spectral element method (SEM) or finite element method (FEM) with absorbing boundaries in a uniform equation, as well as more economical than the auxiliary differential equations PML (ADEPML). Three models which are easily suffered from late time instabilities are considered to validate our approaches. Through comparison the M-PML with C-PML efficiency of absorption and stability for long time simulation, it can be concluded that: 1) For an isotropic viscoelastic medium with high Poisson's ratio, the C-PML will be a sufficient choice for long time simulation because of its weak reflections and superior stability; 2) Unlike the M-PML with high-order damping profile, the M-PML with 2nd-order damping profile loses its stability in long time simulation for an isotropic viscoelastic medium; 3) In an anisotropic viscoelastic medium, the C-PML suffers from instabilities, while the M-PML with 2nd-order damping profile can be a better choice for its superior stability and more acceptable weak reflections than the M-PML with high-order damping profile. The comparative analysis of the developed methods offers meaningful significance for long time seismic wave modeling in second-order viscoelastic wave equations.
Sensitive Radio-Frequency Measurements of a Quantum Dot by Tuning to Perfect Impedance Matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ares, N.; Schupp, F. J.; Mavalankar, A.; Rogers, G.; Griffiths, J.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Cottet, A.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Laird, E. A.
2016-03-01
Electrical readout of spin qubits requires fast and sensitive measurements, which are hindered by poor impedance matching to the device. We demonstrate perfect impedance matching in a radio-frequency readout circuit, using voltage-tunable varactors to cancel out parasitic capacitances. An optimized capacitance sensitivity of 1.6 aF /√{Hz } is achieved at a maximum source-drain bias of 170 -μ V root-mean-square and with a bandwidth of 18 MHz. Coulomb blockade in a quantum-dot is measured in both conductance and capacitance, and the two contributions are found to be proportional as expected from a quasistatic tunneling model. We benchmark our results against the requirements for single-shot qubit readout using quantum capacitance, a goal that has so far been elusive.
On absorbing boundary conditions for linearized Euler equations by a perfectly matched layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Fang Q.
1995-01-01
Recently, Berenger introduced a Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique for absorbing electromagnetic waves. In the present paper, a perfectly matched layer is proposed for absorbing out-going two-dimensional waves in a uniform mean flow, generated by linearized Euler equations. It is well known that the linearized Euler equations support acoustic waves, which travel with the speed of sound relative to the mean flow, and vorticity and entropy waves, which travel with the mean flow. The PML equations to be used at a region adjacent to the artificial boundary for absorbing these linear waves are defined. Plane waves solutions to the PML equations are developed and wave propagation and absorption properties are given. It is shown that the theoretical reflection coefficients at an interface between the Euler and PML domains are zero, independent of the angle of incidence and frequency of the waves. As such, the present study points out a possible alternative approach for absorbing out-going waves of the Euler equations with little or no reflection in computation. Numerical examples that demonstrate the validity of the proposed PML equations are also presented.
Shi, Shouyuan; Chen, Caihua; Prather, Dennis W
2004-09-01
We present a new algorithm for calculation of the band structure of photonic crystal slabs. This algorithm combines the plane-wave expansion method with perfectly matched layers for the termination of the computational region in the direction out of the plane. In addition, the effective-medium tensor is applied to improve convergence. A general complex eigenvalue problem is then obtained. Two criteria are presented to distinguish the guided modes from the PML modes. As such, this scheme can accurately determine the band structure both above and below the light cone. The convergence of the algorithm presented has been studied. The results obtained by using this algorithm have been compared with those obtained by the finite-difference time-domain method and found to agree very well.
Fang, Sinan; Pan, Heping; Du, Ting; Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Deng, Chengxiang; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Peng, Ling; Ma, Huolin; Li, Gang; Zhou, Feng
2016-01-01
This study applied the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to forward modeling of the low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) method. Specifically, we implemented impulse sources and convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML). In the process to strengthen CPML, we observed that some dispersion was induced by the real stretch κ, together with an angular variation of the phase velocity of the transverse electric plane wave; the conclusion was that this dispersion was positively related to the real stretch and was little affected by grid interval. To suppress the dispersion in the CPML, we first derived the analytical solution for the radiation field of the magneto-dipole impulse source in the time domain. Then, a numerical simulation of CPML absorption with high-frequency pulses qualitatively amplified the dispersion laws through wave field snapshots. A numerical simulation using low-frequency pulses suggested an optimal parameter strategy for CPML from the established criteria. Based on its physical nature, the CPML method of simply warping space-time was predicted to be a promising approach to achieve ideal absorption, although it was still difficult to entirely remove the dispersion. PMID:27585538
Mennemann, Jan-Frederik Jüngel, Ansgar
2014-10-15
Discrete transparent boundary conditions (DTBC) and the Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) method for the realization of open boundary conditions in quantum device simulations are compared, based on the stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The comparison includes scattering state, wave packet, and transient scattering state simulations in one and two space dimensions. The Schrödinger equation is discretized by a second-order Crank–Nicolson method in case of DTBC. For the discretization with PML, symmetric second-, fourth-, and sixth-order spatial approximations as well as Crank–Nicolson and classical Runge–Kutta time-integration methods are employed. In two space dimensions, a ring-shaped quantum waveguide device is simulated in the stationary and transient regime. As an application, a simulation of the Aharonov–Bohm effect in this device is performed, showing the excitation of bound states localized in the ring region. The numerical experiments show that the results obtained from PML are comparable to those obtained using DTBC, while keeping the high numerical efficiency and flexibility as well as the ease of implementation of the former method. -- Highlights: •In-depth comparison between discrete transparent boundary conditions (DTBC) and PML. •First 2-D transient scattering state simulations using DTBC. •First 2-D transient scattering state simulations of the Aharonov–Bohm effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Sinan; Pan, Heping; Du, Ting; Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Deng, Chengxiang; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Peng, Ling; Ma, Huolin; Li, Gang; Zhou, Feng
2016-09-01
This study applied the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to forward modeling of the low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) method. Specifically, we implemented impulse sources and convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML). In the process to strengthen CPML, we observed that some dispersion was induced by the real stretch κ, together with an angular variation of the phase velocity of the transverse electric plane wave; the conclusion was that this dispersion was positively related to the real stretch and was little affected by grid interval. To suppress the dispersion in the CPML, we first derived the analytical solution for the radiation field of the magneto-dipole impulse source in the time domain. Then, a numerical simulation of CPML absorption with high-frequency pulses qualitatively amplified the dispersion laws through wave field snapshots. A numerical simulation using low-frequency pulses suggested an optimal parameter strategy for CPML from the established criteria. Based on its physical nature, the CPML method of simply warping space-time was predicted to be a promising approach to achieve ideal absorption, although it was still difficult to entirely remove the dispersion.
Fang, Sinan; Pan, Heping; Du, Ting; Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Deng, Chengxiang; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Peng, Ling; Ma, Huolin; Li, Gang; Zhou, Feng
2016-01-01
This study applied the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to forward modeling of the low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) method. Specifically, we implemented impulse sources and convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML). In the process to strengthen CPML, we observed that some dispersion was induced by the real stretch κ, together with an angular variation of the phase velocity of the transverse electric plane wave; the conclusion was that this dispersion was positively related to the real stretch and was little affected by grid interval. To suppress the dispersion in the CPML, we first derived the analytical solution for the radiation field of the magneto-dipole impulse source in the time domain. Then, a numerical simulation of CPML absorption with high-frequency pulses qualitatively amplified the dispersion laws through wave field snapshots. A numerical simulation using low-frequency pulses suggested an optimal parameter strategy for CPML from the established criteria. Based on its physical nature, the CPML method of simply warping space-time was predicted to be a promising approach to achieve ideal absorption, although it was still difficult to entirely remove the dispersion. PMID:27585538
He, Z.; Wu, L.; Li, X.; Fields, M.; Zhou, J.-Z.
2004-09-16
Criteria for the design of gene-specific and group-specific oligonucleotide probes were established experimentally via anoligonucleotide array that contained perfect match (PM) and mismatch probes (50-mers and 70-mers) based upon four genes. The effects of probe-target identity, continuous stretch, mismatch position, and hybridization free energy on specificity were tested. Little hybridization was observed at a probe-target identity of 85 percent for both 50-mer and 70-mer probes. PM signal intensities (33 to 48 percent) were detected at a probe-target identity of 94 percent for 50-meroligonucleotides and 43 to 55 percent for 70-mer probes at a probe-target identity of 96 percent. When the effects of sequence identity and continuous stretch were considered independently, a stretch probe (>15bases) contributed an additional 9 percent of the PM signal intensity compared to a nonstretch probe (15 bases) at the same identity level. Cross-hybridization increased as the length of continuous stretch increased. A 35-base stretch for 50-mer probes or a 50-base stretch for 70-mer probes had approximately 55 percent of the PM signal. Little cross-hybridization was observed for probes with a minimal binding free energy greater than 30 kcal/mol for 50-mer probes or 40 kcal/mol for 70-mer probes. Based on the experimental results, a set of criteria are suggested for the design of gene-specific and group-specific oligonucleotide probes, and the experimentally established criteria should provide valuable information for new software and algorithms for microarray-based studies.
Tumin, Dmitry; Conteh, Lanla F.; Hanje, A. James; Michaels, Anthony J.; Hayes, Don; Black, Sylvester M.
2016-01-01
There is a paucity of literature examining recipient-donor obesity matching on liver transplantation outcomes. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for first-time recipients of liver transplant whose age was ≥18 between January 2003 and September 2013. Outcomes including patient and graft survival at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years and overall, liver retransplantation, and length of stay were compared between nonobese recipients receiving a graft from nonobese donors and obese recipient-obese donor, obese recipient-nonobese donor, and nonobese recipient-obese donor pairs. 51,556 LT recipients were identified, including 34,217 (66%) nonobese and 17,339 (34%) obese recipients. The proportions of patients receiving an allograft from an obese donor were 24% and 29%, respectively, among nonobese and obese recipients. Graft loss (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.09–1.46; p = 0.002) and mortality (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.16–1.65; p < 0.001) at 30 days were increased in the obese recipient-obese donor pair. However, 1-year graft (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74–0.93; p = 0.002) and patient (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74–0.95; p = 0.007) survival and overall patient (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86–1.00; p = 0.042) survival were favorable. There is evidence of recipient and donor obesity disadvantage early, but survival curves demonstrate improved long-term outcomes. It is important to consider obesity in the donor-recipient match.
Tumin, Dmitry; Conteh, Lanla F.; Hanje, A. James; Michaels, Anthony J.; Hayes, Don; Black, Sylvester M.
2016-01-01
There is a paucity of literature examining recipient-donor obesity matching on liver transplantation outcomes. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for first-time recipients of liver transplant whose age was ≥18 between January 2003 and September 2013. Outcomes including patient and graft survival at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years and overall, liver retransplantation, and length of stay were compared between nonobese recipients receiving a graft from nonobese donors and obese recipient-obese donor, obese recipient-nonobese donor, and nonobese recipient-obese donor pairs. 51,556 LT recipients were identified, including 34,217 (66%) nonobese and 17,339 (34%) obese recipients. The proportions of patients receiving an allograft from an obese donor were 24% and 29%, respectively, among nonobese and obese recipients. Graft loss (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.09–1.46; p = 0.002) and mortality (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.16–1.65; p < 0.001) at 30 days were increased in the obese recipient-obese donor pair. However, 1-year graft (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74–0.93; p = 0.002) and patient (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74–0.95; p = 0.007) survival and overall patient (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86–1.00; p = 0.042) survival were favorable. There is evidence of recipient and donor obesity disadvantage early, but survival curves demonstrate improved long-term outcomes. It is important to consider obesity in the donor-recipient match. PMID:27688905
Beal, Eliza W; Tumin, Dmitry; Conteh, Lanla F; Hanje, A James; Michaels, Anthony J; Hayes, Don; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid
2016-01-01
There is a paucity of literature examining recipient-donor obesity matching on liver transplantation outcomes. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for first-time recipients of liver transplant whose age was ≥18 between January 2003 and September 2013. Outcomes including patient and graft survival at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years and overall, liver retransplantation, and length of stay were compared between nonobese recipients receiving a graft from nonobese donors and obese recipient-obese donor, obese recipient-nonobese donor, and nonobese recipient-obese donor pairs. 51,556 LT recipients were identified, including 34,217 (66%) nonobese and 17,339 (34%) obese recipients. The proportions of patients receiving an allograft from an obese donor were 24% and 29%, respectively, among nonobese and obese recipients. Graft loss (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.09-1.46; p = 0.002) and mortality (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.16-1.65; p < 0.001) at 30 days were increased in the obese recipient-obese donor pair. However, 1-year graft (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.74-0.93; p = 0.002) and patient (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74-0.95; p = 0.007) survival and overall patient (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86-1.00; p = 0.042) survival were favorable. There is evidence of recipient and donor obesity disadvantage early, but survival curves demonstrate improved long-term outcomes. It is important to consider obesity in the donor-recipient match. PMID:27688905
Tittl, Andreas; Harats, Moshe G; Walter, Ramon; Yin, Xinghui; Schäferling, Martin; Liu, Na; Rapaport, Ronen; Giessen, Harald
2014-10-28
Plasmonic devices with absorbance close to unity have emerged as essential building blocks for a multitude of technological applications ranging from trace gas detection to infrared imaging. A crucial requirement for such elements is the angle independence of the absorptive performance. In this work, we develop theoretically and verify experimentally a quantitative model for the angular behavior of plasmonic perfect absorber structures based on an optical impedance matching picture. To achieve this, we utilize a simple and elegant k-space measurement technique to record quantitative angle-resolved reflectance measurements on various perfect absorber structures. Particularly, this method allows quantitative reflectance measurements on samples where only small areas have been nanostructured, for example, by electron-beam lithography. Combining these results with extensive numerical modeling, we find that matching of both the real and imaginary parts of the optical impedance is crucial to obtain perfect absorption over a large angular range. Furthermore, we successfully apply our model to the angular dispersion of perfect absorber geometries with disordered plasmonic elements as a favorable alternative to current array-based designs. PMID:25251075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
used involves modeling the pressure fluctuations as acoustic waves propagating in the far-field relative to a single noise-source inside the buffer region. This approach treats vorticity-induced pressure fluctuations the same as acoustic waves. Another popular approach, often referred to as the "sponge layer," attempts to dampen the flow perturbations by introducing artificial dissipation in the buffer region. Although the artificial dissipation removes all perturbations inside the sponge layer, incoming waves are still reflected from the interface boundary between the computational domain and the sponge layer. The effect of these refkections can be somewhat mitigated by appropriately selecting the artificial dissipation strength and the extent of the sponge layer. One of the most promising variants on the buffer region approach is the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique. The PML technique mitigates spurious reflections from boundaries and interfaces by dampening the perturbation modes inside the buffer region such that their eigenfunctions remain unchanged. The technique was first developed by Berenger for application to problems involving electromagnetic wave propagation. It was later extended to the linearized Euler, Euler and Navier-Stokes equations by Hu and his coauthors. The PML technique ensures the no-reflection property for all waves, irrespective of incidence angle, wavelength, and propagation direction. Although the technique requires the solution of a set of auxiliary equations, the computational overhead is easily justified since it allows smaller domain sizes and can provide better accuracy, stability, and convergence of the numerical solution. In this paper, the PML technique is developed in the context of a high-order spectral-element Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is compared to other approaches to treating the in flow and out flow boundary, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers. The
Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland
2016-07-01
A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique. The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation because the latter allows for implementation of high-order time schemes, leading to reduced numerical dispersion and dissipation, a topic of importance, in particular, in long-range ocean acoustics simulations. The method is validated for a two dimensional fluid-solid Pekeris waveguide and for a three dimensional seamount model, which shows that the technique is accurate and numerically long-time stable. Compared with widely used paraxial absorbing boundary conditions, the perfectly matched layer is significantly more efficient at absorbing both body waves and interface waves.
Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland
2016-07-01
A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique. The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation because the latter allows for implementation of high-order time schemes, leading to reduced numerical dispersion and dissipation, a topic of importance, in particular, in long-range ocean acoustics simulations. The method is validated for a two dimensional fluid-solid Pekeris waveguide and for a three dimensional seamount model, which shows that the technique is accurate and numerically long-time stable. Compared with widely used paraxial absorbing boundary conditions, the perfectly matched layer is significantly more efficient at absorbing both body waves and interface waves. PMID:27475142
Kong, Xiang-kun; Liu, Shao-Bin Bian, Bo-rui; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Hai-feng
2014-12-15
A novel, compact, and multichannel nonreciprocal absorber through a wave tunneling mechanism in epsilon-negative and matching metamaterials is theoretically proposed. Nonreciprocal absorption properties are acquired via the coupling together of evanescent and propagating waves in an asymmetric configuration, constituted of nonlinear plasma alternated with matching metamaterial. The absorption channel number can be adjusted by changing the periodic number. Due to the positive feedback between nonlinear permittivity of plasma and the inner electric field, bistable absorption and reflection are achieved. Moreover, compared with some truncated photonic crystal or multilayered designs proposed before, our design is more compact and independent of incident angle or polarization. This kind of multilayer structure offers additional opportunities to design novel omnidirectional electromagnetic wave absorbers.
Yu, Meina; Zhou, Xiaochen; Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Huai; Yang, Deng-Ke
2016-05-11
Chiral nematic liquid crystals possess a self-assembled helical structure and exhibit unique selective reflection in visible and infrared light regions. Their optical properties can be electrically tuned. The tuning involves the unwinding and restoring of the helical structure. We carried out an experimental study on the mechanism of the restoration of the helical structure. We constructed chiral nematic liquid crystals with variable elastic constants by doping bent-dimers and studied their impact on the restoration. With matched twist and bend elastic constants, the helical structure can be restored dramatically fast from the field-induced homeotropic state. Furthermore, defects can be eliminated to produce a perfect planar state which exhibits high selective reflection.
Improving The Perfect Storm: Overcoming Barriers To Climate Literacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tillinger, D.
2015-12-01
Students and scientists are trained to speak different languages. Climate science, and the geosciences more broadly, are strictly classroom topics, not subjects appropriate for casual conversation, social media, or creative projects. When students are aware of climate change through the mainstream media, it is nearly always in a political or technological context rather than a scientific one. However, given the opportunity, students are perfectly capable of not only understanding the science behind climate change, but communicating it to their peers. At the American Museum of Natural History, a group of underprivileged high school students visited Nature's Fury: The Science of Natural Disasters to learn about volcanoes, earthquakes, and climate change impacts. They were then able to write pitches and develop trailers for scientifically accurate, but still compelling, disaster movies. Arts in Parts, a creative outreach group formed as a response to Hurricane Sandy, facilitated a workshop in which younger children made mobiles from beach debris they collected while learning about the the threat of sea level rise locally and globally. Participants in an undergraduate natural disasters class wrote guides to understanding climate change that remained factual while showing great creativity and reflecting the personality of each student. Art, humor, and popular culture are the languages that society chooses to use; scientific literacy might benefit from their inclusion.
Improving Student Laboratory Performance: How Much Practice Makes Perfect?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beasley, Warren
1985-01-01
Analyzes three approaches (physical, mental, combined practice) to improving freshman chemistry psychomotor laboratory skills. Although no significant differences were found between treatments, there were significant differences when each was compared to the control sections. Mental practice appears to offer an efficient methods for reinforcement…
Improved robust point matching with label consistency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhagalia, Roshni; Miller, James V.; Roy, Arunabha
2010-03-01
Robust point matching (RPM) jointly estimates correspondences and non-rigid warps between unstructured point-clouds. RPM does not, however, utilize information of the topological structure or group memberships of the data it is matching. In numerous medical imaging applications, each extracted point can be assigned group membership attributes or labels based on segmentation, partitioning, or clustering operations. For example, points on the cortical surface of the brain can be grouped according to the four lobes. Estimated warps should enforce the topological structure of such point-sets, e.g. points belonging to the temporal lobe in the two point-sets should be mapped onto each other. We extend the RPM objective function to incorporate group membership labels by including a Label Entropy (LE) term. LE discourages mappings that transform points within a single group in one point-set onto points from multiple distinct groups in the other point-set. The resulting Labeled Point Matching (LPM) algorithm requires a very simple modification to the standard RPM update rules. We demonstrate the performance of LPM on coronary trees extracted from cardiac CT images. We partitioned the point sets into coronary sections without a priori anatomical context, yielding potentially disparate labelings (e.g. [1,2,3] --> [a,b,c,d]). LPM simultaneously estimated label correspondences, point correspondences, and a non-linear warp. Non-matching branches were treated wholly through the standard RPM outlier process akin to non-matching points. Results show LPM produces warps that are more physically meaningful than RPM alone. In particular, LPM mitigates unrealistic branch crossings and results in more robust non-rigid warp estimates.
Kakodkar, Rohit R.; Feser, Joseph P.
2015-09-07
We present a numerical approach to the solution of elastic phonon-interface and phonon-nanostructure scattering problems based on a frequency-domain decomposition of the atomistic equations of motion and the use of perfectly matched layer (PML) boundaries. Unlike molecular dynamic wavepacket analysis, the current approach provides the ability to simulate scattering from individual phonon modes, including wavevectors in highly dispersive regimes. Like the atomistic Green's function method, the technique reduces scattering problems to a system of linear algebraic equations via a sparse, tightly banded matrix regardless of dimensionality. However, the use of PML boundaries enables rapid absorption of scattered wave energies at the boundaries and provides a simple and inexpensive interpretation of the scattered phonon energy flux calculated from the energy dissipation rate in the PML. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on connected monoatomic chains, for which an analytic solution is known. The parameters defining the PML are found to affect the performance and guidelines for selecting optimal parameters are given. The method is used to study the energy transmission coefficient for connected diatomic chains over all available wavevectors for both optical and longitudinal phonons; it is found that when there is discontinuity between sublattices, even connected chains of equivalent acoustic impedance have near-zero transmission coefficient for short wavelengths. The phonon scattering cross section of an embedded nanocylinder is calculated in 2D for a wide range of frequencies to demonstrate the extension of the method to high dimensions. The calculations match continuum theory for long-wavelength phonons and large cylinder radii, but otherwise show complex physics associated with discreteness of the lattice. Examples include Mie oscillations which terminate when incident phonon frequencies exceed the maximum available frequency in the embedded nanocylinder, and
Assi, Hisham; Cobbold, Richard S C
2016-04-01
Wave propagation in an infinite medium can be numerically simulated by surrounding a finite region by a perfectly matched layer (PML). When the medium is heterogeneous consisting of both solids and liquids, careful consideration is needed in specifying the properties of the PML especially because parts of it lie at the solid-fluid interface. While such a situation could arise in many important fields including marine seismology, where water is in contact with earth, and in biomedical ultrasound, where soft tissue is in contact with bone, no PML formulation exists to appropriately model such coupled problems. Here, a second-order time-domain PML formulation for fluid-solid heterogeneous media in two dimensions that satisfies the interface coupling boundary condition throughout the computational domain is presented. Numerical results are given to establish the applicability and accuracy of such a PML formulation in discrete settings without causing stability issues, spurious reflections, or any other problems. In particular, the effectiveness of the PML in absorbing all kinds of bulk waves, as well as surface and evanescent waves, is studied. PMID:27106301
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, K. L.; Treyssède, F.; Hazard, C.
2015-05-01
Among the numerous techniques of non-destructive evaluation, elastic guided waves are of particular interest to evaluate defects inside industrial and civil elongated structures owing to their ability to propagate over long distances. However for guiding structures buried in large solid media, waves can be strongly attenuated along the guide axis due to the energy radiation into the surrounding medium, usually considered as unbounded. Hence, searching the less attenuated modes becomes necessary in order to maximize the inspection distance. In the numerical modeling of embedded waveguides, the main difficulty is to account for the unbounded section. This paper presents a numerical approach combining a semi-analytical finite element method and a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique to compute the so-called trapped and leaky modes in three-dimensional embedded elastic waveguides of arbitrary cross-section. Two kinds of PML, namely the Cartesian PML and the radial PML, are considered. In order to understand the various spectral objects obtained by the method, the PML parameters effects upon the eigenvalue spectrum are highlighted through analytical studies and numerical experiments. Then, dispersion curves are computed for test cases taken from the literature in order to validate the approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnet-Ben Dhia, A.-S.; Carvalho, C.; Chesnel, L.; Ciarlet, P.
2016-10-01
We investigate in a 2D setting the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves by a plasmonic device, represented as a non-dissipative bounded and penetrable obstacle with a negative permittivity. Using the T-coercivity approach, we first prove that the problem is well-posed in the classical framework Hloc1 if the negative permittivity does not lie in some critical interval whose definition depends on the shape of the device. When the latter has corners, for values inside the critical interval, unusual strong singularities for the electromagnetic field can appear. In that case, well-posedness is obtained by imposing a radiation condition at the corners to select the outgoing black-hole plasmonic wave, that is the one which carries energy towards the corners. A simple and systematic criterion is given to define what is the outgoing solution. Finally, we propose an original numerical method based on the use of Perfectly Matched Layers at the corners. We emphasize that it is necessary to design an ad hoc technique because the field is too singular to be captured with standard finite element methods.
Pursuing perfection: RWJF, IHI announce project to improve health care performance.
2001-06-01
Achieving quality health care--by stamping out mediocrity while supporting superior performances in all care processes--may seem to many in the health care industry a far-off realization. But, this area may be getting a kick-start soon with a new initiative, "Pursuing Perfection: Raising the Bar for Health Care Performance," funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation of Princeton, N.J., and managed by the Boston-based Institute for Healthcare Improvement. With the program, six health care organizations will be given opportunities to improve patient outcomes by "pursuing perfection across all their care processes."
Improved artificial bee colony algorithm based gravity matching navigation method.
Gao, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Guang Tao; Wang, Qiu Ying; Yu, Chun Yang
2014-07-18
Gravity matching navigation algorithm is one of the key technologies for gravity aided inertial navigation systems. With the development of intelligent algorithms, the powerful search ability of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm makes it possible to be applied to the gravity matching navigation field. However, existing search mechanisms of basic ABC algorithms cannot meet the need for high accuracy in gravity aided navigation. Firstly, proper modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the basic ABC algorithm. Secondly, a new search mechanism is presented in this paper which is based on an improved ABC algorithm using external speed information. At last, modified Hausdorff distance is introduced to screen the possible matching results. Both simulations and ocean experiments verify the feasibility of the method, and results show that the matching rate of the method is high enough to obtain a precise matching position.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, Charles E.; McClellan, James H.; Scott, Waymond R.; Kerr, Andrew J.
2016-05-01
This work introduces two advances in wide-band electromagnetic induction (EMI) processing: a novel adaptive matched filter (AMF) and matched subspace detection methods. Both advances make use of recent work with a subspace SVD approach to separating the signal, soil, and noise subspaces of the frequency measurements The proposed AMF provides a direct approach to removing the EMI self-response while improving the signal to noise ratio of the data. Unlike previous EMI adaptive downtrack filters, this new filter will not erroneously optimize the EMI soil response instead of the EMI target response because these two responses are projected into separate frequency subspaces. The EMI detection methods in this work elaborate on how the signal and noise subspaces in the frequency measurements are ideal for creating the matched subspace detection (MSD) and constant false alarm rate matched subspace detection (CFAR) metrics developed by Scharf The CFAR detection metric has been shown to be the uniformly most powerful invariant detector.
Improving Semi-Global Matching: Cost Aggregation and Confidence Measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
d'Angelo, Pablo
2016-06-01
Digital elevation models are one of the basic products that can be generated from remotely sensed imagery. The Semi Global Matching (SGM) algorithm is a robust and practical algorithm for dense image matching. The connection between SGM and Belief Propagation was recently developed, and based on that improvements such as correction of over-counting the data term, and a new confidence measure have been proposed. Later the MGM algorithm has been proposed, it aims at improving the regularization step of SGM, but has only been evaluated on the Middlebury stereo benchmark so far. This paper evaluates these proposed improvements on the ISPRS satellite stereo benchmark, using a Pleiades Triplet and a Cartosat-1 Stereo pair. The over-counting correction slightly improves matching density, at the expense of adding a few outliers. The MGM cost aggregation shows leads to a slight increase of accuracy.
Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You
2013-01-01
In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor
Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paney, Andrew S.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…
Impedance matched joined drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission
Moss, William C.
2000-01-01
An impedance matched jointed drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission. A passive means and method that maximizes the amplitude and minimize the temporal dispersion of acoustic signals that are sent through a drill string, for use in a measurement while drilling telemetry system. The improvement in signal transmission is accomplished by replacing the standard joints in a drill string with joints constructed of a material that is impedance matched acoustically to the end of the drill pipe to which it is connected. Provides improvement in the measurement while drilling technique which can be utilized for well logging, directional drilling, and drilling dynamics, as well as gamma-ray spectroscopy while drilling post shot boreholes, such as utilized in drilling post shot boreholes.
Improvement of EUV mix-match overlay for production implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sarohan; Lee, ByoungHoon; Lee, Byong-Seog; Lee, Inwhan; Lim, Chang-Moon
2016-03-01
The improvement of overlay control in extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography is one of critical issues for successful mass production by using it. Especially it is important to improve the mix and match overlay or matched machine overlay (MMO) between EUV and ArF immersion tool, because EUV process will be applied to specific layers that have more competitive cost edge against ArF immersion multiple patterning with the early mass productivity of EUVL. Therefore it is necessary to consider the EUV overlay target with comparing the overlay specification of double patterning technology (DPT) and spacer patterning technology (SPT). This paper will discuss about required overlay controllability and current performance of EUV, and challenges for future improvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourmatin, Hossein; Dayal, Kaushik
2016-10-01
We consider the scattering of incident plane-wave electrons from a defect in a crystal modeled by the time-harmonic Schrödinger equation. While the defect potential is localized, the far-field potential is periodic, unlike standard free-space scattering problems. Previous work on the Schrödinger equation has been almost entirely in free-space conditions; a few works on crystals have been in one-dimension. We construct absorbing boundary conditions for this problem using perfectly matched layers in a tight-binding formulation. Using the example of a point defect in graphene, we examine the efficiency and convergence of the proposed absorbing boundary condition.
Li, J; Guo, L-X; Zeng, H; Han, X-B
2009-06-01
A message-passing-interface (MPI)-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for the electromagnetic scattering from a 1-D randomly rough sea surface is presented. The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different processors is illustrated for one sea surface realization, and the computation time of the parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced compared to a single-process implementation. Finally, some numerical results are shown, including the backscattering characteristics of sea surface for different polarization and the bistatic scattering from a sea surface with large incident angle and large wind speed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baccouche, Ryan; Tahar, Mabrouk Ben; Moreau, Solène
2016-09-01
A Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) for aeroacoustic problems using Galbrun's equation in the presence of an axial and a swirling steady mean flow is investigated in a cylindrical coordinates system. This equation is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description and leads to a wave equation written only in terms of the Lagrangian perturbation of the displacement. Galbrun's equation is solved by a mixed pressure-displacement Finite Element Method (FEM). To avoid instabilities in the presence of mean flow, a geometric transformation is presented. The validity and efficiency of the proposed PML formulation are established through comparisons with analytical, semi-analytical model based on Pridmore-Brown equation (extended to an axial and a swirling mean flow) and with multiple-scale models. The interest of the formulation is shown through an example of aeroacoustic radiation.
Improved algorithms for approximate string matching (extended abstract)
Papamichail, Dimitris; Papamichail, Georgios
2009-01-01
Background The problem of approximate string matching is important in many different areas such as computational biology, text processing and pattern recognition. A great effort has been made to design efficient algorithms addressing several variants of the problem, including comparison of two strings, approximate pattern identification in a string or calculation of the longest common subsequence that two strings share. Results We designed an output sensitive algorithm solving the edit distance problem between two strings of lengths n and m respectively in time O((s - |n - m|)·min(m, n, s) + m + n) and linear space, where s is the edit distance between the two strings. This worst-case time bound sets the quadratic factor of the algorithm independent of the longest string length and improves existing theoretical bounds for this problem. The implementation of our algorithm also excels in practice, especially in cases where the two strings compared differ significantly in length. Conclusion We have provided the design, analysis and implementation of a new algorithm for calculating the edit distance of two strings with both theoretical and practical implications. Source code of our algorithm is available online. PMID:19208109
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lassnigg, Lorenz
2008-01-01
This article discusses the implications of a framework to improve matching supply and demand in VET by a policy to improve quality by using anticipation and foresight approaches. Analysis of the Austrian anticipation system identified some basic aspects such as policy. The analysis focused on two issues: the observation and measurement of…
Improved census transform for noise robust stereo matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jongchul; Jun, Daeyoon; Eem, Changkyoung; Hong, Hyunki
2016-06-01
Census transform (CT), a stereo matching algorithm, has a strong advantage in radial distortion and brightness changes. However, CT is noise-sensitive because it compares the brightness of a single central pixel based on the brightness values of neighborhood pixels within a matching window. Star-census transform, which compares the brightness of pixels separated by a certain distance along a symmetrical pattern within the matching window, is presented. The proposed method can select the distance between the pixels for comparison and comparison patterns. The experiment results show that the proposed method yields a better performance than the previous CT methods.
Yuan, Ji; Cheung, Paul K. M.; Zhang, Huifang M.; Chau, David; Yang, Decheng
2005-01-01
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is the most common causal agent of viral myocarditis, but existing drug therapies are of limited value. Application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in knockdown of gene expression is an emerging technology in antiviral gene therapy. To investigate whether RNA interference (RNAi) can protect against CVB3 infection, we evaluated the effects of RNAi on viral replication in HeLa cells and murine cardiomyocytes by using five CVB3-specific siRNAs targeting distinct regions of the viral genome. The most effective one is siRNA-4, targeting the viral protease 2A, achieving a 92% inhibition of CVB3 replication. The specific RNAi effects could last at least 48 h, and cell viability assay revealed that 90% of siRNA-4-pretreated cells were still alive and lacked detectable viral protein expression 48 h postinfection. Moreover, administration of siRNAs after viral infection could also effectively inhibit viral replication, indicating its therapeutic potential. Further evaluation by combination found that no enhanced inhibitory effects were observed when siRNA-4 was cotransfected with each of the other four candidates. In mutational analysis of the mechanisms of siRNA action, we found that siRNA functions by targeting the positive strand of virus and requires a perfect sequence match in the central region of the target, but mismatches were more tolerated near the 3′ end than the 5′ end of the antisense strand. These findings reveal an effective target for CVB3 silencing and provide a new possibility for antiviral intervention. PMID:15681418
Improved Real-Time Scan Matching Using Corner Features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, H. A.; Moussa, A. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.; Sesay, Abu B.
2016-06-01
The automation of unmanned vehicle operation has gained a lot of research attention, in the last few years, because of its numerous applications. The vehicle localization is more challenging in indoor environments where absolute positioning measurements (e.g. GPS) are typically unavailable. Laser range finders are among the most widely used sensors that help the unmanned vehicles to localize themselves in indoor environments. Typically, automatic real-time matching of the successive scans is performed either explicitly or implicitly by any localization approach that utilizes laser range finders. Many accustomed approaches such as Iterative Closest Point (ICP), Iterative Matching Range Point (IMRP), Iterative Dual Correspondence (IDC), and Polar Scan Matching (PSM) handles the scan matching problem in an iterative fashion which significantly affects the time consumption. Furthermore, the solution convergence is not guaranteed especially in cases of sharp maneuvers or fast movement. This paper proposes an automated real-time scan matching algorithm where the matching process is initialized using the detected corners. This initialization step aims to increase the convergence probability and to limit the number of iterations needed to reach convergence. The corner detection is preceded by line extraction from the laser scans. To evaluate the probability of line availability in indoor environments, various data sets, offered by different research groups, have been tested and the mean numbers of extracted lines per scan for these data sets are ranging from 4.10 to 8.86 lines of more than 7 points. The set of all intersections between extracted lines are detected as corners regardless of the physical intersection of these line segments in the scan. To account for the uncertainties of the detected corners, the covariance of the corners is estimated using the extracted lines variances. The detected corners are used to estimate the transformation parameters between the
Improved Feature Matching for Mobile Devices with IMU
Masiero, Andrea; Vettore, Antonio
2016-01-01
Thanks to the recent diffusion of low-cost high-resolution digital cameras and to the development of mostly automated procedures for image-based 3D reconstruction, the popularity of photogrammetry for environment surveys is constantly increasing in the last years. Automatic feature matching is an important step in order to successfully complete the photogrammetric 3D reconstruction: this step is the fundamental basis for the subsequent estimation of the geometry of the scene. This paper reconsiders the feature matching problem when dealing with smart mobile devices (e.g., when using the standard camera embedded in a smartphone as imaging sensor). More specifically, this paper aims at exploiting the information on camera movements provided by the inertial navigation system (INS) in order to make the feature matching step more robust and, possibly, computationally more efficient. First, a revised version of the affine scale-invariant feature transform (ASIFT) is considered: this version reduces the computational complexity of the original ASIFT, while still ensuring an increase of correct feature matches with respect to the SIFT. Furthermore, a new two-step procedure for the estimation of the essential matrix E (and the camera pose) is proposed in order to increase its estimation robustness and computational efficiency. PMID:27527186
Improved Feature Matching for Mobile Devices with IMU.
Masiero, Andrea; Vettore, Antonio
2016-01-01
Thanks to the recent diffusion of low-cost high-resolution digital cameras and to the development of mostly automated procedures for image-based 3D reconstruction, the popularity of photogrammetry for environment surveys is constantly increasing in the last years. Automatic feature matching is an important step in order to successfully complete the photogrammetric 3D reconstruction: this step is the fundamental basis for the subsequent estimation of the geometry of the scene. This paper reconsiders the feature matching problem when dealing with smart mobile devices (e.g., when using the standard camera embedded in a smartphone as imaging sensor). More specifically, this paper aims at exploiting the information on camera movements provided by the inertial navigation system (INS) in order to make the feature matching step more robust and, possibly, computationally more efficient. First, a revised version of the affine scale-invariant feature transform (ASIFT) is considered: this version reduces the computational complexity of the original ASIFT, while still ensuring an increase of correct feature matches with respect to the SIFT. Furthermore, a new two-step procedure for the estimation of the essential matrix E (and the camera pose) is proposed in order to increase its estimation robustness and computational efficiency. PMID:27527186
Refractive index matching improves optical object detection in paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarela, J. M. S.; Heikkinen, S. M.; Fabritius, T. E. J.; Haapala, A. T.; Myllylä, R. A.
2008-05-01
The demand for high-quality recycled pulp products has increased the need for an efficient deinking process. Assessing process efficiency via residual ink on test sheets has so far been limited to the sheet surface due to the poor transparency of paper. A refractive index matching method was studied to obtain a quantitative measure of particles within the volume of a paper sheet. In actual measurements a glass plate with etched lines from 8.5 µm to 281.1 µm wide was placed beneath the layers of cleared paper, and visible lines were counted with a microscope. Three different paper grades were tested with transparentizing agents. A diffusion theory-based regression model was used to find a correlation between transparency, paper grammage and paper thickness. These equations enable the determination of the size of an object detectable from a paper with a certain transparentizing agent or the parameters of a test sheet needed to detect objects of a known size. Anise oil was found to be the better of the two agents used, and they both had better transparentizing ability than air or water. The transparent paper grammage of the paper grades was determined for all the tested media. Paper's transparency was found to depend more on paper's thickness than grammage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DiConsiglio, John
2012-01-01
Alumni relations and stewardship officers have the makings of a strong partnership. Alumni relations and stewardship can be a natural fit--a perfect match even--according to Mary Jo Chiara of St. Joseph's College (SJC) in New York. Both strive to cultivate long-term relationships with constituents and build increasing levels of engagement and…
Using Local Matching to Improve Estimates of Program Impact: Evidence from Project STAR
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Nathan; Steiner, Peter; Cook, Tom
2011-01-01
In this study the authors test whether matching using intact local groups improves causal estimates over those produced using propensity score matching at the student level. Like the recent analysis of Wilde and Hollister (2007), they draw on data from Project STAR to estimate the effect of small class sizes on student achievement. They propose a…
Electrospun Vascular Grafts with Improved Compliance Matching to Native Vessels
Nezarati, Roya M.; Eifert, Michelle B.; Dempsey, David K.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is one of the most commonly performed major surgeries in the United States. Autologous vessels such as the saphenous vein are the current gold standard for treatment; however, synthetic vascular prostheses made of expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (ePTFE) or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) are used when autologous vessels are unavailable. These synthetic grafts have a high failure rate in small diameter (<4 mm) applications due to rapid re-occlusion via intimal hyperplasia. Current strategies to improve clinical performance are focused on preventing intimal hyperplasia by fabricating grafts with compliance and burst pressure similar to native vessels. To this end, we have developed an electrospun vascular graft from segmented polyurethanes with tunable properties by altering material chemistry and graft microarchitecture. Relationships between polyurethane tensile properties and biomechanical properties were elucidated to select polymers with desirable properties. Graft thickness, fiber tortuosity, and fiber fusions were modulated to provide additional tools for controlling graft properties. Using a combination of these strategies, a vascular graft with compliance and burst pressure exceeding the saphenous vein autograft was fabricated (compliance = 6.0 ± 0.6 %/mmHg × 10−4, burst pressure = 2260 ± 160 mmHg). This graft is hypothesized to reduce intimal hyperplasia associated with low compliance in synthetic grafts and improve long term clinical success. Additionally, the fundamental relationships between electrospun mesh microarchitecture and mechanical properties identified in this work can be utilized in various biomedical applications. PMID:24846218
Strategic Use of Epitope Matching to Improve Outcomes.
Wiebe, Chris; Nickerson, Peter
2016-10-01
Understanding the events leading to allorecognition and the subsequent effector pathways engaged is key for the development of strategies to prolong graft survival. Optimizing patient outcomes will require 2 major advancements: (1) minimizing premature death with a functioning graft in the patients with stable graft function, and (2) maximizing graft survival by avoiding the aforementioned allorecognition. This necessitates personalized immunosuppression to avoid known metabolic side effects, risk for infection, and malignancy, while holding the alloimmune system in check. Since the beginning of transplant a key strategy to achieve this goal is to minimize HLA mismatching between donor and recipient. What has not evolved is any refinement in our evaluation of HLA relatedness between donor and recipient when HLA mismatch exists. Donor-recipient HLA mismatch at the amino acid level can now be determined. These mismatches serve as potential epitopes for de novo donor specific antibody development and correlate with late rejection and graft loss. It is in this context that HLA epitope analysis is considered as a strategy to permit safe immunosuppression minimization to improve patient outcomes through: (1) improved allocation schemes that favor donor-recipient pairs with a low HLA epitope mismatch load (especially at the class II loci) or avoiding specific epitope mismatches known to be highly immunogenic and (2) immunosuppressive minimization in patients with low epitope mismatch loads or without highly immunogenic epitope mismatches.
Stephens, Thomas J; Sigler, Monya L; Herndon, James H; Dispensa, Lisa; Le Moigne, Anne
2016-01-01
Objective To assess the efficacy of Imedeen Time Perfection for improving the appearance and condition of photoaged skin in healthy women. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial enrolled healthy women, 35–60 years of age, with Fitzpatrick I–III and Glogau II–III skin types and mild-to-moderate facial fine lines/wrinkles. The eligible subjects were randomized to receive two tablets daily of either Imedeen Time Perfection (Imedeen) or a matching placebo for 12 weeks. Efficacy assessments included investigator rating of 16 photoaging parameters (ie, global facial appearance and 15 individual facial parameters and the average of all parameters), instrumentation (ie, ultrasound dermal density, moisture level of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, cutometry), and subjects’ self-assessment. Differences in the mean change from baseline to week 12 values on these outcomes were compared between Imedeen and placebo using analysis of variance or a paired t-test. Results Seventy-four subjects with primarily Fitzpatrick skin type III (78%–79%) and Glogau type III (53%–58%) completed the study (Imedeen: n=36; placebo: n=38). The mean difference in change from baseline to week 12 for global facial assessment significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (−0.52; P=0.0017). Additionally, the mean differences in the average of all facial photoaging parameters (−0.29), mottled hyperpigmentation (−0.25), tactile laxity (−0.24), dullness (−0.47), and tactile roughness (−0.62) significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (P≤0.05). Significantly greater increases in ultrasound dermal density (+11% vs +1%; P≤0.05) and stratum corneum moisturization (+30% vs +6%; P≤0.05) were also observed for Imedeen than for placebo. There were no significant differences on other instrumental outcomes. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Imedeen Time Perfection can positively affect the appearance of photoaged skin
Missile placement analysis based on improved SURF feature matching algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Kaida; Zhao, Wenjie; Li, Dejun; Gong, Xiran; Sheng, Qian
2015-03-01
The precious battle damage assessment by use of video images to analysis missile placement is a new study area. The article proposed an improved speeded up robust features algorithm named restricted speeded up robust features, which combined the combat application of TV-command-guided missiles and the characteristics of video image. Its restrictions mainly reflected in two aspects, one is to restrict extraction area of feature point; the second is to restrict the number of feature points. The process of missile placement analysis based on video image was designed and a video splicing process and random sample consensus purification were achieved. The RSURF algorithm is proved that has good realtime performance on the basis of guarantee the accuracy.
Improvements of AIMS D2DB matching for product patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Kana; Son, Donghwan; Tolani, Vikram; Satake, Masaki
2015-07-01
AIMSTM is mainly used in photomask industry for verifying the print impact of mask defects on wafer CD in DUV lithography process. AIMS verification is typically used in D2D configuration, wherein two AIMS images, reference and defect, are captured and compared. Criticality of defects is then analyzed off these images using a number of criteria. As photomasks with aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), and single-die are being routinely manufactured in production environment, it is required to improve cycle time through the AIMS step by saving time in searching for and capturing an adequate reference AIMS image. One solution is to use AIMS D2DB methodology which compares AIMS defect image with a reference image simulated from the corresponding mask design data. In general, such simulation needs calibration with the native images captured on the AIMS tool. In our previous paper we evaluated a calibration procedure directly using the defect AIMS image and compared the analysis results with a D2D capture using AIA (Aerial Image Analyzer) software product from Luminescent Technologies (now part of KLA-Tencor Corporation). The results showed that calibration using defect AIMS image does not influence AIMS judgment as long as the defect size is less than 100nm in case of typical basic patterns. When applying this methodology to product patterns, it was found that there were differences between reference AIMS image and simulation image. These differences influenced AIMS verification. Then new method to compensate would be needed. Our approach to compensate the difference between AIMS image and simulated image is examination with some factors likely to cause the difference.
Improved particle size estimation in digital holography via sign matched filtering.
Lu, Jiang; Shaw, Raymond A; Yang, Weidong
2012-06-01
A matched filter method is provided for obtaining improved particle size estimates from digital in-line holograms. This improvement is relative to conventional reconstruction and pixel counting methods for particle size estimation, which is greatly limited by the CCD camera pixel size. The proposed method is based on iterative application of a sign matched filter in the Fourier domain, with sign meaning the matched filter takes values of ±1 depending on the sign of the angular spectrum of the particle aperture function. Using simulated data the method is demonstrated to work for particle diameters several times the pixel size. Holograms of piezoelectrically generated water droplets taken in the laboratory show greatly improved particle size measurements. The method is robust to additive noise and can be applied to real holograms over a wide range of matched-filter particle sizes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tankersley, R. A.; Bourexis, P.; Kaser, J. S.
2011-12-01
Within the research and academic communities there is a growing interest in improving the communication skills of scientists, especially their ability to communicate the substance and importance of their research to general audiences. To address this need, we developed an intensive, two-day workshop [Presentation Boot Camp (PBC)] that focuses on presenting scientific concepts and research findings more effectively to both scientific/technical audiences and the general public. Through a series of interactive sessions, participants receive training in planning and preparing presentations that communicate messages more clearly and effectively and that have a lasting impact on the audience. Topics include: knowing and identifying the needs of the audience, highlighting big ideas and take-home messages, designing effective visuals, decoding complex concepts with diagrams, and displaying data in meaningful ways. PBC attendees also receive training in the use and application of the Presentation Skills Protocol (PSP) and associated rubric for evaluating the effectiveness of scientific presentations. The PSP was originally developed as part of a NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education Program (GK-12) to assess and track the impact of the GK-12 experience on the communication skills of Graduate Teaching Fellows. The PSP focuses on eleven presentation skill sets, including organization, accuracy, relevance, message, language, equity, delivery, technology, use of time, questions, and presence. The associated rubric operationally defines each of the skill sets at three categorical levels of competence: (1) proficient, (2) developing, and (3) needs attention. The PSP may be used to (1) provide scientists with regular and consistent feedback on the quality and effectiveness of their classroom and research presentations and (2) design professional development activities and training programs that target specific presentation skills. However, our evaluation results indicate
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adamsky, Carol; Morris, Joyce
A classroom language learning exercise, Pictionary Perfect, is described and documented. With this game, junior high school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and bilingual students create illustrated dictionaries with a desktop publishing program and a computer. The students are introduced to computers and research skills while developing English…
Similarity measures of full polarimetric SAR images fusion for improved SAR image matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, H.
2015-06-01
China's first airborne SAR mapping system (CASMSAR) developed by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping can acquire high-resolution and full polarimetric (HH, HV, VH and VV) Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. It has the ability to acquire X-band full polarimetric SAR data at a resolution of 0.5m. However, the existence of speckles which is inherent in SAR imagery affects visual interpretation and image processing badly, and challenges the assumption that conjugate points appear similar to each other in matching processing. In addition, researches show that speckles are multiplicative speckles, and most similarity measures of SAR image matching are sensitive to them. Thus, matching outcomes of SAR images acquired by most similarity measures are not reliable and with bad accuracy. Meanwhile, every polarimetric SAR image has different backscattering information of objects from each other and four polarimetric SAR data contain most basic and a large amount of redundancy information to improve matching. Therefore, we introduced logarithmically transformation and a stereo matching similarity measure into airborne full polarimetric SAR imagery. Firstly, in order to transform the multiplicative speckles into additivity ones and weaken speckles' influence on similarity measure, logarithmically transformation have to be taken to all images. Secondly, to prevent performance degradation of similarity measure caused by speckles, measure must be free or insensitive of additivity speckles. Thus, we introduced a stereo matching similarity measure, called Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC), into full polarimetric SAR image matching. Thirdly, to take advantage of multi-polarimetric data and preserve the best similarity measure value, four measure values calculated between left and right single polarimetric SAR images are fused as final measure value for matching. The method was tested for matching under CASMSAR data. The results showed that the method delivered an effective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Ana C.; Paris, Claire B.; Olascoaga, M. Josefina; Kourafalou, Villy H.; Kang, Heesook; Reed, John K.
2016-08-01
Mesophotic coral reef ecosystems are remote from coastal stressors, but are still vulnerable to over-exploitation, and remain mostly unprotected. They may be the key to coral reefs resilience, yet little is known about the pattern of larval subsidies from deeper to shallower coral reef habitats. Here we use a biophysical modeling approach to test the hypothesis that fishes from mesophotic coral reef ecosystems may replenish shallow reef populations. We aim at identifying the spatio-temporal patterns and underlying mechanisms of larval connections between Pulley Ridge, a mesophotic reef in the Gulf of Mexico hosting of a variety of shallow-water tropical fishes, and the Florida Keys reefs. A new three-dimensional (3D) polygon habitat module is developed for the open-source Connectivity Modeling System to simulate larval movement behavior of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus, in a realistic 3D representation of the coral reef habitat. Biological traits such as spawning periodicity, mortality, and vertical migration are also incorporated in the model. Virtual damselfish larvae are released daily from the Pulley Ridge at 80 m depth over 60 lunar spawning cycles and tracked until settlement within a fine resolution (~900 m) hydrodynamic model of the region. Such probabilistic simulations reveal mesophotic-shallow connections with large, yet sporadic pulses of larvae settling in the Florida Keys. Modal and spectral analyses on the spawning time of successful larvae, and on the position of the Florida Current front with respect to Pulley Ridge, demonstrate that specific physical-biological interactions modulate these "perfect storm" events. Indeed, the co-occurrence of (1) peak spawning with frontal features, and (2) cyclonic eddies with ontogenetic vertical migration, contribute to high settlement in the Florida Keys. This study demonstrates that mesophotic coral reef ecosystems can also serve as refugia for coral reef fish and suggests that they have a critical
Romero, Daniel M; Swaab, Roderick I; Uzzi, Brian; Galinsky, Adam D
2015-10-01
The current research used the contexts of U.S. presidential debates and negotiations to examine whether matching the linguistic style of an opponent in a two-party exchange affects the reactions of third-party observers. Building off communication accommodation theory (CAT), interaction alignment theory (IAT), and processing fluency, we propose that language style matching (LSM) will improve subsequent third-party evaluations because matching an opponent's linguistic style reflects greater perspective taking and will make one's arguments easier to process. In contrast, research on status inferences predicts that LSM will negatively impact third-party evaluations because LSM implies followership. We conduct two studies to test these competing hypotheses. Study 1 analyzed transcripts of U.S. presidential debates between 1976 and 2012 and found that candidates who matched their opponent's linguistic style increased their standing in the polls. Study 2 demonstrated a causal relationship between LSM and third-party observer evaluations using negotiation transcripts.
Belkhir, A; Baida, F I
2008-05-01
The three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method is developed and implemented in the case of oblique incidence in order to study biperiodic structures that are finished according to the third direction. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is adapted to the developed algorithm. The electromagnetic fields of Maxwell's equations in the main grid and in the PML media are transferred from the E-H domain to the mapped P-Q domain. The modified Maxwell's equations are implemented by the split-field method (SFM). Several tests are made and presented in order to verify and demonstrate the accuracy of our codes. The obtained results are in good agreement with published ones obtained by other methods. The originality of this paper comes, first from the fact that it brings a complete development of the used algorithm, and second, from the study of the spectral response of a radar dome based on annular aperture arrays perforated into a perfect conductor plate.
Cui, Lingli; Wu, Na; Wang, Wenjing; Kang, Chenhui
2014-09-09
This paper presents a new method for a composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm, which is applied to vibration sensor signal feature extraction and fault diagnosis of a gearbox. Three advantages are highlighted in the new method. First, the composite dictionary in the algorithm has been changed from multi-atom matching to single-atom matching. Compared to non-composite dictionary single-atom matching, the original composite dictionary multi-atom matching pursuit (CD-MaMP) algorithm can achieve noise reduction in the reconstruction stage, but it cannot dramatically reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency in the decomposition stage. Therefore, the optimized composite dictionary single-atom matching algorithm (CD-SaMP) is proposed. Second, the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient is put forward to improve the sparsity and efficiency of the algorithm, which adjusts the parameters of the termination condition constantly in the process of decomposition to avoid noise. Third, composite dictionaries are enriched with the modulation dictionary, which is one of the important structural characteristics of gear fault signals. Meanwhile, the termination condition of iteration settings, sub-feature dictionary selections and operation efficiency between CD-MaMP and CD-SaMP are discussed, aiming at gear simulation vibration signals with noise. The simulation sensor-based vibration signal results show that the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient enhances decomposition sparsity greatly and achieves a good effect of noise reduction. Furthermore, the modulation dictionary achieves a better matching effect compared to the Fourier dictionary, and CD-SaMP has a great advantage of sparsity and efficiency compared with the CD-MaMP. The sensor-based vibration signals measured from practical engineering gearbox analyses have further shown that the CD-SaMP decomposition and reconstruction algorithm
Cui, Lingli; Wu, Na; Wang, Wenjing; Kang, Chenhui
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new method for a composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm, which is applied to vibration sensor signal feature extraction and fault diagnosis of a gearbox. Three advantages are highlighted in the new method. First, the composite dictionary in the algorithm has been changed from multi-atom matching to single-atom matching. Compared to non-composite dictionary single-atom matching, the original composite dictionary multi-atom matching pursuit (CD-MaMP) algorithm can achieve noise reduction in the reconstruction stage, but it cannot dramatically reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency in the decomposition stage. Therefore, the optimized composite dictionary single-atom matching algorithm (CD-SaMP) is proposed. Second, the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient is put forward to improve the sparsity and efficiency of the algorithm, which adjusts the parameters of the termination condition constantly in the process of decomposition to avoid noise. Third, composite dictionaries are enriched with the modulation dictionary, which is one of the important structural characteristics of gear fault signals. Meanwhile, the termination condition of iteration settings, sub-feature dictionary selections and operation efficiency between CD-MaMP and CD-SaMP are discussed, aiming at gear simulation vibration signals with noise. The simulation sensor-based vibration signal results show that the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient enhances decomposition sparsity greatly and achieves a good effect of noise reduction. Furthermore, the modulation dictionary achieves a better matching effect compared to the Fourier dictionary, and CD-SaMP has a great advantage of sparsity and efficiency compared with the CD-MaMP. The sensor-based vibration signals measured from practical engineering gearbox analyses have further shown that the CD-SaMP decomposition and reconstruction algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padma, S.; Sanjeevi, S.
2014-11-01
Mangrove ecosystem study is one of the main beneficiaries of the application of hyperspectral data and spectral matching techniques. Diversity and density of mangrove species leads to complexity of the ecosystem. Hence, species level mapping becomes difficult. Though hyperspectral images are appropriate for such a mapping, different mangrove species with closely matching spectra pose a challenge. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral matching algorithm by integrating the stochastic Jeffries-Matusita measure (JM) and deterministic Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to accurately map most species of the mangrove ecosystem. The JM-SAM algorithm signifies the combination of an quantitative angle measure (SAM) and an qualitative distance measure (JM). The spectral capabilities of both the measures are orthogonally projected using tangent and sine functions to result in the combined algorithm. The developed JM-SAM algorithm is implemented to discriminate the mangrove species and the landcover classes of Pichavaram and Muthupet mangrove forests of southern India using the Hyperion datasets. The developed algorithm is extended in a supervised framework for improved classification of the Hyperion image. The reference spectra of the mangrove species and other cover types are extracted from the Hyperion image. From the values of relative spectral discriminatory probability and relative discriminatory entropy value, it can be inferred that hybrid JM-SAM matching measure results in improved discriminability than the individual SAM and JM algorithms. This performance is reflected in the classification results where the JM-SAM (TAN) and JM-SAM (SIN) matching algorithms yielded an improved accuracy of (86.25%,85%) and (88.10%, 86.96) for both the study sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Di; Vignarajan, Janardhan; An, Dong; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogi
2016-03-01
Retinal photography is a non-invasive and well-accepted clinical diagnosis of ocular diseases. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of retinal images is crucial in ocular diseases related clinical application. In this paper, we proposed approaches for improving the quality of blood vessel detection based on our initial blood vessel detection methods. A blood vessel spur pruning method has been developed for removing the blood vessel spurs both on vessel medial lines and binary vessel masks, which are caused by artifacts and side-effect of Gaussian matched vessel enhancement. A Gaussian matched filtering compensation method has been developed for removing incorrect vessel branches in the areas of low illumination. The proposed approaches were applied and tested on the color fundus images from one publicly available database and our diabetic retinopathy screening dataset. A preliminary result has demonstrated the robustness and good performance of the proposed approaches and their potential application for improving retinal blood vessel detection.
The design of an improved matched filter in DSSS-GMSK system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei-tong, Mao; Lin-hua', Zheng; Liang-jun, Xiang; Tan, Wang
2016-02-01
This paper introduces the principle of DSSS-GMSK system, analyses the superiority of GMSK modulation over MSK modulation. Accord that the method of de-spread before demodulation can effectively improve the capability of the system with spread spectrum gain, this paper researches an improved method with matched filter to de-spread and demodulate the DSSS signals. The local PN code is modulated with GMSK modulation before being correlated with received signal, then we can get the synchronous PN code, de-spread and demodulate the signal. MATLAB simulation shows that this method is more efficient than the method of demodulation before despread in low SNR environment.
An improved tropospheric ozone database retrieved from SCIAMACHY Limb-Nadir-Matching method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Jia; Rozanov, Alexei; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Ebojie, Felix; Rahpoe, Nabiz; Bötel, Stefan; Burrows, John
2015-04-01
Tropospheric ozone is one of the most important green-house gases and the main component of photochemical smog. It is either transported from the stratosphere or photochemically produced during pollution events in the troposphere that threaten the respiratory system. To investigate sources, transport mechanisms of tropospheric ozone in a global view, limb nadir matching (LNM) technique applied with SCIAMACHY instrument is used to retrieve tropospheric ozone. With the fact that 90% ozone is located in the stratosphere and only about 10% can be observed in the troposphere, the usage of satellite data requires highly qualified nadir and limb data. In this study we show an improvement of SCIAMACHY limb data as well as its influence on tropospheric ozone results. The limb nadir matching technique is also refined to increase the quality of the tropospheric ozone. The results are validated with ozone sonde measurements.
Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Noore, Afzel
2008-08-01
This paper proposes algorithms for iris segmentation, quality enhancement, match score fusion, and indexing to improve both the accuracy and the speed of iris recognition. A curve evolution approach is proposed to effectively segment a nonideal iris image using the modified Mumford-Shah functional. Different enhancement algorithms are concurrently applied on the segmented iris image to produce multiple enhanced versions of the iris image. A support-vector-machine-based learning algorithm selects locally enhanced regions from each globally enhanced image and combines these good-quality regions to create a single high-quality iris image. Two distinct features are extracted from the high-quality iris image. The global textural feature is extracted using the 1-D log polar Gabor transform, and the local topological feature is extracted using Euler numbers. An intelligent fusion algorithm combines the textural and topological matching scores to further improve the iris recognition performance and reduce the false rejection rate, whereas an indexing algorithm enables fast and accurate iris identification. The verification and identification performance of the proposed algorithms is validated and compared with other algorithms using the CASIA Version 3, ICE 2005, and UBIRIS iris databases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertson, Scott Patrick
To improve relatively poor outcomes for locally-advanced lung cancer patients, many current efforts are dedicated to minimizing uncertainties in radiotherapy. This enables the isotoxic delivery of escalated tumor doses, leading to better local tumor control. The current dissertation specifically addresses inter-fractional uncertainties resulting from patient setup variability. An automatic block-matching registration (BMR) algorithm is implemented and evaluated for the purpose of directly localizing advanced-stage lung tumors during image-guided radiation therapy. In this algorithm, small image sub-volumes, termed "blocks", are automatically identified on the tumor surface in an initial planning computed tomography (CT) image. Each block is independently and automatically registered to daily images acquired immediately prior to each treatment fraction. To improve the accuracy and robustness of BMR, this algorithm incorporates multi-resolution pyramid registration, regularization with a median filter, and a new multiple-candidate-registrations technique. The result of block-matching is a sparse displacement vector field that models local tissue deformations near the tumor surface. The distribution of displacement vectors is aggregated to obtain the final tumor registration, corresponding to the treatment couch shift for patient setup correction. Compared to existing rigid and deformable registration algorithms, the final BMR algorithm significantly improves the overlap between target volumes from the planning CT and registered daily images. Furthermore, BMR results in the smallest treatment margins for the given study population. However, despite these improvements, large residual target localization errors were noted, indicating that purely rigid couch shifts cannot correct for all sources of inter-fractional variability. Further reductions in treatment uncertainties may require the combination of high-quality target localization and adaptive radiotherapy.
Stamoulis, Catherine; Betensky, Rebecca A
2016-01-01
We aim to improve the performance of the previously proposed signal decomposition matched filtering (SDMF) method [26] for the detection of copy-number variations (CNV) in the human genome. Through simulations, we show that the modified SDMF is robust even at high noise levels and outperforms the original SDMF method, which indirectly depends on CNV frequency. Simulations are also used to develop a systematic approach for selecting relevant parameter thresholds in order to optimize sensitivity, specificity and computational efficiency. We apply the modified method to array CGH data from normal samples in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and compare detected CNVs to those estimated using circular binary segmentation (CBS) [19], a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach [11] and a subset of CNVs in the Database of Genomic Variants. We show that a substantial number of previously identified CNVs are detected by the optimized SDMF, which also outperforms the other two methods. PMID:27295643
Zhou, Ru; Zhong, Dexing; Han, Jiuqiang
2013-01-01
The performance of conventional minutiae-based fingerprint authentication algorithms degrades significantly when dealing with low quality fingerprints with lots of cuts or scratches. A similar degradation of the minutiae-based algorithms is observed when small overlapping areas appear because of the quite narrow width of the sensors. Based on the detection of minutiae, Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptors are employed to fulfill verification tasks in the above difficult scenarios. However, the original SIFT algorithm is not suitable for fingerprint because of: (1) the similar patterns of parallel ridges; and (2) high computational resource consumption. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for fingerprint verification, we propose a SIFT-based Minutia Descriptor (SMD) to improve the SIFT algorithm through image processing, descriptor extraction and matcher. A two-step fast matcher, named improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching (iADM), is also proposed to implement the 1:N verifications in real-time. Fingerprint Identification using SMD and iADM (FISiA) achieved a significant improvement with respect to accuracy in representative databases compared with the conventional minutiae-based method. The speed of FISiA also can meet real-time requirements. PMID:23467056
Zhou, Ru; Zhong, Dexing; Han, Jiuqiang
2013-01-01
The performance of conventional minutiae-based fingerprint authentication algorithms degrades significantly when dealing with low quality fingerprints with lots of cuts or scratches. A similar degradation of the minutiae-based algorithms is observed when small overlapping areas appear because of the quite narrow width of the sensors. Based on the detection of minutiae, Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptors are employed to fulfill verification tasks in the above difficult scenarios. However, the original SIFT algorithm is not suitable for fingerprint because of: (1) the similar patterns of parallel ridges; and (2) high computational resource consumption. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for fingerprint verification, we propose a SIFT-based Minutia Descriptor (SMD) to improve the SIFT algorithm through image processing, descriptor extraction and matcher. A two-step fast matcher, named improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching (iADM), is also proposed to implement the 1:N verifications in real-time. Fingerprint Identification using SMD and iADM (FISiA) achieved a significant improvement with respect to accuracy in representative databases compared with the conventional minutiae-based method. The speed of FISiA also can meet real-time requirements. PMID:23467056
An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications
Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei
2015-01-01
The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441
An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications.
Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei
2015-01-01
The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441
Zhou, Ru; Zhong, Dexing; Han, Jiuqiang
2013-03-06
The performance of conventional minutiae-based fingerprint authentication algorithms degrades significantly when dealing with low quality fingerprints with lots of cuts or scratches. A similar degradation of the minutiae-based algorithms is observed when small overlapping areas appear because of the quite narrow width of the sensors. Based on the detection of minutiae, Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptors are employed to fulfill verification tasks in the above difficult scenarios. However, the original SIFT algorithm is not suitable for fingerprint because of: (1) the similar patterns of parallel ridges; and (2) high computational resource consumption. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for fingerprint verification, we propose a SIFT-based Minutia Descriptor (SMD) to improve the SIFT algorithm through image processing, descriptor extraction and matcher. A two-step fast matcher, named improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching (iADM), is also proposed to implement the 1:N verifications in real-time. Fingerprint Identification using SMD and iADM (FISiA) achieved a significant improvement with respect to accuracy in representative databases compared with the conventional minutiae-based method. The speed of FISiA also can meet real-time requirements.
Goeke, R.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Neumann, C.C.; Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Weed, J.W.
1996-06-01
This report discusses a novel fabrication process to produce nearly perfect optics. The process utilizes vacuum deposition techniques to optimally modify polished optical substrate surfaces. The surface figure, i.e. contour of a polished optical element, is improved by differentially filling in the low spots on the surface using flux from a physical vapor deposition source through an appropriate mask. The process is expected to enable the manufacture of diffraction-limited optical systems for the UV, extreme UV, and soft X-ray spectral regions, which would have great impact on photolithography and astronomy. This same technique may also reduce the fabrication cost of visible region optics with aspheric surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Templeton, D. C.; Harris, D.; Goebel, M.
2013-12-01
We investigate the microseismicity in both traditional and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and compare the temporal distribution of microseismic events to well fluid injection data. We apply the empirical and model-based Matched Field Processing (MFP) methods to continuous seismic data from the Salton Sea geothermal field and the DOE Newberry EGS site. MFP is a non-traditional event detection method that can identify more and smaller events than traditional detection methods alone. The empirical MFP method uses known catalog events as master templates to identify new microearthquakes while the model-based MFP method uses synthetic sources computed across a subsurface 3D grid as master templates. Salton Sea data between January 2008 and December 2011 was downloaded off the SCEDC website and high-quality master events were identified from the online catalog. We created empirical matched field steering vector calibrations for 7 three-component stations within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. The original Salton Sea earthquake catalog identified 4202 events. When we applied the empirical MFP technique to the same data, we identified 5005 additional events (~119% more events). We compare the results from this traditional geothermal area with results obtained from the Newberry EGS site, for which we have 8 three-component stations. The Newberry catalog originally identified 204 events in 3 months while the MFP technique identified 249 additional events (~122% more events). We will compare the results from using the empirical MFP method at the Newberry EGS site with results obtained from using model-based master templates. Additionally, we compare the number of events in the improved earthquake catalogs with available fluid injection data. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
An improvement in IMRT QA results and beam matching in linacs using statistical process control.
Gagneur, Justin D; Ezzell, Gary A
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of statistical process control (SPC) in the context of patient specific intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA to set clinic-specific action limits and evaluate the impact of changes to the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibrations on IMRT QA results. Ten months of IMRT QA data with 247 patient QAs collected on three beam-matched linacs were retrospectively analyzed with a focus on the gamma pass rate (GPR) and the average ratio between the measured and planned doses. Initial control charts and action limits were calculated. Based on this data, changes were made to the leaf gap parameter for the MLCs to improve the consistency between linacs. This leaf gap parameter is tested monthly using a MLC sweep test. A follow-up dataset with 424 unique QAs were used to evaluate the impact of the leaf gap parameter change. The initial data average GPR was 98.6% with an SPC action limit of 93.7%. The average ratio of doses was 1.003, with an upper action limit of 1.017 and a lower action limit of 0.989. The sweep test results for the linacs were -1.8%, 0%, and +1.2% from nominal. After the adjustment of the leaf gap parameter, all sweep test results were within 0.4% of nominal. Subsequently, the average GPR was 99.4% with an SPC action limit of 97.3%. The average ratio of doses was 0.997 with an upper action limit of 1.011 and a lower action limit of 0.981. Applying the principles of SPC to IMRT QA allowed small differences between closely matched linacs to be identified and reduced. Ongoing analysis will monitor the process and be used to refine the clinical action limits for IMRT QA. PMID:25207579
Catarino, S O; Minas, G; Miranda, J M
2016-07-01
This paper reports the use of acoustic waves for promoting and improving streaming in tridimensional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cuvettes of 15mm width×14mm height×2.5mm thickness. The acoustic waves are generated by a 28μm thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF - piezoelectric transducer in its β phase, actuated at its resonance frequency: 40MHz. The acoustic transmission properties of two materials - SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - were numerically compared. It was concluded that PDMS inhibits, while SU-8 allows, the transmission of the acoustic waves to the propagation medium. Therefore, by simulating the acoustic transmission properties of different materials, it is possible to preview the acoustic behavior in the fluidic system, which allows the optimization of the best layout design, saving costs and time. This work also presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results of acoustic streaming obtained with that β-PVDF transducer in the movement and in the formation of fluid recirculation in tridimensional closed domains. Differences between the numerical and experimental results are credited to the high sensitivity of acoustic streaming to the experimental conditions and to limitations of the numerical method. The reported study contributes for the improvement of simulation models that can be extremely useful for predicting the acoustic effects of new materials in fluidic devices, as well as for optimizing the transducers and matching layers positioning in a fluidic structure. PMID:27044029
Catarino, S O; Minas, G; Miranda, J M
2016-07-01
This paper reports the use of acoustic waves for promoting and improving streaming in tridimensional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cuvettes of 15mm width×14mm height×2.5mm thickness. The acoustic waves are generated by a 28μm thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF - piezoelectric transducer in its β phase, actuated at its resonance frequency: 40MHz. The acoustic transmission properties of two materials - SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - were numerically compared. It was concluded that PDMS inhibits, while SU-8 allows, the transmission of the acoustic waves to the propagation medium. Therefore, by simulating the acoustic transmission properties of different materials, it is possible to preview the acoustic behavior in the fluidic system, which allows the optimization of the best layout design, saving costs and time. This work also presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results of acoustic streaming obtained with that β-PVDF transducer in the movement and in the formation of fluid recirculation in tridimensional closed domains. Differences between the numerical and experimental results are credited to the high sensitivity of acoustic streaming to the experimental conditions and to limitations of the numerical method. The reported study contributes for the improvement of simulation models that can be extremely useful for predicting the acoustic effects of new materials in fluidic devices, as well as for optimizing the transducers and matching layers positioning in a fluidic structure.
Horta de Macedo, Ligia R; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Hallak, Jaime E C
2014-12-15
The neuropeptide oxytocin improves the performance in facial emotion recognition tests in healthy volunteers and in individuals with schizophrenia. Different paradigms are used in emotion recognition tasks, engaging different neurobiological bases. To date, the effects of oxytocin in facial emotion matching tasks have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intranasal oxytocin in a facial emotion matching task in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Twenty patients and 20 healthy volunteers received 48 IU intranasal oxytocin and placebo in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within subjects design. Fifty minutes after treatment, subjects completed a facial emotion matching task and three control tests. Oxytocin failed to improve facial affect processing, in contrast with previous results. Possible explanations are the fact that we used a facial emotion matching paradigm instead of emotion labeling tasks and a higher dose of oxytocin than the one used in most similar studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vixie Sandy, Mary
2013-01-01
This study investigated a problem facing policy makers, education leaders, and external providers of service that support or facilitate school-based change designed to improve teaching and learning: How to match school needs with providers' services in ways that maximize school improvement. A growing number of organizations provide service to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Jane F.
1985-01-01
Transfer of learning from drills to real games is a complex process, depending on similarities between the components of stimulus and response. Designing drills to more closely reflect game skills and differentiating scoring during games to reward the use of new skills can improve playing performance. (MT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
2007-01-01
In "Just Perfect: Part 1," the author defined a perfect number N to be one for which the sum of the divisors d (1 less than or equal to d less than N) is N. He gave the first few perfect numbers, starting with those known by the early Greeks. In this article, the author provides an extended list of perfect numbers, with some comments about their…
Bush, K; Holcombe, C; Kapp, D; Buyyounouski, M; Hancock, S; Xing, L; Atwood, T; King, M
2014-06-15
Purpose: Radiation-therapy dose-escalation beyond 80Gy may improve tumor control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer. Since toxicity remains a concern, treatment planners must achieve dose-escalation while still adhering to dose-constraints for surrounding structures. Patientmatching is a machine-learning technique that identifies prior patients that dosimetrically match DVH parameters of target volumes and critical structures prior to actual treatment planning. We evaluated the feasibility of patient-matching in (1)identifying candidates for safe dose-escalation; and (2)improving DVH parameters for critical structures in actual dose-escalated plans. Methods: We analyzed DVH parameters from 319 historical treatment plans to determine which plans could achieve dose-escalation (8640cGy) without exceeding Zelefsky dose-constraints (rectal and bladder V47Gy<53%, and V75.6Gy<30%, max-point dose to rectum of 8550cGy, max dose to PTV< 9504cGy). We then estimated the percentage of cases that could achieve safe dose-escalation using software that enables patient matching (QuickMatch, Siris Medical, Mountain View, CA). We then replanned a case that had violated DVH constraints with DVH parameters from patient matching, in order to determine whether this previously unacceptable plan could be made eligible with this automated technique. Results: Patient-matching improved the percentage of patients eligible for dose-escalation from 40% to 63% (p=4.7e-4, t-test). Using a commercial optimizer augmented with patient-matching, we demonstrated a case where patient-matching improved the toxicity-profile such that dose-escalation would have been possible; this plan was rapidly achieved using patientmatching software. In this patient, all lower-dose constraints were met with both the denovo and patient-matching plan. In the patient-matching plan, maximum dose to the rectum was 8385cGy, while the denovo plan failed to meet the maximum rectal constraint at 8571c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Rosa, R.; Forte, L. A.; Garufi, F.; Milano, L.
2012-02-01
Current gravitational wave searches for compact binaries coalescence are done using a bank of templates (matched filters) on each running detector. Given a network of interferometers, we propose to use a denoising strategy based on an independent component analysis which considers two interferometers at a time and then to use a standard matched filter on the processed data. We show that this method allows to lower the level of noise and increases the signal-to-nose ratio at the output of the matched filter.
An improved earthquake catalogue in the Marmara Sea region, Turkey, using massive template matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matrullo, Emanuela; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Bouchon, Michel
2016-04-01
After the 1999 Izmit earthquake, the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) represents a 150 km unruptured segment of the North Anatolian Fault located below the Marmara Sea. One of the principal issue for seismic hazard assessment in the region is to know if the MMF is totally or partially locked and where the nucleation of the major forthcoming event is going to take place. The area is actually one of the best-instrumented fault systems in Europe. Since year 2007, various seismic networks both broadband, short period and OBS stations were deployed in order to monitor continuously the seismicity along the MMF and the related fault systems. A recent analysis of the seismicity recorded during the 2007-2012 period has provided new insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. This analysis was based on events detected with STA/LTA procedure and manually picked P and S wave arrivals times (Schmittbuhl et al., 2015). In order to extend the level of details and to fully take advantage of the dense seismic network we improved the seismic catalog using an automatic earthquake detection technique based on a template matching approach. This approach uses known earthquake seismic signals in order to detect newer events similar to the tested one from waveform cross-correlation. To set-up the methodology and verify the accuracy and the robustness of the results, we initially focused in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea (Cinarcik basin) and compared new detection with those manually identified. Through the massive analysis of cross-correlation based on the template scanning of the continuous recordings, we construct a refined catalog of earthquakes for the Marmara Sea in 2007-2014 period. Our improved earthquake catalog will provide an effective tool to improve the catalog completeness, to monitor and study the fine details of the time-space distribution of events, to characterize the repeating earthquake source processes and to understand the mechanical state of
Visual Bearing-Only Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Improved Feature Matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strasdat, Hauke; Stachniss, Cyrill; Bennewitz, Maren; Burgard, Wolfram
In this this paper, we present a solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem for a robot equipped with a single perspective camera. We track extracted features over multiple frames to estimate the depth information. To represent the joint posterior about the trajectory of the robot and a map of the environment, we apply a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter. We present a novel method to match features using a cost function that takes into account differences between the feature descriptor vectors as well as spatial information. To find an optimal matching between observed features, we apply a global optimization algorithm. Experimental results obtained with a real robot show that our approach is robust and tolerant to noise in the odometry information of the robot. Furthermore, we present experiments that demonstrate the superior performance of our feature matching technique compared to other approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Johnson, Janice
2010-01-01
The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to design two versions of a paradigm (color matching task, CMT) in which items are parametrically ordered in difficulty, and differ only contextually. Items in CMT-Balloon are facilitating, whereas items in CMT-Clown contain misleading cues. Participants of ages 7-14 years and adults (N…
Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús
2013-04-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p < 0.05), the running distance covered at more than 20 km·h(-1) (184 ± 38 vs 208 ± 38 m, p < 0.05), and the number of sprints (10 ± 7 vs 12 ± 7, p < 0.05). The ingestion of the energy drink also resulted in a greater overall number of impacts (481 ± 352 vs 641 ± 366, p < 0.05) and a higher postexercise urine caffeine concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.9 μg·mL(-1), p < 0.05). The use of an energy drink with a caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Landphair, Juliette
2007-01-01
What exactly is perfect? Students describe perfection as a combination of characteristics valued by their peer culture: intelligence, thin and fit physical appearance, social poise. As students chug through their daily lives--morning classes, organization meetings, club sports practice or the gym, dinner, another class, more meetings, library,…
Matrix-Matching as an Improvement Strategy for the Detection of Pesticide Residues.
Giacinti, Géraldine; Raynaud, Christine; Capblancq, Sophie; Simon, Valérie
2016-05-01
More than 90% of the pesticides residues in apples are located in the peel. We developed a gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry method for investigating all detectable residues in the peel of 3 apple varieties. Sample preparation is based on the use of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe method on the whole fruit, the flesh, and the peel. Pesticide residues were quantified with solvent-matched and matrix-matched standards, by spiking apple sample extracts. Matrix effects dependent on the type of extract (fruit, flesh, or peel) and the apple variety were detected. The best data processing methods involved normalizing matrix effect rates by matrix-matched internal/external calibration. Boscalid, captan, chlorpyrifos, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin were the most frequently detected pesticides. However, their concentrations in the whole fruit were below European maximum residue levels. Despite negative matrix effects, the residues in peel were detected at concentrations up to 10 times higher than those in whole fruits. Consequently, other pesticide residues present at concentrations below the limit of quantification in the whole fruit were detected in the peel. PMID:27095394
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boé, Julien; Terray, Laurent
2014-05-01
-based approach a posterior estimate of climate change, based on the synthetic observation of the metric. Finally, it is possible to compare the posterior estimate to the synthetic observation of future climate change to evaluate the skill of the method. The main objective of this presentation is to describe and apply this perfect model framework to test different methodological issues associated with non-uniform model weighting and similar metric-based approaches. The methodology presented is general, but will be applied to the specific case of summer temperature change in France, for which previous works have suggested potentially useful metrics associated with soil-atmosphere and cloud-temperature interactions. The relative performances of different simple statistical approaches to combine multiple model results based on metrics will be tested. The impact of ensemble size, observational errors, internal variability, and model similarity will be characterized. The potential improvements associated with metric-based approaches compared to the MMEM is terms of errors and uncertainties will be quantified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tianyang; Wüchner, Roland; Sicklinger, Stefan; Bletzinger, Kai-Uwe
2016-05-01
This paper investigates data mapping between non-matching meshes and geometries in fluid-structure interaction. Mapping algorithms for surface meshes including nearest element interpolation, the standard mortar method and the dual mortar method are studied and comparatively assessed. The inconsistency problem of mortar methods at curved edges of fluid-structure-interfaces is solved by a newly developed enforcing consistency approach, which is robust enough to handle even the case that fluid boundary facets are totally not in contact with structure boundary elements due to high fluid refinement. Besides, tests with representative geometries show that the mortar methods are suitable for conservative mapping but it is better to use the nearest element interpolation in a direct way, and moreover, the dual mortar method can give slight oscillations. This work also develops a co-rotating mapping algorithm for 1D beam elements. Its novelty lies in the ability of handling large displacements and rotations.
Improving turkey poult quality by correcting incubator humidity to match eggshell conductance.
Meir, M; Ar, A
1987-06-01
One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is their proper water budget during incubation. We show here that water budget changes of turkey eggs effect not only hatchability but also poult quality. In addition to an increase in hatchability of 3.3%, poult quality was increased by 7.3%. This was achieved by sorting eggs into low (less than 18.5), medium (18.5 to 22.0) and high (greater than 22.0) eggshell mass-specific water vapour, conductance categories and incubating them in matching incubation humidities of 21.8, 26.6 and 31.4 Torr, corresponding to relative humidities of 45, 55 and 65% at 37.5 degrees C, respectively. A total diffusive water loss of 11.5% (range 10 to 14%) of the initial egg mass in 25 d of incubation yielded maximal hatchability and poult quality.
A dynamic system matching technique for improving the accuracy of MEMS gyroscopes
Stubberud, Peter A.; Stubberud, Stephen C.; Stubberud, Allen R.
2014-12-10
A classical MEMS gyro transforms angular rates into electrical values through Euler's equations of angular rotation. Production models of a MEMS gyroscope will have manufacturing errors in the coefficients of the differential equations. The output signal of a production gyroscope will be corrupted by noise, with a major component of the noise due to the manufacturing errors. As is the case of the components in an analog electronic circuit, one way of controlling the variability of a subsystem is to impose extremely tight control on the manufacturing process so that the coefficient values are within some specified bounds. This can be expensive and may even be impossible as is the case in certain applications of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) sensors. In a recent paper [2], the authors introduced a method for combining the measurements from several nominally equal MEMS gyroscopes using a technique based on a concept from electronic circuit design called dynamic element matching [1]. Because the method in this paper deals with systems rather than elements, it is called a dynamic system matching technique (DSMT). The DSMT generates a single output by randomly switching the outputs of several, nominally identical, MEMS gyros in and out of the switch output. This has the effect of 'spreading the spectrum' of the noise caused by the coefficient errors generated in the manufacture of the individual gyros. A filter can then be used to eliminate that part of the spread spectrum that is outside the pass band of the gyro. A heuristic analysis in that paper argues that the DSMT can be used to control the effects of the random coefficient variations. In a follow-on paper [4], a simulation of a DSMT indicated that the heuristics were consistent. In this paper, analytic expressions of the DSMT noise are developed which confirm that the earlier conclusions are valid. These expressions include the various DSMT design parameters and, therefore, can be used as design tools for DSMT
A dynamic system matching technique for improving the accuracy of MEMS gyroscopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stubberud, Peter A.; Stubberud, Stephen C.; Stubberud, Allen R.
2014-12-01
A classical MEMS gyro transforms angular rates into electrical values through Euler's equations of angular rotation. Production models of a MEMS gyroscope will have manufacturing errors in the coefficients of the differential equations. The output signal of a production gyroscope will be corrupted by noise, with a major component of the noise due to the manufacturing errors. As is the case of the components in an analog electronic circuit, one way of controlling the variability of a subsystem is to impose extremely tight control on the manufacturing process so that the coefficient values are within some specified bounds. This can be expensive and may even be impossible as is the case in certain applications of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) sensors. In a recent paper [2], the authors introduced a method for combining the measurements from several nominally equal MEMS gyroscopes using a technique based on a concept from electronic circuit design called dynamic element matching [1]. Because the method in this paper deals with systems rather than elements, it is called a dynamic system matching technique (DSMT). The DSMT generates a single output by randomly switching the outputs of several, nominally identical, MEMS gyros in and out of the switch output. This has the effect of 'spreading the spectrum' of the noise caused by the coefficient errors generated in the manufacture of the individual gyros. A filter can then be used to eliminate that part of the spread spectrum that is outside the pass band of the gyro. A heuristic analysis in that paper argues that the DSMT can be used to control the effects of the random coefficient variations. In a follow-on paper [4], a simulation of a DSMT indicated that the heuristics were consistent. In this paper, analytic expressions of the DSMT noise are developed which confirm that the earlier conclusions are valid. These expressions include the various DSMT design parameters and, therefore, can be used as design tools for DSMT
Delextrat, Anne; Hippocrate, Audrey; Leddington-Wright, Sheila; Clarke, Neil D
2014-03-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporating stretches into a massage recovery treatment after a competitive basketball match on perceptual and physical markers of recovery. Nine men (age: 22 ± 3 years; stature: 191.2 ± 8.5 cm; body mass: 90.9 ± 10.1 kg; and body fat: 12.4 ± 4.7%) and 8 women (age: 21 ± 3 years; stature: 176.4 ± 8.1 cm; body mass: 73.9 ± 9.7 kg; and body fat: 21.9 ± 5.5%) who are national-level basketball players received a massage, a massage and stretching, or no treatment immediately after a competitive match. The perception of overall fatigue and leg soreness was assessed immediately after the treatment and 24 hours later, whereas countermovement jump (CMJ) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were tested 24 hours after the treatment. Compared with massage, massage and stretching induced lower perception of leg soreness immediately only in women (p ≤ 0.001; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.86), whereas a longer lasting effect was observed in men, with a difference between treatments reported after 24 hours (p ≤ 0.001; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.94). Furthermore, both treatments resulted in a better CMJ performance compared with the control condition in men only (p = 0.0001; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.33), and massage and stretching involved a lower performance decrement during RSA compared with massage in women only (p = 0.015; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.29). The results suggest that women benefit slightly more from the combination treatment than men, and therefore this type of recovery intervention should be adopted by physiotherapists working with women teams in particular.
Huang, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jing; Lin, Min; Zhu, Yushan
2016-01-01
Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were < 1.0 Å for the ten scaffolds, and the repacking calculation results showed that 91% of the hydrogen bonds within the active sites are recovered, indicating that the active sites can be preorganized based on the predicted positions of transition states. The application of the complex active site model for de novo enzyme design was evaluated by scaffold selection using a classic catalytic triad motif for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eighty scaffolds were identified from a scaffold library with 1,491 proteins and four scaffolds were native esterase. Furthermore, enzyme design for complicated substrates was investigated for the hydrolysis of cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with high catalytic
Huang, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jing; Lin, Min; Zhu, Yushan
2016-01-01
Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were < 1.0 Å for the ten scaffolds, and the repacking calculation results showed that 91% of the hydrogen bonds within the active sites are recovered, indicating that the active sites can be preorganized based on the predicted positions of transition states. The application of the complex active site model for de novo enzyme design was evaluated by scaffold selection using a classic catalytic triad motif for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eighty scaffolds were identified from a scaffold library with 1,491 proteins and four scaffolds were native esterase. Furthermore, enzyme design for complicated substrates was investigated for the hydrolysis of cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with high catalytic
On Improving Analytical Models of Cosmic Reionization for Matching Numerical Simulations
Kaurov, Alexander A.
2016-01-01
The methods for studying the epoch of cosmic reionization vary from full radiative transfer simulations to purely analytical models. While numerical approaches are computationally expensive and are not suitable for generating many mock catalogs, analytical methods are based on assumptions and approximations. We explore the interconnection between both methods. First, we ask how the analytical framework of excursion set formalism can be used for statistical analysis of numerical simulations and visual representation of the morphology of ionization fronts. Second, we explore the methods of training the analytical model on a given numerical simulation. We present a new code which emerged from this study. Its main application is to match the analytical model with a numerical simulation. Then, it allows one to generate mock reionization catalogs with volumes exceeding the original simulation quickly and computationally inexpensively, meanwhile reproducing large scale statistical properties. These mock catalogs are particularly useful for CMB polarization and 21cm experiments, where large volumes are required to simulate the observed signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokic, Philip; Jin, Huidong; Crimp, Steven
2013-08-01
Statistical downscaling methods are commonly used to address the scale mismatch between coarse resolution Global Climate Model output and the regional or local scales required for climate change impact assessments. The effectiveness of a downscaling method can be measured against four broad criteria: consistency with the existing baseline data in terms of means, trends and distributional characteristics; consistency with the broader scale climate data used to generate the projections; the degree of transparency and repeatability; and the plausibility of results produced. Many existing downscaling methods fail to fulfil all of these criteria. In this paper we examine a block bootstrap simulation technique combined with a quantile prediction and matching method for simulating future daily climate data. By utilising this method the distributional properties of the projected data will be influenced by the distribution of the observed data, the trends in predictors derived from the Global Climate Models and the relationship of these predictors to the observed data. Using observed data from several climate stations in Vanuatu and Fiji and out-of-sample validation techniques, we show that the method is successful at projecting various climate characteristics including the variability and auto-correlation of daily temperature and rainfall, the correlations between these variables and between spatial locations. This paper also illustrates how this novel method can produce more effective point scale projections and a more credible alternative to other approaches in the Pacific region.
Charrondiere, U Ruth; Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Haytowitz, David
2016-02-15
Food composition data play a key role in many sectors and the availability of quality data is critically important. Since 1984, the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has been working towards improving food composition data quality and availability, including the development and updating of standards, guidelines and tools for food composition. FAO/INFOODS has recently published three comprehensive guidelines to improve and harmonise the compilation of data: (1) Guidelines for Food Matching, (2) Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data prior to Publication of a User Table/Database, and (3) Guidelines for Converting Units, Denominators and Expressions. This article describes their content and development processes. Their adoption, along with additional ones planned for the future by FAO/INFOODS, should further improve the quality of published food composition data, which in turn can lead to more accurate nutrient intake estimates and more precise food labels, as well as better-targeted programs and policies. PMID:26433290
Charrondiere, U Ruth; Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Haytowitz, David
2016-02-15
Food composition data play a key role in many sectors and the availability of quality data is critically important. Since 1984, the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has been working towards improving food composition data quality and availability, including the development and updating of standards, guidelines and tools for food composition. FAO/INFOODS has recently published three comprehensive guidelines to improve and harmonise the compilation of data: (1) Guidelines for Food Matching, (2) Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data prior to Publication of a User Table/Database, and (3) Guidelines for Converting Units, Denominators and Expressions. This article describes their content and development processes. Their adoption, along with additional ones planned for the future by FAO/INFOODS, should further improve the quality of published food composition data, which in turn can lead to more accurate nutrient intake estimates and more precise food labels, as well as better-targeted programs and policies.
Optical object detection in paper improved by refractive index matching and mechanical treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarela, J.; Heikkinen, S.; Fabritius, T.; Myllylä, R.
2008-06-01
Two different paper grades were tested with a clearing agent to measure how much mechanical smoothening can improve transparency inside paper. The paper grades were newsprint and supercalendered paper. The paper furnishes of both papers were alike, but the supercalendered paper was mechanically smoothened. Anise oil was used as the clearing agent, but similar measurements were also done with air and water. Black lines 8.5 μm to 281.1 μm wide were placed behind layers of cleared paper and transparency was measured with a microscope. When anise oil was the clearing agent, supercalendering improved transparent paper grammage from 139 g/m2 to 164 g/m2. With water the improvement was from 40 g/m2 to 51 g/m2. With air the improvement was not determinable. As a conclusion, it is recommended that paper is smoothened if it needs to be studied optically. Optical coherence tomography, for example, would benefit from this treatment.
Perfect lens makes a perfect trap.
Lu, Zhaolin; Murakowski, Janusz; Schuetz, Christopher A; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J; Samluk, Jesse P; Prather, Dennis W
2006-03-20
In this work, we present for the first time a new and realistic application of the "perfect lens", namely, electromagnetic traps (or tweezers). We combined two recently developed techniques, 3D negative refraction flat lenses (3DNRFLs) and optical tweezers, and experimentally demonstrated the very unique advantages of using 3DNRFLs for electromagnetic traps. Super-resolution and short focal distance of the flat lens result in a highly focused and strongly convergent beam, which is a key requirement for a stable and accurate electromagnetic trap. The translation symmetry of 3DNRFL provides translation-invariance for imaging, which allows an electromagnetic trap to be translated without moving the lens, and permits a trap array by using multiple sources with a single lens. Electromagnetic trapping was demonstrated using polystyrene particles in suspension, and subsequent to being trapped to a single point, they were then accurately manipulated over a large distance by simple movement of a 3DNRFL-imaged microwave monopole source.
Unidirectional perfect absorber
Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.
2016-01-01
This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125
Unidirectional perfect absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, L.; Wang, P.; Song, Z.
2016-09-01
This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.
Unidirectional perfect absorber.
Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z
2016-01-01
This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125
Unidirectional perfect absorber.
Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z
2016-09-12
This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pendry, J. B.
2003-04-01
A slab of negatively refracting material is known to focus light and if 1 n = the focussing will be perfect, producing an image which is an exact replica of the object. Magnifying the image requires a new design concept in which the surface of the negatively refracting lens is curved. Here we show how a hollow cylinder of material can be designed to magnify an image but otherwise with the same perfection as the original lens. Curvature requires that ɛ and μ are now a function of position.
Electrodynamics of Perfect Conductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Essén, Hanno
2013-05-01
The most general electrodynamic equations of a perfect conducting state are obtained using a variational principle in a classical framework, following an approach by Pierre-Gilles de Gennes. London equations are derived as the time-independent case of these equations, corresponding to the magnetostatic minimal energy state of the perfect conducting system. For further confirmation, the same equations are also derived in the classical limit of the Coleman-Weinberg model, the most successful quantum macroscopic theory of superconductivity. The magnetic field expulsion is, therefore, a direct consequence of zero resistivity and not an exclusive property of superconductors.
Chiu, M-Y; Chang, C-H; Tsai, M-A; Chang, F-Y; Yu, Peichen
2010-09-13
Sub-wavelength antireflective structures are fabricated on a silicon nitride passivation layer of a Ga₀.₅In₀.₅P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell using polystyrene nanosphere lithography followed by anisotropic etching. The fabricated structures enhance optical transmission in the ultraviolet wavelength range, compared to a conventional single-layer antireflective coating (ARC). The transmission improvement contributes to an enhanced photocurrent, which is also verified by the external quantum efficiency characterization of the fabricated solar cells. Under one-sun illumination, the short-circuit current of a cell with sub-wavelength structures is enhanced by 46.1% and 3.4% due to much improved optical transmission and current matching, compared to cells without an ARC and with a conventional SiN(x) ARC, respectively. Further optimizations of the sub-wavelength structures including the periodicity and etching depth are conducted by performing comprehensive calculations based on a rigorous couple-wave analysis method.
Zhao, Yang; Hayashida, Morihiro; Nacher, Jose C; Nagamochi, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Tatsuya
2012-01-01
Identification of protein complexes within protein-protein interaction networks is one of the important objectives in functional genomics. Ozawa et al. proposed a verification method of protein complexes by introducing a structural constraint. In this paper, we propose an improved integer programming-based method based on the idea that a candidate complex should not be divided into many small complexes, and combination methods with maximal components and extreme sets. The results of computational experiments suggest that our methods outperform the method by Ozawa et al. We prove that the verification problems are NP-hard, which justifies the use of integer programming. PMID:22961452
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Jeannette
2010-01-01
In a perfect world, all children should live at home with their family, play with the kids in their neighborhood, walk or ride the school bus to a community-based school--after affectionately kissing or hugging their parents goodbye. They should receive adequate classroom services and return home at 3 p.m. or thereabouts. They may even…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinshaw, Craig
2005-01-01
For thousands of years, the three perfections--painting, poetry, and calligraphy--have been considered the mark of an enlightened person throughout Asian cultures. Fifth-grade students learned about these three hallmarks by studying three works from the Detroit Institute of Art's Asian collection: a nineteenth-century Japanese hand scroll, a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russo, Ruth
1998-01-01
A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, David
2010-01-01
The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…
Perfect lens makes a perfect trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhaolin; Murakowski, Janusz; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Prather, Dennis W.
2006-03-01
In this work, we present for the first time a new and realistic application of the “perfect lens”, namely, electromagnetic traps (or tweezers). We combined two recently developed techniques, 3D negative refraction flat lenses (3DNRFLs) and optical tweezers, and experimentally demonstrated the very unique advantages of using 3DNRFLs for electromagnetic traps. Super-resolution and short focal distance of the flat lens result in a highly focused and strongly convergent beam, which is a key requirement for a stable and accurate electromagnetic trap. The translation symmetry of 3DNRFL provides translation-invariance for imaging, which allows an electromagnetic trap to be translated without moving the lens, and permits a trap array by using multiple sources with a single lens. Electromagnetic trapping was demonstrated using polystyrene particles in suspension, and subsequent to being trapped to a single point, they were then accurately manipulated over a large distance by simple movement of a 3DNRFL-imaged microwave monopole source.
2015-01-01
Core–shell nanowires (NW) have become very prominent systems for band engineered NW heterostructures that effectively suppress detrimental surface states and improve performance of related devices. This concept is particularly attractive for material systems with high intrinsic surface state densities, such as the low-bandgap In-containing group-III arsenides, however selection of inappropriate, lattice-mismatched shell materials have frequently caused undesired strain accumulation, defect formation, and modifications of the electronic band structure. Here, we demonstrate the realization of closely lattice-matched radial InGaAs–InAlAs core–shell NWs tunable over large compositional ranges [x(Ga)∼y(Al) = 0.2–0.65] via completely catalyst-free selective-area molecular beam epitaxy. On the basis of high-resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps the strain in the NW core is found to be insignificant (ε < 0.1%), which is further reflected by the absence of strain-induced spectral shifts in luminescence spectra and nearly unmodified band structure. Remarkably, the lattice-matched InAlAs shell strongly enhances the optical efficiency by up to 2 orders of magnitude, where the efficiency enhancement scales directly with increasing band offset as both Ga- and Al-contents increase. Ultimately, we fabricated vertical InGaAs−InAlAs NW/Si photovoltaic cells and show that the enhanced internal quantum efficiency is directly translated to an energy conversion efficiency that is ∼3–4 times larger as compared to an unpassivated cell. These results highlight the promising performance of lattice-matched III–V core–shell NW heterostructures with significant impact on future development of related nanophotonic and electronic devices. PMID:25922974
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meissner, Sven; Knels, Lilla; Koch, Edmund
2009-11-01
Three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (3-D FDOCT) is used to demonstrate that perfusion fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde does not alter the geometry of subpleural lung parenchyma in isolated and perfused rabbit lungs. This is confirmed by simultaneous imaging of lung parenchyma with intravital microscopy. To eliminate the diffraction index interfaces between alveolar pockets and walls, we fill the fixed lungs with ethanol by perfusing with gradually increasing concentrations. This bottom-up filling process leaves no remaining air bubbles in the alveolar structures, thus drastically improving the resolution and penetration depth of 3-D FDOCT imaging. We observe an approximately 18% increase in alveolar area after ethanol filling, likely due in large part to elimination of the air/tissue interfaces. 3-D OCT datasets acquired from ethanol-filled lungs allow segmentation of the ethanol-filled structures, which were formerly air-filled, and 3-D reconstruction of larger areas of subpleural alveolar structures. Our innovative process of filling the lungs with ethanol postperfusion fixation thus enables more accurate quantification of alveolar geometries, a critical component of modeling lung function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Templeton, D. C.; Wang, J.; Harris, D. B.
2012-12-01
The aim of this project is to increase the amount of information that can be extracted from seismic data collected in EGS or traditional geothermal areas. To accomplish our objective, we develop a seismic imaging technique that can map seismicity from discrete microearthquake sources using the Matched Field Processing (MFP) method. We use data from the Salton Sea geothermal field available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center. Data between November 2009 and December 2010 was downloaded off the web and 231 high-quality master events were identified from the online catalog. This time period included two robust earthquake swarms. We created matched field steering vector calibrations for 7 three-component stations within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. The official earthquake catalog identified 1536 events. When we applied the empirical MFP technique to the same data, we identified 5357 events. We then compare the results from this traditional geothermal area with results obtained from an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) site. Finally, we compare the number of events in the improved earthquake catalogs with available fluid injection data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Renbiao
2013-01-01
DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is a major problem in array signal processing applications. Recently, compressive sensing algorithms, including convex relaxation algorithms and greedy algorithms, have been recognized as a kind of novel DOA estimation algorithm. However, the success of these algorithms is limited by the RIP (Restricted Isometry Property) condition or the mutual coherence of measurement matrix. In the DOA estimation problem, the columns of measurement matrix are steering vectors corresponding to different DOAs. Thus, it violates the mutual coherence condition. The situation gets worse when there are two sources from two adjacent DOAs. In this paper, an algorithm based on OMP (Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), called ILS-OMP (Iterative Local Searching-Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), is proposed to improve DOA resolution by Iterative Local Searching. Firstly, the conventional OMP algorithm is used to obtain initial estimated DOAs. Then, in each iteration, a local searching process for every estimated DOA is utilized to find a new DOA in a given DOA set to further decrease the residual. Additionally, the estimated DOAs are updated by substituting the initial DOA with the new one. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm. PMID:23974150
Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Renbiao
2013-01-01
DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is a major problem in array signal processing applications. Recently, compressive sensing algorithms, including convex relaxation algorithms and greedy algorithms, have been recognized as a kind of novel DOA estimation algorithm. However, the success of these algorithms is limited by the RIP (Restricted Isometry Property) condition or the mutual coherence of measurement matrix. In the DOA estimation problem, the columns of measurement matrix are steering vectors corresponding to different DOAs. Thus, it violates the mutual coherence condition. The situation gets worse when there are two sources from two adjacent DOAs. In this paper, an algorithm based on OMP (Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), called ILS-OMP (Iterative Local Searching-Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), is proposed to improve DOA resolution by Iterative Local Searching. Firstly, the conventional OMP algorithm is used to obtain initial estimated DOAs. Then, in each iteration, a local searching process for every estimated DOA is utilized to find a new DOA in a given DOA set to further decrease the residual. Additionally, the estimated DOAs are updated by substituting the initial DOA with the new one. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm. PMID:23974150
Perfect Quantum Cosmological Bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2016-07-01
We study quantum cosmology with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. Focusing initially on the collective coordinates (minisuperspace) associated with homogeneous, isotropic backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. The evolution describes a "perfect bounce", in which the Universe passes smoothly through the singularity. We extend the analysis to spatially flat, anisotropic universes, treated exactly, and to generic inhomogeneous, anisotropic perturbations treated at linear and nonlinear order. This picture provides a natural, unitary description of quantum mechanical evolution across a cosmological bounce. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths.
Perfect Quantum Cosmological Bounce.
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2016-07-01
We study quantum cosmology with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. Focusing initially on the collective coordinates (minisuperspace) associated with homogeneous, isotropic backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. The evolution describes a "perfect bounce", in which the Universe passes smoothly through the singularity. We extend the analysis to spatially flat, anisotropic universes, treated exactly, and to generic inhomogeneous, anisotropic perturbations treated at linear and nonlinear order. This picture provides a natural, unitary description of quantum mechanical evolution across a cosmological bounce. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths. PMID:27447496
Perfect Quantum Cosmological Bounce.
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2016-07-01
We study quantum cosmology with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. Focusing initially on the collective coordinates (minisuperspace) associated with homogeneous, isotropic backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. The evolution describes a "perfect bounce", in which the Universe passes smoothly through the singularity. We extend the analysis to spatially flat, anisotropic universes, treated exactly, and to generic inhomogeneous, anisotropic perturbations treated at linear and nonlinear order. This picture provides a natural, unitary description of quantum mechanical evolution across a cosmological bounce. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths.
BNL
2016-07-12
Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.
BNL
2008-08-12
Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.
Zhou, Jian-Ying; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Xu; Moore, Ronald J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Lee, Jung Hwa; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun
2010-01-01
Spectral counting has become a popular method for LC-MS/MS based proteome quantification; however, this methodology is often not reliable when proteins are identified by a small number of spectra. Here we present a simple strategy to improve spectral counting based quantification for low abundance proteins by recovering low quality or low scoring spectra for confidently identified peptides. In this approach, stringent data filtering criteria were initially applied to achieve confident peptide identifications with low false discovery rate (e.g., < 1% at peptide level) after LC-MS/MS analysis and database search by SEQUEST. Then, all low scoring MS/MS spectra that match to this set of confidently identified peptides were recovered, leading to more than 20% increase of total identified spectra. The validity of these recovered spectra was assessed by the parent ion mass measurement error distribution, retention time distribution, and by comparing the individual low score and high score spectra that correspond to the same peptides. The results support that the recovered low scoring spectra have similar confidence levels in peptide identifications as the spectra passing the initial stringent filter. The application of this strategy of recovering low scoring spectra significantly improved the spectral count quantification statistics for low abundance proteins, as illustrated in the identification of mouse brain region specific proteins. PMID:20812748
Zhou, Jianying; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Xu; Moore, Ronald J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Lee, Jung Hwa; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun
2010-09-02
Spectral counting has become a popular semi-quantitative method for LC-MS/MS based proteome quantification; however, this methodology is often not reliable when proteins are identified by a small number of spectra. Here we present a simple strategy to improve spectral counting based quantification for low abundance proteins by recovering low quality or low scoring spectra for confidently identified peptides. In this approach, stringent data filtering criteria were initially applied to achieve confident peptide identifications with low false discovery rate (e.g., <1%) after LC-MS/MS analysis and database search by SEQUEST. Then, all low scoring MS/MS spectra that match to this set of confidently identified peptides were recovered, leading to more than 20% increase of total identified spectra. The validity of these recovered spectra was assessed by the parent ion mass measurement error distribution, retention time distribution, and by comparing the individual low score and high score spectra that correspond to the same peptides. The results support that the recovered low scoring spectra have similar confidence levels in peptide identifications as the spectra passing the initial stringent filter. The application of this strategy of recovering low scoring spectra significantly improved the spectral count quantification statistics for low abundance proteins, as illustrated in the identification of mouse brain region specific proteins.
Ultra-Perfect Sorting Scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouangraoua, Aïda; Bergeron, Anne; Swenson, Krister M.
Perfection has been used as a criteria to select rearrangement scenarios since 2004. However, there is a fundamental bias towards extant species in the original definition: ancestral species are not bound to perfection. Here we develop a new theory of perfection that takes an egalitarian view of species, and apply it to the complex evolution of mammal chromosome X.
A perfect match: Nuclear energy and the National Energy Strategy
Not Available
1990-11-01
In the course of developing the National Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy held 15 public hearings, heard from more than 375 witnesses and received more than 1000 written comments. In April 1990, the Department published an Interim Report on the National Energy Strategy, which compiles those public comments. The National Energy Strategy must be based on actual experience and factual analysis of our energy, economic and environmental situation. This report by the Nuclear Power Oversight committee, which represents electric utilities and other organizations involved in supplying electricity from nuclear energy to the American people, provides such an analysis. The conclusions here are based on hard facts and actual worldwide experience. This analysis of all the available data supports -- indeed, dictates -- expanded reliance on nuclear energy in this nation's energy supply to achieve the President's goals. 33 figs.
Literature Circles: A Perfect Match for Online Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whittingham, Jeff
2013-01-01
This article describes the author's search for an appropriate and satisfying online teaching method. After experimenting with several methods (chat room, discussion board, student led discussion), the author reached back to his face-to-face classroom success with literature circles. This article reports the results of research conducted by the…
Soil Respiration and Student Inquiry: A Perfect Match
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoyt, Catherine Marie; Wallenstein, Matthew David
2011-01-01
This activity explores the cycling of carbon between the atmosphere (primarily as CO[subscript 2]) and biomass in plants, animals, and microscopic organisms. Students design soil respiration experiments using a protocol that resembles current practice in soil ecology. Three methods for measuring soil respiration are presented. Student-derived…
Nuclear Forces and High-Performance Computing: The Perfect Match
Luu, T; Walker-Loud, A
2009-06-12
High-performance computing is now enabling the calculation of certain nuclear interaction parameters directly from Quantum Chromodynamics, the quantum field theory that governs the behavior of quarks and gluons and is ultimately responsible for the nuclear strong force. We briefly describe the state of the field and describe how progress in this field will impact the greater nuclear physics community. We give estimates of computational requirements needed to obtain certain milestones and describe the scientific and computational challenges of this field.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lazorick, Suzanne; Fang, Xiangming; Hardison, George T.; Crawford, Yancey
2015-01-01
Background: Motivating Adolescents with Technology to CHOOSE Health™ (MATCH) is an educational and behavioral intervention in seventh grade. Methods: Teachers in 2 schools delivered the MATCH curriculum, with 1 control school. Using a quasi-experimental design, outcome measures included lessons completed, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score (zBMI),…
Guild, Georgia E.; Stangoulis, James C. R.
2016-01-01
Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644
Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R
2016-01-01
Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644
Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R
2016-01-01
Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program.
Elhence, Priti; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.; Nityanand, Soniya
2014-01-01
Background Cross-match-compatible platelets are used for the management of thrombocytopenic patients who are refractory to transfusions of randomly selected platelets. Data supporting the effectiveness of platelets that are compatible according to cross-matching with a modified antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA or MACE) are limited. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of cross-match-compatible platelets in an unselected group of refractory patients. Materials and methods One hundred ABO compatible single donor platelet transfusions given to 31 refractory patients were studied. Patients were defined to be refractory if their 24-hour corrected count increment (CCI) was <5×109/L following two consecutive platelet transfusions. Platelets were cross-matched by MACE and the CCI was determined to monitor the effectiveness of platelet transfusions. Results The clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MACE-cross-matched platelets for post-transfusion CCI were 88%, 54.6%, 39.3% and 93.2%, respectively. The difference between adequate and inadequate post-transfusion 24-hour CCI for MACE cross-matched-compatible vs incompatible single donor platelet transfusions was statistically significant (p=0.000). The 24-hour CCI (mean±SD) was significantly higher for cross-match-compatible platelets (9,250±026.6) than for incompatible ones (6,757.94±2,656.5) (p<0.0001). Most of the incompatible cross-matches (73.2%) were due to anti-HLA antibodies, alone (55.3% of cases) or together with anti-platelet glycoprotein antibodies (17.9%). Discussion The clinical sensitivity and negative predictive value of platelet cross-matching by MACE were high in this study and such tests may, therefore, be used to select compatible platelets for refractory patients. A high negative predictive value demonstrates the greater chance of an adequate response with cross-matched-compatible platelets. PMID
Perfect and Near-Perfect Adaptation in Cell Signaling.
Ferrell, James E
2016-02-24
Adaptation is an important basic feature of cellular regulation. Previous theoretical work has identified three types of circuits-negative feedback loops, incoherent feedforward systems, and state-dependent inactivation systems-that can achieve perfect or near-perfect adaptation. Recent work has added another strategy, termed antithetic integral feedback, to the list of motifs capable of robust perfect adaptation. Here, we discuss the properties, limitations, and biological relevance of each of these circuits. PMID:27135159
Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael
2014-01-01
Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510
Four-wave interference and perfect blaze.
Güther, R
2012-10-01
The recently calculated high diffraction efficiencies for TE- and TM-polarized light (perfect blaze) for echelette gratings are explained by four-wave interference, which is formed as a double periodical pattern in the cross section of the grating plane. The blazed grating profile should match this interference pattern for a single reference light wavelength. The recently published data are the special case of a general design. The prognoses of the model are connected with large grating constants in comparison with the light wavelength, where short grating constants need comparison with numerical methods.
Smith, Graham D.; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Cury, Fabio L.; Morris, Jim; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu; Warner, Andrew; Yang, Ying; Rodrigues, George
2015-03-01
Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led
Perfect anti-reflection from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Q-Han Park
2013-01-01
Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies.
Perfect imaging with positive refraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomáš; Danner, Aaron
2010-10-01
We present several refractive index profiles for perfect imaging with positive refraction other than Maxwell's fish eye. Numerical simulations show that these profiles may transfer images with, in principle, unlimited resolution. Such profiles could overcome the fundamental limitations of perfect imaging with negative refraction and find practical applications in nanolithography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolting, Kimberly; Nolting, Paul
2008-01-01
Research supports the effectiveness of matching instructional methods with student learning preferences (Dunn et al., 1995; Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005). Several challenges exist, however, for mathematics departments to design classroom learning experiences that allow students to learn mathematics and learn how to study math through their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chi, Olivia L.; Dow, Aaron W.
2014-01-01
This study focuses on how matching, a method of preprocessing data prior to estimation and analysis, can be used to reduce imbalance between treatment and control group in regression discontinuity design. To examine the effects of academic probation on student outcomes, researchers replicate and expand upon research conducted by Lindo, Sanders,…
Forster, Alice S.; Burgess, Caroline; Dodhia, Hiten; Fuller, Frances; Miller, Jane; McDermott, Lisa; Gulliford, Martin C.
2016-01-01
Background To evaluate the effect of NHS Health Checks on cardiovascular risk factor detection and inequalities. Methods Matched cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, including participants who received a health check in England between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2013, together with matched control participants, with linked deprivation scores. Results There were 91 618 eligible participants who received a health check, of whom 75 123 (82%) were matched with 182 245 controls. After the health check, 90% of men and 92% of women had complete data for blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking and body mass index; a net 51% increase (P < 0.001) over controls. After the check, gender and deprivation inequalities in recording of all risk factors were lower than for controls. Net increase in risk factor detection was greater for hypercholesterolaemia (men +33%; women +32%) than for obesity (men +8%; women +4%) and hypertension in men only (+5%) (all P < 0.001). Detection of smoking was 5% lower in health check participants than controls (P < 0.001). Over 4 years, statins were prescribed to 11% of health -check participants and 7.6% controls (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.53–1.63, P < 0.001). Conclusion NHS Health Checks are associated with increased detection of hypercholesterolaemia, and to a lesser extent obesity and hypertension, but smokers may be under-represented. PMID:26350481
Foley, C L; Mould, T; Kennedy, J E; Barton, D P J
2003-01-01
The objective of this study was to design and implement a maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) within a specialist gynecological oncology department in a tertiary referral center and evaluate its impact on the cross-match to transfusion ratio (CTR). A retrospective case note audit was undertaken to identify common operations performed within the unit and their transfusion requirements. The efficiency of blood usage was assessed using the CTR, and an MSBOS was devised and implemented. A prospective audit of preoperative blood cross-matching and subsequent blood usage was then performed for consecutive elective operations in the unit, to assess the effect of the MSBOS. The retrospective study of 222 cases demonstrated a CTR of 2.25 equivalent to 44% usage of cross-matched blood. Ninety two percent of operations performed within the unit could be incorporated into an MSBOS. The prospective study of 207 cases demonstrated a significantly reduced CTR of 1.71 or 59% blood usage (chi2 = 12.4, P < 0.001). This equates to a saving of 102 units of blood over the 15 months prospective audit. Protocol adherence was 77%. No patient was adversely affected by the adoption of the MSBOS. We conclude that an MSBOS can be safely introduced into a gynecological oncology department resulting in significant financial savings. PMID:14675329
Chen, Di-Ming; Tian, Jia-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao
2016-06-28
Incorporating the in situ formed size-matching molecular building blocks (MBBs) into the open channels will remarkably improve the robustness and gas sorption performance of an evacuated metal-organic framework. As a result, such MBBs can transfer the open metal sites from the framework walls to the channel centers and separate the large channels into multiple smaller voids, leading to a molecular sieving effect and high-performance gas-separation of the modified material. PMID:27301546
Perfect imaging with geodesic waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miñano, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; González, Juan C.
2010-12-01
Transformation optics is used to prove that a spherical waveguide filled with an isotropic material with radial refractive index n=1/r has radially polarized modes (i.e. the electric field is only radial) with the same perfect focusing properties as the Maxwell fish-eye (MFE) lens. An approximate version of that device, comprising a thin waveguide with a homogeneous core, paves the way to experimentally attaining perfect imaging in the MFE lens.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-05-01
ESO celebrates 10 years since First Light of the VLT Today marks the 10th anniversary since First Light with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Since then, the VLT has evolved into a unique suite of four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes (UTs) equipped with no fewer than 13 state-of-the-art instruments, and four 1.8-m moveable Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The telescopes can work individually, and they can also be linked together in groups of two or three to form a giant 'interferometer' (VLTI), allowing astronomers to see details corresponding to those from a much larger telescope. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16a/08 The VLT 10th anniversary poster "The Very Large Telescope array is a flagship facility for astronomy, a perfect science machine of which Europe can be very proud," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "We have built the most advanced ground-based optical observatory in the world, thanks to the combination of a long-term adequately-funded instrument and technology development plan with an approach where most of the instruments were built in collaboration with institutions in the member states, with in-kind contributions in labour compensated by guaranteed observing time." Sitting atop the 2600m high Paranal Mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, the VLT's design, suite of instruments, and operating principles set the standard for ground-based astronomy. It provides the European scientific community with a telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Blue Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16b/08 A Universe of Discoveries The first scientifically useful images, marking the official 'First Light' of the VLT, were obtained on the night of 25 to 26 May 1998, with a test camera attached to "Antu", Unit Telescope number 1. They were officially presented to the press on
Gerke, Brian F.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Yan, Renbin; Coil, Alison L.
2013-09-15
We develop empirical methods for modeling the galaxy population and populating cosmological N-body simulations with mock galaxies according to the observed properties of galaxies in survey data. We use these techniques to produce a new set of mock catalogs for the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey based on the output of the high-resolution Bolshoi simulation, as well as two other simulations with different cosmological parameters, all of which we release for public use. The mock-catalog creation technique uses subhalo abundance matching to assign galaxy luminosities to simulated dark-matter halos. It then adds color information to the resulting mock galaxies in a manner that depends on the local galaxy density, in order to reproduce the measured color-environment relation in the data. In the course of constructing the catalogs, we test various models for including scatter in the relation between halo mass and galaxy luminosity, within the abundance-matching framework. We find that there is no constant-scatter model that can simultaneously reproduce both the luminosity function and the autocorrelation function of DEEP2. This result has implications for galaxy-formation theory, and it restricts the range of contexts in which the mock catalogs can be usefully applied. Nevertheless, careful comparisons show that our new mock catalogs accurately reproduce a wide range of the other properties of the DEEP2 catalog, suggesting that they can be used to gain a detailed understanding of various selection effects in DEEP2.
Theiler, James P
2009-01-01
Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.
Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.
2014-01-01
The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Patrick; Ogier, Jean-Marc; Loonis, Pierre; Mullot, Rémy
Recently we have developed a model for shape description and matching. Based on minimum spanning trees construction and specifics stages like the mixture, it seems to have many desirable properties. Recognition invariance in front shift, rotated and noisy shape was checked through median scale tests related to GREC symbol reference database. Even if extracting the topology of a shape by mapping the shortest path connecting all the pixels seems to be powerful, the construction of graph induces an expensive algorithmic cost. In this article we discuss on the ways to reduce time computing. An alternative solution based on image compression concepts is provided and evaluated. The model no longer operates in the image space but in a compact space, namely the Discrete Cosine space. The use of block discrete cosine transform is discussed and justified. The experimental results led on the GREC2003 database show that the proposed method is characterized by a good discrimination power, a real robustness to noise with an acceptable time computing.
Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang
2011-01-01
Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.
Majhi, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Ward, B.F.L.; Yost, S.A.
2014-11-15
We present a phenomenological study of the current status of the application of our approach of exact amplitude-based resummation in quantum field theory to precision QCD calculations, by realistic MC event generator methods, as needed for precision LHC physics. We discuss recent results as they relate to the interplay of the attendant IR-improved DGLAP-CS theory of one of us and the precision of exact NLO matrix-element matched parton shower MC’s in the Herwig6.5 environment as determined by comparison to recent LHC experimental observations on single heavy gauge boson production and decay. The level of agreement between the new theory and the data continues to be a reason for optimism. In the spirit of completeness, we discuss as well other approaches to the same theoretical predictions that we make here from the standpoint of physical precision with an eye toward the (sub-)1% QCD⊗EW total theoretical precision regime for LHC physics. - Highlights: • Using LHC data, we show that IR-improved DGLAP-CS kernels with exact NLO Shower/ME matching improves MC precision. • We discuss other possible approaches in comparison with ours. • We propose experimental tests to discriminate between competing approaches.
Shi, X; Lin, J; Diwanji, T; Mooney, K; D'Souza, W; Mistry, N
2014-06-01
Purpose: Recently, template matching has been shown to be able to track tumor motion on cine-MRI images. However, artifacts such as deformation, rotation, and/or out-of-plane movement could seriously degrade the performance of this technique. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of multiple templates derived from different phases of tumor motion in reducing the negative effects of artifacts and improving the accuracy of template matching methods. Methods: Data from 2 patients with large tumors and significant tumor deformation were analyzed from a group of 12 patients from an earlier study. Cine-MRI (200 frames) imaging was performed while the patients were instructed to breathe normally. Ground truth tumor position was established on each frame manually by a radiation oncologist. Tumor positions were also automatically determined using template matching with either single or multiple (5) templates. The tracking errors, defined as the absolute differences in tumor positions determined by the manual and automated methods, when using either single or multiple templates were compared in both the AP and SI directions, respectively. Results: Using multiple templates reduced the tracking error of template matching. In the SI direction where the tumor movement and deformation were significant, the mean tracking error decreased from 1.94 mm to 0.91 mm (Patient 1) and from 6.61 mm to 2.06 mm (Patient 2). In the AP direction where the tumor movement was small, the reduction of the mean tracking error was significant in Patient 1 (from 3.36 mm to 1.04 mm), but not in Patient 2 ( from 3.86 mm to 3.80 mm). Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of using multiple templates in improving the performance of template matching when artifacts like large tumor deformation or out-of-plane motion exists. Accurate tumor tracking capabilities can be integrated with MRI guided radiation therapy systems. This work was supported in part by grants from NIH/NCI CA 124766 and Varian
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asher, Sandy
1995-01-01
Presents a script for a 1-act play about a 17-year-old girl whose mother neglects her and her alcoholic absentee father. Relates how the protagonist, Tara, becomes pregnant by a classmate who she barely knows, and plans to leave home to raise her child alone after graduating high school. (PA)
Perfect conformal invisible device with feasible refractive indexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang; Tyc, Tomáš; Xie, Yangbo; Cummer, Steven A.
2016-01-01
Optical conformal mapping has been used to construct several isotropic devices with novel functionalities. In particular, a conformal cloak could confer omnidirectional invisibility. However, the maximum values of the refractive indexes needed for current designs are too large to implement, even in microwave experiments. Furthermore, most devices designed so far have had imperfect impedance matching and therefore incomplete invisibility functionalities. Here we describe a perfect conformal invisible device with full impedance matching everywhere. The maximum value of refractive index required by our device is just about five, which is feasible for microwave and terahertz experiments using current metamaterial techniques. To construct the device, we use a logarithmic conformal mapping and a Mikaelian lens. Our results should enable a conformal invisible device with almost perfect invisibility to be made soon.
Perfect-fluid sources for the Levi-Civita metric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Ramadan M.
2007-08-01
Cylindrically symmetric perfect fluid solutions are derived for the Levi-Civita metric. The pressure P is finite. The matter density is greater than the stresses in the material. The solutions are inside cylinders of bounded radius at which the pressure vanishes. The range of σ, for which the sources have been matched to the Levi-Civeta metric is ∞> σ>0. The solutions are regular and satisfy energy conditions
Effective perfect fluids in cosmology
Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it
2013-04-01
We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.
Group-Velocity-Matched Three Wave Mixing in Birefringent Crystals
SMITH,ARLEE V.
2000-12-12
We show that the combination of pulse-front slant, k-vector tilt, and crystal birefringence often permits exact matching of both phase and group velocities in three wave mixing in birefringent crystals. This makes possible more efficient mixing of short light pulses, and it permits efficient mixing of chirped or broad bandwidth light. We analyze this process and present examples. Differences in the group velocities of the three interacting waves in a nonlinear crystal often limits the effective interaction length. For example, in mixing very short pulses, temporal walk off can stretch the pulses in time unless the crystal is very short. Efficient mixing with such short crystals requires high irradiances, but the irradiances are limited by higher order nonlinear effects such as intensity-dependent refractive index and two-photon absorption. Improved matching of the group velocities can alleviate this problem, allowing longer crystal and lower irradiances. Similarly, for high energy pulses, practical limits on crystal apertures mandate temporally stretching the pulses to reduce irradiances. For the resulting chirped pulses, temporal walk off restricts the chirp range unless the group velocities are well matched. In addition to perfectly matching the group velocities of all three waves, it is sometimes useful to match two velocities, such as the signal and idler in parametric amplification, permitting broadband parametric amplification, or to arrange the velocities of two inputs to bracket the generated sum frequency pulse, giving pulse compression under suitable circumstances.
Gill, M D; Bramble, M G; Hull, M A; Mills, S J; Morris, E; Bradburn, D M; Bury, Y; Parker, C E; Lee, T J W; Rees, C J
2014-01-01
Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) detected through the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) have been shown to have a more favourable outcome compared to non-screen-detected cancers. The aim was to identify whether this was solely due to the earlier stage shift of these cancers, or whether other factors were involved. Methods: A combination of a regional CRC registry (Northern Colorectal Cancer Audit Group) and the BCSP database were used to identify screen-detected and interval cancers (diagnosed after a negative faecal occult blood test, before the next screening round), diagnosed between April 2007 and March 2010, within the North East of England. For each Dukes' stage, patient demographics, tumour characteristics, and survival rates were compared between these two groups. Results: Overall, 322 screen-detected cancers were compared against 192 interval cancers. Screen-detected Dukes' C and D CRCs had a superior survival rate compared with interval cancers (P=0.014 and P=0.04, respectively). Cox proportional hazards regression showed that Dukes' stage, tumour location, and diagnostic group (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.29–0.69, P<0.001 for screen-detected CRCs) were all found to have a significant impact on the survival of patients. Conclusions: The improved survival of screen-detected over interval cancers for stages C and D suggest that there may be a biological difference in the cancers in each group. Although lead-time bias may have a role, this may be related to a tumour's propensity to bleed and therefore may reflect detection through current screening tests. PMID:25247322
Bizot, Jean-Charles; Herpin, Alexandre; Pothion, Stéphanie; Pirot, Sylvain; Trovero, Fabrice; Ollat, Hélène
2005-07-01
The effect of a sulbutiamine chronic treatment on memory was studied in rats with a spatial delayed-non-match-to-sample (DNMTS) task in a radial maze and a two trial object recognition task. After completion of training in the DNMTS task, animals were subjected for 9 weeks to daily injections of either saline or sulbutiamine (12.5 or 25 mg/kg). Sulbutiamine did not modify memory in the DNMTS task but improved it in the object recognition task. Dizocilpine, impaired both acquisition and retention of the DNMTS task in the saline-treated group, but not in the two sulbutiamine-treated groups, suggesting that sulbutiamine may counteract the amnesia induced by a blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Taken together, these results are in favor of a beneficial effect of sulbutiamine on working and episodic memory. PMID:15951087
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Tae Su; Jeong, Hyun; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Yong Seok; Park, Ah Hyun; Kim, Hun; Jea Lee, Kang; Suh, Eun-Kyung
2010-11-01
Using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, a strain-free GaN layer has been successfully grown by employing a 40-nm-thick nearly lattice-matched (NLM) Al1-xInxN as an interlayer. The Al1-xInxN interlayers having an InN molar fraction of x˜0.11 and 0.13 led to crack-networking at the GaN surface due to excessive tensile strain by lattice-mismatching. In the case of the GaN layer with a NLM Al1-xInxN interlayer (x˜0.18), however, strain-free GaN structure with improved structural and optical properties was demonstrated from the results of atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence. By using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the origin on strain-free state and improved properties of the GaN layer with the NLM AlInN interlayer was investigated. Based on TEM observations, we suggest that the faulted zone-like growth mechanism on roughed AlInN surface and partial compensation of tensile thermal stress are major factors on the improved strain-free GaN film.
Optimizing imperfect cloaks to perfection.
Cai, Liang-Wu
2012-10-01
Transformation optics has been an essential tool for designing cloaking devices for electromagnetic and acoustic waves. All these designs have one requirement in common: material singularity. At the interface between the cloak and the cloaked region, some material properties have to approach infinity, while some others approach zero. This paper attempts to answer a central question in physically realizing such cloaks: is material singularity a requirement for perfect cloaking? This paper demonstrates that, through optimization, perfect cloaking can be achieved using a layered cloak construction without material singularity. Two examples are used for this demonstration. In one example, the initial design is based on the Cummer-Schurig prescription for acoustic cloaking that requires mass-anisotropic material. Another example uses the two isotropic layers to achieve the equivalent mass-anisotropy for each anisotropic layer. During the optimization processes, only material properties of cloaks' constituent layers are adjusted while the geometries remain unchanged. In both examples, the normalized total scattering cross section can be reduced to 0.002 (0.2%) or lower in numerical computations. The capabilities and other characteristics of the optimization in other tasks such as cloaking penetrable objects and isolating strong resonance in such objects are also explored. PMID:23039559
Will a perfect global model agree with perfect observations?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schutgens, N.; Gryspeerdt, E.; Tsyro, S.; Weigum, N.; Partridge, D.; Goto, D.; Schulz, M.; Stier, P.
2015-12-01
Global aerosol models and observations differ strongly in their spatio-temporal sampling. Model results are typical of large gridboxes (200 by 200 km), while observations are made over much smaller areas (e.g. 10 by 10 km for MODIS, even smaller for ground sites). Model results are always available in contrast to observations that are intermittent due to orbital constraints, retrieval limitations and instrument failure/maintenance. These twin issues of temporal sampling and spatial aggregation are relevant for any observation, be it remotely sensed, or in-situ. We ask this question: will a perfect model agree with perfect observations? The short answer is: unlikely. Using two different modelling frame-works (year-long global model runs collocated with actual observations and month-long high resolution regional models runs) we show that significant errors can be introduced in a model to observation comparison due to different spatio-temporal sampling. These sampling errors are typically larger than observational errors and are of comparable size as true model errors. While the temporal sampling issue can be dealt with by properly resampling model data to observation times, the spatial aggregation issue introduces noise into the comparison. We propose and evaluate several strategies for mitigating this noise. The most succesfull strategy is further temporal averaging of the data. However, this seems to have a less benefical effect on surface in-situ observations than on remotely sensed column-integrated measurements. For instance, monthly averaged black carbon mass concentrations measured at ground sites still allow significant (~ 30%) noise into the comparison. Furthermore, flight campaign data, by its nature, are not open to long-term (monthly, yearly) averaging and allow sampling errors of 50% or more in black carbon mass concentrations. Other observables (AOT, extinction profiles, number densities, PM2.5, CCN) will also be discussed.
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-06-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.
Towards creating the perfect electronic prescription.
Dhavle, Ajit A; Rupp, Michael T
2015-04-01
Significant strides have been made in electronic (e)-prescribing standards and software applications that have further fueled the adoption and use of e-prescribing. However, for e-prescribing to realize its full potential for improving the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of prescription drug delivery, important work remains to be carried out. This perspective describes the ultimate goal of all e-prescribing stakeholders including prescribers and dispensing pharmacists: a clear, complete, and unambiguous e-prescription order that can be seamlessly received, processed, and fulfilled at the dispensing pharmacy without the need for additional clarification from the prescriber. We discuss the challenges to creating the perfect e-prescription by focusing on selected data segments and data fields that are available in the new e-prescription transaction as defined in the NCPDP SCRIPT Standard and suggest steps that could be taken to move the industry closer to achieving this vision. PMID:25038197
Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces.
Falub, Claudiu V; Meduňa, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans
2013-01-01
The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties.
Lee, Hyoseong; Rhee, Huinam; Oh, Jae Hong; Park, Jin Ho
2016-01-01
This paper deals with an improved methodology to measure three-dimensional dynamic displacements of a structure by digital close-range photogrammetry. A series of stereo images of a vibrating structure installed with targets are taken at specified intervals by using two daily-use cameras. A new methodology is proposed to accurately trace the spatial displacement of each target in three-dimensional space. This method combines the correlation and the least-square image matching so that the sub-pixel targeting can be obtained to increase the measurement accuracy. Collinearity and space resection theory are used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters. To verify the proposed method, experiments have been performed to measure displacements of a cantilevered beam excited by an electrodynamic shaker, which is vibrating in a complex configuration with mixed bending and torsional motions simultaneously with multiple frequencies. The results by the present method showed good agreement with the measurement by two laser displacement sensors. The proposed methodology only requires inexpensive daily-use cameras, and can remotely detect the dynamic displacement of a structure vibrating in a complex three-dimensional defection shape up to sub-pixel accuracy. It has abundant potential applications to various fields, e.g., remote vibration monitoring of an inaccessible or dangerous facility. PMID:26978366
Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD, but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. METHODS The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. RESULTS PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. CONCLUSIONS A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes. PMID:24138347
Lee, Hyoseong; Rhee, Huinam; Oh, Jae Hong; Park, Jin Ho
2016-01-01
This paper deals with an improved methodology to measure three-dimensional dynamic displacements of a structure by digital close-range photogrammetry. A series of stereo images of a vibrating structure installed with targets are taken at specified intervals by using two daily-use cameras. A new methodology is proposed to accurately trace the spatial displacement of each target in three-dimensional space. This method combines the correlation and the least-square image matching so that the sub-pixel targeting can be obtained to increase the measurement accuracy. Collinearity and space resection theory are used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters. To verify the proposed method, experiments have been performed to measure displacements of a cantilevered beam excited by an electrodynamic shaker, which is vibrating in a complex configuration with mixed bending and torsional motions simultaneously with multiple frequencies. The results by the present method showed good agreement with the measurement by two laser displacement sensors. The proposed methodology only requires inexpensive daily-use cameras, and can remotely detect the dynamic displacement of a structure vibrating in a complex three-dimensional defection shape up to sub-pixel accuracy. It has abundant potential applications to various fields, e.g., remote vibration monitoring of an inaccessible or dangerous facility. PMID:26978366
Practice makes two hemispheres almost perfect.
Cherbuin, Nicolas; Brinkman, Cobie
2005-08-01
Some tasks produce a performance advantage for conditions that require the processing of stimuli in two visual fields compared to conditions where single hemifield processing is sufficient. This advantage, however, disappears with practice. Although no definitive evidence yet exists, there are several possible mechanisms that might lead to improved performance of within- compared to across-hemisphere processing with practice. These include a shift from a more demanding, algorithmic strategy to a less demanding memory-retrieval strategy (e.g., [G. Logan, Toward an instance theory of automatisation. Psych. Rev. 95 (1988) 492-527]), as discussed by Weissman and Compton [D.H. Weissman, R.J. Compton, Practice makes a hemisphere perfect: the advantage of interhemispheric recruitment is eliminated with practice. Laterality, 8 (4) (2003) 361-375], and/or a more generalised practice effect [K. Kirsner, C. Speelman, Skill acquisition and repetition priming: one principle, many processes? J. Exp. Psychol., Learn. Mem. Cogn., 22 (1996) 563-575]. Contrary to Weissman and Compton findings, our results suggest that although single-hemisphere performance improves with practice, bi-hemispheric performance also improves substantially. Furthermore, these effects do not appear to be due to a shift in strategy but rather due to a general practice effect.
The Perfect Family: Decision Making in Biparental Care
Akçay, Erol; Roughgarden, Joan
2009-01-01
Background Previous theoretical work on parental decisions in biparental care has emphasized the role of the conflict between evolutionary interests of parents in these decisions. A prominent prediction from this work is that parents should compensate for decreases in each other's effort, but only partially so. However, experimental tests that manipulate parents and measure their responses fail to confirm this prediction. At the same time, the process of parental decision making has remained unexplored theoretically. We develop a model to address the discrepancy between experiments and the theoretical prediction, and explore how assuming different decision making processes changes the prediction from the theory. Model Description We assume that parents make decisions in behavioral time. They have a fixed time budget, and allocate it between two parental tasks: provisioning the offspring and defending the nest. The proximate determinant of the allocation decisions are parents' behavioral objectives. We assume both parents aim to maximize the offspring production from the nest. Experimental manipulations change the shape of the nest production function. We consider two different scenarios for how parents make decisions: one where parents communicate with each other and act together (the perfect family), and one where they do not communicate, and act independently (the almost perfect family). Conclusions/Significance The perfect family model is able to generate all the types of responses seen in experimental studies. The kind of response predicted depends on the nest production function, i.e. how parents' allocations affect offspring production, and the type of experimental manipulation. In particular, we find that complementarity of parents' allocations promotes matching responses. In contrast, the relative responses do not depend on the type of manipulation in the almost perfect family model. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between nest
Characterization of two-qubit perfect entanglers
Rezakhani, A.T.
2004-11-01
Here we consider perfect entanglers from another perspective. It is shown that there are some special perfect entanglers which can maximally entangle a full product basis. We explicitly construct a one-parameter family of such entanglers together with the proper product basis that they maximally entangle. This special family of perfect entanglers contains some well-known operators such as controlled-NOT (CNOT) and double-CNOT, but not {radical}(SWAP). In addition, it is shown that all perfect entanglers with entangling power equal to the maximal value (2/9) are also special perfect entanglers. It is proved that the one-parameter family is the only possible set of special perfect entanglers. Also we provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit gate, given a proper special perfect entangler supplemented with single-qubit gates. Such gates are shown to provide a minimum universal gate construction in that just two of them are necessary and sufficient in implementation of a generic two-qubit gate.
Computation of Thermally Perfect Compressible Flow Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.; Williams, S. Blake
1996-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas are derived for a value of c(sub p) (specific heat at constant pressure) expressed as a polynomial function of temperature and developed into a computer program, referred to as the Thermally Perfect Gas (TPG) code. The code is available free from the NASA Langley Software Server at URL http://www.larc.nasa.gov/LSS. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those found in NACA Report 1135. Unlike the NACA Report 1135 tables which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, giving the TPG code a considerably larger range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect and in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regimes are verified by comparisons with the methods of NACA Report 1135. The advantages of the TPG code compared to the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect method of NACA Report 1135 are its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture of gases, ease-of-use, and tabulated results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Apfel's excellent match: This series of photos shows a water drop containing a surfactant (Triton-100) as it experiences a complete cycle of superoscillation on U.S. Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2; October 1995). The time in seconds appears under the photos. The figures above the photos are the oscillation shapes predicted by a numerical model. The time shown with the predictions is nondimensional. Robert Apfel (Yale University) used the Drop Physics Module on USML-2 to explore the effect of surfactants on liquid drops. Apfel's research of surfactants may contribute to improvements in a variety of industrial processes, including oil recovery and environmental cleanup.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.
2013-01-01
Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…
Developments in Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crescimanno, Michael; Andrews, James; Zhou, Chaunhong; Baker, Michael
2015-05-01
Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation (CPR) is a useful technique akin to Coherent Perfect Absorption (CPA, also known as the anti-laser) but that results in very high efficiency optical mode conversion. We describe the analysis of recent experimental data from our CPR testbed, the use of CPR in miniaturizing optical isolators and CPR phenomena in non-linear optics. Work supported by the N.S.F. under Grant No. ECCS-1360725.
The Illusion of Perfect Memory.
Wick, Jeannette Y
2016-09-01
Memory is not infallible, and certain memory problems or glitches are normal. Most people notice that they experience more memory shortcomings as they age. Omission deficits and commission deficits are common and include transience, absentmindedness, tip-of-the-tongue experience, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. Each of these has a different cause, and researchers have looked for interventions that can decrease the frequency and severity of these common problems. Though some people worry that memory glitches foreshadow dementia, that is not usually the case. Understanding how memory falters can assist pharmacists in helping patients provide better medical histories and improve adherence. It is useful when collecting reliable information if incident reports rely on eyewitness accounts. It can also help them improve pharmacists' own memories, and understand why memory may change over time. PMID:27636872
[Field matching in breast irradiation
Varga, Sz; Takácsi Nagy, L; Pesznyák, Cs; Lövey, K; Polgár, I
2001-01-01
INTRODUCTION: In this paper the authors have combined different irradiation techniques for breast and adjacent supraclavicular lymph nodes. The aim was to reduce inhomogeneity in the match-line. METHODS: The CadPlan 6.1.5 three-dimensional treatment planning system was applied in this study for CT based plan using a standard medial and lateral wedged tangential breast portals with the adjacent supraclavicular field. Isocenter is placed at depth on the match-line, where asymmetric jaws are used to produce non-divergent field edges. The tangential fields are shaped using multi-leaf collimator (MLC), by following the curvature of the thorax. In this way the cranial vertical match plane is maintaned without using the breast board. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy at the isocentre. RESULTS: The calculated dose distributions were evaluated in three dimension in the match region of supraclavicular field and the two opposing tangential fields. This method produces a more uniform dose distribution in the target volume and in the match-line. Set-up is fast, this is done without the need for table rotation, or vertical cephalad blocks. The average dose to the ipsilateral lung is reduced using the IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy) technique by approximately 10% compared with the conventional technique. Furthermore, this new technique has the possibility to improve the field match between the tangential fields and the parasternal field, while maintaning the field match between the tangential fields and the axillary and supraclavicular fields.
Study on matching map for the absorber filled by metallic magnetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tao; Xu, Fei; Tang, Liyun; Qiao, Liang; Li, Fashen
2014-11-01
A map displaying the matching characteristics and absorption performance for the metallic carbonyl iron composite in microwave frequency band is developed based on the origin of absorption peaks. In this map, the dependence of matching frequency fm on absorber thickness, input impendence, and absorption peak value is achieved simultaneously from the complex permeability and permittivity spectra without any approximation. From this map, the perfect matching frequency fpm and perfect matching thickness tpm at input impendence Z = 1 can be directly searched. Moreover, the required absorber thickness and the reflection loss value at any expected frequency where the absorption peak locates can be directly observed.
Perfect-fluid cosmologies with extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleiser, Reinaldo J.; Diaz, Mario C.
1988-06-01
We give an analysis of the solutions of the n-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations with a metric in the form of a direct sum of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric and a Kasner-type Euclidean metric. The solutions are interpreted as four-dimensional perfect-fluid cosmological FRW models, using the simple ansatz proposed by Ibán~ez and Verdaguer. We first obtain the general solution for flat models. These are perfect-fluid solutions that can be made compatible with contraction of all the extra dimensions. The general compatibility of the field equations is then discussed. It is found that for n>5 both open and closed models admit a range of perfect-fluid solutions whose qualitative behavior is analyzed.
Quadratic quantum cosmology with Schutz' perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakili, Babak
2010-01-01
We study the classical and quantum models of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology, coupled to a perfect fluid, in the context of the f(R) gravity. Using Schutz' representation for the perfect fluid, we show that, under a particular gauge choice, it may lead to the identification of a time parameter for the corresponding dynamical system. Moreover, this formalism gives rise to a Schrödinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration, the eigenfunctions of which can be used to construct the wavefunction of the universe. In the case of f(R) = R2 (pure quadratic model), for some particular choices of the perfect fluid source, exact solutions to the SWD equation can be obtained and the corresponding results are compared to the usual f(R) = R model.
Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials
Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng; Shi, Jinhui
2014-11-17
We show multi-band coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in simple bilayered asymmetrically split ring metamaterials. The selectivity of absorption can be accomplished by separately excited electric and magnetic modes in a standing wave formed by two coherent counterpropagating beams. In particular, each CPA can be completely switched on/off by the phase of a second coherent wave. We propose a practical scheme for realizing multi-band coherent perfect absorption of 100% that is allowed to work from microwave to optical frequency.
Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams.
Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Sheng; Ma, Chaojie; Han, Lei; Cheng, Huachao; Zhao, Jianlin
2016-05-15
We propose the concept of perfect vectorial vortex beams (VVBs), which not merely have intensity profile independent of the polarization order and the topological charge of spiral phase, but also have stable intensity profile and state of polarization (SoP) upon propagation. Utilizing a Sagnac interferometer, we approximately generate perfect VVBs with locally linear and elliptical polarizations, and demonstrate that such beams can keep their intensity profile and SoP at a certain propagation distance. These proposed VVBs can be expanded to encode information and quantum cryptography, as well as to enrich the conversion of spin and orbital angular momenta. PMID:27176963
Near-perfect diffraction grating rhomb
Wantuck, Paul J.
1990-01-01
A near-perfect grating rhomb enables an output beam to be diffracted to an angle offset from the input beam. The correcting grating is tipped relative to the dispersing grating to provide the offset angle. The correcting grating is further provided with a groove spacing which differs from the dispersing grating groove space by an amount effective to substantially remove angular dispersion in the output beam. A near-perfect grating rhomb has the capability for selective placement in a FEL to suppress sideband instabilities arising from the FEL.
Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Invisibility Cloak
Zhang Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian
2009-12-11
A perfect invisibility cloak is commonly believed to be undetectable from electromagnetic (EM) detection because it is equivalent to a curved but empty EM space created from coordinate transformation. Based on the intrinsic asymmetry of coordinate transformation applied to motions of photons and charges, we propose a method to detect this curved EM space by shooting a fast-moving charged particle through it. A broadband radiation generated in this process makes a cloak visible. Our method is the only known EM mechanism so far to detect an ideal perfect cloak (curved EM space) within its working band.
Nearly perfect valley filter in silicene.
Zhang, Qingtian; Chan, K S; Long, Mengqiu
2016-02-10
We demonstrate theoretically how a perfect valley filter can be obtained in silicene under the effects of a ferromagnetic stripe and an electric field perpendicular to silicene. A ferromagnetic stripe or an electric field alone can not generate any valley polarization in silicene, but a combination of them can make a perfect valley filter. Two configurations, one with magnetization of the ferromagnetic stripe being perpendicular to the silicene plane and one being parallel to the current direction, are considered. Our proposed device is useful for the realization of a valley beam filter in the development of valleytronic devices.
The NRMP matching algorithm revisited: theory versus practice. National Resident Matching Program.
Peranson, E; Randlett, R R
1995-06-01
The authors examine the algorithm used by the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) in its centralized matching of applicants to U.S. residency programs ("the Match"). Their goal is to evaluate the current NRMP matching algorithm to determine whether it still fulfills its intended purpose adequately and whether changes could be made that would improve the Match. They describe the basic NRMP algorithm and many of the variations of the matching process ("match variations") incorporated over the last 20 years to meet participants' requirements. An overview of the current state of the theory of preference matching is presented, including descriptions of the characteristics of stable matches in general, program-optimal and applicant-optimal matchings, and strategies for formulating preference lists. The characteristics of the current NRMP algorithm are then compared with the theoretical findings. Research conducted long after the original NRMP algorithm was devised has shown that an algorithm that produces stable matches is the best approach for matching applicants to positions. In the absence of requirements to satisfy match variations, the NRMP's deferred-acceptance algorithm produces a program-optimal stable match. When match variations, such as those handled by the NRMP, must be introduced, it is possible that no stable matching exists, and the resulting matching produced by the NRMP algorithm may not be program-optimal. The question of program-optimal versus applicant-optimal matchings is discussed. Theoretical and empirical evidence currently available suggest that differences between these two kinds of matchings are likely to be small. However, further tests and research are needed to assess the real differences in the results produced by different stable matching algorithms that produce program-optimal or applicant-optimal stable matches.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hierarchical model of matching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pedrycz, Witold; Roventa, Eugene
1992-01-01
The issue of matching two fuzzy sets becomes an essential design aspect of many algorithms including fuzzy controllers, pattern classifiers, knowledge-based systems, etc. This paper introduces a new model of matching. Its principal features involve the following: (1) matching carried out with respect to the grades of membership of fuzzy sets as well as some functionals defined on them (like energy, entropy,transom); (2) concepts of hierarchies in the matching model leading to a straightforward distinction between 'local' and 'global' levels of matching; and (3) a distributed character of the model realized as a logic-based neural network.
Consistent Comparisons between Monopoly and Perfect Competition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Skeath, Susan E.; And Others
1992-01-01
Identifies inconsistencies in treatments of the perfect competition, monopoly welfare comparison in textbooks for economics instruction. Argues for explanation of how experiments are being conducted and explicit identification of all underlying assumptions. Suggests straightforward analysis of the social cost of monopoly based on a comparison…
Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Perfection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hess, Lisa Lawmaster
1994-01-01
Perfectionists are accustomed to success and afraid of failure, have feelings of worth inextricably tied to the products they produce, impose a great deal of pressure on themselves, and may actually learn perfectionism from their parents. Counseling can help perfectionists realize that excellence is achievable but perfection is not. (JDD)
Children Prefer Certain Individuals over Perfect Duplicates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hood, Bruce M.; Bloom, Paul.
2008-01-01
Adults value certain unique individuals--such as artwork, sentimental possessions, and memorabilia--more than perfect duplicates. Here we explore the origins of this bias in young children, by using a conjurer's illusion where we appear to produce identical copies of real-world objects. In Study 1, young children were less likely to accept an…
Perfect Day: A Meditation about Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Valadez, Gilbert
2004-01-01
When asked by a student in a seminar recently if he could remember a perfect day teaching elementary school, the author writes memories of one he distinctly remembers because he gained new insight into teaching on that particular day. After returning to work following the devastating loss of a younger 19 year-old brother in a car crash, he resumed…
Mechanical Energy Changes in Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mungan, Carl E.
2013-01-01
Suppose a block of mass "m"[subscript 1] traveling at speed "v"[subscript 1] makes a one-dimensional perfectly inelastic collision with another block of mass "m"[subscript 2]. What else does one need to know to calculate the fraction of the mechanical energy that is dissipated in the collision? (Contains 1 figure.)
A Reappraisal of the Nobody's Perfect Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennett, Deborah J.; Chislett, Gail; Olver, Ashley L. S.
2012-01-01
Nobody's Perfect Program (NP), involving 46 participants, was conducted from the spring of 2007 to the fall of 2009 in Peterborough, Canada. Prior to the program, parents completed demographic information, along with self-report measures assessing learned resourcefulness, the types of interactions with their children, parent resourcefulness,…
Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghusayni, B.
2005-01-01
Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.
Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation
Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia
2015-01-01
Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO. PMID:26692592
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ryuji; Tretiakov, O. A.; Abanov, Ar; Sinova, Jairo
2011-12-01
Topological insulators have gapless edge/surface states with novel transport properties. Among these, there are two classes of perfectly conducting channels which are free from backscattering: the edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators and the one-dimensional states localized on dislocations of certain three-dimensional topological insulators. We show how these novel states affect thermoelectric properties of the systems and discuss possibilities to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit using these materials with perfectly conducting channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komolibus, Katarzyna; Scofield, Adam C.; Gradkowski, Kamil; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Kim, Hyunseok; Huffaker, Diana L.; Huyet, Guillaume
2016-02-01
Optical properties of GaAs/InGaAs/GaAs nanopillars (NPs) grown on GaAs(111)B were investigated. Employment of a mask-etching technique allowed for an accurate control over the geometry of NP arrays in terms of both their diameter and separation. This work describes both the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of these structures as a function of the ensemble geometry, composition of the insert, and various shell compounds. The effects of the NP geometry on a parasitic radiative recombination channel, originating from an overgrown lateral sidewall layer, are discussed. Optical characterization reveals a profound influence of the core-shell lattice mismatch on the carrier lifetime and emission quenching at room temperature. When the lattice-matching conditions are satisfied, an efficient emission from the NP arrays at room temperature and below the band-gap of silicon is observed, clearly highlighting their potential application as emitters in optical interconnects integrated with silicon platforms.
PERFECTLY MATCHED LAYERS FOR ELASTIC WAVES IN CYLINDRICAL AND SPHERICAL COORDINATES. (R825225)
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Inter-Sentential Anaphora and Coherence Relations in Discourse: A Perfect Match
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cornish, Francis
2009-01-01
Hobbs [Hobbs, J.R., 1979. "Coherence and coreference." "Cognitive Science" 3, 67-90] claims that the interpretation of inter-sentential anaphors "falls out" as a "by-product" of using a particular coherence relation to integrate two discourse units. The article argues that this is only partly true. Taking the reader's perspective, I suggest that…
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and homeland security: a perfect match?
Golightly, Rebecca S; Doering, William E; Natan, Michael J
2009-10-27
This Nano Focus article reviews recent developments in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and its application to homeland security. It is based on invited talks given at the "Nanorods and Microparticles for Homeland Security" symposium, which was organized by one of the authors and presented at the 238th ACS National Meeting and Exhibition in Washington, DC. The three-day symposium included approximately 25 experts from academia, industry, and national laboratories and included both SERS and non-SERS approaches to detection of chemical and biological substances relevant to homeland security, as well as fundamental advances. Here, we focus on SERS and how it is uniquely positioned to have an impact in a field whose importance is increasing rapidly. We describe some technical challenges that remain and offer a glimpse of what form solutions might take.
Text-Based Synchronous E-Learning and Dyslexia: Not Necessarily the Perfect Match!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodfine, B. P.; Nunes, M. Baptista; Wright, D. J.
2008-01-01
The introduction, in the United Kingdom, of the Special Education Needs and Disabilities Act (SENDA) published and approved in 2001, has removed the exemptions given to educational institutions by the Disabilities Discrimination Act (DDA) of 1995. This applies to learning web sites and materials that must now undergo "reasonable adjustments", in…
Service Learning in the Introductory Technical Writing Class: A Perfect Match?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stone, Elisa
2000-01-01
Offers examples from the author's experience to show how service learning is well-suited to the population of students who take introduction to technical writing at Salt Lake Community College. Outlines what the organizations and the students themselves say about the service learning experience. Outlines recommendations for making service learning…
The Perfect Match: A Case Study of a First Year Woman Principal.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duncan, P. Kay; Seguin, Cynthia Anast; Spaulding, Wendy
This paper presents a case study illustrating the experiences of a first-year elementary-school principal. It follows her through her 18 months on the job, and analyzes the factors contributing to her ouster. The data for the study were gathered through two interviews with the principal and interviews with five other persons in her school…
Block Matching for Object Tracking
Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S
2003-10-13
Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.
Grötzinger, Stefan W; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg
2014-01-01
Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available
Grötzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg
2014-01-01
Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available
Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Juan C.; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.
2011-02-01
Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source. To accomplish this goal, the region must have a precise complex permittivity that depends on its size as well as on the frequency. The perfect point drain is obtained when the diameter of the perfect drain tends to zero. This interpretation of the perfect point drain is connected well with common concepts of electromagnetic theory, opening up both modeling in computer simulations and experimental verification of setups containing a perfect point drain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Yasser A.; Afifi, Hossam; Rubino, Gerardo
1999-05-01
This paper present a new algorithm for stereo matching. The main idea is to decompose the original problem into independent hierarchical and more elementary problems that can be solved faster without any complicated mathematics using BBD. To achieve that, we use a new image feature called 'continuity feature' instead of classical noise. This feature can be extracted from any kind of images by a simple process and without using a searching technique. A new matching technique is proposed to match the continuity feature. The new algorithm resolves the main disadvantages of feature based stereo matching algorithms.
Structured Metal Film as Perfect Absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu
2014-03-01
With standing U-shaped resonators, fish-spear-like resonator has been designed for the first time as the building block to assemble perfect absorbers. The samples have been fabricated with two-photon polymerization process and FTIR measurement results support the effectiveness of the perfect absorber design. In such a structure the polarization-dependent resonance occurs between the tines of the spears instead of the conventional design where the resonance occurs between the metallic layers separated by a dielectric interlayer. The incident light neither transmits nor reflects back which results in unit absorbance. The power of light is trapped between the tines of spears and finally be absorbed. The whole structure is covered with a continuous metallic layer with good thermo-conductance, which provides an excellent approach to deal with heat dissipation, is enlightening in exploring metamaterial absorbers.
Basics of perfect communication through quantum networks
Kay, Alastair
2011-08-15
Perfect transfer of a quantum state through a one-dimensional chain is now well understood, allowing one not only to decide whether a fixed Hamiltonian achieves perfect transfer but to design a suitable one. We are particularly interested in being able to design, or understand the limitations imposed upon, Hamiltonians subject to various naturally arising constraints such as a limited coupling topology with low connectivity (specified by a graph) and type of interaction. In this paper, we characterize the necessary and sufficient conditions for transfer through a network and describe some natural consequences such as the impossibility of routing between many different recipients for a large class of Hamiltonians and the limitations on transfer rate. We also consider some of the trade-offs that arise in uniformly coupled networks (both Heisenberg and XX models) between transfer distance and the size of the network as a consequence of the derived conditions.
The Erythrocyte Ghost Is a Perfect Osmometer
Kwant, W. O.; Seeman, Philip
1970-01-01
The osmotic swelling of intact erythrocytes in hypotonic solutions was measured using microhematocrit tubes, Van Allen tubes, and a calibrated Coulter counter. In agreement with earlier workers the intact cells did not behave as perfect osmometers, the cells swelling less than predicted by the Boyle-van't Hoff law. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared from fresh intact erythrocytes by one-step hemolysis in 0.25% NaCl at an extremely dilute concentration of cells and the membranes were sealed at 37°. The ghosts were mixed with NaCl solutions of different osmolarities and the MCV (mean cell volume) of the shrunken cells immediately monitored by a calibrated Coulter counter. It was found that the MCV values of the shrunken ghosts were accurately predicted by the Boyle-van't Hoff law. These results indicate that these erythrocyte ghosts behaved as perfect osmometers. PMID:5413078
Does negative refraction make a perfect lens?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramm, A. G.
2008-10-01
A discussion of a question, studied earlier by Veselago in 1967 and by Pendry in 2000, is given. The question is: can a slab of the material with negative refraction make a perfect lens? Pendry's conclusion was: yes, it can. Our conclusion is: no, in practice it cannot, because of the fluctuations of the refraction coefficient of the slab. Resolution ability of linear isoplanatic optical instruments is discussed.
Comment on 'Perfect imaging without negative refraction'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaikie, R. J.
2010-05-01
The prediction of 'perfect' imaging without negative refraction for Maxwell's fish-eye lens (Leonhardt U 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040) is a consequence of imposing an active localized 'drain' at the image point rather than being a general property of the lens. This work then becomes analogous to other work using time-reversal symmetry and/or structured antennae to achieve super-resolution, which can be applied to many types of imaging system beyond the fish-eye lens.
The perfect machine. Building the Palomar telescope.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florence, R.
The author's chronicle of the conception of the great 200-inch Palomar telescope is an inspiring account of the birth of big science and of America at its can-do apex. Countless scientists, engineers, administrators, and workmen - from Edwin Hubble, John D. Rockefeller, Elihu Root, and Andrew Carnegie, to unemployed laborers - come alive in this story of two decades of effort to create "the perfect machine".
Mass of Perfect Fluid Black Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.
The spherically symmetric singular perfect fluid shells are considered when their radii are equal to the event horizon (the black shells). We study their observable masses, depending at least on the three parameters, viz. the square speed of sound in the shell, instantaneous radial velocity of the shell at a moment when it reaches the horizon, and integration constant related to surface mass density. We discuss the features of black shells depending on the equation of state.
Taming electromagnetic metamaterials for isotropic perfect absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anh, Doan Tung; Viet, Do Thanh; Trang, Pham Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Quy, Ho Quang; Hieu, Nguyen Van; Lam, Vu Dinh; Tung, Nguyen Thanh
2015-07-01
Conventional metamaterial absorbers, which consist of a dielectric spacer sandwiched between metamaterial resonators and a metallic ground plane, have been inherently anisotropic. In this paper, we present an alternative approach for isotropic perfect absorbers using symmetric metamaterial structures. We show that by systematically manipulating the electrically and magnetically induced losses, one can achieve a desired absorption without breaking the structural homogeneity. Finite integration simulations and standard retrieval method are performed to elaborate on our idea.
Structured metal film as a perfect absorber.
Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu
2013-08-01
A new type of absorber, a four-tined fish-spear-like resonator (FFR), constructed by the two-photon polymerization process, is reported. An absorbance of more than 90% is experimentally realized and the resonance occurs in the space between the tines. Since a continuous layer of metallic thin film covers the structure, it is perfectly thermo- and electroconductive, which is the mostly desired feature for many applications. PMID:23661582
On Mosaics and Melting Pots: Conceptual Considerations of Comparison and Matching Strategies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burack, Jacob A.; Iarocci, Grace; Flanagan, Tara D.; Bowler, Dermot M.
2004-01-01
Conceptual and pragmatic issues relevant to the study of persons with autism are addressed within the context of comparison groups and matching strategies. We argue that no choice of comparison group or matching strategy is perfect, but rather needs to be determined by specific research objectives and theoretical questions. Thus, strategies can…
Optimal Feedback Controlled Assembly of Perfect Crystals.
Tang, Xun; Rupp, Bradley; Yang, Yuguang; Edwards, Tara D; Grover, Martha A; Bevan, Michael A
2016-07-26
Perfectly ordered states are targets in diverse molecular to microscale systems involving, for example, atomic clusters, protein folding, protein crystallization, nanoparticle superlattices, and colloidal crystals. However, there is no obvious approach to control the assembly of perfectly ordered global free energy minimum structures; near-equilibrium assembly is impractically slow, and faster out-of-equilibrium processes generally terminate in defective states. Here, we demonstrate the rapid and robust assembly of perfect crystals by navigating kinetic bottlenecks using closed-loop control of electric field mediated crystallization of colloidal particles. An optimal policy is computed with dynamic programming using a reaction coordinate based dynamic model. By tracking real-time stochastic particle configurations and adjusting applied fields via feedback, the evolution of unassembled particles is guided through polycrystalline states into single domain crystals. This approach to controlling the assembly of a target structure is based on general principles that make it applicable to a broad range of processes from nano- to microscales (where tuning a global thermodynamic variable yields temporal control over thermal sampling of different states via their relative free energies).
A note on perfect scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sriramkumar, L.
2010-05-01
We derive a condition on the Lagrangian density describing a generic, single, noncanonical scalar field, by demanding that the intrinsic, nonadiabatic pressure perturbation associated with the scalar field vanishes identically. Based on the analogy with perfect fluids, we refer to such fields as perfect scalar fields. It is common knowledge that models that depend only on the kinetic energy of the scalar field (often referred to as pure kinetic models) possess no nonadiabatic pressure perturbation. While we are able to construct models that seemingly depend on the scalar field and also do not contain any nonadiabatic pressure perturbation, we find that all such models that we construct allow a redefinition of the field under which they reduce to pure kinetic models. We show that, if a perfect scalar field drives inflation, then, in such situations, the first slow roll parameter will always be a monotonically decreasing function of time. We point out that this behavior implies that these scalar fields cannot lead to features in the inflationary, scalar perturbation spectrum.
Solute drag on perfect and extended dislocations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sills, R. B.; Cai, W.
2016-04-01
The drag force exerted on a moving dislocation by a field of mobile solutes is studied in the steady state. The drag force is numerically calculated as a function of the dislocation velocity for both perfect and extended dislocations. The sensitivity of the non-dimensionalized force-velocity curve to the various controlling parameters is assessed, and an approximate analytical force-velocity expression is given. A non-dimensional parameter S characterizing the strength of the solute-dislocation interaction, the background solute fraction ?, and the dislocation character angle ?, are found to have the strongest influence on the force-velocity curve. Within the model considered here, a perfect screw dislocation experiences no solute drag, but an extended screw dislocation experiences a non-zero drag force that is about 10 to 30% of the drag on an extended edge dislocation. The solutes can change the spacing between the Shockley partials in both stationary and moving extended dislocations, even when the stacking fault energy remains unaltered. Under certain conditions, the solutes destabilize an extended dislocation by either collapsing it into a perfect dislocation or causing the partials to separate unboundedly. It is proposed that the latter instability may lead to the formation of large faulted areas and deformation twins in low stacking fault energy materials containing solutes, consistent with experimental observations of copper and stainless steel containing hydrogen.
Dr Marvin Adams
2002-03-01
OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.
Killeen, Peter
1972-01-01
The matching law may be viewed either as an empirical generalization, and therby subject to disproof, or as part of a system of equations used to define the utility (“value”) of a reinforcer. In the latter case it is tautologous, and not subject to disproof within the defining context. A failure to obtain matching will most often be a signal that the independent variables have not been properly scaled. If, however, the proper transformations have been made on the independent variables, and matching is not obtained, the experimental paradigm may be outside the purview of the matching law. At that point, reinterpretations or revisions of the law are called for. The theoretical matching law is but one of many possible ways to define utility, and it may eventually be rejected in favor of a more useful definition. PMID:16811604
On the perfect hexagonal packing of rods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starostin, E. L.
2006-04-01
In most cases the hexagonal packing of fibrous structures or rods extremizes the energy of interaction between strands. If the strands are not straight, then it is still possible to form a perfect hexatic bundle. Conditions under which the perfect hexagonal packing of curved tubular structures may exist are formulated. Particular attention is given to closed or cycled arrangements of the rods like in the DNA toroids and spools. The closure or return constraints of the bundle result in an allowable group of automorphisms of the cross-sectional hexagonal lattice. The structure of this group is explored. Examples of open helical-like and closed toroidal-like bundles are presented. An expression for the elastic energy of a perfectly packed bundle of thin elastic rods is derived. The energy accounts for both the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the rods. It is shown that equilibria of the bundle correspond to solutions of a variational problem formulated for the curve representing the axis of the bundle. The functional involves a function of the squared curvature under the constraints on the total torsion and the length. The Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained in terms of curvature and torsion and due to the existence of the first integrals the problem is reduced to the quadrature. The three-dimensional shape of the bundle may be readily reconstructed by integration of the Ilyukhin-type equations in special cylindrical coordinates. The results are of universal nature and are applicable to various fibrous structures, in particular, to intramolecular liquid crystals formed by DNA condensed in toroids or packed inside the viral capsids. International Workshop on Biopolymers: Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Mechanics of DNA, RNA and Proteins, 30.05.2005-3.06.2005, The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy.
Filtering with perfectly correlated measurement noise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reasenberg, R.
1972-01-01
Examination of (radar) Doppler data which are formed by mi1ing the returning microwave signal with a replica of the transmitted signal, counting the cycles of the beat, and sampling the counter at evenly spaced intervals t sub i. It is shown that the amount of information which can be extracted from a set of data may be larger if the associated noise is perfectly correlated than if it is white, and that the use of the white noise assumption in the filter may result in the loss of some of this information.
Shin, Woong-Hee; Christoffer, Charles W; Wang, Jibo; Kihara, Daisuke
2016-09-26
Virtual screening has become an indispensable procedure in drug discovery. Virtual screening methods can be classified into two categories: ligand-based and structure-based. While the former have advantages, including being quick to compute, in general they are relatively weak at discovering novel active compounds because they use known actives as references. On the other hand, structure-based methods have higher potential to find novel compounds because they directly predict the binding affinity of a ligand in a target binding pocket, albeit with substantially lower speed than ligand-based methods. Here we report a novel structure-based virtual screening method, PL-PatchSurfer2. In PL-PatchSurfer2, protein and ligand surfaces are represented by a set of overlapping local patches, each of which is represented by three-dimensional Zernike descriptors (3DZDs). By means of 3DZDs, the shapes and physicochemical complementarities of local surface regions of a pocket surface and a ligand molecule can be concisely and effectively computed. Compared with the previous version of the program, the performance of PL-PatchSurfer2 is substantially improved by the addition of two more features, atom-based hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors. Benchmark studies showed that PL-PatchSurfer2 performed better than or comparable to popular existing methods. Particularly, PL-PatchSurfer2 significantly outperformed existing methods when apo-form or template-based protein models were used for queries. The computational time of PL-PatchSurfer2 is about 20 times shorter than those of conventional structure-based methods. The PL-PatchSurfer2 program is available at http://www.kiharalab.org/plps2/ . PMID:27500657
Shin, Woong-Hee; Christoffer, Charles W; Wang, Jibo; Kihara, Daisuke
2016-09-26
Virtual screening has become an indispensable procedure in drug discovery. Virtual screening methods can be classified into two categories: ligand-based and structure-based. While the former have advantages, including being quick to compute, in general they are relatively weak at discovering novel active compounds because they use known actives as references. On the other hand, structure-based methods have higher potential to find novel compounds because they directly predict the binding affinity of a ligand in a target binding pocket, albeit with substantially lower speed than ligand-based methods. Here we report a novel structure-based virtual screening method, PL-PatchSurfer2. In PL-PatchSurfer2, protein and ligand surfaces are represented by a set of overlapping local patches, each of which is represented by three-dimensional Zernike descriptors (3DZDs). By means of 3DZDs, the shapes and physicochemical complementarities of local surface regions of a pocket surface and a ligand molecule can be concisely and effectively computed. Compared with the previous version of the program, the performance of PL-PatchSurfer2 is substantially improved by the addition of two more features, atom-based hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors. Benchmark studies showed that PL-PatchSurfer2 performed better than or comparable to popular existing methods. Particularly, PL-PatchSurfer2 significantly outperformed existing methods when apo-form or template-based protein models were used for queries. The computational time of PL-PatchSurfer2 is about 20 times shorter than those of conventional structure-based methods. The PL-PatchSurfer2 program is available at http://www.kiharalab.org/plps2/ .
Spatial delocalization and perfect tunneling of matter waves: electron perfect lens.
Silveirinha, Mário G; Engheta, Nader
2013-05-24
It is theoretically demonstrated that electron states in semiconductors or graphene can be perfectly transmitted through a complementary material with dual properties, independent of the angle of incidence. It is shown that such complementary material may also provide a strong spatial delocalization of bounded electronic states, changing dramatically the confinement of the wave function, and acting effectively as a lens for the probability wave. The results are the electron analogue of a perfect lens for electromagnetic waves proposed in an earlier work. PMID:23745877
Fast image matching algorithm based on projection characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Lijuan; Yue, Xiaobo; Zhou, Lijun
2011-06-01
Based on analyzing the traditional template matching algorithm, this paper identified the key factors restricting the speed of matching and put forward a brand new fast matching algorithm based on projection. Projecting the grayscale image, this algorithm converts the two-dimensional information of the image into one-dimensional one, and then matches and identifies through one-dimensional correlation, meanwhile, because of normalization has been done, when the image brightness or signal amplitude increasing in proportion, it could also perform correct matching. Experimental results show that the projection characteristics based image registration method proposed in this article could greatly improve the matching speed, which ensuring the matching accuracy as well.
The molecular matching problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kincaid, Rex K.
1993-01-01
Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.
Tsoukalas, L.
2002-12-31
Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University.
X-ray absorption in perfect crystals
Zimmerman, J.D.
1984-08-01
Attenuation coefficients for germanium, silicon and HOPG were measured for the fundamental, second and third harmonic wavelengths of the tungsten L1, L..cap alpha../sub 1/, L..beta../sub 1/, and L..gamma.., excitation lines. The relation between the atomic scattering factor and the photoelectric contribution to the attenuation coefficient is discussed. Also, theoretical calculations of these are discussed along with theoretical calculations for the coherent and incoherent processes. Following this, the unique apparatus on which the experiment was performed along with some general experimental techniques which were used are described. This is proceeded by the results and discussion of the data obtained for the perfect crystals and HOPG. Also, experimental attenuation coefficients for HOPG are presented for different temperatures. Within the conclusions, the results of the data are summarized and differences in obtaining attenuation coefficients for the perfect crystals and HOPG are discussed. In the final chapter, recommendations are given for further studies to determine characteristics of the change of the linear attenuation coefficient in the regime of the thick crystal or small scattering angle. (WHK)
Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection.
Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason
2014-06-11
While the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process that limits the performance of plasmonic devices, it has recently been shown that it can be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron devices remains low due to poor electron injection and in some cases low optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate how metamaterial perfect absorbers can be used to achieve near-unity optical absorption using ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures with thicknesses of 15 nm, smaller than the hot electron diffusion length. By integrating the metamaterial with a silicon substrate, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional hot electron photodetector with a photoresponsivity that is among the highest yet reported. We also show how the spectral bandwidth and polarization-sensitivity can be manipulated through engineering the geometry of the metamaterial unit cell. These perfect absorber photodetectors could open a pathway for enhancing hot electron based photovoltaic, sensing, and photocatalysis systems. PMID:24837991
Efficient nonlinear generation of high power, higher order, ultrafast "perfect" vortices in green.
Apurv Chaitanya, N; Jabir, M V; Samanta, G K
2016-04-01
We report on efficient nonlinear generation of ultrafast, higher order "perfect" vortices at the green wavelength. Based on Fourier transformation of the higher order Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam generated through the combination of the spiral phase plate and axicon, we have transformed the Gaussian beam of the ultrafast Yb-fiber laser at 1060 nm into perfect vortices of power 4.4 W and order up to 6. Using single-pass second-harmonic generation (SHG) of such vortices in 5 mm long chirped MgO-doped, periodically poled congruent LiNbO_{3} crystal, we have generated perfect vortices at green wavelength (530 nm) with output power of 1.2 W and vortex order up to 12 at a single-pass conversion efficiency of 27%, independent of the orders. This is the highest single-pass SHG efficiency of any optical beams other than Gaussian beams. Unlike the disintegration of higher order vortices due to spatial walk-off effect in birefringent crystals, here, the use of the quasi-phase-matching process enables generation of high-quality vortices, even at higher orders. The green perfect vortices of all orders have temporal and spectral widths of 507 fs and 1.9 nm, respectively, corresponding to a time-bandwidth product of 1.02. PMID:27192233
Optimal Nonbipartite Matching and Its Statistical Applications
Lu, Bo; Greevy, Robert; Xu, Xinyi; Beck, Cole
2012-01-01
Matching is a powerful statistical tool in design and analysis. Conventional two-group, or bipartite, matching has been widely used in practice. However, its utility is limited to simpler designs. In contrast, nonbipartite matching is not limited to the two-group case, handling multiparty matching situations. It can be used to find the set of matches that minimize the sum of distances based on a given distance matrix. It brings greater flexibility to the matching design, such as multigroup comparisons. Thanks to improvements in computing power and freely available algorithms to solve nonbipartite problems, the cost in terms of computation time and complexity is low. This article reviews the optimal nonbipartite matching algorithm and its statistical applications, including observational studies with complex designs and an exact distribution-free test comparing two multivariate distributions. We also introduce an R package that performs optimal nonbipartite matching. We present an easily accessible web application to make nonbipartite matching freely available to general researchers. PMID:23175567
Matching forensic sketches to mug shot photos.
Klare, Brendan F; Li, Zhifeng; Jain, Anil K
2011-03-01
The problem of matching a forensic sketch to a gallery of mug shot images is addressed in this paper. Previous research in sketch matching only offered solutions to matching highly accurate sketches that were drawn while looking at the subject (viewed sketches). Forensic sketches differ from viewed sketches in that they are drawn by a police sketch artist using the description of the subject provided by an eyewitness. To identify forensic sketches, we present a framework called local feature-based discriminant analysis (LFDA). In LFDA, we individually represent both sketches and photos using SIFT feature descriptors and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP). Multiple discriminant projections are then used on partitioned vectors of the feature-based representation for minimum distance matching. We apply this method to match a data set of 159 forensic sketches against a mug shot gallery containing 10,159 images. Compared to a leading commercial face recognition system, LFDA offers substantial improvements in matching forensic sketches to the corresponding face images. We were able to further improve the matching performance using race and gender information to reduce the target gallery size. Additional experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework leads to state-of-the-art accuracys when matching viewed sketches.
Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang
2009-06-01
The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozier, Lance
2011-01-01
Pressure for students to produce writing perfection in the classroom often eclipses the emphasis placed on the need for students to practice writing. Occasions for students to choose, challenge, and reflect--to actually risk risking--are too often absent from conversations among students and teachers in countless English classrooms. Tom Romano…
Hip arthroplasty by matching cups.
Gerard, Y
1978-01-01
A total hip surface arthroplasty consisting of matching cups and uncemented prosthetic components is a noteworthy operation. The femoral cup obtains cylindrical support from the femoral head which is reamed in the shape of a cylinder. The acetabular cup is metallic with a polyethylene liner. It is mobile over the bone but its position is constrained by contact with the femoral cup and therefore "self-centering." On the femoral side, the cup must be placed strictly in the axis of the femoral neck. The main consideration in femoral head surface replacement is the vitality of the underlying bone. Necrosis was observed in the earliest clinical trials but there have been no cases of necrosis in the past 3 1/2 years. This is attributed to a more limited surgical approach in which only the anterior part of the gluteus medius is divided and all the posterior elements of the hip are preserved. The acetabulum is sufficiently reamed to receive the cup, which protrudes beyond the external margins of the acetabulum in all positions. Errors have been committed while perfecting the prosthetic material, but the results as determined by a 6 1/2 year follow-up on purely metallic cups are encouraging. Metal-polyethylene cups presently under investigation have almost a 2 year follow-up. The reaction of the acetabulum to an uncemented cup is not yet known. However, the existence of 2 sliding surfaces and the fact that the acetabular cup moves only during the extremes of hip movement, is reason to assume that if the acetabulum is not reamed to expose cancellous bone, the risks of protrusion are minimal or delayed. Total surface arthroplasty by concentric cups has been performed in 335 hips to date. The operation is especially recommended when osteotomy is no longer possible and disabling coxarthrosis is present in relatively young patients. PMID:729253
Electromagnetic detection of a perfect carpet cloak.
Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01
It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics. PMID:25997798
Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Carpet Cloak
Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01
It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics. PMID:25997798
An approach towards a perfect thermal diffuser
Vemuri, Krishna P.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.
2016-01-01
A method for the most efficient removal of heat, through an anisotropic composite, is proposed. It is shown that a rational placement of constituent materials, in the radial and the azimuthal directions, at a given point in the composite yields a uniform temperature distribution in spherical diffusers. Such arrangement is accompanied by a very significant reduction of the source temperature, in principle, to infinitesimally above the ambient temperature and forms the basis for the design of a perfect thermal diffuser with maximal heat dissipation. Orders of magnitude enhanced performance, compared to that obtained through the use of a diffuser constituted from a single material with isotropic thermal conductivity has been observed and the analytical principles underlying the design were validated through extensive computational simulations. PMID:27404569
Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Carpet Cloak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile
2015-05-01
It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics.
A perfect launch viewed across Banana Creek
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
Billows of smoke and steam surround Space Shuttle Discovery as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.
A perfect launch viewed across Banana Creek
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
Space Shuttle Discovery seems to burst forth from a pillow of smoke as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The brilliant light from the solid rocket booster flames is reflected in nearby water. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.
The Quest for the Perfect Scattering Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gay, T. J.
2001-04-01
Atomic collisions can be viewed as laboratories for the study of applied quantum mechanics. Electron-atom scattering is perhaps the most investigated quantum mechanical process in physics, but not the best understood. Indeed, the simplest example of this process, electron-hydrogen scattering, has only succumbed to comprehensive solution in the last two years. One of the Holy Grails of electron-atom scattering is the "perfect" experiment, in which all of the quantum mechanical scattering amplitudes are determined completely. This goal, first articulated by Bederson in 1969 [1], has led to increasingly sophisticated and intricate experiments. A history of these experiments will be presented, and their impact on the field evaluated. [1] B.Bederson, Comments At. Mol. Phys. 1, 41 (1969).
Recent Results from RHIC: The Perfect Liquid
Westfall, Gary
2006-07-19
In the past two years we have witnessed a leap forward in the understanding high temperature, high density, and strongly interacting matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combining measurements of Au+Au, d+Au, and p+p collisions at energies up to 200 GeV per nucleon pair in the center of mass frame, the four RHIC experimental groups, STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and BRAHMS, have produced impressive experimental evidence for the existence of a new form of matter. In this Colloquium, I will present an overview of recent experimental results from RHIC including evidence for thermalization, hydrodynamic behavior of a perfect fluid, the partonic origin of flow, and jet suppression. These measurements point to the observation of a hot, dense, strongly interacting matter produced in central Au+Au collisions at the highest available energies.
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter
2012-01-01
Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population. PMID:22666425
Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter
2012-01-01
Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population.
LensPerfect Analysis of Abell 1689
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coe, Dan A.
2007-12-01
I present the first massmap to perfectly reproduce the position of every gravitationally-lensed multiply-imaged galaxy detected to date in ACS images of Abell 1689. This massmap was obtained using a powerful new technique made possible by a recent advance in the field of Mathematics. It is the highest resolution assumption-free Dark Matter massmap to date, with the resolution being limited only by the number of multiple images detected. We detect 8 new multiple image systems and identify multiple knots in individual galaxies to constrain a grand total of 168 knots within 135 multiple images of 42 galaxies. No assumptions are made about mass tracing light, and yet the brightest visible structures in A1689 are reproduced in our massmap, a few with intriguing positional offsets. Our massmap probes radii smaller than that resolvable in current Dark Matter simulations of galaxy clusters. And at these radii, we observe slight deviations from the NFW and Sersic profiles which describe simulated Dark Matter halos so well. While we have demonstrated that our method is able to recover a known input massmap (to limited resolution), further tests are necessary to determine the uncertainties of our mass profile and positions of massive subclumps. I compile the latest weak lensing data from ACS, Subaru, and CFHT, and attempt to fit a single profile, either NFW or Sersic, to both the observed weak and strong lensing. I confirm the finding of most previous authors, that no single profile fits extremely well to both simultaneously. Slight deviations are revealed, with the best fits slightly over-predicting the mass profile at both large and small radius. Our easy-to-use software, called LensPerfect, will be made available soon. This research was supported by the European Commission Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant 017288-BPZ and the PNAYA grant AYA2005-09413-C02.
Harmonic Current Suppression for PMSM by Repetitive Perfect Tracking Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakai, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Hiroshi
PM motor drives are widely used for high performance servo applications. However, PM motor has imperfect sinusoidal flux distribution which causes harmonic current. Dead time of inverter and current measurement error leads to harmonic current, too. The repetitive control method was applied to the harmonic current suppression. For the repetitive control which is based on the internal model principle, the characteristic of the harmonic suppression is excellent. However, it amplifies inter-harmonic components. The inter-harmonic components have frequencies with non-integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. Therefore, the feedforward compensation is applied for the harmonic current to improve a suppression characteristic. Authors proposed harmonic current suppression control of PM motor in αβ coordinate by using repetitive perfect tracking control with PWM-hold model. Finally, we show the advantages of proposed method by simulations and experiments.
Conformal and traversable wormholes with monopole and perfect fluid in f(R)-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taşer, Doǧukan; Doǧru, Melis Ulu
2016-10-01
We investigate spherically symmetric spacetime filled with global monopole and perfect fluid in f(R)-gravity. We consider field equations of f(R)-gravity in order to understand the global monopole and the perfect fluid curve to the spacetime. It has taken advantages of conformal symmetry properties of the spacetime to solve these equations. The obtained solutions are improved in case of phantom energy. It is shown that obtained f(R) function is consistent with well-known models of the modified gravity. Also, it is examined whether the obtained solutions support a traversable wormhole geometry. Obtained results of the solutions have been concluded.
Logvinenko, Alexander D; Beattie, Lesley L
2011-01-01
It is widely believed that color can be decomposed into a small number of component colors. Particularly, each hue can be described as a combination of a restricted set of component hues. Methods, such as color naming and hue scaling, aim at describing color in terms of the relative amount of the component hues. However, there is no consensus on the nomenclature of component hues. Moreover, the very notion of hue (not to mention component hue) is usually defined verbally rather than perceptually. In this paper, we make an attempt to operationalize such a fundamental attribute of color as hue without the use of verbal terms. Specifically, we put forth a new method--partial hue-matching--that is based on judgments of whether two colors have some hue in common. It allows a set of component hues to be established objectively, without resorting to verbal definitions. Specifically, the largest sets of color stimuli, all of which partially match each other (referred to as chromaticity classes), can be derived from the observer's partial hue-matches. A chromaticity class proves to consist of all color stimuli that contain a particular component hue. Thus, the chromaticity classes fully define the set of component hues. Using samples of Munsell papers, a few experiments on partial hue-matching were carried out with twelve inexperienced normal trichromatic observers. The results reinforce the classical notion of four component hues (yellow, blue, red, and green). Black and white (but not gray) were also found to be component colors. PMID:21742961
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.
1982-01-01
Interimage matching is the process of determining the geometric transformation required to conform spatially one image to another. In principle, the parameters of that transformation are varied until some measure of some difference between the two images is minimized or some measure of sameness (e.g., cross-correlation) is maximized. The number of such parameters to vary is faily large (six for merely an affine transformation), and it is customary to attempt an a priori transformation reducing the complexity of the residual transformation or subdivide the image into small enough match zones (control points or patches) that a simple transformation (e.g., pure translation) is applicable, yet large enough to facilitate matching. In the latter case, a complex mapping function is fit to the results (e.g., translation offsets) in all the patches. The methods reviewed have all chosen one or both of the above options, ranging from a priori along-line correction for line-dependent effects (the high-frequency correction) to a full sensor-to-geobase transformation with subsequent subdivision into a grid of match points.
Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan Paragi; Hilton, Charles
2015-01-01
The Medical Education Commission (MEC) has published Graduate Medical Education (GME) data since 1997, including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) and the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program (SOAP), and totals all GME in Louisiana for annual publication. The NRMP provides the quotas and filled positions by institution. Following the NRMP, SOAP attempts to place unmatched candidates with slots that are unfilled. The NRMP Fellowship match also comes close to filling quotas and has a significant SOAP. Thus, an accurate number of total filled positions is best obtained in July of the same match year. All GME programs in Louisiana are represented for 2014, and the number trend 2005 to 2014 shows that the only dip was post-Katrina in 2005-2006. The March match after SOAP 2014 is at the peak for both senior medical students and post graduate year one (PGY-1) residents. A significant and similar number stay in Louisiana GME institutions after graduation. Also noteworthy is that a lower percentage are staying in state, due to increased enrollment in all Louisiana medical schools. PMID:27159458
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrnstein, R. J.
1979-01-01
The matching law for reinforced behavior solves a differential equation relating infinitesimal changes in behavior to infinitesimal changes in reinforcement. The equation expresses plausible conceptions of behavior and reinforcement, yields a simple nonlinear operator model for acquisition, and suggests a alternative to the economic law of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.
2007-01-01
Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…
Results from the VALUE perfect predictor experiment: process-based evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maraun, Douglas; Soares, Pedro; Hertig, Elke; Brands, Swen; Huth, Radan; Cardoso, Rita; Kotlarski, Sven; Casado, Maria; Pongracz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit
2016-04-01
Until recently, the evaluation of downscaled climate model simulations has typically been limited to surface climatologies, including long term means, spatial variability and extremes. But these aspects are often, at least partly, tuned in regional climate models to match observed climate. The tuning issue is of course particularly relevant for bias corrected regional climate models. In general, a good performance of a model for these aspects in present climate does therefore not imply a good performance in simulating climate change. It is now widely accepted that, to increase our condidence in climate change simulations, it is necessary to evaluate how climate models simulate relevant underlying processes. In other words, it is important to assess whether downscaling does the right for the right reason. Therefore, VALUE has carried out a broad process-based evaluation study based on its perfect predictor experiment simulations: the downscaling methods are driven by ERA-Interim data over the period 1979-2008, reference observations are given by a network of 85 meteorological stations covering all European climates. More than 30 methods participated in the evaluation. In order to compare statistical and dynamical methods, only variables provided by both types of approaches could be considered. This limited the analysis to conditioning local surface variables on variables from driving processes that are simulated by ERA-Interim. We considered the following types of processes: at the continental scale, we evaluated the performance of downscaling methods for positive and negative North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic ridge and blocking situations. At synoptic scales, we considered Lamb weather types for selected European regions such as Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, the Iberian Pensinsula or the Alps. At regional scales we considered phenomena such as the Mistral, the Bora or the Iberian coastal jet. Such process-based evaluation helps to attribute biases in surface
Feedback as the source of imperfection in lossy perfect lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblatt, Gilad; Bartal, Guy; Orenstein, Meir
2016-02-01
The major barrier to realizing a perfect lens with left-handed materials is perceived to be their intrinsic loss. Here we show that only specific designs of perfect lenses are limited by loss—those in which material loss is translated to internal feedback. The asymptotically uniform transmission required for perfect lensing is hindered by such feedback, which generates resonances that lead to a spatial cutoff in the lens transmission. Moreover, uniform transmission and its resonant deterioration stem from completely separate classes of modal excitations. A perfect lens made of lossy left-handed materials is therefore not forbidden in principle. Pursuing perfect lens designs that avoid internal feedback offers a path towards realization of practical perfect lenses.
Will a perfect model agree with perfect observations? The impact of spatial sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schutgens, Nick A. J.; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Weigum, Natalie; Tsyro, Svetlana; Goto, Daisuke; Schulz, Michael; Stier, Philip
2016-05-01
The spatial resolution of global climate models with interactive aerosol and the observations used to evaluate them is very different. Current models use grid spacings of ˜ 200 km, while satellite observations of aerosol use so-called pixels of ˜ 10 km. Ground site or airborne observations relate to even smaller spatial scales. We study the errors incurred due to different resolutions by aggregating high-resolution simulations (10 km grid spacing) over either the large areas of global model grid boxes ("perfect" model data) or small areas corresponding to the pixels of satellite measurements or the field of view of ground sites ("perfect" observations). Our analysis suggests that instantaneous root-mean-square (RMS) differences of perfect observations from perfect global models can easily amount to 30-160 %, for a range of observables like AOT (aerosol optical thickness), extinction, black carbon mass concentrations, PM2.5, number densities and CCN (cloud condensation nuclei). These differences, due entirely to different spatial sampling of models and observations, are often larger than measurement errors in real observations. Temporal averaging over a month of data reduces these differences more strongly for some observables (e.g. a threefold reduction for AOT), than for others (e.g. a twofold reduction for surface black carbon concentrations), but significant RMS differences remain (10-75 %). Note that this study ignores the issue of temporal sampling of real observations, which is likely to affect our present monthly error estimates. We examine several other strategies (e.g. spatial aggregation of observations, interpolation of model data) for reducing these differences and show their effectiveness. Finally, we examine consequences for the use of flight campaign data in global model evaluation and show that significant biases may be introduced depending on the flight strategy used.
Matching current windstorms to historical analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, Bernd; Maisey, Paul; Scannell, Claire; Vanvyve, Emilie; Mitchell, Lorna; Steptoe, Hamish
2015-04-01
assessment of the goodness of fit made by the rank proximity measure. Using this technique a series of potential historical footprints matching the current footprint is found. Each potential match is indexed according to its closeness to the current footprint where an index rating of 0 is a perfect match or "identical twin". Such pattern matching of current and forecast windstorms against an historical archive can enable insurers estimate a rapid prediction of likely loss and aid the timely deployment of staff and funds at the right level.
Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm
Azad, Abul Kalam; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; Smirnova, E I; O' Hara, John F
2009-01-01
We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance frequencies. However, the downside of these designs is that they all employ resonators of rather complicated shape with many fine parts and so they are not easy to fabricate and are sensitive to distortions.
Challenging the standard perfect fluid paradigm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, James
2015-04-01
We show that the standard perfect fluid paradigm is not necessarily a valid description of a curved space steady state gravitational source. Simply by virtue of not being flat, curved space geometries have to possess intrinsic length scales, and such length scales can affect the fluid structure.We show that for the specific case of a static, spherically symmetric geometry, the steady state energy-momentum tensor that ensues will in general be of the form Tμν =(ρ + p) UμUν + pgμν + qπμν where πμν is a symmetric, traceless rank two tensor which obeys Uμπμν = 0 . Such a qπμν type term is absent for an incoherently averaged steady state fluid in a spacetime where there are no intrinsic length scales, and in principle would thus be missed in a covariantizing of a flat spacetime Tμν. While it is reassuring that we find that in practice the effect of such qπμν type terms is small for weak gravity stars, for strong gravity systems their potential influence would need to be explored.
Prospective HLA-DR matching in cadaveric renal transplants: a single center study.
Mendez, R; Iwaki, Y; Mendez, R; Bogaard, T; Self, B
1983-03-01
We reviewed 77 potential cadaveric allograft recipients who had undergone prospective HLA-A and B locus and HLA-DR antigen identification. Matching was accomplished, giving first priority to HLA-DR compatibility and relying on HLA-A and B antigen matching only in situations of total HLA-DR incompatibility. Complete HLA-DR identification occurred in 56 per cent of all patients. There were 15 patients (19.5 per cent) who received a 2/2 HLA-DR perfect match, with 86.7 plus or minus 8.8 per cent 1-year actuarial graft survival, and 41 (53 per cent) who received a 1/2 HLA-DR match, with 58.2 plus or minus 7.8 per cent 1-year actual allograft survival. Finally, 21 patients (27 per cent) received a 0/2 HLA-DR match, with 64.9 plus or minus 10.7 per cent actual survival. These results and their mirrored mismatching results showed statistically significant allograft success in only the HLA-DR 2/2 matches. Matching for HLA 2 DR donors proved a statistically significant success over the other HLA-DR allograft matches and the older controversial matching system based on HLA-A and B locus antigens. The restricted gene polymorphism of the HLA-DR systems allows for a relatively high percentage of perfect HLA-DR matches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, M. Danielle
2011-07-01
The two-year implementation of ReMATCH, a web-based math and problem-solving tutorial, in a traditionally arranged general chemistry classroom at the University of Kansas examined the impact of a designed intervention to assist students with the transfer of their mathematical knowledge to a chemistry context where it could be readily used for quantitative problem solving. The ReMATCH intervention, designed on constructivist-based pedagogies, focused on illuminating the expert-processes of problem solving and transferring knowledge across domains to the novice chemistry. The two implementations of ReMATCH -- once as lab assignments and once lecture assignments -- resulted in very different student responses to the intervention. However, within both, the beneficial effects of sustained ReMATCH-use were visible. In 2006, students who attempted all of the ReMATCH homework assignments were predicted to earn ˜5% higher on their total exam points. The 2007 implementation of ReMATCH demonstrated that students who attempted all of the homework problems and visited at least half of the ReMATCH tutorial pages were predicted to earn ˜8.5% higher on their total exam points. Additionally, use of ReMATCH in 2006 also resulted in increased confidence (as measured by comfort-level) with some of the math-related chemistry topics covered in ReMATCH. In 2007, when only students who attempted all of the ReMATCH problems were considered, it became clear that individuals who were initially less confident in their math-related chemistry skills were more likely to view more of the ReMATCH tutorial pages. When students with lower initial comfort-levels on these topics viewed at least half of the ReMATCH tutorial pages, they were able to compensate for their initially lower levels of confidence and were equally comfortable with most of the math-related chemistry topics by the final survey. Student interactions with and perceptions of ReMATCH showed that student attitudes towards ReMATCH
Perfect Parenting: The Dictionary of 1,000 Parenting Tips.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pantley, Elizabeth
Using a dictionary format, this book addresses many of the issues faced by parents. Following an introduction that defines "perfect parenting" and lists nine "perfect parenting keys," topics are arranged alphabetically. Under each topic, a situation is stated, thoughts about the situation are offered, and solutions are suggested. Topics include…
Electrodynamics analysis on coherent perfect absorber and phase-controlled optical switch.
Chen, Tianjie; Duan, Shaoguang; Chen, Y C
2012-05-01
A coherent perfect absorber is essentially a specially designed Fabry-Perot interferometer, which completely extinguishes the incident coherent light. The one- and two-beam coherent perfect absorbers have been analyzed using classical electrodynamics by considering index matching in layered structures to totally suppress reflections. This approach presents a clear and physically intuitive picture for the principle of operation of a perfect absorber. The results show that the incident beam(s) must have correct phases and amplitudes, and the real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices of the media in the interferometer must satisfy a well-defined relation. Our results are in agreement with those obtained using the S-matrix analysis. However, the results were obtained solely based on the superposition of waves from multiple reflections without invoking the concept of time reversal as does the S-matrix approach. Further analysis shows that the two-beam device can be configured to function as a phase-controlled three-state switch.
A multiband perfect absorber based on hyperbolic metamaterials.
Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; ElKabbash, Mohamed; Alapan, Yunus; Rashed, Alireza R; Gurkan, Umut A; Strangi, Giuseppe
2016-01-01
In recent years, considerable research efforts have been focused on near-perfect and perfect light absorption using metamaterials spanning frequency ranges from microwaves to visible frequencies. This relatively young field is currently facing many challenges that hampers its possible practical applications. In this paper, we present grating coupled-hyperbolic metamaterials (GC-HMM) as multiband perfect absorber that can offer extremely high flexibility in engineering the properties of electromagnetic absorption. The fabricated GC-HMMs exhibit several highly desirable features for technological applications such as polarization independence, wide angle range, broad- and narrow- band modes, multiband perfect and near perfect absorption in the visible to near-IR and mid-IR spectral range. In addition, we report a direct application of the presented system as an absorption based plasmonic sensor with a record figure of merit for this class of sensors. PMID:27188789
A multiband perfect absorber based on hyperbolic metamaterials
Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; ElKabbash, Mohamed; Alapan, Yunus; Rashed, Alireza R.; Gurkan, Umut A.; Strangi, Giuseppe
2016-01-01
In recent years, considerable research efforts have been focused on near-perfect and perfect light absorption using metamaterials spanning frequency ranges from microwaves to visible frequencies. This relatively young field is currently facing many challenges that hampers its possible practical applications. In this paper, we present grating coupled-hyperbolic metamaterials (GC-HMM) as multiband perfect absorber that can offer extremely high flexibility in engineering the properties of electromagnetic absorption. The fabricated GC-HMMs exhibit several highly desirable features for technological applications such as polarization independence, wide angle range, broad- and narrow- band modes, multiband perfect and near perfect absorption in the visible to near-IR and mid-IR spectral range. In addition, we report a direct application of the presented system as an absorption based plasmonic sensor with a record figure of merit for this class of sensors. PMID:27188789
A multiband perfect absorber based on hyperbolic metamaterials.
Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; ElKabbash, Mohamed; Alapan, Yunus; Rashed, Alireza R; Gurkan, Umut A; Strangi, Giuseppe
2016-05-18
In recent years, considerable research efforts have been focused on near-perfect and perfect light absorption using metamaterials spanning frequency ranges from microwaves to visible frequencies. This relatively young field is currently facing many challenges that hampers its possible practical applications. In this paper, we present grating coupled-hyperbolic metamaterials (GC-HMM) as multiband perfect absorber that can offer extremely high flexibility in engineering the properties of electromagnetic absorption. The fabricated GC-HMMs exhibit several highly desirable features for technological applications such as polarization independence, wide angle range, broad- and narrow- band modes, multiband perfect and near perfect absorption in the visible to near-IR and mid-IR spectral range. In addition, we report a direct application of the presented system as an absorption based plasmonic sensor with a record figure of merit for this class of sensors.
"Whose perfection is it anyway?": a virtuous consideration of enhancement.
Keenan, James F
1999-08-01
Discussions of genetic enhancements often imply deep suspicions about human desires to manipulate or enhance the course of our future. These unspoken assumptions about the arrogance of the quest for perfection are at odds with the normally hopeful resonancy we find in contemporary theology. The author argues that these fears, suspicions and accusations are misplaced. The problem lies not with the question of whether we should pursue perfection, but rather what perfection we are pursuing. The author argues that perfection, properly understood, has an enormously positive function in the Roman Catholic tradition. The author examines three sources: the Scriptures, the scholastic tradition, and ascetical theology. He examines contemporary criticisms of perfectionism and suggests that an adequate virtue theory keeps us from engaging perfectionism as such. The author then shows how a positive, responsible view of perfection is an asset to our discussion on enhancement technology.
A multiband perfect absorber based on hyperbolic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Elkabbash, Mohamed; Alapan, Yunus; Rashed, Alireza R.; Gurkan, Umut A.; Strangi, Giuseppe
2016-05-01
In recent years, considerable research efforts have been focused on near-perfect and perfect light absorption using metamaterials spanning frequency ranges from microwaves to visible frequencies. This relatively young field is currently facing many challenges that hampers its possible practical applications. In this paper, we present grating coupled-hyperbolic metamaterials (GC-HMM) as multiband perfect absorber that can offer extremely high flexibility in engineering the properties of electromagnetic absorption. The fabricated GC-HMMs exhibit several highly desirable features for technological applications such as polarization independence, wide angle range, broad- and narrow- band modes, multiband perfect and near perfect absorption in the visible to near-IR and mid-IR spectral range. In addition, we report a direct application of the presented system as an absorption based plasmonic sensor with a record figure of merit for this class of sensors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek
2009-01-01
A quantum version of the matching pennies (MP) game is proposed that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPR-Bohm) setting. We construct the quantum game without using state vectors, while considering only the quantum mechanical joint probabilities relevant to the EPR-Bohm setting. We embed the classical game within the quantum game such that the classical MP game results when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities become factorizable. We report new Nash equilibria in the quantum MP game that emerge when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell’s inequality.
Multinomial pattern matching revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.
2015-05-01
Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.
Kaizen and ergonomics: the perfect marriage.
Rodriguez, Martin Antonio; Lopez, Luis Fernando
2012-01-01
This paper is an approach of how Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Ergonomics could be implemented in the field of work. The Toyota's Team Members are the owners of this job, applying tools and techniques to improve work conditions using the Kaizen Philosophy in a QCC Activity (Quality Control Circle).
Bayesian refinement of protein functional site matching
Mardia, Kanti V; Nyirongo, Vysaul B; Green, Peter J; Gold, Nicola D; Westhead, David R
2007-01-01
Background Matching functional sites is a key problem for the understanding of protein function and evolution. The commonly used graph theoretic approach, and other related approaches, require adjustment of a matching distance threshold a priori according to the noise in atomic positions. This is difficult to pre-determine when matching sites related by varying evolutionary distances and crystallographic precision. Furthermore, sometimes the graph method is unable to identify alternative but important solutions in the neighbourhood of the distance based solution because of strict distance constraints. We consider the Bayesian approach to improve graph based solutions. In principle this approach applies to other methods with strict distance matching constraints. The Bayesian method can flexibly incorporate all types of prior information on specific binding sites (e.g. amino acid types) in contrast to combinatorial formulations. Results We present a new meta-algorithm for matching protein functional sites (active sites and ligand binding sites) based on an initial graph matching followed by refinement using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure. This procedure is an innovative extension to our recent work. The method accounts for the 3-dimensional structure of the site as well as the physico-chemical properties of the constituent amino acids. The MCMC procedure can lead to a significant increase in the number of significant matches compared to the graph method as measured independently by rigorously derived p-values. Conclusion MCMC refinement step is able to significantly improve graph based matches. We apply the method to matching NAD(P)(H) binding sites within single Rossmann fold families, between different families in the same superfamily, and in different folds. Within families sites are often well conserved, but there are examples where significant shape based matches do not retain similar amino acid chemistry, indicating that even within families the
Computer code for determination of thermally perfect gas properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.
1994-01-01
A set of one-dimensional compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas is derived for the specific heat c(sub p), expressed as a polynomial function of temperature, and developed into the thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those of NACA Rep. 1135. Unlike the tables of NACA Rep. 1135 which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime, the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect calorically imperfect temperature regime which considerably extends the range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect temperature regime is verified by comparisons with the tables of NACA Rep. 1135. In the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, the TPG code is validated by comparisons with results obtained from the method of NACA Rep. 1135 for calculating the thermally perfect calorically imperfect compressible flow properties. The temperature limits for application of the TPG code are also examined. The advantage of the TPG code is its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture thereof, whereas the method of NACA Rep. 1135 is restricted to only diatomic gases.
Do audition electives impact match success?
Higgins, Elizabeth; Newman, Linnie; Halligan, Katherine; Miller, Margaret; Schwab, Sally; Kosowicz, Lynn
2016-01-01
Purpose The authors sought to determine the value of the audition elective to the overall success of medical students in the match. Method The authors surveyed 1,335 fourth-year medical students at 10 medical schools in 2013. The study took place over a 2-month period immediately following the match. Medical students were emailed a 14-question survey and asked about audition electives, rank order, and cost of ‘away’ rotations. Results One hundred percent of students wishing to match in otolaryngology, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, radiation oncology, and urology took the audition electives. The difference by specialty in the proportion of students who took an audition was statistically significant (p<0.001). Of the students who auditioned, 71% matched at one of their top three choices compared with 84% of non-auditioners who matched to one of their top three choices (p<0.01). Conclusions Students performed a large number of ‘away’ rotations as ‘auditions’ in order to improve their chances in the match. For certain competitive specialties, virtually all students auditioned. Overall, students who did not audition were just as successful as or more successful than students who did audition. PMID:27301380
Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, Nigel A.; Grosman, Leore
2012-01-01
Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha‘ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8th millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as “clay pestles,” “clay rods,” and “cylindrical clay objects.” Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306
Metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "atoms".
Liu, Xiaoming; Bi, Ke; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji
2016-09-01
In this work, we numerically designed and then experimentally verified a metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "atoms". This metamaterial absorber is composed of dielectric ceramic material (SrTiO_{3}) "atoms" embedded in a background matrix on a metal plate. The dielectric "atoms" couple strongly to the incident electric and magnetic fields at the Mie resonance mode, leading to the narrow perfect absorption band with simulated and experimental absorptivities of 99% and 98.5% at 8.96 GHz, respectively. The designed metamaterial perfect absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide angle incidence.
Nearly Perfect Fluidity in a High Temperature Superconductor
Rameau, J. D.; Reber, T. J.; Yang, H. -B.; Akhanjee, S.; Gu, G. D.; Johnson, P. D.; Campbell, S.
2014-10-13
Perfect fluids are characterized as having the smallest ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s, consistent with quantum uncertainty and causality. So far, nearly perfect fluids have only been observed in the quark-gluon plasma and in unitary atomic Fermi gases, exotic systems that are amongst the hottest and coldest objects in the known universe, respectively. We use angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the temperature dependence of an electronic analog of η/s in an optimally doped cuprate high-temperature superconductor, finding it too is a nearly perfect fluid around, and above, its superconducting transition temperature Tc.
Perfect function transfer in two and three dimensions without initialization
Wu Lianao; Byrd, Mark; Wang, Z. D.; Shao Bin
2010-11-15
We find analytic models that can perfectly transfer, without state initialization or remote collaboration, arbitrary functions in two- and three-dimensional interacting bosonic and fermionic networks. This provides for the possible experimental implementation of state transfer through bosonic or fermionic atoms trapped in optical lattices. A significant finding is that the state of a spin qubit can be perfectly transferred through a fermionic system. Families of Hamiltonians are described that are related to the linear models and that enable the perfect transfer of arbitrary functions. Furthermore, we propose methods for eliminating certain types of errors.
Ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion metasurface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Guoxiang; Shi, Hongyu; Xia, Song; Zhang, Anxue; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong
2016-04-01
We propose a metasurface with multiple plasmon resonances that achieves an ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion. The metasurface is composed of an array of unit resonators, three plasmon resonances are excited in the unit resonator, which leads to an ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion. The cross polarization conversion efficiency is higher than 99%, and the bandwidth of the converter is 53.7% of the central wavelength. Both numerical and experimental results were used to validate the ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization converter presented here.
Nearly Perfect Fluidity in a High Temperature Superconductor
Rameau, J. D.; Reber, T. J.; Yang, H. -B.; Akhanjee, S.; Gu, G. D.; Johnson, P. D.; Campbell, S.
2014-10-13
Perfect fluids are characterized as having the smallest ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s, consistent with quantum uncertainty and causality. So far, nearly perfect fluids have only been observed in the quark-gluon plasma and in unitary atomic Fermi gases, exotic systems that are amongst the hottest and coldest objects in the known universe, respectively. We use angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the temperature dependence of an electronic analog of η/s in an optimally doped cuprate high-temperature superconductor, finding it too is a nearly perfect fluid around, and above, its superconducting transition temperature T_{c}.
Metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "atoms".
Liu, Xiaoming; Bi, Ke; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji
2016-09-01
In this work, we numerically designed and then experimentally verified a metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "atoms". This metamaterial absorber is composed of dielectric ceramic material (SrTiO_{3}) "atoms" embedded in a background matrix on a metal plate. The dielectric "atoms" couple strongly to the incident electric and magnetic fields at the Mie resonance mode, leading to the narrow perfect absorption band with simulated and experimental absorptivities of 99% and 98.5% at 8.96 GHz, respectively. The designed metamaterial perfect absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide angle incidence. PMID:27607650
How efficient can an emergency unit be? A perfect world model.
Baboolal, Kesh; Griffiths, Jeff D; Knight, Vincent A; Nelson, Andrew V; Voake, Cheryl; Williams, Janet E
2012-12-01
Various approaches have been used to identify possible routes for improvement of patient flow within an emergency unit (EU). One such approach is to use simulation to create a 'real world' model of an EU and carry out various tests to gauge ways of improvement. This paper proposes a novel approach in which simulation is used to create a 'perfect world model'. The EU at a major UK hospital is modelled not as it is, but as it could be. The 'efficiency gap' between the 'perfect world' and the 'real world' demonstrates how operational research can be used effectively to identify the location of bottlenecks in the current 'whole hospital' patient pathway and can be used in the planning and managing of hospital resources to ensure the most effective use of those resources.
Perfect imaging with positive refraction in three dimensions
Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G.
2010-01-15
Maxwell's fish eye has been known to be a perfect lens within the validity range of ray optics since 1854. Solving Maxwell's equations, we show that the fish-eye lens in three dimensions has unlimited resolution for electromagnetic waves.
New exact perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's equations. II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uggla, Claes; Rosquist, Kjell
1990-12-01
A family of new spatially homogeneous Bianchi type VIh perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein equations is presented. The fluid flow is orthogonal to the spatially homogeneous hypersurfaces, and the pressure is proportional to the energy density.
Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and ...
Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and recyclable mill building. Problem exacerbated by high value of scrap iron. - Phoenix Iron Company, Rolling Mill, North of French Creek, west of Fairview Avenue, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA
Dynamics of microparticles trapped in a perfect vortex beam.
Chen, Mingzhou; Mazilu, Michael; Arita, Yoshihiko; Wright, Ewan M; Dholakia, Kishan
2013-11-15
We analyze microparticle dynamics within a "perfect" vortex beam. In contrast to other vortex fields, for any given integer value of the topological charge, a "perfect" vortex beam has the same annular intensity profile with fixed radius of peak intensity. For a given topological charge, the field possesses a well-defined orbital angular momentum density at each point in space, invariant with respect to azimuthal position. We experimentally create a perfect vortex and correct the field in situ, to trap and set in motion trapped microscopic particles. For a given topological charge, a single trapped particle exhibits the same local angular velocity moving in such a field independent of its azimuthal position. We also investigate particle dynamics in "perfect" vortex beams of fractional topological charge. This light field may be applied for novel studies in optical trapping of particles, atoms, and quantum gases.
Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brummett, Barry
1989-01-01
Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)
Multifractal signatures of complexity matching.
Delignières, Didier; Almurad, Zainy M H; Roume, Clément; Marmelat, Vivien
2016-10-01
The complexity matching effect supposes that synchronization between complex systems could emerge from multiple interactions across multiple scales and has been hypothesized to underlie a number of daily-life situations. Complexity matching suggests that coupled systems tend to share similar scaling properties, and this phenomenon is revealed by a statistical matching between the scaling exponents that characterize the respective behaviors of both systems. However, some recent papers suggested that this statistical matching could originate from local adjustments or corrections, rather than from a genuine complexity matching between systems. In the present paper, we propose an analysis method based on correlation between multifractal spectra, considering different ranges of time scales. We analyze several datasets collected in various situations (bimanual coordination, interpersonal coordination, and walking in synchrony with a fractal metronome). Our results show that this method is able to distinguish between situations underlain by genuine statistical matching and situations where statistical matching results from local adjustments. PMID:27225255
Picture Perfect: Document What You Do.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grothe, Mark
1996-01-01
Incorporating photographs into reports or promotional materials is an effective means of communicating needs and activities of the library media center. Provides techniques on how to improve picture taking with a standard camera. Discusses photo composition, positioning subjects, photographing reflective objects, lighting and focus tips,…
Bilingual Education and Telecommunications: A Perfect Fit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sayers, Dennis; Brown, Kristin
1987-01-01
Describes Project Orillas, a telecommunications network designed to improve the writing skills of bilingual and foreign language students studying English and Spanish in Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. The electronic bulletin board system used for communication is explained and guidelines for joining the network are included. (LRW)
Perfect state transfer without state initialization and remote collaboration
Markiewicz, Marcin; Wiesniak, Marcin
2009-05-15
We present a perfect state transfer protocol via a qubit chain with the evolution governed by the xx Hamiltonian. In contrast to the recent protocol announced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 230502 (2008), our method does not demand any remote-cooperated initialization and sending classical information about measurement outcomes. We achieve the perfect state transfer only with the assumption of access to two spins at each end of the chain, while the initial state of the whole chain is irrelevant.
Circuital model for the spherical geodesic waveguide perfect drain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Juan C.; Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.
2012-08-01
The perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it cannot be used in practical devices. The perfect drain has been claimed as necessary for achieving super-resolution (Leonhardt 2009 New J. Phys. 11 093040), which has increased the interest in practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we present a practical perfect drain that is designed using a simple circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the coaxial line. Moreover, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as a spherical geodesic waveguide, loaded with this perfect drain. The super-resolution analysis for this device is carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics. The results of simulations predict a super-resolution of up to λ/3000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Nan; Dang, Yijie; Wang, Jian
2016-09-01
Quantum image processing (QIP) means the quantum-based methods to speed up image processing algorithms. Many quantum image processing schemes claim that their efficiency is theoretically higher than their corresponding classical schemes. However, most of them do not consider the problem of measurement. As we all know, measurement will lead to collapse. That is to say, executing the algorithm once, users can only measure the final state one time. Therefore, if users want to regain the results (the processed images), they must execute the algorithms many times and then measure the final state many times to get all the pixels' values. If the measurement process is taken into account, whether or not the algorithms are really efficient needs to be reconsidered. In this paper, we try to solve the problem of measurement and give a quantum image matching algorithm. Unlike most of the QIP algorithms, our scheme interests only one pixel (the target pixel) instead of the whole image. It modifies the probability of pixels based on Grover's algorithm to make the target pixel to be measured with higher probability, and the measurement step is executed only once. An example is given to explain the algorithm more vividly. Complexity analysis indicates that the quantum scheme's complexity is O(2n) in contradistinction to the classical scheme's complexity O(2^{2n+2m}), where m and n are integers related to the size of images.
Perfecting patient flow in the surgical setting.
Amato-Vealey, Elaine J; Fountain, Patricia; Coppola, Deborah
2012-07-01
Reduced surgical efficiency and productivity, delayed patient discharges, and prolonged use of hospital resources are the results of an OR that is unable to move patients to the postanesthesia care unit or other patient units. A primary reason for perioperative patient flow delay is the lack of hospital beds to accommodate surgical patients, which consequently causes backups of patients currently in the surgical suite. In one facility, implementing Six Sigma methodology helped to improve OR patient flow by identifying ways that frontline staff members could work more intelligently and more efficiently, and with less stress to streamline workflow and eliminate redundancy and waste in ways that did not necessitate reducing the number of employees. The results were improved employee morale, job satisfaction and safety, and an enhanced patient experience.
Matching roots to their environment
White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.
2013-01-01
Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future. PMID:23821619
Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers on Single Crystalline Sapphire Substrate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Sang; King, Glen; Park, Yeonjoon
2009-01-01
SiGe is an important semiconductor alloy for high-speed field effect transistors (FETs), high-temperature thermoelectric devices, photovoltaic solar cells, and photon detectors. The growth of SiGe layer is difficult because SiGe alloys have different lattice constants from those of the common Si wafers, which leads to a high density of defects, including dislocations, micro-twins, cracks, and delaminations. This innovation utilizes newly developed rhombohedral epitaxy of cubic semiconductors on trigonal substrates in order to solve the lattice mismatch problem of SiGe by using trigonal single crystals like sapphire (Al2O3) as substrate to give a unique growth-orientation to the SiGe layer, which is automatically controlled at the interface upon sapphire (0001). This technology is different from previous silicon on insulator (SOI) or SGOI (SiGe on insulator) technologies that use amorphous SiO2 as the growth plane. A cubic semiconductor crystal is a special case of a rhombohedron with the inter-planar angle, alpha = 90 deg. With a mathematical transformation, all rhombohedrons can be described by trigonal crystal lattice structures. Therefore, all cubic lattice constants and crystal planes (hkl) s can be transformed into those of trigonal crystal parameters. These unique alignments enable a new opportunity of perfect lattice matching conditions, which can eliminate misfit dislocations. Previously, these atomic alignments were thought to be impossible or very difficult. With the invention of a new x-ray diffraction measurement method here, growth of cubic semiconductors on trigonal crystals became possible. This epitaxy and lattice-matching condition can be applied not only to SiGe (111)/sapphire (0001) substrate relations, but also to other crystal structures and other materials, including similar crystal structures which have pointgroup rotational symmetries by 120 because the cubic (111) direction has 120 rotational symmetry. The use of slightly miscut (less than
Robust matching algorithm for image mosaic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Luan; Tan, Jiu-bin
2010-08-01
In order to improve the matching accuracy and the level of automation for image mosaic, a matching algorithm based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) features is proposed as detailed below. Firstly, according to the result of cursory comparison with the given basal matching threshold, the collection corresponding SIFT features which contains mismatch is obtained. Secondly, after calculating all the ratio of Euclidean distance from the closest neighbor to the distance of the second closest of corresponding features, we select the image coordinates of corresponding SIFT features with the first eight smallest ratios to solve the initial parameters of pin-hole camera model, and then calculate maximum error σ between transformation coordinates and original image coordinates of the eight corresponding features. Thirdly, calculating the scale of the largest original image coordinates of the eight corresponding features to the entire image size, the scale is regarded as control parameter k of matching error threshold. Finally, computing the difference of the transformation coordinates and the original image coordinates of all the features in the collection of features, deleting the corresponding features with difference larger than 3kσ. We can then obtain the exact collection of matching features to solve the parameters for pin-hole camera model. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is stable and reliable in case of the image having some variation of view point, illumination, rotation and scale. This new method has been used to achieve an excellent matching accuracy on the experimental images. Moreover, the proposed method can be used to select the matching threshold of different images automatically without any manual intervention.
Matched filter based iterative adaptive approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nepal, Ramesh; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Blake, William
2016-05-01
Matched Filter sidelobes from diversified LPI waveform design and sensor resolution are two important considerations in radars and active sensors in general. Matched Filter sidelobes can potentially mask weaker targets, and low sensor resolution not only causes a high margin of error but also limits sensing in target-rich environment/ sector. The improvement in those factors, in part, concern with the transmitted waveform and consequently pulse compression techniques. An adaptive pulse compression algorithm is hence desired that can mitigate the aforementioned limitations. A new Matched Filter based Iterative Adaptive Approach, MF-IAA, as an extension to traditional Iterative Adaptive Approach, IAA, has been developed. MF-IAA takes its input as the Matched Filter output. The motivation here is to facilitate implementation of Iterative Adaptive Approach without disrupting the processing chain of traditional Matched Filter. Similar to IAA, MF-IAA is a user parameter free, iterative, weighted least square based spectral identification algorithm. This work focuses on the implementation of MF-IAA. The feasibility of MF-IAA is studied using a realistic airborne radar simulator as well as actual measured airborne radar data. The performance of MF-IAA is measured with different test waveforms, and different Signal-to-Noise (SNR) levels. In addition, Range-Doppler super-resolution using MF-IAA is investigated. Sidelobe reduction as well as super-resolution enhancement is validated. The robustness of MF-IAA with respect to different LPI waveforms and SNR levels is also demonstrated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Frank J.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac J.; Flay, Brian R.
2012-01-01
Background: School safety and quality affect student learning and success. This study examined the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-wide social-emotional and character education program, Positive Action, on teacher, parent, and student perceptions of school safety and quality utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled…
Class of near-perfect coded apertures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannon, T. M.; Fenimore, E. E.
1977-01-01
Coded aperture imaging of gamma ray sources has long promised an improvement in the sensitivity of various detector systems. The promise has remained largely unfulfilled, however, for either one of two reasons. First, the encoding/decoding method produces artifacts, which even in the absence of quantum noise, restrict the quality of the reconstructed image. This is true of most correlation-type methods. Second, if the decoding procedure is of the deconvolution variety, small terms in the transfer function of the aperture can lead to excessive noise in the reconstructed image. It is proposed to circumvent both of these problems by use of a uniformly redundant array (URA) as the coded aperture in conjunction with a special correlation decoding method.
Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption
Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S.; Yang, Xiaodong
2015-01-01
Subwavelength structural color filtering and printing technologies employing plasmonic nanostructures have recently been recognized as an important and beneficial complement to the traditional colorant-based pigmentation. However, the color saturation, brightness and incident angle tolerance of structural color printing need to be improved to meet the application requirement. Here we demonstrate a structural color printing method based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption to improve color performances such as saturation and brightness. Thin-layer perfect absorbers with periodic hole arrays are designed at visible frequencies and the absorption peaks are tuned by simply adjusting the hole size and periodicity. Near perfect light absorption with high quality factors are obtained to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive plasmonic color printing with high color saturation and brightness. Moreover, the fabricated metasurfaces can be protected with a protective coating for ambient use without degrading performances. The demonstrated structural color printing platform offers great potential for applications ranging from security marking to information storage. PMID:26047486
Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S.; Yang, Xiaodong
2015-06-01
Subwavelength structural color filtering and printing technologies employing plasmonic nanostructures have recently been recognized as an important and beneficial complement to the traditional colorant-based pigmentation. However, the color saturation, brightness and incident angle tolerance of structural color printing need to be improved to meet the application requirement. Here we demonstrate a structural color printing method based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption to improve color performances such as saturation and brightness. Thin-layer perfect absorbers with periodic hole arrays are designed at visible frequencies and the absorption peaks are tuned by simply adjusting the hole size and periodicity. Near perfect light absorption with high quality factors are obtained to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive plasmonic color printing with high color saturation and brightness. Moreover, the fabricated metasurfaces can be protected with a protective coating for ambient use without degrading performances. The demonstrated structural color printing platform offers great potential for applications ranging from security marking to information storage.
Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption
Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S.; Yang, Xiaodong
2015-06-05
Subwavelength structural color filtering and printing technologies employing plasmonic nanostructures have recently been recognized as an important and beneficial complement to the traditional colorant-based pigmentation. However, the color saturation, brightness and incident angle tolerance of structural color printing need to be improved to meet the application requirement. Here we demonstrate a structural color printing method based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption to improve color performances such as saturation and brightness. Thin-layer perfect absorbers with periodic hole arrays are designed at visible frequencies and the absorption peaks are tuned by simply adjusting the hole size and periodicity. Near perfect light absorption with high quality factors are obtained to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive plasmonic color printing with high color saturation and brightness. Moreover, the fabricated metasurfaces can be protected with a protective coating for ambient use without degrading performances. The demonstrated structural color printing platform offers great potential for applications ranging from security marking to information storage.
Biomechanics and biocompatibility of the perfect conduit-can we build one?
Byrom, Michael J; Ng, Martin K C; Bannon, Paul G
2013-07-01
No currently available conduit meets the criteria for an ideal coronary artery bypass graft. The perfect conduit would combine the availability and complication-free harvest of a synthetic vessel with the long-term patency performance of the internal mammary artery. However, current polymer conduits suffer from inelastic mechanical properties and especially poor surface biocompatibility, resulting in early loss of patency as a coronary graft. Approaches to manufacture an improved conduit using new polymers or polymer surfaces, acellular matrices, or cellular constructs have to date failed to achieve a commercially successful alternative. Elastin, by mimicking the native extracellular environment as well as providing elasticity, provides the 'missing link' in vascular conduit design and brings new hope for realization of the perfect conduit. PMID:23977620
Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Robert J.; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-04-01
The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems.
Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit.
Chapman, Robert J; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-04-18
The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems.
Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit.
Chapman, Robert J; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-01-01
The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems. PMID:27088483
Large-Scale All-Dielectric Metamaterial Perfect Reflectors
Moitra, Parikshit; Slovick, Brian A.; li, Wei; Kravchencko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Valentine, Jason
2015-05-08
All-dielectric metamaterials offer a potential low-loss alternative to plasmonic metamaterials at optical frequencies. In this paper, we take advantage of the low absorption loss as well as the simple unit cell geometry to demonstrate large-scale (centimeter-sized) all-dielectric metamaterial perfect reflectors made from silicon cylinder resonators. These perfect reflectors, operating in the telecommunications band, were fabricated using self-assembly based nanosphere lithography. In spite of the disorder originating from the self-assembly process, the average reflectance of the metamaterial perfect reflectors is 99.7% at 1530 nm, surpassing the reflectance of metallic mirrors. Moreover, the spectral separation of the electric and magnetic resonances can be chosen to achieve the required reflection bandwidth while maintaining a high tolerance to disorder. Finally, the scalability of this design could lead to new avenues of manipulating light for low-loss and large-area photonic applications.
Large-Scale All-Dielectric Metamaterial Perfect Reflectors
Moitra, Parikshit; Slovick, Brian A.; li, Wei; Kravchencko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Valentine, Jason
2015-05-08
All-dielectric metamaterials offer a potential low-loss alternative to plasmonic metamaterials at optical frequencies. In this paper, we take advantage of the low absorption loss as well as the simple unit cell geometry to demonstrate large-scale (centimeter-sized) all-dielectric metamaterial perfect reflectors made from silicon cylinder resonators. These perfect reflectors, operating in the telecommunications band, were fabricated using self-assembly based nanosphere lithography. In spite of the disorder originating from the self-assembly process, the average reflectance of the metamaterial perfect reflectors is 99.7% at 1530 nm, surpassing the reflectance of metallic mirrors. Moreover, the spectral separation of the electric and magnetic resonances canmore » be chosen to achieve the required reflection bandwidth while maintaining a high tolerance to disorder. Finally, the scalability of this design could lead to new avenues of manipulating light for low-loss and large-area photonic applications.« less
Experimental perfect state transfer of an entangled photonic qubit
Chapman, Robert J.; Santandrea, Matteo; Huang, Zixin; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Yung, Man-Hong; Osellame, Roberto; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-01-01
The transfer of data is a fundamental task in information systems. Microprocessors contain dedicated data buses that transmit bits across different locations and implement sophisticated routing protocols. Transferring quantum information with high fidelity is a challenging task, due to the intrinsic fragility of quantum states. Here we report on the implementation of the perfect state transfer protocol applied to a photonic qubit entangled with another qubit at a different location. On a single device we perform three routing procedures on entangled states, preserving the encoded quantum state with an average fidelity of 97.1%, measuring in the coincidence basis. Our protocol extends the regular perfect state transfer by maintaining quantum information encoded in the polarization state of the photonic qubit. Our results demonstrate the key principle of perfect state transfer, opening a route towards data transfer for quantum computing systems. PMID:27088483
Intensity of tennis match play
Fernandez, J; Mendez‐Villanueva, A; Pluim, B M
2006-01-01
This review focuses on the characteristics of tennis players during match play and provides a greater insight into the energy demands of tennis. A tennis match often lasts longer than an hour and in some cases more than five hours. During a match there is a combination of periods of maximal or near maximal work and longer periods of moderate and low intensity activity. Match intensity varies considerably depending on the players' level, style, and sex. It is also influenced by factors such as court surface and ball type. This has important implications for the training of tennis players, which should resemble match intensity and include interval training with appropriate work to rest ratios. PMID:16632566
Spherical perfect lens: Solutions of Maxwell's equations for spherical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anantha Ramakrishna, S.; Pendry, J. B.
2004-03-01
It has been recently proved that a slab of negative refractive index material acts as a perfect lens in that it makes accessible the subwavelength image information contained in the evanescent modes of a source. Here we elaborate on perfect lens solutions to spherical shells of negative refractive material where magnification of the near-field images becomes possible. The negative refractive materials then need to be spatially dispersive with ɛ(r)˜1/r and μ(r)˜1/r. We concentrate on lenslike solutions for the extreme near-field limit. Then the conditions for the TM and TE polarized modes become independent of μ and ɛ, respectively.
Cosmological perturbations of a perfect fluid and noncommutative variables
De Felice, Antonio; Gerard, Jean-Marc; Suyama, Teruaki
2010-03-15
We describe the linear cosmological perturbations of a perfect fluid at the level of an action, providing thus an alternative to the standard approach based only on the equations of motion. This action is suited not only to perfect fluids with a barotropic equation of state, but also to those for which the pressure depends on two thermodynamical variables. By quantizing the system we find that (1) some perturbation fields exhibit a noncommutativity quite analogous to the one observed for a charged particle moving in a strong magnetic field, (2) local curvature and pressure perturbations cannot be measured simultaneously, (3) ghosts appear if the null energy condition is violated.
Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on artificial dielectric "molecules".
Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji
2016-01-01
Dual band metamaterial perfect absorbers with two absorption bands are highly desirable because of their potential application areas such as detectors, transceiver system, and spectroscopic imagers. However, most of these dual band metamaterial absorbers proposed were based on resonances of metal patterns. Here, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a dual band metamaterial perfect absorber composed of artificial dielectric "molecules" with high symmetry. The artificial dielectric "molecule" consists of four "atoms" of two different sizes corresponding to two absorption bands with near unity absorptivity. Numerical and experimental absorptivity verify that the dual-band metamaterial absorber is polarization insensitive and can operate in wide-angle incidence. PMID:27406699
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Menglin L. N.; Jiang, Li Jun; Sha, Wei E. I.
2016-02-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a promising degree of freedom for fundamental studies in electromagnetics and quantum mechanics. The unlimited state space of OAM shows a great potential to enhance channel capacities of classical and quantum communications. By exploring the Pancharatnam-Berry phase concept and engineering anisotropic scatterers in a metasurface with spatially varying orientations, a plane wave with zero OAM can be converted to a vortex beam carrying nonzero OAM. In this paper, we proposed two types of novel perfect electric conductor-perfect magnetic conductor anisotropic metasurfaces. One is composed of azimuthally continuous loops and the other is constructed by azimuthally discontinuous dipole scatterers. Both types of metasurfaces are mounted on a mushroom-type high impedance surface. Compared to previous metasurface designs for generating OAM, the proposed ones achieve nearly perfect conversion efficiency. In view of the eliminated vertical component of electric field, the continuous metasurface shows very smooth phase pattern at the near-field region, which cannot be achieved by convectional metasurfaces composed of discrete scatterers. On the other hand, the metasurface with discrete dipole scatterers shows a great flexibility to generate OAM with arbitrary topological charges. Our work is fundamentally and practically important to high-performance OAM generation.
Final report, DOE/industry matching grant
Kumar, Arvind S.
2003-02-25
The Department of Energy/Industry Matching Grant was used to help improve nuclear engineering and science education at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The funds helped in the areas of recruitment and retention. Funds allowed the department to give scholarships to over 100 students (names included). Funds were also used for equipment upgrade and research, including two computers with peripherals, two NaI detectors, and a thermoluminescent dosimeter.
A Novel BA Complex Network Model on Color Template Matching
Han, Risheng; Yue, Guangxue; Ding, Hui
2014-01-01
A novel BA complex network model of color space is proposed based on two fundamental rules of BA scale-free network model: growth and preferential attachment. The scale-free characteristic of color space is discovered by analyzing evolving process of template's color distribution. And then the template's BA complex network model can be used to select important color pixels which have much larger effects than other color pixels in matching process. The proposed BA complex network model of color space can be easily integrated into many traditional template matching algorithms, such as SSD based matching and SAD based matching. Experiments show the performance of color template matching results can be improved based on the proposed algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about how to model the color space of images using a proper complex network model and apply the complex network model to template matching. PMID:25243235
Son, S. F.; Hiskey, M. A.; Naud, D.; Busse, J. R.; Asay, B. W.
2002-01-01
Electric matches are used in pyrotechnics to initiate devices electrically rather than by burning fuses. Fuses have the disadvantage of burning with a long delay before igniting a pyrotechnic device, while electric matches can instantaneously fire a device at a user's command. In addition, electric matches can be fired remotely at a safe distance. Unfortunately, most current commercial electric match compositions contain lead as thiocyanate, nitroresorcinate or tetroxide, which when burned, produces lead-containing smoke. This lead pollutant presents environmental exposure problems to cast, crew, and audience. The reason that these lead containing compounds are used as electric match compositions is that these mixtures have the required thermal stability, yet are simultaneously able to be initiated reliably by a very small thermal stimulus. A possible alternative to lead-containing compounds is nanoscale thermite materials (metastable intermolecular composites or MIC). These superthermite materials can be formulated to be extremely spark sensitive with tunable reaction rate and yield high temperature products. We have formulated and manufactured lead-free electric matches based on nanoscale Al/MoO{sub 3} mixtures. We have determined that these matches fire reliably and to consistently ignite a sample of black powder. Initial safety, ageing and performance results are presented in this paper.
Design of a perfect balance system for active upper-extremity exoskeletons.
Smith, Richard L; Lobo-Prat, Joan; van der Kooij, Herman; Stienen, Arno H A
2013-06-01
Passive gravity compensation in exoskeletons significantly reduces the amount of torque and energy needed from the actuators. So far, no design has been able to achieve perfect balance without compromising the exoskeleton characteristics. Here we propose a novel design that integrates an existing statically-balanced mechanism with two springs and four degrees of freedom into a general-purpose exoskeleton design, that can support any percentage of the combined weight of exoskeleton and arm. As it allows for three rotational degrees of freedom at the shoulder and one at the elbow, it does not compromise exoskeleton characteristics and can be powered with any choice of passive or active actuation method. For instance, with this design a perfectly balanced exoskeleton design with inherently safe, passive actuators on each joint axis becomes possible. The potential reduction in required actuator torque, power and weight, simplification of control, improved dynamic performance, and increased safety margin, all while maintaining perfect balance, are the major advantages of the design, but the integrated systems does add a significant amount of complexity. Future integration in an actual exoskeleton should prove if this tradeoff is beneficial. PMID:24187195
Design of a perfect balance system for active upper-extremity exoskeletons.
Smith, Richard L; Lobo-Prat, Joan; van der Kooij, Herman; Stienen, Arno H A
2013-06-01
Passive gravity compensation in exoskeletons significantly reduces the amount of torque and energy needed from the actuators. So far, no design has been able to achieve perfect balance without compromising the exoskeleton characteristics. Here we propose a novel design that integrates an existing statically-balanced mechanism with two springs and four degrees of freedom into a general-purpose exoskeleton design, that can support any percentage of the combined weight of exoskeleton and arm. As it allows for three rotational degrees of freedom at the shoulder and one at the elbow, it does not compromise exoskeleton characteristics and can be powered with any choice of passive or active actuation method. For instance, with this design a perfectly balanced exoskeleton design with inherently safe, passive actuators on each joint axis becomes possible. The potential reduction in required actuator torque, power and weight, simplification of control, improved dynamic performance, and increased safety margin, all while maintaining perfect balance, are the major advantages of the design, but the integrated systems does add a significant amount of complexity. Future integration in an actual exoskeleton should prove if this tradeoff is beneficial.
Studies of nondegenerate, quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
2004-03-18
We have performed extensive numerical studies of quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification with the aim to improve its nondegenerate spectral bandwidth. Our multi-section fan-out design calculations indicate a 35-fold increase in spectral bandwidth.
MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40) PMID:24027491
Multisensory information boosts numerical matching abilities in young children.
Jordan, Kerry E; Baker, Joseph
2011-03-01
This study presents the first evidence that preschool children perform more accurately in a numerical matching task when given multisensory rather than unisensory information about number. Three- to 5-year-old children learned to play a numerical matching game on a touchscreen computer, which asked them to match a sample numerosity with a numerically equivalent choice numerosity. Samples consisted of a series of visual squares on some trials, a series of auditory tones on other trials, and synchronized squares and tones on still other trials. Children performed at chance on this matching task when provided with either type of unisensory sample, but improved significantly when provided with multisensory samples. There was no speed–accuracy tradeoff between unisensory and multisensory trial types. Thus, these findings suggest that intersensory redundancy may improve young children’s abilities to match numerosities.
Overemphasis on Perfectly Competitive Markets in Microeconomics Principles Textbooks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Roderick; Myatt, Anthony
2007-01-01
Microeconomic principles courses focus on perfectly competitive markets far more than other market structures. The authors examine five possible reasons for this but find none of them sufficiently compelling. They conclude that textbook authors should place more emphasis on how economists select appropriate models and test models' predictions…
America's Perfect Storm: Three Forces Changing Our Nation's Future
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirsch, Irwin; Braun, Henry; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Sum, Andrew
2007-01-01
The authors offer the image of our nation as a nautical convoy. Some boats are large, well built, and able to ride out the heaviest of turbulent seas. Others are smaller, but still quite sturdy, and able to survive. Many however, are fragile, meagerly equipped, and easily capsized in rough waters. This convoy is in the midst of a perfect storm…
Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's "A More Perfect Union"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terrill, Robert E.
2009-01-01
Faced with a racialized political crisis that threatened to derail his campaign to become the first African American president of the United States, Barack Obama delivered a speech on race titled "A More Perfect Union." He begins by portraying himself as an embodiment of double consciousness, but then invites his audience to share his doubled…
Animal infection models and ethics -- the perfect infection model.
Zak, Oto; O'Reilly, Terence
1993-05-01
Experimental infection models have long been recognized as an essential part of testing anti-infective therapies. A perfect animal model would be a model that satisfied not only scientific criteria, but ethical criteria as well. In the design and execution of such experiments, scientific and ethical considerations are not mutually exclusive, but should be convergent and therefore result in the optimal model.
Perfect control of reflection and refraction using spatially dispersive metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asadchy, V. S.; Albooyeh, M.; Tcvetkova, S. N.; Díaz-Rubio, A.; Ra'di, Y.; Tretyakov, S. A.
2016-08-01
Nonuniform metasurfaces (electrically thin composite layers) can be used for shaping refracted and reflected electromagnetic waves. However, known design approaches based on the generalized refraction and reflection laws do not allow realization of perfectly performing devices: there are always some parasitic reflections into undesired directions. In this paper we introduce and discuss a general approach to the synthesis of metasurfaces for full control of transmitted and reflected plane waves and show that perfect performance can be realized. The method is based on the use of an equivalent impedance matrix model which connects the tangential field components at the two sides on the metasurface. With this approach we are able to understand what physical properties of the metasurface are needed in order to perfectly realize the desired response. Furthermore, we determine the required polarizabilities of the metasurface unit cells and discuss suitable cell structures. It appears that only spatially dispersive metasurfaces allow realization of perfect refraction and reflection of incident plane waves into arbitrary directions. In particular, ideal refraction is possible only if the metasurface is bianisotropic (weak spatial dispersion), and ideal reflection without polarization transformation requires spatial dispersion with a specific, strongly nonlocal response to the fields.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa
2008-01-01
Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…
Perfect Power Prototype for Illinois Institute of Technology
Shahidehpour, Mohammad
2014-09-30
Starting in October 2008, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), in collaboration with over 20 participating members, led an extensive effort to develop, demonstrate, promote, and commercialize a microgrid system and offer supporting technologies that will achieve Perfect Power at the main campus of IIT. A Perfect Power system, as defined by the Galvin Electricity Initiative (GEI), is a system that cannot fail to meet the electric needs of the individual end-user. The Principle Investigator of this Perfect Power project was Dr. Mohammad Shahidehpour, Director of the Robert W. Galvin Center for Electricity Innovation at IIT. There were six overall objectives of the Perfect Power project: (1) Demonstrate the higher reliability introduced by the microgrid system at IIT; (2) Demonstrate the economics of microgrid operations; (3) Allow for a decrease of fifty percent (50%) of grid electricity load; (4) Create a permanent twenty percent (20%) decrease in peak load from 2007 level; (5) Defer planned substation through load reduction; (6) Offer a distribution system design that can be replicated in urban communities.
Computation of Thermally Perfect Properties of Oblique Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatum, Kenneth E.
1996-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon a value of cp expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135, and with a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics code. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use, and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).
The Meaning of the Perfective Aspect in Russian.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrell, James
1951-01-01
Descriptions of the perfective aspect in Russian taken from Miklosich, Saxmatov, Peskovsky, Fortunatov, and Karcevskij serve as background reading to the author's discussion of the problem. He explores three basic questions: (1) Is aspect a Russian problem in grammar or lexicography; (2) What is the nature of the correlation between the perfective…
The Perfect Storm—Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rollin, Bernard E.
2012-07-01
Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific Ideology; vested interests dominating ethical discussion. How this can be remedied is discussed.
The Perfect Storm--Genetic Engineering, Science, and Ethics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rollin, Bernard E.
2014-01-01
Uncertainty about ethics has been a major factor in societal rejection of biotechnology. Six factors help create a societal "perfect storm" regarding ethics and biotechnology: Social demand for ethical discussion; societal scientific illiteracy; poor social understanding of ethics; a "Gresham's Law for Ethics;" Scientific…
Computation of Thermally Perfect Oblique Shock Wave Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tatum, Kenneth E.
1997-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon the specific heat expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).
Bonding and impedance matching of acoustic transducers using silver epoxy.
Son, Kyu Tak; Lee, Chin C
2012-04-01
Silver epoxy was selected to bond transducer plates on glass substrates. The properties and thickness of the bonding medium affect the electrical input impedance of the transducer. Thus, the thickness of the silver epoxy bonding layer was used as a design parameter to optimize the structure for the transducer input impedance to match the 50 Ω output impedance of most radio frequency (RF) generators. Simulation and experimental results show that nearly perfect matching is achieved without using any matching circuit. At the matching condition, the transducer operates at a frequency band a little bit below the half-wavelength resonant frequency of the piezoelectric plate. In experiments, lead titanate (PT) piezoelectric plates were employed. Both full-size, 11.5 mm × 2 mm × 0.4 mm, and half-size, 5.75 mm × 2 mm × 0.4 mm, can be well matched using optimal silver epoxy thickness. The transducer assemblies demonstrate high efficiency. The conversion loss from electrical power to acoustic power in soda-lime glass is 4.3 dB. This loss is low considering the fact that the transducers operate at off-resonance by 12%. With proper choice of silver epoxy thickness, the transducer can be matched at the fundamental, the 3rd and 5th harmonic frequencies. This leads to the possible realization of triple-band transducers. Reliability was assessed with thermal cycling test according to Telcordia GR-468-Core recommendation. Of the 30 transducer assemblies tested, none broke until 2900 cycles and 27 have sustained beyond 4050 cycles.
New Effective Multithreaded Matching Algorithms
Manne, Fredrik; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
2014-05-19
Matching is an important combinatorial problem with a number of applications in areas such as community detection, sparse linear algebra, and network alignment. Since computing optimal matchings can be very time consuming, several fast approximation algorithms, both sequential and parallel, have been suggested. Common to the algorithms giving the best solutions is that they tend to be sequential by nature, while algorithms more suitable for parallel computation give solutions of less quality. We present a new simple 1 2 -approximation algorithm for the weighted matching problem. This algorithm is both faster than any other suggested sequential 1 2 -approximation algorithm on almost all inputs and also scales better than previous multithreaded algorithms. We further extend this to a general scalable multithreaded algorithm that computes matchings of weight comparable with the best sequential algorithms. The performance of the suggested algorithms is documented through extensive experiments on different multithreaded architectures.
Matching Faces Against the Clock
Fysh, Matthew; Cross, Katie; Watts, Rebecca
2016-01-01
This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds. A separate match response bias was found, which developed over the course of the experiments. These results indicate that both time pressure and the repetitive nature of face matching are detrimental to performance. PMID:27757219
An Efficient Pattern Matching Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sleit, Azzam; Almobaideen, Wesam; Baarah, Aladdin H.; Abusitta, Adel H.
In this study, we present an efficient algorithm for pattern matching based on the combination of hashing and search trees. The proposed solution is classified as an offline algorithm. Although, this study demonstrates the merits of the technique for text matching, it can be utilized for various forms of digital data including images, audio and video. The performance superiority of the proposed solution is validated analytically and experimentally.
Passport officers' errors in face matching.
White, David; Kemp, Richard I; Jenkins, Rob; Matheson, Michael; Burton, A Mike
2014-01-01
Photo-ID is widely used in security settings, despite research showing that viewers find it very difficult to match unfamiliar faces. Here we test participants with specialist experience and training in the task: passport-issuing officers. First, we ask officers to compare photos to live ID-card bearers, and observe high error rates, including 14% false acceptance of 'fraudulent' photos. Second, we compare passport officers with a set of student participants, and find equally poor levels of accuracy in both groups. Finally, we observe that passport officers show no performance advantage over the general population on a standardised face-matching task. Across all tasks, we observe very large individual differences: while average performance of passport staff was poor, some officers performed very accurately--though this was not related to length of experience or training. We propose that improvements in security could be made by emphasising personnel selection.
Passport Officers’ Errors in Face Matching
White, David; Kemp, Richard I.; Jenkins, Rob; Matheson, Michael; Burton, A. Mike
2014-01-01
Photo-ID is widely used in security settings, despite research showing that viewers find it very difficult to match unfamiliar faces. Here we test participants with specialist experience and training in the task: passport-issuing officers. First, we ask officers to compare photos to live ID-card bearers, and observe high error rates, including 14% false acceptance of ‘fraudulent’ photos. Second, we compare passport officers with a set of student participants, and find equally poor levels of accuracy in both groups. Finally, we observe that passport officers show no performance advantage over the general population on a standardised face-matching task. Across all tasks, we observe very large individual differences: while average performance of passport staff was poor, some officers performed very accurately – though this was not related to length of experience or training. We propose that improvements in security could be made by emphasising personnel selection. PMID:25133682
Path matching and graph matching in biological networks.
Yang, Qingwu; Sze, Sing-Hoi
2007-01-01
We develop algorithms for the following path matching and graph matching problems: (i) given a query path p and a graph G, find a path p' that is most similar to p in G; (ii) given a query graph G (0) and a graph G, find a graph G (0)' that is most similar to G (0) in G. In these problems, p and G (0) represent a given substructure of interest to a biologist, and G represents a large network in which the biologist desires to find a related substructure. These algorithms allow the study of common substructures in biological networks in order to understand how these networks evolve both within and between organisms. We reduce the path matching problem to finding a longest weighted path in a directed acyclic graph and show that the problem of finding top k suboptimal paths can be solved in polynomial time. This is in contrast with most previous approaches that used exponential time algorithms to find simple paths which are practical only when the paths are short. We reduce the graph matching problem to finding highest scoring subgraphs in a graph and give an exact algorithm to solve the problem when the query graph G (0) is of moderate size. This eliminates the need for less accurate heuristic or randomized algorithms. We show that our algorithms are able to extract biologically meaningful pathways from protein interaction networks in the DIP database and metabolic networks in the KEGG database. Software programs implementing these techniques (PathMatch and GraphMatch) are available at http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/pathmatch and http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/graphmatch.
Understanding Y haplotype matching probability.
Brenner, Charles H
2014-01-01
The Y haplotype population-genetic terrain is better explored from a fresh perspective rather than by analogy with the more familiar autosomal ideas. For haplotype matching probabilities, versus for autosomal matching probabilities, explicit attention to modelling - such as how evolution got us where we are - is much more important while consideration of population frequency is much less so. This paper explores, extends, and explains some of the concepts of "Fundamental problem of forensic mathematics - the evidential strength of a rare haplotype match". That earlier paper presented and validated a "kappa method" formula for the evidential strength when a suspect matches a previously unseen haplotype (such as a Y-haplotype) at the crime scene. Mathematical implications of the kappa method are intuitive and reasonable. Suspicions to the contrary raised in rest on elementary errors. Critical to deriving the kappa method or any sensible evidential calculation is understanding that thinking about haplotype population frequency is a red herring; the pivotal question is one of matching probability. But confusion between the two is unfortunately institutionalized in much of the forensic world. Examples make clear why (matching) probability is not (population) frequency and why uncertainty intervals on matching probabilities are merely confused thinking. Forensic matching calculations should be based on a model, on stipulated premises. The model inevitably only approximates reality, and any error in the results comes only from error in the model, the inexactness of the approximation. Sampling variation does not measure that inexactness and hence is not helpful in explaining evidence and is in fact an impediment. Alternative haplotype matching probability approaches that various authors have considered are reviewed. Some are based on no model and cannot be taken seriously. For the others, some evaluation of the models is discussed. Recent evidence supports the adequacy of
Dynamics of non-minimally coupled perfect fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettoni, Dario; Liberati, Stefano
2015-08-01
We present a general formulation of the theory for a non-minimally coupled perfect fluid in which both conformal and disformal couplings are present. We discuss how such non-minimal coupling is compatible with the assumptions of a perfect fluid and derive both the Einstein and the fluid equations for such model. We found that, while the Euler equation is significantly modified with the introduction of an extra force related to the local gradients of the curvature, the continuity equation is unaltered, thus allowing for the definition of conserved quantities along the fluid flow. As an application to cosmology and astrophysics we compute the effects of the non-minimal coupling on a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker metric at both background and linear perturbation level and on the Newtonian limit of our theory.
Holographic perfect shuffle permutation element for a miniaturized switching network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobolla, H.; Schmidt, J.; Gluch, E.; Schwider, J.
1995-06-01
A holographic perfect shuffle element with 80 channels for a miniaturized switching network is reported. An array of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers is used as a transmitter. The whole permutation is carried out totally in glass. The 80 channels are permuted within a rectangle with a volume of 3 mm \\times 4 mm \\times 2 mm. Four planes of stacked volume holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin form this perfect shuffle element with an angular spectrum between 7 deg and 35 deg. Changes in the wavelength of the diode lasers to Delta lambda = +/-10 nm can be compensated with this setup. The overall efficiency per channel lies between 40% and 60%. When Fresnel reflections and absorption are taken into account, a transmission per hologram between 78% and 90% is achieved.
Gravitational arcs as a perturbation of the perfect ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alard, C.
2007-11-01
The image of a point situated at the centre of a circularly symmetric potential is a perfect circle. The perturbative effect of non-symmetrical potential terms is to displace and break the perfect circle. These two effects, displacement and breaking, are directly related to the Taylor expansion of the perturbation at first order on the circle. The numerical accuracy of this perturbative approach is tested in the case of an elliptical potential with a core radius. The contour of the images and the caustic lines are well reproduced by the perturbative approach. These results suggest that the modelling of arcs, and in particular that of tangential arcs, may be simplified by using a general perturbative representation for points located on the circle. This linear perturbative approach is accurate when the gradient of the circular potential is almost linear; this constraint is satisfied when the potential is nearly isothermal.
Nonlocal memory effects allow perfect teleportation with mixed states.
Laine, Elsi-Mari; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Piilo, Jyrki
2014-01-01
One of the most striking consequences of quantum physics is quantum teleportation - the possibility to transfer quantum states over arbitrary distances. Since its theoretical introduction, teleportation has been demonstrated experimentally up to the distance of 143 km. In the original proposal two parties share a maximally entangled quantum state acting as a resource for the teleportation task. If, however, the state is influenced by decoherence, perfect teleportation can no longer be accomplished. Therefore, one of the current major challenges in accomplishing teleportation over long distances is to overcome the limitations imposed by decoherence and the subsequent mixedness of the resource state. Here we show that, in the presence of nonlocal memory effects, perfect quantum teleportation can be achieved even with mixed photon polarisation states. Our results imply that memory effects can be exploited in harnessing noisy quantum systems for quantum communication and that non-Markovianity is a resource for quantum information tasks. PMID:24714695
Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers
Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo
2015-01-26
Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.
Metamaterial perfect absorber using the magnetic resonance of dielectric inclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dung, Nguyen Van; Tung, Bui Son; Khuyen, Bui Xuan; Yoo, Young Joon; Lee, YoungPak; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lam, Vu Dinh
2016-04-01
In this report, we introduce a stable metamaterial perfect absorber at GHz frequency based on a novel design of a Mie-type resonance. A single perfect absorption peak is achieved at 9.54 GHz, and the influence of the structural parameters on the absorption behavior is studied; the results were consistent with dielectric-resonator theory. The absorption is demonstrated to be polarizationinsensitive; furthermore, the absorber structure can work for a wide incident angle without any change in the resonance peak. Our absorber structure can also control 47% of the resonance peak's position by changing the temperature of the dielectric layer. Our absorber structure can also be applied as an electromagnetic-wave absorber for wide-incident-angle, thermally-controllable devices.
Theory of patch-antenna metamaterial perfect absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowen, Patrick T.; Baron, Alexandre; Smith, David R.
2016-06-01
A metasurface that absorbs waves from all directions of incidence can be achieved if the surface impedance is made to vary as a function of incidence angle in a specific manner. Here we show that a periodic array of planar nanoparticles coupled to a metal film can act as an absorbing metasurface with an angle-dependent impedance. Through a semi-analytical calculation based on coupled-mode theory, we find the perfect absorbing condition is equivalent to balancing the Ohmic and radiative losses of the nanoparticles at normal incidence. Absorption over a wide range of incidence angles can then be obtained by tailoring the scattered far-field pattern of the individual planar nanoparticles such that their radiative losses remain constant. The theory provides a means of understanding the behavior of perfect absorbing structures that have been observed experimentally or numerically, reconciling previously published theories and enabling the optimization of absorbing surfaces.
Comment on `Stationary perfect fluid solutions with differential rotation'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mars, Marc; Senovilla, José M. M.
2008-10-01
We vindicate our results in Mars and Senovilla (Phys Rev D 54, 6166 6180, 1996), which have been recently put in doubt or misunderstood in García and Ulloa (Gen Rel Grav 39, 1639 1650, 2007). In particular, we maintain that there indeed exist axially symmetric differentially rotating perfect-fluid solutions satisfying all energy conditions within the family of solutions presented in Senovilla (Class Quant Grav 9, L167 L169, 1992). We remark that the existence of an axis of symmetry can never be “re-interpreted” as the existence of a Killing horizon, and vice versa. We prove that such horizons are simply impossible for the perfect fluids within the family, and that regular axes of symmetry (or curvature singularities) are the only possibilities. Other inaccuracies or misunderstandings appeared in García and Ulloa (Gen Rel Grav 39, 1639 1650, 2007) are clarified.
Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo
2015-01-01
Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.
Perfect fluids in the Einstein-Cartan theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. J.
1982-01-01
It is pointed out that whereas most of the discussion of the Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory involves the relationship between gravitation and elementary particles, it is possible that the theory, if correct, may be important in certain extreme astrophysical and cosmological problems. The latter would include something like the collapse of a spinning star or an early universe with spin. A set of equations that describe a macroscopic perfect fluid in the EC theory is derived and examined. The equations are derived starting from the fundamental variational principle for a perfect fluid in general relativity. A brief review of the study by Ray (1972) is included, and the results for the EC theory are presented.
Nonlocal memory effects allow perfect teleportation with mixed states
Laine, Elsi-Mari; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Piilo, Jyrki
2014-01-01
One of the most striking consequences of quantum physics is quantum teleportation – the possibility to transfer quantum states over arbitrary distances. Since its theoretical introduction, teleportation has been demonstrated experimentally up to the distance of 143 km. In the original proposal two parties share a maximally entangled quantum state acting as a resource for the teleportation task. If, however, the state is influenced by decoherence, perfect teleportation can no longer be accomplished. Therefore, one of the current major challenges in accomplishing teleportation over long distances is to overcome the limitations imposed by decoherence and the subsequent mixedness of the resource state. Here we show that, in the presence of nonlocal memory effects, perfect quantum teleportation can be achieved even with mixed photon polarisation states. Our results imply that memory effects can be exploited in harnessing noisy quantum systems for quantum communication and that non-Markovianity is a resource for quantum information tasks. PMID:24714695
Thermodynamics of perfect fluids from scalar field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, Guillermo; Comelli, Denis; Pilo, Luigi
2016-07-01
The low-energy dynamics of relativistic continuous media is given by a shift-symmetric effective theory of four scalar fields. These scalars describe the embedding in spacetime of the medium and play the role of Stückelberg fields for spontaneously broken spatial and time translations. Perfect fluids are selected imposing a stronger symmetry group or reducing the field content to a single scalar. We explore the relation between the field theory description of perfect fluids to thermodynamics. By drawing the correspondence between the allowed operators at leading order in derivatives and the thermodynamic variables, we find that a complete thermodynamic picture requires the four Stückelberg fields. We show that thermodynamic stability plus the null-energy condition imply dynamical stability. We also argue that a consistent thermodynamic interpretation is not possible if any of the shift symmetries is explicitly broken.
Nonlocal memory effects allow perfect teleportation with mixed states.
Laine, Elsi-Mari; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Piilo, Jyrki
2014-01-01
One of the most striking consequences of quantum physics is quantum teleportation - the possibility to transfer quantum states over arbitrary distances. Since its theoretical introduction, teleportation has been demonstrated experimentally up to the distance of 143 km. In the original proposal two parties share a maximally entangled quantum state acting as a resource for the teleportation task. If, however, the state is influenced by decoherence, perfect teleportation can no longer be accomplished. Therefore, one of the current major challenges in accomplishing teleportation over long distances is to overcome the limitations imposed by decoherence and the subsequent mixedness of the resource state. Here we show that, in the presence of nonlocal memory effects, perfect quantum teleportation can be achieved even with mixed photon polarisation states. Our results imply that memory effects can be exploited in harnessing noisy quantum systems for quantum communication and that non-Markovianity is a resource for quantum information tasks.
Recovery of data from perfectly twinned virus crystals revisited
Ginn, Helen Mary; Stuart, David Ian
2016-01-01
Perfect merohedral twinning of crystals is not uncommon and complicates structural analysis. An iterative method for the deconvolution of data from perfectly merohedrally twinned crystals in the presence of noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) has been reimplemented. It is shown that the method recovers the data effectively using test data, and an independent metric of success, based on special classes of reflections that are unaffected by the twin operator, is now provided. The method was applied to a real problem with fivefold NCS and rather poor-quality diffraction data, and it was found that even in these circumstances the method appears to recover most of the information. The software has been made available in a form that can be applied to other crystal systems. PMID:27303802
A matching approach to communicate through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle
Gao, Xiaotian; Jiang, Binhao
2015-06-21
In order to overcome the communication blackout problem suffered by hypersonic vehicles, a matching approach has been proposed for the first time in this paper. It utilizes a double-positive (DPS) material layer surrounding a hypersonic vehicle antenna to match with the plasma sheath enclosing the vehicle. Analytical analysis and numerical results indicate a resonance between the matched layer and the plasma sheath will be formed to mitigate the blackout problem in some conditions. The calculated results present a perfect radiated performance of the antenna, when the match is exactly built between these two layers. The effects of the parameters of the plasma sheath have been researched by numerical methods. Based on these results, the proposed approach is easier to realize and more flexible to the varying radiated conditions in hypersonic flight comparing with other methods.
Path similarity skeleton graph matching.
Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan
2008-07-01
This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.
Poor Textural Image Matching Based on Graph Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Yuan, Wei; Cai, Yang
2016-06-01
Image matching lies at the heart of photogrammetry and computer vision. For poor textural images, the matching result is affected by low contrast, repetitive patterns, discontinuity or occlusion, few or homogeneous textures. Recently, graph matching became popular for its integration of geometric and radiometric information. Focused on poor textural image matching problem, it is proposed an edge-weight strategy to improve graph matching algorithm. A series of experiments have been conducted including 4 typical landscapes: Forest, desert, farmland, and urban areas. And it is experimentally found that our new algorithm achieves better performance. Compared to SIFT, doubled corresponding points were acquired, and the overall recall rate reached up to 68%, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.
Comment on ``Perfect imaging with positive refraction in three dimensions''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merlin, R.
2010-11-01
Leonhardt and Philbin [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.011804 81, 011804(R) (2010)] have recently constructed a mathematical proof that the Maxwell's fish-eye lens provides perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves without negative refraction. In this comment, we argue that the unlimited resolution is an artifact of having introduced an unphysical drain at the position of the geometrical image. The correct solution gives focusing consistent with the standard diffraction limit.
Comment on ''Perfect imaging with positive refraction in three dimensions''
Merlin, R.
2010-11-15
Leonhardt and Philbin [Phys. Rev. A 81, 011804(R) (2010)] have recently constructed a mathematical proof that the Maxwell's fish-eye lens provides perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves without negative refraction. In this comment, we argue that the unlimited resolution is an artifact of having introduced an unphysical drain at the position of the geometrical image. The correct solution gives focusing consistent with the standard diffraction limit.
Covariant diagonalization of the perfect fluid stress-energy tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garat, Alcides
2015-02-01
We introduce new tetrads that manifestly and covariantly diagonalize the stress-energy tensor for a perfect fluid with vorticity at every spacetime point. This new tetrad can be applied to introduce simplification in the analysis of astrophysical relativistic problems where vorticity is present through the Carter-Lichnerowicz equation. We also discuss the origin of inertia in this special case from the standpoint of our new local tetrads.
Perfect focusing of scalar wave fields in three dimensions.
Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C; González, Juan C
2010-04-12
A method to design isotropic inhomogeneous refractive index distribution is presented, in which the scalar wave field solutions propagate exactly on an eikonal function (i.e., remaining constant on the Geometrical Optics wavefronts). This method is applied to the design of "dipole lenses", which perfectly focus a scalar wave field emitted from a point source onto a point absorber, in both two and three dimensions. Also, the Maxwell fish-eye lens in two and three dimensions is analysed.
Revisiting perfect fluid dark matter: Observational constraints from our galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potapov, Alexander A.; Garipova, Guzel M.; Nandi, Kamal K.
2016-02-01
We revisit certain features of an assumed spherically symmetric perfect fluid dark matter halo in the light of the observed data of our galaxy, the Milky Way (MW). The idea is to apply the Faber-Visser approach of combined observations of rotation curves and lensing to a first post-Newtonian approximation to "measure" the equation of state ω (r) of the perfect fluid galactic halo. However, for the model considered here, no constraints from lensing are used as it will be sufficient to consider only the rotation curve observations. The lensing mass together with other masses will be just computed using recent data. Since the halo has attractive gravity, we shall impose the constraint that ω (r) ≥ 0 for r ≤RMW, where RMW ˜ 200 kpc is the adopted halo radius of our galaxy. The observed circular velocity ℓ (= 2 vc2 / c02) from the flat rotation curve and a crucial adjustable parameter D appearing in the perfect fluid solution then yield different numerical ranges of ω (r). It is demonstrated that the computed observables such as the rotation curve mass, the lens mass, the post-Newtonian mass of our galaxy compare well with the recent mass data. We also calculate the Faber-Visser χ-factor, which is a measure of pressure content in the dark matter. Our analysis indicates that a range 0 ≤ ω (r) ≤ 2.8 ×10-7 for the perfect fluid dark matter can reasonably describe the attractive galactic halo. This is a strong constraint indicating a dust-like CDM halo (ω ˜ 0) supported also by CMB constraints.
Perfect teleportation and superdense coding with W states
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pati, Arun
2006-12-15
True tripartite entanglement of the state of a system of three qubits can be classified on the basis of stochastic local operations and classical communications. Such states can be classified into two categories: GHZ states and W states. It is known that GHZ states can be used for teleportation and superdense coding, but the prototype W state cannot be. However, we show that there is a class of W states that can be used for perfect teleportation and superdense coding.
Characterization of quantum circulant networks having perfect state transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bašić, Milan
2013-01-01
In this paper we answer the question of when circulant quantum spin networks with nearest-neighbor couplings can give perfect state transfer. The network is described by a circulant graph G, which is characterized by its circulant adjacency matrix A. Formally, we say that there exists a perfect state transfer (PST) between vertices {a,bin V(G)} if | F( τ) ab | = 1, for some positive real number τ, where F( t) = exp(i At). Saxena et al. (Int J Quantum Inf 5:417-430, 2007) proved that | F( τ) aa | = 1 for some {ain V(G)} and {tauin {R}^+} if and only if all eigenvalues of G are integer (that is, the graph is integral). The integral circulant graph ICG n ( D) has the vertex set Z n = {0, 1, 2, . . . , n - 1} and vertices a and b are adjacent if {gcd(a-b,n)in D} , where {D subseteq {d : d mid n, 1 ≤ d < n}} . These graphs are highly symmetric and have important applications in chemical graph theory. We show that ICG n ( D) has PST if and only if {nin 4{N}} and {D=widetilde{D_3} \\cup D_2\\cup 2D_2\\cup 4D_2|cup {n/2^a}} , where {widetilde{D_3}={din D | n/din 8{N}}, D_2= {din D | n/din 8{N}+4}{setminus}{n/4}} and {ain{1,2}} . We have thus answered the question of complete characterization of perfect state transfer in integral circulant graphs raised in Angeles-Canul et al. (Quantum Inf Comput 10(3&4):0325-0342, 2010). Furthermore, we also calculate perfect quantum communication distance (distance between vertices where PST occurs) and describe the spectra of integral circulant graphs having PST. We conclude by giving a closed form expression calculating the number of integral circulant graphs of a given order having PST.
Practical multi-featured perfect absorber utilizing high conductivity silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gok, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Bıyıklı, Necmi; Topallı, Kağan; Okyay, Ali K.
2016-03-01
We designed all-silicon, multi-featured band-selective perfect absorbing surfaces based on CMOS compatible processes. The center wavelength of the band-selective absorber can be varied between 2 and 22 μm while a bandwidth as high as 2.5 μm is demonstrated. We used a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer which consists of n-type silicon (Si) device layer, silicon dioxide (SiO2) as buried oxide layer, and n-type Si handle layer. The center wavelength and bandwidth can be tuned by adjusting the conductivity of the Si device and handle layers as well as the thicknesses of the device and buried oxide layers. We demonstrate proof-of-concept absorber surfaces experimentally. Such absorber surfaces are easy to microfabricate because the absorbers do not require elaborate microfabrication steps such as patterning. Due to the structural simplicity, low-cost fabrication, wide spectrum range of operation, and band properties of the perfect absorber, the proposed multi-featured perfect absorber surfaces are promising for many applications. These include sensing devices, surface enhanced infrared absorption applications, solar cells, meta-materials, frequency selective sensors and modulators.
Stereo matching using Hebbian learning.
Pajares, G; Cruz, J M; Lopez-Orozco, J A
1999-01-01
This paper presents an approach to the local stereo matching problem using edge segments as features with several attributes. We have verified that the differences in attributes for the true matches cluster in a cloud around a center. The correspondence is established on the basis of the minimum distance criterion, computing the Mahalanobis distance between the difference of the attributes for a current pair of features and the cluster center (similarity constraint). We introduce a learning strategy based on the Hebbian Learning to get the best cluster center. A comparative analysis among methods without learning and with other learning strategies is illustrated. PMID:18252332
7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...
7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...
Latent Fingerprint Matching: Performance Gain via Feedback from Exemplar Prints.
Arora, Sunpreet S; Liu, Eryun; Cao, Kai; Jain, Anil K
2014-12-01
Latent fingerprints serve as an important source of forensic evidence in a court of law. Automatic matching of latent fingerprints to rolled/plain (exemplar) fingerprints with high accuracy is quite vital for such applications. However, latent impressions are typically of poor quality with complex background noise which makes feature extraction and matching of latents a significantly challenging problem. We propose incorporating top-down information or feedback from an exemplar to refine the features extracted from a latent for improving latent matching accuracy. The refined latent features (e.g. ridge orientation and frequency), after feedback, are used to re-match the latent to the top K candidate exemplars returned by the baseline matcher and resort the candidate list. The contributions of this research include: (i) devising systemic ways to use information in exemplars for latent feature refinement, (ii) developing a feedback paradigm which can be wrapped around any latent matcher for improving its matching performance, and (iii) determining when feedback is actually necessary to improve latent matching accuracy. Experimental results show that integrating the proposed feedback paradigm with a state-of-the-art latent matcher improves its identification accuracy by 0.5-3.5 percent for NIST SD27 and WVU latent databases against a background database of 100k exemplars.
Latent Fingerprint Matching: Performance Gain via Feedback from Exemplar Prints.
Arora, Sunpreet S; Liu, Eryun; Cao, Kai; Jain, Anil K
2014-12-01
Latent fingerprints serve as an important source of forensic evidence in a court of law. Automatic matching of latent fingerprints to rolled/plain (exemplar) fingerprints with high accuracy is quite vital for such applications. However, latent impressions are typically of poor quality with complex background noise which makes feature extraction and matching of latents a significantly challenging problem. We propose incorporating top-down information or feedback from an exemplar to refine the features extracted from a latent for improving latent matching accuracy. The refined latent features (e.g. ridge orientation and frequency), after feedback, are used to re-match the latent to the top K candidate exemplars returned by the baseline matcher and resort the candidate list. The contributions of this research include: (i) devising systemic ways to use information in exemplars for latent feature refinement, (ii) developing a feedback paradigm which can be wrapped around any latent matcher for improving its matching performance, and (iii) determining when feedback is actually necessary to improve latent matching accuracy. Experimental results show that integrating the proposed feedback paradigm with a state-of-the-art latent matcher improves its identification accuracy by 0.5-3.5 percent for NIST SD27 and WVU latent databases against a background database of 100k exemplars. PMID:26353151
Matching theory in natural human environments.
McDowell, J J
1988-01-01
Matching theory is a mathematical account of behavior, many aspects of which have been confirmed in laboratory experiments with nonhuman and human subjects. The theory asserts that behavior is distributed across concurrently available response alternatives in the same proportion that reinforcement is distributed across those alternatives. The theory also asserts that behavior on a single response alternative is a function not only of reinforcement contingent on that behavior, but also of reinforcement contingent on other behaviors and of reinforcement delivered independently of behavior. These assertions constitute important advances in our understanding of the effects of reinforcement on behavior. Evidence from the applied literature suggests that matching theory holds not only in laboratory environments, but also in natural human environments. In addition, the theory has important therapeutic implications. For example, it suggests four new intervention strategies, and it can be used to improve treatment planning and management. Research on matching theory illustrates the progression from laboratory experimentation with nonhuman subjects to therapeutic applications in natural human environments.
A stereo matching handling model in low-texture region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Han, Jing; Bai, Lianfa
2015-10-01
In binocular stereo matching, mistakes are relatively easy to appear in low-texture region due to the weak detail information. In order to eliminate the matching ambiguity as well as guarantee the matching rate, this paper proposes a stereo matching algorithm based on image segmentation. In most low-texture region, traditional cost functions are usually used, and the algorithm can only ameliorated through methods such as reasonable support window, dynamic programming and so on. The results of these algorithms make the whole image smooth, and lose many details. The matching cost function in our algorithm is based on the assumption that pixels are similar in homogeneous area, and reduce the use of multiplication so as to obtain better visual effects and decrease the computational complexity. The first is forming the segmentation maps of stereoscopic images as the guidance. Next comes calculating the aggregation cost in stereo matching in both horizontal and vertical direction successively referring to the segmentation maps. Eventually achieving the final disparity map with optimization algorithm, using WTA(Winner-Takes-All) as principle. The computational complexity of this algorithm is independent of the window size, and suitable for different sizes and shapes. The results of experimental show that this algorithm can get better matching precision about the colorful low-texture stereo image pairs, with few increase in computational complexity. This algorithm, to some extent, can improve the match quality of the regions with repeat texture.
Automatic Background Knowledge Selection for Matching Biomedical Ontologies
Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F.; Couto, Francisco M.
2014-01-01
Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge. PMID:25379899
Automatic background knowledge selection for matching biomedical ontologies.
Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F; Couto, Francisco M
2014-01-01
Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge. PMID:25379899
Automatic background knowledge selection for matching biomedical ontologies.
Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Santos, Emanuel; Cruz, Isabel F; Couto, Francisco M
2014-01-01
Ontology matching is a growing field of research that is of critical importance for the semantic web initiative. The use of background knowledge for ontology matching is often a key factor for success, particularly in complex and lexically rich domains such as the life sciences. However, in most ontology matching systems, the background knowledge sources are either predefined by the system or have to be provided by the user. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for automatically selecting background knowledge sources for any given ontologies to match. This methodology measures the usefulness of each background knowledge source by assessing the fraction of classes mapped through it over those mapped directly, which we call the mapping gain. We implemented this methodology in the AgreementMakerLight ontology matching framework, and evaluate it using the benchmark biomedical ontology matching tasks from the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) 2013. In each matching problem, our methodology consistently identified the sources of background knowledge that led to the highest improvements over the baseline alignment (i.e., without background knowledge). Furthermore, our proposed mapping gain parameter is strongly correlated with the F-measure of the produced alignments, thus making it a good estimator for ontology matching techniques based on background knowledge.
Job descriptions and job matching.
Pirie, Susan
2004-10-01
As the date for national roll-out and the implementation for Agenda for Change draws near, many of you will be involved in the job matching process. This is designed to measure your job against a national job profile, thus establishing which pay band you will be placed in and so determining your salary.
The Vector Matching Method in Geomagnetic Aiding Navigation
Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
In this paper, a geomagnetic matching navigation method that utilizes the geomagnetic vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the geomagnetic entropy information in the matching region is small or the geomagnetic contour line’s variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a geomagnetic vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual geomagnetic reference map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27447645
The Vector Matching Method in Geomagnetic Aiding Navigation.
Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
In this paper, a geomagnetic matching navigation method that utilizes the geomagnetic vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the geomagnetic entropy information in the matching region is small or the geomagnetic contour line's variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a geomagnetic vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual geomagnetic reference map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27447645
Matching point clouds: limits and possibilities.
Rudolph, H; Quaas, S; Luthardt, R G
2002-01-01
In computer-aided production of fixed dental restorations, the process chain always starts with digitizing, independent of the type of further (data) processing, the material used, and the kind of restoration to be produced. The quality of the digitized data, followed by the influences of further data processing and the production parameters, decisively influence the fitting accuracy of the dental restoration to be fabricated. The accuracy with which individually measured 3D data sets in the form of point clouds can be matched for further processing in one common system of coordinates was the object of the present study. Casts of the maxilla and mandible were digitized in several partial measurements comprising two to three teeth in each case, using an optical three-coordinate measuring system. The individual segments were sequentially aligned to surfaces that were created on the basis of partial point clouds. The mean deviation between surfaces and point clouds was between 1.90 microns and 18.24 microns. The accuracy of the alignment was determined by the RMS (root mean square) error, and was on average 14.2 microns (SD 7 microns) for the maxilla and 17.2 microns (SD 9.4 microns) for the mandible. Combining a larger number of smaller segments did not improve the result, since the errors of the individual registrations are summed in sequential matching. In this study, the errors arising in matching are not negligible and can possibly negatively influence the quality (fitting accuracy) of the restoration produced on the basis of the matched data records.
Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption
Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Luk, Ting S.; Yang, Xiaodong
2015-06-05
Subwavelength structural color filtering and printing technologies employing plasmonic nanostructures have recently been recognized as an important and beneficial complement to the traditional colorant-based pigmentation. However, the color saturation, brightness and incident angle tolerance of structural color printing need to be improved to meet the application requirement. Here we demonstrate a structural color printing method based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption to improve color performances such as saturation and brightness. Thin-layer perfect absorbers with periodic hole arrays are designed at visible frequencies and the absorption peaks are tuned by simply adjusting the hole size and periodicity. Near perfectmore » light absorption with high quality factors are obtained to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive plasmonic color printing with high color saturation and brightness. Moreover, the fabricated metasurfaces can be protected with a protective coating for ambient use without degrading performances. The demonstrated structural color printing platform offers great potential for applications ranging from security marking to information storage.« less
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-12-05
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching Program Match No. 1312 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer...
Two-dimensional object recognition through two-stage string matching.
Wu, W Y; Wang, M J
1999-01-01
A two-stage string matching method for the recognition of two-dimensional (2-D) objects is proposed in this work. The first stage is a global cyclic string matching. The second stage is a local matching with local dissimilarity measure computing. The dissimilarity measure function of the input shape and the reference shape are obtained by combining the global matching cost and the local dissimilarity measure. The proposed method has the advantage that there is no need to set any parameter in the recognition process. Experimental results indicate that the hostage string matching approach significantly improves the recognition rates compared to the one-stage string matching method. PMID:18267511
Applying Matched Sampling to Evaluate a University Tutoring Program for First-Year Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walvoord, Mark E.; Pleitz, Jacob D.
2016-01-01
Our study used a case-control matching design to assess the influence of a voluntary tutoring program in improving first-year students' Grade Point Averages (GPA). To evaluate program effectiveness, we applied case-control matching to obtain 215 pairs of students with or without participation in tutoring, but matched on high school GPA and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Monahan, Patrick O.; Ankenmann, Robert D.
2010-01-01
When the matching score is either less than perfectly reliable or not a sufficient statistic for determining latent proficiency in data conforming to item response theory (IRT) models, Type I error (TIE) inflation may occur for the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure or any differential item functioning (DIF) procedure that matches on summed-item…
Perfect electromagnetic absorption at one-atom-thick scale
Li, Sucheng; Duan, Qian; Li, Shuo; Yin, Qiang; Lu, Weixin; Li, Liang; Hou, Bo; Gu, Bangming; Wen, Weijia
2015-11-02
We experimentally demonstrate that perfect electromagnetic absorption can be realized in the one-atom thick graphene. Employing coherent illumination in the waveguide system, the absorbance of the unpatterned graphene monolayer is observed to be greater than 94% over the microwave X-band, 7–13 GHz, and to achieve a full absorption, >99% in experiment, at ∼8.3 GHz. In addition, the absorption characteristic manifests equivalently a wide range of incident angle. The experimental results agree very well with the theoretical calculations. Our work accomplishes the broadband, wide-angle, high-performance absorption in the thinnest material with simple configuration.
Probabilistically Perfect Cloning of Two Pure States: Geometric Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yerokhin, V.; Shehu, A.; Feldman, E.; Bagan, E.; Bergou, J. A.
2016-05-01
We solve the long-standing problem of making n perfect clones from m copies of one of two known pure states with minimum failure probability in the general case where the known states have arbitrary a priori probabilities. The solution emerges from a geometric formulation of the problem. This formulation reveals that cloning converges to state discrimination followed by state preparation as the number of clones goes to infinity. The convergence exhibits a phenomenon analogous to a second-order symmetry-breaking phase transition.
Integrated optical modulators and switches using coherent perfect loss.
Grote, Richard R; Driscoll, Jeffrey B; Osgood, Richard M
2013-08-15
We propose a new type of amplitude modulator for integrated optics based on phase-controllable coherent perfect loss (CPL) from a resonant cavity. Temporal coupled-mode theory is employed to derive a simple set of equations that describe the device operation, and finite-difference time-domain simulations are used to verify these equations. Two examples of CPL modulators are described with this formalism: a ring resonator and a 1D photonic crystal cavity. We show that internal resonator loss, and thus critical coupling, are not strict requirements for CPL operation. These devices are simple to design and can act as compact switches and modulators for integrated optics. PMID:24104632
Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.
Gunderson, Martin
2007-01-01
It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering. PMID:17516148
Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangi Reddy, Salla; P, Chithrabhanu; Vaity, Pravin; Aadhi, A.; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, R. P.
2016-05-01
We generate perfect optical vortex (POV) beams, whose intensity distribution is independent of the order, and scatter them through a rough surface. We show that the size of produced speckles is independent of the order of the POV and their Fourier transform gives the random non-diffracting fields. The invariant size of speckles over the free space propagation verifies their non-diffracting or non-diverging nature. The size of speckles can be easily controlled by changing the axicon parameter, used to generate the Bessel-Gauss beams whose Fourier transform provides the POV. These results may be useful in applications of POV for authentication in cryptography.
Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.
Gunderson, Martin
2007-01-01
It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering.
Non-adiabatic perturbations in multi-component perfect fluids
Koshelev, N.A.
2011-04-01
The evolution of non-adiabatic perturbations in models with multiple coupled perfect fluids with non-adiabatic sound speed is considered. Instead of splitting the entropy perturbation into relative and intrinsic parts, we introduce a set of symmetric quantities, which also govern the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation in models with energy transfer. We write the gauge invariant equations for the variables that determine on a large scale the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation and the rate of changes of the comoving curvature perturbation. The analysis of evolution of the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation has been made for several particular models.
Perfect fluid quantum anisotropic universe: merits and challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, Barun; Banerjee, Narayan
2013-01-01
The present paper deals with quantization of perfect fluid anisotropic cosmological models. Bianchi type V and IX models are discussed following Schutz's method of expressing fluid velocities in terms of six potentials. The wave functions are found for several examples of equations of state. In one case a complete wave packet could be formed analytically. The initial singularity of a zero proper volume can be avoided in this case, but it is plagued by the usual problem of non-unitarity of anisotropic quantum cosmological models. It is seen that a particular operator ordering alleviates this problem.
Extrinsic chirality: Tunable optically active reflectors and perfect absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plum, Eric
2016-06-01
Conventional three-dimensional (3D) chiral media can exhibit optical activity for transmitted waves, but optical activity for reflected waves is negligible. This work shows that mirror asymmetry of the experimental arrangement—extrinsic 3D chirality—leads to giant optical activity for reflected waves with fundamentally different characteristics. It is demonstrated experimentally that extrinsically 3D-chiral illumination of a lossy metasurface backed by a mirror enables tunable circular dichroism and circular birefringence as well as perfect absorption of circularly polarized waves. In contrast, such polarization phenomena vanish for conventional optically active media backed by a mirror.
Counterrotating perfect fluid discs as sources of electrovacuum static spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Reyes, Gonzalo; González, Guillermo A.
2004-11-01
The interpretation of some electrovacuum spacetimes in terms of counterrotating perfect fluid discs is presented. The interpretation is made by means of an 'inverse problem' approach used to obtain disc sources of known static solutions of the Einstein Maxwell equations. In order to do such an interpretation, a detailed study is presented of the counterrotating model (CRM) for generic electrovacuum static axially symmetric relativistic thin discs with nonzero radial pressure. Four simple families of models of counterrotating charged discs based on Chazy Curzon-type, Zipoy Voorhees-type, Bonnor Sackfield-type and charged and magnetized Darmois electrovacuum metrics are considered, where we obtain some discs with a well-behaved CRM.
Silica/silicone nanofilament hybrid coatings with almost perfect superhydrophobicity.
Zhang, Junping; Seeger, Stefan
2013-06-01
A facile method for the preparation of silica/silicone nanofilament hybrid coatings with almost perfect superhydrophobicity (contact angle=179.8° and sliding angle=1.3°) is presented. The coatings are obtained by dip-coating of silica nanoparticles, followed by chemical vapor deposition of silicone nanofilaments. Predominant growth of silicone nanofilaments onto aggregated silica nanoparticles generates a two-tier structure. The effect of silica nanoparticle size on the growth of silicone nanofilaments, along with their anti-wetting properties and transparency are investigated in detail. Surface roughness and anti-wetting properties can be simply regulated by controlling the size of silica nanoparticles.
32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...
32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...
32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...
32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...
32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...
University Reactor Matching Grants Program
John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik
2003-02-14
During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given.
Photometric invariant stereo matching method.
Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Jinjun; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin
2015-12-14
A robust stereo matching method based on a comprehensive mathematical model for color formation process is proposed to estimate the disparity map of stereo images with noise and photometric variations. The band-pass filter with DoP kernel is firstly used to filter out noise component of the stereo images. Then the log-chromaticity normalization process is applied to eliminate the influence of lightning geometry. All the other factors that may influence the color formation process are removed through the disparity estimation process with a specific matching cost. Performance of the developed method is evaluated by comparing with some up-to-date algorithms. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the method. PMID:26698970
Waveform correlation by tree matching.
Cheng, Y C; Lu, S Y
1985-03-01
A waveform correlation scheme is presented. The scheme consists of four parts: 1) the representation of waveforms by trees, 2) the definition of basic operations on tree nodes and tree distance, 3) a tree matching algorithm, and 4) a backtracking procedure to find the best node-to-node correlation. This correlation scheme has been implemented. Results show that the scheme has the capability of handling distortions that result from stretching or shrinking of intervals or from missing intervals.
Matching: its acquisition and generalization.
Crowley, Michael A; Donahoe, John W
2004-01-01
Choice typically is studied by exposing organisms to concurrent variable-interval schedules in which not only responses controlled by stimuli on the key are acquired but also switching responses and likely other operants as well. In the present research, discriminated key-pecking responses in pigeons were first acquired using a multiple schedule that minimized the reinforcement of switching operants. Then, choice was assessed during concurrent-probe periods in which pairs of discriminative stimuli were presented concurrently. Upon initial exposure to concurrently presented stimuli, choice approximated exclusive preference for the alternative associated with the higher reinforcement frequency. Concurrent schedules were then implemented that gave increasingly greater opportunities for switching operants to be conditioned. As these operants were acquired, the relation of relative response frequency to relative reinforcement frequency converged toward a matching relation. An account of matching with concurrent schedules is proposed in which responding exclusively to the discriminative stimulus associated with the higher reinforcement frequency declines as the concurrent stimuli become more similar and other operants-notably switching-are acquired and generalize to stimuli from both alternatives. The concerted effect of these processes fosters an approximate matching relation in commonly used concurrent procedures. PMID:15540502
Geodesic matching of triangulated surfaces.
Ben Hamza, A; Krim, Hamid
2006-08-01
Recognition of images and shapes has long been the central theme of computer vision. Its importance is increasing rapidly in the field of computer graphics and multimedia communication because it is difficult to process information efficiently without its recognition. In this paper, we propose a new approach for object matching based on a global geodesic measure. The key idea behind our methodology is to represent an object by a probabilistic shape descriptor that measures the global geodesic distance between two arbitrary points on the surface of an object. In contrast to the Euclidean distance which is more suitable for linear spaces, the geodesic distance has the advantage to be able to capture the intrinsic geometric structure of the data. The matching task therefore becomes a one-dimensional comparison problem between probability distributions which is clearly much simpler than comparing three-dimensional structures. Object matching can then be carried out by an information-theoretic dissimilarity measure calculations between geodesic shape distributions, and is additionally computationally efficient and inexpensive. PMID:16900680
Does carbohydrate supplementation enhance tennis match play performance?
2013-01-01
Background Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion may be an interesting approach to avoid significant decrement to the tennis match performance. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effects of CHO supplementation on tennis match play performance. Methods Twelve young tennis players (18.0 ± 1.0 years; 176 ± 3.4 cm; 68.0 ± 2.3 kg; body fat: 13.7 ± 2.4%) with national rankings among the top 50 in Brazil agreed to participate in this study, which utilized a randomized, crossover, double blind research design. The experiment was conducted over a 5-day period in which each player completed two simulated tennis matches of a 3-hour duration. The players received either a CHO or a placebo (PLA) drinking solution during simulated tennis matches. Athlete’s performance parameters were determined by filming each match with two video cameras. Each player was individually tracked for the entire duration of the match to measure the following variables: (1) games won; (2) rally duration; (3) strokes per rally; (4) effective playing time (%); (5) aces; (6) double faults; (7) first service in; (8) second service in; (9) first return in and (10) second return in. Results There were no differences between trials in any of the variables analyzed. Conclusions CHO supplementation did not improve tennis match play performance under the present experimental conditions. PMID:24148197
Drag Reduction for Flow Past a Perfectly Hydrophobic Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.; Flynn, Morris R.; Gruncell, Brian R. K.; Sandham, Neil D.; Busse, Angela
2014-11-01
We consider drag reduction for flow past a perfectly hydrophobic sphere (i.e. a vanishing Cassie solid surface fraction or with a Leidenfrost layer). At small Re number an exact analytical model for drag can be constructed for a sphere encapsulated in a layer of a gas (a ``plastron''). This predicts an optimum thickness for the gas layer for maximum drag reduction due to a competition between increased lubrication of the flow and increased cross-section for drag by the compound object (the solid plus its surface-retained layer of gas). Using numerical simulations for a perfectly hydrophobic solid sphere in water we show that the maximum drag reduction increases from 19% to 50% as the Re number increases to 100; this is due to suppression of flow separation and a narrower wake. Introducing roughness into the simulations to model a superhydrophobic surface with a finite Cassie fraction results in less drag reduction because the vortex regime is no longer fully suppressed. Finally, we describe an analytical model of flow resistance through tubes or channels using similar boundary conditions to the flow past a gas-encapsulated sphere. We acknowledge funding from the UK EPSRC (EP/G058318/1, EP/G069581/1 and EP/L026899/1) and the Canadian NSERC.
Spherically symmetric Einstein-aether perfect fluid models
Coley, Alan A.; Latta, Joey; Leon, Genly; Sandin, Patrik E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl E-mail: lattaj@mathstat.dal.ca
2015-12-01
We investigate spherically symmetric cosmological models in Einstein-aether theory with a tilted (non-comoving) perfect fluid source. We use a 1+3 frame formalism and adopt the comoving aether gauge to derive the evolution equations, which form a well-posed system of first order partial differential equations in two variables. We then introduce normalized variables. The formalism is particularly well-suited for numerical computations and the study of the qualitative properties of the models, which are also solutions of Horava gravity. We study the local stability of the equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical system corresponding to physically realistic inhomogeneous cosmological models and astrophysical objects with values for the parameters which are consistent with current constraints. In particular, we consider dust models in (β−) normalized variables and derive a reduced (closed) evolution system and we obtain the general evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous Kantowski-Sachs models using appropriate bounded normalized variables. We then analyse these models, with special emphasis on the future asymptotic behaviour for different values of the parameters. Finally, we investigate static models for a mixture of a (necessarily non-tilted) perfect fluid with a barotropic equations of state and a scalar field.
Scaling of surface roughness in perfectly plastic disordered media
Barai, Pallab; Nukala, Phani K; Sampath, Rahul S; Simunovic, Srdjan
2010-01-01
This paper investigates surface roughness characteristics of localized plastic yield surface in a perfectly plastic disordered material. We model the plastic disordered material using perfectly plastic random spring model. Our results indicate that plasticity in a disordered material evolves in a diffusive manner until macroscopic yielding, which is in contrast to the localized failure observed in brittle fracture of disordered materials. On the other hand, the height-height fluctuations of the plastic yield surfaces generated by the spring model exhibit roughness exponents similar to those obtained in the brittle fracture of disordered materials, albeit anomalous scaling of plastic surface roughness is not observed. The local and global roughness exponents ({zeta}{sub loc} and {zeta}, respectively) are equal to each other, and the two-dimensional crack roughness exponent is estimated to be {zeta}{sub loc} = {zeta} = 0.67 {+-} 0.03. The probability density distribution p[{Delta}h({ell})] of the height differences {Delta}h({ell}) = [h(x+{ell})-h(x)] of the crack profile follows a Gaussian distribution.
Quantum Perfect-Fluid Kaluza-Klein Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wung-Hong; Wang, I.-Chin
The perfect-fluid cosmology in the (1+d+D)-dimensional Kaluza-Klein space-times for an arbitrary barotropic equation of state p = (γ-1)ρ is quantized by using the Schutz's variational formalism. We make efforts in the mathematics to solve the problems in two cases. In the first case of the stiff fluid γ = 2 we exactly solve the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the d space is flat. After the superposition of the solutions the wave-packet function is obtained exactly. We analyze the Bohmian trajectories of the final-stage wave-packet functions and show that the scale functions of the flat d spaces and the compact D spaces will eventually evolve into the nonzero finite values. In the second case of γ≈2, we use the approximated wave function in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to find the analytic forms of the final-stage wave-packet functions. After analyzing the Bohmian trajectories we show that the flat d spaces will be expanding forever while the scale function of the contracting D spaces would not become zero within finite time. Our investigations indicate that the quantum effect in the quantum perfect-fluid cosmology could prevent the extra compact D spaces in the Kaluza-Klein theory from collapsing into a singularity or that the "crack-of-doom" singularity of the extra compact dimensions is made to occur at t = ∞.
Perfect harmony: A mathematical analysis of four historical tunings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Page, Michael F.
2004-10-01
In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an ``ideal just scale,'' which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's ``Well-Tempered Clavier,'' for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three ``Well-Tempered Clavier'' preludes examined. .
Adaptive Matching of the Scanning Aperture of the Environment Parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choni, Yu. I.; Yunusov, N. N.
2016-04-01
We analyze a matching system for the scanning aperture antenna radiating through a layer with unpredictably changing parameters. Improved matching has been achieved by adaptive motion of a dielectric plate in the gap between the aperture and the radome. The system is described within the framework of an infinite layered structure. The validity of the model has been confirmed by numerical simulation using CST Microwave Studio software and by an experiment. It is shown that the reflection coefficient at the input of some types of a matching device, which is due to the deviation of the load impedance from the nominal value, is determined by a compact and versatile formula. The potential efficiency of the proposed matching system is shown by a specific example, and its dependence on the choice of the starting position of the dielectric plate is demonstrated.
From serological to computer cross-matching in nine hospitals.
Georgsen, J; Kristensen, T
1998-01-01
In 1991 it was decided to reorganise the transfusion service of the County of Funen. The aims were to standardise and improve the quality of blood components, laboratory procedures and the transfusion service and to reduce the number of outdated blood units. Part of the efficiency gains was reinvested in a dedicated computer system making it possible--among other things--to change the cross-match procedures from serological to computer cross-matching according to the ABCD-concept. This communication describes how this transition was performed in terms of laboratory techniques, education of personnel as well as implementation of the computer system and indicates the results obtained. The Funen Transfusion Service has by now performed more than 100.000 red cell transfusions based on ABCD-cross-matching and has not encountered any problems. Major results are the significant reductions of cross-match procedures, blood grouping as well as the number of outdated blood components. PMID:9704476
Mathews, Vikram; George, Biju; Viswabandya, Auro; Abraham, Aby; Ahmed, Rayaz; Ganapule, Abhijeet; Sindhuvi, Eunice; Lakshmi, Kavitha M; Srivastava, Alok
2013-01-01
Improving clinical outcomes among high risk Class III β thalassemia major patients (Class IIIHR) receiving an allogeneic SCT remains a challenge. From October, 2009 a treosulfan based regimen (TreoFluT) was used for all consecutive Class III patients (n = 50). The clinical outcomes were compared with the historical conventional busulfan (BuCy) based regimen (n = 139). Use of TreoFluT was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) among Class IIIHR cases (78% to 30%; P = 0.000) and early TRM (46% to 13%; p = 0.005). There was also a trend towards better engraftment in the Class IIIHR subset (P = 0.055). However, the use of bone marrow (BM) as source of stem cells along with the TreoFluT regimen was associated with 50% early mixed chimerism which reduced to 8.5% with the use of a peripheral blood stem cell graft (PBSC). Use of a PBSC graft was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of acute or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). The overall and event free survival was significantly better among the Class IIIHR subset with the use of TreoFluT Vs. BuCy (86.6 ± 7.3 Vs. 39.4 ± 6.8%; P = 0.002 and 77.8 ± 8.8 Vs. 32.4 ± 6.5%; P = 0.003 respectively). A TreoFluT conditioning regimen with a PBSC graft can significantly improve clinical outcomes of Class IIIHR patients.
Villar, Alfonso Martinez, Jose Carlos; Serdio, Jose Luis de
2008-04-01
Purpose: To attempt to improve results of chemoradiation for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: From March 1996 to April 2007, 98 patients with head and neck cancer (15 Stage III and 83 Stage IV) were treated with a twice-daily hyperfractionated schedule. Eleven patients presented with N0, 11 with N1, 13 with N2A, 17 with N2B, 24 with N2C, and 22 with N3. Each fraction of treatment consisted of 5 mg/m{sup 2} of carboplatin plus 115 cGy with carbogen breathing. Treatment was given 5 days per week up to total doses of 350 mg/m{sup 2} of carboplatin plus 8050 cGy in 7 weeks. Anemia was corrected with erythropoietin. Results: Ninety-six patients tolerated the treatment as scheduled. All patients tolerated the planned radiation dose. Local toxicity remained at the level expected with irradiation alone. Chemotherapy toxicity was moderate. Ninety-seven complete responses were achieved. After 11 years of follow-up (median, 81 months), actuarial locoregional control, cause-specific survival, overall survival, and nodal control rates at 5 and 10 years were, respectively, 83% and 83%, 68% and 68%, 57% and 55%, and 100% and 100%. Median follow-up of disease-free survivors was 80 months. No significant differences in survival were observed between the different subsites or between the pretreatment node status groups (N0 vs. N+, N0 vs. N1, N0 vs. N2A, N0 vs. N2B, N0 vs. N2C, and N0 vs. N3). Conclusions: Improving results of chemoradiation for advanced head and neck cancer up to the level obtained with current treatments for early-stage tumors is a potentially reachable goal.
Outcome analysis of factors impacting the plastic surgery match.
Wood, Jeyhan S; David, Lisa R
2010-06-01
Matching into an integrated plastic surgery program has become highly competitive. As a result it has become more difficult for both the applicants and the residency programs to determine which attributes are most important to match in plastic surgery and, more importantly, to make a surgeon who will contribute to the future of our specialty. This study was conducted to analyze potential associations between a successful match into plastic surgery and the number of interviews offered and attended, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, and participation in away rotations. Increased competitiveness of the specialty also has required that the applicant spend significant time and money on the match process to improve his chances. Therefore, we looked at the financial impact of the interview process as well as at compliance with the new communication mandate by the Plastic Surgery Residency Review Committee designed to decrease some of the time and monetary costs associated with the match process. An anonymous 30-item survey was e-mailed to all the applicants to our institution last year. The survey consisted of questions addressing applicant profile with specific questions regarding the interview process. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies and proportions for each of the questions, were calculated. To assess the relationship between categorical outcomes, a Fisher exact test was used. Results with a P value less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Considering matching as the primary outcome measure, a statistically significant relationship was found with the number of plastic surgery interview invitations received and attended (P < 0.0001 for both), as well as with AOA membership (P = 0.018), with 89% (32/36) of the responders in AOA matching into plastic surgery. Although doing an away rotation did not have a significant association with match rate, one-third of responders matched where they did an away rotation. Gender was not found to
Perfect electromagnetic absorption using graphene and epsilon-near-zero metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobet, Michaël; Majerus, Bruno; Henrard, Luc; Lambin, Philippe
2016-06-01
The ability of graphene/polymer heterostructures to absorb GHz electromagnetic radiation was recently evidenced both theoretically and experimentally [Batrakov et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 7191 (2014), 10.1038/srep07191 and Lobet et al., Nanotechnology 26, 285702 (2015), 10.1088/0957-4484/26/28/285702]. Maximum absorption was shown to depend solely on refractive indices of incident and emergence media once impedance matching conditions are fulfilled. In this paper, analytical models and numerical simulations are performed for both semi-infinite and finite slab substrate. We evidenced that only three graphene layers separated by a dielectric spacer and an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial as emergence medium allow a perfect absorption for normal incidence. The use of lossless epsilon-near-zero metamaterial prevents radiations to go through the device, because of infinite impedance, and forces them to be totally absorbed in the dissipative medium (graphene). The device is proved to be robust regarding angular incidence up to 45 deg for a semi-infinite epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed strategy is universal and can be applied to any kind of two-dimensional dissipative materials lying on epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed absorber does not rely on surface patterning or texturing and hence is more appealing for device applications.
Stimulation of vapor nucleation on perfect and imperfect hexagonal lattice surfaces
Shevkunov, S. V.
2008-12-15
Monte Carlo simulations of water vapor nucleation on a perfect crystal surface and on a surface with defects are performed. Mass exchange with the vapor phase is modeled by using an open ensemble. Cluster-substrate interaction is described in terms of conventional atom-atom potentials. The Hamiltonian of the system includes expressions for electrostatic, polarization, exchange, and dispersion interactions. The Gibbs free energy and work of adsorption are calculated by Monte Carlo simulation in the bicanoinical ensemble. The microscopic structure of nuclei is analyzed in terms of pair correlation functions. Periodic boundary conditions are used to simulate an infinite substrate surface. Molecule-substrate and molecule-molecule long-range electrostatic interactions are calculated by summing the Fourier harmonics of the electrostatic potential. Dispersion interactions are calculated by direct summation over layers of unit cells. Nucleation on a surface with matching structure follows a layer-by-layer mechanism. The work of adsorption per molecule of a monolayer on the substrate surface has a maximum as a function of nucleus size. The steady rate of nucleation of islands of supercritical size is evaluated. The work of adsorption per molecule for layer-by-layer film growth is an oscillating function of cluster size. As a function of layer number, it has a minimum depending on the vapor pressure. The electric field generated by a microscopic surface protrusion destroys the layered structure of the condensate and eliminates free-energy nucleation barriers. However, point lattice defects do not stimulate explosive nucleation.
On the gravitational field of a radiating, isothermal perfect gas cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, L. M. B. C.
2016-04-01
The paper considers a static isotropic self-gravitating perfect gas in the presence of thermal radiation. The gravitational field is specified in terms of the radiation and gas pressures. Assuming that the thermodynamic internal energy is small compared with relativistic rest energy, it is shown that the gas pressure satisfies the Lane-Emden equation; the assumption of dominant intrinsic relativistic rest energy is satisfied by the hottest stars. Six-solutions of the Lane-Enden equation are obtained together with the corresponding gravitational fields. The basis for comparison is the singular solution I decaying like the inverse square of the radius, that is the leading term of the asymptotic solution V. Two semi-linear solutions are obtained using as variables nonlinear functions of the gas pressure, leading to nonlinear second-order differential equations that can be linearized; one solution II holds for small radius and leads to zero, finite or infinite central pressure, and the other solution III holds asymptomatically and exhibits pressure oscillations. The singular solution I for large radius is matched to a power series solution IV for small radius leading to a solution valid for all radii. The asymptotic solutions III and V: (i) coincide in their common domain of validity; (ii) can be truncated with good accuracy leading to the solution VI.
Matching Shapes Using Local Descriptors
White, R; Newsam, S; Kamath, C
2004-08-13
We present a method for comparing shapes of grayscale images in noisy circumstances. By establishing correspondences in a new image with a shape model, we can estimate a transformation between the new region and the model. Using a cost function for deviations from the model, we can rank resulting shape matches. We compare two separate distinct region detectors: Scale Saliency and difference of gaussians. We show that this method is successful in comparing images of fluid mixing under anisotropic geometric distortions and additive gaussian noise. Scale Saliency outperforms the difference of Gaussians in this context.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehtola, Susi; Parkhill, John; Head-Gordon, Martin
2016-10-01
Novel implementations based on dense tensor storage are presented for the singlet-reference perfect quadruples (PQ) [J. A. Parkhill et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084101 (2009)] and perfect hextuples (PH) [J. A. Parkhill and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 024103 (2010)] models. The methods are obtained as block decompositions of conventional coupled-cluster theory that are exact for four electrons in four orbitals (PQ) and six electrons in six orbitals (PH), but that can also be applied to much larger systems. PQ and PH have storage requirements that scale as the square, and as the cube of the number of active electrons, respectively, and exhibit quartic scaling of the computational effort for large systems. Applications of the new implementations are presented for full-valence calculations on linear polyenes (CnHn+2), which highlight the excellent computational scaling of the present implementations that can routinely handle active spaces of hundreds of electrons. The accuracy of the models is studied in the π space of the polyenes, in hydrogen chains (H50), and in the π space of polyacene molecules. In all cases, the results compare favorably to density matrix renormalization group values. With the novel implementation of PQ, active spaces of 140 electrons in 140 orbitals can be solved in a matter of minutes on a single core workstation, and the relatively low polynomial scaling means that very large systems are also accessible using parallel computing.
Phenotype-environment matching in sand fleas.
Stevens, Martin; Broderick, Annette C; Godley, Brendan J; Lown, Alice E; Troscianko, Jolyon; Weber, Nicola; Weber, Sam B
2015-08-01
Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator strategy in nature, found in numerous animal groups. A long-standing prediction is that individuals should have camouflage tuned to the visual backgrounds where they live. However, while several studies have demonstrated phenotype-environment associations, few have directly shown that this confers an improvement in camouflage, particularly with respect to predator vision. Here, we show that an intertidal crustacean, the sand flea (Hippa testudinaria), has coloration tuned to the different substrates on which it occurs when viewed by potential avian predators. Individual sand fleas from a small, oceanic island (Ascension) matched the colour and luminance of their own beaches more closely than neighbouring beaches to a model of avian vision. Based on past work, this phenotype-environment matching is likely to be driven through ontogenetic changes rather than genetic adaptation. Our work provides some of the first direct evidence that animal coloration is tuned to provide camouflage to prospective predators against a range of visual backgrounds, in a population of animals occurring over a small geographical range. PMID:26268993
Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.
Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo
2016-01-01
Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches.
Phenotype–environment matching in sand fleas
Stevens, Martin; Broderick, Annette C.; Godley, Brendan J.; Lown, Alice E.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Weber, Nicola; Weber, Sam B.
2015-01-01
Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator strategy in nature, found in numerous animal groups. A long-standing prediction is that individuals should have camouflage tuned to the visual backgrounds where they live. However, while several studies have demonstrated phenotype–environment associations, few have directly shown that this confers an improvement in camouflage, particularly with respect to predator vision. Here, we show that an intertidal crustacean, the sand flea (Hippa testudinaria), has coloration tuned to the different substrates on which it occurs when viewed by potential avian predators. Individual sand fleas from a small, oceanic island (Ascension) matched the colour and luminance of their own beaches more closely than neighbouring beaches to a model of avian vision. Based on past work, this phenotype–environment matching is likely to be driven through ontogenetic changes rather than genetic adaptation. Our work provides some of the first direct evidence that animal coloration is tuned to provide camouflage to prospective predators against a range of visual backgrounds, in a population of animals occurring over a small geographical range. PMID:26268993
Graph Matching: Relax at Your Own Risk.
Lyzinski, Vince; Fishkind, Donniell E; Fiori, Marcelo; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Priebe, Carey E; Sapiro, Guillermo
2016-01-01
Graph matching-aligning a pair of graphs to minimize their edge disagreements-has received wide-spread attention from both theoretical and applied communities over the past several decades, including combinatorics, computer vision, and connectomics. Its attention can be partially attributed to its computational difficulty. Although many heuristics have previously been proposed in the literature to approximately solve graph matching, very few have any theoretical support for their performance. A common technique is to relax the discrete problem to a continuous problem, therefore enabling practitioners to bring gradient-descent-type algorithms to bear. We prove that an indefinite relaxation (when solved exactly) almost always discovers the optimal permutation, while a common convex relaxation almost always fails to discover the optimal permutation. These theoretical results suggest that initializing the indefinite algorithm with the convex optimum might yield improved practical performance. Indeed, experimental results illuminate and corroborate these theoretical findings, demonstrating that excellent results are achieved in both benchmark and real data problems by amalgamating the two approaches. PMID:26656578
Polycrystalline metasurface perfect absorbers fabricated using microsphere photolithography.
Qu, Chuang; Kinzel, Edward C
2016-08-01
Microsphere photolithography (MPL) is a practical, cost-effective nanofabrication technique. It uses self-assembled microspheres in contact with the photoresist as microlenses. The microspheres focus incident light to a sub-diffraction limited array of photonic jets in the photoresist. This Letter explores the MPL technique to pattern metal-insulator-metal metasurfaces with near-perfect absorption at mid-wave infrared (MWIR) frequencies. Experimental results are compared to electromagnetic simulations of both the exposure process and the metasurface response. The microsphere self-assembly technique results in a polycrystalline metasurface; however, the metal-insulator-metal structure is shown to be defect tolerant. While the MPL approach imposes geometric constraints on the metasurface design, once understood, the technique can be used to create functional devices. In particular, the ability to tune the resonant wavelength with the exposure dose raises the potential of hierarchical structures.
Closed time like curves enable perfect state distinguishability
Harrington, James William; Wilde, Mark M; Brun, Todd A
2008-01-01
The causal self-consistency condition for closed timelike curves can give rise to nonlinear interactions on chronology-respecting qubits. We demonstrate that particular unitary interactions between closed timelike curve qubits and chronology-respecting qubits allow perfect distinguishability of nonorthogonal states, and provide a constructive proof for an arbitrary number of nonorthogonal states. This has a number of highly significant consequences. For example, an adversary with access to closed timelike curves can break the B92, BB84, and SARG04 quantum key distribution protocols, or any prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution scheme. Our result also implies that a party with access to closed timelike curves can violate the Holevo bound by accessing more than log(N) bits of information from an N-dimensional quantum state. In principle, he can transmit an arbitrarily large amount of classical information with a quantum system of fixed size. We discuss the implications of this for quantum cloning.
Unitary quantum gates, perfect entanglers, and unistochastic maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musz, Marcin; Kuś, Marek; Życzkowski, Karol
2013-02-01
Nonlocal properties of ensembles of quantum gates induced by the Haar measure on the unitary group are investigated. We analyze the entropy of entanglement of a unitary matrix U equal to the Shannon entropy of the vector of singular values of the reshuffled matrix. Averaging the entropy over the Haar measure on U(N2) we find its asymptotic behavior. For two-qubit quantum gates we derive the induced probability distribution of the interaction content and show that the relative volume of the set of perfect entanglers reads 8/3π≈0.85. We establish explicit conditions under which a given one-qubit bistochastic map is unistochastic, so it can be obtained by partial trace over a one-qubit environment initially prepared in the maximally mixed state.
Optical properties of the perfectly compensated semimetal WTe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homes, C. C.; Ali, M. N.; Cava, R. J.
2015-10-01
The optical properties of layered tungsten ditelluride have been measured over a wide temperature and frequency range for light polarized in the a-b planes. A striking low-frequency plasma edge develops in the reflectance at low temperature where this material is a perfectly compensated semimetal. The optical conductivity is described using a two-Drude model which treats the electron and hole pockets as separate electronic subsystems. At low temperature, one scattering rate collapses by over two orders of magnitude, while the other also undergoes a significant, but less dramatic, decrease; both scattering rates appear to display the quadratic temperature dependence expected for a Fermi liquid. First principles electronic structure calculations reveal that the low-lying optical excitations are due to direct transitions between the bands associated with the electron and hole pockets.
No-signaling, perfect bipartite dichotomic correlations and local randomness
Seevinck, M. P.
2011-03-28
The no-signaling constraint on bi-partite correlations is reviewed. It is shown that in order to obtain non-trivial Bell-type inequalities that discern no-signaling correlations from more general ones, one must go beyond considering expectation values of products of observables only. A new set of nontrivial no-signaling inequalities is derived which have a remarkably close resemblance to the CHSH inequality, yet are fundamentally different. A set of inequalities by Roy and Singh and Avis et al., which is claimed to be useful for discerning no-signaling correlations, is shown to be trivially satisfied by any correlation whatsoever. Finally, using the set of newly derived no-signaling inequalities a result with potential cryptographic consequences is proven: if different parties use identical devices, then, once they have perfect correlations at spacelike separation between dichotomic observables, they know that because of no-signaling the local marginals cannot but be completely random.
Quark-Gluon Soup -- The Perfectly Liquid Phase of QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinz, Ulrich
2015-03-01
At temperatures above about 150 MeV and energy densities exceeding 500 MeV/fm3, quarks and gluons exist in the form of a plasma of free color charges that is about 1000 times hotter and a billion times denser than any other plasma ever created in the laboratory. This quark-gluon plasma (QGP) turns out to be strongly coupled, flowing like a liquid. About 35 years ago, the nuclear physics community started a program of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with the goal of producing and studying QGP under controlled laboratory conditions. This article recounts the story of its successful creation in collider experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and the subsequent discovery of its almost perfectly liquid nature, and reports on the recent quantitatively precise determination of its thermodynamic and transport properties.
Cosmological coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids
Barrow, John D.; Jin, Yoshida; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2005-11-15
We study the coevolution of Yang-Mills fields and perfect fluids in Bianchi type I universes. We investigate numerically the evolution of the universe and the Yang-Mills fields during the radiation and dust eras of a universe that is almost isotropic. The Yang-Mills field undergoes small amplitude chaotic oscillations, as do the three expansion scale factors which are also displayed by the expansion scale factors of the universe. The results of the numerical simulations are interpreted analytically and compared with past studies of the cosmological evolution of magnetic fields in radiation and dust universes. We find that, whereas magnetic universes are strongly constrained by the microwave background anisotropy, Yang-Mills universes are principally constrained by primordial nucleosynthesis but the bound is comparatively weak with {omega}{sub YM}<0.105{omega}{sub rad}.
Optical properties of the perfectly compensated semimetal WTe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homes, C. C.; Ali, M. N.; Cava, R. J.
The optical properties of layered tungsten ditelluride have been measured over a wide temperature and frequency range for light polarized in the a-b planes. A striking low-frequency plasma edge develops in the reflectance at low temperature where this material is a perfectly compensated semimetal. The optical conductivity is described using a two-Drude model which treats the electron and hole pockets as separate electronic subsystems. At low temperature, one scattering rate collapses by over two orders of magnitude, while the other also undergoes a significant, but less dramatic, decrease; both scattering rates appear to display the quadratic temperature dependence expected for a Fermi liquid. First principles electronic structure calculations reveal that the low-lying optical excitations are due to direct transitions between the bands associated with the electron and hole pockets. Supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0012704; Army Research Office, Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0461.
Anderson localisation in spin chains for perfect state transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ronke, Rebecca; Estarellas, Marta P.; D'Amico, Irene; Spiller, Timothy P.; Miyadera, Takayuki
2016-09-01
Anderson localisation is an important phenomenon arising in many areas of physics, and here we explore it in the context of quantum information devices. Finite dimensional spin chains have been demonstrated to be important devices for quantum information transport, and in particular can be engineered to allow for "perfect state transfer" (PST). Here we present extensive investigations of disordered PST spin chains, demonstrating spatial localisation and transport retardation effects, and relate these effects to conventional Anderson localisation. We provide thresholds for Anderson localisation in these finite quantum information systems for both the spatial and the transport domains. Finally, we consider the effect of disorder on the eigenstates and energy spectrum of our Hamiltonian, where results support our conclusions on the presence of Anderson localisation.
Polycrystalline metasurface perfect absorbers fabricated using microsphere photolithography.
Qu, Chuang; Kinzel, Edward C
2016-08-01
Microsphere photolithography (MPL) is a practical, cost-effective nanofabrication technique. It uses self-assembled microspheres in contact with the photoresist as microlenses. The microspheres focus incident light to a sub-diffraction limited array of photonic jets in the photoresist. This Letter explores the MPL technique to pattern metal-insulator-metal metasurfaces with near-perfect absorption at mid-wave infrared (MWIR) frequencies. Experimental results are compared to electromagnetic simulations of both the exposure process and the metasurface response. The microsphere self-assembly technique results in a polycrystalline metasurface; however, the metal-insulator-metal structure is shown to be defect tolerant. While the MPL approach imposes geometric constraints on the metasurface design, once understood, the technique can be used to create functional devices. In particular, the ability to tune the resonant wavelength with the exposure dose raises the potential of hierarchical structures. PMID:27472578
Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers
Guddala, Sriram Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha
2015-03-16
A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.
Almost Perfect Teleportation Using 4-PARTITE Entangled States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prakash, H.; Chandra, N.; Prakash, R.; Shivani
In a recent paper N. Ba An (Phys. Rev. A 68, 022321 (2003)) proposed a scheme to teleport a single particle state, which is superposition of coherent states |α> and |-α> using a 4-partite state, a beam splitter, and phase shifters and concluded that the probability for successful teleportation is only 1/4 in the limit |α| → 0 and 1/2 in the limit |α| → ∞. In this paper, we modify this scheme and find that an almost perfect success can be achieved if |α|2 is appreciable. For example, for |α|2 = 5, the minimum of average fidelity for teleportation, which is the minimum of sum of the product of probability for occurrence of any case and the corresponding fidelity evaluated for an arbitrary chosen information state, is 0.9999.
Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guddala, Sriram; Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha
2015-03-01
A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.
Genomics--the perfect information-seeking research problem.
Johnson, J David; Case, Donald O; Andrews, James E; Allard, Suzanne L
2005-06-01
The intersection of the genetics era and information age poses unique and daunting challenges for health consumers who may not have the health literacy to keep pace. While rapid advances in genetics research promise enhanced care, the inherent complexities and individualistic nature of genetic information have resulted in a challenging information environment. The technical possibilities for acquiring genomic information are increasing at an exponential pace, as are the scientific advances relating to it. Furthermore, societal reactions to genomics, and possible privacy and discrimination issues, may constitute significant constraints. The health care infrastructure also has its limits, given the severe shortage of qualified cancer genetic counselors and general practitioners who are unprepared to address genetics, creating a demand for creative approaches to service delivery. The combination of individual salience, low health literacy, the consumer movement, and important policy problems, then makes genomics the perfect information seeking research problem.
On the locally rotationally symmetric Einstein-Maxwell perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pugliese, D.; Valiente Kroon, J. A.
2016-06-01
We examine the stability of Einstein-Maxwell perfect fluid configurations with a privileged radial direction by means of a 1+1+2-tetrad formalism. We use this formalism to cast in a quasilinear symmetric hyperbolic form the equations describing the evolution of the system. This hyperbolic reduction is used to discuss the stability of linear perturbations in some special cases. By restricting the analysis to isotropic fluid configurations, we assume a constant electrical conductivity coefficient for the fluid. As a result of this analysis we provide a complete classification and characterization of various stable and unstable configurations. We find, in particular, that in many cases the stability conditions are strongly determined by the constitutive equations and the electric conductivity. A threshold for the emergence of the instability appears in both contracting and expanding systems.
``Perfect'' Coulomb Drag in a Bilayer Quantum Hall System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, D.; Finck, A. D. K.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2012-02-01
We report Coulomb drag measurements in Corbino geometry which reveal that equal but oppositely directed electrical currents can freely propagate across the insulating bulk of the bilayer quantized Hall state at νT=1 even when the two 2D layers are electrically isolated and interlayer tunneling has been heavily suppressed by an in-plane magnetic field. This effect, which we dub ``perfect'' Coulomb drag, reflects the transport of charge neutral excitons across the bulk of the 2D system. The equal magnitude of the drive and drag currents is lost at high current and when either the temperature or effective separation between the two 2D layers is increased. In each of these cases, ordinary quasiparticle charge transport across the annulus has grown to dominate over exciton transport.
Coherent perfect absorption in one-sided reflectionless media
Wu, Jin-Hui; Artoni, M.; La Rocca, G. C.
2016-01-01
In optical experiments one-sided reflectionless (ORL) and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) are unusual scattering properties yet fascinating for their fundamental aspects and for their practical interest. Although these two concepts have so far remained separated from each other, we prove that the two phenomena are indeed strictly connected. We show that a CPA–ORL connection exists between pairs of points lying along lines close to each other in the 3D space-parameters of a realistic lossy atomic photonic crystal. The connection is expected to be a generic feature of wave scattering in non-Hermitian optical media encompassing, as a particular case, wave scattering in parity-time (PT) symmetric media. PMID:27759020
Growth, crystalline perfection and characterization of benzophenone oxime crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajasekar, M.; Muthu, K.; Meenatchi, V.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Mahadevan, C. K.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.
Single crystals of benzophenone oxime (BPO) have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique from ethanol at room temperature. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system and cell parameters are, a = 9.459 Å, b = 8.383 Å, c = 26.690 Å, v = 2115 Å3 and β = 92.807°. The structure and the crystallinity of the materials were further confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The various functional groups present in the molecule are confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The TG/DSC studies reveal the purity of the material and the crystals are transparent in the entire visible region having a lower optical cut-off at ˜300 nm. The crystalline perfection was evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The crystal is further characterized by Kurtz powder technique, dielectric studies and microhardness analysis.
How perfect can a gluon plasma be in perturbative QCD?
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Deng Jian; Dong Hui; Wang Qun
2011-02-01
The shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, {eta}/s, characterizes how perfect a fluid is. We calculate the leading order {eta}/s of a gluon plasma in perturbation using the kinetic theory. The leading order contribution only involves the elastic gg{r_reversible}gg (22) process and the inelastic gg{r_reversible}ggg (23) process. The hard-thermal-loop (HTL) treatment is used for the 22 matrix element, while the exact matrix element in vacuum is supplemented by the gluon Debye mass insertion for the 23 process. Also, the asymptotic mass is used for the external gluons in the kinetic theory. The errors from not implementing HTL and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect in the 23 process, and from the uncalculated higher order corrections, are estimated. Our result smoothly connects the two different approximations used by Arnold, Moore, and Yaffe (AMY) and Xu and Greiner (XG). At small {alpha}{sub s} ({alpha}{sub s}<<1), our result is closer to AMY's collinear result while at larger {alpha}{sub s} the finite angle noncollinear configurations become more important and our result is closer to XG's soft bremsstrahlung result. In the region where perturbation is reliable ({alpha}{sub s} < or approx. 0.1), we find no indication that the proposed perfect fluid limit {eta}/s{approx_equal}1/(4{pi}) can be achieved by perturbative QCD alone. Whether this can be achieve for {alpha}{sub s} > or approx. 0.1 is still an open question.
Perfect fluid tori orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuchlík, Z.; Pugliese, D.; Schee, J.; Kučáková, H.
2015-09-01
We construct perfect fluid tori in the field of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (K-S) naked singularities. These are spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the modified Hořava quantum gravity, characterized by a dimensionless parameter ω M^2, combining the gravitational mass parameter M of the spacetime with the Hořava parameter ω reflecting the role of the quantum corrections. In dependence on the value of ω M^2, the K-S naked singularities demonstrate a variety of qualitatively different behavior of their circular geodesics that is fully reflected in the properties of the toroidal structures, demonstrating clear distinction to the properties of the torii in the Schwarzschild spacetimes. In all of the K-S naked singularity spacetimes the tori are located above an "antigravity" sphere where matter can stay in a stable equilibrium position, which is relevant for the stability of the orbiting fluid toroidal accretion structures. The signature of the K-S naked singularity is given by the properties of marginally stable tori orbiting with the uniform distribution of the specific angular momentum of the fluid, l= const. In the K-S naked singularity spacetimes with ω M^2 > 0.2811, doubled tori with the same l= const can exist; mass transfer between the outer torus and the inner one is possible under appropriate conditions, while only outflow to the outer space is allowed in complementary conditions. In the K-S spacetimes with ω M^2 < 0.2811, accretion from cusped perfect fluid tori is not possible due to the non-existence of unstable circular geodesics.
High-order micro-ring resonator with perfect transmission using symmetrical Fibonacci structures.
Tsao, C W; Cheng, Y H; Hsueh, W J
2015-09-15
A symmetrical Fibonacci micro-ring resonator (SFMR) has been presented to avoid the coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) bottle, which is a bottle-shaped distribution for high orders in transmission spectra. The SFMR features three advantages that improve filtering quality compared to that provided by traditional periodic micro-ring resonators. First, sharper resonances are obtained by eliminating the CROW bottle from the mini gaps that appear in the major-band region. Second, peaks with perfect transmission are always obtained without a radius and coupling modulation in the mini-band regions and major-band regions. Third, the full width at half-maximum of the band-edge peak decreases with the increasing generation order. PMID:26371905
Near perfect mode overlap between independently seeded, gain-switched lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comandar, L. C.; Lucamarini, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.
2016-08-01
We drastically improve the mode overlap between independently seeded, gain-switched laser diodes operating at gigahertz repetition rates by implementing a pulsed light seeding technique. Injecting pulsed light reduces the emission time jitter and enables frequency chirp synchronization while maintaining random optical phases of the emitted laser pulses. We measure interference of these pulsed sources both in the macroscopic regime, where we demonstrate near perfect mode overlap, and in the single photon regime, where we achieve a Hong-Ou-Mandel dip visibility of 0.499+/-0.004, thus saturating the theoretical limit of 0.5. The measurement results are reproduced by Monte-Carlo simulations with no free parameters. Our light source is an ideal solution for generation of high rate, indistinguishable coherent pulses for quantum information applications.
The match demands of international rugby sevens.
Ross, Alex; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to quantify the global match demands of international rugby sevens and to compare the match demands of forwards and backs, and between tournament rounds. To assess the match demands, global positioning system (GPS) and video analysis were collected from 27 international rugby sevens players from the same team across an entire International Rugby Board Sevens World Series season. Differences in running demands and match activities between forwards and backs were mostly trivial and small (ES = 0.05-0.84) while differences in running demands and match activities between Pool and Cup rounds were trivial (ES = 0.001-0.12). Cup round matches showed an increase in long-duration ball-in-play sequences (proportion ratio 0.46). These findings suggest international rugby sevens forwards and backs experience similar match demands while overall match demands remain consistent across tournament rounds. PMID:25555035
Thermally matched fluid cooled power converter
Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.
2005-06-21
A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.
Matching the Market for Heart Transplantation.
Hsich, Eileen M
2016-04-01
Heart transplantation is the most effective therapy for patients with Stage D heart failure with a median life expectancy of ≈10 to 15 years. Unfortunately, many patients die on the waiting list hoping for a chance of survival. The life boat cannot rescue everyone. Over a decade, the donor pool has remained relatively stable, whereas the number of heart transplant candidates has risen. Potential recipients often have many comorbidities and are older because the criteria for heart transplantation has few absolute contraindications. Women, Hispanics, and patients with restrictive heart disease and congenital heart disease are more likely to die while awaiting heart transplantation than men, white patients, and those with either ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy. To better match the market, we need to (1) increase the donor pool, (2) reduce the waitlist, and (3) improve the allocation system. This review article addresses all 3 options and compares strategies in the United States to those in other countries.
Matching methods evaluation framework for stereoscopic breast x-ray images.
Rousson, Johanna; Naudin, Mathieu; Marchessoux, Cédric
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional (3-D) imaging has been intensively studied in the past few decades. Depth information is an important added value of 3-D systems over two-dimensional systems. Special focuses were devoted to the development of stereo matching methods for the generation of disparity maps (i.e., depth information within a 3-D scene). Dedicated frameworks were designed to evaluate and rank the performance of different stereo matching methods but never considering x-ray medical images. Yet, 3-D x-ray acquisition systems and 3-D medical displays have already been introduced into the diagnostic market. To access the depth information within x-ray stereoscopic images, computing accurate disparity maps is essential. We aimed at developing a framework dedicated to x-ray stereoscopic breast images used to evaluate and rank several stereo matching methods. A multiresolution pyramid optimization approach was integrated to the framework to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the stereo matching techniques. Finally, a metric was designed to score the results of the stereo matching compared with the ground truth. Eight methods were evaluated and four of them [locally scaled sum of absolute differences (LSAD), zero mean sum of absolute differences, zero mean sum of squared differences, and locally scaled mean sum of squared differences] appeared to perform equally good with an average error score of 0.04 (0 is the perfect matching). LSAD was selected for generating the disparity maps. PMID:26587552
Resistance after firing protected electric match
Montoya, Arsenio P.
1981-11-10
An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.
Multithreaded Algorithms for Maximum Matching in Bipartite Graphs
Azad, Md Ariful; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Rajamanickam, Siva; Boman, Erik G.; Khan, Arif; Pothen, Alex
2012-05-31
Abstract—We design, implement, and evaluate algorithms for computing a matching of maximum cardinality in a bipartite graph on multi-core and massively multithreaded computers. As computers with larger number of slower cores dominate the commodity processor market, the design of multithreaded algorithms to solve large matching problems becomes a necessity. Recent work on serial algorithms based on searching for augmenting paths for this problem have shown that their performance is sensitive to the order in which the vertices are processed for matching. In a multithreaded environment, imposing a serial order in which vertices are considered for matching would lead to loss of concurrency and performance. But this raises the question: Would parallel matching algorithms on multithreaded machines improve performance over a serial algorithm? We answer this question in the affirmative. We report efficient multithreaded implementations of two key algorithms (Hopcroft- Karp based on breadth-first-search, and Pothen-Fan based on depth-first-search) and their variants, combined with the Karp- Sipser initialization algorithm. We report extensive results and insights using three shared-memory platforms (a 48-core AMD Opteron, a 32-core Intel Nehalem, and a 128-processor Cray XMT) on a representative set of real-world and synthetic graphs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of augmentation-based parallel algorithms for bipartite cardinality matching.
Study of the index matching for different photopolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Roberto; Gallego, Sergi; Márquez, Andrés.; Ortuño, Manuel; Marini, Stephan; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto
2015-09-01
One of the most promising phase optical recording mediums are photopolymers. In these materials, the use of an index matching component permits a better conservation of the stored information and, additionally, the study of the molecules migration and shrinkage/swelling phenomena separately. In general, the transmitted beam has the information of the thickness and refractive index modulation mixed. Therefore, we propose the introduction of a coverplate besides with an index matching liquid in order to improve the characterization and the conservation. The index matching techniques have been classically used for holographic recording materials. In principle, to obtain an accurate index matching we have to choose a liquid with refractive index very close to the mean of the polymer one. Then, when shrinkage takes place during recording, mainly due to the polymerization, the liquid will fill up the generated grooves minimizing the diffractive effects produced by the relief structure. In fact, in this work we study different index matching components for different photopolymers. The photopolymers analyzed in this work have a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder and two different main monomers: one has acrylamide and the other one sodium acrylate. We have recorded very low diffractive gratings and studied their conservation for different index matching components.
Robust matching for voice recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.
1994-10-01
This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.
Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification
Jean-Mary, Yves R.; Shironoshita, E. Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R.
2009-01-01
ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies. PMID:20186256
Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.
Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R
2009-09-01
ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.
Matching and conditioned reinforcement rate.
Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina
2006-03-01
Attempts to examine the effects of variations in relative conditioned reinforcement rate on choice have been confounded by changes in rates of primary reinforcement or changes in the value of the conditioned reinforcer. To avoid these problems, this experiment used concurrent observing responses to examine sensitivity of choice to relative conditioned reinforcement rate. In the absence of observing responses, unsignaled periods of food delivery on a variable-interval 90-s schedule alternated with extinction on a center key (i.e., a mixed schedule was in effect). Two concurrently available observing responses produced 15-s access to a stimulus differentially associated with the schedule of food delivery (S+). The relative rate of S+ deliveries arranged by independent variable-interval schedules for the two observing responses varied across conditions. The relation between the ratio of observing responses and the ratio of S+ deliveries was well described by the generalized matching law, despite the absence of changes in the rate of food delivery. In addition, the value of the S+ deliveries likely remained constant across conditions because the ratio of S+ to mixed schedule food deliveries remained constant. Assuming that S+ deliveries serve as conditioned reinforcers, these findings are consistent with the functional similarity between primary and conditioned reinforcers suggested by general choice theories based on the concatenated matching law (e.g., contextual choice and hyperbolic value-added models). These findings are inconsistent with delay reduction theory, which has no terms for the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement in the absence of changes in rate of primary reinforcement.
7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1703.122 Section 1703.122... contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching contribution must equal 15 percent of the grant amount requested and shall be used for approved purposes for grants listed in § 1703.121. Matching...
7 CFR 1739.14 - Matching contributions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Matching contributions. 1739.14 Section 1739.14... AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.14 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant must contribute a Matching Contribution which is at least fifteen percent (15%) of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Match credit. 92.221 Section 92.221... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements Matching Contribution Requirement § 92.221 Match credit. (a) When credit is given. Contributions are credited on a fiscal year basis at the time...
13 CFR 102.40 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computer matching. 102.40 Section... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.40 Computer matching. The OCIO will enforce the computer matching provisions of the Privacy Act. The FOI/PA Office...
39 CFR 266.10 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer matching. 266.10 Section 266.10 Postal... Computer matching. (a) General. Any agency or Postal Service component that wishes to use records from a... records must submit its proposal to the Postal Service Manager Records Office. Computer matching...
13 CFR 102.40 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computer matching. 102.40 Section... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.40 Computer matching. The OCIO will enforce the computer matching provisions of the Privacy Act. The FOI/PA Office...
13 CFR 102.40 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computer matching. 102.40 Section... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.40 Computer matching. The OCIO will enforce the computer matching provisions of the Privacy Act. The FOI/PA Office...
13 CFR 102.40 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computer matching. 102.40 Section... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.40 Computer matching. The OCIO will enforce the computer matching provisions of the Privacy Act. The FOI/PA Office...
39 CFR 266.10 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computer matching. 266.10 Section 266.10 Postal... Computer matching. (a) General. Any agency or Postal Service component that wishes to use records from a... records must submit its proposal to the Postal Service Manager Records Office. Computer matching...
13 CFR 102.40 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computer matching. 102.40 Section... Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.40 Computer matching. The OCIO will enforce the computer matching provisions of the Privacy Act. The FOI/PA Office...
39 CFR 266.10 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computer matching. 266.10 Section 266.10 Postal... Computer matching. (a) General. Any agency or Postal Service component that wishes to use records from a... records must submit its proposal to the Postal Service Manager Records Office. Computer matching...
39 CFR 266.10 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computer matching. 266.10 Section 266.10 Postal... Computer matching. (a) General. Any agency or Postal Service component that wishes to use records from a... records must submit its proposal to the Postal Service Manager Records Office. Computer matching...
39 CFR 266.10 - Computer matching.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computer matching. 266.10 Section 266.10 Postal... Computer matching. (a) General. Any agency or Postal Service component that wishes to use records from a... records must submit its proposal to the Postal Service Manager Records Office. Computer matching...
Image Matching Using Generalized Hough Transforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, L. S.; Hu, F. P.; Hwang, V.; Kitchen, L.
1983-01-01
An image matching system specifically designed to match dissimilar images is described. A set of blobs and ribbons is first extracted from each image, and then generalized Hough transform techniques are used to match these sets and compute the transformation that best registers the image. An example of the application of the approach to one pair of remotely sensed images is presented.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... matches the heads of which are prepared with a friction-sensitive igniter composition and a pyrotechnic... combined with or attached to the box, book or card that can be ignited by friction only on a prepared surface. (3) Strike anywhere matches are matches that can be ignited by friction on a solid surface....